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Sample records for acusticas em pupas

  1. Effects of acoustic waves on pupas of Ceratitis capitata. (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae); Efeitos das ondas acusticas em pupas de Ceratitis capitata. (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

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    Barros, Adilson Camilo de

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this research has been to investigate the hypothesis that acoustic waves would provoke a measurable effect on a population of fruit flies, a treatment denominated sonication. Ionizing radiation, the causative agent for the treatment designated by irradiation has been used as a reference, as long as its effects on living beings and particularly on insects are widely known. This research also enquiries into the possible effects of acoustic waves and gamma rays. The experiments of sonication were carried out in the Laboratory of Entomology of the Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo. The experiments of radiation were carried out in the Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes - IPEN, located within the campus of the University of Sao Paulo. It has been employed a Gamma cell source model 220 with average activity of 757.069 {+-} 293.484 curies (Ci) and an average doses rate of 3.106 {+-} 0.245 kilo grays per hour (kGy/h). Levels applied to the sonication treatment, in hertz and kilo Hertz were: 0 Hz (control) ; 5.0 Hz; 10.0 Hz; 20.0 Hz; 40.0 Hz; 60.0 Hz; 80.0 Hz; 1.0 k Hz; 2.0 k Hz; 10.0 k Hz; 15.0 k Hz e 20.0 k Hz. Irradiation doses applied in Grays were: 5.0 Gy; 7.5 Gy; 10.0 Gy; 12.5 Gy; 15 Gy; 50 Gy; 100 Gy; 150 Gy and 200 Gy. It has been used an acoustic tube made of glass - 40.6 cm in length and 9.1 cm in diameter - and sinusoidal waves originated from three acoustic sources, with response in decibels, which sound intensity varied from 93.60 {+-} 1.51 dB to 123.96 {+-} 0.23 dB. Final results have pointed to evidences that would justify the rejection of null hypothesis H{sub 0}, to which the average of the treatments due to acoustic waves do not differ significantly from each other.(author)

  2. Primeiro relato de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: pteromalidae) em pupas de fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: fanniidae) no Brasil First report of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori; Vanessa Alves Alvarenga

    2008-01-01

    Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) em pupas de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae), no Brasil. Pupas de F. pusio foram coletadas em armadilhas utilizando-se fezes humanas como atrativo para os adultos. Obtiveram-se 10 pupas, das quais duas estavam parasitadas por S. nigroaenea, verificando-se uma porcentagem de parasitismo de 20,0%.The first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid Spalangia nigroaenea Cur...

  3. Seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados em pessegueiro sobre ovos e pupas do predador Chrysoperla externa

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    Rodolfo Vargas Castilhos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a seletividade de dezenove agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro sobre ovos e pupas do predador Chrysoperla externa em condições laboratoriais (temperatura 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotofase 14 horas. Os agrotóxicos foram pulverizados diretamente sobre ovos e pupas por meio de uma torre de Potter, utilizando a máxima dosagem recomendada para a cultura do pessegueiro. Foi avaliada a viabilidade de ovos e pupas, além da fecundidade e fertilidade de adultos emergidos de pupas tratadas. Os agrotóxicos foram classificados para ovos em função da redução na eclosão e, para pupas, em função do efeito total, conforme a escala de toxicidade proposta pela IOBC. A maioria dos agrotóxicos avaliados (8 inseticidas, 8 fungicidas e 2 herbicidas se mostrou inócua (classe 1 a ovos e pupas, com redução na eclosão de larvas e efeito total em pupas inferiores a 30%. A exceção se deu para o inseticida óleo mineral, que reduziu a eclosão de larvas em 69,55% quando pulverizado em ovos e proporcionou efeito total em pupas de 36,22%, sendo classificado como levemente nocivo (classe 2 a ovos e pupas de C. externa

  4. Primeiro relato de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: pteromalidae em pupas de fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: fanniidae no Brasil First report of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae in Brazil

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    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae, no Brasil. Pupas de F. pusio foram coletadas em armadilhas utilizando-se fezes humanas como atrativo para os adultos. Obtiveram-se 10 pupas, das quais duas estavam parasitadas por S. nigroaenea, verificando-se uma porcentagem de parasitismo de 20,0%.The first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae is reported. Pupae of F. pusio were collected in traps using human feces to attract the adults. Ten pupae were obtained, of which two were parasitized by S. nigroaenea, thus demonstrating a parasitism rate of 20.0%.

  5. Morphology of caterpillars and pupae of European <em>Maculinea> species (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an identification table

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliwinska, Ewa B.; Nowicki, Piotr; Nash, David Richard;

    2006-01-01

    the caterpillars of these species for effective conservation. We present the morphology of the larvae and pupae of these three species, and a simple key to their identification. Inter-specific differences among larvae and pupae, and within-species differences among larval instars, are underlined in order to enable...

  6. Ação de produtos fitossanitários utilizados em cafeeiros sobre pupas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

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    Silva Rogério Antônio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ação de produtos fitossanitários usados em cafeeiros sobre pupas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos no Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brasil. Os tratamentos avaliados, em g i.a.L-1 de água, foram: 1- endosulfan (Thiodan 350 CE - 1,75, 2- chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 480 CE -1,2, 3- betacyfluthrin (Turbo 50 CE - 0,013, 4- enxofre (Kumulus 800 PM - 4,0, 5- azocyclotin (Peropal 250 PM - 0,31, 6- oxicloreto de cobre (Cuprogarb 500 PM - 5,0 e 7- Testemunha (água. As pulverizações foram realizadas diretamente sobre pupas e adultos do crisopídeo por meio de torre de Potter. As pupas foram colocadas em tubos de vidro e os adultos em gaiolas de PVC, e mantidos em sala climatizada a 25 ? 2degreesC, UR de 70 ? 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e dez repetições, sendo cada parcela formada por quatro pupas ou um casal de C. externa. Os produtos foram distribuídos nas quatro classes de toxicidade conforme escala estabelecida pela IOBC. O chlorpyrifos mostrou-se levemente nocivo para pupas (classe 2, 30?E?79%, e os demais produtos foram inócuos (classe 1, E99%. Os produtos testados à base de endosulfan, enxofre, azocyclotin e oxicloreto de cobre podem ser recomendados em programas de manejo de pragas do cafeeiro em associação com C. externa, em função da baixa toxidade apresentada por esses compostos ao predador.

  7. Ocorrência de multiparasitismo em larvas de terceiro ínstar e pupas de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius em condições de campo Occurrence of multiparasitism in third instar larvae and pupae of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius in field conditions

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    Alessandra Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante experimento de pesquisa envolvendo o parasitismo de larvas de terceiro ínstar e pupas de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 em dois locais da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, observou-se a ocorrência de multiparasitismo em 1,83% das pupas expostas no Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC e em 2,16% expostas no Jardim Zoológico (ZOO. O experimento foi conduzido semanalmente de agosto de 1999 a julho de 2000. Em ambos os locais, houve a co-ocorrência de duas espécies por pupa e os parasitóides encontrados foram os himenópteros Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, 1904, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875 e Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836. 72,73% do multiparasitismo ocorreu no ZOO em julho de 2000. Em condições de multiparasitismo, T. zealandicus e P. vindemiae mantiveram seu hábito gregário e solitário, respectivamente, mas N. vitripennis foi encontrado solitário em algumas pupas.During research experiment involving parasitism of third instar larvae and pupae of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, it was found 1.83% of multiparasited pupae in Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC and 2.16% in Jardim Zoológico (ZOO. The exposition were conducted weekly from August 1999 to July 2000. The multiparasited pupae contained two Hymenoptera parasitoids species [Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, 1904 and either Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875 or Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836]. 72.73% of the multiparasitism occurred at ZOO in July. T. zealandicus and P. vindemiae supported their respective gregarious and solitary natural conditions, respectively, but N. vitripennis sometimes behaved as solitary.

  8. Ciclo biológico, exigências térmicas e parasitismo de Muscidifurax uniraptor em pupas de mosca doméstica Life cycle, thermal requirements and parasitism of Muscidifurax uniraptor on house fly pupae

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    Marcílio José Thomazini

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Os parasitóides pupais estão entre os principais responsáveis pela redução populacional de mosca doméstica em aviários, e Muscidifurax uniraptor Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae é um dos principais parasitóides presentes nestes ambientes no Estado de São Paulo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a duração do ciclo biológico, as exigências térmicas e o parasitismo de M. uniraptor em pupas de Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae em temperaturas constantes. Os testes foram realizados em câmaras climatizadas nas temperaturas de 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 e 32 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% U.R. e 14 h de fotofase. Em cada câmara 200 pupas de mosca doméstica, com 24 a 48 h de idade, foram expostas a 40 parasitóides fêmeas partenogenéticas, com 0 a 24 h de idade, por 24 h. A temperatura influenciou o desenvolvimento e a reprodução de M. uniraptor. O menor valor do período de ovo a adulto foi a 30°C (17 dias e as porcentagens de parasitismo e de emergência de descendentes foram maiores a 28°C, com 87 e 63,5%, respectivamente. A temperatura base encontrada para fêmeas do parasitóide foi de 9,43°C, com uma constante térmica de 366,62 graus-dia (GD. A elevação da temperatura diminui a duração do período de ovo a adulto (entre 18 e 30°C e aumenta o parasitismo (entre 18 e 28°C de M. uniraptor. A faixa de temperatura entre 28 e 30°C é considerada a mais adequada para criação de M. uniraptor em pupas de mosca doméstica.The pupal parasitoids are among the most important organisms responsible for house fly population reduction in poultry farms. Muscidifurax uniraptor Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae is one of the main parasitoids that occur in poultry farms at São Paulo State, Brazil. The objective of this study was to determine the life cycle duration, the thermal requirements and the parasitism of M. uniraptor on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae pupae under constant temperatures. The experiment was

  9. Sobrevivência de pupas de Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae após submersão em laboratório Survival of Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae pupae after submersion in laboratory

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    Alex Sandro Barros de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre Maio e Junho de 2008 foi observado a sobrevivência das pupas de Lucilia eximia (Diptera, Calliphoridae após submersão em laboratório. Para este experimento foram utilizadas 480 pupas de mesma idade, sendo estas divididas em oito grupos: o controle não foi submerso e os demais grupos foram submersos de um a sete dias. O aumento do período de submersão diminui a sobrevivência, com um dia de submersão a sobrevivência é de 80%, com dois dias 40%, é de 30% a partir do terceiro dia, no quarto dia cai para 23,34% e no quinto dia fica em 10%. Após este período a mortalidade sobe para 100%. Este padrão pode ser explicado pela curva "U-shaped" que ocorre no consumo de O2 durante o período pupal, onde o consumo é maior no início e no final do período pupal. O tempo de submersão também afeta o tempo de desenvolvimento, aumentando o período pupal. Estes dados têm o potencial para serem utilizados em investigações envolvendo Entomologia Forense, para a estimativa do tempo de submersão de um cadáver.Between May and June of 2008, the survival of the pupae of Lucilia eximia (Diptera, Calliphoridae was observed after submersion in laboratory. For this experiment 480 pupae of same age were used, these were divided in eight groups: the group control was not submerged and the other groups were submerged from one to seven days. The increase of the submersion period reduces the survival, with one day of submersion the survival is of 80%, with two days 40%, of 30% with three days, in the fourth day it falls to 23,34% and in the fifth day it is 10%. After this period the mortality rises to 100%. This pattern can be explained by the curve "U-shaped" that happens in the consumption of O2 during the pupal period, where the consumption is larger at the beginning and at the end of the pupal period. The time of submersion also affects the development time, increasing the pupal period. These data are potentially useful in estimating duration of

  10. Freqüência de larvas e pupas de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus em armadilhas, Brasil Frequency of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae and pupae in traps, Brazil

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    Nildimar Alves Honório

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência mensal de larvas e pupas de Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti e de outras espécies de mosquitos e verificar a influência de fatores ambientais dessas espécies em pneus. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no município de Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Efetuaram-se coletas mensais de formas imaturas, em quatro pneus, no período de novembro de 1997 a outubro de 1998. Os pneus foram numerados e dispostos em forma de pirâmide, um na base (pneu 1 e os três restantes (2, 3 e 4 inclinados sobre o primeiro. Os pneus 1 e 4 eram mais sombreados, e 2 e 3 eram expostos ao sol, já que não eram alcançados, como os demais, pela sombra de árvores e de um galinheiro próximos a esses pneus. Foram estudadas as variáveis: pluviosidade; temperatura ambiente; volume; pH da água; e condições de isolamento de água em pneus. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se 10.310 larvas e 612 pupas. Ae. albopictus foi a espécie predominante tanto na fase larvar quanto na de pupa; Ae. aegypti e Ae. albopictus foram coletados em todos os meses, sendo mais freqüentes naqueles de maior pluviosidade. A temperatura, a pluviosidade e o volume de água apresentaram diferenças significativas, quando correlacionados ao número de larvas de Ae. aegypti. Não houve diferença significativa na freqüência de larvas quanto ao pH da água. Registrou-se maior número de larvas de Ae. albopictus em pneus mais sombreados. CONCLUSÕES: Ae. albopictus instala-se muito mais freqüentemente em pneus do que Ae. aegypti. Pneus descartados parecem representar importantes focos de manutenção de ambos os Aedes, durante todo o ano. Mesmo próximo uns ao outros, os pneus podem oferecer diferentes condições para a colonização desses mosquitos, de acordo com o volume d'água e a exposição ao sol.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the monthly frequency of larvae and pupae of Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and other mosquitoe species in tires, and the influence

  11. Search efficiency of <em>Spalangia cameroni em>and <em>Muscidifurax raptorem> on <em>Musca domesticaem> pupae in dairy cattle farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    significantly to overall parasitism, M. raptor had a significantly higher attack rate when first a female had located bags with sentinel pupae. Based on the above results, however, S. cameroni seems the most appropriate species for managing house flies in straw bedded dairy cattle farms in Denmark. A biological......). Overall, parasitism increased significantly from 5.3 to 28.8--28.7% of the exposed house fly pupae due to the release of pupal parasitoids. Spalangia cameroni was by far the most dominant species, contributing approximately 71.5--72.3% of the parasitism in the release and post-release period, whereas 20...

  12. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions Fenologia de Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em pupas de Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae em condições de laboratório

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    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of Objetivando conhecer o ciclo de desenvolvimento de Spalangia endius sob condições de laboratório, 360 pupas de Musca domestica com idade de 24 a 48 horas foram expostas a 15 casais de S. endius por um período de 48 horas a 26 ± 2ºC. Estas pupas foram mantidas em BOD. Com mesma temperatura, umidade relativa <70% e com fotofase de 12 horas, onde diariamente dissecava-se 15 espécimes para avaliar o estágio e tempo de desenvolvimento do himenóptero. A fenologia permite concluir que S. endius apresenta um ciclo de desenvolvimento de 19 dias, cujo período de incubação foi de 24 horas, o desenvolvimento de larvas de S. endius ocorreu nos oito dias subsequentes nos quais uma série de alterações morfológicas foi observada. O estágio de pré-pupa deu-se no décimo dia onde cessa a movimentação e inicia a eliminação de mecônio. O estágio pupal ocorreu do décimo primeiro dia ao décimo nono, momento da emergência dos primeiros machos, já as fêmeas iniciaram a emergência aproximadamente 24 horas após. Estes resultados permitem avaliar aspectos da bionomia pormenorizada do desenvolvimento de S. endius para armazenar e programar a produção deste parasitóide, otimizando sua utilização como agente de controle biológico.

  13. Himenópteros parasitóides associados a pupas de Methona themisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Hymenopterous parasitoids associated to pupae of Methona themisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Cristiane Nardi

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram conhecer a guilda de parasitóides associados a pupas de Methona themisto (Hübner, 1818, avaliando a abundância relativa de cada espécie de parasitóide e o efeito do parasitoidismo na mortalidade do hospedeiro. Foram coletadas 160 pupas de M. themisto, 80 em outubro de 2001 e 80 em outubro de 2002. Essas foram mantidas em temperatura de 25 ± 2,0ºC e fotofase de 14 horas, sendo diariamente observadas, até a emergência de parasitóides ou borboletas. Os seguintes parasitóides foram obtidos das pupas de M. themisto: Brachymeria annulata (Fabricius, 1793, B. mnestor (Walker, 1841 (Chalcididae, Neotheronia sp. (Ichneumonidae, Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1996 e Tetrastichus sp. (Eulophidae. Somente os gêneros Brachymeria e Neotheronia ocorreram nos dois anos de estudo, sendo que o primeiro foi mais abundante em 2001 e o último, em 2002. As outras espécies de parasitóides ocorreram somente no segundo ano de estudo. Este é o primeiro relato da associação de B. annulata, B. mnestor, Neotheronia sp. e P. elaeisis com M. themisto.The goals of this study were to know the parasitoid guild associated to pupae of Methona themisto (Hübner, 1818, evaluate the relative abundance of each species of parasitoid and the effect of parasitism on the host mortality. A total of 160 pupae of M. themisto were collected, 80 in October 2001 and 80 in October 2002. They were maintained at 25 ± 2,0ºC and photophase of 14 hours, daily observed until parasitoid or butterfly emergence. Five parasitoid species were obtained from M. themisto pupae: Brachymeria annulata (Fabricius, 1793, B. mnestor (Walker, 1841 (Chalcididae, Neotheronia sp. (Ichneumonidae, Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993, and Tetrastichus sp. (Eulophidae. Only the genera Brachymeria and Neotheronia occurred in both years of the study, the former was more abundant in 2001 and the latter in 2002. The other species of parasitoids occurred

  14. Parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae coletados em pupários no substrato rim bovino Parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae collected in pupae in the bovine kidney

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    Jean Patrick Bonani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo, identificar as principais espécies de parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, em Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil, cujas larvas foram alimentadas com rim bovino. As coletas foram realizadas durante o período de agosto de 2003 a março de 2004. Um total de 921 parasitóides foram coletados em 942 pupas dessa mosca. A prevalência natural de parasitismo foi de 97%.The study aimed at identifying the main parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. The larvae were feed on bovine kidney. Samplings were conducted from August 2003 to March 2004, in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 921 parasitoids in 942 pupae fly were collected. The prevalence natural parasitism was 97%.

  15. Editorial 2012/4: Ars acustica – Audio Art – Klangkunst

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    Ernst, Wolf-Dieter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Während der Beschäftigung mit den Texten aus der aktuellen Ausgabe unserer Zeitschrift formulierten sich einige Fragen stetig neu: Wie beispielsweise lassen sich die Begriffe der Ars acustica, Audio Art und Klangkunst voneinander trennen? Worin liegen ihre Überschneidungen und welche Synergieeffekte werden durch die Kombination der wesentlichen Bestandteile – nämlich bildnerisch-künstlerischer und akustischer Elemente – in den entsprechen den Kunstwerken erzeugt? In welchem Verhältnis steht Werk und Aufführung, wenn die Entgrenzung der Künste Programm wird?

  16. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  17. Ocorrência de Polypedilum (Tripodura amataura Bidawid-Kafka, 1996 (Diptera; Chironomidae em Aquascypha hydrophora (berk. Reid (Fungi; Stereaceae, com descrição da pupa na Amazônia Central, Brasil Occurrence of Polypedilum (Tripodura amataura Bidawid-Kafka, 1996 (diptera; chironomidae in Aquascypha hydrophora (berk. Reid (Fungi; Stereaceae, with description of the pupae in the Central Amazonian, Brazil

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    Arlindo Serpa-Filho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Quatro larvas foram coletadas em água retida pelo fungo Aquascypha hydrophora (Berk. Reid (Fungi: Stereaceae fixo em troncos de árvores eretas, na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Amazonas, Brasil. Das larvas coletadas, apenas um exemplar desenvolveu até a fase adulta, sendo identificado como Polypedilum (Tripodura amataura Bidawid-Kafka, 1996. Esta é a primeira descrição para uma forma imatura deste gênero, e também o primeiro registro em micotelmata.Four larvae were collected in water with the fungus Aquascyphahydrophora (Berk. Reid (Fungi: Stereaceae, fixed in tree trunks found in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Amazonas, Brazil. Only one specimem reached the adult phase, which was identified as Polypedilum (Tripodura amataura Bidawid-Kafka, 1996. This is the first description of an immature form of this genus, and also the first registered in mycotelmata.

  18. The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira Krüger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Species of Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are found in decomposing bodies, usually in fresh, bloated and decay stages. Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, for example, can be found in animal carcasses. The influence of environmental factors has not been evaluated in puparia of O. albuquerquei. Thus, the focus of this work was motivated by the need for models to predict the development of a necrophagous insect as a function of abiotic factors. Colonies of O. albuquerquei were maintained in the laboratory to obtain pupae. On the tenth day of each month 200 pupae, divided equally into 10 glass jars, were exposed to the environment and checked daily for adult emergence of each sample. We concluded that the high survival rate observed suggested that the diets used for rearing the larvae and maintaining the adults were appropriate. Also, the data adjusted to robust generalized linear models and there were no interruptions of O. albuquerquei pupae development within the limits of temperatures studied in southern Rio Grande do Sul, given the high survival presented.Efeito de fatores ambientais sobre o desenvolvimento e sobrevivência de pupas de Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Espécies de Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 são encontradas em corpos em decomposição, usualmente nas fases fresca, inchamento e murcha. Entre estas espécies, Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, 1985 pode ser encontrada em carcaças de ratos e coelhos. A influência de fatores ambientais sobre pupas de O. albuquerquei não tinha sido avaliada até o momento. Desta maneira, o foco deste trabalho foi motivado pela necessidade por modelos de previsão do desenvolvimento de insetos necrófagos em função de fatores abióticos. Colônias de O. albuquerquei foram mantidas em laboratório para a obtenção de pupas. Até o décimo dia de cada mês, 200

  19. Preliminary study on the acoustic communication of captive otters (<em>Lutra lutraem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gnoli

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was conducted on captive otters (<em>Lutra lutraem> in a large enclosure (1.64 ha in area. Data on different kind of sounds related to specific behaviours were recorded by videocamera. Furthermore, sounds were collected by tape recorder, analysed by spectrograph and represented by spectrograms. A general pattern of the vocalizations of otter has been obtained, in order to understand the acoustic communication system of the species. The main sound categories were blows, mewings and cries in an aggressive context, murmurs and two kinds of whistles in a social context. Riassunto Studio preliminare sulla comunicazione acustica della lontra (<em>Lutra lutraem> in cattività - Lo studio è stato condotto su lontre (<em>Lutra lutraem> tenute in cattività in un ampio recinto (1,64 ha. Attraverso riprese effettuate tramite videocamera, sono stati raccolti dati sull'emissione delle diverse tipologie di suoni in determinati contesti comportamentali. Inoltre, per mezzo di un magnetofono sono state registrate alcune manifestazioni sonore, successivamente analizzate mediante sonografo e rappresentate in forma di spettrogrammi. In questo modo è stato ottenuto un quadro della gamma di vocalizzazioni della lontra che può contribuire alla comprensione del suo sistema di comunicazione acustica. Le principali categorie di suoni individuate consistono in sbuffi, miagolii e grida nell'ambito aggressivo, mormorii e due tipi di fischi nell'ambito del contatto sociale.

  20. How <em>Varroa> Parasitism Affects the Immunological and Nutritional Status of the Honey Bee, <em>Apis melliferaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Aronstein

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite <em>Varroa destructorem> on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, <em>Apis melliferaem>, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from honey bee colonies at one site in S. Texas, USA. <em>Varroa>‑infested bees displayed elevated titer of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV, suggestive of depressed capacity to limit viral replication. Expression of genes coding three anti-microbial peptides (<em>defensin1, abaecin, hymenoptaecinem> was either not significantly different between <em>Varroa>-infested and uninfested bees or was significantly elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested bees, varying with sampling date and bee developmental age. The effect of <em>Varroa> on nutritional indices of the bees was complex, with protein, triglyceride, glycogen and sugar levels strongly influenced by life-stage of the bee and individual colony. Protein content was depressed and free amino acid content elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested pupae, suggesting that protein synthesis, and consequently growth, may be limited in these insects. No simple relationship between the values of nutritional and immune-related indices was observed, and colony-scale effects were indicated by the reduced weight of pupae in colonies with high <em>Varroa> abundance, irrespective of whether the individual pupa bore <em>Varroa>.

  1. Acoustic modelling by using block and polynomial trigonometric parametrization; Modelagem acustica usando parametrizacoes em bloco e polinomial trigonometrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Roberto Hugo Melo dos; Figueiro, Wilson Mouzer [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: rms@cpgg.ufba.br; fgueiro@cpgg.ufba.br

    2003-07-01

    The developed algorithm in this work was based on the finite difference method applied to the wave equation, assuming that the Earth has an acoustic behavior. The seismic modeling was implemented numerically by means of the finite differences method (MDF), employing regular nets, and applied to the derivatives of time and fourth order to derivatives of the space. Two-dimensional geological models was represented by two distinct kind of parametrizations: in blocs (P B) and using trigonometric polynomials (PPT). With the objective of jumping the advantages of using the PPT front P B, mainly in what it tells respect the economy of space of memory in program of finite difference and simplification of the equation in the inversion strategies, simulations of the propagation of waves ware presented in several models acted by different parametrizations (P B and PPT) using applied MDF the equation of the wave and generating synthetic seismograms that they are compared amongst themselves. As a result of this work we can detach the great economy of space of memory in the use of PPT, in whole PPT the model is defined for the coefficients of the polynomial that start to be the parameters of the model, and PPT simplifies the representation of more complicated models. (author)

  2. SILKWORM PUPAE PROTECT AGAINST ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silkworm (Bombyx mori pupae have long been used as food and medicine in Asian countries. It is reputed for the treatment of numerous neurological disorders related to oxidative stress including stroke. Therefore, we hypothesized that silkworm pupae could attenuate memory impairment and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease. In the present study, we determined the effect of silkworm pupae on the neurodegeneration and memory impairment in animal model of Alzheimer’s disease. Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g, were orally given the silkworm pupae at doses of 60, 90 and 135 mg kg-1 BW 14 days before and 7 days after the bilateral administration of AF64A, a cholinotoxin, via intracerebroventricular route. The animals were determined the memory using Morris water maze test and determined the density of neurons in hippocampus. All doses of silkworm pupae used in this study significantly mitigated the memory impairment and the decreased neurons density in hippocampus. To explore the possible underlying mechanism of the cognitive enhancing effect and neuroprotective effect, the activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme and the Malondialdehyde (MDA, the oxidative marker were determined respectively. Our results clearly demonstrated that the cognitive enhancing effect of silkworm pupae occurred at least via the increased cholinergic function while its neuroprotective effect occurred via the decrease oxidative stress. In conclusion, silkworm pupae appear to be the potential functional food to protect against Alzheimer’s disease.

  3. Qualidade de vida e conforto acústico em ambientes educacionais

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo LEVANDOSKI

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A poluicao sonora e um problema que afeta a percepcao subjetiva da populacao em geral. No ambiente escolar, a ma qualidade acustica pode prejudicar o nivel de concentracao do aluno e trazer ao professor um maior desgaste fisico, interferindo em sua saude. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a qualidade de vida, intensidade vocal durante o discurso em sala de aula, saude vocal e percepcao ao ruido de 61 professores da educacao basica do ensino publico na cidade de Curitiba-Pr, que des...

  4. File list: His.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae dm3 Histone Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013037,SRX013036,SRX013...011,SRX013035,SRX013095 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae dm3 Histone Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013036,SRX013035,SRX013...037,SRX013011,SRX013095 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae dm3 All antigens Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013069,SRX013036,S...RX013035,SRX013037,SRX013011,SRX013059,SRX013060,SRX013095,SRX013083 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  7. File list: His.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae dm3 Histone Pupae Pupae SRX013036,SRX013085,SRX013037,SRX013...095,SRX013035,SRX013011 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae dm3 All antigens Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013069,SRX013036,S...RX013035,SRX013059,SRX013011,SRX013037,SRX013095,SRX013083,SRX013060 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae dm3 All antigens Pupae Pupae SRX013069,SRX013059,SRX013036,S...RX013085,SRX013037,SRX013095,SRX013035,SRX013083,SRX013060,SRX013011 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  10. File list: His.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae dm3 Histone Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013036,SRX013035,SRX013...011,SRX013037,SRX013095 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae dm3 All antigens Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013037,SRX013036,S...RX013011,SRX013035,SRX013069,SRX013059,SRX013083,SRX013060,SRX013095 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  12. Online monitoring of accessories for underground electrical installations through acoustics emissions; Monitoreo en linea de accesorios de instalaciones electricas subterraneas mediante emisiones acusticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casals-Torrens, P. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Espana)]. E-mail: p.casals@upc.edu; Gonzalez-Parada, A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mail: gonzaleza@salamanca.ugto.mx; Bosch-Tous, R. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Espana)

    2012-04-15

    The acoustic waves caused by Partial Discharges inside the dielectric materials, can be detected by acoustic emission (AE) sensors and analyzed in the time domain. The experimental results presented, show the online detection capability of these sensors in the environment near a cable accessory, such as a splice or terminal. The AE sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference and constitute a detection method non-intrusive and non-destructive, which ensures a galvanic decoupling with respect to electric networks, this technique of partial discharge detection can be applied as a test method for preventive or predictive maintenance (condition-based maintenance) to equipment or facilities of medium and high voltage in service and represents an alternative method to electrical detection systems, conventional or not, that continue to rely on the detection of current pulses. This paper presents characterization tests of the sensors AE through comparative tests of partial discharge on accessories for underground power cables. [Spanish] Las ondas acusticas provocadas por las descargas parciales en el interior de un dielectrico pueden ser detectadas por sensores de Emisiones Acusticas (EA) y analizadas en el dominio del tiempo. Los resultados experimentales que se presentan, evidencian la capacidad de deteccion en linea de estos sensores, en el entorno proximo a un accesorio de cable, empalme o terminal. Los sensores EA son inmunes a las interferencias electromagneticas, son un metodo de deteccion no destructivo y garantizan desacople galvanico respecto a la red electrica; esta tecnica de deteccion de descargas parciales puede ser aplicada como metodo de prueba para mantenimiento preventivo o predictivo (mantenimiento basado en la condicion), en equipos o instalaciones de media y alta tension en servicio, y representa una alternativa a los sistemas electricos de deteccion, convencionales o no, que continuan basandose en la deteccion del impulsos de corriente. En el

  13. Ecdysteroids in the pupae of Opogona sacchari (Bojer), a new invasive alien pest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fanghai; ZHANG Guren; WEN Ruizhen; HE Guofeng

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the composition and quantitative variation of ecdysteriods in the pupae of Opogona sacchari (Bojer), a new invasive alien pest, we analyzed the pupal ecdysteroid composition and titers in this pest. The main component of ecdysteriods in the pupae of O. sacchari is 20-hydroxyecdysone. The titre of ecdysteriods in both male pupae and female pupae get higher gradually, and then decreased slowly after reaching a peak (80 ng/pupa). The titre of ecdysteriods was about 30 ng/pupa in the later stage of pupae. The peak of male pupae appeared on the third day, but the peak of female pupae lasted from the second day to the fourth day during pupal developments. The ecdysteroid content was higher in female pupae than in male pupae during specific pupal time (the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 6th day). We also found that the titre of ecdysteroids in posterior part of pupae was higher than in anterior part of pupae obviously.

  14. A Novel Protein Found in Selenium-rich Silkworm Pupas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A novel protein was isolated and characterized in selenium-rich silkworm pupas. The peptide mass fingerprint of the protein was found to be new. Partial amino acid sequencing also confirmed to be a new protein. The novel protein had a molecular mass of about 80 kDa in the SDS-PAGE.

  15. Dispersão larval radial pós-alimentar em Lucilia cuprina (Diptera, Calliphoridae: profundidade, peso e distância de enterramento para pupação Postfeeding radial larval dispersion in Lucilia cuprina (Diptera, Calliphoridae: depth, weight and distance of burying for pupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral sites for breeding and larval nutrition. After the exhaustion of food, the larvae begin dispersing to search for sites to pupate or for additional food source, process referred as postfeeding larval dispersal. Some aspects of this process were investigated in Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830, utilizing a circular arena to permit the radial dispersion of larvae from the food source in the center. To determine the localization of each pupa, the arena was split into 72 equal sectors from the center. For each pupa, distance from the center of arena, weight and depth were determined. Statistical tests were performed to verify the relation among weight, depth and distance of burying for pupation. It was verified that the larvae that disperse farthest are those with lowest weights. The majority of individuals reached the depth of burying for pupation between 7 and 18 cm. The study of this process of dispersion can be utilized in the estimation of postmortem interval (PMI for human corpses in medico-criminal investigations.

  16. Founding weaver ant queens (Oecophylla longinoda) increase production and nanitic worker size when adopting non-nestmate pupae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouagoussounon, Issa; Offenberg, Joachim; Sinzogan, Antonio;

    2015-01-01

    of offspring). Forty-five fertilized queens were divided into three treatments: 0 (control), 100 or 300 non-nestmate pupae transplanted to each colony. Pupae transplantation resulted in highly increased growth rates, as pupae were readily adopted by the queens and showed high proportions of surviving (mean...... = 76%). However, survival was significantly higher when 100 pupae were transplanted compared to transplantation of 300 pupae, indicating that queens were unable to handle 300 pupae adequately and that pupae require some amount of nursing. Nevertheless, within the 60-day experiment the transplantation...

  17. PENGGUNAAN METODE SURVEI PUPA UNTUK MEMPREDIKSI RISIKO PENULARAN DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE DI LIMA WILAYAH ENDEMIS DI DKI JAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Shinta Shinta; Supratman Sukowati

    2013-01-01

    Abstrak Demam berdarah dengue (DBD) adalah salah satu masalah kesehatan di Indonesia. Untuk saat ini, belum ada obat atau vaksin untuk mencegah DBD. Oleh karena itu pencegahan dan pengendalian vektor menjadi sangat penting. Indikator yang digunakan untuk melakukan surveilans dalam pengawasan kepadatan populasi Ae. aegypti dan memprediksi risiko penularan adalah pupa indeks. Pupa indeks digunakan untuk mengukur HPI, CPI, pupa/orang, pupa/rumah, dan pupa/ kontainer. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah...

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Beneficial Rice Rhizosphere Isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3

    OpenAIRE

    Uzelac, Gordana; Bertani, Iris; Kojic, Milan; Konrad H Paszkiewicz; Studholme, David J.; Passos da Silva, Daniel; Venturi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3 is a rhizosphere-colonizing and plant growth-promoting strain isolated from the rhizosphere of rice. This strain has, however, been shown to be pathogenic in two nonmammalian infection models. Here we report the draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa PUPa3.

  19. A rotary drum screen with internal screw flights for Eri silkworm pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjanawanishkul Kiattisin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eri silkworm pupae (Samia ricini are very interesting creatures since they can be developed as a sustainable high protein food source for human beings and animals, and their cocoons can be used for silk production. At present, Thai silk is very famous for its special qualities, whereas the requirement of pupae as food grows increasingly, in particular, canned pupae with seasoning favors. Like other food products, size uniformity is required. Therefore, in this paper, a rotary drum screen with internal screw flights was designed and constructed for separating Eri silkworm pupae into two groups with different sizes. The experiments were conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. The results show that the optimal angular speed of the screen was 20 rpm and the screw pitch value was 10 cm. These parameters resulted in the accuracy percentage of pupa screening of 94.3% and the working capacity of 8.6 kg/h.

  20. Temperature and refrigeration time of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae pupae affect biological parameters of Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae?Temperatura e tempo de refrigeração de pupas de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae afetam parâmetros biológicos de Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Luiz Pastori

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de parasitoides em hospedeiros conservados em baixa temperatura, sem perda da qualidade, é importante para criações massais e, por isso, a reprodução de Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae foi avaliada em pupas de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae após armazenamento a 0oC ou 5oC. No experimento um, pupas de A. gemmatalis, com até 24 horas de idade, foram armazenadas a 0oC, 5oC ou 25oC (testemunha por um, três, seis, nove ou 12 dias e expostas ao parasitismo por 10 fêmeas de T. diatraeae por 24 horas. No experimento dois, pupas de A. gemmatalis, com até 24 horas de idade foram expostas ao parasitismo por 10 fêmeas de T. diatraeae por 24 horas e, posteriormente mantidas a 25oC até o parasitoide atingir o estágio de pupa, quando foram armazenados a 0oC, 5oC ou 25oC (testemunha por um, três, seis, nove ou 12 dias. No experimento um, o parasitismo de T. diatraeae em pupas armazenadas de A. gemmatalis foi superior a 90%, exceto a 25oC por 12 dias. A emergência, o número de indivíduos e a longevidade dos descendentes machos e fêmeas da geração F1 reduziram com o armazenamento (0oC ou 5oC. No experimento dois, o armazenamento de parasitoides a 5oC por um dia aumentou a emergência, não alterou o período de duração do ciclo de vida com o número de indivíduos semelhante a testemunha. A razão sexual e a largura da cápsula cefálica de machos e de fêmeas de T. diatraeae foram semelhantes a testemunha nos experimentos. Armazenar a frio (0oC ou 5oC pupas de A. gemmatalis não parasitadas ou contendo o estágio imaturo (pupa do parasitoide no seu interior, por mais de um dia, afeta negativamente a reprodução de T. diatraeae.Development of parasitoids in hosts kept at low temperatures, without loss of quality, is important for mass rearing. Accordingly, reproduction of Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae was evaluated on

  1. Parasitism and biological aspects of Tetrastichus howardi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) pupae

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Hidalgo Barbosa; Samir Oliveira Kassab; Fabricio Fagundes Pereira; Camila Rossoni; Daniele Perassa Costa; Maykon Avalo Berndt

    2015-01-01

    Erinnyis ello is one of the main pests of the cassava crop, and its natural enemies including egg, caterpillar, and pupal parasitoids. The aim of this study was to evaluate parasitism and biological aspects of Tetrastichus howardi on E. ello pupae. In general, parasitism and emergence of T. howardi on E. ello pupae was 64%. Cycle duration (egg to adult) of T. howardi on E. ello pupae was of 20.12±0.15 days at 25±2°C, 70±10% relative humidity, and 14-h photophase. The progeny of T. howardi by ...

  2. Constant-dose microwave irradiation of insect pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Richard G.

    Pupae of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor L. were subjected to microwave irradiation for 1.5-24 hours at power density levels adjusted to produce a total dosage of approximately 1123 J/g in each insect for every experiment. Insects without visible blemishes were exposed in a standing wave irradiation system such that half of them were exposed in the plane of maximum electric field (E field) and the other half were exposed in the plane of maximum magnetic field (H field). Both E field and H field insects exhibited nearly the same specific absorption rate (SAR) for pupal orientation parallel to the magnetic field vector at 5.95 GHz. Irradiations were conducted both with and without the use of a ventilating fan to control the temperature rise in the irradiation chamber. Abnormal development as a result of the microwave exposure was seen only in the high-power, short-duration experiment without chamber ventilation. This result suggests a thermal interaction mechanism for explanation of observed microwave-induced abnormalities. A study of the time course of the average temperature rise in the irradiated insects indicates that teratological effects for this configuration have a temperature threshold of approximately 40°C.

  3. Insights into the transcriptome of oenocytes from Aedes aegypti pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ferreira Martins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Oenocytes are ectodermic cells present in the fat body of several insect species and these cells are considered to be analogous to the mammalian liver, based on their role in lipid storage, metabolism and secretion. Although oenocytes were identified over a century ago, little is known about their messenger RNA expression profiles. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome of Aedes aegypti oenocytes. We constructed a cDNA library from Ae. aegypti MOYO-R strain oenocytes collected from pupae and randomly sequenced 687 clones. After sequences editing and assembly, 326 high-quality contigs were generated. The most abundant transcripts identified corresponded to the cytochrome P450 superfamily, whose members have roles primarily related to detoxification and lipid metabolism. In addition, we identified 18 other transcripts with putative functions associated with lipid metabolism. One such transcript, a fatty acid synthase, is highly represented in the cDNA library of oenocytes. Moreover, oenocytes expressed several immunity-related genes and the majority of these genes were lysozymes. The transcriptional profile suggests that oenocytes play diverse roles, such as detoxification and lipid metabolism, and increase our understanding of the importance of oenocytes in Ae. aegypti homeostasis and immune competence.

  4. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi, E-mail: lsasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 {+-}5 deg C and 70 {+-}5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  5. Developmental Threshold Temperature and Effective Accumulative Temperature of Pupae and Eggs of Holcocerus hippophaecolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Shixiang; Luo Youqing; Wang Tao; Xu Zhichun; Lu Changkuan

    2004-01-01

    In order to understand the occurrence and the developmental regularity of seabuckthorn carpenterworm (Holcocerus hippophaecolus) and predict its population density, the developmental threshold temperature (C) and effective accumulative temperature (K) of the carpenterworm pupae and eggs were analyzed under the conditions of constant and variable temperatures. The results show that the values of C and K of the carpenterworm pupae are (12.1 ± 0.2) °C and (295.2 ± 4.1) day-degrees at constant temperatures, and (15.5 ± 0.4) °C and (202.4 ± 13.1) day-degrees at variable temperatures. However, the values of C and K of the eggs at variable temperatures are (16.7 ± 0.8) °C and (101.5 ± 12.6) day-degrees. The differences of developmental threshold and effective accumulative temperature under the conditions of constant and variable temperatures of the carpenterworm pupae accord with the developmental regularity of most insects in nature. By comparing five different constant temperatures, the conclusion is that the optimum developmental temperature of the pupae is 21 °C when both the pupation of the mature larvae and the eclosion of the pupae are very accordant. Moreover, the percentage of eclosion is over 90%. The average developmental durations of the carpenterworm pupae and eggs are 31 and 16 d at variable temperatures.

  6. PENGGUNAAN METODE SURVEI PUPA UNTUK MEMPREDIKSI RISIKO PENULARAN DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE DI LIMA WILAYAH ENDEMIS DI DKI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Shinta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Demam berdarah dengue (DBD adalah salah satu masalah kesehatan di Indonesia. Untuk saat ini, belum ada obat atau vaksin untuk mencegah DBD. Oleh karena itu pencegahan dan pengendalian vektor menjadi sangat penting. Indikator yang digunakan untuk melakukan surveilans dalam pengawasan kepadatan populasi Ae. aegypti dan memprediksi risiko penularan adalah pupa indeks. Pupa indeks digunakan untuk mengukur HPI, CPI, pupa/orang, pupa/rumah, dan pupa/ kontainer. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui habitat reproduksi terbesar, kepadatan penduduk dan persentase pupa di lima kecamatan di DKI Jakarta yaitu Johar Baru (Jakarta Pusat, Tanjung Priok (Jakarta Utara, Kramat Jati (Jakarta Timur, Kebun Jeruk (Jakarta Barat, dan Cilandak (Jakarta Selatan. Metode yang digunakan adalah deskriptif dengan teknik stratified random sampling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan habitat pupa Ae. Aegypti, yaitu kontainer air (bak mandi, bak WC, drum, tempayan, bak wudhu, dan bak tandu, wadah air  tidak permanen (barang bekas, bekas sumur, vas/pot bunga, kolam/akuarium, tempat minum unggas, tatakan dispenser, wastafel dan bath tube, habitat alami (potongan bambu dan pelepah daun. Nilai rata-rata indeks pupa di lima wilayah penelitian adalah CPI = 8,45%; HPI = 23,98%; pupa/orang = 0,65; pupa/rumah = 3,58; dan pupa/kontainer = 0,96. Ada konsistensi nomor indeks di semua wilayah penelitian;  Jika indeks HPI tinggi, indeks pupa lainnya akan tinggi juga. Kata kunci: Aedes aegypti, pupa indeks, DBD Abstract Dengue fever is one of the most concerning health problems in Indonesia. For this time, there are merely no known medicines or vaccines to prevent this disease from manifesting. Rigorous studies are still conducted intensively.  Hence, vector prevention and control efforts become very important. Indicator used here to conduct surveillance, measure Ae.aegypti population density and predict transmission risk was pupa index. Pupa index was used to measure HPI, CPI

  7. Efeitos da aplicação de agrotóxicos utilizados na produção integrada de maçã sobre pupas de Chrysoperla externa Effects of pesticides application used in integrated apple production on Chrysoperla externa pupae

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Pinho de Moura; Geraldo Andrade Carvalho; Olinto Lasmar; Valéria Fonseca Moscardini; Denise Tourino Rezende

    2009-01-01

    Devido à grande importância de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) como agente de controle biológico de artrópodes-praga na cultura da macieira no Brasil, avaliaram-se os efeitos dos agrotóxicos (g i.a. L-1) abamectina (0,02), carbaril (1,73), enxofre (4,80), fenitrotiona (0,75), metidationa (0,40) e triclorfom (1,50) em pupas desse predador, oriundas de Bento Gonçalves e Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, bem como sobre o desenvolvimento dos adultos obtidos e sua reprodução. A aplicação d...

  8. Spatial distribution of Holcocerus hippophaecolus (Lepidopetera: Cossidae) pupae in a seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) stand.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The seabuckthorn carpenter moth,Holcocerus hippophaecolus,which has a generation time of four years,is recently becoming one of the major pests of the seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) in Inner Mongolia,Liaoning,Shanxi,Ningxia and Shaanxi of China (Hua et al.,1990).The larvae of the H.hippophaecolus mainly damage the stems and roots of the seabuckthorn,and the mature larvae pupate in the soil.The spatial distribution of the pupae was analyzed by using biostatistics and geostatistics in order to effectively control the insect and further study the spatial distribution of the population.Results show that most of the pupae (90%) had an eclosion time span from early June to the end of July.The sex ratio of the pupae was nearly 1:1 in the woodland samples.In addition,24.3% of the 971 trees investigated had pupae and it ranged from 0 to 4 per tree within a distance of 1.3 m from the base of the stem.90% of the pupae were aggregated within a distance of 1 m from the base of the stem.The pupae show intense spatial aggregation in the sampled woodland which had an 11.1 m spatial dependence and a 90.7% intensity in the local spatial continuity.Moreover,the population presented an intensive spotted distribution and many aggregated spots were found in the woodlands.As for the relationship between grid size and variogram of the pupae,the variations in the range,the intensity of local spatial continuity and the sill were all very low or non-existent when the grid size was 5 m,6 m or 7 m.Whereas,the value of the decisive coefficient was the biggest when the grid size was 5 m making it the ideal grid size.

  9. Effects of pre-irradiation conditioning of Medfly pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): Hypoxia and quality of sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of pupae in sterile insect technique (SIT) projects is usually undertaken in hypoxic atmospheres, which have been shown to lessen the deleterious effects of irradiation on the quality of adult sterile flies. Although this is the accepted technology in most mass-rearing and sterilization facilities, to date no information has been generated on the actual levels of oxygen (O2) in pupae-packing containers during irradiation. The present study utilized recently-developed technology to investigate the O2 level inside bags in which pupae of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) are packed prior to irradiation, the ability of pupae to create hypoxic environments in these bags, and the effect of O2 atmospheres on the quality of irradiated males. Pupae, 1 d before adult emergence, were shown to deplete the O2 level in sealed bags in approximately 1 h. The rate of O2 consumption was dependent upon pupal age and incubation temperature. Incubation temperature did not significantly affect the quality of pupae or mating capacity of resultant adult males if pupae were irradiated under maximal hypoxic conditions inside packing bags. In contrast, mating competitiveness drastically decreased when pupae were irradiated under ambient O2 conditions, with the packing bag open. There was no difference in the mating capacity of males when pupae were irradiated in sealed bags under either 10% or 2% O2 levels, or under maximal hypoxia. Normal doses of fluorescent dye, applied to pupae to mark sterile flies, did not affect the ability of pupae to create hypoxic conditions inside packing bags, nor the quality control parameters of either pupae or adults. Current practices in mass-rearing facilities are discussed in the light of these results. (author)

  10. Are some prepupae and pupae of male mealybugs and root mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae and Rhizoecidae mobile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Williams

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is hypothesised here that some mealybug (Pseudococcidae and root mealybug (Rhizoecidae prepupae and pupae are mobile. The prepupa and pupa of the mealybug Promyrmococcus dilli Williams and the prepupa of the root mealybug Ripersiella malschae (Williams are described and illustrated and their probable mobility is discussed. It is also suggested that the prepupae and pupae of the mealybug Macrocepicoccus loranthi Morrison can move rapidly on the leaves when disturbed.

  11. Are some prepupae and pupae of male mealybugs and root mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae and Rhizoecidae) mobile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D J; Hodgson, Chris J

    2013-12-17

    It is hypothesised here that some mealybug (Pseudococcidae) and root mealybug (Rhizoecidae) prepupae and pupae are mobile. The prepupa and pupa of the mealybug Promyrmococcus dilli Williams and the prepupa of the root mealybug Ripersiella malschae (Williams) are described and illustrated and their probable mobility is discussed. It is also suggested that the prepupae and pupae of the mealybug Macrocepicoccus loranthi Morrison can move rapidly on the leaves when disturbed.

  12. Effect of extracted housefly pupae peptide mixture on chilled pork preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansheng; Dang, Xiangli; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Wenqing

    2010-08-01

    The peptide mixture from housefly pupae has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. In this study, the preservation effects of a housefly pupae peptide mixture, nisin, and sodium dehydroacetate (DHA-S) on the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and pH value of chilled pork were compared. All results showed that a good preservation effect was observed among 3 treatments with the peptide mixture of housefly pupae, nisin, and DHA-S and that there was no significant difference among them. These results indicate that housefly peptide mixture has a great potential as a food preservative. The results of scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy suggest that the primary mechanism of housefly pupae peptide mixture may be bacterial cytoplasmic membrane lysis and pores induced in the membranes. Practical Applications: Peptide mixture extracted from housefly pupae using low-cost and simple method has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. According to the effect on chilled pork preservation, extracted housefly peptide mixture has a great potential as a food preservative.

  13. Effect of extracted housefly pupae peptide mixture on chilled pork preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansheng; Dang, Xiangli; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Wenqing

    2010-08-01

    The peptide mixture from housefly pupae has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. In this study, the preservation effects of a housefly pupae peptide mixture, nisin, and sodium dehydroacetate (DHA-S) on the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and pH value of chilled pork were compared. All results showed that a good preservation effect was observed among 3 treatments with the peptide mixture of housefly pupae, nisin, and DHA-S and that there was no significant difference among them. These results indicate that housefly peptide mixture has a great potential as a food preservative. The results of scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy suggest that the primary mechanism of housefly pupae peptide mixture may be bacterial cytoplasmic membrane lysis and pores induced in the membranes. Practical Applications: Peptide mixture extracted from housefly pupae using low-cost and simple method has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. According to the effect on chilled pork preservation, extracted housefly peptide mixture has a great potential as a food preservative. PMID:20722941

  14. Parasitism and biological aspects of Tetrastichus howardi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae on Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Hidalgo Barbosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Erinnyis ello is one of the main pests of the cassava crop, and its natural enemies including egg, caterpillar, and pupal parasitoids. The aim of this study was to evaluate parasitism and biological aspects of Tetrastichus howardi on E. ello pupae. In general, parasitism and emergence of T. howardi on E. ello pupae was 64%. Cycle duration (egg to adult of T. howardi on E. ello pupae was of 20.12±0.15 days at 25±2°C, 70±10% relative humidity, and 14-h photophase. The progeny of T. howardi by E. ello pupae was of 466±0.44. Longevity of T. howardi females and males was of 15±0.57 and 12±0.93 days, respectively. The sex ratio was of 0.95±0.06, and the ratio of females per female was 44±0.45. T. howardi parasite and develops on E. ello pupae.

  15. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. in deer ked pupae, adult keds and moose blood in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, E M; Pérez Vera, C; Pulliainen, A T; Sironen, T; Aaltonen, K; Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Härkönen, S; Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Mustonen, A-M; Ylönen, H; Vapalahti, O

    2015-02-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of cervids that harbours haemotrophic Bartonella. A prerequisite for the vector competence of the deer ked is the vertical transmission of the pathogen from the mother to its progeny and transstadial transmission from pupa to winged adult. We screened 1154 pupae and 59 pools of winged adult deer keds from different areas in Finland for Bartonella DNA using PCR. Altogether 13 pupa samples and one winged adult deer ked were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. The amplified sequences were closely related to either B. schoenbuchensis or B. bovis. The same lineages were identified in eight blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. This is the first demonstration of Bartonella spp. DNA in a winged adult deer ked and, thus, evidence for potential transstadial transmission of Bartonella spp. in the species. PMID:24901607

  16. Fly pupae and puparia as potential contaminants of forensic entomology samples from sites of body discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, M S; Elgar, M A; Briggs, C A; Ranson, D L

    2006-11-01

    Fly pupae and puparia may contaminate forensic entomology samples at death scenes if they have originated not from human remains but from animal carcasses or other decomposing organic material. These contaminants may erroneously lengthen post-mortem interval estimates if no pupae or puparia are genuinely associated with the body. Three forensic entomology case studies are presented, in which contamination either occurred or was suspected. In the first case, blow fly puparia collected near the body were detected as contaminants because the species was inactive both when the body was found and when the deceased was last sighted reliably. The second case illustrates that contamination may be suspected at particularly squalid death scenes because of the likely presence of carcasses or organic material. The third case involves the presence at the body discovery site of numerous potentially contaminating animal carcasses. Soil samples were taken along transects to show that pupae and puparia were clustered around their probable sources.

  17. Hemocytes and Enzyme-based Route to Evaluate the Impact of Seed Cocoons Preservation Conditions on Antheraea mylitta Pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury DABA-ecorace is commercially exploited in India for tasar silk production. Generally, its cocoons used to preserve in outdoor and indoor conditions. But in recent past, due to global warming, tasar silk zone day time temperature (May-June shoots up and it goes up to 35 to 45C or even more. It cause adverse impact on the survival of tasar silkworm pupae and invite heavy loss to the tasar silk industry. In the present study, hemocyte and enzyme-based methods have been used to evaluate the impact of outdoor and indoor seed cocoon preservation on A. mylitta pupae. Interestingly, differences in Total Hemocyte Count (THC, hemocyte contour/morphology, protein concentration, fat body and hemolymph acid phosphatase (Acp activity of outdoor and indoor preserved pupae have been observed. Marked variation in THC was observed among high, low and median weight pupae. Although, no significant variation was observed in THC of indoor and outdoor preserved female pupae but significant difference was found in male pupae of both the preservation conditions. Differential profile of hemocytes was differing in outdoor and indoor conditions with change in cell-contour. Elevation in immune cell plasmatocytes (PLs numbers was recorded in indoor preserved cocoon. Acp activity in fat body of indoor preserved pupae was higher than outdoor but reverse trend was found in hemolymph. Activity profile Acp vary in male and female with higher, lower and median weight pupae. Protein concentration in hemolymph of outdoor preserved pupae was more in comparison to indoor but this trend was found usually reverse in fat body. In addition, less protein concentration was recorded in fat body and hemolymph of male pupae in contrast to female. It is expected that, based on hemocyte and enzyme-based method impact of cocoon preservation conditions on A. mylitta pupae can be evaluated/observed.

  18. Larval x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in pupae of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Third instar larvae were exposed to X-ray treatment of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Irradiated pupae were collected daily. Biological performance parameters of pupae and adults of larvae treated with X-ray irradiation were evaluated. Standard proteomics procedures such as densitometr...

  19. Slowing them down will make them lose: a role for attine ant crop fungus in defending pupae against infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Sophie A O; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Wcislo, William T

    2016-09-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini) have evolved an obligate dependency upon a basidiomycete fungus that they cultivate as their food. Less well known is that the crop fungus is also used by many attine species to cover their eggs, larvae and pupae. The adaptive functional significance of this brood covering is poorly understood. One hypothesis to account for this behaviour is that it is part of the pathogen protection portfolio when many thousands of sister workers live in close proximity and larvae and pupae are not protected by cells, as in bees and wasps, and are immobile. We performed behavioural observations on brood covering in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior, and we experimentally manipulated mycelial cover on pupae and exposed them to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum to test for a role in pathogen resistance. Our results show that active mycelial brood covering by workers is a behaviourally plastic trait that varies temporally, and across life stages and castes. The presence of a fungal cover on the pupae reduced the rate at which conidia appeared and the percentage of pupal surface that produced pathogen spores, compared to pupae that had fungal cover experimentally removed or naturally had no mycelial cover. Infected pupae with mycelium had higher survival rates than infected pupae without the cover, although this depended upon the time at which adult sister workers were allowed to interact with pupae. Finally, workers employed higher rates of metapleural gland grooming to infected pupae without mycelium than to infected pupae with mycelium. Our results imply that mycelial brood covering may play a significant role in suppressing the growth and subsequent spread of disease, thus adding a novel layer of protection to their defence portfolio. PMID:27136600

  20. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Thom

    Full Text Available Butterflies such as the atala hairstreak, Eumaeus atala Poey, and the frosted elfin, Callophrys irus Godart, are restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where their larval host plants occur. Pupae of these butterflies are noted to reside at the base of host plants or in the leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape direct mortality by fire, a prominent disturbance in many areas they inhabit. The capacity of these species to cope with fire is a critical consideration for land management and conservation strategies in the locations where they are found. Survival of E. atala pupae in relation to temperature and duration of heat pulse was tested using controlled water bath experiments and a series of prescribed fire field experiments. Survival of E. atala pupae was correlated to peak temperature and heat exposure in both laboratory and field trials. In addition, E. atala survival following field trials was correlated to depth of burial; complete mortality was observed for pupae at the soil surface. Fifty percent of E. atala survived the heat generated by prescribed fire when experimentally placed at depths ≥ 1.75 cm, suggesting that pupation of butterflies in the soil at depth can protect from fatal temperatures caused by fire. For a species such as E. atala that pupates above ground, a population reduction from a burn event is a significant loss, and so decreasing the impact of prescribed fire on populations is critical.

  1. Rearing and gamma radiation effects on mature pupae of pink bollworm and their F1 progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pink bollworm larvae were successfully reared in captivity on a casein wheat germ diet. The substitution of casein with soyflour, corn-cob grit and wheat germ, and casein for peanut flour, resulted in delayed development, reduced pupal recovery and fecundity of the adult moths. This reduction was more drastic in corn-cob grit and peanut flour diets. The irradiation of mature pupae at 50-200 Gy resulted in decreased adult emergence with increased gamma radiation doses, and more deformed moths were recorded at a dose of 200 Gy. Adults following irradiation of mature pupae when crossed with untreated males or females or treated individuals crossed to treated exhibited reduced fecundity and fertility with the increasing doses. This reduction was more pronounced when treated males were crossed with treated females. Females were relatively more sensitive to gamma radiation, as a reduced number of eggs was obtained when treated females were crossed with untreated males. At 200 Gy, no F1 progeny were obtained from any cross involving treated parents. The fecundity and fertility were reduced significantly when F1 males or F1 females from male parents irradiated as mature pupae were mated with untreated insects at both 100 and 150 Gy. However, inherited sterility was more pronounced when F1 males were crossed with untreated females than when F1 females were crossed with untreated males. Similarly reduced fecundity and fertility in F1 progeny from female parents irradiated as mature pupae, both at 100 and 150 Gy, were also recorded in crosses as described for male F1 progeny. The fecundity and fertility were the lowest in F1 progeny of both male and female parents irradiated as mature pupae when compared with the F1 progeny of male or female irradiated parents separately. (author). 28 refs, 7 tabs

  2. The respiration rate of the beet armyworm pupae (Spodoptera exigua) after multi-generation intoxication with cadmium and zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramarz, Paulina; Kafel, Alina

    2003-11-01

    Zinc, but not cadmium, increased the respiration rate of pupae. - The beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) were fed on artificial food contaminated with zinc (200 mg kg{sup -1} dry mass) or cadmium (66 mg kg{sup -1} dry mass) for 15 generations. In 15th generation, O{sub 2} output and CO{sub 2} production of pupae were measured. Exposure to cadmium did not cause any effects whilst exposure to zinc led to a significant increase in the respiration rate of pupae. The average respiratory quotient (RQ) did not differ between treatments (ca. 0.7)

  3. Volatile organic compounds released by blowfly larvae and pupae: new perspectives in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, C; Dekeirsschieter, J; Brostaux, Y; Wathelet, J-P; Verheggen, F J; Haubruge, E

    2012-06-10

    To evaluate postmortem intervals (PMIs), one should take into account the determined age of necrophagous flies present on the cadaver. However, PMI determination needs further improvement, and rapid and accurate approaches have therefore to be developed. While previous studies have focussed on insect cuticular hydrocarbons, here we explore the volatile profile released by larvae and pupae of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae). We monitored changes in volatile compounds daily, by headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Branched and unbranched hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters and acids were identified, and the volatile profile was shown to vary, in both composition and quantity, with the age of the larva/pupa under investigation. We concluded, based on the analysis of the released volatile organic compounds, that it is possible to increase the accuracy of the estimated PMI, through improved estimation of the age of blowflies present on the cadaver.

  4. Quality of Sterile Male Tsetse after Long Distance Transport as Chilled, Irradiated Pupae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momar Talla Seck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes that cause human and African animal trypanosomosis, a debilitating disease of humans (sleeping sickness and livestock (nagana. An area-wide integrated pest management campaign against Glossina palpalis gambiensis has been implemented in Senegal since 2010 that includes a sterile insect technique (SIT component. The SIT can only be successful when the sterile males that are destined for release have a flight ability, survival and competitiveness that are as close as possible to that of their wild male counterparts.Tests were developed to assess the quality of G. p. gambiensis males that emerged from pupae that were produced and irradiated in Burkina Faso and Slovakia (irradiation done in Seibersdorf, Austria and transported weekly under chilled conditions to Dakar, Senegal. For each consignment a sample of 50 pupae was used for a quality control test (QC group. To assess flight ability, the pupae were put in a cylinder filtering emerged flies that were able to escape the cylinder. The survival of these flyers was thereafter monitored under stress conditions (without feeding. Remaining pupae were emerged and released in the target area of the eradication programme (RF group. The following parameter values were obtained for the QC flies: average emergence rate more than 69%, median survival of 6 days, and average flight ability of more than 35%. The quality protocol was a good proxy of fly quality, explaining a large part of the variances of the examined parameters.The quality protocol described here will allow the accurate monitoring of the quality of shipped sterile male tsetse used in operational eradication programmes in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.

  5. Quality of Sterile Male Tsetse after Long Distance Transport as Chilled, Irradiated Pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassene, Mireille D.; Fall, Assane Gueye; Diouf, Thérèse A. R.; Sall, Baba; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Takac, Peter; Sidibé, Issa; Parker, Andrew G.; Mutika, Gratian N.; Bouyer, Jérémy; Gimonneau, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Background Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes that cause human and African animal trypanosomosis, a debilitating disease of humans (sleeping sickness) and livestock (nagana). An area-wide integrated pest management campaign against Glossina palpalis gambiensis has been implemented in Senegal since 2010 that includes a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The SIT can only be successful when the sterile males that are destined for release have a flight ability, survival and competitiveness that are as close as possible to that of their wild male counterparts. Methodology/Principal Findings Tests were developed to assess the quality of G. p. gambiensis males that emerged from pupae that were produced and irradiated in Burkina Faso and Slovakia (irradiation done in Seibersdorf, Austria) and transported weekly under chilled conditions to Dakar, Senegal. For each consignment a sample of 50 pupae was used for a quality control test (QC group). To assess flight ability, the pupae were put in a cylinder filtering emerged flies that were able to escape the cylinder. The survival of these flyers was thereafter monitored under stress conditions (without feeding). Remaining pupae were emerged and released in the target area of the eradication programme (RF group). The following parameter values were obtained for the QC flies: average emergence rate more than 69%, median survival of 6 days, and average flight ability of more than 35%. The quality protocol was a good proxy of fly quality, explaining a large part of the variances of the examined parameters. Conclusions/Significance The quality protocol described here will allow the accurate monitoring of the quality of shipped sterile male tsetse used in operational eradication programmes in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign. PMID:26562521

  6. Morphology and Ecological Notes on the Larvae and Pupae of Simulium (Simulium from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam-Kyu Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphological features of larvae and pupae of twelve species of Simulium (Simulium from Korea are investigated and redescribed. Detailed descriptions of immature stages of each species are provided with photographs. For the Korean members of subgenus Simulium, combinations of the following characteristics can be used to separate them from other Korean subgenera: larval abdomen without a pair of conical-shaped ventral tubercles; postgenal cleft variously shaped, viz., miter shaped, spearhead, bullet shaped or triangular; rectal papillae 3 simple lobe or compound lobes; pupal gill of 6-16 filaments; cocoon shoe, boot or slipper shaped; and head trichomes 3 pairs (1 facial+2 frontal. Habitat information and other ecological aspects of each species are provided. Updated keys to larvae and pupae of the Korean species of the subgenus Simulium are also provided to facilitate species identification. Taxonomic treatment based on external morphologies of larvae and pupae of Korean species of the subgenus Simulium are focused and included in this study. To understand their interspecific relationships, phylogenetic analyses using multiple data from molecule, morphology, and ecology are warranted in future research. Also continued exploration for new character systems is needed to establish more stable boundaries for subgenus and species delimitations.

  7. Spiracle activity in moth pupae--the role of oxygen and carbon dioxide revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Thomas D; Hetz, Stefan K

    2010-05-01

    After decades of intensive research, the actual mechanism behind discontinuous gas exchange in insects has not been fully understood. One open question concerns the actual way (closed, flutter, and open) of how spiracles respond to tracheal gas concentrations. As the results of a classic paper [Burkett, B.N., Schneiderman, H.A., 1974. Roles of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the control of spiracular function in cecropia pupae. Biological Bulletin 147, 274-293] allow ambiguous interpretation, we thus reexamined the behavior of the spiracles in response to fixed, controlled endotracheal gas concentrations. The tracheal system of diapausing pupae of Attacus atlas (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera) was flushed with gas mixtures varying in P(O(2)) and P(CO(2)) while the behavior of the spiracles was monitored using changes in the pressure signal. This novel pressure based technique proved to be superior to classic visual observation of single spiracles. A two-dimensional map of the spiracle behavior in response to endotracheal P(O(2)) and P(CO(2)) was established. Typically, it contained two distinct regions only, corresponding to "closed" and "open" spiracles. A separate "flutter" region was missing. Because fluttering is commonly observed in moth pupae, we suggest that the intermittent spiracle opening during a flutter phase is an effect of non-steady-state conditions within the tracheal system. For low P(CO(2)) the minimum P(O(2)) resulting in open spiracles was linearly dependent upon P(CO(2)). Above a threshold of 1-1.5 kPa CO(2) the spiracles were open irrespective of P(O(2)). We propose a hypothetical spiracular control model, which is simple and explains the time course of endotracheal partial pressures during all phases of discontinuous gas exchange.

  8. The effect of substerilizing doses of gamma radiation on the pupae of the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated various effects of gamma radiation on the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, treated with 200-600 Gy at different pupal ages. Irradiation resulted in a decrease of adult emergence. This effect was both dose and age dependent. At 500 and 600 Gy, no pupae developed into normal adults when treated at the age of 4-5 days. Only 6% normal adults emerged when the pupae were treated at the age of 6-7 days with 500 Gy. When 8-9 d old pupae were irradiated with 500 and 600 Gy, 30% and 10% normal adults emerged, respectively. Other emerged moths exhibited various malformations, mostly wing deformities. When pupae were treated with 400 or 500 Gy, fecundity and fertility of both untreated females mated with irradiated males or irradiated females mated with untreated males were drastically reduced. When 9-10 d old pupae were irradiated with 200, 250 and 300 Gy, adult morphology, fecundity, fertility and egg hatch were slightly affected. Mating behaviour of irradiated males also was affected. Competitiveness of males irradiated with sub-sterilizing doses varied depending on irradiation dose and number of insects present in the mating cages. A significant reduction of competitiveness was observed in males treated with ≤300Gy. (author)

  9. Larva de quinto estádio e pupa de Opsiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Brassolinae Fifth larval instar and pupa of Opsiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidade, Brassolinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Martins Casagrande

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada a descrição da larva de quinto estádio e pupa de Opsiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger, 1877 de material proveniente do sul do Brasil. Os imaturos, exceto ovo, e o adulto são ilustrados. Larvas alimentam-se de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassman (Arecaceae.Descriptions of the fifth instar and pupa of Opsiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger, 1877 from material reared in southern Brazil are presented. The immatures, except egg and the adult are illustrated. The larvae feed on leaves of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassman (Arecaceae.

  10. Radioisotope labelling of several major insect pest. Dipping the pupae in /sup 32/P solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutrisno, S. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1981-12-01

    Radioisotope uptake by insects could take place through various parts i.e. mouth, cuticula, intersegmental, secretion and excretion organs. Usually insects are labelled internally by feeding them on an artificial diet containing radioisotope solution. Labelling of several insect pests of cabbage (Crocidolomia binotalis) Zell and Plutella maculipennis Curt and rice (Chilo suppressalis Walker) by dipping of the pupae in /sup 32/P solution showed a promising result. Pupae of Crocidolomia binotalis Zell dipped in 3 ml solution of /sup 32/P with specific activities of 1, 3, 5 and 7 ..mu..Ci/ml had developed labelled adults of sufficiently high radioactivity levels for ecological studies. Similar results were also obtained with Plutella maculipennis Curt and Chilo suppressalis Walker with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 ..mu..Ci/ml /sup 32/P solution. The best doses for radioisotope labelling by dipping of the insects Crocidolomia binotalis Zell, Plutella maculipennis Curt, and Chilo suppressalis Walker were 1, 9, and 7 ..mu..Ci/ml respectivelly.

  11. Sexual competitiveness of adult Indian meal moths irradiated as mature pupae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.Y.Y.; Brower, J.H.; Tilton, E.W.

    1976-12-15

    When 7-day-old pupae of Plodia interpunctella (Huebner) were treated with 50 krad ..gamma.. irradiation, 94.5 percent of the resulting females mated with untreated males, but the few eggs laid were infertile. Also, resulting males were sterile when they were paired with untreated females. A ratio of 1:1:1 irradiated males, untreated males, and untreated females resulted in 28.5 percent infertile eggs. Ratios of irradiated to untreated males of 5:1, 15:1 or 25:1 produced 54.7, 61.6, and 91.8 percent infertile eggs, respectively. Thus, irradiated males were fully competitive only at a ratio of 25:1. When both irradiated males and females were placed with untreated males and females to give ratios of 1:1:1:1, 5:5:1:1, 10:10:1:1 or 15:15:1:1, the percentages of infertile eggs were 54.1, 95.7, 81.0, and 100 percent, respectively, and competitiveness was good at all but the lowest ratio. Irradiation of 7-day-old pupae of the Indian meal moth produced sexually competitive sterile adults when released at high flooding ratios, and results were better when both sexes were released together.

  12. In Vivo Bioassay of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Synthesized in B. mori Pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanglian Lan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The human growth hormone (hGH has been expressed in prokaryotic expression system with low bioactivity previously. Then the effective B. mori baculovirus system was employed to express hGH identical to mature hGH successfully in larvae, but the expression level was still limited. In this work, the hGH was expressed in B. mori pupae by baculovirus system. Quantification of recombinant hGH protein (BmrhGH showed that the expression of BmrhGH reached the level of approximately 890 μg/mL pupae supernatant solution, which was five times more than the level using larvae. Furthermore, Animals were gavaged with BmrhGH at the dose of 4.5 mg/rat.day, and the body weight gain (BWG of treated group had a significant difference (P<.01 compared with the control group. The other two parameters of liver weight and epiphyseal width were also found to be different between the two groups (P<.05. The results suggested that BmrhGH might be used as a protein drug by oral administration.

  13. Sexual competitiveness of adult Indian meal moths irradiated as mature pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When 7-day-old pupae of Plodia interpunctella (Huebner) were treated with 50 krad γ irradiation, 94.5 percent of the resulting females mated with untreated males, but the few eggs laid were infertile. Also, resulting males were sterile when they were paired with untreated females. A ratio of 1:1:1 irradiated males, untreated males, and untreated females resulted in 28.5 percent infertile eggs. Ratios of irradiated to untreated males of 5:1, 15:1 or 25:1 produced 54.7, 61.6, and 91.8 percent infertile eggs, respectively. Thus, irradiated males were fully competitive only at a ratio of 25:1. When both irradiated males and females were placed with untreated males and females to give ratios of 1:1:1:1, 5:5:1:1, 10:10:1:1 or 15:15:1:1, the percentages of infertile eggs were 54.1, 95.7, 81.0, and 100 percent, respectively, and competitiveness was good at all but the lowest ratio. Irradiation of 7-day-old pupae of the Indian meal moth produced sexually competitive sterile adults when released at high flooding ratios, and results were better when both sexes were released together

  14. Competitiveness value of the indian meal, plodia interpunctella (Hub). irradiated as full grown pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When 6-day-old pupae of the indian meal moth, plodia interpunctella (Hubner) were treated with 60 K.rad, the resulting adults were sterile when they paired with the untreated opposite sex. A ratio of 1:1:1 irradiated males, in irradiated males, and unirradiated females resulted in 41.0% infertile eggs. Ratios of irradiated to unirradiated males of 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, 20:1, or 25:1 produced 75.7, 91.7, 95.0 and 96.3% infertile eggs, respectively. Thus, irradiated males were competitive only at a ratio of 25:1. When both irradiated males and females were placed with unirradiated males and females to give ratios of 1:1:1:1, 5:5:1:1, 10:10:1:1: or 15:15:1:1:, the percentage of infertile eggs were 55.7, 81.0, 95.3, and 100.0% respectively, and competitiveness was good at all but the lowest ratio. Irradiation of 6-day-old pupae of the indian meal moth produced sexually competitive sterile adults when released at high flooding ratios, and results were better when both sexes released together.2 tab

  15. Effect of gamma rays on sex ratio, emergence and lifespan of cucurbits fruit fly dacus ciliatus (low) irradiated as pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result showed the pupae at the age 1 or 2 days old was very sensitive to all doses of gamma rays, the percentage of adults emerged was zero at the dose of 45 gray and highest and the gigh percentage of adults emergence was recorded when the pupae irradiated at five days ald and the mean percentage of emerged adults was approximated with that of the control group. This study also showed that there was an effect of gamma radiation on the average percentage of deformed at adult stage and it was about 1:1 (male: female). On the other hand, the mean lifespan of females and mice s adult were decreased as the dose of gamma rays increases and the pupae irradiated at youngest ages. The longest life span of females was recorded when the pipa irradiated at five days old with any of the gamma rays dose. (Author)

  16. Binding sites of mosquitocidal toxins of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis on pupae and larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, K Athisaya; Paily, K P; Hoti, S L; Balaraman, K

    2015-01-01

    Two of the potential bacterial isolates, viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens (VCRC B-426) and Bacillus subtilis (VCRC B-471) whose toxins kill the mosquito pupae/larvae have been identified at our center. As the mode of action of these bacteria are not known, an attempt was made to find out the binding sites of the toxic proteins through immunological methods. Antibodies were raised in BALB/c mice and egg yolk system of chicken layers against the mosquitocidal proteins. The antibodies showed specific binding on to the cephalic and thoracic cuticle of the pupae as well as the paddles of the larvae, indicating the binding of the mosquitocidal proteins. PMID:24624898

  17. Purification and Functional Characterization of a Protein: Bombyx mori Human Growth Hormone Like Protein in Silkworm Pupa

    OpenAIRE

    Jianqing Chen; Tejun Shu; Zhengbing Lv; Zuoming Nie; Jian Chen; Hao Chen; Wei Yu; Qijing Gai; Yaozhou Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is a peptide hormone secreted by eosinophils of the human anterior pituitary, and a regulatory factor for a variety of metabolic pathways. A 30-kD protein from the pupa stage of silkworm was detected by Western blotting and confirmed by immunoprecipitation based on its ability to bind to anti-hGH antibody. This protein, named BmhGH-like protein, was purified from fresh silkworm pupas through low-temperature homogenization, filtration, and centrifugation to remove la...

  18. Efeito do tipo de substrato para pupação na dispersão larval pós-alimentar de Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera, Calliphoridae Effect of the substrate for pupation in the postfeeding larval dispersal of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    Full Text Available As moscas-varejeiras utilizam substratos discretos e efêmeros para posturas dos ovos e para alimentação das larvas. Após a exaustão de recursos, as larvas começam a procurar por um sítio de pupação no habitat ou por mais fonte de alimento adicional (dispersão larval pós-alimentar. No entanto, o tipo de substrato de dispersão pode afetar este processo; assim, procurou-se avaliar o comportamento de dispersão de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819 por meio da localização das pupas em arenas circulares preenchidas com vermiculita, comparando-se com outros estudos feitos em serragem. As arenas foram dividas em 72 setores iguais a partir do centro de dispersão para facilitar a localização das pupas no substrato. A massa, a distância de dispersão do centro de arena, e a profundidade de cada pupa foram determinadas e verificou-se a relação entre peso, profundidade e distância do centro de dispersão. Pôde-se constatar que as larvas com menor massa foram as que percorreram maior distância do centro de dispersão, como também foi observado em estudos anteriores que empregaram outros substratos. O sítio de pupação da maioria dos indivíduos foi entre 2 e 8 cm de profundidade (média 4,96±2,97 cm. Tal estudo do processo de dispersão pode ser útil na estimativa do intervalo pós-morte (IPM para corpos humanos em investigações médico-criminais.Blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral sites for breeding and larval nutrition. After the exhaustion of food, the larvae begin dispersing to search for pupation sites or for additional food sources, a process referred to as postfeeding larval dispersal. However the nature of the substrate can affect this process. Some of the most important aspects of this behavior were here investigated in Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819, utilizing a circular arena covered with vermiculite allowing the post-feeding larval dispersal from the center and to comparing with others studies that used

  19. Descrição da larva de último instar e pupa de Epacroplon cruciatum (Aurivillius (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae e notas biológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juares Fuhrmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrição da larva de último instar e pupa de Epacroplon cruciatum (Aurivillius (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae e notas biológicas. Último instar larval e pupa do Hexoplonini sul-americano Epacroplon cruciatum (Aurivillius, 1899 são descritos, ilustrados e disponibilizadas notas biológicas.

  20. Patterns of Wild Pupae Emergence from 2000-2009 at the Insectary of Departmentvector and Parasitological Studies Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR Kaduna Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attahir Abubakar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To determine the pattern of fly emergence from pupae collected from Suleja out station from 2000- 2009 and to provide data base for pupae collection from 2000-2009, Data of pupae collected from Suleja out station at the fly room of Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research was consulted from 2000-2009, in which number of fly emergence from pupae brought from the station were recorded based on date of emergence and sex of the fly that emerged. Data on wet bulb, dry bulb, temperature and relative humidity of the fly room were not updated as only data of 2006-2007 were recorded which cannot be use to generalize statement. Results from 2000-2009 a total of 4,331 flies emerged from pupae brought from Suleja out station. Fly emergence rose from 292 flies in 2000 to 784 flies in 2003 and declined drastically to 184 flies in 2006 and rose up to 380 flies in 2008 and declined to 185 flies in 2009, The number of emergence decreased between April and September which corresponded with dry season; by October, the number of emergence started to increase. Conclusions from the findings suggested that Pupae from the field could be obtained between late November and February. At that period, the rate of fly emergence will also be high; this means that for any scientist that requires pupae or tsetse flies for research, these are the best period where flies and pupae can be available.

  1. Purification and characterization of coacervate-forming cuticular proteins from Papilio xuthus pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Masahiro; Ishizaki, Yumi; Nakagawa, Taro; Taoka, Azuma; Fukumori, Yoshihiro

    2013-07-01

    The Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) pupa expresses novel soluble proteins that undergo reversible temperature-dependent coacervate-formation. We purified two coacervate-forming proteins, PX-1 and PX-4, from the wings of pharate adults. PX-1 and PX-4 form coacervates upon warming. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that these proteins assemble ordered bead-like ultrastructures. We cloned and sequenced PX-1 and PX-4 cDNAs. The PX-1 and PX-4 amino acid sequences contain many hydrophobic residues and show homologies to insect cuticular proteins. Moreover, when recombinant PX-1 and PX-4 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, both recombinant proteins exhibited temperature-dependent coacervation. Furthermore, analyses of truncated mutants of PX-1 suggest that both the Val/Pro-rich region and Gly/lle-rich regions of PX-1 are involved in such coacervation.

  2. Description of the pupae of Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius and Anthrax oedipus aquilus Marston (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Anthracinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Márcia Souto Couri

    1999-01-01

    The pupae of Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius, 1805 and Anthrax oedipus aquilus Marston, 1970 are described and illustrated. Eleven species of four Hymenoptera families (Apidae, Eumenidae, Megachilidae and Sphecidae) are recorded as hosts of the immature stages of A. o. oedipus and A. o. aquilus.

  3. Description of the pupae of Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius and Anthrax oedipus aquilus Marston (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Anthracinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The pupae of Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius, 1805 and Anthrax oedipus aquilus Marston, 1970 are described and illustrated. Eleven species of four Hymenoptera families (Apidae, Eumenidae, Megachilidae and Sphecidae are recorded as hosts of the immature stages of A. o. oedipus and A. o. aquilus.

  4. Gas-exchange patterns of Mediterranean fruit fly Pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): A tool to forecast developmental stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of gas-exchange (CO2 emission) was investigated for developing Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) pupae incubated at different temperatures. This study was undertaken to explore the usefulness of gas-exchange systems in the determination of physiological age in developing pupae that are mass produced for sterile insect technique projects. The rate of CO2 emission was measured in a closed flow-through system connected to commercial infrared gas analysis equipment. Metabolic activity (rate of CO2 emission) was related to pupal eye-color, which is the current technique used to determine physiological age. Eye-color was characterized digitally with 3 variables (Hue, Saturation and Intensity), and color separated by discriminant analysis. The rate of CO2 emission throughout pupal development followed a U-shape, with high levels of emission during pupariation, pupal transformation and final pharate adult stages. Temperature affected the development time of pupae, but not the basic CO2 emission patterns during development. In all temperatures, rates of CO2 emission 1 and 2 d before adult emergence were very similar. After mid larval-adult transition (e.g., phanerocephalic pupa), digital eye-color was significantly correlated with CO2 emission. Results support the suggestion that gas-exchange should be explored further as a system to determine pupal physiological age in mass production of fruit flies. (author)

  5. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 400 Gy for Lepidoptera that infest shipped commodities as pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    A generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) dose of 350 Gy is proposed for all Lepidoptera on all commodities. The measure of efficacy for this dose is prevention of egg hatch when late pupae are irradiated. Although the literature was thoroughly examined for relevant studies only those that could reas...

  6. Are the Pupae and Eggs of the Lacewing Ceraeochrysa cubana (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Tolerant to Insecticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugno, Gabriel Rodrigo; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen) pupae and eggs to 11 insecticides was evaluated under laboratory conditions, based on lethal and sublethal effects. Eggs at three ages (≤24-h-old, 48- to 72-h-old, and 96- to 120-h-old) and pupae at ≤48-h-old were used. All the insecticides were considered harmless when applied at the pupal stage. Phosmet and pyriproxyfen insecticides were considered harmless to eggs irrespective of the age. Esfenvalerate was harmless to eggs at the ages of ≤24-h-old and 48- to 72-h-old. Imidacloprid SC and azadirachtin were harmless to eggs at ages of 48- to 72-h-old and 96- to 120-h-old, and thiamethoxam was only harmless to eggs at 96- to 120-h-old of age. In contrast, chlorpyrifos and malathion were harmful to eggs at the age of 96- to 120-h-old, and imidacloprid WG was slightly harmful to the three egg ages evaluated. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole and lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam were slightly and/or moderately harmful to all egg ages evaluated. Based on the life table parameters, the insecticides thiamethoxam, imidacloprid SC, phosmet, pyriproxyfen, and azadirachtin did not affect the net rate of reproduction (Ro) of C. cubana. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole decreased the Ro and increased the population doubling time (Td) independently of the egg ages evaluated. Therefore, the insecticides pyriproxyfen and phosmet are compatible with eggs of the predator C. cubana, but other insecticides should be evaluated under field conditions to verify their effects on the predator. PMID:26340225

  7. Are the Pupae and Eggs of the Lacewing Ceraeochrysa cubana (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Tolerant to Insecticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugno, Gabriel Rodrigo; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen) pupae and eggs to 11 insecticides was evaluated under laboratory conditions, based on lethal and sublethal effects. Eggs at three ages (≤24-h-old, 48- to 72-h-old, and 96- to 120-h-old) and pupae at ≤48-h-old were used. All the insecticides were considered harmless when applied at the pupal stage. Phosmet and pyriproxyfen insecticides were considered harmless to eggs irrespective of the age. Esfenvalerate was harmless to eggs at the ages of ≤24-h-old and 48- to 72-h-old. Imidacloprid SC and azadirachtin were harmless to eggs at ages of 48- to 72-h-old and 96- to 120-h-old, and thiamethoxam was only harmless to eggs at 96- to 120-h-old of age. In contrast, chlorpyrifos and malathion were harmful to eggs at the age of 96- to 120-h-old, and imidacloprid WG was slightly harmful to the three egg ages evaluated. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole and lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam were slightly and/or moderately harmful to all egg ages evaluated. Based on the life table parameters, the insecticides thiamethoxam, imidacloprid SC, phosmet, pyriproxyfen, and azadirachtin did not affect the net rate of reproduction (Ro) of C. cubana. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole decreased the Ro and increased the population doubling time (Td) independently of the egg ages evaluated. Therefore, the insecticides pyriproxyfen and phosmet are compatible with eggs of the predator C. cubana, but other insecticides should be evaluated under field conditions to verify their effects on the predator.

  8. Study on the properties of pupa protein fiber%蚕蛹蛋白纤维性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧娟; 王琳; 申鼎

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the spinnability of pupa protein fiber,the morphology,composition,breaking strength and elongation at break,flexibility,crimp ability,and mass specific resistance were measured. The results showed that the cross section of pupa protein fiber was similar to circular shape and occurred obvious shell core structure. And the longitudinal was not smooth and had several obvious cracks and grooves. The infrared spectra characteristics of pupa protein fiber were consistent with those of viscose fiber. The breaking strength at dry and wet state,elongation at break and initial modulus of pupa protein fiber were all lower than those of viscose fiber. The moisture regain of pupa protein fiber was 13%,which was similar with that of viscose fiber. The crimp number,crimp rate,elastic recovery and curl rate of pupa protein fiber were all lower than those of viscose fiber. The flexibility and mass specific resistance of pupa protein fiber were lower than those of viscose fiber.%为了探讨蚕蛹蛋白纤维的可纺性,对蚕蛹蛋白纤维的形貌、组成、强伸性能、弹性、卷曲、质量比电阻等进行了测试.结果表明:蚕蛹蛋白纤维横截面近似圆形,呈明显的皮芯结构,纵向不光滑,有明显的裂缝和凹槽;蚕蛹蛋白纤维红外光谱图特征与资料所示粘胶纤维红外光谱相近;蚕蛹蛋白纤维干态、湿态断裂强度、断裂伸长率和初始模量均低于普通粘胶纤维;蚕蛹蛋白纤维回潮率为13%,与普通粘胶纤维相当;蚕蛹蛋白纤维的卷曲数、卷曲率、卷曲回复率和卷曲弹性率均小于粘胶纤维;蚕蛹蛋白纤维的弹性和质量比电阻小于普通粘胶纤维.

  9. Effects of climate change on overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Li, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Climate change significantly affects insects' behaviors. Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most serious insect pests in the world. Much is known about the survival of the overwintering population and spring emergence of H. armigera. However, little is known about the effects of climate change on overwintering and spring emergence of H. armigera. This study investigated the effects of changes of air and soil temperatures and precipitation on overwintering pupae of H. armigera by analyzing historical data from Magaiti County in northwest China using statistical methods. The results showed that during the period of 1989-2006, the climate warming advanced the first-appearance date of overwintering pupae eclosion (FD) and end date of overwintering pupae eclosion (ED) by 1.276 and 0.193 days per year, respectively; the duration between the FD and ED (DFEPE) was prolonged by 1.09 days per year, which resulted in more eclosion of overwintering pupae. For a 1 °C increase in the maximum air temperature ( T max) in winter, the FD became earlier by 3.234 days. Precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED and produced little relative influence on DFEPE. A 1-mm increase of precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED by 0.850 and 0.494 days, respectively. Mean air temperature ( T mean) in March, with a 41.3 % relative influence, precipitation in winter, with a 49.0 % relative influence, and T mean in March, with a 37.5 % relative influence, were the major affecting factors on FD, ED, and DFEPE, respectively. T max in February with a 53.0 % relative influence was the major affecting factor on the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP). Increased soil temperatures in October and November and autumn and air temperatures in winter could decrease the MOP, though the relative influences were lower than T max in February. Increased precipitation in winter increased the MOP, but the relative influence was only 4.2 % because of little precipitation

  10. Acustica con una Bic e uno smartphone

    CERN Document Server

    Galante, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    A smartphone, with its integrated sensors and cpu, can aid experiments in many different areas of Physics. We show how the resonant frequencies of a pipe can be measured using a smartphone and a Bic pen.

  11. Description of the adults and pupa of Simulium (Trichodagmia perplexum, new species (Diptera: Simuliidae Descrição dos adultos e da pupa de Simulium (Grenierella perplexum, espécie nova (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Shelley

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulium perplexum, new species, is described from the male, female and pupa and compared with the closely related S. guianense Wise. The distribution and biology of the new species are discussed. The confusion between S. perpelxum and S. guianense has hitherto prevented accurate identification of the primary vector of human onchocerciasis in highling, hyperendemic areas of the Amazônia focus of Brazil and southern Venezuela.Macho, fêmea e pupa de Simulium perplesum sp. n. são comparados com sua espécie próxima S. guianense Wise. Discutimos sua biologia e distribuição. A identidade incerta de S. guianense impedia a correta identificação do vetor primário da oncocercose humana nas áreas elevadas e hiperendêmicas do foco amazônico brasileiro e venezuelano.

  12. Using pleometrosis (multiple queens) and pupae transplantation to boost weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) colony growth in ant nurseries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Peng, Renkang

    2011-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are increasingly being used for biocontrol and are targeted for future production of insect protein in ant farms. An efficient production of live ant colonies may facilitate the utilization of these ants but the production of mature colonies is hampered by the long...... and no transplantation. Thus, in ant nurseries the use of multiple queens during nest founding as well as transplantation of pupae from foreign colonies may be utilised to decrease the time it takes to produce a colony ready for implementation....... time it takes for newly established colonies to grow to a suitable size. In this study we followed the growth of newly founded O. smaragdina colonies with 2, 3 or 4 founding queens during 12 days of development, following the transplantation of 0, 30 or 60 pupae from a mature donor colony. Colony...

  13. Scanning electron microscopic (Sem studies on fourth instar larva and pupa of Anopheles (Cellia stephensi Liston (Anophelinae: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagbir Singh Kirti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Cellia stephensi Liston is a major vector species of malaria in Indian subcontinent. Taxonomists have worked on its various morphological aspects and immature stages to explore additional and new taxonomic attributes. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM studies have been conducted on the fourth instar larva and pupa of An. stephensi to find additional taxonomic features for the first time from Punjab state.

  14. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of <70%, and 12 hours photophase. Fifteen hymenopteran specimens were dissected daily to evaluate their stage and development time. The phenology concluded that S. endius had a development cycle of 19 days with an incubation period of 24 hours. The development of the larvae of S. endius occurred in the subsequent eight days, during which a series of morphological alterations were observed. The pre-pupal stage occurred on the tenth day, where the movement ceased and elimination of the meconium started. The pupal stage occurred from the 11th to the 19th day, with emergence of males first, followed by female emergence approximately 24 hours later. These results allowed the evaluation of aspects of the detailed bionomics of the development of S. endius in order to record and program production of this parasitoid, thus optimizing its utilization as a biological control agent.

  15. Changes of seasonal morph development induced by surgical operations in pupae of the large map butterfly Araschnia burejana Bermer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kae; Kanzaki, Koji; Hinauchi, Mami; Fujishima, Tetsuro; Islam, Abu Taher Md Fayezul; Kitazawa, Chisato; Endo, Katsuhiko; Yamanaka, Akira

    2014-06-01

    The nymphalid butterfly Araschnia burejana and the papilionid butterfly Papilio xuthus exhibit seasonal diphenism comprising spring-morphs that develop from diapause pupae and summer-morphs that develop from non-diapause pupae. The development of seasonal morphs in A. burejana is regulated by the timing of secretion of ecdysteroids for adult development, whereas that in P. xuthus is regulated by the secretion of summer-morph-producing hormone, which is present in the brains and is under control of the photoperiod. We investigated whether a cerebral factor derived from brains plays a significant role in the regulation of seasonal morph development in A. burejana using surgical operations. Pairs of chilled diapause pupae that had been chilled for more than 3 months at 4°C were joined surgically to each other and then developed into spring-morph or spring-like-morph adults. Chilled diapause pupae that were joined with 1-day-old non-diapause pupae developed into summer-morph or summer-like-morph adults. When the brains of non-diapause pupae were removed surgically 6-8 hr after pupation with and without injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone, a large portion of them developed into spring-morph or spring-like-morph adults, respectively. Furthermore, 90% of non-diapause pupae developed into spring-morph or spring-like-morph adults when the neck was ligated within 5 min after pupation. These results indicated that a cerebral factor showing summer-morph-producing hormone activity, which is secreted from the brain in the early pupal stage, in addition to 20-hydroxyecdysone for adult development, play a significant role in the determination of summer-morph development in non-diapause pupae of A. burejana.

  16. Survival of honey bee (Apis mellifera) pupae after trypan blue staining of wounds caused by Varroa destructor mites or artificial perforation

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Matthias; Kanbar, Ghazwan; ENGELS, Wolf

    2005-01-01

    International audience The recently described technique of vital staining with trypan blue to visualise pupal wounds of honey bees, originating from punctures made by Varroa destructor mites, was applied to artificial perforations performed with a fine needle. The stained pupae were subsequently reared in vitro until eclosion of the adult bees. Their mortality was recorded daily. The survival of the treated pupae was only moderately affected by the staining procedure. No obvious toxic effe...

  17. Increase of acceptability period of Musca domestic l., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae, irradiated by gamma radiation as host of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia endius, Walker, 1839 (hymenoptera: pteromalidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael M., E-mail: nmitepan@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Sara E.D.Z., E-mail: sarazenitepan@ig.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source used was a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10{sup 13} Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestic L., 1758 and the parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity. This experiment was designed to investigate if the non-viabilization M. domestic pupae, using gamma radiation, could build up the acceptability period as host of the pupal parasitoid S. endius. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy respectively. The 1, 2, 3 and 4 days old pupae were irradiated (dose rate: 1,510 Gy/hr) and exposed to the parasitoid S. endius at a proportion of one female parasitoid to five housefly pupae, during different periods after the irradiation. The results allow us to conclude that irradiation increase the acceptability period of the housefly pupae by the parasitoid. The best age to irradiate the housefly pupae was one day. (author)

  18. Competitiveness values of irradiated adults of callosobruchus maculatus (F.) irradiated as mature pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When mature pupae of Callosobruchus maculatus were treated with 3 Krad, the resulting adults were sterile when they were paired with untreated opposite sex. Males and females both treated with a sterilizing dose (3 Krad) and confined with untreated (U) males and females at a I male: I female: U male: U female (irradiated males: irradiated females: unirradiated males: unirradiated females) ratio caused 69.1% infertility in the resulting eggs. When the ratio of sterile males and females was increased to 5.5:1:1; 10:10:1:1 or 15:1:1 (I male: female: U male: U female) the percentage infertility reached 82.5, 95.0 and 100.0, respectively. The percentage of observed infertility was less than the expected infertility for the ratios 1:1:1:1:5:5:1:1 and 10:10:1:1, but it was exceeded with the highest ratio used (15:15:1:1). Competitiveness values for irradiated adults increased with an increasing ratio of irradiated to unirradiated adults. Since the ratio of 15:15:1:1 gave rise to 100% egg infertility (the expected infertility was 99.6%), no F1 adults was produced; and the competitiveness value slightly exceeded 1.0 (i.e. the sterile adults were fully competitive with the normal ones). These results indicated that irradiation with 3 Krad, a sterilizing dose, did not decrease sexual competitiveness of irradiated adults. Also, the release of (I) females together with (I) males could give good results in controlling a population of C. maculatus in a autocidal control program; and, therefore, separation of the sexes prior to release is probably unnecessary. (author)

  19. Comparison of Major Bioactive Compounds of the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), Fruiting Bodies Cultured on Wheat Substrate and Pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingmin; Guo, Suping; Huaijun, Yang; Bu, Ning; Dong, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the main bioactive compounds of the fruit bodies of Cordyceps militaris-such as adenosine, cordycepin, polysaccharides, mannitol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and carotenoids-were cultivated on wheat and pupae, as well as sclerotium (the pupae portion) and sclerotium with fruiting bodies. The amounts of adenosine and polysaccharide in all the tested samples (except for the polysaccharides of sclerotium) are higher than the quality standards (adenosine ≥0.055% and polysaccharide ≥2.5%) determined by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. As the most important bioactive compound in C. militaris, cordycepin is the highest in the fruiting bodies on pupae than in other samples, whereas it is the lowest in the sclerotium. The amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD were higher in the fruiting bodies on pupae than that in the fruiting bodies on wheat, whereas the amounts of adenosine, polysaccharides, and mannitol were higher in the fruiting bodies on wheat than in the fruiting bodies on pupae. There was no significant difference in the amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies and the fruiting bodies on wheat. The adenosine, polysaccharide, and mannitol contents in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies were significantly lower than those of the fruiting bodies on wheat. Overall, the results of this evaluation could not distinguish which is better: the fruiting bodies on pupae or those on wheat; each has its own merits. The fruiting bodies of C. militaris cultivated on both wheat and pupae are important candidates for medicinal and tonic use for the welfare of humankind. PMID:27481299

  20. Comparison of Major Bioactive Compounds of the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), Fruiting Bodies Cultured on Wheat Substrate and Pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingmin; Guo, Suping; Huaijun, Yang; Bu, Ning; Dong, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the main bioactive compounds of the fruit bodies of Cordyceps militaris-such as adenosine, cordycepin, polysaccharides, mannitol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and carotenoids-were cultivated on wheat and pupae, as well as sclerotium (the pupae portion) and sclerotium with fruiting bodies. The amounts of adenosine and polysaccharide in all the tested samples (except for the polysaccharides of sclerotium) are higher than the quality standards (adenosine ≥0.055% and polysaccharide ≥2.5%) determined by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. As the most important bioactive compound in C. militaris, cordycepin is the highest in the fruiting bodies on pupae than in other samples, whereas it is the lowest in the sclerotium. The amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD were higher in the fruiting bodies on pupae than that in the fruiting bodies on wheat, whereas the amounts of adenosine, polysaccharides, and mannitol were higher in the fruiting bodies on wheat than in the fruiting bodies on pupae. There was no significant difference in the amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies and the fruiting bodies on wheat. The adenosine, polysaccharide, and mannitol contents in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies were significantly lower than those of the fruiting bodies on wheat. Overall, the results of this evaluation could not distinguish which is better: the fruiting bodies on pupae or those on wheat; each has its own merits. The fruiting bodies of C. militaris cultivated on both wheat and pupae are important candidates for medicinal and tonic use for the welfare of humankind.

  1. Modelizacion, simulacion y caracterizacion acustica de materiales para su uso en acustica arquitectonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia Sanchis, Ernesto

    The global objective of this thesis consists on evaluating the viability of applying new sound absorbent materials that attempt, on one hand, to be an alternative to those materials classically used (as mineral wools) and, on the other hand, to offer a solution to one of the most important problems: the use of waste products of the textile industries by means of the recycled. For carrying out this study, some of the parameters that allow to characterize the acoustic behaviour of sound absorbent materials (such as the acoustic impedance, the acoustic absorption coefficient and the flow resistivity, among other) have been studied. Different experimental methods used to obtain these acoustic parameters have also been described. Among the methods presented in this work, the attention has been focused in those based on the acoustic impedance tube (Kundt tube). This technique presents advantages, for example, that only a small space in the laboratory is required as well as the samples of the testing materials are of small dimensions. The study has settled on three fundamental pillars: mathematical modelization, acoustic characterization of materials and numerical simulation. In the first place, after reviewing the main models and theories used in the acoustic evaluation of the porous and fibrous sound absorbent materials, a new mathematical model has been proposed and its validity is demonstrated for the type of studied materials. With regard to the acoustic characterization, diverse campaigns of measurements have been carried out with the purpose of obtaining the acoustic absorption coefficient and the flow resistivity of different type of materials. Finally, by means of a computer program based on the finite element method, the technique of the numerical simulation has been applied with the purpose of contrasting the obtained results experimentally, as well as for the evaluation of one of the most significant industrial applications from the acoustic point of view: the acoustic filters, that are devices designed to reduce the acoustic emission in a tube (as the expansion chambers in the exhaust pipes of the combustion engines). In a first phase of the study, it is observed that the obtained results agree with the experience and, in a second phase, a parametric study to evaluate the efficiency of this type of components is carried out. The numerical simulation presents the advantage of carrying out these studies without necessity of building the real models, with the saving in cost and time that this supposes. In this work, it has been sought to contribute to the knowledge of the acoustic behaviour of different type of materials and devices that are used to improve the acoustic isolation and acoustic conditioning.

  2. APA-style human milk fat analogue from silkworm pupae oil: Enzymatic production and improving storage stability using alkyl caffeates

    OpenAIRE

    Xi Liu; Xudong Wang; Na Pang; Weijie Zhu; Xingyu Zhao; Fangqin Wang; Fuan Wu; Jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Silkworm pupae oil derived from reeling waste is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA), which has multipal applications. ALAs were added in sn-1, 3 positions in a triacylglycerol (TAG) to produce an APA-human milk fat analogues (APA-HMFAs, A: α-linolenic acid, P: palmitic acid). The optimum condition is that tripalmitin to free fatty acids of 1:12 (mole ratio) at 65 °C for 48 h using lipase Lipozyme RM IM. Results show that, the major TAG species that comprised APA-HMFAs were rich in ALA an...

  3. Combined Effect of Thermal and Irradiation Treatment of Parental Male Pupae of Spodoptera Littoralis on Certain Biological Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the effects of exposure of full-grown pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) to different high temperatures and/or sub sterilizing doses of gamma radiation on certain biological aspects of the parental (P1) and the first filial (F1) generations. It includes the effect on adult longevity malformation, mating, insemination, fecundity and egg hatch; beside larval survival till adult emergence and sex ratio of produced adults at different mating crosses between treated and untreated or treated other sex. Special attention is given to inherited sterility as well as to the mating competitiveness ability of treated males

  4. Construction of a full-length cDNA Library from Chinese oak silkworm pupa and identification of a KK-42-binding protein gene in relation to pupa-diapause termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Li, Run-Xi Xia, Huan Wang, Xi-Sheng Li, Yan-Qun Liu, Zhao-Jun Wei, Cheng Lu, Zhong-Huai Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, the most well-known wild silkworm used for silk production and insect food. Total RNA was extracted from a single fresh female pupa at the diapause stage. The titer of the library was 5 × 105 cfu/ml and the proportion of recombinant clones was approximately 95%. Expressed sequence tag (EST analysis was used to characterize the library. A total of 175 clustered ESTs consisting of 24 contigs and 151 singlets were generated from 250 effective sequences. Of the 175 unigenes, 97 (55.4% were known genes but only five from A. pernyi, 37 (21.2% were known ESTs without function annotation, and 41 (23.4% were novel ESTs. By EST sequencing, a gene coding KK-42-binding protein in A. pernyi (named as ApKK42-BP; GenBank accession no. FJ744151 was identified and characterized. Protein sequence analysis showed that ApKK42-BP was not a membrane protein but an extracellular protein with a signal peptide at position 1-18, and contained two putative conserved domains, abhydro_lipase and abhydrolase_1, suggesting it may be a member of lipase superfamily. Expression analysis based on number of ESTs showed that ApKK42-BP was an abundant gene in the period of diapause stage, suggesting it may also be involved in pupa-diapause termination.

  5. Velocidade da água e a distribuição de larvas e pupas de Chirostilbia pertinax (Kollar (Diptera, Simuliidae e macroinvertebrados associados Water velocity and the distribution of larvae and pupae of Chirostilbia pertinax (Kollar (Diptera, Simuliidae and associated macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eloy dos Santos Jr

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou investigar a relação entre a velocidade da água e a distribuição dos estágios imaturos de Chirostilbia pertinax (Kollar, 1832 e os macroinvertebrados bentônicos associados. As coletas foram realizadas em cinco pontos, no trecho superior do Rio dos Sinos, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A fauna bentônica foi amostrada com substratos artificiais, que permaneceram instalados nos locais de maior corenteza d'água por períodos de 14 dias. Antes do recolhimento dos substratos foram realizadas medidas de velocidade d'água no local da sua instalação. Essas medidas foram agrupadas em três classes: baixa (0,20 a 0,63 m/s, média (0,64 a 1,07 m/s e alta (1,08 a 1,50 m/s para posterior relação com a distribuição da fauna coletada. Para avaliar a influência da velocidade de água sobre a distribuição dos macroinvertebrados e a abundância de C. pertinax foi realizada uma regressão múltipla. As coletas resultaram em 39.598 indivíduos, sendo 33.418 simulídeos e 6.180 macroinvertebrados associados. Entre os simulídeos 5.704 espécimes correspondem a larvas do último ínstar e pupas, dos quais 828 são de C. pertinax. Quanto à distribuição dessa espécie, 30,8% ocorreram na classe de baixa velocidade d'água, 24,9% na velocidade média e 44,3% na alta velocidade. Foi observado que a abundância de C. petinax aumenta à medida que os macroinvertebrados predadores diminuem e os organismos não predadores aumentam (GLM, R² = 0,207; F 2,50 = 6,536; P = 0,003. Esses resultados revelam que os imaturos de C. pertinax têm uma tendência em ocupar um microhábitat com menor ocorrência de predadores.The objective of the current study was to evaluate the distribution of the immature stages of Chirostilbia pertinax (Kollar, 1832 and associated bentic macroinvertebrates in relation to water velocity. This study was carried out on the upper course of Sinos river, in Rio Grande do Sul. Seasonal collections of larvae

  6. In vitro infection of pupae with Israeli acute paralysis virus suggests disturbance of transcriptional homeostasis in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto F Boncristiani

    Full Text Available The ongoing decline of honey bee health worldwide is a serious economic and ecological concern. One major contributor to the decline are pathogens, including several honey bee viruses. However, information is limited on the biology of bee viruses and molecular interactions with their hosts. An experimental protocol to test these systems was developed, using injections of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV into honey bee pupae reared ex-situ under laboratory conditions. The infected pupae developed pronounced but variable patterns of disease. Symptoms varied from complete cessation of development with no visual evidence of disease to rapid darkening of a part or the entire body. Considerable differences in IAPV titer dynamics were observed, suggesting significant variation in resistance to IAPV among and possibly within honey bee colonies. Thus, selective breeding for virus resistance should be possible. Gene expression analyses of three separate experiments suggest IAPV disruption of transcriptional homeostasis of several fundamental cellular functions, including an up-regulation of the ribosomal biogenesis pathway. These results provide first insights into the mechanisms of IAPV pathogenicity. They mirror a transcriptional survey of honey bees afflicted with Colony Collapse Disorder and thus support the hypothesis that viruses play a critical role in declining honey bee health.

  7. Characteristic properties of proteins from pre-ecdysial cuticle of larvae and pupae of the mealworm <em>Tenebrio molitorem>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2002-01-01

    °C the solution becomes turbid, droplets of a heavy, protein-rich phase are formed, which gradually settles, leaving an upper protein-poor phase, indicating that the aggregation process is a coacervation. The aggregation of the dissolved cuticular proteins is influenced by changes in temperature, p...

  8. LD50 and inviably dose of gamma radiation for Musca domestica L., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae aged 1, 2, 3 and 4 days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael M., E-mail: nmitepan@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Sara E.D.Z., E-mail: sarazenitepan@ig.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source that was used is a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10{sup 13} Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestica had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity, until reaching the desired ages. Lots of pupae of M. domestica that had been used, gotten by the flotation process. They had been irradiated with the ages of 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. The used doses for 1 day pupae was 0 (control) 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30 Gy; for 2 days pupae: 0 (control), 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300 Gy; for 3 days pupae: 0 (control), 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, 280, 320 and 360 Gy; and for 4 days pupae: 0 (control), 40; 80; 120; 160, 200, 240, 280, 320, 360, 400 480 and 520 Gy. The dose rate was about 1,500Gy/hr. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy and the LD50 was 14.28, 128.04, 243.09 e 353.57 Gy, respectively. (author)

  9. ASPECTOS BIOLÓGICOS DE Anticarsia gemmatalis HÜEBNER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE EM CULTIVARES DE SOJA (Glycine max MERRIL BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF Anticarsia gemmatalis HÜEBNER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE ON SOYBEAN CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Baldin Pinheiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Entomologia da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em condições controladas de temperatura (25+2ºC, umidade relativa (40+10% e fotofase de 13h, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito das cultivares Emgopa 316, FT-Estrela, IAC 100 e IAC 17, no desenvolvimento de <em>Anticarsia> <em>gemmatalis>. Foram observadas a duração do período larval, o tamanho e o peso de lagartas e peso de pupas. Na cultivar Emgopa 316, as larvas apresentaram uma diminuição no período larval e um aumento nos pesos larval e pupal, enquanto IAC 100 mostrou alguma evidência de antibiose, aumentando o período larval e diminuindo o peso de lagartas e de pupas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; antibiose; <em>insecta>.

    A laboratory work was conducted at Universidade Federal de Goiás, under controlled conditions of temperature (25+2º, relative humidity (40+10% and photophase (13h. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the soybean cultivars Emgopa 316, FT-Estrela, IAC 100 and IAC 17 on the development of <em>Anticarsia> <em>gemmatalis> Hüebner, 1818. Duration of the development phases, length of larvae and weight of pupae were observed. Emgopa 316 showed a decreasing duration of larval stage and an increase in larvae and pupae weight; IAC 100 showed some evidence of antibiosis, increasing the larval stage and decreasing larvae and pupae weight.

    KEY-WORDS: <em>Insecta>; resistance; antibiosis.

  10. Use of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) pigments in the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goche, D; Vigueras, A L; Portillo, L; Llanderal, C

    2012-06-01

    Carmines obtained from the dye of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) were used for the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) in broccoli inflorescences. Larvae were dyed with carmine II and red cochineal, while the majority of the dyes, with the exception of carmine III and the aqueous extract, were suitable to dye pupae. In the broccoli lumps exposed to the dyes, only the verge of the stems were actually dyed, right in the position where the incision took place, an appropriate characteristic for implementing this technique for commercial use.

  11. Use of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) pigments in the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goche, D; Vigueras, A L; Portillo, L; Llanderal, C

    2012-06-01

    Carmines obtained from the dye of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) were used for the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) in broccoli inflorescences. Larvae were dyed with carmine II and red cochineal, while the majority of the dyes, with the exception of carmine III and the aqueous extract, were suitable to dye pupae. In the broccoli lumps exposed to the dyes, only the verge of the stems were actually dyed, right in the position where the incision took place, an appropriate characteristic for implementing this technique for commercial use. PMID:23950051

  12. The Neotropical tanyderid Araucoderus gloriosus (Alexander) (Diptera, Tanyderidae), with description of the egg, larva and pupa, redescription of adults, and notes on natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madriz, R Isaí; Courtney, Gregory W

    2016-01-01

    Larvae, pupae and adults of Araucoderus gloriosus (Alexander) were collected during fieldwork in Chilean Patagonia, December 2013 and January 2014. Eggs were obtained from females that oviposited in captivity. Association of all life stages is based on co-occurrence and rearing of individual larvae to adults. A diagnosis for the genus and species is provided. Descriptions of the egg, larva and pupa and redescriptions of the male and female are completed. Eggs of A. gloriosus are the first described for Tanyderidae. Natural history characteristics for this species, including microhabitat, copulatory behavior and oviposition, are discussed. PMID:27615889

  13. Efeitos de extratos de plantas na biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae mantida em dieta artificial Effects of plant extracts on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae maintained under artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Pedreira Santiago

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos a 10% de folhas e ramos de arruda (Ruta graveolens L., folhas e ramos de melão-de-são-caetano (Momordica charantia L., folhas do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e fruto verde de mamona (Ricinus communis L., sobre a biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda, mantida em dieta artificial. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupa, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de adultos. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram colocadas em tubos de ensaio com dieta artificial, contendo os extratos de cada material testado. O extrato aquoso do fruto verde de R. communis apresentou bioatividade, nos parâmetros duração larval e pupal e peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens reduziu o peso de pupa. A dieta contendo extrato de folhas e ramos de M. charantia reduziu a viabilidade larval e o peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de folhas de L. sidoides não afetou as fases larval e pupal, reduziu a postura e a viabilidade de ovos e aumentou a longevidade de adultos de S. frugiperda. A viabilidade de pupa não foi afetada pelos extratos testados.The effects of aqueous extracts, at 10% concentration of leaves and branches of Ruta graveolens L., leaves and branches of Momordica charantia L., leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. and green fruits of Ricinus communis L. were evaluated on the biology of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda maintained under artificial diet. The evaluated parameters were: duration and viability of the larval and pupal phases, pupa weight, fecundity, fertility and longevity of adults. Just-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda was placed in test tube with artificial diet containing extracts of each tested material. The aqueous extract of the green fruits of R. communis presented bioactivity upon duration and weight of larval and pupal phases. The aqueous extract of R. graveolens reduced weight of pupa. The diet

  14. INFESTAÇÃO DE MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS EM VARIEDADES DE MANGA (Mangifera indica L. NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS INFESTATION OF FRUIT FLY IN VARIETIES OF MANGO IN THE STATE OF GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juracy Rocha Braga Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A mangueira (<em>Mangifera> <em>indica Lem>. é a principal espécie frutífera da família <em>Anacardiaceae> cultivada no Brasil. A expansão dessa cultura nos últimos anos, tanto para o consumo in natura como para a exportação, é limitada por diversas pragas, principalmente pelas moscas-das-frutas. No período de setembro de 1999 a fevereiro de 2000 foi estudado o nível de infestação natural de moscas-das-frutas em dez variedades de manga, em três municípios do Estado de Goiás. Foram obtidos 1.195 pupários, dos quais emergiram 484 adultos de <em>Anastrepha> (80% dos insetos identificados, 104 lonqueídeos (17,2 % e 17 braconídeos (2,8%. Das fêmeas identificadas, 77,9% pertenciam ao gênero <em>Anastrepha> e 22,08%, a <em>Neosilba>. As espécies identificadas foram: A. obliqua (48,78%, <em>A. fraterculusem> (47,97%, <em>A. sororculaem> (2,03% e <em>A. turpiniaeem> (1,22%, referida pela primeira vez em frutos de manga no Estado. O parasitóide <em>Doryctobracon> <em>areolatus> foi encontrado em larvas/pupas de moscas-das-frutas, nas variedades Imperial e Tommy Atkins. As variedades com maiores índices de infestação foram Imperial (15,3 pupários/fruto e 73,611 pupários/kg de frutos, em Goiânia, e Tommy Atkins (7,0 pupários/fruto e 17,503 pupários/kg de frutos, no município de Orizona. Em Goiânia, a variedade Bourbon não foi infestada, e a Sabina apresentou um índice de infestação de 0,076 pupários/fruto e 0,363 pupários/ kg de frutos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; <em>Diptera>; <em>Tephritoidea>; avaliação de danos; parasitóides.

    Mango (<em>Mangifera> <em>indica L.em> production has expanded greatly in Brazil but several pests, especially fruit flies, have limited both fresh fruit consumption and

  15. Effect of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles from filtrate of Trichoderma harzianum against larvae and pupa of dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaravadivelan, Chandran; Padmanabhan, Madanagopal Nalini

    2014-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Therefore, screening for larvicidal and pupicidal activity of microbial extracts attributes could lead to development of new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and safe for nontarget organisms and are ecofriendly. Synthetic chemical insecticides occupy predominant position in control strategies. These hazardous chemicals exert unwarranted toxicity and lethal effects on nontarget organisms, develop physiological resistance in target, and cause adverse environmental effect. For vector control, fungal-mediated natural products have been a priority in this area at present. In the current study, effective larvicidal and pupicidal effect of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using an entomopathogenic fungi Trichoderma harzianum against developmental stages of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti was investigated. An attractive possibility of green nanotechnology is to use microorganisms in the synthesis of nanosilver especially Ag NPs. The mycosynthesized Ag NPs were characterized to find their unique properties through UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared, and surface characteristics by scanning electron microscopy. To analyze the bioefficacy, different test concentrations for extracellular filtrate (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 %) and Ag NPs (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 %) were prepared to a final volume of 200 mL using deionized water; 20 larvae of each instars (I-IV) and pupa were exposed to each test concentration separately which included a set of control (distilled water) group with five replicates. Characterization of the synthesized Ag NPs were about 10-20 nm without aggregation. Susceptibility of larval instars to synthesized Ag NPs was higher than the extracellular filtrate of T. harzianum alone after 24-h exposure, where the highest mortality was recorded as 92 and 96 % for first and second instars and

  16. Genome Sequence of a Novel Iflavirus from mRNA Sequencing of the Pupa of Bombyx mori Inoculated with Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Takeshima, Yoshino; Mikamoto, Toshiyuki; Saeki, Jun-David; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Dohra, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    We discovered a novel iflavirus from the transcriptome of the Bombyx mori pupa inoculated with the insect-pathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris. The assembled iflavirus genome has 10,119 nucleotides, with a 3'-polyadenylated tail, and it encodes a polyprotein composed of 3,004 amino acids. PMID:26383664

  17. Evaluation of a white female pupa genetic sexing strain of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), under selection procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During seven consecutive generations of mass rearing of a white female, brown male, genetic sexing strain of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), isolated at Seibersdorf (T:Y(wp+)30C, hereafter referred to as SWFP), only eggs produced during oviposition days 7-9 (adult age of 9-11 days, respectively) were seeded into the larval medium. Data on the quality of the various life stages were compared with similar data from the 'Sohag' normal colour strain collected throughout 1987. The Sohag strain was mass reared at the FAO/IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory from October 1983 until December 1987 when it was replaced by the SWFP strain. The mean amount of eggs collected daily per large colony cage of SWFP ranged between 40 mL and 62 mL in the successive generations, as compared to about 105 mL for for Sohag strain. Egg hatch in the SWFP successive generations varied between 71% and 76% as compared to about 85% for Sohag. Successful larval development in the artificial medium (percentage pupae from hatched eggs) fluctuated between 30% and 50%, while the average recovery in the Sohag strain was about 50%. Pupal size in the SWFP successive generations was always higher than in Sohag, i.e. 5.6 to 5.9 versus approx. 5.3 (size 5 on pupal day 4 corresponds to about 8.2 mg). Breakdown of the strain, as measured by the percentage of females emerging from brown pupae of the two highest larval collection days, was very low; increasing to only 1,2% by generation 7. Adult emergence and flight ability improved with the successive generations of SWFP from 64% to about 90% and from 50% to about 75%, respectively, while adult emergence and flight ability in the Sohag strain were around 93% and 90%, respectively. (author). 12 refs, 1 tab

  18. APA-style human milk fat analogue from silkworm pupae oil: Enzymatic production and improving storage stability using alkyl caffeates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Wang, Xudong; Pang, Na; Zhu, Weijie; Zhao, Xingyu; Wang, Fangqin; Wu, Fuan; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-08

    Silkworm pupae oil derived from reeling waste is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA), which has multipal applications. ALAs were added in sn-1, 3 positions in a triacylglycerol (TAG) to produce an APA-human milk fat analogues (APA-HMFAs, A: α-linolenic acid, P: palmitic acid). The optimum condition is that tripalmitin to free fatty acids of 1:12 (mole ratio) at 65 °C for 48 h using lipase Lipozyme RM IM. Results show that, the major TAG species that comprised APA-HMFAs were rich in ALA and palmitic acid, which contained 64.52% total unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and 97.05% PA at the sn-2 position. The melting point of APA was -27.5 °C which is much lower than tripalmitin (40.5 °C) indicating more plastic character. In addition, the practical application of alkyl caffeates as liposoluble antioxidants in APA was developed. Alkyl caffeate showed a superior IC50 (1.25-1.66 μg/mL) compared to butyl hydroxy anisd (1.67 μg/mL) and L-ascorbic acid-6-palmitate (L-AP) (1.87 μg/mL) in DPPH analysis. The addition of ethyl caffeate to oil achieved a higher UFAs content (73.58%) at high temperatures. Overall, APA was obtained from silkworm pupae oil successfully, and the addition of caffeates extended storage ranges for APA-HMFAs.

  19. Cyclic CO(2) emissions during the high temperature pulse of fluctuating thermal regime in eye-pigmented pupae of Megachile rotundata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, George D; Greenlee, Kendra J; Rinehart, Joseph P; Bennett, Meghan M; Kemp, William P

    2011-12-01

    Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), the primary pollinator used in alfalfa seed production, may need to be exposed to low-temperature storage to slow the insects' development to better match spring emergence with the alfalfa bloom. It has been demonstrated that using a fluctuating thermal regime (FTR) improves the tolerance of pupae to low temperatures. Carbon dioxide emission rates were compared between four different FTRs, all with a base temperature of 6°C and a daily high-temperature pulse. Four different high-temperature pulses were examined, 15 or 25°C for 2h and 20°C for 1 or 2h. A subset of pupae at the FTR base temperature of 6°C exhibited continuous gas exchange and, once ramped to 20 or 25°C, shifted to cyclic gas exchange. As temperatures were ramped down from the high-temperature pulse to 6°C, the pupae reverted to continuous gas exchange. The following conclusions about the effect of FTR on the CO(2) emissions of M. rotundata pupae exposed to low-temperature storage during the spring incubation were reached: 1) the high temperature component of the FTR was the best predictor of respiratory pattern; 2) neither pupal body mass nor days in FTR significantly affected which respiratory pattern was expressed during FTRs; 3) cyclic gas exchange was induced only in pupae exposed to temperatures greater than 15°C during the FTR high temperature pulse; and 4) a two hour pulse at 25°C doubled the number of CO(2) peaks observed during the FTR pulse as compared to a two hour pulse at 20°C. PMID:21854865

  20. Toxicity assessment of four insecticides with different modes of action on pupae and adults of Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a relevant predator of the Neotropical Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Marilina Noelia; Schneider, Marcela Inés; Rimoldi, Federico; Ladux, Lorena Sabrina; Desneux, Nicolas; Ronco, Alicia Estela

    2016-08-01

    Pesticides can be toxic to nontarget organisms including the natural enemies of agricultural pests, thus reducing the biodiversity of agroecosystems. The lethal and sublethal effects of four insecticides with different modes of action-pyriproxyfen, teflubenzuron, acetamiprid, and cypermethrin-were evaluated on pupae and adults of Eriopis connexa, an effective predator in horticultural crops. Pupal survival was reduced by pyriproxyfen (26 %) and cypermethrin (41 %). Malformations in adults emerged from treated pupae were observed after acetamiprid (82.7 and 100 % for 100 and 200 mg a.i./l, respectively), pyriproxyfen (48.6 %), and cypermethrin (13.3 %) treatments. A longer mean oviposition time was also observed in adults emerged from pupae treated with cypermethrin. Moreover, the latter insecticide as well as teflubenzuron did not reduce reproductive parameters, whereas females emerged from pyriproxyfen-treated pupae were not be able to lay eggs even when females showed large abdomens. Upon exposure of adults, survival was reduced to approximately 90 % by acetamiprid, but no reduction occurred with pyriproxyfen, teflubenzuron, or cypermethrin though the fecundity at fifth oviposition time of the female survivors was reduced. Pyriproxyfen decreased the hatching at all the oviposition times tested, whereas fertility was reduced in the fourth and fifth ovipositions by teflubenzuron and in the first and third ovipositions by cypermethrin. In conclusion, all four insecticides tested exhibited lethal or sublethal effects, or both, on E. connexa. The neurotoxic insecticides were more harmful than the insect-growth regulators, and pupae were more susceptible than adults. The toxicity of insecticides on the conservation of predators in agroecosystems of the Neotropical Region is discussed. PMID:27074926

  1. 蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸微胶囊的制备及其性质研究%Study on preparation of silkworm pupa silkworm pupa unsaturated fatty acids microcapsules and its properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 李建科; 张雅丽

    2012-01-01

    以壳聚糖、乳糖等为壁材,蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸为芯材,通过喷雾干燥法制备微胶囊。以微胶囊包埋率为评价指标,采用旋转曲面法设计正交实验,优化微胶囊壁材配比为:脱油大豆卵磷脂添加量为壳聚糖的13%(w/w),复配壁材乳糖与基础壁材壳聚糖比例为1.42:1.0(w/w),芯材蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸与总壁材质量比0.52:1.0(w/w),此时微胶囊包埋率达到83.31%,效果达到最佳;蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸经微胶囊化后流动性良好,且壁材有效阻隔芯材过氧化,货架期可延长至8个月;模拟胃肠液实验中,被壁材包裹的不饱和脂肪酸在胃液中受到保护缓慢释放,在肠液中可迅速释放。%Encapsulation of silkworm pupa unsaturated fatty acids with chitosan and lactose as the main wall material was carried out by a spray-drying process.Response Surface Methodology(RSM)was used to study and optimize technological parameters of the ratio of lecithin,ratio of lactose and chitosan and ratio of core and wall materials.The optimal condition was determined as follows:the ratio of lecithin to chitosan of 13%(w/w),ratio of lactose to chitosan of 1.42:1.0(w/w)and ratio of core to wall of 0.52:1.0(w/w),at which the microencapsulation efficiency(MEE)reached 83.31%.The encapsulated silkworm pupa unsaturated fatty acids produced by this method had good physicochemical properties and dispersibility.The shelf life was extended to 8 months and core material was protected well from oxidation.The release ability was studied.Microcapsules were subjected to an invitro gastrointestinal fluid,in which it showed rapid-release property in intestinal fluid model and sustained-release property in gastric juice.

  2. Larvae and pupae of two North American darkling beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Stenochiinae, Glyptotus cribratus LeConte and Cibdelis blaschkei Mannerheim, with notes on ecological and behavioural similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Steiner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes and illustrates the larvae and pupae of two North American darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae in the subfamily Stenochiinae, Glyptotus cribratus LeConte from the southeastern United States, and Cibdelis blaschkei Mannerheim from California. Both species inhabit forested regions where adults and larvae occur in soft rotten dry wood of dead branches on living trees or in sections recently fallen from them. Species identity was confirmed by rearing of adults and pupae and the discovery of both in pupal cells with associated exuvia. Specimen label data and notes on habitats are provided. Antipredator defense structures and behaviour are noted for larvae and pupae of both species.

  3. Efecto tóxico de Argemone subfusiformis Ownb. y Tagetes patula Link sobre larvas del IV estadio y pupas de Aedes aegypti L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Vidal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto tóxico de los extractos etanólicos foliares de Argemone subfusiformis “cardo santo” y Tagetes patula “marigold” sobre larvas IV y pupas de Aedes aegypti. El procesamiento de los extractos y los bioensayos se realizaron en el Laboratorio de Entomología de la Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Perú, de abril a diciembre de 2007, basados en los lineamientos metodológicos de la World Health Organization (2005. En larvas, se registró 100% de mortalidad con 76,8 y 153,6 mg/L del extracto de A. subfusiformis a las 12 horas de exposición, mientras que en pupas el mismo porcentaje de mortalidad se alcanzó con 153,6 mg/L a las 24 horas. De otro lado, el 92% y 77% de mortalidad en larvas y pupas respectivamente se registró con el extracto de T. patula al emplear 153,6 mg/L del extracto a las 48 horas. En A. subfusiformis las concentraciones letales al 50% (CL50 y al 90% (CL90 a las 48 horas se registraron con 6,24 y 9,91 mg/L sobre larvas y con 9,45 mg/L. y 16,92 mg/L sobre pupas. En T. patula la CL50 y CL90 a las 48 horas se registraron con 72,21 mg/L. y 137,37 mg/L sobre larvas y con 89,1 mg/L. y 167,38 mg/L sobre para pupas. Según el ANAVA existen diferencias significativas entre los tiempos de exposición y los tratamientos. La susceptibilidad de larvas y pupas de A. aegypti se evidenciaron mediante las rectas probit-logarítmicas que indican efecto tóxico de sus hojas, siendo A. subfusiformis la especie con mayor índice de mortalidad.

  4. Effect of mutual interference on the ability of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to attack and parasitize pupae of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2015-01-01

    h. The number of pupae that were attacked and the number successfully parasitized increased with the parasitoid density and reached a maximum of similar to 70 and 50, respectively. Parasitoid-induced mortality (PIM) was about 20 pupae, irrespective of parasitoid density. The per capita rates of...... attack, successful parasitism and parasitoid-induced mortality declined monotonously with parasitoid density. Progeny sex ratio was female biased for all parasitoid densities, but declined significantly with increasing parasitoid density from similar to 70% females at the lowest density to similar to 60......% at the highest. Mutual interference was incorporated into a functional response model to predict the attack rate and the rate of successful parasitism at different temperatures, host densities and parasitoid densities. The model explained 93.5% of the variation in the observed number of attacked...

  5. Canine parvovirus VP2 protein expressed in silkworm pupae self-assembles into virus-like particles with high immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hao; Hu, Gui-qiu; Wang, Hua-lei; Liang, Meng; Liang, Hongru; Guo, He; Zhao, Pingsen; Yang, Yu-jiao; Zheng, Xue-xing; Zhang, Zhi-fang; Zhao, Yong-kun; Gao, Yu-wei; Yang, Song-tao; Xia, Xian-zhu

    2014-01-01

    The VP2 structural protein of parvovirus can produce virus-like particles (VLPs) by a self-assembly process in vitro, making VLPs attractive vaccine candidates. In this study, the VP2 protein of canine parvovirus (CPV) was expressed using a baculovirus expression system and assembled into parvovirus-like particles in insect cells and pupae. Electron micrographs of VLPs showed that they were very similar in size and morphology when compared to the wild-type parvovirus. The immunogenicity of the VLPs was investigated in mice and dogs. Mice immunized intramuscularly with purified VLPs, in the absence of an adjuvant, elicited CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses and were able to elicit a neutralizing antibody response against CPV, while the oral administration of raw homogenates containing VLPs to the dogs resulted in a systemic immune response and long-lasting immunity. These results demonstrate that the CPV-VLPs stimulate both cellular and humoral immune responses, and so CPV-VLPs may be a promising candidate vaccine for the prevention of CPV-associated disease.

  6. Differential necrophoric behaviour of the ant Solenopsis invicta towards fungal-infected corpses of workers and pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, H-L; Lu, L-H; Shi, Q-X; Tu, C-C; Lin, T; He, Y-R

    2015-10-01

    Necrophoric behaviour is critical sanitation behaviour in social insects. However, little is known about the necrophoric responses of workers towards different developmental stages in a colony as well as its underlying mechanism. Here, we show that Solenopsis invicta workers display distinct necrophoric responses to corpses of workers and pupae. Corpses of workers killed by freezing (dead for <1 h) were carried to a refuse pile, but pupal corpses would take at least 1 day to elicit workers' necrophoric response. Metarhizium anisopliae-infected pupal corpses accelerated the necrophoric behaviour of resident workers, with 47.5% of unaffected corpses and 73.8% infected corpses discarded by 1 day post-treatment). We found that fungus-infected pupal corpses had a higher concentration of fatty acids (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid) on their surface. We experimentally confirmed that linoleic and oleic acids would elicit a necrophoric response in workers. The appearance of linoleic and oleic acids appeared to be chemical signals involved in recognition of pupal corpses, and M. anisopliae infection could promote the accumulation of fatty acids on surface of pupal corpses resulting in accelerated necrophoric responses of workers. PMID:26082426

  7. Side Effects of IGR Cyromazine on Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, a Parasitic Wasp of House Fly Pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combination of cyromazine as an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenop¬tera: Pteromalidae a parasitic wasp may be an effective tool for reducing the house-fly populations in poultry houses and livestock farms. This study was conducted to assess the side effects of the IGR cyromazine on the level of parasit¬ism and numbers and the longevity of emerged N. vitripennis parasitoids from house fly pupae.Methods: Cyromazine treated cloth target was used as the contaminating method of the parasitoids which was ap¬plied in this research study. Results: The Weibull distribution showed that there was no significant difference among controls and cyromazine treated targets for longevity data. There was no significant effect of cyromazine on the level of parasitism of N. vitripennis using 2 test. One-way ANOVA showed that the actual numbers emerging were significantly higher in the control than in two cyromazine treatments; however, it is a useful phenomenon because of reducing the hyperparasitism.Conclusion: There is a good consistency between using N. vitripennis and 1.1% or 0.9% cyromazine treated targets. There¬fore cyromazine treated targets can be applied as a safe delivery vehicle for applying the cyromazine IGR in the poultry houses and livestock farms in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program.

  8. Side Effects of IGR Cyromazine on Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, a Parasitic Wasp of House Fly Pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Combination of cyromazine as an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenop¬tera: Pteromalidae a parasitic wasp may be an effective tool for reducing the house-fly populations in poultry houses and livestock farms. This study was conducted to assess the side effects of the IGR cyromazine on the level of parasit¬ism and numbers and the longevity of emerged N. vitripennis parasitoids from house fly pupae."nMethods: Cyromazine treated cloth target was used as the contaminating method of the parasitoids which was ap¬plied in this research study. "nResults: The Weibull distribution showed that there was no significant difference among controls and cyromazine treated targets for longevity data. There was no significant effect of cyromazine on the level of parasitism of N. vitripennis using 2 test. One-way ANOVA showed that the actual numbers emerging were significantly higher in the control than in two cyromazine treatments; however, it is a useful phenomenon because of reducing the hyperparasitism."nConclusion: There is a good consistency between using N. vitripennis and 1.1% or 0.9% cyromazine treated targets. There¬fore cyromazine treated targets can be applied as a safe delivery vehicle for applying the cyromazine IGR in the poultry houses and livestock farms in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program.

  9. Response to cold acclimation in diapause pupae of Hyles euphorbiae (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae): candidate biomarker identification using proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckas, H; Mende, M B; Hundsdoerfer, A K

    2014-08-01

    The distribution range of Hyles euphorbiae covers distinct climates across the Palaearctic. Previous investigations showed a correlation between mitochondrial DNA identity of populations and climatic conditions related to winter; however, the lack of biomarkers hampers investigations to test whether geographically distinct populations do show specific molecular responses to low temperatures or whether they possess specific genetic identity at loci functionally related to cold response. The present study was designed to identify candidate protein biomarkers and biological processes that are associated with cold acclimation of overwintering H. euphorbiae diapause pupae. Specimens taken from a single central European population were gradually cooled from 20 °C to -2 °C over 36 days and 12 differentially abundant proteins were identified. In addition, DeepSuperSAGE sequencing technology was applied to study differentially regulated genes. There was incongruence between differentially abundant proteins and differentially expressed genes, but functional characteristics of regulated proteins and analyses of gene ontology term enrichment among differentially regulated genes pointed to activation of the same biological processes, e.g. oxidative stress response. As proteins represent biologically active molecules, candidate biomarkers derived from proteomics are considered well suited to explore intraspecific patterns of local adaptation to different climates. PMID:24628883

  10. Effects of soil temperature and snow cover on the mortality of overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests in the world. However, little is known about the effects of snow cover and soil temperature on the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. A field experiment was conducted from November 2, 2012 to April 24, 2013 at the agrometeorological experimental station in Wulanwusu, China. Overwintering pupae were embedded into the soil at depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm in the following four treatments: without snow cover, snow cover, and increased temperatures from 600 and 1200 W infrared lights. The results showed that snow cover and rising temperatures could all markedly increase soil temperatures, which was helpful in improving the survival of the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. The mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) at a depth of 15 cm was the highest, and the MOP at a depth of 5 cm followed. The lower accumulated temperature (≤0 °C) (AT ≤ °C) led to the higher MOP, and the lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR) likely led to the lower MOP. After snowmelt, the MOPs at the depths of 5 and 10 cm increased as the soil temperature increased, especially in April. The AT of the soil (≤0 °C) was the factor with the strongest effect on MOP. The soil moisture content was not a major factor affecting the MOP in this semiarid region because precipitation was 45 mm over the entire experimental period. With climate warming, the MOP will likely decrease, and the overwintering boundary air temperatures of H. armigera should be expanded due to higher soil temperatures and increased snow cover. PMID:26514355

  11. Oral administration of a fusion protein between the cholera toxin B subunit and the 42-amino acid isoform of amyloid-β peptide produced in silkworm pupae protects against Alzheimer's disease in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    Full Text Available A key molecule in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD is a 42-amino acid isoform of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42, which is the most toxic element of senile plaques. In this study, to develop an edible, safe, low-cost vaccine for AD, a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB-Aβ42 fusion protein was successfully expressed in silkworm pupae. We tested the silkworm pupae-derived oral vaccination containing CTB-Aβ42 in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Anti-Aβ42 antibodies were induced in these mice, leading to a decreased Aβ deposition in the brain. We also found that the oral administration of the silk worm pupae vaccine improved the memory and cognition of mice, as assessed using a water maze test. These results suggest that the new edible CTB-Aβ42 silkworm pupae-derived vaccine has potential clinical application in the prevention of AD.

  12. Baeuveria bassiana (BalsVuill and Metarhizium anisioplae (Metsch. Sorokin in the pupas control of Prodiplosis longifila Gagné on asparagus crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cedano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the entomopathogen fungi Baeuveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisioplae of the Prodiplosis longifila pupas, in order to reduce the adult population of this insect. The treatments consisted on the application of two different propagel concentrations (mycel and conidia of each entomopathogen. One of these concentration was 1x106 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 25 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen; and the other one, was 1x107 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 40 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen. As a check a non application treatment was considered. The applications were trough the irrigation system and started 15 days after the end of harvest and were repeated each five days during a month, coincident with the period of most falls of pupas of the soil. As a result Baeuveria bassiana at 1x107 propagels/ml shown 53.4 % of the total pupas colonized by the entomopathogen, which allows indicating B. bassiana as a promissory biocontrol of this specie

  13. Description and comparison of the pupae of a further two Culicoides (Avaritia species from the dung of large herbivores in South Africa (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Nevill

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 Nevill, Venter, Meiswinkel & Nevill demonstrated that the pupae of five Culicoides species belonging to the Imicola complex of the subgenus Avaritia could readily be differentiated from one another using various morphological characters. Three of the described species, Culicoides bolitinos Meiswinkel 1989; Culicoides loxodontis Meiswinkel 1992 and Culicoides sp. # 107 (= C. kwagga, Meiswinkel, unpublished thesis 1995, were reared from the dung of large herbivores, which included buffaloes, elephants, white and black rhinoceroses and zebras. However, during that study a further two Avaritia species, neither of which belonged to the Imicola complex, were reared from dung and these are the subject of the present study. For the past 20 years the adults of these two new closely related species have been known as Culicoides sp. # 54 pale form (p.f. Meiswinkel and Culicoides sp. # 54 dark form (d.f. Meiswinkel. The taxonomic description and formal naming of the adults of these two species has yet to be done. The present description and comparison of their pupae show that they are two clearly distinct species; that there is no group of morphological characters that can be used to differentiate these two species from the previously described five species of the Imicola complex; and finally that there was no difference between the pupae of C. sp. # 54 d.f. nor C. sp. # 54 p.f. reared from the dung of different host animals.

  14. Progeny of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitising pupae of Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) of different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle is a natural pupal parasitoid of eucalyptus defoliator lepidopterans and is considered a promising biocontrol agent. However, the development of efficient rearing techniques for this natural enemy are fi rst required before it can be used in biocontrol programs. Bombyx mori L. pupae are potential alternative hosts for this parasitoid mass rearing, and they are easy to rear. Therefore, we investigated the most suitable host age and the effects of parasitoid age on progeny production of P. elaeisis. B. mori pupae, 24 h-, 48 h-, 72 h- or 96 h-old were exposed to P. elaeisis females of similar age. The duration of the life cycle (egg-adult) of P. elaeisis was not affected by the age of the parasitizing female; however, the host age affected parasitoid development. The best parasitization was obtained for 72h- to 96h-old parasitoid females when offered to 48h- to 72h-old host pupae, allowing the synchronized rearing of a large number of P. elaeisis offspring. (author)

  15. Parasitóides de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae) coletados em Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil Parasitoids of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae) collected in Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori; Otacílio Moreira Silva Filho; Francilene Cardoso Alves Fortes; Rélia Rodrigues Brunes; Rauer Ferreira Borges; Patricia Luzia Pereira Gonçalves; Juliana Fischer Laurindo

    2005-01-01

    Com este estudo, objetivou-se verificar as espécies de insetos parasitando Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae)em Caldas Novas, Goiás, de agosto de 2003 a maio de 2004, empregando como atrativo de alimentação iscas formadas por fezes humanas, fígado bovino e peixe, com pupas sendo isoladas pelo método da flutuação, em água e individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas e/ou dos seus parasitóides. As porcentagens de parasitismo apresentada por Pachycrepoi...

  16. Study and Application on Comprehensive Utilization of Silkworm Pupa%桑蚕蛹的综合利用研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 张成平; 李睿; 孙晓燕; 王永亮

    2012-01-01

    China is the origin of mulberry and sericulture, after thousands of years of history, now is the worlds silkworm industry center. At present our country has rich mulberry and silkworm resources, mulberry field area is about 800 000 hectares, produce per year chrysalis of nearly 700 000 t, raw silk 100 000 t. Now, the development and utilization of sericulture resources has become a very important topic. Silkworm pupa is the main by-product in silkworm mulberry industry, which is rich in nutritional and functional activity of components, and is a kind of important edible insect resources. In recent years, the comprehensive utilization of silkworm pupa resources at home and abroad has become a research hotspot. With the deepening of the research, it has attracted much attention in the food industry, medicine industry and biological engineering, and shows tremendous development potential. This paper will be based on silkworm pupa nutritional and medicinal value of silkworm pupa, the study of comprehensive utilization on primary and deep processing was reviewed in order to provide reference on further promoting the development of silkworm pupa in food and medicinal.%我国是桑蚕业的起源地,历经几千年的历史,现今又是世界桑蚕业的中心.目前,我国有着丰富的蚕桑资源,桑园面积达80多万hm2,年产茧近70万t,生丝10万t,蚕桑资源的开发利用已成为重要的课题.桑蚕蛹是蚕桑业中主要的副产物,具有丰富的营养和功能活性成分,是一种重要的药食兼用昆虫资源.近年来,桑蚕蛹资源的综合开发利用已成为国内外研究热点,并随着研究的不断深入,其在食品业、药品业和生物工程方面的利用已备受关注,具有极大的开发潜力.根据桑蚕蛹的营养价值和药用价值,对桑蚕蛹的初级和深入加工利用研究进行了综述,以期为进一步推进桑蚕蛹食用化和药用化开发提供参考.

  17. Characteristic properties of proteins from pre-ecdysial cuticle of larvae and pupae of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S O

    2002-09-01

    Proteins extracted from the cuticle of pharate larvae and pupae of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor are more soluble at low temperatures than at higher temperatures, a behaviour characteristic of hydrophobic proteins. When the temperature of an unfractionated cuticular extract is raised from 4 to 25 degrees C the solution becomes turbid, droplets of a heavy, protein-rich phase are formed, which gradually settles, leaving an upper protein-poor phase, indicating that the aggregation process is a coacervation. The aggregation of the dissolved cuticular proteins is influenced by changes in temperature, pH, and ionic strength. The process has been studied by measuring development of turbidity in unfractionated cuticular extracts and in solutions of three purified proteins from Tenebrio pharate larvae and pupae (TmLPCP-A1a, TmLPCP-E1a, and TmLPCP-G1a), while temperature, pH or ionic strength of the solutions were varied. Protein aggregation was also studied by determination of changes in fluorescence intensity, when the hydrophobicity probe, 8-anilinonaphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) was added to solutions of the cuticular proteins. Only when the protein solutions had developed a measurable turbidity was an increase in ANS-fluorescence observed, indicating formation of tightly packed clusters of hydrophobic amino acid residues during aggregation. The temperature range for aggregation depends upon protein concentration: the higher the concentration the lower and more narrow is the temperature range within which aggregation occurs. The tendency for the individual cuticular proteins to aggregate is most pronounced near their isoelectric points, and most of the cuticular proteins have alkaline isoelectric points. The influence of salts on the tendency of the proteins to aggregate varies among the proteins and depends upon how close they are to their isoelectric point. A solution containing both protein TmLPCP-A1a and TmLPCP-E1a becomes more turbid and develops a more intense ANS

  18. LARVAL X-RAY IRRADIATION INFLUENCES PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN PUPAE OF THE ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY, BACTROCERA DORSALIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Geib, Scott M; Stanley, David

    2016-07-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) was developed to eradicate the new world screwworm from the southern United States and Mexico, and became a component of many area-wide integrated pest management programs, particularly useful in managing tephritid fruit flies. SIT is based on the idea of rearing and sterilizing male pests, originally by ionizing radiation, and then releasing into field, where they compete for and mate with wild females. Mating with sterile males leads to reduced fecundity to lower pest populations. There are concerns with the use and distribution of radioisotopes for SIT programs, which have led to developing X-ray irradiation protocols to sterilize insects. We considered the possibility that X-ray irradiation exerts sublethal impacts aside form sterilizing insects. Such effects may not be directly observable, which led us to the hypothesis that X-ray irradiation in one life stage creates alterations in biological fitness and protein expression in the subsequent stage. We tested our hypothesis by irradiating larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis. There are two major points. One, exposing larvae to X-ray treatments led to reduced adult emergence, fecundity, fertility, and flight capacity from the corresponding pupae and emerged adults. Two, the X-ray treatments led to substantial expression changes in 27 pupal proteins. We assorted the 67 spots representing these proteins into three groups, metabolism, development, and structure. Our interpretation is these X-ray induced changes in biological performance and protein expression indicate their adult counterparts may be disabled in their abilities to successfully compete for and mate wild females in native habitats. PMID:27079560

  19. Biological and nutritional studies on the almond moth, Ephestia Cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), irradiated as male pupae with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of two sub-sterilizing doses (100 or 200 Gray) of gamma irradiation on male full grown pupae of Ephestia cautella were studies when they reared on peanuts and hazelnuts. Fecundity, hatch ability, mating, some biological aspects and the consumption and utilization of food among F1 generation during the three larval periods (1 st to 3 rd, 4 th to 5 th and 1 st to 5 th instar larvae) were studied. In general, gamma irradiation significantly affected fecundity and hatch ability as compared to the control treatment. Percent mating and average number of spermatophores per mated female were slightly affected at the dose rate 200 Gy. The biological aspects were significantly affected by the two doses of gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation reduced the amounts of food consumed and digested by the F1 larvae as compared to control at the dose level 200 Gy only when larvae fed on peanuts among the 1st period (1st to 3 rd instar larvae). The amount of food consumed and digested during the second period (4 th and 5 th instar larvae) were higher than during the 1st period through all treatments were then decreased again during the third period (1st to 5th instar larvae). Gamma irradiation treatments decreased significantly the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (E.C.I.), together with the efficiency of conversion of digested food to (E.C.D.) body substances at the most treatments as compared to the untreated ones. Also, the food utilization efficiencies lead to a significant reduction in weight gain in most tested treatments through the three tested periods but it did not lead to a significant increase in growth rate in all tested treatments throughout the three larval periods and the two tested foods

  20. Daily Thermal Fluctuations Experienced by Pupae via Rhythmic Nursing Behavior Increase Numbers of Mushroom Body Microglomeruli in the Adult Ant Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falibene, Agustina; Roces, Flavio; Rössler, Wolfgang; Groh, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Social insects control brood development by using different thermoregulatory strategies. Camponotus mus ants expose their brood to daily temperature fluctuations by translocating them inside the nest following a circadian rhythm of thermal preferences. At the middle of the photophase brood is moved to locations at 30.8°C; 8 h later, during the night, the brood is transferred back to locations at 27.5°C. We investigated whether daily thermal fluctuations experienced by developing pupae affect the neuroarchitecture in the adult brain, in particular in sensory input regions of the mushroom bodies (MB calyces). The complexity of synaptic microcircuits was estimated by quantifying MB-calyx volumes together with densities of presynaptic boutons of microglomeruli (MG) in the olfactory lip and visual collar regions. We compared young adult workers that were reared either under controlled daily thermal fluctuations of different amplitudes, or at different constant temperatures. Thermal regimes significantly affected the large (non-dense) olfactory lip region of the adult MB calyx, while changes in the dense lip and the visual collar were less evident. Thermal fluctuations mimicking the amplitudes of natural temperature fluctuations via circadian rhythmic translocation of pupae by nurses (amplitude 3.3°C) lead to higher numbers of MG in the MB calyces compared to those in pupae reared at smaller or larger thermal amplitudes (0.0, 1.5, 9.6°C), or at constant temperatures (25.4, 35.0°C). We conclude that rhythmic control of brood temperature by nursing ants optimizes brain development by increasing MG densities and numbers in specific brain areas. Resulting differences in synaptic microcircuits are expected to affect sensory processing and learning abilities in adult ants, and may also promote interindividual behavioral variability within colonies.

  1. Daily thermal fluctuations experienced by pupae via rhythmic nursing behavior increase numbers of mushroom body microglomeruli in the adult ant brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina eFalibene

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Social insects control brood development by using different thermoregulatory strategies. Camponotus mus ants expose their brood to daily temperature fluctuations by translocating them inside the nest following a circadian rhythm of thermal preferences. At the middle of the photophase brood is moved to locations at 30.8°C; 8 h later, during the night, the brood is transferred back to locations at 27.5°C. We investigated whether daily thermal fluctuations experienced by developing pupae affect the neuroarchitecture in the adult brain, in particular in sensory input regions of the mushroom bodies (MB calyces. The complexity of synaptic microcircuits was estimated by quantifying MB-calyx volumes together with densities of presynaptic boutons of microglomeruli (MG in the olfactory lip and visual collar regions. We compared young adult workers that were reared either under controlled daily thermal fluctuations of different amplitudes, or at different constant temperatures. Thermal regimes significantly affected the large (non-dense olfactory lip region of the adult MB calyx, while changes in the dense lip and the visual collar were less evident. Thermal fluctuations mimicking the amplitudes of natural temperature fluctuations via circadian rhythmic translocation of pupae by nurses (amplitude 3.3°C lead to higher numbers of MG in the MB calyces compared to those in pupae reared at smaller or larger thermal amplitudes (0.0, 1.5, 9.6°C, or at constant temperatures (25.4, 35.0°C. We conclude that rhythmic control of brood temperature by nursing ants optimizes brain development by increasing MG densities and numbers in specific brain areas. Resulting differences in synaptic microcircuits are expected to affect sensory processing and learning abilities in adult ants, and may also promote interindividual behavioral variability within colonies.

  2. Daily Thermal Fluctuations Experienced by Pupae via Rhythmic Nursing Behavior Increase Numbers of Mushroom Body Microglomeruli in the Adult Ant Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falibene, Agustina; Roces, Flavio; Rössler, Wolfgang; Groh, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Social insects control brood development by using different thermoregulatory strategies. Camponotus mus ants expose their brood to daily temperature fluctuations by translocating them inside the nest following a circadian rhythm of thermal preferences. At the middle of the photophase brood is moved to locations at 30.8°C; 8 h later, during the night, the brood is transferred back to locations at 27.5°C. We investigated whether daily thermal fluctuations experienced by developing pupae affect the neuroarchitecture in the adult brain, in particular in sensory input regions of the mushroom bodies (MB calyces). The complexity of synaptic microcircuits was estimated by quantifying MB-calyx volumes together with densities of presynaptic boutons of microglomeruli (MG) in the olfactory lip and visual collar regions. We compared young adult workers that were reared either under controlled daily thermal fluctuations of different amplitudes, or at different constant temperatures. Thermal regimes significantly affected the large (non-dense) olfactory lip region of the adult MB calyx, while changes in the dense lip and the visual collar were less evident. Thermal fluctuations mimicking the amplitudes of natural temperature fluctuations via circadian rhythmic translocation of pupae by nurses (amplitude 3.3°C) lead to higher numbers of MG in the MB calyces compared to those in pupae reared at smaller or larger thermal amplitudes (0.0, 1.5, 9.6°C), or at constant temperatures (25.4, 35.0°C). We conclude that rhythmic control of brood temperature by nursing ants optimizes brain development by increasing MG densities and numbers in specific brain areas. Resulting differences in synaptic microcircuits are expected to affect sensory processing and learning abilities in adult ants, and may also promote interindividual behavioral variability within colonies. PMID:27147994

  3. ROLE OF SILYMARIN AS ANTIOXIDANT ON SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF NORMAL AND IRRADIATED PUPAE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to investigate the biological effects of silymarin as an antioxidant on the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, at different concentrations (40, 60, 80, 100 mg/0.5 kg larval medium). Also, larval and pupal duration, percent adult emergence, sex ratio, weight and size of pupae, as compared to the control group, were studied.The results indicated that larval and pupal durations were reduced at 60 mg silymarin/0.5 kg larval media as compared to the control.The concentrations 40, 60 and 80 mg silymarin/0.5 kg larval media were selected and the produced pupae from these different larval media were irradiated with the sterilizing gamma dose (90 Gy) and the sub-sterilizing gamma dose (70 Gy) to study their effects on female fecundity, male fertility, survival, competitiveness values and also their effects on the mating ability and ability of males to inseminate females.The data obtained revealed that silymarin administration and/or gamma irradiation caused significant decrease in female egg production at all concentrations examined as compared to the control group. Male fertility was not affected when silymarin was applied alone but significant decrease was observed when pupae were treated with radiation alone or with silymarin at all concentrations and both gamma doses. Survival was not affected for both sexes with silymarin and/or gamma irradiation.Moreover, data obtained revealed significant effect in male competitiveness values at 40 and 80 mg silymarin concentrations and the gamma sterilizing dose (90 Gy). However, mating ability and ability to inseminate females were not affected with silymarin and/or gamma irradiation as compared to the control

  4. From Pupa to Butterfly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    IN front of me is the Floating Stone, an autobiography-like novel written by a farmer writer. With a not very eye-catching cover and a somewhat baffling name, the book is not quite interesting to me. Care-freely, I took up the book and scanned it. Unexpectedly, I was attracted and finished reading the

  5. A new species of Miocene terrestrial gastropod Gastrocopta from Poland and the validity of 'Pupa (Vertigo) suevica'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stworzewicz, E.; Prisyazhnyuk, V.A. [Polish Academy of Science, Krakow (Poland)

    2006-03-15

    We describe Gastrocopta sandbergeri sp. nov. from the Miocene brown coal deposits of the open-cast mine Belchatow (central Poland) and identify it as conspecific with Pupa (Vertigo) suevica Sandberger, 1875 (nomen nudum) from the Miocene of Steinheim. The new species is most similar to Gastrocopta nouletiana (Dupuy, 1850) but differs in having smaller and always slender shell, less convex whorls, much weaker crest on the body whorl (or even absent) and generally rather weakly developed teeth (6-7) in the aperture.

  6. Study on the physiology of diapause, cold hardiness and supercooling point of overwintering pupae of the pistachio fruit hull borer, Arimania comaroffi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemani, Marjan; Izadi, Hamzeh; Mahdian, Kamran; Khani, Abbas; Amin Samih, Mohammad

    2012-07-01

    The pistachio fruit hull borer, Arimania comaroffi (Ragonot) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a key pest of pistachio orchards in Iran. This pest passes the winter as diapausing pupae. In this study, some physiological changes in relation to environmental temperature were investigated in field collected pupae. The relationship between supercooling point, cold hardiness and physiological changes of a wild population of this pest was also investigated. The glycogen content decreased with decrease in environmental temperature. Decrease in glycogen content was proportional to increase in total body sugar, trehalose, myo-inositol and sorbitol contents. In January with mean ambient temperature of 5.4°C, glycogen (5 mg/g fresh body weight) content was at the lowest level whereas total body sugar (10.3 mg/g fresh body weight), trehalose (8.6 mg/g fresh body weight), myo-inositol (5.3 mg/g fresh body weight) and sorbitol (2.6 mg/g fresh body weight) were at the highest levels. Total body sugar, trehalose, myo-inositol and sorbitol contents increased as mean temperature decreased from 22.7°C in October to 5.4°C in January. Total body lipid decreased during overwintering and reached to the lowest level at the end of March. Supercooling points were decreased from October to January and reached to the lowest level (-16°C) in January with minimum ambient temperature of -10°C. Survival at low temperature after 24 h was also greatest in January with 72% survival at -10°C, 39% survival at -15°C and 0% survival at -20°C. Increase in temperature from February onward, was proportional with increase in supercooling points and decrease in survival rate. Regardless of sampling date, all pupae died after 24 h at -20°C, whereas none pupae died after 24 h at -5°C. This indicates that this insect is freeze-intolerant.

  7. 蝇蛹金小蜂对家蝇蛹的寄生策略%Strategies of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae parasitizing pupae of houseflies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈中正; 刘继兵; 贺张; 段毕升; 胡好远

    2011-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani is a common parasitoid of housefly ( Musca domestca) pupae. Its preferences for different ages of housefly pupae, life-span, oviposition and number of progeny number were studied. The results show that P. Vindemmiae can parasitize pupae of all ages. Progeny number significantly decreased with increasing host age, and the proportion of dead pupae, from which neither parasitoid wasps nor houseflies emerged, also significantly increased with pupal age. The wasp' s life-span was (11.89 ± 6.99 )d, its reproduction duration was (9. 58 ± 6. 67 )d and the mean number of progeny per female was 33. 74 ± 18. 08. Male progeny had a significantly shorter developmental duration than females. Progeny number decreased at the end of the oviposition period with a higher proportion of males being produced.%蝇蛹金小蜂Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani是家蝇Musca domestica蛹期常见寄生蜂种类.本文探讨蝇蛹金小蜂对寄主日龄的选择策略以及该寄生蜂的寿命、产卵历期和后代数量等规律.结果表明寄生蜂可利用各日龄的蝇蛹,寄生高龄期蝇蛹时,寄生蜂后代产量显著降低,既未出蜂也未出蝇的死亡蝇蛹比例显著增加;寄生蜂寿命为(11.89±6.99)d,产卵历期为(9.58±6.67)d,单个雌蜂后代产量为(33.74±18.08)头,雄性后代的发育历期显著短于雌性后代,随着寄生蜂产卵历期的延长,寄生蜂后代产量下降,雄性后代比例增加.

  8. Nutrigenomics in Arma chinensis: transcriptome analysis of Arma chinensis fed on artificial diet and Chinese oak silk moth Antheraea pernyi pupae.

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    Deyu Zou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The insect predator, Arma chinensis, is capable of effectively controlling many pests, such as Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Our previous study demonstrated several life history parameters were diminished for A. chinensis reared on an artificial diet compared to a natural food source like the Chinese oak silk moth pupae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis health are unclear. So we utilized transcriptome information to better understand the impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis at the molecular level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina HiSeq2000 was used to sequence 4.79 and 4.70 Gb of the transcriptome from pupae-fed and artificial diet-fed A. chinensis libraries, respectively, and a de novo transcriptome assembly was performed (Trinity short read assembler. This resulted in 112,029 and 98,724 contigs, clustered into 54,083 and 54,169 unigenes for pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis, respectively. Unigenes from each sample's assembly underwent sequence splicing and redundancy removal to acquire non-redundant unigenes. We obtained 55,189 unigenes of A. chinensis, including 12,046 distinct clusters and 43,143 distinct singletons. Unigene sequences were aligned by BLASTx to nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG (E-value <10(-5, and further aligned by BLASTn to nt (E-value <10(-5, retrieving proteins of highest sequence similarity with the given unigenes along with their protein functional annotations. Totally, 22,964, 7,898, 18,069, 15,416, 8,066 and 5,341 unigenes were annotated in nr, nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG and GO, respectively. We compared gene expression variations and found thousands of genes were differentially expressed between pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides abundant genomic data and offers comprehensive sequence information for studying A. chinensis. Additionally, the physiological

  9. Study on Extraction of Silkworm Pupa Protein by Alkaline Method%碱法提取蚕蛹蛋白的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 蒋艳忠

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of silkworm pupa protein with alkali from defatted silkworm pupa powder was studied. Single factor and orthogonal experiments were used to study the effects of the parameters such as temperature , time,pH and ration of liquid to solid on the yield of silkworm pupa protein. The results showed that the extrac-tion temperature was the more important factor that affected the effect of extraction,following the ration of liquid to solid and pH and extraction time, the optimal conditions were obtained with orthogonal experiments, as fol lows: extraction temperature was 70 ℃, extraction time was 3.0 h,pH 8.0 and ration of liquid to solid was 14 ∶ 1(mL/g), under these conditions the yield of silkworm pupa protein was 72.42%, the protein content of 86.2%, water content was 11.4%, the protein was light brown, almost no pupal odor.%以脱脂蚕蛹粉为原料研究碱液提取蚕蛹蛋白的工艺。通过单因素实验探讨温度、时间、pH、液固比4个参数对蚕蛹蛋白得率的影响,然后通过正交实验确定了蚕蛹蛋白的较佳提取条件。结果表明,影响提取率的主次关系依次为:温度、液固比、pH、时间。蚕蛹蛋白提取的较优条件为:温度70℃、时间3.0 h、pH 8.0、液固比14∶1(mL/g),在上述条件下蚕蛹蛋白得率为72.42%,蛋白质含量86.2%,含水率为11.4%,所得蛋白为淡褐色,几乎无蛹臭味。

  10. Progeny of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitising pupae of Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) of different ages; Progenie de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare e LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) parasitando pupas de Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera:Bombycidae) de diferentes idades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabricio F.; Favero, Kellen; Grance, Elizangela L.V. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Biologicas e Ambientais], e-mail: fabriciofagundes@ufgd.edu.br, e-mail: kellenfavero@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: eli_vargasgrance@yahoo.com.br; Zanuncio, Jose C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal], e-mail: zanuncio@ufv.br; Serrao, Jose E. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil), Dept. de Biologia Geral], e-mail: jeserrao@ufv.br; Oliveira, Harley N. [Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, MS (Brazil)], e-mail: harley@cpao.embrapa.br

    2009-09-15

    Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle is a natural pupal parasitoid of eucalyptus defoliator lepidopterans and is considered a promising biocontrol agent. However, the development of efficient rearing techniques for this natural enemy are fi rst required before it can be used in biocontrol programs. Bombyx mori L. pupae are potential alternative hosts for this parasitoid mass rearing, and they are easy to rear. Therefore, we investigated the most suitable host age and the effects of parasitoid age on progeny production of P. elaeisis. B. mori pupae, 24 h-, 48 h-, 72 h- or 96 h-old were exposed to P. elaeisis females of similar age. The duration of the life cycle (egg-adult) of P. elaeisis was not affected by the age of the parasitizing female; however, the host age affected parasitoid development. The best parasitization was obtained for 72h- to 96h-old parasitoid females when offered to 48h- to 72h-old host pupae, allowing the synchronized rearing of a large number of P. elaeisis offspring. (author)

  11. Two methods of assessing the mortality factors affecting the larvae and pupae of Cameraria ohridella in the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum in Switzerland and Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardoz, S; Tomov, R; Eschen, R; Quicke, D L J; Kenis, M

    2007-10-01

    The horse-chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella, is an invasive alien species defoliating horse-chestnut, a popular ornamental tree in Europe. This paper presents quantitative data on mortality factors affecting larvae and pupae of the leaf miner in Switzerland and Bulgaria, both in urban and forest environments. Two sampling methods were used and compared: a cohort method, consisting of the surveying of pre-selected mines throughout their development, and a grab sampling method, consisting of single sets of leaves collected and dissected at regular intervals. The total mortality per generation varied between 14 and 99%. Mortality was caused by a variety of factors, including parasitism, host feeding, predation by birds and arthropods, plant defence reaction, leaf senescence, intra-specific competition and inter-specific competition with a fungal disease. Significant interactions were found between mortality factors and sampling methods, countries, environments and generation. No mortality factor was dominant throughout the sites, generations and methods tested. Plant defence reactions constituted the main mortality factor for the first two larval stages, whereas predation by birds and arthropods and parasitism were more important in older larvae and pupae. Mortality caused by leaf senescence was often the dominant mortality factor in the last annual generation. The cohort method detected higher mortality rates than the grab sampling method. In particular, mortality by plant defence reaction and leaf senescence were better assessed using the cohort method, which is, therefore, recommended for life table studies on leaf miners. PMID:17916263

  12. 蚕蛹蛋白提取与脱臭工艺研究%Study on the extraction and deodorization of protein from silkworm pupa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱英华; 孙卫东; 王玉海; 奏志喧; 陆海勤; 李凯

    2012-01-01

    Silkworm pupa contains abundant completed protein, which contains 18 amino acids, and can be processed and used in food industry. However, due to the characteristic odor of pupa, its appliance in food industry is highly restrained. In order to produce food - grade protein, a deodorization is a must step after extraction. The alkali - method is applied. In the alkali - method, defatted pupa powder is dissolved in alkali solution, and pH is adjusted to pupa protein' s , and then protein precipitation is collected. The best extraction condition is: NaOH 2% , Temp. 70℃ , extracting time 6 hours, and the ratio of solid to liquid 1 : 6. The yield of pupa protein can reach 27.6%, H2O2 is used to deodorize the protein, and the best condition is; H2O23% , Temp. 70℃ , reacting time 10 minutes, and the ratio of solid to liquid 1:4. With the processing of dry - spry, the pale deodorized protein powder is obtained and met the requirement of food industry.%蚕蛹中含有丰富的蛋白质,是一种完全蛋白,富含18种氨基酸,有望作为营养丰富的高蛋白食品进行深入开发.由于蚕蛹本身具有特征性异味,限制了其在食品方面的用途,因此在制备食用级蚕蛹蛋白的工艺中须增加脱臭的步骤.本研究以蚕蛹为原料,经过脱脂之后,采用碱法提取蚕蛹蛋白.将脱脂蚕蛹粉溶解于碱性溶液,再将pH调节至蚕蛹蛋白的等电点(4.5),收集蛋白质沉淀.最佳碱法提取条件为氢氧化钠用量2%、反应温度70℃、反应时间6h、固液比为1∶6.在此条件下制备的脱臭蚕蛹蛋白得率为27.6%.采用氧化脱臭的方法,以双氧水为氧化剂对蚕蛹蛋白进行脱臭,最佳条件为双氧水用量3%、反应温度70℃、反应时间10min、固液比为1∶4.经喷雾干燥后,制得灰白色无嗅蛋白粉末,可满足食品级的要求.

  13. Parasitóides de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae coletados em Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil Parasitoids of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae collected in Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil

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    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com este estudo, objetivou-se verificar as espécies de insetos parasitando Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidaeem Caldas Novas, Goiás, de agosto de 2003 a maio de 2004, empregando como atrativo de alimentação iscas formadas por fezes humanas, fígado bovino e peixe, com pupas sendo isoladas pelo método da flutuação, em água e individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas e/ou dos seus parasitóides. As porcentagens de parasitismo apresentada por Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, Spalangia nigra Latrielle, 1805 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae Paraganaspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh., 1996 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae e Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae foram de 4,3, 1,5 0,9 e 0,6%, respectivamente. A porcentagem total de parasitismo observada foi de 7,4%. Relata-se a primeira ocorrência de S. nigra em pupas de F. pusio no Brasil.The aim of this study was to report the insect species parasitizing Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae, in Caldas Novas, State of Goiás, between August 2003 and May 2004. Flies were attracted to baits consisting of human feces, bovine liver and fish, with the pupae being isolated by the flotation method, in water, and individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the flies and/or their parasitoids. The parasitism percentages presented by Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, Spalangia nigra Latrielle, 1805 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, Paraganaspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh, 1996 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae were 4.3, 1.5, 0.9 and 0.6%, respectively. The total percentage of parasitism was 7.4%. This study reports the first occurrence of S. nigra in pupae of F. pusio in Brazil.

  14. Insecticidal potency of Aspergillus terreus against larvae and pupae of three mosquito species Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-11-01

    Microbial control agents offer alternatives to chemical pest control, as they can be more selective than chemical insecticides. The present study evaluates the mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal potential of fungus mycelia using ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts produced by Aspergillus terreus against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. The A. terreus mycelia were extracted after 15 days from Sabouraud dextrose broth medium. The ethyl acetate extracts showed lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae (LC50) and lethal concentration that kills 90% of the exposed larvae (LC90) values of the first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi (LC50 = 97.410, 102.551, 29.802, and 8.907; LC90 = 767.957, 552.546, 535.474, and 195.677 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 89.584, 74.689, 68.265, and 67.40; LC90 = 449.091, 337.355, 518.793, and 237.347 μg/ml), and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 83.541, 84.418, 80.407, and 95.926; LC90 = 515.464, 443.167, 387.910, and 473.998 μg/ml). Pupicidal activity of mycelium extracts was tested against An. stephensi (LC50 = 25.228, LC90 = 140.487), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 54.525, LC90 = 145.366), and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 10.536, LC90 = 63.762 μg/ml). At higher concentration (500 μg/ml), mortality starts within the first 6 h of exposure. One hundred percent mortality occurs at 24-h exposure. The overall result observed that effective activity against selected mosquito larvae and pupae after 24 h was a dose and time-dependent activity. These ensure that the resultant mosquito population reduction is substantial even where the larvicidal and pupicidal potential is minimal. The FTIR spectra of ethyl acetate extract reflect prominent peaks (3448.32, 3000.36, 2914.59, 2118.73, 1668.21, 1436.87, 1409.02, 954.33, 901.13, and 704.67 cm(-1)). The spectra showed a sharp absorption band at 1314.66 cm(-1) assigned to wagging vibration of

  15. Insecticidal potency of Aspergillus terreus against larvae and pupae of three mosquito species Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-11-01

    Microbial control agents offer alternatives to chemical pest control, as they can be more selective than chemical insecticides. The present study evaluates the mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal potential of fungus mycelia using ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts produced by Aspergillus terreus against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. The A. terreus mycelia were extracted after 15 days from Sabouraud dextrose broth medium. The ethyl acetate extracts showed lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae (LC50) and lethal concentration that kills 90% of the exposed larvae (LC90) values of the first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi (LC50 = 97.410, 102.551, 29.802, and 8.907; LC90 = 767.957, 552.546, 535.474, and 195.677 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 89.584, 74.689, 68.265, and 67.40; LC90 = 449.091, 337.355, 518.793, and 237.347 μg/ml), and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 83.541, 84.418, 80.407, and 95.926; LC90 = 515.464, 443.167, 387.910, and 473.998 μg/ml). Pupicidal activity of mycelium extracts was tested against An. stephensi (LC50 = 25.228, LC90 = 140.487), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 54.525, LC90 = 145.366), and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 10.536, LC90 = 63.762 μg/ml). At higher concentration (500 μg/ml), mortality starts within the first 6 h of exposure. One hundred percent mortality occurs at 24-h exposure. The overall result observed that effective activity against selected mosquito larvae and pupae after 24 h was a dose and time-dependent activity. These ensure that the resultant mosquito population reduction is substantial even where the larvicidal and pupicidal potential is minimal. The FTIR spectra of ethyl acetate extract reflect prominent peaks (3448.32, 3000.36, 2914.59, 2118.73, 1668.21, 1436.87, 1409.02, 954.33, 901.13, and 704.67 cm(-1)). The spectra showed a sharp absorption band at 1314.66 cm(-1) assigned to wagging vibration of

  16. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

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    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv. Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem> is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various <em>E. songoricumem> plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions.<em> EsEFem> and <em>Esα-TUB> were sufficient for various stress conditions, <em>EsEF> and <em>EsACT> were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and <em>EsGAPDH>and <em>Es>UBQ em>were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The <em>Es18Sem> gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor <em>EsDREB2em>> em>verified the utility of<em> E. songoricumem> reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in <em>E. songoricumem>, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  17. 蚕蛹多糖脱蛋白方法研究%A Comparative Investigation into Deproteinization Methods for Silkworm Pupa Polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍善广; 赖泰君; 孙建华; 刘旭辉; 童张法; 廖丹葵

    2011-01-01

    Protein removal rate and polysaccharide loss rate were used to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of Savag' s method, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) method, papain method and papain-TCA (papain hydrolysis followed by TCA precipitation) method in deproteinizing silkworm pupa polysaccharides. Papain-TCA method was found to be the best method for the deproteinization of silkworm pupa polysaccharides, and the optimal operating conditions were 1.5 h hydrolysis with papain at an enzyme-to-substrate of 2.0% and 50 ℃ followed by once treatment with TCA. A protein removal rate of 97.98% and a polysaccharide loss rate of 18.76% were achieved under such conditions. Only one absorption peak was observed in the UVvisible scanning spectrum of deporteinized silkworm pupa polysaccharides, indicating the removal of almost all proteins.%以蛋白去除率和多糖损失率为指标,比较Sevag法、三氯乙酸(trichloroacetic acid,TCA)法、木瓜蛋白酶法、木瓜蛋白酶-Sevag联用法和木瓜蛋白酶.TCA联用法脱除蚕蛹多糖蛋白的效果。结果显示:木瓜蛋白酶.TCA联用效果最好,其脱蛋白的最佳条件为木瓜蛋白酶用量[E]/[S]2.0%、酶解温度50℃、酶解反应1.5h、采用TCA法除蛋白1次,此时蛋白去除率为97.98%,多糖损失率为18.76%;紫外光谱扫描定性实验显示脱蛋白的多糖在260-280nm处只有少量吸收,表明大多数蛋白已去

  18. Study on the improvement of fermentative preparation of Pupa Bombycis Batryticatus%僵蛹发酵方法改进的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学湘; 卞莹莹; 沙满义

    2015-01-01

    目的 改进中药僵蛹的发酵方法,以提高其活性成分草酸铵的含量.方法 以蚕蛹为发酵基质,通过接入白僵菌液体菌种制备形成僵蛹.以草酸铵的含量为主要考察指标,结合基质转化率,研究不同接种量对发酵工艺的影响,并与生药僵蚕中草酸铵的含量进行比较.结果 与空白对照比较,随着白僵菌接种量的加大,僵蛹中草酸铵的含量增加,其中以接种量为 20%时含量达最大,为 7.72%,在 5% ~ 25%接种量范围内,僵蛹中草酸铵的含量均高于四个不同产地生僵蚕的含量.结论 该固体发酵法简单、易行、可控,不易污染杂菌,能有效地提高活性成分草酸铵的含量,制备形成的僵蛹某种程度上可作为僵蚕的代用品.%Objective To increase the content of active constituent by improving the fermentative preparation method of Pupa Bombycis Batryticatus.Methods It was prepared with Bombyx mori L. as the substrate inoculated with the fungi,Beauveria bassiana(Bals.) Vuillant. Effects of different inoculation amounts on the fermentation technology were checked, with the content of ammonium oxalate combined with matrix conversion rate as the main indexes. Furthermore, the contents of fermentation products were compared with those of the crude drug, Bombyx Batryticatus.Results Compared with the control group, the content of ammonium oxalate in Pupa Bombycis Batryticatus was raised with the increase of inoculation amount. When the inoculation amount was 20%, the content reached the highest (7.72%). Within the range from 5% to 25% inoculation amount, the contents in fermentation products were all higher than that in crude drugs from four different producing areas.Conclusion The preparation technology is a simple and controllable method. It isn't easily contaminated and can increase the content of active constituent effectively. The product, Pupa Bombycis Batryticatus, prepared by this method will be the alternative of Bombyx

  19. 双酶水解蚕蛹蛋白工艺研究%Study on Technology for Hydrolysis of Silkworm Pupa Protein with Double Enzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 蒋艳忠

    2016-01-01

    The technology for silkworm pupa protein hydrolysis by double enzymatic(alkaline protease and pa-pain) was studied.Single factor and orthogonal experiments were used to study the effects of the parameters such as temperature,amount of enzyme,substrate concentration,time,mass ratio of a1kaline protease and papain on the hydrolysis degree of silkworm pupa protein. The results showed that the temperature was the more important factor that affected the effect of hydrolysis,following substrate concentration and time and amount of enzyme and enzyme mass ratio, the optimal conditions were obtained with orthogonal experiments, as follows:the tempera-ture was 55℃, the amount of enzyme was 3.0%, the substrate concentration was 3%, the time was 6 h and the enzyme mass ratio was 4∶1. The hydrolysis degree of silkworm pupa protein under these conditions could be 25.04%.%研究了碱性蛋白酶和木瓜蛋白酶双酶法水解蚕蛹蛋白的工艺条件。通过单因素试验探讨了温度、加酶量、底物浓度、水解时间、酶质量比(碱性蛋白酶∶木瓜蛋白酶)对蚕蛹蛋白水解效果的影响,然后通过正交试验优化水解工艺务件。结果表明,影响水解率的主次关系依次为:温度、底物浓度、时间、酶用量、酶比。优化的工艺条件为:温度55℃,加酶量3.0%,底物浓度3%,水解时间6 h,酶质量比4∶1,上述条件下蚕蛹蛋白水解率达25.04%。

  20. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of Cd (II Complex with <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xishi Tai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new trinuclear Cd (II complex [Cd3(L6(2,2-bipyridine3] [L =<em> Nem>-phenylsulfonyl-L>-leucinato] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The results show that the complex belongs to the orthorhombic, space group<em> Pem>212121 with<em> aem> = 16.877(3 Å, <em>b> em>= 22.875(5 Å, <em>c em>= 29.495(6 Å, <em>α> em>= <emem>= <emem>= 90°, <em>V> em>= 11387(4 Å3, <em>Z> em>= 4, <em>Dc>= 1.416 μg·m−3, <emem>= 0.737 mm−1, <em>F> em>(000 = 4992, and final <em>R>1 = 0.0390, <em>ωR>2 = 0.0989. The complex comprises two seven-coordinated Cd (II atoms, with a N2O5 distorted pengonal bipyramidal coordination environment and a six-coordinated Cd (II atom, with a N2O4 distorted octahedral coordination environment. The molecules form one dimensional chain structure by the interaction of bridged carboxylato groups, hydrogen bonds and p-p interaction of 2,2-bipyridine. The luminescent properties of the Cd (II complex and <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine in solid and in CH3OH solution also have been investigated.

  1. Potential mode of protection of silkworm pupae from environmental stress by harboring the bacterial biofilm on the surfaces of silk cocoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Pranab K; Naskar, Deboki; Kumar, Akash; Yao, Juming; Kundu, Subhas C; Ghosh, Anindya S

    2015-02-01

    The silkworm forms cocoon to protect its pupa that survives for months inside the cocoon without being affected by various environmental stresses. To understand the possible mode of pupal survival within the cocoon encasement, we investigate the cause that protects the cocoon. During the end of the spinning process, we have isolated different bacterial species from the cocoon surface. These are identified using molecular techniques and checked for their abilities to form biofilm in vitro. The bacteria are able to form biofilm either individually or in consortia. Of which, Bacillus and Erwinia species are prominent biofilm formers. Interestingly, these bacteria have the ability to form biofilm on the cocoon mimetic surface of the silk protein Sericin Hope that contains only sericin. The origin and the behavior of the bacteria lead us to hypothesize the possible role of biofilm layer on the cocoon surface, which provides protection from adverse environmental conditions. PMID:25292249

  2. Leafcutter bee nests and pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: implications for understanding the paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Anna R; Koch, Jonathan B; Griswold, Terry; Erwin, Diane M; Hall, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ∼23,000-40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile) gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E) document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower elevation during

  3. Leafcutter bee nests and pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: implications for understanding the paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Holden

    Full Text Available The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ∼23,000-40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower

  4. Analysis on Nutritional Components of Larva and Pupa of Danaus chrysippus%金斑蝶幼虫和蛹的营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲正宇; 史军义; 周德群; 姚俊; 杨志

    2014-01-01

    为了评价金斑蝶幼虫和蛹的营养价值,为其食用开发提供理论基础,本研究运用国家标准检测方法测定了金斑蝶幼虫和蛹的主要营养成分、矿质元素含量及能量值,并对其氨基酸组成进行分析评价。结果显示,金斑蝶幼虫和蛹的蛋白质含量分别为61.1%和71.8%,脂肪含量分别为12.5%和10.6%,碳水化合物含量分别为17.6%和11.9%,灰分含量分别为8.8%和5.7%,氨基酸总量分别为411.2 mg/g和497.7 mg/g,必需氨基酸总量分别为151.9 mg/g和184.8 mg/g,必需氨基酸占总氨基酸的比例分别为36.9%和37.1%,必需氨基酸与非必需氨基酸的比值均为0.59。与牛肉、猪肉、鸡肉相比,金斑蝶幼虫和蛹的碳水化合物和灰分含量高,粗脂肪含量、能量值低,蛋白质含量则均低于牛肉中的含量;矿质元素K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Mn含量及幼虫中的Fe含量都明显高,但Zn含量低于牛肉中的含量,P、Na含量则均低。对蛋白质氨基酸分的分析结果表明,苏氨酸为金斑蝶幼虫和蛹的限制性氨基酸,其缺失导致氨基酸结构不平衡,影响了蛋白质质量,为不适蛋白源。%In order to evaluate the nutritional value of larva and pupa of Danaus chrysippus and provide theoretical bases for their edible development , the main nutritional components , contents of mineral elements and energy values were determined by the national standard detection methods , and the amino acid composi-tion was analyzed.The results showed that the protein contents of D.chrysippus larva and pupa were 61.1%and 71.8%respectively;the fat contents were 12.5 %and 10.6%;the carbohydrate contents were 17.6%and 11.9%;the ash contents were 8.8% and 5.7%; the total amino acid contents were 411.2 mg/g and 497.7 mg/g;the essential amino acid contents were 151.9 mg/g and 184.8 mg/g, which occupied 36.9%and 37.1%of the total amino acid;and the

  5. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Properties of Three <em>Actinidia> (<em>Actinidia> <em>kolomikta>, <em>Actinidia argutaem>, <em>Actinidia> <em>chinensis> Extracts <em>in Vitroem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ren Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, vitamin C content, and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from different kiwifruit varieties (<em>Actinidia> <em>kolomikta>, <em>Actinidia argutaem>, <em>Actinidia> <em>chinensis> were determined in this study. Multiple scavenging activity assays including the hydroxyl radical, O2·radical, DPPH, and the ABTS+ radical scavenging activity assays were used to identify the antioxidant activities of <em>Actinidia> extracts. The cell viability of HepG2 and HT-29 cells was also examined in this study. The results demonstrated that the <em>Actinidia kolomiktaem> extract had a higher antioxidant activity than the other two <em>Actinidia> extracts. There is a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and the polyphenols and vitamin C content in all three extracts (<em>R>2 ≥ 0.712, <em>p> em>< 0.05. The <em>Actinidia argutaem> extract had the highest inhibitory effect on HepG2 and HT-29 cell growth. These results provide new insight into the health functions of fruit and demonstrate that <em>Actinidia> extracts can potentially have health benefits.

  6. <em>α>-Glucosidase Inhibitory Constituents from <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harm Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new triterpene glycoside, 3-<em>O-[(α>-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2]-[<em>β>-D-glucuronopyranosyl-6-<em>O>-methyl ester]-olean-12-ene-28-olic acid (1 and a new indole alkaloid, 5-methoxy-2-oxoindolin-3-acetic acid methyl ester (5 were isolated from the leaves of <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harms along with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of 2D-NMR experiments and chemical methods. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their glycosidase inhibition activities and compound 6 showed significant <em>α>-glucosidase inhibition activity.

  7. Three New Myrsinol Diterpenes from <em>Euphorbia proliferaem> and Their Neuroprotective Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqiang Guo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new myrsinol diterpenes were isolated from the roots of<em> em>>Euphorbia proliferaem>. Their structures were elucidated as 2<em>α-O>-isobutyryl-3<em>β>,5<em>α>,7<em>β>,10,15<em>β-penta-O>-acetyl-14<em>α-O>-benzoyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (1, 2<em>α-O>-isobutyryl-3<em>β-O>-propion-yl-5<em>α>,7<em>β>,10,15<em>β-tetra-O>-acetyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (2, and 2<em>α>,14<em>α-di-O>-benzoyl-3<em>β>,5<em>α>,7<em>β>,10,15<em>β-penta-O>-acetyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (3 on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses (IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR. Their neuroprotective activities were evaluated and compounds 1 and 2 showed neuroprotective effects against MPP+-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells.

  8. 微波真空冷冻干燥蜂蛹工艺的研究%Study on microwave vacuum freeze-drying process of Honeybee Pupae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平丽娟; 方晟; 毛建卫; 蔡成岗; 陈文斌

    2013-01-01

    Drying process of Honeybee Pupae by microwave vacuum freeze-drying and Optical fiber/infrared temperature measurement and control system were studied.The microwave intensities were set at 0.20,0.24,0.28, 0.32W/g and the results showed that the optimal dried product were got at 0.28W/g microwave intensity and the highest set temperature of 30℃,after drying 420min,the water content of the dried Honeybee Pupae was 2.84% , the final product was uniform with the original color and good taste flavor,and the electron micrograph showed that the product had sponge porous shape section,The dried Honeybee Pupae rehydrated 1.9 times of water in 20℃ water for Is,rehydrated effect was good,the SOD activity of the dried product slightly increased firstly and then decreased with level of 36.9U/mg protein after dried 420min,and the water content of the product was of 2.84%, Microwave vacuum freeze-drying decreased the drying time for 65% and tow viable microorganisms compared with the traditional vacuum freeze-drying method,while the SOD activity was almost at the same level,%采用微波真空冷冻干燥及光纤/红外温度测试控制等技术集成进行蜂蛹冻干中试工艺研究,用0.20、0.24、0.28、0.32W/g四个微波强度进行工艺优化,获得优化工艺参数为微波强度0.28W/g、最高解析温度30℃,微波冻干时间420min,最终产品水分含量为2.84%,产品品质好,无干瘪变形,保持蜂蛹原有色泽,电镜观察显示切面呈海绵多孔状,口味鲜美,于20℃水中复水1s,复水率达1.9倍,复水效果好,解析干燥过程中蜂蛹超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力呈现先略有增加后有所降低的趋势,蜂蛹冻于至水分含量为2.84%时,SOD活性为36.9U/mg prot,与真空冷冻干燥对比,所需干燥时间减少65%以上,并使存活微生物菌落数显著降低,SOD酶活力相近.

  9. 小峰熊蜂蜂王蛹期发育蛋白质组分析%Proteome analysis of the pupae development of Bombus hypocrita queen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继莲; 彩万志; 彭文君; 吴杰

    2012-01-01

    为了探明小峰熊蜂Bombus hypocrita蜂王蛹期发育蛋白质表达调控方面的特点,揭示其发育的分子机理.采用双向电泳法对小峰熊蜂蜂王蛹期发育进行蛋白质组研究,结果在小峰熊蜂蜂王蛹期的白眼期(A期)、褐眼期(B期)和黑眼期(C期)分别检测到81、80和75个蛋白点,特有蛋白质分别为8个、7个和2个,共有蛋白质为61个,A期到B期有4个蛋白质显著上调,5个显著下调,B期到C期有7个蛋白质显著上调,1个显著下调,A期到C期有10个蛋白质显著上调,有4个显著下调.此外,3个蛋白质是在A、B期表达C期关闭,6个蛋白质A、C期表达,B期关闭,5个蛋白质A期关闭,而B、C期表达.初步表明小峰熊蜂蜂王从蛹期发育到成蜂过程中,不仅需要一些保守蛋白质来调控,而且还需要一些特异蛋白质.%In order to understand the characteristics of protein expression and regulation in pupae of Bombus hypocrite queens and the molecular mechanism of their development, we investigated the proteome of pupae in different developmental stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results show that 81, 80 and 75 proteins were detected in the white-eyed pupal stage (A) , brown-eyed pupal stage (B) and dark-eyed pupal stage ? , respectively. 8, 7 and 2 proteins were specific to the A, B and C stages, respectively. Meanwhile, 61 proteins were present in all three stages, among which 4 were significantly up-expressed and 5 were significantly down-expressed from the A to B stage, 7 were significantly up-expressed and 1 was significantly down-expressed from the B to C stage, and 10 were significantly up-expressed and 4 significantly down-expressed from the B stage to C stage. In addition, 3 proteins were expressed in both A and B stages but not in C stage, 6 proteins were expressed in A stage, silenced in B stage and expressed in C stage, and 5 proteins were silenced in A stage but were expressed in both B and C stage. Our

  10. Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters <em>in em>Vivo> and <em>in em>Vitro> Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad H. Stahl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4 deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P, supra-adequate (1.2% total P in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured <em>in vitroem> for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (<em>P> < 0.05 feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. <em>In vivoem> satellite cell proliferation was reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered <em>in vitroem> expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted.

  11. Antibacterial Property and Wound Healing Effect of Silkworm Pupa Chitosan Composite Hydrogel%蚕蛹壳聚糖复合水凝胶的抗菌性能及对创伤的愈合作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大洋; 李晓琴; 汪涛; 蓝广芊

    2012-01-01

    以蚕蛹壳聚糖、蜂蜜和明胶等为基质制备医用复合水凝胶.对以不同配比制备的蚕蛹壳聚糖复合水凝胶、单纯蚕蛹壳聚糖水凝胶、蜂蜜水凝胶的抗菌性能进行比较试验,并以大耳白兔为受试动物,采用切片法检测蚕蛹壳聚糖复合水凝胶对烫伤伤口的愈合作用.结果表明:用质量分数为0.25%的蚕蛹壳聚糖和质量分数为20%的蜂蜜制成的复合水凝胶的杀菌作用明显高于市售烧伤膏和单纯蚕蛹壳聚糖或蜂蜜水凝胶,对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌24h内的抑菌率均达到100%,且持久性好;大耳白兔烫伤伤口经0.25%蚕蛹壳聚糖+20%蜂蜜复合水凝胶处理后12 d可基本愈合,切片观察愈合的伤口表皮无溃疡,局部毛囊增生,且有新生表皮细胞生成.研究结果显示,蚕蛹壳聚糖复合水凝胶具有广谱抗菌性能,可用作创伤敷料.%We used chitosan from silkworm pupa, honey and gelatin to prepare composite hydrogel for medical use. The antibacterial property of silkworm pupa chitosan composite hydrogel with different ingredient ratios was compared with that of pure silkworm pupa chitosan hydrogel and of honey hydrogel. Moreover, the burn wound healing effect of silkworm pupa chitosan composite hydrogel was investigated by using big-ear rabbit as the experimental animal through section-cutting method. The results indicated that the bactericidal performance of composite hydrogel prepared with 0. 25% silkworm pupa chitosan and 20% honey was obviously better than that of the commercial burn cream and pure silkworm pupa chitosan or honey hydrogel. The inhibitory rate to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli reached 100% within 24 h and the inhibition persisted for a long time. The burn wounds in big-ear rabbit were almost healed at 12 d after treatment with composite hydrogel prepared with 0. 25% silkworm pupa chitosan and 20% honey. Histological slice observation showed that there was no

  12. 棕尾别麻蝇(Sarcophaga peregrina)幼虫与蛹血淋巴凝集素的纯化与特性%PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF HAEMOLYMPH LECTINS IN SARCOPHAGA PEREGRINA LARVAE AND PUPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴炎; 卢晓风; 杨星勇; 孔弋非; 蒋书楠; 程惊秋

    2001-01-01

    用亲和层析法纯化了棕尾别麻蝇幼虫和蛹血淋巴凝集素。以兔红细胞吸附幼虫血淋巴凝集素为抗原制备的抗体、胎球蛋白和甲状腺蛋白等三种亲和层析吸附剂纯化得到的幼虫凝集素是相同的,其分子量73kD左右。用甲状腺球蛋白为亲和配基纯化的蛹血淋巴凝集素由二种亚基组成,其分子量分别为30和32kD。幼虫和蛹血淋巴凝集素活性的抑制糖明显不同:乳糖、岩藻糖和N-乙酰半乳糖胺对幼虫血淋巴凝集素活性有抑制作用;而甘露糖胺、半乳糖胺和葡萄糖胺则对蛹血淋巴凝集素有一定抑制。而且,用兔红细胞吸附幼虫血淋巴凝集素为抗原制备的抗血清对蛹的凝集素活性无交叉反应,表明这两种凝集素是不相同的。虽然本文所纯化的麻蝇蛹血淋巴凝集素的分子量和Komano等报道的麻蝇蛹以及幼虫体壁伤害诱导的凝集素SPL相同,但其糖的抑制特性有明显差异。%Lectins in haemolymph of Sarcophaga peregrina larvae and pupa were purified by affinity chromatography. Antiserum against larvae haemolymph lectin and two glycoproteins, fetuin and thyroglobulin, were used as affinity ligands for purification of larvae lectin. SDS-PAGE results indicated that, the lectin purified from larvae haemolymph was a monomer with molecular weight (Mr) around 73kD; while the lectin from pupa was composed of two subunits, with Mr 30 and 33 kD, respectively. The carbohydrates, which inhibited haemagglutination activity (HA) in haemolymph of larvae and pupa, were different. It showed that HA was inhibited by lactose, fucose and N-acetylgalactosamine in the larvae, and inhibited by mannosamine, glactosamine and glucosamine in the pupa. The antiserum against larvae lectin had no cross reaction to the pupa lectin. It was suggested that the lectin purified from larvae is different from that in pupa. Compared with the other studies on S.peregrina lectins, the inhibiting

  13. Effects of diurnal temperature range on adult size and emergence times from diapausing pupae in Papilio glaucus and p.canadensis (Papilionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Mark Scriber; Brittany Sonke

    2011-01-01

    With recent climate warming trends,both the increase in thermal variance (i.e.,diurnal temperature range; DTR) as well as increased mean temperature may impact many different organisms,especially poikilothermic invertebrates.Predictions of insect developmental rates using degree-days (thermal unit accumulations above the developmental base threshold of the insect) are based on daily mean temperatures,regardless of DTR.However,non-linearity and variance in the means and extremes are often ignored.The role of thermal variance (e.g.,daily temperature extremes and DTR) was evaluated experimentally for two swallowtail butterfly sister species using a common day/night photoperiod of 18:6 h photo:scoto-phase and corresponding daytime thermophase and nighttime cryophase periods of 22:22℃ (constant 22℃),24:16℃,and 26:10℃ (all three treatments had the same daily mean and the same degree-day accumulations).Although developmental rates ofpost-diapause pupae were largely unaffected for both species,our results show that sizes in P.canadensis females (but not males) were smaller in the treatments with more variance (26℃:10℃) compared to constant 22℃.Such potentially significant impacts of size reduction in P.canadensis females were not observed in P.glaucus males or females under the same series ofthermo-period treatments.

  14. Sterilization of 4-5-day-old pupae of the Indian meal moth with gamma radiation and its effect on mating competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Females of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Huebner), irradiated as 4-5-day-old pupae with an absorbed dose of 35 krad of gamma radiation and confined with unirradiated (U) males were sterile. Male moths treated similarly and confined with U females were only partially sterile. Irradiated (I) males confined with U males and females at a ratio of 1:1:1 caused 18.2% of the eggs produced to be infertile; increasing the ratio to 5:1:1, 10:1:1, 15:1:1 and 25:1:1 caused 48.7, 46.6, 47.7 and 58.9%, respectively, infertile eggs. The calculated competitiveness values (CV) for the 5 ratios were 0.39, 0.70, 0.63, 0.62 and 0.75, respectively. When I females were confined with U males and females in the same 5 ratios: 1:1:1, 5:1:1, etc., 15.6, 66.2, 74.3, 100.0 and 100.0% respectively, of the eggs were infertile. The CVs calculated for these ratios were 0.73, 1.52, 1.28, 1.50 and 1.30. Thus, I females were more effective in reducing egg fertility than were I males. (author)

  15. Effects of juvenile hormone and ecdysone on the timing of vitellogenin appearance in hemolymph of queen and worker pupae of Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Roberto Barchuk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The caste-specific regulation of vitellogenin synthesis in the honeybee represents a problem with many yet unresolved details. We carried out experiments to determine when levels of vitellogenin are first detected in hemolymph of female castes of Apis mellifera, and whether juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids modulate this process. Vitellogenin levels were measured in hemolymph using immunological techniques. We show that in both castes the appearance of vitellogenin in the hemolymph occurs during the pupal period, but the timing was different in the queen and worker. Vitellogenin appears in queens during an early phase of cuticle pigmentation approximately 60h before eclosion, while in workers the appearance of vitellogenin is more delayed, initiating in the pharate adult stage, approximately 10h before eclosion. The timing of vitellogenin appearance in both castes coincides with a slight increase in endogenous levels of juvenile hormone that occurs at the end of pupal development. The correlation between these events was corroborated by topical application of juvenile hormone. Exogenous juvenile hormone advanced the timing of vitellogenin appearance in both castes, but caste-specific differences in timing were maintained. Injection of actinomycin D prevented the response to juvenile hormone. In contrast, queen and worker pupae that were treated with ecdysone showed a delay in the appearance of vitellogenin. These data suggest that queens and workers share a common control mechanism for the timing of vitellogenin synthesis, involving an increase in juvenile hormone titers in the presence of low levels of ecdysteroids.

  16. The study of stress resistance for larva and pre-pupa stage of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens%黑水虻幼虫及预蛹抗逆性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈媛; 徐齐云; 安新城

    2012-01-01

    本文初步研究了老熟和预蛹阶段的黑水虻Hermetia illucens对于酒精毒性、氧胁迫和高渗透压条件下的耐受特性,结果显示黑水虻幼虫和预蛹在三种胁迫因子处于20%~60%(浓度)的较低水平时,其平均死亡率低于20%,表现出良好的抗逆性.高浓度的酒精、矿物油和氯化钠溶液对于黑水虻的生存都会产生负面影响,但是幼虫与预蛹由于其生理形态上的变化,致使其在抗逆性方面表现出显著差异,预蛹阶段的黑水虻对矿物油较为敏感,而幼虫则对高盐环境的耐受性表现较弱.%The stress tolerance of black soldier fly, Hermetia illurens, larvae and pre-pupa in solution of alcohol, mineral oil and common salt with gradient concentration was studied. The result indicated that it showed positive performance for black soldier fly larva and pre-pupa when stress factors were lower level, but it with high level obviously were going to hurt insect body and increase mortality. The more attention should been paid on the difference between larvae and pre-pupa on stress resistance in mineral oil and common salt. It implied that pre-pupa of black soldier fly were more susceptive to mineral oil than larvae and larva were less tolerated to common salt instead, which might be the result from physiological and morphological deviation of insect cuticulae.

  17. Constituents from <em>Vigna em>vexillata> and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of <em>Vigna em>genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of<em> V. vexillata em>demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of <em>V. vexillataem>. One new sterol (1 and two new isoflavones (2,3 were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23, abscisic acid (25, and quercetin (40 displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release.

  18. Simulium argentiscutum sp. nov. (Diptera: simuliidae, a member of the S. amazonicum-group of species; description of adults, pupa and larva Simulium argentiscutum sp. nov. (Diptera: simuliidae, um membro do grupo de espécies S. amazonicum: descrição dos adultos, pupa e larva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony John Shelley

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult, pupal and larval morphology of S. argentiscutum sp. nov., a member of the S. amazonicum-group, is compared with S. amazonicum Goeldi and its distribution, biology and medical importance are discussed. S. argentiscutum is one the most important anthropophilic species in the S. amazonicum-group as it is responsible, together with S. amazonicum, for the transmission of Mansonella ozzardi in Brazil.A morfologia dos adultos e da pupa e larva do S. argentiscutum sp. nov., um membro do grupo de espécies S. amazonicum, é comparada com a do S. amazonicum Goeldi e são discutidos da sua distribuição, biologia e importância médica. S. argentiscutum é uma das espécies antropofílicas mais importantes do grupo amazonicum porque é responsável, junto com o S. amazonicum, pela transmissão da mansonelose no Brasil.

  19. Quantitative determination of juvenile hormone III and 20-hydroxyecdysone in queen larvae and drone pupae of Apis mellifera by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinhui; Qi, Yitao; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yi; Xue, Xiaofeng; Wu, Liming; Zhang, Jinzhen; Chen, Fang

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a method for the rapid and sensitive analysis of juvenile hormone III (JH III) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in queen larvae and drone pupae samples was presented. Ultrasound-assisted extraction provided a significant shortening of the leaching time for the extraction of JH III and 20E and satisfactory sensitivity as compared to the conventional shake extraction procedure. After extraction, determination was carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operating in electrospray ionization positive ion mode via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) without any clean-up step prior to analysis. A linear gradient consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid, and a ZORBAX SB-Aq column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) were employed to obtain the best resolution of the target analytes. The method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification, recovery, matrix effects, precision and stability. Drone pupae samples were found to contain 20E at concentrations of 18.0 ± 0.1 ng/g (mean ± SD) and JH III was detected at concentrations of 0.20 ± 0.06 ng/g (mean ± SD) in queen larvae samples. This validated method provided some practical information for the actual content of JH III and 20E in queen larvae and drone pupae samples. PMID:21803004

  20. The Antimicrobial Efficacy of <em>Elaeis guineensisem>: Characterization, <em>in Vitroem> and <em>in Vivoem> Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The urgent need to treat multi-drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms in chronically infected patients has given rise to the development of new antimicrobials from natural resources. We have tested <em>Elaeis guineensis em>Jacq> em>(Arecaceae methanol extract against a variety of bacterial, fungal and yeast strains associated with infections. Our studies have demonstrated that <em>E. guineensisem> exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivoem> against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. A marked inhibitory effect of the <em>E. guineensisem> extracts was observed against <em>C. albicansem> whereby <em>E. guineensisem> extract at ½, 1, or 2 times the MIC significantly inhibited <em>C. albicansem> growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD of the bacterial culture. This finding confirmed the anticandidal activity of the extract on <em>C. albicansem>. Imaging using scanning (SEM and transmission (TEM electron microscopy was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the extract-treated <em>C. albicansem>. The main abnormalities noted via SEM and TEM studies were the alteration in morphology of the yeast cells. <em>In vivoem> antimicrobial activity was studies in mice that had been inoculated with <em>C. albicansem> and exhibited good anticandidal activity. The authors conclude that the extract may be used as a candidate for the development of anticandidal agent.<em> em>

  1. Evaluation of Pseudopteroxazole and Pseudopterosin Derivatives against <em>Mycobacterium> <em>tuberculosis> and Other Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm W. B. McCulloch

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudopterosins and pseudopteroxazole are intriguing marine natural products that possess notable antimicrobial activity with a commensurate lack of cytotoxicity. New semi-synthetic pseudopteroxazoles, pseudopteroquinoxalines and pseudopterosin congeners along with simple synthetic mimics of the terpene skeleton were synthesized. In order to build structure-activity relationships, a set of 29 new and previously reported compounds was assessed for <em>in> <em>vitro> antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. A number of congeners exhibited antimicrobial activity against a range of Gram-positive bacteria including <em>Mycobacterium> <em>tuberculosis> H37Rv, with four displaying notable antitubercular activity against both replicating and non-replicating persistent forms of <em>M.> <em>tuberculosis>. One new semi-synthetic compound, 21-((1<em>H>-imidazol-5-ylmethyl-pseudopteroxazole (7a, was more potent than the natural products pseudopterosin and pseudopteroxazole and exhibited equipotent activity against both replicating and non-replicating persistent forms of <em>M.> <em>tuberculosis> with a near absence of <em>in> <em>vitro> cytotoxicity. Pseudopteroxazole also exhibited activity against strains of <em>M.> <em>tuberculosis> H37Rv resistant to six clinically used antibiotics.

  2. Efficient Heterologous Transformation of <em>Chlamydomonas> reinhardtiiem> <em>npq2em> Mutant with the Zeaxanthin Epoxidase Gene Isolated and Characterized from<em> Chlorella zofingiensisem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Rodríguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the violaxanthin cycle, the violaxanthin de-epoxidase and zeaxanthin epoxidase catalyze the inter-conversion between violaxanthin and zeaxanthin in both plants and green algae. The zeaxanthin epoxidase gene from the green microalga <em>Chlorella zofingiensisem> (<em>Czzep> has been isolated<em>. em>This gene encodes a polypeptide of 596 amino acids. A single copy of <em>Czzep> has been found in the <em>C. zofingiensisem> genome by Southern blot analysis. qPCR analysis has shown that transcript levels of <em>Czzep> were increased after zeaxanthin formation under high light conditions. The functionality of <em>Czzep> gene by heterologous genetic complementation in the <em>Chlamydomonas> mutant <em>npq2em>, which lacks zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP activity and accumulates zeaxanthin in all conditions, was analyzed. The <em>Czzep> gene was adequately inserted in the pSI105 vector and expressed in <em>npq2em>. The positive transformants were able to efficiently convert zeaxanthin into violaxanthin, as well as to restore their maximum quantum efficiency of the PSII (Fv/Fm. These results show that <em>Chlamydomonas> can be an efficient tool for heterologous expression and metabolic engineering for biotechnological applications.

  3. 温度、湿度和覆土对小菜蛾羽化的影响%Effects of temperature, soil humidity and soil cover on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) pupae emergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周福才; 胡其靖; 江解增; 顾爱祥; 任佳; 杨爱民; 邵久之

    2012-01-01

    XPlutella xylostella is one of the main pests that affect vegetable commodity output. Current treatment by chemical pesticide spray has been considered the effective control of P. xylostella. This treatment has also developed the insecticide resistance, increased pesticide residue risks and threatened pollution-free vegetable production. In the present study, the effects of abio-chemical conditions such as temperature, soil moisture, water-logging and soil cover on P. xylostella pupae eclosion were investigated. The study aimed to elucidate agro-measure control effects, especially those of paddy/dryland rotation and soil plowing, on P. xylostella. The results showed that the rate of pupa emergence exceeded 73% at 26-30 °C, which declined to 46.67% at 34 °C. When treated at 4 °C and then grown at room temperature, the rate of pupae emergence dropped significantly. The longer the 4 °C pretreatment, the lower was the rate of pupae emergence. However, the emergency rate recovered to normal levels after long time of growth at room temperature. When soil moisture was 10% and 20%, the emergence rate was respectively 12.5% and 6.2% of that under normal moisture condition. No pupa emergence was observed within 6 d at soil moisture of 30%. When treated with water-logging for 12 h and 24 h and then returned to surface soil, the rate of emergence of P. xylostella pupae dropped respectively by 25.0% and 50.0% and emergency was delayed too. No pupa emergence was observed under extended treatment time of 36 h. Soil covering also had noticeable effects on P. xylostella pupa emergence. The emergence of pupae was delayed by 2 d when covered at 1 cm depth soil. Pupa did not successfully emerge when soil cover was 1.5 cm deep. The above results suggested that timely irrigation, paddy/dryland rotation and soil plowing were critical control factors of P. xylostella pupae in vegetable fields.%小菜蛾是蔬菜的重要害虫,其非化学控制技术对蔬菜的安全生产非常重

  4. Persistência e eficácia do regulador de crescimento pyriproxyfen em condições de laboratório para Aedes aegypti Persistence and efficacy of growth regulator pyriproxyfen in laboratory conditions for Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carvalho de Resende

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A persistência e a eficácia do regulador de crescimento pyriproxyfen foram testadas em concentrações de 0,01 e 0,05ppm, contra larvas de Aedes aegypti, utilizando os recipientes caixas d'água (45 litros, frascos de vidro (5 litros e baldes de plástico (20 litros. As avaliações foram nos dias 1, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 e 120 após o tratamento usando larvas de 3º e 4º estádio de Aedes aegypti. Foi calculado o percentual de mortalidade de larvas, pupas e adultos, percentual de inibição de emergência de adulto e duração dos bioensaios. Observou-se que a persistência foi de 45 dias e 90 dias para concentração final de 0,01 e 0,05ppm de pyriproxyfen, respectivamente. Observamos que a mortalidade de pupas foi significativamente maior que a de larvas e de adultos para todos os recipientes e concentrações.The persistence and efficacy of growth regulator pyriproxyfen were evaluated in two final concentrations 0.01 and 0.05ppm against Aedes aegypti larvae in laboratory conditions using three types of containers: cement box (45 liters, glass bottle (5 litersand plastic bucket (20 liters. The tests were carried after 1, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 days of treatment against Aedes aegypti larvae 3rd and 4th instar. The percentages of larvae, pupae and adult mortality, the percentage of adult emergence inhibition and time duration of bioassays were calculated. A was observed a persistence of 45 and 90 days by using 0.01 and 0.05ppm final concentrations of pyriproxyfen, respectively, was observed. We observed that mortality in the pupa stage was significantly higher than larvae and adults mortality for all containers and concentrations.

  5. Dermatoses em renais cronicos em terapia dialitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Batista Peres

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: As desordens cutâneas e das mucosas são comuns em pacientes em hemodiálise a longo prazo. A diálise prolonga a expectativa de vida, dando tempo para a manifestação destas anormalidades. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de problemas dermatológicos em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC em hemodiálise. Métodos: Cento e quarenta e cinco pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise foram estudados. Todos os pacientes foram completamente analisados para as alterações cutâneas, de cabelos, mucosas e unhas por um único examinador e foram coletados dados de exames laboratoriais. Os dados foram armazenados em um banco de dados do Microsolft Excel e analisados por estatística descritiva. As variáveis contínuas foram comparadas pelo teste t de Student e as variáveis categóricas utilizando o teste do qui-quadrado ou o teste Exato de Fischer, conforme adequado. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 145 pacientes, com idade média de 53,6 ± 14,7 anos, predominantemente do sexo masculino (64,1% e caucasianos (90,0%. O tempo médio de diálise foi de 43,3 ± 42,3 meses. As principais doenças subjacentes foram: hipertensão arterial em 33,8%, diabetes mellitus em 29,6% e glomerulonefrite crônica em 13,1%. As principais manifestações dermatológicas observadas foram: xerose em 109 (75,2%, equimose em 87 (60,0%, prurido em 78 (53,8% e lentigo em 33 (22,8% pacientes. Conclusão: O nosso estudo mostrou a presença de mais do que uma dermatose por paciente. As alterações cutâneas são frequentes em pacientes em diálise. Mais estudos são necessários para melhor caracterização e manejo destas dermatoses.

  6. Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from <em>Gymnosperma> <em>glutinosum> Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of hexane extracts of<em> Gymnosperma glutinosumem> (Asteraceae leaves, collected in North Mexico, afforded the known compounds hentriacontane (1 and (+-13<em>S>,14<em>R>,15-trihydroxy-<em>ent>-labd-7-ene (2, as well as the new <em>ent>-labdane diterpene (−-13<em>S>,14<em>R>,15-trihydroxy-7-oxo-<em>ent>-labd-8(9-ene (3. In addition, D-glycero-D-galactoheptitol (4 was isolated from the methanolic extract of this plant. Their structures were established on the basis of high-field 1D- and 2D NMR methods supported by HR-MS data. The cytotoxic activity was determined by using the <em>in vitroem> L5178Y-R lymphoma murine model. Hentriacontane (1 and the new <em>ent>-labdane 3 showed weak cytotoxicity, whereas the <em>ent>-labdane 2 showed significant (<em>p> < 0.05 and concentration dependent cytotoxicity (up to 78% against L5178Y-R cells at concentrations ranging from 7.8 to 250 µg/mL.

  7. The toxicity of several insecticides to the pupas of Bactrocera tau.%几种杀虫剂对南瓜实蝇蛹的毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛红彦

    2012-01-01

    在室内条件下采用浸渍法,分别测定了12种杀虫剂对南瓜实蝇蛹的毒力和二元混剂的共毒系数。供试杀虫剂对南瓜实蝇蛹的毒性大小依次为:毒死蜱〉喹硫磷〉氯唑磷〉甲基异硫磷〉辛硫磷〉敌敌畏。高效氯氟氰菊酯、阿维菌素、敌百虫、丁硫克百威、噻虫嗪、高效氯氰菊酯对南瓜实蝇蛹的药效较差。敌百虫和辛硫磷(1:9)对南瓜实蝇蛹的LC50为96.2879mg/L,辛硫磷和毒死蜱(9:1)的共毒系数为590.77。%The toxicity of insecticides to the pupas of Bactroceratau was determined by dipping in the laboratory. The results showed that the toxicity order was chlorpyntos 〉 al3- amectin 〉 isazofos 〉 isofenphos - methyl 〉 phoxim 〉 dichlorvos. The effects of Lambda - cyhalothrin, abamectin, triehlorphon, earbosulfan, thiamethxam and beta - cypermethrin were bad. LCs0 of the mixture of triehlorfon and phoxim(1:9) was 96. 2879mg/L. The coefficient ratio of the mixture of phoxim and ehlorpyrifos (9: 1 ) was 590.77.

  8. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

    OpenAIRE

    Dao-Yuan Zhang; Yuan-Ming Zhang; Wood, Andrew J.; Xiao-Shuang Li; Hong-Lan Yang

    2012-01-01

    <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv.) Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem>) is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set...

  9. Entomopathogenic fungi recorded from the harlequin ladybird, <em>Harmonia axyridisem>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Harding, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were recorded from field samples of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis, an invasive coccinellid that has recently arrived in Denmark. Larvae, pupae and adults were found to be infected by Isaria farinosa, Beauveria bassiana and species of Lecanicillium...

  10. New record of Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff as a parasitoid of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr. on maize Novo registro de Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff como parasitóide de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr. em milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cruz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae spends the largest part of its life cycle inside the stalk of the host plant,which provides protection against the action of conventional control methods. Biological control has been considered a viable alternative to control this pest in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. and corn (Zea mays L., two pest preferential hosts. This paper reports the occurrence in Brazil of Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff (Hymenoptera; Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae parasitizing pupae of D. saccharalis obtained from corn plants. It also includes preliminary biological data about the insect. A single female of T. howardi is able to produce up to 66 offspring using a single pupa of the host D. Saccharalis and apparently does not distinguish between the host pupae of different ages. The life cycle of the parasitoid was around 25.5 days. The presence of the parasitoid in Brazil opens a new perspective on suppression of the sugarcane borer, considering the promising results already obtained in Asian countries. The insect is well adapted to laboratory conditions, can be produced in large scale and may became an additional option for the integrated pest management in those crops where D. saccharalis is a key pest such as the sugarcane, corn and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench.Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae passa a maior parte de seu ciclo biológico no interior do colmo da planta hospedeira, onde fica protegida contra a ação dos métodos convencionais de controle. O controle biológico tem sido considerado uma alternativa viável para o controle desta praga em cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. e milho (Zea mays L., dois hospedeiros preferenciais. Este trabalho relata a ocorrência no Brasil de Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae parasitando pupas de D. saccharalis em colmos de plantas de milho. Ele também inclui dados preliminares sobre alguns aspectos biol

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Geranium Oil against Clinical Strains<em> em>of <em>Staphylococcus aureusem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sienkiewicz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial properties of geranium oil obtained from <em>Pelargonium graveolensem> Ait. (family <em>Geraniaceae>, against one standard <em>S. aureus em>strain ATCC 433000 and seventy clinical <em>S. aureusem> strains. The agar dilution method was used for assessment of bacterial growth inhibition at various concentrations of geranium oil. Susceptibility testing of the clinical strains to antibiotics was carried out using the disk-diffusion and E-test methods. The results of our experiment showed that the oil from <em>P. graveolensem> has strong activity against all of the clinical <em>S. aureusem> isolates—including multidrug resistant strains, MRSA strains and MLSB-positive strains—exhibiting MIC values of 0.25–2.50 μL/mL.

  12. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom;

    2004-01-01

    is the only country that has emergency medicine (EM) as a recognised speciality but there is a need for more fully trained specialists in EM; (4) Norway: the ordinary ground ambulance is pointed out as the weakest link in the EM chain and a health reform demands extensive co-operation between the new health...

  13. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  14. Tipos de resistência a Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae envolvidos em genótipos de algodoeiro: II. Antibiose Evaluation of cotton genotypes resistance to Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: II. Antibiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALVEMAR FERREIRA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar a ocorrência do tipo de resistência antibiose em genótipos de algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. em relação a Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818, em experimentos de laboratório (27 ± 2oC, 70 ± 10% de U.R. e fotofase de 14 horas. Folhas dos genótipos T 1122-13-1, STO 285 N, JPM 157, T 953-13-4-2, CNPA 9211-21 e CNPA 9211-31 foram fornecidas às larvas, diariamente, verificando-se a duração de cada fase do inseto, avaliando-se a massa de larvas aos 3 e aos 8 dias de idade, a massa de pupas e as porcentagens de mortalidade larval, pré-pupal e pupal. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições, cada uma com dez larvas/genótipo. Em comparação com STO 285 N, todos os genótipos provocaram períodos mais longos de larva a adulto em A. argillacea; entretanto, os menores valores de massa de larvas com 3 dias e de massa média de pupas, e os maiores valores de duração do período larval e de mortalidade de larva a adulto foram verificados em CNPA 9211-31 e CNPA 9211-21, evidenciando que antibiose é um dos tipos de resistência presentes em ambos os genótipos.Cotton genotypes resistance to Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818 due to antibiosis has been evaluated in laboratory trials (at 27 ± 2oC, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 14 hours photoperiod. Six different genetic materials (T 1122-13-1, STO 285 N, JPM 157, T 953-13-4-2, CNPA 9211-21, and CNPA 9211-31 have been tested in a completely randomized experimental design, with ten replications, each one with ten larvae/genotype. Larvae have been supplied with leaves daily. The following variables have been scored: time length of several insect stages (from larvae to adult, average mass of larvae and pupae as well as average larval, pre-pupal and pupal mortality rates. All genotypes have revealed longer overall average time length of stage duration from larvae to adult, as compared to STO 285 N; however, CNPA 9211-31 and CNPA 9211-21 have

  15. New Trifluoromethyl Triazolopyrimidines as Anti-<em>Plasmodium> <em>falciparum> Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Boechat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, half of the World’s population, approximately 3.3 billion people, is at risk for developing malaria. Nearly 700,000 deaths each year are associated with the disease. Control of the disease in humans still relies on chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a limiting factor, and the search for new drugs is important. We have designed and synthesized new 2-(trifluoromethyl[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine derivatives based on bioisosteric replacement of functional groups on the anti-malarial compounds mefloquine and amodiaquine. This approach enabled us to investigate the impact of: (i ring bioisosteric replacement; (ii a CF3 group substituted at the 2-position of the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine scaffold and (iii a range of amines as substituents at the 7-position of the of heterocyclic ring; on <em>in vitroem> activity against <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>. According to docking simulations, the synthesized compounds are able to interact with <em>P. falciparumem> dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (<em>Pf>DHODH through strong hydrogen bonds. The presence of a trifluoromethyl group at the 2-position of the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine ring led to increased drug activity. Thirteen compounds were found to be active, with IC50 values ranging from 0.023 to 20 µM in the anti-HRP2 and hypoxanthine assays. The selectivity index (SI of the most active derivatives 5, 8, 11 and 16 was found to vary from 1,003 to 18,478.

  16. A method for the morphometric identification of southern Italian populations of <em>Apodemus> (<em>Sylvaemus>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Panzironi

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of morphological and morphometric characteristics of <em>Apodemus> (<em>Sylvaemus> <em>sylvaticus> and <em>A.> (<em>S.> <em>flavicollis> is examined in this paper. The examined specimens were living in sympatry and allopatry in two Mediterranean habitat-types (a long-trunked forest and a cultivated treed field in southern Italy. Through discriminant analysis, trends of skull measurements (which characterize the different situations of co-presence and/or absence of the two sibling species are examined. Isometric dental measurements best discriminate the examined populations. Possible causal factors which could affect discriminant measures are discussed. Riassunto Un metodo per la discriminazione morfometrica in popolazioni di <em>Apodemus> (<em>Sylvaemus> dell'Italia meridionale - In questo studio preliminare sono state prese in esame le caratteristiche morfologiche e morfometriche di <em>Apodemus> (<em>Sylvaemus> <em>sylvaticus> e <em>A.> (<em>S.> <em>flavicollis> in condizioni di simpatria e allopatria in due ambienti mediterranei (bosco maturo e campo prossimo ad un frutteto del sud Italia. Mediante analisi discriminante sono state studiate le tendenze delle misure craniche a caratterizzare i diversi gruppi in situazione di allopatria e/o simpatria delle due specie sorelle. Le misure isometriche dentarie mostrano una maggiore capacità di discriminare i gruppi considerati. Vengono discussi i possibili fattori causali che potrebbero influire sulle misure discriminanti.

  17. Spiracular control in moth pupae

    OpenAIRE

    Förster, Thomas Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Aufgrund ihrer niedrigen Stoffwechselrate zeigen Puppen des Atlasspinners Attacus atlas diskontinuierlichen Gasaustausch (DGC) mit drei deutlich getrennten Phasen. Andererseits sind einzelne Stigmen entweder vollständig offen oder vollständig geschlossen. In dieser Arbeit wurden Attacus Puppen mit künstlichen Gasmischungen perfundiert, um das Steady-State Verhalten der Stigmen zu ermitteln. Es konnte gezeigt werden, daß die Flutterphase des DGC kein Gleichgewichtsverhalten darstellt. Weiterh...

  18. Life history and description of larva and pupa of Platyphileurus felscheanus Ohaus, 1910, a scarabaeid feeding on bromeliad tissues in Brazil, to be excluded from Phileurini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertoni, Fabiano F.; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Steiner, Josefina; Zillikens, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The third instar larvae and the pupae of Platyphileurus felscheanus Ohaus, 1910 (Phileurini), recently synonymized with Surutu jelineki Endrődi, 1975 (Cyclocephalini), are described and illustrated, and some life history information is given. The larvae were collected and reared in bromeliads in rain forests of Santa Catarina state in southern Brazil. The systematic position of this monotypic genus is reassessed at the tribe level by considering larval and adult morphological characters. Both character sets, being described and illustrated, suggest the placement of Platyphileurus in the tribe Oryctini. PMID:24715774

  19. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom;

    2004-01-01

    Emergency medicine service (EMS) systems in the five Nordic countries have more similarities than differences. One similarity is the involvement of anaesthesiologists as pre-hospital physicians and their strong participation for all critically ill and injured patients in-hospital. Discrepancies do....... Access to on-line medical advice of a physician is not available; (2) Finland: the autonomy of the individual municipalities and their responsibility to cover for primary and specialised health care, as well as the EMS, and the lack of supporting or demanding legislation regarding the EMS; (3) Iceland...... is the only country that has emergency medicine (EM) as a recognised speciality but there is a need for more fully trained specialists in EM; (4) Norway: the ordinary ground ambulance is pointed out as the weakest link in the EM chain and a health reform demands extensive co-operation between the new health...

  20. Resistance of straight and runner growing habit peanut cultivars to Spodoptera cosmioides in laboratory = Resistência de cultivares de amendoim de hábitos de crescimento ereto e rasteiro a Spodoptera cosmioides em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Elisa Lobato Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - This work aimed to evaluate the resistance in straight and runner growing habit peanut cultivars to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. In non-preference for feeding tests the leaflets were placed into Petri dishes, where one third-instar larva per cultivar was released in free-choice and non-choice tests. Larvae attractiveness to the cultivars was evaluated through counting the number of insects on the leaflets in pre-determined times, and, at the end of the experiment, the leaf area consumed was quantified and a visual consumption score per cultivar was assigned. In antibiosis est, neonate larvae were individualized into Petri dishes, where daily, new leaflets were provided. We evaluated the biological aspects: larvae, pre-pupa, pupae and total period and viability (larvae eclosion to adult emergence, weight of larvae and pupae, sex ratio and adult longevity. We concluded that the straight growing habit peanut IAC Tatu ST was less consumed by the larvae, in non-choice test. The runner growing cultivars did not show non-preference for feeding resistance-types. Among the straight growing cultivars, IAC 8112 extended the biological cycle of S. cosmioides, characterizing antibiosis resistance-type, whereas IAC Tatu ST, IAC 22 and IAC 5 were susceptible. For the runner growing cultivars, IAC Runner 886 and IAC 147 stood out as antibiosis resistance-type to S. cosmioides, and IAC Caiapó and IAC 125 were susceptible. = Resumo - O trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a resistência em cultivares de amendoim de hábito de crescimento ereto e rasteiro a Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Nos testes de não preferência para alimentação, folíolos das cultivares foram dispostos em placas de Petri, liberando-se uma lagarta de 3º instar por cultivar em testes com e sem chance de escolha. A atratividade das lagartas às cultivares foi avaliada em tempos pré-estabelecidos contando-se o número de

  1. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  2. Research Progress in Bioactive Ingredients and Pharmacological Functions of Silkworm Pupa%蚕蛹的生物活性成分及药理作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 徐立; 黄先智

    2012-01-01

    Silkworm pupa is a medicinal and edible insect resource abundant in many bioactive constituents such as unsaturated fatty acids, rare amino acids, active peptides, chitins, etc. It has such functions as protecting liver, improving immunity, anti- tumor, decreasing blood sugar, blood fat and blood pressure, promoting wound healing and so on. This article summarizes extraction methods and pharmaceutical functions of bioactive compounds from silkworm pupa. Future trends in its research and development are also proposed.%蚕蛹是药食同源性昆虫资源,含有不饱和脂肪酸、稀有氨基酸、活性多肽、甲壳素等多种生物活性成分,具有保肝、提高免疫、抗肿瘤、降血糖、降血脂、降血压、促进伤口愈合等功效。本文对蚕蛹活性成分的提取分离方法及其药理作用研究进行综述,并对其进一步研究与开发进行展望。

  3. Ação do fungo Beauveria bassiana, isolado 986, sobre o ciclo biológico do cascudinho Alphitobius diaperinus em laboratório Action of the fungus Beauveria bassiana, strain 986, over the biologic cycle of the Alphitobius diaperinus beetle in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado para verificar a eficácia do fungo Beauveria bassiana em todas as etapas de desenvolvimento de Alphitobius diaperinus e assim saber em que fase ele é mais susceptível ao controle biológico. O fungo B. bassiana, isolado 986, foi testado em duas concentrações (3,4 X 10(6 e 3,4 X 10(8 conídios ml-1 mais um grupo controle. Foram realizadas duas leituras, uma sete e outra quatorze dias após a aplicação dos fungos. Na concentração 3,4 X 10(6, 54% dos ovos tratados estavam inférteis, ocorrendo 54% de mortalidade de larvas tratadas nos estádios I, II e III, 22,5% nos estádios IV, V e VI, 9,5% nos estádios VII e VIII e 24,5% de mortalidade das pupas. Na concentração 3,4 X 10(8, 66,8% dos ovos tratados estavam inviáveis, ocorrendo mortalidade de 56% das larvas tratadas nos estádios I, II e III, 34% nos estádios IV, V e VI, 24,5% nos estádios VII e VIII e 49,5% das pupas. Já no grupo controle, 13,3% dos ovos estavam inviáveis, ocorrendo mortalidade de 10% das larvas nos estádios I, II e III, 4% nos estádios IV, V e VI e 0% de mortalidade nos estádios VII, VIII e em pupas. Sobre o cascudinho adulto, o fungo não teve efeito nocivo em nenhum grupo analisado. Com base nesses resultados, observou-se que o fungo nas concentrações testadas apresentou efeito nocivo às fases do ciclo biológico do cascudinho, com exceção do inseto adulto.The present research was carried out to verify the Beauveria bassiana fungus efficacy in all development phases of Alphitobius diaperinus and to know in which phase it is more susceptible for biologic control. The B. bassiana, 986-isolated fungus, was tested in two different concentrations (3.4 x 10(6 and 3.4 x 10(8 conidium ml-1 and a control group. Two readings were realized, one after 7 days of fungus application and the other after 14 days. At concentration of 3.4 x 10(6 conidium ml-1, 54% of treated eggs were infertile, with larva death of 54% at I, II and III

  4. <em>An entem>-Kaurane-Type Diterpene in <em>Croton antisyphiliticusem> Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pereira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available <em>Croton antisyphiliticus em>is a medicinal plant widely used in the treatment of microbial infections, especially those affecting the genital tract. Crude extract, fractions and pure compound isolated from roots of this species were investigated to validate their antimicrobial activity against <em>Escherichia coliem> and <em>Staphylococcus aureusem>. The compound <em>ent>-kaur-16-en-18-oic acid was isolated as a major component (0.7% of crude extract, and its MIC value determined against <em>S. aureusem> (ATCC 6538 was 250 μg/mL. This is the first phytochemical work on the species monitored with antimicrobial assay.

  5. 噪声扰动下低光照蚕蛹图像恢复算法与试验%Algorithm and experiments of noisy low-illumination silkworm pupa images restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶丹; 李光林; 王峥荣; 邱光应

    2015-01-01

    In the machine vision-based intelligent system for recognizing and sorting male or female silkworm pupa, the quality of silkworm pupa images is the key for accurate recognition. Low illumination and noise,as the main factors degrading silkworm pupa images, can give rise to the loss of images textures and structures to a great extent, which brings a challenge for intelligent system to identify silkworm pupa’s gender. State-of-the-art methods, like Shan’s work, can be ineffective when images are perturbed by noise. The main contribution of our work was the effective elimination of noise by Tikhonov regularization while restoring image contrast and preserving image textures and structures based on the Shan’s modeling. In order to improve the quality of degraded silkworm pupa images, a novel method combining tone mapping with Tikhonov regularization, which was capable of enhancing image contrast and compressing noise simultaneously, was proposed in this paper. According to Shan’s work, it was assumed that Low-illumination image is obtained via dynamically compressing a Low-illumination image. A 3×3 neighborhood of pixels in both images was defined. The linear functions mapping locally radiance in such a 3×3 window of low-illumination silkworm pupa images to that of the desired ones were formulated. The monotonicity of linear functions can preserve local structural information of image. Through integrating these linear functions, the image-level objective function was established to restore image illumination contrast. Further, Tikhonov regularization implemented by the Laplace of Gaussian (LoG) operator was used to obtain the final objective function. Tikhonov regularization could not only smooth noise and preserve structural information of image effectively but also could be beneficial to a stable solution in the iterative processes. The existence and unique of solution of the objective function was addressed via verification of convexity according to D. P

  6. Expression of Selected <em>Ginkgo em>>biloba em>Heat Shock Protein Genes After Cold Treatment Could Be Induced by Other Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, three <em>HSP> genes were isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library of <em>Ginkgo bilobaem> leaves treated with cold stress. Based on the molecular weight, the three genes were designated <em>GbHSP16.8em>, <em>GbHSP17em> and <em>GbHSP70em>. The full length of the three genes were predicted to encode three polypeptide chains containing 149 amino acids (Aa, 152 Aa, and 657 Aa, and their corresponding molecular weights were predicted as follows: 16.67 kDa, 17.39 kDa, and 71.81 kDa respectively. The three genes exhibited distinctive expression patterns in different organs or development stages. <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70em> showed high expression levels in leaves and a low level in gynoecia, <em>GbHSP17em> showed a higher transcription in stamens and lower level in fruit. This result indicates that <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70 em>may play important roles in <em>Ginkgo> leaf development and photosynthesis, and <em>GbHSP17em> may play a positive role in pollen maturation. All three <em>GbHSPs> were up-regulated under cold stress, whereas extreme heat stress only caused up-regulation of <em>GbHSP70em>, UV-B treatment resulted in up-regulation of <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP17em>, wounding treatment resulted in up-regulation of <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70em>, and abscisic acid (ABA treatment caused up-regulation of <em>GbHSP70em> primarily.

  7. Osteoartrites em equinos

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Francisco José Martins

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária A Osteoartrite (OA) é a principal causa de claudicação no cavalo de desporto e lazer, sendo uma afecção que tem grandes repercussões económicas. Este trabalho descreve algumas das características importantes da estrutura articular, bem como da sua fisiologia. Define a OA e todas as estruturas envolvidas no seu processo. Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos põem em evidência os factores de risco em causa e que determinam tod...

  8. Homeopatia em Pediatria

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Ana Isabel Alves

    2013-01-01

    Numa sociedade em constante processo de formação e de informação, não conhecer determinada terapia não pode ser a resposta de um profissional de farmácia ao seu utente. A divulgação massiva de tratamentos naturalistas, alternativos e baseados em saberes ancestrais, frequentemente entram em conflito com as prescrições médicas e aconselhamentos farmacêuticos. Com as medicinas alternativas a ganhar terreno paulatinamente, como se observa com a utilização da acupunctura e de fitote...

  9. Bioatividade de formulações de NIM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, 1797 e de Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai em lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, 1797 and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai formulations in larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de inseticidas botânicos e bioinseticidas constitui uma alternativa promissora para o manejo de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797, na cultura do milho. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de formulações comerciais de nim e de Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai - Bta sobre esta praga em laboratório. Lagartas de S. frugiperda com 10 dias de idade foram alimentadas com folhas de milho submersas na calda dos inseticidas Neemseto®, Natuneem® e Xentari® (B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai Bta nas concentrações 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10 mL ou g/L e testemunha (água. Os efeitos dos inseticidas dependeram da concentração utilizada, pois provocaram mortalidade crescente das lagartas, alongaram o período larval e reduziram o peso larval. Em alguns casos, também, reduziram o peso das pupas, a viabilidade pupal e a longevidade de adultos. Lagartas com 0-24 h de idade foram mais susceptíveis às concentrações de Neemseto® e Xentari® a 5 e 10 mL ou g/L, em relação às com 10 dias de idade. Com o aumento da concentração, os efeitos sobre o peso das pupas e viabilidade pupal foram, também, maiores em lagartas com 0-24 h de idade.The use of botanical and biological insecticides constitutes a promising alternative to control Spodoptera frugiperda on corn crop. Thus, the present work evaluated the effect of commercial formulations of neem (Natuneem® and Neemseto® and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai - Bta (Xentari® on this pest under laboratory conditions. Newly hatched and 10 days old fall armyworm larvae were fed with corn leaves treated with the insecticides at concentration of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mL or g/mL and control (water. An increased effect of the insecticides was found as function of increasing concentration, causing higher larval mortality, longer larval period and lower larval weight. In some cases, reduction of pupa weight, pupa viability and longevity of adults were also verified. Newly

  10. <em>In Vitro em>and <em>in em>Vivo> Antitumor Effect of Trachylobane-360, a Diterpene from<em> Xylopia langsdorffianaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Lima Rodrigues Pita

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Trachylobane-360 (<em>ent>-7α-acetoxytrachyloban-18-oic acid was isolated from <em>Xylopia langsdorffianaem>. Studies have shown that it has weak cytotoxic activity against tumor and non-tumor cells. This study investigated the <em>in vitroem>> em>and <em>in vivoem> antitumor effects of trachylobane-360, as well as its cytotoxicity in mouse erythrocytes. In order to evaluate the <em>in vivoem> toxicological aspects related to trachylobane-360 administration, hematological, biochemical and histopathological analyses of the treated animals were performed. The compound exhibited a concentration-dependent effect in inducing hemolysis with HC50 of 273.6 µM, and a moderate <em>in vitroem>> em>concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of sarcoma 180 cells with IC50 values of 150.8 µM and 150.4 µM, evaluated by the trypan blue exclusion test and MTT reduction assay, respectively. The <em>in vivoem> inhibition rates of sarcoma 180 tumor development were 45.60, 71.99 and 80.06% at doses of 12.5 and 25 mg/kg of trachylobane-360 and 25 mg/kg of 5-FU, respectively. Biochemical parameters were not altered. Leukopenia was observed after 5-FU treatment, but this effect was not seen with trachylobane-360 treatment. The histopathological analysis of liver and kidney showed that both organs were mildly affected by trachylobane-360 treatment. Trachylobane-360 showed no immunosuppressive effect. In conclusion, these data reinforce the anticancer potential of this natural diterpene.

  11. Glycosylation of Vanillin and 8-Nordihydrocapsaicin by Cultured <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoji Kubota

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of vanilloids such as vanillin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin by cultured plant cells of <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> was studied. Vanillin was converted into vanillin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside, vanillyl alcohol, and 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranosylvanillyl alcohol by <em>E. perriniana em>cells. Incubation of cultured <em>E. perrinianaem> cells with 8-nor- dihydrocapsaicin gave 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside and 8-nordihydro- capsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-gentiobioside.

  12. Produtividade de criadouro de Aedes albopictus em ambiente urbano Productivity of container-breeding Aedes albopictus in an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O encontro de Aedes albopictus na cidade de Cananéia, região Sudeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, ensejou a ocasião de realizar observações que visassem avaliar a produtividade de criadouro grande e permanente. Como objetivo, após selecionar o habitat a ser estudado, tentou-se avaliar-lhe a contribuição para a densidade local do mosquito. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Em área predeterminada procedeu-se a levantamento de criadouros potenciais. Constatada a presença da espécie, foi selecionado um dos recipientes que preenchia os requisitos desejados. O acompanhamento foi feito de maneira ininterrupta, no período de novembro de 1996 a maio de 1997. As observações obdeceram a ritmo quinzenal retirando, cada vez, amostra da água correspondente a 0,14, ou seja, um sétimo do volume total de 70 litros. Procurou-se coletar, identificar e numerar, por sexo, as pupas existentes. Concomitantemente, procedeu-se à captura de formas adultas. Foi utilizada a isca humana das 15:00 às 18:00h, instalada a cerca de 6 metros do mencionado criadouro. Finda essa coleta, foi feita aspiração com 30 min. de duração em locais de abrigo representados pela abundante vegetação circunjacente. RESULTADOS: Nas coletas de formas imaturas do criadouro, o Ae. albopictus compareceu com 44,9%. Ao longo de 15 amostras regularmente realizadas obteve-se a média de 31,13 pupas pertencentes a essa espécie. O índice de emergência(E foi de 2,1. A multiplicação desse valor por sete forneceu a média diária de 14,7 fêmeas. Nas coletas de adultos desse sexo, a média de Williams para a isca humana foi de 30,7, enquanto a densidade média horária da aspiração dos locais de abrigo foi de 9,2. O cálculo do acúmulo diário concluiu pela presença de 22,8 fêmeas, por dia, capazes de freqüentar a isca humana, nessa situação e condições. DISCUSSÃO: A contagem de pupas possibilitou estimar a produtividade de criadouro de Ae. albopictus, tipo grande

  13. Purification, Characterization and Antioxidant Activities <em>in Vitroem>> em>and <em>in Vivoem> of the Polysaccharides from <em>Boletus edulisem> Bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Fan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A water-soluble polysaccharide (BEBP was extracted from <em>Boletus edulis em>Bull using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharide BEBP was further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, giving three major polysaccharide fractions termed BEBP-1, BEBP-2 and BEBP-3. In the next experiment, the average molecular weight (Mw, IR and monosaccharide compositional analysis of the three polysaccharide fractions were determined. The evaluation of antioxidant activities both <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivo em>suggested that BEBP-3 had good potential antioxidant activity, and should be explored as a novel potential antioxidant.

  14. A specimen of <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> in Barn Owl's pellets from Murge plateau (Apulia, Italy / Su di un <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> (Insectivora, Soricidae rinvenuto in borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge (Puglia, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ferrara

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a lot of Barn Owl's pellets from the Murge plateau a specimen of <em>Sorex> sp. was detected. Thank to some morphological and morphometrical features, the cranial bones can be tentatively attributed to <em>Sorex samniticusem> Altobello, 1926. The genus <em>Sorex> was not yet included in the Apulia's fauna southwards of the Gargano district; the origin and significance of the above record is briefly discussed, the actual presence of a natural population of <em>Sorex> in the Murge being not yet proved. Riassunto Viene segnalato il rinvenimento di un esemplare di <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> da borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge. Poiché il genere non era stato ancora segnalato nella Puglia a sud del Gargano, viene discusso il significato faunistico del reperto.

  15. Study of the <em>in Vitroem> Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial and Antitrypanosomal Activities of Medicinal Plants from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal M. Al-Musayeib

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the <em>in vitroem> antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened <em>in vitroem> against erythrocytic schizonts of <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>, intracellular amastigotes of <em>Leishmania infantum em>and <em>Trypanosoma cruzi em>and free trypomastigotes of<em> T. bruceiem>. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity<em>. em>The criterion for activity was an IC50 < 10 µg/mL (4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the<em> em>extracts of<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem> and <em>Punica granatumem>. Antileishmanial activity<em> em>against <em>L. infantumem> was demonstrated in <em>Caralluma sinaicaem> and <em>Periploca aphylla.em> Amastigotes of<em> T. cruzi em>were affected by the methanol extract of<em> em>>Albizia lebbeckem>> em>pericarp, <em>Caralluma sinaicaem>,> Periploca aphylla em>and <em>Prosopius julifloraem>. Activity against<em> T. brucei em>was obtained in<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem>. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 < 10 µg/mL and hence non-specific activities were observed for<em> em>>Conocarpus lancifoliusem>.>

  16. <em>In Vivoem> Histamine Optical Nanosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this communication we discuss the development of ionophore based nanosensors for the detection and monitoring of histamine levels <em>in vivoem>. This approach is based on the use of an amine-reactive, broad spectrum ionophore which is capable of recognizing and binding to histamine. We pair this ionophore with our already established nanosensor platform, and demonstrate <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivoem> monitoring of histamine levels. This approach enables capturing rapid kinetics of histamine after injection, which are more difficult to measure with standard approaches such as blood sampling, especially on small research models. The coupling together of <em>in vivoem> nanosensors with ionophores such as nonactin provide a way to generate nanosensors for novel targets without the difficult process of designing and synthesizing novel ionophores.

  17. Burnout em cuidados paliativos

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Sílvia Cristina Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada ao Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco para cumprimento dos requisitos necessário à obtenção de grau de Mestre em Cuidados Paliativos. O presente trabalho foi realizado no âmbito do 3º semestre do 1º Curso de Mestrado em Cuidados Paliativos, da Escola Superior de Saúde Dr. Lopes Dias. O trabalho encontra-se estruturado em quatro capítulos: o primeiro diz respeito ao relatório da prática clínica, o segundo aborda o enquadramento teórico sobre a Síndrome de Bur...

  18. EMS in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  19. Analysis of Nutritional Components of Papilio demoleus Larva,Pupa and Adult%达摩凤蝶幼虫、蛹和成虫的营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文义; 杨志; 史军义; 蒲正宇; 姚俊

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the main nutritional ingredients of larva ,pupa and adult of Papilio demole-us,and provide a theoretical basis for the exploitation of edibility of this insect species .The contents of fat ,pro-tein,mineral elements and amino acids of larva ,pupa and adult were determined by using the national standard methods.The amino acid scores and essential amino acid indexs were analysed .The contents of protein ,fat and mineral element were compared with nutrition contents of common foods .The results showed that P.demoleus larva,pupa and adult contained 5.9%,6.8%and 3.1%of fat,60.1%,78.3%and 78.5%of protein,9.9%, 5.1%and 5.6%of ash,24.1%,9.8%and 12.8%of carbohydrate,respectively.Their total amino acid contents were 519.9 mg/g,648.7 mg/g and 406.5 mg/g,which included 34.2%,30.5%and 29.4%of the essential a-mino acids respectively .The element ratios of essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids were 0.52, 0.44 and 0.42 and their essential amino acid indexes were 0.794,0.853 and 0.546 respectively.P.demoleus is characteristic of high protein,low fat,rich mineral elements etc.in its larva,pupa and adult.However,the quali-ty of protein is common ,and the first limiting amino acid content is very low ,which has a negative effect on the balance of their structure of amino acids .From this analysis,the larva,pupa and adult of P.demoleus have cer-tain nutritional value .%为了探寻达摩凤蝶幼虫、蛹和成虫的主要营养成分,评价它们的营养价值水平,为它们的食用开发提供理论基础。通过运用国家标准检测方法测定达摩凤蝶幼虫、蛹和成虫的水分、脂肪、蛋白质、矿质元素、氨基酸的含量,分析达摩凤蝶幼虫、蛹和成虫的氨基酸评分、必需氨基酸指数,并将它们的蛋白质、脂肪、矿质元素含量与常见食物的含量进行比较分析。结果表明,达摩凤蝶幼虫、蛹和成虫的蛋白质含量分别为60.1%、78.3%和78.5

  20. Levantamento de moscas-das-frutas e seus parasitoides em citros, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais Survey of fruit-flies and their parasitoids in citrus in Viçosa, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lucas Magalhães Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são responsáveis por grandes perdas em fruteiras comerciais no Brasil, por isso é fundamental conhecer as espécies predominantes na região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae e seus parasitoides em laranjas doces (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, tangerina Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco e mexerica Rio (Citrus deliciosa Ten, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram coletados em abril de 2008. No laboratório eles foram acondicionados em caixas plásticas contendo areia umedecida e em ambiente controlado para obtenção dos pupários, que foram contados, acondicionados em frascos de vidro com areia fina e mantidos em estufa até a emergência dos adultos. Somente uma espécie de mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 e uma de parasitoide (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti foram identificadas. Dentre as variedades, a laranja doce Baianinha apresentou o maior índice de infestação, e os menores foram atribuídos à mexerica Rio e à tangerina Poncã.Fruit flies are responsible for large losses in commercial orchards in Brazil, thus, it is important to know the predominant species in the region. The objective of this study was to study the occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidae and of their parasitoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Poncã' mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco and 'Rio' tangerine (Citrus deliciosa Ten, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The fruits were collected in April 2008. In the laboratory, the fruits were stored in plastic boxes containing moist sand in a controlled environment, to obtain pupae. Then, the pupae were counted, placed in glass bottles with fine sand and kept in an oven until adult emergence. Only one species of fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 and one species of parasitoid (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti were identified. Among the varieties, the sweet

  1. Evaluation of Pseudopteroxazole and Pseudopterosin Derivatives against <em>Mycobacterium> <em>tuberculosis> and Other Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    McCulloch, Malcolm W. B.; Brad Haltli; Marchbank, Douglas H.; Kerr, Russell G.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudopterosins and pseudopteroxazole are intriguing marine natural products that possess notable antimicrobial activity with a commensurate lack of cytotoxicity. New semi-synthetic pseudopteroxazoles, pseudopteroquinoxalines and pseudopterosin congeners along with simple synthetic mimics of the terpene skeleton were synthesized. In order to build structure-activity relationships, a set of 29 new and previously reported compounds was assessed for <em>in> <em>vitro...

  2. Ulisses em Kafka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Mosès

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEm sua introdução para Exegese de uma lenda, Stéphane Mosès afirma que a obra de Kafka não necessita de novas interpretações, mas sim de uma “análise rigorosa de sua lógica subjacente”. Assim, em “Ulisses em Kafka”, investigandoa dialética formal de “O silêncio das sereias”, Mosès procura expor a estrutura narrativa que comandaria esse breve texto em que o escritor tcheco acrescenta à astucia de Ulisses a ingenuidade como elemento de salvação.Palavras-chave: Kafka; dialética; salvação.AbstractIn his introduction to Exegèse d’une légende, Stéphane Mosès affirms that Kafka’s works are not in need of new interpretations, but rather, of a “rigorous analysis of their underlying logic”. Thus, in “Ulisses chez Kafka”, by investigating the formal dialectic of “Das Schweigen der Sirenen”, Mosès seeks to exhibit the narrative structure that would supposedly guide this short text in which the Czech author adds naïveté to Ulisses’s cunning intelligence as an element of salvation.Keywords: Kafka; dialectic; salvation.Stéphane Mosès foi professor emérito da Universidade Hebraica de Jerusalém, onde ensinou Literatura Alemã e Comparada, entre os seus principais interesses estavam o pensamento de Franz Rosenzweig e de Walter Benjamin e as literaturas de Franz Kafka e de Paul Célan. Autor de diversos livros, entre eles: L'ange de l'histoire. Rosenzweig, Benjamin, Scholem, Exégèse d'une légende, lectures de Kafka, e Rêves de Freud. Six lectures.Rodrigo Ielpo é doutor em literatura francesa pela UFRJ e em História e Semiologia do texto e da imagem pela Université Paris VII, com pós-doutorado em Teoria Literária pela UNICAMP. Professor Adjunto do Departamento de Letras Neolatinas da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, possui publicações e traduções nos seguintes temas: teoria e literatura francesa contemporâneas, escrita e processos de subjetivação.rodrigoielpo@gmail.com 

  3. Horizontal Transmission of the Entomopathogen Fungus <em>Metarhizium anisopliae em>in <em>Microcerotermes diversusem> Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saied Mossadegh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in order to investigate fungal conidia transmission of <em>Metarhizium anisopliae em>(Metschnikoff> em>Sorokin from vector (donor to healthy <em>Microcerotermes diversusem> Silvestri (Iso.: Termitidae and determine the best donor/concentration ratio for transmission. After preliminary trials, concentrations of 3.1 × 104, 3.9 × 105, 3.2 × 106 and 3.5 × 108 conidia mL−1 were selected for testing. The experiment was performed at three donor : Recipient ratios of 10, 30 and 50%. The highest mortality of recipient workers was observed after 14 days at the concentration of 3.5 × 108 conidia mL−1 and donor ratio of 50%. The mortality of recipient workers was less than 20% at all concentrations at a donor ratio of 10%. Our observations indicate social behavior of <em>M. diversusem>, such as grooming, can be effective in promoting epizootic outbreaks in a colony. While the current results suggest good potential for efficacy, the use of <em>M. anisopliaeem> as a component of integrated pest management of <em>M. diversusem> still needs to be proven under field conditions.

  4. Clinical Relevance of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> DNA-Methylation in Serum of Cervical Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther K. Bonn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the DNA-methylation status of <em>E>-cadherin (<em>CDH1em> and <em>H>-cadherin (<em>CDH13em> in serum samples of cervical cancer patients and control patients with no malignant diseases and to evaluate the clinical utility of these markers. DNA-methylation status of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> was analyzed by means of MethyLight-technology in serum samples from 49 cervical cancer patients and 40 patients with diseases other than cancer. To compare this methylation analysis with another technique, we analyzed the samples with a denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC PCR-method. The specificity and sensitivity of <em>CDH1em> DNA-methylation measured by MethyLight was 75% and 55%, and for <em>CDH13em> DNA-methylation 95% and 10%. We identified a specificity of 92.5% and a sensitivity of only 27% for the <em>CDH1em> DHPLC-PCR analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that serum <em>CDH1em> methylation-positive patients had a 7.8-fold risk for death (95% CI: 2.2–27.7; <em>p> = 0.001 and a 92.8-fold risk for relapse (95% CI: 3.9–2207.1; <em>p> = 0.005. We concluded that the serological detection of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> DNA-hypermethylation is not an ideal diagnostic tool due to low diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. However, it was validated that <em>CDH1em> methylation analysis in serum samples may be of potential use as a prognostic marker for cervical cancer patients.

  5. Fumigant Antifungal Activity of Myrtaceae Essential Oils and Constituents from <em>Leptospermum petersoniiem> against Three <em>Aspergillus> Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Kwon Park

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercial plant essential oils obtained from 11 Myrtaceae plant species were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against <em>Aspergillus ochraceusem>, <em>A. flavusem>, and <em>A. nigerem>. Essential oils extracted from<em> em>Leptospermum> <em>petersonii> at air concentrations of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL and 28 × 10−3 mg/mL completely inhibited the growth of the three <em>Aspergillus> species. However, at an air concentration of 14 × 10−3 mg/mL, inhibition rates of <em>L. petersoniiem> essential oils were reduced to 20.2% and 18.8% in the case of <em>A. flavusem> and <em>A. nigerem>, respectively. The other Myrtaceae essential oils (56 × 10−3 mg/mL only weakly inhibited the fungi or had no detectable affect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 16 compounds in <em>L. petersoniiem>> em>essential> em>oil.> em>The antifungal activity of the identified compounds was tested individually by using standard or synthesized compounds. Of these, neral and geranial inhibited growth by 100%, at an air concentration of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL, whereas the activity of citronellol was somewhat lover (80%. The other compounds exhibited only moderate or weak antifungal activity. The antifungal activities of blends of constituents identified in <em>L. petersoniiem> oil indicated that neral and geranial were the major contributors to the fumigant and antifungal activities.

  6. A Simple Method for Identifying Sex of Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) Larva, Pupa and Adult%小菜蛾幼虫、蛹和成虫的雌雄形态识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艺欣; 田厚军; 魏辉; 占志雄; 黄玉清

    2011-01-01

    Based on the morphological appearances and descriptions in literature, a simple and convenient method for identifying the sex of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was developed. The results showed that the sex of the first- and second-instar larvae was not easily distinguishable by naked eyes or optical microscopic observation. However, the male third- and fourth-instar larva showed a lighter colored fifth abdominal segment than that on the female counterparts. On the male pupae, a lump on each side of a short, longitudinal slip was visible near the gonopore on the 9-1 abdominal segment. The female pupae had a long, longitudinal slip between the genital pore on the 8th abdominal segment and the oviporus on the 9th segment. The adult males had characteristic brown wings with a wavy edge on the posterior margin and a yorked abdominal end. The female adults, on the other hand, were lighter in color and bigger on body size than the males, and had their abdominal ends appeared round in shape.%在形态观察基础上,结合相关文献,系统描述了小菜蛾幼虫、蛹和成虫的雌雄形态快速识别特征.结果表明,用肉眼和光学显微镜无法区分小菜蛾1龄和2龄幼虫的性别,但可以区分3龄和4龄幼虫的性别,主要特征是雄虫在第5腹节内有睾丸,背面呈浅黄色,与相邻体节形成明显区别.小菜蛾雄蛹第9腹节腹面有1个生殖孔,形成短纵裂缝且两边各有一瘤状突起,而雌蛹第8腹节腹面有1个生殖孔,第9腹节腹面有1个产卵孔,2孔之间连成长纵裂缝.雄蛾翅后缘从翅基到外缘呈三度曲波状的黄褐色带,腹部末端钳状,抱握器微张开;雌蛾体色较雄蛾淡,个体较雄蛾大,腹部末端圆筒形.

  7. Study on the flavor of enzymatic hydrolysis of dry silkworm pupa and glucose by maillard reaction%不同缫丝干蛹酶解液及其葡萄糖反应物的味感比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵园园; 吴肖; 孔令会

    2015-01-01

    The relativity between the comparative evaluation of amino acids and taste was gained by comparing the dry silkworm pupa different enzymatic hydrolysates and glucose through Maillard reaction.The main sweet and umami amino acids of dry silkworm pupa enzymatic hydrolysates were studied with glucose by the ways of HPLC and sensory methods.The results showed that the hydrolysates aroma of Alcalase 2.4L and protamex and flavourzyme were the best and the aroma amino acids were 48.7% and 53.88%,the contents of the aroma amino acids were 32.7% and 26.6% after Maillard reaction with glucose,and different amino acids had different reaction activities,the flavoring of reactions were different.The sweet and umami amino acids were decreased.%为了对不同酶种缫丝干蛹酶解液与葡萄糖反应物的味感变化进行研究.本文以缫丝干蛹为原料,用不同蛋白酶进行水解,将其水解液及相应的葡萄糖反应物,采用高效液相色谱法和感官评定法进行分析,确定氨基酸含量的消长变化与味感的相关性.结果表明:在不同酶解方法中,Alcalase2.4L蛋白酶和Protamex蛋白酶分别与风味蛋白酶共同作用后,水解液鲜甜味氨基酸含量较高,分别达到48.7%和53.88%,鲜甜感强;酶解液与葡萄糖反应后,鲜甜味氨基酸含量分别为32.7%和26.6%,鲜甜味降低.说明缫丝干蛹酶解液鲜甜味氨基酸参与热反应并导致反应物味感降低.

  8. Tecnicas avanzadas de medida en intensimetria acustica para la caracterizacion de materiales aislantes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuera Saura, Gregorio

    The measurement rate of acoustic reduction (R) in an insulating material is determined in special designed enclosures according to UNE EN ISO 140-1 standard. The construction of a testing room that complies with the standards requires a significant financial investment, that too often can not be provided by general machinery manufacturers. The outdoor machines have to be designed considering the noise emission limits established in the European Directive 2000/14, making the installment of insulating materials in enclosures of machines necessary. Suppliers of insulating materials for industrial use does not normally provide the insulating properties of their products, which are often obtained from rock wool, polyethylene, polyurethane, synthetic rubber, etc. It is difficult to test these materials that are characterized by low density surface in a room standardized test procedure that is based on the measurement of sound pressure. The main problem is getting the validation of the measurement when the rate of acoustic reduction is relatively low, as in the case of materials mentioned above. An alternative procedure is proposed in this Doctoral Thesis based on the measurement of sound intensity. The vector nature of this parameter allows just the flow of energy through a given surface to be measured. The validation of the measurement is achieved with the highest degree of accuracy by applying the criteria included in the standard UNE EN ISO 9614. A steel plate 6 mm thick incorporated with a sound source for amplification of a pink noise signal is designed for carrying out the tests. Faced with the source is placed a piece of material to test. The source is connected and the transmitted sound intensity is measured with a probe consisting of two microphones located opposite one another. Previously it has been determined the flow of acoustic energy that impinges on the piece. The difference between the two measures provides directly the rate of acoustic reduction. The main advantage of the described test procedure is that it can be done in a room with normal dimensions and without specific conditioning. The vibroacoustic behaviour of the testing box and its influence on the measures is another important aspect to be considered. A test of modal analysis has been carried out with a steel plate similar to the enclosures of the box. A mathematical model based on the Statistical Energy Analysis SEA has been developed to estimate the paths of energy transmission from the sound source to the point of measurement with the sound intensity probe. The commercial software AUTOSEA2 LT is used. General conclusions regarding the alternative method of measurement and specific ones related to the capacity of insulation of the tested materials have been obtained. As for the general conclusions, the limitations of measuring with the intensity probe at low and high frequencies have been proved, validating measurements with an accuracy of 0.5 dB according to the criteria set forth in the standard UNE EN ISO 9614 Part 3 have been obtained, and a new test procedure for easy determination of the rate of acoustic reduction of an insulating material with low density surface has been established. Finally, the devised procedure allows future developments in the field of vibroacoustics, such as the application of the principle of reciprocity and the determination of acoustic impedance of materials by application of techniques for measuring of acoustics intensity.

  9. Leak detection and localization system through acoustics; Sistema de deteccao e localizacao de vazamentos por acustica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Julio [Aselco Automacao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Acoustic Leak Detection Systems (ALDS) are used on both liquid and gas pipelines as well as multi-phase flow pipelines to detect leaks quickly and provide a means of limiting product loss. The real-time acoustic signal is continuously compared against signature leak profiles for the particular operating and geometric conditions. These profiles were developed from a database established from over 20 years of experimental and field leak tests. This technique not only drastically reduces the false alarm rate, but also significantly improves the sensitivity and leak location accuracy. This system will also detect leaks with shut-in flow (zero flow rate in the pipeline). With the use of GPS (Global Positioning System) it not only improves leak location accuracy, but also allows for continuous leak detection during the loss of communications. (author)

  10. Synergistic Interactions of Methanolic Extract of <em>Acacia mearnsiiem>> em>De Wild. with Antibiotics against Bacteria of Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Afolayan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms, combining medicinal plants with synthetic or orthodox medicines against resistant bacteria becomes necessary. In this study, interactions between methanolic extract of <em>Acacia> <em>mearnsii em>and eight antibiotics were investigated by agar diffusion and checkerboard assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of all the antibiotics ranged between 0.020 and 500 µg/mL while that of the crude extract varied between 0.156 and 1.25 mg/mL. The agar diffusion assay showed that extract-kanamycin combination had zones of inhibition ≥20 ± 1.0 mm in all the bacteria tested (100%, followed by extract-chloramphenicol (90% > extract-ciprofloxacin = extract-tetracycline (70% > extract-amoxicillin (60% > extract-nalidixic acid (50% > extract-erythromycin (40% > extract-metronidazole (20%. The checkerboard showed synergistic interaction (61.25%, additivity/indifference (23.75% and antagonistic (15% effects. The synergistic interaction was most expressed by combining the extract with tetracycline, metronidazole, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid against <em>E. coliem> (ATCC 25922, erythromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin<em> em>against <em>S. aureusem> (ATCC 6538, erythromycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol against <em>B.> <em>subtilis> KZN, erythromycin, metronidazole and amoxicillin against <em>E>. <em>faecalis> KZN, erythromycin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol against <em>K.> <em>pneumoniae> (ATCC 10031, erythromycin, tetracycline, metronidazole and chloramphenicol against <em>P.> <em>vulgaris> (ATCC 6830, erythromycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol against <em>S.> <em>sonnei> (ATCC 29930, metronidazole, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol against <em>E. faecalisem> (ATCC 29212 and ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol<em

  11. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Syringin from the Bark of <em>Ilex em>rotunda> Thumb Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a rapid extraction method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of syringin from the bark of <em>Ilex rotunda em>Thumb using response surface methodology (RSM is described. The syringin was analyzed and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection (HPLC-UV. The extraction solvent, extraction temperature and extraction time, the three main factors for UAE, were optimized with Box-Behnken design (BBD to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. The optimal conditions were the use of a sonication frequency of 40 kHz, 65% methanol as the solvent, an extraction time of 30 min and an extraction temperature of 40 °C. Using these optimal conditions, the experimental values agreed closely with the predicted values. The analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated a high goodness of model fit and the success of the RSM method for optimizing syringin extraction from the bark of <em>I>. em>rotunda>.

  12. Classe social: conceitos e esquemas operacionais em pesquisa em saude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Barradas Barata

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se a utilização do conceito de classe em pesquisas em saúde, as diferentes abordagens sociológicas de estratificação social e de estrutura de classes, o potencial explicativo do conceito em estudos de determinação social e desigualdades em saúde, os modelos de operacionalização elaborados para uso em pesquisas sociológicas, demográficas ou de saúde e os limites e possibilidades desses modelos. Foram destacados quatro modelos de operacionalização: de Singer para estudo da distribuição de renda no Brasil, adaptado por Barros para uso em pesquisas epidemiológicas; de Bronfman & Tuirán para o censo demográfico mexicano, adaptado por Lombardi et al para pesquisas epidemiológicas; de Goldthorpe para estudos socioeconômicos ingleses, adaptado pela Sociedade Espanhola de Epidemiologia; e o modelo de Wright para pesquisa em sociologia e ciência política, também usado em inquéritos populacionais em saúde. Em conclusão, conceitualmente cada um dos modelos apresentados é coerente com a concepção teórica que os embasam, mas não há como optar por qualquer deles, descartando os demais.

  13. Autistic-Like Behaviors, Oxidative Stress Status, and Histopathological Changes in Cerebellum of Valproic Acid Rat Model of Autism Are Improved by the Combined Extract of Purple Rice and Silkworm Pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakotsriwan, Nartnutda; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Kirisattayakul, Woranan; Chaisiwamongkol, Kowit

    2016-01-01

    Due to the crucial role of oxidative stress on the pathophysiology of autism and the concept of synergistic effect, the benefit of the combined extract of purple rice and silkworm pupae (AP1) for autism disorder was the focus. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of AP1 on autistic-like behaviors, oxidative stress status, and histopathological change of cerebellum in valproic acid (VPA) rat model of autism. VPA was injected on postnatal day (PND) 14 and the animals were orally given AP1 at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg·kg(-1) BW between PND 14 and PND 40. The autism-like behaviors were analyzed via hot-plate, rotarod, elevated plus-maze, learning, memory, and social behavior tests. Oxidative stress and the histological change in the cerebellum were assessed at the end of study. AP1 treated rats improved behaviors in all tests except that in hot-plate test. The improvement of oxidative stress and Purkinje cell loss was also observed in the cerebellum of VPA-treated rats. Our data suggest that AP1 partially reduced autism-like behaviors by improving oxidative stress and Purkinje cell loss. Further research is required to identify the active ingredients in AP1 and gender difference effect.

  14. Autistic-Like Behaviors, Oxidative Stress Status, and Histopathological Changes in Cerebellum of Valproic Acid Rat Model of Autism Are Improved by the Combined Extract of Purple Rice and Silkworm Pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nartnutda Morakotsriwan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the crucial role of oxidative stress on the pathophysiology of autism and the concept of synergistic effect, the benefit of the combined extract of purple rice and silkworm pupae (AP1 for autism disorder was the focus. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of AP1 on autistic-like behaviors, oxidative stress status, and histopathological change of cerebellum in valproic acid (VPA rat model of autism. VPA was injected on postnatal day (PND 14 and the animals were orally given AP1 at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg·kg−1 BW between PND 14 and PND 40. The autism-like behaviors were analyzed via hot-plate, rotarod, elevated plus-maze, learning, memory, and social behavior tests. Oxidative stress and the histological change in the cerebellum were assessed at the end of study. AP1 treated rats improved behaviors in all tests except that in hot-plate test. The improvement of oxidative stress and Purkinje cell loss was also observed in the cerebellum of VPA-treated rats. Our data suggest that AP1 partially reduced autism-like behaviors by improving oxidative stress and Purkinje cell loss. Further research is required to identify the active ingredients in AP1 and gender difference effect.

  15. Autistic-Like Behaviors, Oxidative Stress Status, and Histopathological Changes in Cerebellum of Valproic Acid Rat Model of Autism Are Improved by the Combined Extract of Purple Rice and Silkworm Pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakotsriwan, Nartnutda; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Kirisattayakul, Woranan; Chaisiwamongkol, Kowit

    2016-01-01

    Due to the crucial role of oxidative stress on the pathophysiology of autism and the concept of synergistic effect, the benefit of the combined extract of purple rice and silkworm pupae (AP1) for autism disorder was the focus. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of AP1 on autistic-like behaviors, oxidative stress status, and histopathological change of cerebellum in valproic acid (VPA) rat model of autism. VPA was injected on postnatal day (PND) 14 and the animals were orally given AP1 at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg·kg(-1) BW between PND 14 and PND 40. The autism-like behaviors were analyzed via hot-plate, rotarod, elevated plus-maze, learning, memory, and social behavior tests. Oxidative stress and the histological change in the cerebellum were assessed at the end of study. AP1 treated rats improved behaviors in all tests except that in hot-plate test. The improvement of oxidative stress and Purkinje cell loss was also observed in the cerebellum of VPA-treated rats. Our data suggest that AP1 partially reduced autism-like behaviors by improving oxidative stress and Purkinje cell loss. Further research is required to identify the active ingredients in AP1 and gender difference effect. PMID:27034733

  16. Transtornos alimentares em escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilela João E. M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho investiga a freqüência de possíveis transtornos da alimentação e comportamentos alimentares inadequados em crianças e adolescentes de seis cidades do interior de Minas Gerais, uma vez que a maioria dos autores afirma uma prevalência maior em países desenvolvidos. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo transversal onde foram aplicadas as auto-escalas BITE (Teste de Investigação Bulímica de Edinburgh, EAT (Teste de Atitudes Alimentares e Teste de Imagem Corporal em 1.807 estudantes de escolas públicas do Ensino Fundamental e Médio, com idade entre 7 e 19 anos. RESULTADOS: De acordo com a auto-escala EAT, 241 alunos (13,3% apresentaram possíveis transtornos de alimentação, com predominância significativa do sexo feminino. E, segundo a auto-escala BITE, 19 estudantes (1,1% apresentaram um escore compatível com bulimia nervosa. Encontramos 1.059 alunos (59% insatisfeitos com sua imagem corporal, 731 alunos (40% em uso de dieta para emagrecer e 1.014 alunos (56% que praticavam atividade física com a finalidade de perder peso. Os episódios bulímicos foram encontrados em 218 alunos (12%, e 175 alunos (10% utilizavam métodos purgativos para perder peso. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo mostra uma alta prevalência de possíveis transtornos alimentares na população estudada, assim como comportamentos alimentares inadequados, principalmente em adolescentes do sexo feminino. Os resultados são semelhantes aos encontrados nos países considerados desenvolvidos. Concluímos que esses achados são relevantes para a clínica da criança e do adolescente e que podem proporcionar futuros trabalhos onde poderemos compreender melhor os possíveis fatores de risco para esses transtornos da alimentação.

  17. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  18. <em>Bacillus anthracisem> Factors for Phagosomal Escape

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    Irene Zornetta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of phagosome escape by intracellular pathogens is an important step in the infectious cycle. During the establishment of anthrax, <em>Bacillus anthracisem> undergoes a transient intracellular phase in which spores are engulfed by local phagocytes. Spores germinate inside phagosomes and grow to vegetative bacilli, which emerge from their resident intracellular compartments, replicate and eventually exit from the plasma membrane. During germination, <em>B. anthracisem> secretes multiple factors that can help its resistance to the phagocytes. Here the possible role of <em>B. anthracisem> toxins, phospholipases, antioxidant enzymes and capsules in the phagosomal escape and survival, is analyzed and compared with that of factors of other microbial pathogens involved in the same type of process.

  19. Comparison of life table parameters of the laboratory population of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on frozen-killed and fresh housefly pupae%以冷冻和新鲜家蝇蛹为寄主的蝇蛹俑小蜂实验种群生命表参数比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱承节; 贺张; 陈伟; 张仕林; 胡好远

    2014-01-01

    [Aim] This study aims to illustrate the effects of using frozen-preserved housefly (Musca domestica) pupae as hosts on the reproduction of Spalangia endius.[Methods] The survival number,offspring number and sexes of S.endius on fresh housefly pupae and the housefly pupae frozen killed and preserved at-20℃,respectively,were recorded daily,and the life tables were built.The effects of host types on the parasitism rate,offspring number and sex ratio,and parameters of life table were compared and analyzed.[Results] The results showed that the parasitism rate,offspring number,and male proportion of S.endius on the frozen-killed housefly pupae were lower than those of wasps on the fresh housefly pupae (P < 0.01).The longevity and oviposition duration of adults were similar between the two groups (P > 0.05).The parasitism rate and offspring number in both groups decreased with the increasing of female age (P < 0.01).The net reproductive rate (R0) of S.endius on the fresh housefly pupae and frozen-killed pupae was 34.91 and 20.16,and their intrinsic natural increase (rm) was 0.17 and 0.11,respectively.R0and rm were both larger on the fresh housefly pupae than on frozen-killed housefly pupae (P <0.01).The mean generation time (T) and doubling time (DT) of S.endius on the frozen-killed housefly pupae were prolonged compared with those of wasps on the fresh pupae (P <0.01).[Conclusion] Our results indicate that S.endius can use frozen-killed housefly pupae as hosts to finish life history.We believe that the method of frozen-killed hosts would be useful for massively culturing of S.endius.%[目的]为了阐明以冷冻保存家蝇Musca domestica蛹为寄主对繁殖蝇蛹俑小蜂Spalangia endius的影响.[方法]本研究分别利用新鲜和-20℃冷冻保存的家蝇蛹为寄主,记录了小蜂日存活数、日后代数量和性别等,并分别构建了实验种群生命表,分析比较了两种类型家蝇蛹对小蜂寄生率、日后代数量和性比、生

  20. Trabalho em equipa

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Andreia Sofia Duarte

    2016-01-01

    O presente relatório de estágio tem como tema principal o trabalho em equipa. Aborda com mais pormenor o subtema dos momentos de reflexão na equipa pedagógica. Ao longo do estudo são vários os conceitos abordados e a interligação entre os mesmos. Pretendo dar a conhecer a temática em questão e conceções que lhe estão naturalmente associadas. Sendo um estudo investigativo são abordados os métodos utilizados ao longo de toda a investigação. Com este relatório pretende-se alcançar qual ...

  1. Ancylostoma duodenale em estrangeiros radicados em Botucatu, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence F.S. Kerr

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se a técnica de Harada & Mori foi efetuada verificação das espécies de Ancylostomidae prevalentes entre imigrantes europeus, asiáticos e brasileiros residentes no município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Ancylostoma duodenale foi encontrado em 8,5% dos imigrantes asiáticos e Necator americanus em 3,5% dos europeus e em 18% dos brasileiros examinados.

  2. Controle da infestação natural de ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 (Diptera, Tephritidae em pêssegos(Prunus persica através das radiações gama Control of naturally infested peaches (Prunus persica by mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata through the use of gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Arthur

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose desinfestante de radiações gama para pêssegos, Prunus persica, infestados com larvas da mosca do Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata. Utilizaram-se frutas de procedência conhecida no campo fazendo-se uma amostragem prévia, constatando-se que cada fruta continha em média nove larvas do último ínstar da mosca praga. As frutas foram irradiadas em uma fonte de Cobalto-60 com as seguintes doses de radiação gama: 0 (test., 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 e 1200 Gy, sob uma taxa de 58 Gy por minuto. Após a irradiação as frutas foram colocadas em câmaras climatizadas com a temperatura variando entre 23 e 27°C e a umidade relativa variando entre 65 e 75%. Aguardou-se que as larvas deixassem as frutas e se transformassem em pupas e adultos. A dose letal para larvas, pelos resultados obtidos no experimento, concluiu-se ser de 600 Gy. A dose letal para pupas provenientes de larvas irradiadas dentro das frutas foi de 50 Gy, impedindo totalmente a emergência de adultos.Determination of the dose of gamma radiation to disinfest peaches, Prunus pérsica infested with larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 was made. Fruits were collected in the field, each one holding about nine larvae of the last instar of the fruit-fly. The fruits were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation source at the following doses: 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gy; at a dose rate of 58 Gy per minute. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted between 23 and 27°C, and relative humidity between 65 and 75 percent, until the larvae left the fruits and were transformed into pupae and adults. It was concluded that the lethal dose of gamma radiation for larvae at the last instar, in naturally infested peaches, was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the emergency of adults.

  3. On subspecific taxonomy of <em>Microtus saviiem> (Rodentia, Arvicolidae

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    Longino Contoli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Sulla tassonomia sottospecifica di <em>Microtus saviiem> (Rodentia, Arvicolidae Viene riveduta e riassunta la situazione tassonomica sottospecifica di <em>Microtus (Terricola saviiem>, anche tramite la descrizione di due nuovi taxa: <em>Microtus (Terricola savii tolfetanusem>, dei Monti della Tolfa e <em>Microtus (Terricola savii niethammericusem>, del Gargano.

  4. CORANTES ARTIFICIAIS EM ALIMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alexandre PRADO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    O emprego de aditivos químicos é, sem dúvida, um dos mais polêmicos avanços alcançados pela indústria de alimentos. Os corantes artificiais pertencem a uma dessas classes de aditivos alimentares e têm sido objeto de muitas críticas, já que seu uso em muitos alimentos justifica-se apenas por questões de hábitos alimentares. Ainda existem diferentes opiniões quanto à inocuidade dos diversos corantes artificiais. Visando, principalmente, o controle no uso dos corantes sintéticos, mas tendo em vista que produtos coloridos artificialmente são exportados e importados, a análise desses aditivos requer métodos eficientes e rápidos para a detecção, identificação e quantificação. A cromatografia em papel e em camada delgada, apesar de serem técnicas relativamente rápidas, apresentam dados com baixa exatidão e precisão. Já na cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE as maiores dificuldades encontram-se nas etapas de extração, mas principalmente no alto custo do equipamento. A eletroforese capilar apresenta os mesmos problemas da CLAE, aliados ao fato de se tratar de uma técnica relativamente recente para a análise desse tipo de substância e, portanto, existem poucos estudos a cerca da determinação e quantificação. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Corantes artificiais; análise; legislação; CLAE; EC

  5. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Analysis of Novel 1<em>H-Benzo[d>]imidazoles Phenyl Sulfonylpiperazines

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    Amjad M. Qandil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A group of benzimidazole analogs of sildenafil, 3-benzimidazolyl-4-methoxy-phenylsulfonylpiperazines 2–4 and 3-benzimidazolyl-4-methoxy-<em>N,N>-dimethyl- benzenesulfonamide (5, were efficiently synthesized. Compounds 2–5 were characterized by NMR and MS and contrary to the reported mass spectra of sildenafil, the spectra of the piperazine-containing compounds 2–4 showed a novel fragmentation pattern leading to an <em>m/z> = 316. A mechanism for the formation of this fragment was proposed.

  6. Proximate Composition, Nutritional Attributes and Mineral Composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L. (Ketumpangan Air Grown in Malaysia

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    Maznah Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (31.22% suggests a high-value mineral composition comprising potassium, calcium and iron as the main elements. The present study inferred that <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> would serve as a good source of protein and energy as well as micronutrients in the form of a leafy vegetable for human consumption.

  7. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Syringin from the Bark of <em>Ilex em>rotunda> Thumb Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Wang; Li-Chun Zhao; Wei Li; Xin Deng; Xiang-Hua Xia; Jian Liang; Geng-Liang Yang; Ying He

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a rapid extraction method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of syringin from the bark of <em>Ilex rotunda em>Thumb using response surface methodology (RSM) is described. The syringin was analyzed and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The extraction solvent, extraction temperature and extraction time, the three main factors for UAE, were optimized with Box-Behnken design (BBD) to obtain the highest ...

  8. Antioxidant Profile of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L.

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    Heidy Schwartsova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the antioxidant properties of five different extracts of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L. (Leguminosae leaves, various assays which measure free radical scavenging ability were carried out: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenger capacity tests and lipid peroxidation assay. In all of the tests, only the H2O and (to some extent the EtOAc extracts showed a potent antioxidant effect compared with BHT and BHA, well-known synthetic antioxidants. In addition, <em>in vivo em>experiments were conducted with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx in liver homogenate and blood of mice after their treatment with extracts of <em>T. pratenseem> leaves, or in combination with CCl4. Besides, in the extracts examined the total phenolic and flavonoid amounts were also determined, together with presence of the selected flavonoids: quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, naringenin and kaempferol, which were studied using a HPLC-DAD technique. HPLC-DAD analysis showed a noticeable content of natural products according to which the examined <em>Trifolium pratenseem> species could well be regarded as a promising new source of bioactive natural compounds, which can be used both as a food supplement and a remedy.

  9. Casca de soja em dietas para coelhos em crescimento

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    Ana Carolina Kohlrausch Klinger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar efeitos da inclusão de casca de soja em substituição ao feno de alfafa sobre o desempenho, características da carcaça e trato gastrointestinal e parâmetros bioquímicos de coelhos em fase de crescimento. Foram utilizados 30 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branca, divididos igualmente em três tratamentos, compostos pela dieta experimental padrão (sem inclusão de casca de soja; e pelas dietas com 50% e 100% de substituição de alfafa por casca de soja nas respectivas rações experimentais. Concluiu-se que a casca de soja pode ser incluída em dietas para coelhos em crescimento, em substituição ao feno de alfafa em até 100% sem causar danos no desempenho nas características de carcaça e do trato gastrointestinal e parâmetros bioquímicos dos animais, durante a fase de crescimento. Porém, a utilização deste co-produto exige a necessidade de estudos mais aprofundados em virtude da escassez de dados.

  10. Effects of <em>Citrus aurantiumem> (Bitter Orange Fruit Extracts and <em>p>-Synephrine on Metabolic Fluxes in the Rat Liver

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    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The fruit extracts of <em>Citrus aurantiumem> (bitter orange are traditionally used as weight-loss products and as appetite supressants. An important fruit component is <em>p>-synephrine, which is structurally similar to the adrenergic agents. Weight-loss and adrenergic actions are always related to metabolic changes and this work was designed to investigate a possible action of the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract on liver metabolism. The isolated perfused rat liver was used to measure catabolic and anabolic pathways, including oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure. The <em>C. aurantiumem> extract and <em>p>-synephrine increased glycogenolysis, glycolysis, oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure. These changes were partly sensitive to a- and b-adrenergic antagonists. <em>p>-Synephrine (200 mM produced an increase in glucose output that was only 15% smaller than the increment caused by the extract containing 196 mM <em>p>-synephrine. At low concentrations the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract tended to increase gluconeogenesis, but at high concentrations it was inhibitory, opposite to what happened with <em>p>-synephrine. The action of the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract on liver metabolism is similar to the well known actions of adrenergic agents and can be partly attributed to its content in <em>p>-synephrine. Many of these actions are catabolic and compatible with the weight-loss effects usually attributed to <em>C. aurantiumem>.

  11. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activities of the Essential Oils and Crude Extracts of<em> Euphorbiaem>> macrorrhizaem>

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    Haji Akber Aisa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils extracted from <em>Euphorbia macrorrhizaem> collected from Northwest China. The major constituents of the essential oils of aerial parts and roots of <em>E. macrorrhizaem> are acorenone B (16.72% and 25.80%, (+-cycloisosativene (14.94% and 12.40%, 3a-hydroxy-5b-androstane (10.62% and 5.52%, copaene (7.37% and 6.29%, l-calamenene (4.13% and 4.65% and β-cedrene (8.40% and 7.98%, respectively. The minor components of them are thymene, γ-terpinene, thymecamphor, α-cedrene, zingiberene, trans-caryophyllene, β-chamigrene, curcumene, pentadecane, (−-α-muurolene, cuparene, γ-cadinene, (<em>Z>-3-heptadecene, 1,3,7,7-tetramethyl-2-oxabicyclo(4.4.0dec-5-en-4-one, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, γ-elixene and palmitinic acid. The antimicrobial and antitumor activitiy of the <em>E. macrorrhizaem> essential oil against <em>Staphyloccocus aureusem>, <em>Escherichia coliem>, <em>Canidia Albicansem> and Caco-2 cells were evaluated. Among all the tested microorganisms and Caco-2 cells, the essential oils showed the strongest inhibitory effect on <em>Staphyloccocus aureus em>(MIC = 2.8 μg/mL and Caco-2 cell (IC50 = 11.86 μg/mL, whereas no effect on <em>Escherichia coliem> and <em>Candida em>albicans>. The data of this study suggested that the <em>E. macrorrhizaem> essential oils have great potential as a natural medicine for microbial infections and cancers.

  12. CORANTES ARTIFICIAIS EM ALIMENTOS

    OpenAIRE

    Prado, Marcelo Alexandre; Helena Teixeira GODOY

    2009-01-01

    O emprego de aditivos químicos é, sem dúvida, um dos mais polêmicos avanços alcançados pela indústria de alimentos. Os corantes artificiais pertencem a uma dessas classes de aditivos alimentares e têm sido objeto de muitas críticas, já que seu uso em muitos alimentos justifica-se apenas por questões de hábitos alimentares. Ainda existem diferentes opiniões quanto à inocuidade dos diversos corantes artificiais. Visando, principalmente, o controle no uso dos corantes si...

  13. A guerra em Pessoa

    OpenAIRE

    Frias, Joana Matos

    2014-01-01

    Leitura e comentário crítico do poema "Os jogadores de xadrez", do heterónimo pessoano Ricardo Reis, com vista a uma proposta de sistematização da natureza da relação que o poeta manteve com os eventos em curso nos anos decisivos da sua formação e consolidação artísticas e literárias. Reading and critical review of the poem "The chess players", by Fernando Pessoaapos;s heteronym Ricardo Reis, aiming to propose a systematization of the kind of relationship the poet has maintained with the o...

  14. Envolvimento parental em creche

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Marta Isabel da Silva e

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Educação de Infância A família e a creche são os dois primeiros ambientes sociais que proporcionam à criança estímulos e condutas, sendo, consequentemente, instituições fundamentais no seu crescimento. É importante promover uma boa comunicação entre a creche e os pais, incentivando-os a participarem na educação dos seus filhos, demonstrando o quanto é importante para as crianças este seu envolvimento. Cabe, também, aos educadores/profissionais criar c...

  15. CRIPTOCOCOSE EM GATOS

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Luiz Borges Corrêa

    1994-01-01

    RESUMO A criptococose é uma enfermidade micótica, causada pela levedura denominada Cryptococcus neoformans, que tem distribuição cosmopolita. O agente etiológico já foi isolado de diversos materiais, incluindo: frutas, amostras de solo, fezes de aves principalmente de pombos. Apesar de ser encontrado como saprófita na natureza, o Cryptococcus neoformans pode produzir doença no homem e várias espécies de animais domésticos ou silvestres. Em gatos, essa levedura pode ser encontrada provocando i...

  16. Burnout em Cuidadores Formais

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Juliana Marisa Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Psicologia, ramo de Psicologia Clínica e da Saúde Este estudo é sobre a Síndrome de Burnout e teve como objetivo geral compreender se o Burnout está presente nos cuidadores formais da Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Castelo de Paiva e quais as variáveis socioprofissionais que poderão exercer influência no seu aparecimento. Pretendeu-se avaliar o Burnout dos cuidadores a tr...

  17. Frenectomia em foco

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Joana Isabel Monteiro de Paiva

    2012-01-01

    O freio é uma estrutura anatómica oral classificada em freio labial (médio maxilar ou mandibular, lateral maxilar ou mandibular) ou lingual que se pode tornar num problema quando a sua inserção cria impedimentos estruturais e dificuldades a vários níveis. Um freio labial anormal pode causar algumas anomalias ou problemas, tais como um diastema interincisal, problemas protéticos, doença periodontal relacionada com a retenção de alimentos, dificuldades na higiene oral e na mobilidade labial. Na...

  18. Perspectives on EM metamaterials

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    Christophe Caloz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic (EM metamaterials have become a field of intense research activities. This paper presents a critical perspective of the field, with emphasis on fundamental concepts and practical applications. Metamaterials are explained in the general context of periodic structures. Resonant particle type and transmission line type metamaterials are compared, and their fundamental connection is established. Exotic phenomena recently reported and associated challenges are briefly reviewed. Practical applications are enumerated and illustrated by an example. The paper concludes with an optimistic outlook regarding the future of metamaterials.

  19. Biological and behavior aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 on cotton plantsAspectos biológicos e comportamentais de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 em algodoeiro

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    Luciano Pacelli Medeiros Macedo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study biological and behavior aspects of larvae and adults of Chrysoperla externa in greenhouse, on cotton plants. Recently hatched larvae were released on the upper third of cotton plants, which were previously infested with Aphis gossypii,. After emergence, adults were separated by sex and packed in cylindrical PVC recipients with cotton plant. We evaluated the duration of each larval, pre-pupal and pupal periods, pre-oviposition, oviposition, effective oviposition and post-oviposition periods, male and female logevity, daily and total oviposition capacity. The behavior of pupal stage was also evaluated, which released three larvae of the 3rd instar per cotton plant and they were put on the lower, medium and upper sections. As treatments, it was used naked soil, dried leaves from cotton plant, crushed rock nº 1; and crushed rock nº 1 + dried leaves. Larvae from different instars were released on the upper section of the cotton plants infested with A. gossypii to verify the search timing that marked the period the prey was exposed to the predator. C. externa larvae passed through all the phases of their biological cycle and there was no significant influence on the type of the soil covering used on pupal stage, since all of them were significantly higher on naked soil. There was no significative difference on the prey search by C. externa larvae.Objetivou-se estudar aspectos biológicos e comportamentais de larvas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa em casa-de-vegetação, em plantas de algodão. Larvas recém eclodidas foram liberadas no terço superior de plantas de algodão previamente infestadas com Aphis gossypii, onde permaneceram até a pupação. Após a emergência, adultos foram separados por sexo, acondicionados em recipientes cilíndricos de PVC contendo uma planta de algodoeiro. Avaliaram-se a duração de cada ínstar, dos períodos larval, pré-pupal e pupal, dos períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposi

  20. Controle de Rhyzopertha dominica pela atmosfera controlada com CO2, em trigo Control of Rhyzopertha dominica using a controlled atmosphere with CO2, in wheat

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    Rogério Amaro Gonçalves

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de gases inertes como fumigantes no controle de pragas é uma alternativa ao uso de fosfina. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de uma atmosfera com CO2 no controle de Rhyzoperta dominica (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae em grãos de trigo armazenado. O trabalho constou de cinco concentrações de CO2 (0, 30 , 40, 50 e 60%, completadas com N2, três períodos de exposição (5, 10, 15 dias, três populações de R. dominica (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae (Campo Mourão, PR, Sete Lagoas, MG e Santa Rosa, RS e sete fases de desenvolvimento do inseto (ovo, larva de 1º, 2º, 3º e 4º ínstar, pupa e adulto com três repetições. As diferentes fases da R. dominica foram acondicionadas em tecido organza e levadas para câmaras de expurgo de 200 litros com 75% deste volume repletos de grãos. As câmaras foram vedadas com borracha de silicone para garantir a hermeticidade. Após a vedação das câmaras injetavam-se os gases contendo diferentes teores de CO2. Os resultados mostraram que todos os teores de CO2 causaram 100% de mortalidade de adultos das três populações nos três períodos de exposição utilizados. Em pupas a mortalidade atingiu 100% no teor de 60% de CO2 para as três populações no período de 15 dias de exposição; porém, todos os teores de CO2 utilizados no período de 15 dias de exposição causaram 100% de mortalidade das pupas da população de Santa Rosa. Para o adequado controle de larvas de diferentes ínstares são necessários teores de CO2 iguais ou acima de 50%. Nos períodos de 10 e 15 dias de exposição, todos os teores de CO2 causaram 100% de mortalidade dos ovos das três populações avaliadas.Controlled atmosphere with inert gases offers an alternative to phosphine use to control stored grain pests. The objective of this research was to test a controlled atmosphere with CO2 to control Rhyzoperta dominica, (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae, an important pest of stored wheat

  1. Antibioticos profilaticos em neurocirurgia

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    Reynaldo A. Brandt

    1979-03-01

    Full Text Available O índice de infecções pós-operatórias em pacientes neuro-cirúrgicos que receberam antibióticos profiláticos neste período foi comparado com o de pacientes que não receberam antibióticos. Infecções ocorreram em proporções significativamente maiores nos pacientes que receberam antibióticos, particularmente naqueles com afecções intracranianas graves; estas infecções foram graves e fatais na maioria dos casos. A administração de antibióticos profiláticos nestes pacientes não só foi incapaz de prevenir o aparecimento de infecções pós-operatórias, como aparentemente favoreceu o seu desenvolvimento. Tal se deveu, provavelmente, à destruição do equilíbrio microbiano no organismo, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de germes patogênicos e resistentes aos antibióticos usuais

  2. O insight em psiquiatria

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    Ana Margarida P. Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O sinal de que algo está a acontecer contribui para que o paciente reconheça que alguma coisa de estranho se está a passar consigo. Este reconhecimento faz com que o sujeito possa desempenhar uma função activa e seja um elemento colaborante do seu processo de recuperação. Cada doença apresenta, contudo, diferentes sintomas, uma vez que cada doença psiquiátrica consiste em diferentes perturbações com diversos efeitos sobre o funcionamento mental. Desta maneira, o fenómeno do insight que é registado em cada doença é diferente e expressa-se sob diferentes formas, não somente devido às manifestações clínicas da doença mas também devido às características individuais do sujeito.

  3. Biologia de Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae em milho Biology of Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in maize

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    Luiz Henrique da Silva Fagundes Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae é uma nova praga da espiga de milho no Brasil, sendo seu estudo importante em áreas de produção de sementes porque os grãos atacados pelas lagartas não germinam. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a sua biologia em condições de laboratório (25±2°C, UR de 65±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. O ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto foi de 35,2 dias. O período de incubação foi de 4,1 dias. A duração média da fase larval foi de 21,1 dias, sendo observados cinco ínstares larvais. A fase pupal durou 8,4 dias e o peso de pupa de machos e fêmeas foi de 12,4 e 11,3mg, respectivamente. As fêmeas colocaram, em média, 118 ovos, apresentando um período de pré-oviposição de 10,7 dias e de oviposição de 14,0 dias. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas foi de 37,02 e 44,16 dias, respectivamente, e a razão sexual de 0,48. As lagartas danificam os estilo-estigmas e os grãos em estado leitoso por meio de pequenos orifícios de entrada, prejudicando o endosperma e principalmente a região do embrião, inutilizando-os para sementes. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho fornecem subsídios para o estabelecimento de estratégias de manejo do inseto, especialmente em áreas de produção de sementes.The caterpillar Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is a new pest of corn ear in Brazil, and its study is important in seed fields. The aim of this was to study the biology of this pest under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, 65±10% of RH and 14-hours of photophase. The biological cycle (egg-adult was of 35.2 days. The incubation period was of 4.1 days. The average larval development time was of 21.1 days, and 5 instars were observed. The pupal period was of 8.4 days and the pupae weight was of 12.4 and 11.3 mg for males and females, respectively. The females laid an average of 118 eggs with a pre-oviposition period of 10.7 days and an oviposition time of 14.0 days. The

  4. Himenópteros parasitóides de larvas de Anastrepha spp. em frutos de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. na região de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brasil Himenopterous parasitoids of Anastrepha spp. larvae, in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. In divinópolis region, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de conhecer os parasitóides de moscas-da-fruta na região de Divinópolis-MG. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação, sendo individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas adultas ou de seus parasitóides. A prevalência total de parasitismo foi de 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha foi a espécie mais comum, com 44,5%.The objective of this work was to identify the parasitoids of fruit flies in Divinópolis-MG region. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha was the most common specie with a frequency of 44,5%.

  5. Developmental time of immature forms of Sabethes aurescens Lutz (Diptera, Culicidae from artificially perforated bamboo in the rain forest of southern Brazil Tempo de desenvolvimento de formas imaturas de Sabethes aurescens Lutz (Diptera, Culicidae provenientes de bambus artificialmente perfurados em floresta atlântica do sul do Brasil

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    Gerson Azulim Muller

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development time of the immature forms of Sabethes aurescens Lutz, 1905, from perforated bamboo in the southern Brazil rain forest was studied under laboratory conditions. Mean development periods were 5±2.23, 10±5.20, 14±8.26, 36±13.90 and 9±2.43 days, respectively, for the four larval instars and pupae. The 4th instar of females was longer than that of males. Implications of the long development time of the immature forms of Sa. aurescens are discussed.O tempo de desenvolvimento de formas imaturas de Sabethes aurescens Lutz, 1905 de bambus perfurados da floresta atlântica do sul do Brasil foi estudado em condições de laboratório. O período médio de desenvolvimento foi de 5±2,23; 10±5,20; 14±8,26; 36±13,90 e 9±2,43 dias respectivamente, para os quatro instares larvais e pupa. O 4º instar das fêmeas foi mais longo do que o dos machos. Implicações do longo tempo de desenvolvimento das formas imaturas de Sa. aurescens são discutidas.

  6. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of <em>Lactobacillus> <em>plantarum> WCFS1 and Δ<em>ctsR> Mutant Strains Under Physiological and Heat Stress Conditions

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    Daniela Fiocco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Among Gram-positive bacteria, CtsR (Class Three Stress gene Repressor mainly regulates the expression of genes encoding the Clp ATPases and the ClpP protease. To gain a better understanding of the biological significance of the CtsR regulon in response to heat-shock conditions, we performed a global proteomic analysis of <em>Lactobacillus> <em>plantarum> WCFS1 and ∆<em>ctsR> mutant strains under optimal or heat stress temperatures. Total protein extracts from bacterial cells were analyzed by two-dimensional gel fractionation. By comparing maps from different culture conditions and different <em>L.> <em>plantarum> strains, image analysis revealed 23 spots with altered levels of expression. The proteomic analysis of <em>L.> <em>plantarum> WCFS1 and <em>ctsR> mutant strains confirms at the translational level the CtsR-mediated regulation of some members of the Clp family, as well as the heat induction of typical stress response genes. Heat activation of the putative CtsR regulon genes at transcriptional and translational levels, in the <em>∆ctsR> mutant, suggests additional regulative mechanisms, as is the case of <em>hsp1em>. Furthermore, isoforms of ClpE with different molecular mass were found, which might contribute to CtsR quality control. Our results could add new outlooks in order to determine the complex biological role of CtsR-mediated stress response in lactic acid bacteria.

  7. Dispersão larval pós-alimentar de Lucilia sericata (Diptera, Calliphoridae em condições de laboratório Post-feeding larval dispersion of Lucilia sericata (Diptera, Calliphoridae in laboratory

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    Sabrina M Pires

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os dípteros califorídeos são os primeiros indivíduos a compor a sucessão faunística de cadáveres em decomposição, auxiliando assim na estimativa do intervalo pós-morte. Estudos de dispersão pós-alimentar de suas larvas possuem relevância para investigações médico-criminais. Diante disto, uma arena circular, simulando o ambiente natural, foi montada em laboratório a fim de verificar-se a dispersão larval radial pós-alimentar de Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826, tentando assim estabelecer relações entre as variáveis peso, distância e profundidade de enterramento na arena. Os resultados demonstraram que 45% das pupas foram recuperadas a uma profundidade compreendida entre 6 cm e 8 cm e a uma distância entre 33 cm e 45 cm do centro da arena. Não houve diferenças significativas quanto à propagação e profundidade de enterramento de machos, fêmeas e indivíduos inviáveis. Com relação ao peso, verificou-se que a média das fêmeas (x = 32,35 mg foi superior a dos machos (x = 30,28 mg. A análise de correlação e de regressão entre peso e distância percorrida e entre peso e profundidade foram positivas, ou seja, pupas oriundas de larvas mais pesadas propagaram e se aprofundaram mais. O experimento permitiu ainda concluir que uma arena circular possibilita o deslocamento das larvas em todas as direções.Calliphorid flies are the first organisms of the faunal succession associated with decomposing bodies, and can help in the estimation of post-mortem interval. Therefore, studies on post-feeding larval dispersion are relevant to medico-criminal investigations. A circular arena simulating the natural environment was built in the laboratory in order to examine the radial post-feeding larval dispersion of Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826 and the relationship between weight, distance, and depth of burial. Our findings indicated that most pupae were recovered at a depth between 6 cm and 8 cm and at a distance of 33 cm and 45 cm

  8. Dípteros minadores e seus parasitóides em plantas de crescimento espontâneo em pomar orgânico de citros em Montenegro, RS, Brasil Diptera leafminers and their parasitoids in spontaneous vegetation in organic citrus orchard in Montenegro, RS, Brazil

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    Janaína Pereira dos Santos

    Full Text Available A análise de comunidades minadores e seus parasitóides é importante para a compreensão da regulação biótica e para a manutenção da biodiversidade em agroecossistemas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos registrar os dípteros minadores e seus parasitóides na vegetação de crescimento espontâneo de um pomar orgânico de citros, de maio de 2003 a maio de 2004. O trabalho foi conduzido no município de Montenegro, RS, em um pomar do híbrido tangor 'Murcott'. Realizaram-se amostragens quinzenais, coletando-se em cada ocasião todas as folhas contendo minas presentes na área delimitada por um aro de 0,28 m², que era jogado nas linhas e nas entrelinhas de 30 árvores sorteadas. No laboratório registrou-se o número de larvas e pupas de dípteros minadores por folha. Foram registradas 15 espécies de dípteros minadores, 15 espécies de plantas hospedeiras (distribuídas em seis famílias e 15 espécies de microimenópteros parasitóides (distribuídas em três famílias. Os dípteros minadores apresentaram grande especificidade às suas plantas hospedeiras. Portanto, o manejo adequado desta vegetação pode favorecer o estabelecimento e a multiplicação de inimigos naturais destes insetos minadores.Leafminers and their parasitoids communities analysis is necessary to supply information about the biotic regulation and to maintenance of the biodiversity in the agroecosystem. This study aimed to register Diptera leafminers and their parasitoids, present in the vegetation spontaneously growing at the citrus orchard from May 2003 to May 2004. The work was conducted in Montenegro, RS, in an organic orchard of the hybrid 'Murcott'. Samplings were taken fortnightly, collecting in each occasion all the plants with mines found in an area delimited by a 0.28 m² arc thrown in the lines and between lines of 30 randomly chosen trees. In the lab, the number of larvae and pupae per leaf of Diptera leafminers were recorded. Throughout the study, it was

  9. Ancylostoma duodenale em estrangeiros radicados em Botucatu, SP, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Florence F.S. Kerr; Corrêa, Fernando M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizando-se a técnica de Harada & Mori foi efetuada verificação das espécies de Ancylostomidae prevalentes entre imigrantes europeus, asiáticos e brasileiros residentes no município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Ancylostoma duodenale foi encontrado em 8,5% dos imigrantes asiáticos e Necator americanus em 3,5% dos europeus e em 18% dos brasileiros examinados.A survey of the species of Ancylostomidae causing infection among European inmigrants and Brazilian residents in Botucatu, ...

  10. Osteoporose em caprinos

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    Fábio B. Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de casos de osteoporose em caprinos provenientes de uma propriedade na área de abrangência do LPV-UFSM, determinando a epidemiologia, o quadro clínico-patológico e discutindo os prováveis mecanismos patogenéticos. Cinco cabras, fêmeas, SRD, de seis meses a seis anos de idade foram afetadas. As cabras eram mantidas em campo nativo, sem suplementação com ração e sob superlotação. Os principais sinais clínicos foram emagrecimento, dificuldade de locomoção e permanência em decúbito por longos períodos. As principais alterações macroscópicas nos ossos examinados foram vistas nas superfícies de corte e caracterizavam-se por depleção do osso esponjoso (porosidade e redução acentuada da espessura do osso cortical. Havia também marcada atrofia serosa da gordura da medula óssea. Microscopicamente, nas regiões avaliadas (úmero proximal, rádio distal, fêmur distal, tíbia proximal e corpos das vértebras lombares foi observada redução moderada a acentuada do número e da espessura das trabéculas ósseas nas epífises e metáfises dos ossos longos e nos corpos vertebrais. Os achados clínico-patológicos indicaram que a osteoporose observada provavelmente foi causada pela desnutrição. As alterações ósseas (diminuição no número e na espessura das trabéculas do osso esponjoso sugerem que ambos os mecanismos, má formação óssea e reabsorção óssea aumentada, contribuíram para a ocorrência de osteoporose nos caprinos deste estudo.

  11. Short and Long-Term Effects of <em>Baccharis articulataem> on Glucose Homeostasis

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    Flávio H. Reginatto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the<em> in vivoem> effect of the crude extract and <em>n>-butanol and aqueous residual fractions of <em>Baccharis articulataem> (Lam. Pers. on serum glucose levels, insulin secretion and liver and muscle glycogen content, as well as<em> in vitroem> action on serum intestinal disaccharidase activity and albumin glycation were investigated. Oral administration of the extract and fractions reduced glycemia in hyperglycemic rats. Additionally, the <em>n>-butanol fraction, which has high flavonoids content, stimulated insulin secretion, exhibiting an insulinogenic index similar to that of glipizide. Also, the <em>n>-butanol fraction treatment significantly increased glycogen content in both liver and muscle tissue. <em>In vitroem> incubation with the crude extract and <em>n>-butanol and aqueous residual fractions inhibited maltase activity and the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs. Thus, the results demonstrated that <em>B. articulataem> exhibits a significant antihyperglycemic and insulin-secretagogue role. These effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis observed for <em>B. articulataem> indicate potential anti-diabetic properties.

  12. Em favor da talassografia

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    Jean-Louis Boudou

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A Talassografia (“descrição do mar” interessa-sepelos impactos físicos, biológicos, ecológicos... culturais da violenta antropização dos ambientes costeiros (oceânicos e continentais, caracterizados pelaexigüidade, vulnerabilidade, fragilidade e plasticidade. Como o Brasil é um “país marítimo”, os geó-grafos (os talassógrafos brasileiros são convidadosa intensificar suas pesquisas nas áreas costeiras e acriar novas estruturas para divulgá-las: Revista, Encontros, Associação, Pós-Graduação... tudo em prolda talassografia.

  13. Bullyng em jovens LGBT

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenta, Neuza Santos; Martins, Emíla orient.

    2013-01-01

    O bullying homofóbico é uma forma específica de assédio que ocorre quando a vitimização é motivada pelo preconceito homossexual. Os jovens alunos, lésbicas, gays, bissexuais e transsexuais (LGBT), vítimas desta forma de bullying estão mais vulneráveis à exclusão social, isolamento e aquisição de comportamentos de risco. O presente projeto de investigação pretende contribuir para a compreensão de questões relacionadas com os episódios de bullying em jovens LGBT, sempre na per...

  14. Antioxidant Profile of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidy Schwartsova; Mirjana Vojinovic-Miloradov; Sanja Vlaisavljevic; Mira Popovic; Biljana Kaurinovic

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the antioxidant properties of five different extracts of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L. (Leguminosae) leaves, various assays which measure free radical scavenging ability were carried out: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenger capacity tests and lipid peroxidation assay. In all of the tests, only the H2O and (to some extent) the EtOAc extracts showed a potent antioxidant effect compar...

  15. Extraction of Dihydroquercetin<em> em>from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> em>with Ultrasound-Assisted and Microwave-Assisted Alternant Digestion

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    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasound and microwave assisted alternant extraction method (UMAE was applied for extracting dihydroquercetin (DHQ from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> wood. This investigation was conducted using 60% ethanol as solvent, 1:12 solid to liquid ratio, and 3 h soaking time. The optimum treatment time was ultrasound 40 min, microwave 20 min, respectively, and the extraction was performed once. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the target analyte was obtained. Relative to ultrasound-assisted or microwave-assisted method, the proposed approach provides higher extraction yield. The effect of DHQ of different concentrations and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability in soy bean oil stored for 20 days at different temperatures (25 °C and 60 °C was compared. DHQ was more effective in restraining soy bean oil oxidation, and a dose-response relationship was observed. The antioxidant activity of DHQ was a little stronger than that of BHA and BHT. Soy bean oil supplemented with 0.08 mg/g DHQ exhibited favorable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation. The <em>L. gmeliniiem> wood samples before and after extraction were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the UMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation.

  16. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acids from Silkworm pupa oil and its oxidative stability%蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸提取及氧化稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 李国荣; 李建科; 孟永宏; 马倩倩

    2012-01-01

    以蚕蛹毛油为原料,采用常压碱水皂化制取混合脂肪酸,溶剂法分离高纯度蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸.首先在超量碱、皂化温度、皂化时间单因素实验的基础上采用响应面实验优化常压碱水皂化工艺,得到最佳皂化条件为恒定碱液质量分数15%,超量碱45%,皂化温度98℃,皂化时间3.3h;其次通过甲醇溶剂法得到高纯度蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸工艺条件为恒定结晶温度-10℃,料液比为1∶2.4(混合脂肪酸与溶剂甲醇质量比),甲醇溶液质量分数90%,结晶时间30 min;最后脱色后得到蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸产品,并对其理化指标测定.产品在不同贮存条件下保存32 d考察其氧化稳定性,结果表明在4℃条件下避光保存并添加抗氧化剂的产品稳定性最好.%With the crude Silkworm pupa oil as raw material, saponification under normal pressure and solvent separation at low temperature were used to prepare high purity unsaturated fatty acids. On the basis of single factor experiments, response surface methodology( RSM ) was used to optimize the conditions of saponification process, and the optimal saponification conditions were as follows: constant aqueous alkali mass fraction 15% , extra alkali 45% , saponification time 3. 3 h, saponification temperature 98°C. High purity unsaturated fatty acids was obtained by solvent method under the conditions of -10 °C , mass ratio of fatty acid mixture to solvent methanol 1:2. 4, methanol mass fraction 90% and crystallization time 30 min. After bleaching with activated clay, the product of unsaturated fatty acids was obtained, and its chemicophysical characteristics were determined and oxidative stability was studied. The product added with TBHQ had good stability when it was no exposure to light and air, and stored at 4°C.

  17. Regional Suppression of <em>Bactrocera> Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

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    Roger I. Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Bactrocera> fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of <em>Bactrocera> spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of <em>Bactrocera> <em>cucurbitae> (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, <em>Psyttalia> <em>fletcheri> (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of <em>Bactrocera> <em>dorsalis> (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which <em>Fopius> <em>arisanus> (Sonan, <em>Diachasmimorpha> <em>longicaudata> (Ashmead and <em>Fopius> <em>vandenboschi> (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for <em>Bactrocera> spp. but also for <em>Ceratitis> and <em>Anastrepha> spp. Most recently, in 2002, <em>F.> <em>arisanus> was introduced into French Polynesia where <em>B.> <em>dorsalis> had invaded in 1996. Establishment of <em>D.> <em>longicaudata> into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against <em>Anastrepha> spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of <em>Bactrocera> spp. into new areas of the world (<em>i.e.>, South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where <em>B.> <em>carambolae> and <em>B.> <em>invadens>, respectively, have become established. In addition, <em>P.> <em>fletcheri> is a candidate for biological control of <em>B.> <em>cucurbitae> in Africa. We review past and more

  18. Conhecimento e interesse em economia

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    João Antonio de Paula

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo argumenta em favor da necessidade de preservar o pluralismo em economia. Discute: i a natureza do conhecimento e de sua produção; ii as especificidades da produção do conhecimento em economia e os condicionamentos histórico-culturais do conhecimento; iii as implicações da hegemonia de certa concepção de método em economia.The article argues the need to preserve the pluralism in economics. The article examines: i the nature of the knowledge and of its production; ii the specificity of the knowledge production in economics and the historical and cultural conditionings of the knowledge; iii the implications of the hegemony of a certain methodological conception in economics.

  19. Two New Compounds Isolated from<em> Liriope muscariem>

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    Rui-Chao Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new compounds, (2<em>S>,3<em>R>-methyl 7-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl-3-(hydroxymethyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-carboxylate (1 and (4<em>R,>5<em>S>-5-(3-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylphenyl-4-isopropyldihydrofuran-2-one (2, tentatively named norcurlignan and limlactone, respectively, were isolated from <em>Liriope muscariem>, together with the known compound (−-pinoresinol (3. The structures of these compounds were elucidated and characterized on the basis of 1D NMR, 2D NMR, CD and MS data. The <em>in vitroem> antioxidant activities of compounds 13 were assessed by the DPPH and ABTS scavenging methods.

  20. A new Appenninic station of <em>Dryomys nitedulaem> Pallas, 1979 (Rodentia, Gliridae / Nuova stazione appenninica di <em>Dryomys nitedulaem> (Pallas, 1779 (Rodentia, Gliridae

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    Maria Grazia Filippucci

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new record of <em>Dryomys nitedulaem> from the massif of Pollino (Southern Italy is given and the value of the subspecific division (<em>D. nitedula intermediusem>, <em>D. nitedula aspromontisem> in Italy is discussed. Riassunto Viene segnalato il ritrovamento di un esemplare di <em>Dryomys nitedulaem> sul Massiccio del Pollino e ridiscusso il valore della ripartizione sottospecifica (<em>D. nitedula intermediusem>, <em>D. nitedula aspromontisem> in Italia.

  1. Antioxidative Properties of Crude Polysaccharides from <em>Inonotus obliquusem>

    OpenAIRE

    Jinyou Duan; Guoting Cui; Wuxia Zhang; Haibo Mu; Amin Zhang; Shunchun Wang

    2012-01-01

    The mushroom <em>Inonotus obliquusem>> em>has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA) were isolated from <em>I. obliquusem>, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1 and IOA-1 were obtained respectively after deproteination and depigmentation. Their contents, such as neutral carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein, were...

  2. Occurrence and biology of Tolype innocens (Burmeister on blueberry Ocorrência e biologia de Tolype innocens (Burmeister em mirtilo

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    Renata Salvador Louzada

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 is reported for the first time damaging blueberry (Vaccinium ashei plants in Brazil having the caterpillars feeding on leaves and new shoots. T. innocens biology was studied on blueberry leaves in laboratory conditions and then a fertility life table was elaborated. Developmental time and viability of egg, larval and pupal stages and egg-adult period were 15.0 and 35.3, 33.3 and 84.5, 20.6 and 100, and 69.2 days and 45%, respectively. Average pupal weight was 0.840g for the females and 0.580g for the males. The sex ratio was 0.5. Pre-oviposition and oviposition time lasted 6.34 and 12.1 days, respectively. Mean fecundity was 251 eggs per female. Eggs were laid either individually or in masses. Longevity was 19.0 and 20.0 days for males and females, respectively. T. innocens population increased 47 times per generation, with a mean generation time of 77 days, and a finite rate of increase of 1.02. This data on biological parameters will be useful for establishing control strategies.A ocorrência de Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 (Lasiocampidae é relatada pela primeira vez danificando o mirtileiro (Vaccinium ashei no Brasil, sendo que as lagartas se alimentam das folhas e ramos novos. Em laboratório, foi estudada a biologia em folhas de mirtilo em condições controladas de temperatura (25±1ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotofase (12h e elaborada a tabela de vida de fertilidade. A duração e a viabilidade dos estágios de ovo, lagarta e pupa, e período ovo-adulto foram de 15,0 e 35,3; 33,3 e 84,5; 20,6 e 100; e 69,2 dias e 45%, respectivamente. O peso médio de pupas foi de 0,840g para as fêmeas e 0,580g para os machos. A razão sexual foi de 0,5. Os períodos de pré-oviposição e oviposição foram de 6,34 e 12,1 dias, respectivamente. A fecundidade média foi de 251 ovos por fêmea, colocados de forma isolada ou em massas. A longevidade dos machos foi de 19,0 dias e das fêmeas de 20,0 dias. T

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Various Parts of <em>Cinnamomum> cassiaem> Extracted with Different Extraction Methods

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    Li-Yeh Chuang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities of various parts (barks, buds, and leaves of <em>Cinnamomum cassia em>extracted with ethanol and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. For the antioxidant activity comparison, IC50 values of the SFE and ethanol extracts in the DPPH scavenging assay were 0.562–10.090 mg/mL and 0.072–0.208 mg/mL, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values were 6.789–58.335 mmole Trolox/g and 133.039–335.779 mmole Trolox/g, respectively. In addition, the total flavonoid contents were 0.031–1.916 g/ 100 g dry weight of materials (DW and 2.030–3.348 g/ 100 g DW, and the total phenolic contents were 0.151–2.018 g/ 100 g DW and 6.313–9.534 g/ 100 g DW in the SFE and ethanol extracts, respectively. Based on the results, the ethanol extracts of <em>Cinnamon> barks have potential value as an antioxidant substitute and this study also provide a better technique to extract the natural antioxidant substances from <em>C. cassiaem>.

  4. Effects of replacing fish meal with silkworm pupae on muscle nutrients of GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus)%蚕蛹替代鱼粉对吉富罗非鱼肌肉营养成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑雯; 罗莉; 黄先智; 陈拥军; 朱旺明; 黄旺; 林肯

    2016-01-01

    An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing fish meal (FM) with silk-worm pupae(SP) on muscle nutrients of GIFT (Orecochromis niloticus).Five isonitrogenous (crude protein 32%) and isolipidic (ether extract 5.5%) diets (based diet contained 8% fish meal )were formulated by replacing 0%(control), 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% FM with SP, they were named as SP0, SP25, SP50, SP75 and SP100 respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of 20 fish with an initial body weight of (44.40 ±0.41)g.The results showed that:crude protein (CP), ash, total amino acids, essential amino acids contents of muscle of GIFT decreased significantly with dietary SP increasing, while muscle ether extract (EE) content had no significant difference ; Total amino acids, essential amino acids contents of muscle in SP100 group decreased by 3.99% and 3.46% compared with SP0 group.As dietary SP levels increased, fatty acid C18∶3n-3 and C20∶5n-3 in muscle of GIFT increased gradually and C18∶2n-6 declined.Com-paring with SP0 group, C18∶3n-3, C20∶5n-3 contents in muscle of SP100 group improved 105.33% and 132.72% re-spectively.In conclusion, replacement of fish meal with silkworm pupae can significantly improve C 18∶3n-3 and C20∶5n-3 contents of muscle, which is helpful to produce fish meat rich in n -3PUFA.%试验以300尾初始体重为(44.40±0.41)g 的吉富罗非鱼(GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus)为研究对象,分别饲喂用蚕蛹(SP)替代0、25%、50%、75%和100%鱼粉(FM)的5种等氮(32%)等脂(5.5%)的饲料(分别命名SP0、 SP25、 SP50、 SP75和 SP100,基础饲料中含8%的鱼粉),每组3重复,每重复20尾鱼,在室内循环水养殖系统进行为期8周的生长试验,旨在探讨蚕蛹替代鱼粉对吉富罗非鱼肌肉营养成分的影响。结果表明:随蚕蛹替代水平上升,吉富罗非鱼肌肉粗蛋白、灰分、总氨基酸、必需氨基酸显著下

  5. <em>Neoromicia> Roberts, 1926 (Mammalia Vespertilionidae: correction of gender and etymology

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    Marco Riccucci

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto <em>Neoromicia> Roberts, 1926 (Mammalia, Verspetilionidae: Correzione del genere grammaticale ed etimologia <em>Neoromicia> Roberts, 1926, sinora considerato erroneamente di genere maschile, è in realtà femminile. La sua etimologia deriva quasi certamente dal Greco antico "ρóμιζα", corrispondente al latino "<em>Rumex>" (sorta di giavellotto, per la presenza di un cospicuo sperone calcaneale in <em>Romicia calcarataem>, specie tipo del genere.

  6. Activity-Guided Isolation of Antioxidant Compounds from <em>Rhizophora apiculataem>

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    Hongbin Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available <em>Rhizophora apiculataem> (<em>R. apiculataem> contains an abundance of biologically active compounds due its special salt-tolerant living surroundings. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of various extract and fractions of stem of <em>R. apiculataem> were investigated. Results indicated that butanol fraction possesses the highest total phenolic content (181.84 mg/g GAE/g dry extract with strongest antioxidant abilities. Following <em>in vitroem> antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, lyoniresinol-3α-<em>O>-β-arabinopyranoside (1, lyoniresinol-3α-<em>O>-β-rhamnoside (2, and afzelechin-3-<em>O>-L-rhamno-pyranoside (3 were separated from the butanol fraction. These compounds showed more noticeable antioxidant activity than a BHT standard in the DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. HPLC analysis results showed that among different plant parts, the highest content of 13 was located in the bark (0.068%, 0.066% and 0.011%, respectively. The results imply that the <em>R. apiculataem> might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 13 are antioxidant ingredients in <em>R. apiculataem>.

  7. CATETERES EM TERAPIA INTENSIVA

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    Carolina de Deus Lisboa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa com os objetivos de identificar falhas na administração de medicamentos por sondas e caracterizar a interrupção ou não da nutrição no caso de medicamentos que exigem jejum relativo. Estudo epidemiológico, transversal, observacional, numa terapia intensiva, com amostra de 350 doses administradas por 56 técnicos de enfermagem. Resultados mostraram que não houve pausa entre a administração do medicamento e a infusão de dieta enteral em 116 (33,14% doses de medicamentos que necessitavam de jejum relativo, entre os quais captopril, varfarina sódica, levotiroxina sódica, digoxina e fenitoína sódica. A irrigação das sondas não ocorreu na maioria dos casos (94,28%. Conclui-se que é possível que os medicamentos citados tenham tido sua biodisponibilidade sérica reduzida, comprometendo sua eficácia terapêutica e que a falta da prática de irrigar sondas com água estéril, antes de administrar medicamentos, configura-se como a ausência de um cuidado específico fundamental para evitar a obstrução das mesmas.

  8. Aspectos biológicos e morfológicos de Mimallo amilia (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae em folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla Biological and morphological aspects of Mimallo amilia (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae in Eucalyptus urophylla leaves

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    Teresinha Vinha Zanuncio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Mimallo amilia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae foi estudada em folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla em laboratório a 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% de umidade relativa e fotoperíodo de 12 horas de luz e 12 horas de escuro. Essa espécie teve duração da fase larval de 34,88 dias e cinco estádios larvais. Houve mortalidade de lagartas no primeiro, terceiro e quarto estádios com 5,00; 7,89; e 14,28%, respectivamente. Os períodos de pré-pupa e de pupa foram de 4,33 ± 0,33 e 3,90 ± 0,23 e de 18,78 ± 0,69 e 18,82 ± 0,41 dias para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente. Cada fêmea de M. amilia depositou 4,86 ± 0,48 posturas com 19,84 ± 1,76 ovos por postura. O período de incubação dos ovos foi de 8,60 ± 0,24 dias, com viabilidade de 88,63%. A longevidade de adultos foi de 5,66 ± 0,61 e 9,22 ± 0,79 dias, com envergadura das asas de 42,70 ± 0,32 e 49,70 ± 0,17 mm para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente, e razão sexual de 0,56. As lagartas dessa espécie apresentaram tamanho de 0,90 ± 0,01 mm no primeiro estádio a 4,40 ± 1,42 mm no último.The biology of Mimallo amilia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae was studied on Eucalyptus urophylla leaves in laboratory conditions (25 ± 2ºC, 60 ± 10% relative humidity and 12L:12D photoperiod. This species showed 33.88 day for the larval stage with five larval instars. Larval mortality occurred during first, third and fourth instars with 5.00, 7.89 and 14.28%, respectively. Pre-pupa and pupa stages lasted 4.33 ± 0.33 and 3.90 ± 0.23, and 18.78 ± 0.69 and 18.82 ± 0.41 days for males and females, respectively. Each female laid 4.86 ± 0.48 egg masses with 19.84 ± 1.76 eggs per egg mass. Incubation period lasted 8.60 ± 0.24 days with 88.63%. egg viability. Adult longevity was 5.66 ± 0.61 and 9.22 ± 0.79 days with adult wingspan of 42.70 ± 0.32 and 49.70 ± 0.17 mm for males and females, respectively, with 0.56 sex ratio. Length of this species' caterpillars was 0.90 ± 0.01 mm at the

  9. Functional Expression in <em>Esc>herichia coliem> of the Disulfide-Rich Sea Anemone Peptide APETx2, a Potent Blocker of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 3

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    Glenn F. King

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs are proton-gated sodium channels present in the central and peripheral nervous system of chordates. ASIC3 is highly expressed in sensory neurons and plays an important role in inflammatory and ischemic pain. Thus, specific inhibitors of ASIC3 have the potential to be developed as novel analgesics. APETx2, isolated from the sea anemone <em>Anthopleura elegantissimaem>,> em>is the most potent and selective inhibitor of ASIC3-containing channels<em>.> However, the mechanism of action of APETx2 and the molecular basis for its interaction with ASIC3 is not known. In order to assist in characterizing the ASIC3-APETx2 interaction, we developed an efficient and cost-effective <em>Escherichia coliem> periplasmic expression system for the production of APETx2. NMR studies on uniformly 13C/15N-labelled APETx2 produced in <em>E. coliem> showed that the recombinant peptide adopts the native conformation. Recombinant APETx2 is equipotent with synthetic APETx2 at inhibiting ASIC3 channels expressed in <em>Xenopus> oocytes. Using this system we mutated Phe15 to Ala, which caused a profound loss of APETx2’s activity on ASIC3. These findings suggest that this expression system can be used to produce mutant versions of APETx2 in order to facilitate structure-activity relationship studies.

  10. Casca de soja em dietas para coelhos em crescimento

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina Kohlrausch Klinger; Geni Salete Pinto de Toledo; Daniel Prois Eggers; Alexandra Pretto; Michael Chimainski; Leila Picolli da Silva

    2015-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar efeitos da inclusão de casca de soja em substituição ao feno de alfafa sobre o desempenho, características da carcaça e trato gastrointestinal e parâmetros bioquímicos de coelhos em fase de crescimento. Foram utilizados 30 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branca, divididos igualmente em três tratamentos, compostos pela dieta experimental padrão (sem inclusão de casca de soja); e pelas dietas com 50% e 100% de substituição de alfafa por casca de soja...

  11. Chemical Profiles and Identification of Key Compound Caffeine in Marine-Derived Traditional Chinese Medicine <em>Ostreae em>concha>

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    Hong-Bing Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To compare the chemical differences between the medicinal and<em> em>cultured oyster shells, their chemical profiles were investigated. Using the ultra performance liquid chromatography-electron spraying ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS, combined with principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA, the discrimination of the chemical characteristics among the medicinal and cultured oyster shells was established. Moreover, the chemometric analysis revealed some potential key compounds. After a large-scale extraction and isolation, one target key compound was unambiguously identified as caffeine (1 based on extensive spectroscopic data analysis (1D and 2D NMR, MS, and UV and comparison with literature data.

  12. Flutuação populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton em Citrus deliciosa e no híbrido Murcott Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton population fluctuation in Citrus deliciosa and Murcott hybrid Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata

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    Cristiane Ramos de Jesus

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a dinâmica populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae, o minador-dos-citros, em pomares de tangerineira Citrus deliciosa Tenore variedade Montenegrina e de tangoreiro híbrido "Murcott" Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck X Citrus reticulata Blanco, com manejo orgânico, em Montenegro (29° 68'S e 51° 46'O, Rio Grande do Sul. Foram realizadas amostragens quinzenais de julho de 2001 a junho de 2003. Os brotos coletados foram examinados em laboratório e submetidos à análise do número de folhas por broto, a da presença ou ausência de minas, do número de minas, dos ovos, das larvas e das pupas de P. citrella. Em ambos os pomares não houve registro de minas de P. citrella no primeiro fluxo de brotação, de agosto a outubro. No ano I, as maiores densidades de minas foram registradas em meados de novembro, início de janeiro e início de abril, em ambos os pomares. No ano II, constataram-se as maiores densidades de minas e larvas em janeiro e em abril, em C. deliciosa, e de dezembro a março em "Murcott". Embora o número médio de brotos registrado tenha sido sempre maior em C. deliciosa, a colonização e o estabelecimento do minador-dos-citros seguiram o mesmo padrão em ambos os pomares. A temperatura mínima e média e a umidade relativa do ar foram os fatores abióticos que apresentaram maior influência no número de minas e de larvas de P. citrella.To evaluate the population dynamics of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae, the citrus leafminer, in tangerine Citrus deliciosa Tenore var. Montenegrina and tangor 'Murcott' Citrus sinensis L Osbeck X Citrus reticulata Blanco in organically managed orchards, in Montenegro (29° 68'S e 51° 46'W, RS, fortnightly samples were carried out from July 2001 to June 2003. Sampled shoots were examined in the lab and the number of leaves, presence or absence of mines and the number of mines, eggs, larvae and

  13. Evaluations of sampling methods for “Darkling beetles” ( Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae in the litter of broiler houses/ Avaliação de métodos de amostragem de “Cascudinhos” Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae em cama de frangos de corte

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    Marcelo Vasconcelos Meireles

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The Alphitobius diaperinus has been globally one of the major ectoparasites of the modern poultry production. With the industrial poultry expansion, this coleopteran has found in poultry facilities an excellent habitat for its development. Adults, eggs, larvae and pupae are found under the litter surface, in equipment and in cracks of the floors and walls, where they can cause remarkable damages. The counting of the A. diaperinus population using quantitative methods of sampling is of fundamental importance for the establishment of appropriate control measures and for evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticides. The present study was carried out in the experimental aviary of the “ Center of Researches in Animal health” - CPPAR - FCAVJ/UNESP, where two methods of quantification of A. diaperinus were evaluated: the method of modified traps of Arends and the method of bricks, for counting of A. diaperinus in the chicken little. It was concluded that the two sampling methods employed did not differ (P>0,05 in the evaluation of infestation for adults and larvae of A. diaperinus.O Alphitobius diaperinus tem se apresentado mundialmente como uma das principais pragas da avicultura moderna. Com a expansão avícola industrial, este coleóptero conhecido como cascudinho encontrou junto às instalações avícolas habitat ideal para seu desenvolvimento. Adultos, ovos, larvas e pupas são encontrados sob a superfície da cama, em equipamentos e em frestas dos pisos e paredes, podendo causar inúmeros prejuízos. O monitoramento da população de A. diaperinus, utilizando métodos quantitativos de amostragem, é de fundamental importância para o estabelecimento de medidas de controle e para avaliação da eficácia de medicamentos. O presente estudo foi conduzido no aviário experimental do “Centro de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal” – CPPAR – FCAVJ/UNESP, onde foram avaliados dois métodos de quantificação de A. diaperinus: armadilhas

  14. Thermal Studies of Zn(II, Cd(II and Hg(II Complexes of Some <em>N-Alkyl-N>-Phenyl-Dithiocarbamates

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    Peter A. Ajibade

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The thermal decomposition of Zn(II, Cd(II and Hg(II complexes of <em>N-ethyl-N>-phenyl and <em>N-butyl-N>-phenyl dithiocarbamates have been studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The products of the decomposition, at two different temperatures, were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The results show that while the zinc and cadmium complexes undergo decomposition to form metal sulphides, and further undergo oxidation forming metal oxides as final products, the mercury complexes gave unstable volatiles as the final product.

  15. Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View more Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma Emergency medical services (EMS) providers care for individuals ... hospital be part of the regional and statewide trauma system? Yes. According to Safety in Numbers: Are ...

  16. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, <em>Bactrocera dorsalisem> Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, <em>Bactrocera dorsalisem> (Hendel, and evaluate the chemotaxis of <em>B>. <em>dorsalis> to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE, 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were assigned to the five bacterial classes <em>Betaproteobacteria>, <em>Alphaproteobacteria>, <em>Gammaproteobacteria>, <em>Bacilli> and <em>Actinobacteria>. Nine OTUs were assigned to <em>Gammaproteobacteria>, which was the most highly represented class. <em>Enterobacteriaceae> constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including <em>Enterobacter sakazakiiem>, <em>Klebsiella> <em>oxytoca>, <em>Klebsiella> <em>pneumoniae,> Raoultellaem> <em>terrigena em>and <em>Enterobacter> <em>amnigenus>. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by <em>R.> terrigenaem>, <em>K. oxytocaem> and <em>K.> pneumoniae em>were attractive to the <em>B.> dorsalisem> adults, and in field studies, <em>B.> dorsalisem> adults were most attracted to <em>K.> oxytocaem>. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly.

  17. Densità di Lepre (<em>Lepus europaeusem>) e Silvilago (<em>Sylvilagus floridanusem>) in ambienti planiziali

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Bertolino; Perrone, A.; Laura Gola

    2003-01-01

    Il silvilago (<em>Sylvilagus floridanusem>) è un leporide d?origine nordamericana, introdotto in Italia a partire dal 1966 a scopo venatorio. Attualmente la specie è diffusa soprattutto in Piemonte e nella parte occidentale della Lombardia. Il silvilago potrebbe interferire con l?autoctona lepre comune (<em>Lepus europaeusem>), anche se i dati al riguardo sono limitati. Nell?autunno-inverno 2002-2003 abbiamo condotto dei censimenti notturni con faro in alcune aree ...

  18. Pobreza e desigualdade em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Sabença, Cindy Sofia dos Santos Alves Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    A conjuntura económica atual levanta questões sobre a condição de vida e bem-estar da sociedade, obrigando a uma reflexão aprofundada sobre a Pobreza e Desigualdade em Portugal. Este estudo tem como objetivo caracterizar a situação portuguesa e apresentar quais os determinantes da Pobreza em Portugal. Para tal é utilizada a base de dados estatísticos do Eurostat não só para a caracterização da sociedade portuguesa num contexto europeu, como também para desenvolver um modelo de estimação linea...

  19. Cluster de ventiladores em Catanduva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M. Onusic

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de um levantamento feito na cidade de Catanduva sobre a indústria de ventiladores nela instalada. É, inicialmente, apresentado o conceito de cluster, para, em seguida, serem apresentadas as características do setor de ventiladores de Catanduva, fazendo uma comparação desse setor com o conceito de cluster. Diversos aspectos mostram o interesse em considerar o setor como um cluster e são feitas sugestões para seu aprimoramento.

  20. Do sentimento em Florbela Espanca

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Custódia de Jesus Gonçalves

    2005-01-01

    The thesis Do Sentimento em Florbela Espanca presents as its main object of study the feelings and emotions displayed in the works of Florbela Espanca, Livro de Mágoas, Livro de Soror Saudade and Charneca em Flor. This theme is then consolidated in four subthemes, which are – Florbela, the Woman, Social and Cultural Framings, the Canon-Law and the Course Books. Thus, we have Florbela Espanca portrayed as an ordinary woman, with her obscure birth, her personal and academic progress. I...

  1. Anorexia e bulimia em odontopediatria

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, Fernanda Barros

    2015-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária Introdução: A procura de um ideal de beleza e a obsessão pela estética imposta pela sociedade moderna em que se vive têm promovido o aumento do número de pessoas com transtornos alimentares, como por exemplo, a anorexia nervosa e a bulimia nervosa. Esses transtornos contribuem para o aumento de pacientes com prejuízos, diretos e indi...

  2. Procedimentos substantivos em auditoria financeira

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Sofia Pires dos

    2014-01-01

    O presente relatório visa a conclusão do mestrado em Auditoria e Análise Financeira, cujo tema é Auditoria Financeira e procura apresentar as tarefas desenvolvidas por mim, durante o estágio curricular, enquanto assistente de auditoria na empresa Rosa Lopes Gonçalves Mendes & Associados, SROC, Lda., no Entroncamento durante 22 semanas. O relatório é composto por quatro capítulos em que nos primeiros três capítulos faço uma abordagem teórica geral à auditoria financeira, cujo objetivo é a i...

  3. Objetos mediadores em museus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Um museu participativo incentiva a que a experiência da visita seja criativa e pessoal. Facilita a participação biográfica do visitante - com a sua experiência, conhecimento e interesses. Muitas exposições, porém, não promovem esse envolvimento pessoal. Neste artigo apresentamos uma revisão da literatura que indicia que a mediação com objetos mediadores facilita o envolvimento pessoal, a construção de conhecimento e a criatividade. O problema teórico que colocamos é se os museus mais tradicionais se podem abrir à participação e, neste contexto, o nosso objetivo é perceber que papel podem ter os objetos mediadores nesse processo. Discutimos o recurso a objetos mediadores como forma de adicionar múltiplos níveis de relação e modos de ver, potencial que consideramos subaproveitado em muitos museus. Começamos por apresentar o museu como espaço potencialmente participativo, que convida a um envolvimento ativo e crítico – ativo, porque o visitante é desafiado a fazer coisas; crítico, porque é estimulado a pensar, optar, discutir e refletir. Discutimos depois diferentes formas de usar objetos mediadores para incentivar o visitante a um envolvimento com os artefactos, recorrendo à memória, experiência, conhecimento e sentimentos. A participação biográfica potencia o cruzamento entre o mundo interior do visitante e os artefactos e conteúdos do museu. Esse espaço de cruzamento - inbetween - é o espaço da construção de conhecimento. Apresentamos diversas formas de um museu, mesmo não sendo interativo, se tornar mais criativo e participativo, o que pode contribuir para uma mudança nas práticas dos museus, nomeadamente na montagem e remodelação de exposições permanentes.

  4. Effects of Two Varieties of <em>Bacillus thuringiensisem> Maize on the Biology of <em>Plodia interpunctellaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Grégoire

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available On the market since 1996, genetically modified plants expressing an insecticidal toxin (Cry toxin stemmed from <em>Bacillus thuringiensisem> target several lepidopteran and coleopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the impact of two varieties of <em>Bt em>maize producing different toxins (Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa, respectively on the biology of a storage pest: <em>Plodia interpunctella em>(Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. The Indianmeal moths were susceptible to both toxins but showed an escape behavior only from Cry1Fa. The weight of females issued from larvae reared on Cry1Ab increased with increasing toxin concentration, but adults of both sexes reared on Cry1Fa had decreased weight. Both toxins increased development time from egg to adult regardless of sex and had no impact on the male adult lifespan. Finally, we recorded a time lag between metamorphosis from the non-<em>Bt em>and the <em>Bt em>diets, which increased proportionally to Cry concentration in the <em>Bt em>diet.

  5. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Aqueous Extracts and Fractionation of Different Parts of <em>Elsholtzia em>ciliata>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity of extract and fractions from various parts of <em>Elsholtzia ciliataem>. The inflorescences, leaves, stems and roots of <em>E. ciliataem> were extracted separately and two phenolic component enrichment methods: ethyl acetate-water liquid-liquid extraction and macroporous resin adsorption-desorption, were adopted in this study. The antioxidant activities of water extracts and fractions of <em>E. ciliataem> were examined using different assay model systems <em>in vitroem>. The fraction root E (purified by HPD300 macroporous resin exhibited the highest total phenolics content (497.2 ± 24.9 mg GAE/g, accompanied with the highest antioxidant activity against various antioxidant systems <em>in vitroem> compared to other fractions. On the basis of the results obtained, <em>E. ciliataem> extracts can be used potentially as a ready accessible and valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  6. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade em aveia em ambientes estratificados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertan Ivandro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L. foram avaliados para rendimento de grãos nas safras agrícolas de 2001 e 2002 em nove locais dos estados do Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar as estimativas dos componentes de adaptabilidade e estabilidade do rendimento de grãos em ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis em presença e ausência de aplicação de fungicida. Foi empregada a metodologia de EBERHART & RUSSELL (1966. A presença de significância para anos, genótipos, fungicidas e locais, indicou comportamento diferencial de genótipos frente às variações de ambiente e a aplicação de fungicida, nas condições de ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis. A aplicação de fungicida e o favorecimento do ambiente de cultivo afetaram intensamente os parâmetros de adaptabilidade (b1 e estabilidade (s²d i, indicando que estas estimativas devam ser realizadas em ambientes estratificados, apesar de nenhuma constituição genética ter evidenciado o biótipo ideal, conforme preconizado pelo modelo adotado.

  7. Rodent hosts of <em>Maritrema> sp. (Digenea, Microphallidae in Sardinia Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Casanova

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Prospections on helminth fauna of rodents were carried out in the Cedrino river (Eastern of Sardinia island. Twelve <em>Rattus rattusem> (L., 1758 and eight <em>Mus domesticusem> (Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943 were captured by Sherman traps. Parasitological study revealed in <em>R. rattusem> the presence of an intestinal helminth belonging to the genus <em>Maritrema> (family Microphallidae. The transmission of this Digenetic Trematode among vertebrates involves the participation of aquatic invertebrate organisms, molluscs and crustacea, acting as intermediate hosts. Dissection of 117 individuals of the Amphipod Crustacea <em>Gammarus italicusem>, collected in the same biotope, allowed the detection of encysted metacercariae. These larvae constitute the infesting stage of the parasite for vertebrates, acting these as definitive hosts ingesting parasitized crustacea as preys. Adults of <em>Maritrema> sp. were also obtained experimentally in the laboratory mice (<em>Mus domesticusem> CD1 strain. These were infested by inoculating them, using gastric probe, metacercarial cysts isolated from <em>G. italicusem>. Post-infection mice dissection was performed at different intervals of time getting adults in various maturity stages. Experimental facts confirm that <em>Maritrema> sp., as it occurs in other trematodes, do not present strict specificity to the definitive host, being able to develop as well in <em>Mus>. In nature, the presence or absence of this digenean in mammals species will be dependent of host ethological factors, mainly related to feeding habitats. This study was partially supported by the ?Comissionat per Recerca i Universitats de la Generalitat de Catalunya? 2001SGR00088.

  8. A Novel Apoptosis Correlated Molecule: Expression and Characterization of Protein Latcripin-1 from <em>Lentinula em>edodes> C91–3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An apoptosis correlated molecule—protein Latcripin-1 of <em>Lentinula> edodesem> C91-3—was expressed and characterized in <em>Pichia pastorisem> GS115. The total RNA was obtained from <em>Lentinula edodesem> C91–3. According to the transcriptome, the full-length gene of Latcripin-1 was isolated with 3'-Full Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE and 5'-Full RACE methods. The full-length gene was inserted into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K. The protein Latcripin-1 was expressed in <em>Pichia pastorisem> GS115 and analyzed by Sodium Dodecylsulfonate Polyacrylate Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The Western blot showed that the protein was expressed successfully. The biological function of protein Latcripin-1 on A549 cells was studied with flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide (MTT method. The toxic effect of protein Latcripin-1 was detected with the MTT method by co-culturing the characterized protein with chick embryo fibroblasts. The MTT assay results showed that there was a great difference between protein Latcripin-1 groups and the control group (<em>p em>< 0.05. There was no toxic effect of the characterized protein on chick embryo fibroblasts. The flow cytometry showed that there was a significant difference between the protein groups of interest and the control group according to apoptosis function (<em>p em>< 0.05. At the same time, cell ultrastructure observed by transmission electron microscopy supported the results of flow cytometry. The work demonstrates that protein Latcripin-1 can induce apoptosis of human lung cancer cells A549 and brings new insights into and advantages to finding anti-tumor proteins.

  9. Allometric and Isometric variations in the Italian <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> and <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> with respect to the conditions of allopatry and sympatry / Variazioni allometriche e isometriche in <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> e <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> italiani, rispetto alle condizioni di allopatria e simpatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amori

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy there are two species of <em>Apodemus> (<em>Sylvaemus>: <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> on the mainland and the main island, and <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> only on the mainland. The trend of some morphometric characters of the skull (incisive foramen length - FI; interorbital breadth = IO; length of palatal bridge = PP; upper alveolar length = $M^1M^3$ was analized and some theoretical models verified for <em>A. sylvaticusem>. If one considers the sympatric population of <em>A. sylvaticusem> and <em>A. flavicollisem> simultaneously the characters PP, IO and $M^1M^3$ appear significantly isometric being directly correlated ($P leq O.O1$, while FI character results allometric with respect to the previous ones, as expected. If one considers the sympatric populations of each of the species separately, the scenario is different. For <em>A. sylvaticusem> only PP and $M^1M^3$ are isometric ($P leq 0.05$. For <em>A. flavicollisem> only $M^1M^3$ and FI appear to be correlated, although not as significantly as for <em>A. sylvaticusem> ($P le 0.05$; one tail. The insular populations of <em>A. sylvaticusem> do not show significant correlations, except for FI and $M^1M^3$ ($P le 0.05$. On the contrary, considering all populations, sympatric and allopatric, of <em>A. sylvaticusem> at the same time are significant correlations ($P le 0.05$ in all combinations of characters, except for those involving the IO. We suggest that the isometric relations in sympatric assemblages are confined within a morphological range available to the genus <em>Apodemus>. In such a space, the two species are split in two different and innerly homogeneous distributions. We found no evidence to confirm the niche variation hypothesis. On the contrary, the variability expressed as SO or CV's appears higher in the sympatric populations than in the allopatric ones, for three of the four characters, confirming previous results

  10. Parasitic zoonoses: survey in foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in the northern Apennines / Zoonosi parassitarie: indagini in volpi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> dell'Appennino settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Guberti

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A parasitological survey on 153 foxes was carried out in the northern Apennines, during the period 1984-1987. The following parasites were identified: <em>Toxocara canisem> (46.4%, <em>Taenia> sp. (17%, <em>Uncinaria stenocephalaem> (11.8%, <em>Mesocestoides lineatusem> (11.1%, <em>Ancylostoma caninumem> (3.9%, <em>Taenia hydatigenaem> (3.3%, <em>Trichuris vulpisem> (3.3%, <em>Dipylidium caninumem> (2.6%, <em>Taenia crassicepsem> (2%. All foxes were negative for <em>Trichinella> sp. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate differences in the parasitic fauna according to the sex and age classes of the hosts. The role that the fox could have as a reservoir of helminthic zoonoses is discussed. The results are compared with those of similar studies carried out in Italy. Riassunto Nel periodo 1984-1987 è stata condotta un'indagine parassitologica su 153 volpi abbattute nell'Appennino romagnolo. Sono stati reperiti i seguenti parassiti: <em>Toxocara canisem> (46,4%, <em>Taenia> sp. (17%, <em>Uncinaria stenocephalaem> (11,8%, <em>Mesocestoides lineatusem> (11,1%, <em>Ancylostoma caninumem> (3,9%, <em>Taenia hydatigenaem> (3,3%, <em>Trichuris vulpisem> (3,3%, <em>Dipylidium caninumem> (2,6%, <em>Taenia crassicepsem> (2%. Tutte le volpi esaminate sono risultate negative per <em>Trichinella> sp. È stata effettuata l'analisi statistica dei dati per evidenziare eventuali differenze della fauna parassitaria in relazione al sesso e all'età delle volpi. Sulla base dei dati ottenuti viene discussa l'importanza che la Volpe può assumere come serbatoio di zoonosi elmintiche. I risultati acquisiti sono inoltre comparati con quelli ottenuti in analoghe ricerche condotte in Italia.

  11. Action of Chitosan Against <em>Xanthomonas> Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from <em>Euphorbia pulcherrimaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity and mechanism of two kinds of chitosan were investigated against twelve <em>Xanthomonas> strains recovered from <em>Euphorbia pulcherrimaem>. Results indicated that both chitosans markedly inhibited bacterial growth based on OD loss. Furthermore, the release of DNA and RNA from three selected strains was increased by both chitosans. However, the release of intracellular proteins was inhibited by both chitosans at different concentration and incubation times, except chitosan A at 0.1 mg/mL for 0.5 h incubation and 0.2 mg/mL for 2.0 h incubation increased the release of proteins, indicating the complexity of the interaction and cell membranes, which was affected by incubation time, bacterial species, chitosan type and concentration. Transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that chitosan caused changes in protoplast concentration and surface morphology. In some cells, the membranes and walls were badly distorted and disrupted, while other cells were enveloped by a thick and compact ribbon-like layer. The contrary influence on cell morphology may explain the differential effect in the release of material. In addition, scanning electron microscope and biofilm formation test revealed that both chitosans removed biofilm biomass. Overall, this study showed that membrane and biofilm play an important role in the antibacterial mechanism of chitosan.

  12. EMS wave logger data processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Waves can be measured in several ways. One way of measuring waves is by measuring the wave pressure at a certain depth using a pressure sensor and calculate the wave information from the pressure record. The EMS wave logger uses a Honeywell MLH 050 PGP 06A pressure sensor. The information is stored

  13. First sign of <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> in the Po valley plain / Prima segnalazione in Pianura Padana di <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Nieder

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> (Schreber, 1790 populations is reported in the Po valley, formerly considered outside the distribution area of the species. An initial series of captures was made in the high-water area of the Po near S. Nazzaro (Monticelli d'Ongina - PC following with research was extended along the river's banks in Emilia both upstream and downstream. The search for this species was carried out by analysing food pellets relating to <em>Strix alucoem>, <em>Tyto albaem> e <em>Athene noctuaem>, thought to be among the most common predators of these intensive herbaceous and arboreal agricultural biocoenosis. The information we gathered was integrated with other Authors' unpublished and bibliographical data. The presence of <em>C. glareolusem> was noted in habitats quite different from the expected ones. Many of the problems raised by the presence of this species in "islands" along the main body of the Po river and its tributaries, and by its presumed absence from particulary suitable environments such as the Carrega woods, the Ticino park and Mesola wood must still be resolved. Riassunto Viene segnalata la presenza di popolazioni di <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> (Schreber 1790 nella pianura Padana precedentemente considerata al di fuori dell'areale della specie. A partire da una prima serie di catture nell'area golenale del Po presso S. Nazzaro (Monticelli d'Ongina - PC, si è successivamente proceduto ad allargare l'area di ricerca lungo l'argine emiliano del Po, sia a monte sia a valle. La ricerca di questa specie è avvenuta tramite l'analisi di boli alimentari relativi a <em>Strix alucoem>, <em>Tyto albaem> e <em>Athene noctuaem>, ritenuti tra i più comuni predatori di queste biocenosi agricole intensive erbacee ed arboree. I dati da noi raccolti sono stati integrati con quelli bibliografici e inediti di altri Autori. È stata riscontrata la presenza

  14. Distribution, host specificity, and the potential for cryptic speciation in hoverfly <em>Microdon myrmicaeem> (Diptera: Syrphidae), a social parasite of <em>Myrmica> ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonelli, Simona; Witek, Magdalena; Canterino, Sara;

    2011-01-01

    least the western Palaearctic. 2. Current knowledge of the European distributions of both Microdon myrmicae and Microdon mutabilis in Europe is reviewed. Also, in detailed studies of two Polish populations, Microdon myrmicae was found to survive equally well with two Myrmica ant species. We examine...... relative to its host ants. 4. In two populations Myrmica scabrinodis and Myrmica gallienii are both abundant and rear Microdon myrmicae in equal proportions. Microdon myrmicae pupae from Myrmica gallienii nests were heavier and the anterior respiratory organs were of significantly different shape. In......1. In 2002 Microdon myrmicae, a social parasite of Myrmica ants, was taxonomically separated from Microdon mutabilis. The original study in the U.K. found Microdon myrmicae to be specific to one ant species, Myrmica scabrinodis, yet it became apparent that the range of Microdon myrmicae includes at...

  15. Wavelet <em>q->Fisher Information for Scaling Signal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Trejo-Sanchez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article first introduces the concept of wavelet <em>q>-Fisher information  and then derives a closed-form  expression of this quantifier for scaling signals of parameter α.  It is shown that this information measure appropriately describes the complexities  of scaling signals and provides further analysis flexibility with the parameter<em> qem>. In the limit of <em>q → 1,em> wavelet <em>q>-Fisher information  reduces to the standard wavelet Fisher information  and for <em>q  > 2em> it reverses its behavior. Experimental results on synthesized fGn signals validates the level-shift  detection capabilities of wavelet q-Fisher information. A comparative study also shows that wavelet<em> qem>-Fisher information  locates structural changes in correlated and anti-correlated fGn signals in a way comparable with standard breakpoint location techniques but at a fraction of the time. Finally, the application of this quantifier to H.<em>263 em>encoded video signals is presented.

  16. Negative-Pressure Cavitation Extraction of Four Main Vinca Alkaloids from <em>Catharanthus em>roseus> Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an improved method termed negative-pressure cavitation extraction (NPCE followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC was developed for the extraction and quantification of vindoline (VDL, catharanthine (CTR, vincristine (VCR and vinblastine (VLB from <em>Catharanthus roseus em>leaves. The optimized method employed 60-mesh particles, 80% ethanol, a negative pressure of −0.075 MPa, a solid to liquid ratio of 1:20, 30 min of extraction and three extraction cycles. Under these optimized conditions, the extraction yields of VDL, CTR, VCR and VLB are 0.5783, 0.2843, 0.018 and 0.126 mg/g DW, respectively. These extraction yields are equivalent to those from the well-known ultrasonic extraction method and higher than the yields from maceration extraction and heating reflux extraction. Our results suggest that NPCE-RP-HPLC represents an excellent alternative for the extraction and quantification of vinca alkaloids for pilot- and industrial-scale applications.

  17. <em>Ipomoea aquaticaem> Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda it is recommended to consume <em>Ipomoea em>aquatica> to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of <em>I. aquaticaem> against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were orally fed with <em>I. aquaticaem> (250 and 500 mg/kg for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months. The results showed that the treatment of <em>I. aquaticaem> significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time. The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by <em>I. aquaticaem> treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that <em>I. aquaticaem> has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of <em>I. aquaticaem> in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of <em>I. aquaticaem> for the treatment of liver disorders.

  18. Cefaleia em salvas: aspectos clinicos e terapeuticos em 26 casos

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    Wilson Luiz Sanvito

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e seis casos de cefaléia-em-salvas são estudados do ponto de vista clínico e terapêutico. Nos aspectos clínicos são ressaltados a dramaticidade deste tipo de cefaléia, o nítido predomínio no sexo masculino, a média de idade dos pacientes, a presença de manifestações associadas e os fatores desencadeantes das crises nos períodos suscetíveis. Do ponto de vista terapêutico três esquemas medicamentosos foram utilizados: maleato de metisergida, prednisona e associação de ambas as drogas. Em 88,3% dos casos um resultado significativo foi alcançado, traduzido por melhora ou abolição das crises.

  19. Fatores de risco cardiovascular em alcoolistas em tratamento

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    Mayla Cardoso Fernandes Toffolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de fatores de risco cardiovascular, com ênfase na hipertensão e na adiposidade corporal, em alcoolistas abstinentes ou não abstinentes em tratamento. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com 65 pacientes alcoolistas em tratamento no CAP-Sad. O grau de dependência do álcool foi avaliado pelo SADD (Short Alcohol Dependence Data e o uso de outras drogas, pelo ASSIST (Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Foram avaliados o perfil bioquímico e o antropométrico dos usuários. RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo 42 homens e 23 mulheres. A maioria dos participantes (67,74% apresentou dependência alcoólica grave, com uso de álcool associado principalmente a cigarro (66,15%. A média da circunferência da cintura (CC foi significativamente maior entre os abstinentes, em comparação aos não abstinentes (AB: 88,15 ± 15,95 x NA: 81,04 ± 9,86; p = 0,03. Pacientes abstinentes há mais tempo tiveram maior sobrepeso/obesidade e adiposidade abdominal (CC do que os não abstinentes e abstinentes recentes, com razão de chances de 5,25. Os abstinentes apresentaram razão de chances de 3,38 para %GC acima da média, independente do tempo de abstinência. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes alcoolistas abstinentes apresentam mais sobrepeso/ obesidade, adiposidade corporal (%GC e abdominal (CC do que os não abstinentes. É importante o acompanhamento multiprofissional no tratamento de alcoolistas com abordagem para fatores de risco cardiovasculares, principalmente evitando o ganho de peso.

  20. Fadiga em plataformas offshore fixas com modelos em elementos finitos

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    Roberto Taier

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Quatro juntas tubulares de uma plataforma offshore fixa foram modeladas em elementos finitos para o cálculo das vidas à fadiga e comparação com os resultados obtidos através de modelos convencionais em elementos de barras. Foram também cotejados os fatores de concentração de tensões (SCF's, obtidos com base nas formulações paramétricas, com os calculados através dos modelos em elementos finitos. Os objetivos foram averiguar a validade do refinamento do cálculo da fadiga em juntas críticas da plataforma e avaliar as suas conseqüências na elaboração do plano de inspeção. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a análise por elementos finitos torna-se recomendada para juntas que não apresentam tipo e/ou comportamento compatíveis com as configurações padronizadas, normalmente utilizadas pelos programas. Das quatro juntas analisadas, duas delas não necessitariam fazer parte do plano de inspeção da plataforma.Four tubular joints of a fixed offshore platform were modelled using finite elements to evaluate respective fatigue lifes and comparison with the results obtained from conventional models in frame elements. Stress concentration factors (SCF's calculated from parametric formulas were also compared with those obtained from finite elements models. The results of this work have the intention of verifying the validity of the refinement of fatigue analysis on critical joints of the platform and the evaluation of its consequences in the inspection plan. Obtained results show that finite elements analysis is recommended for joints whose type and/or behaviour is not consistent with standard models, used by computational programs. From four analised joints, two of them would not need to be part of inspection plan.

  1. Predazione di Chirotteri da parte del Barbagianni (<em>Tyto albaem> in Italia

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    Edoardo Vernier

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Predation of Bats by the Barn Owl (<em>Tyto albaem> in Italy - The examination of Barn Owl (<em>Tyto albaem> pellets collected in northern Italy (Lombardia region, PO valley has revealed the presence of a number much higher than usual (0.03-0.26% of bat remains (2.37%. Enclosed is a tentative explanation of the relatively high frequence of the presence of bats of the genus <em>Pipistrellus> in Barn Owl pellets.

  2. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Bulb Extracts of Six <em>Lilium> Species Native to China

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    Lixin Niu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lily (<em>Lilium> is used as an important edible and medical plant species with a vague taxonomic classification and a long history in China. Bulbs of six <em>Lilium> species (<em>L. regaleem>,> L. concolorem>,> L. pumilumem>,> L. leucanthumem>,> L. davidii var. unicolorem> and <em>L. lancifoliumem> native to China were investigated with a view to their exploitation as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their phenolic composition and dietary antioxidant potential. The results showed that all bulb extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activities, which generally correlated positively with the total phenolic contents (r = 0.68 to 0.94, total flavonoid contents (r = 0.51 to 0.89 and total flavanol contents (r = 0.54 to 0.95. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis revealed that rutin and kaempferol were the major phenolic components in the extracts. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that <em>L. regaleem> belonged to the group with high phenolic content and strong antioxidant power. <em>L. concolorem> and <em>L. pumilumem> were arranged in one group characterized by moderate phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, while <em>L. leucanthumem>, <em>L. davidii var. unicolorem> and <em>L. lancifoliumem> were clustered in the third group with low phenolic content and weak antioxidant activity. These strongly suggest that lily bulbs may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant for food and pharmaceutical applications.

  3. Fadiga em idosos em tratamento quimioterápico

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    Thalyta Cristina Mansano-Schlosser

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa com delineamento transversal, realizada de agosto a dezembro de 2010, que objetivou identificar a presença e intensidade da fadiga em 140 idosos (média de idade 69,8 anos, 52,1% do sexo feminino com diagnóstico de câncer, em tratamento quimioterápico ambulatorial. Utilizou-se um questionário para caracterização sociodemográfica e clínica e a Escala de Fadiga de Piper-revisada. Identificou-se a presença de fadiga em 60 idosos (42,9% e a causa atribuída foi o câncer (64,1%, a quimioterapia (32,8% e o tratamento (3,1%. Como fator de alívio, os idosos entrevistados relataram "dormir", "rezar" e "morrer", enquanto 45% deles disseram "não ter o que fazer", pois a fadiga não poderia ser aliviada. Espera-se que este estudo alerte os profissionais de enfermagem para a relevância da fadiga e os estimule a identificar e realizar intervenções de enfermagem que visem o adequado manejo desse sintoma no paciente idoso oncológico.

  4. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of <em>Amaranthus cruentusem> L. and <em>Amaranthus hybridusem> L. Extracts

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    Jeanne F. Millogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of <em>Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentusem> and <em>Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridusem>, two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE, methanolic (ME, and aqueous extracts (AE from the aerial parts were screened for <em>in vitroem> antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight in <em>A. cruentusem> and <em>A. hybridusem>, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method and iron reducing power (FRAP method ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of <em>A. cruentus em>and <em>A. hybridusem> were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively.<em> em>The> A. hybridusem> extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants.

  5. <em>Hedyotis diffusaem> Willd Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Growth <em>in Vivoem> via Inhibition of STAT3 Signaling Pathway

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    Jun Peng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3, a common oncogenic mediator, is constitutively activated in many types of human cancers; therefore it is a major focus in the development of novel anti-cancer agents. <em>Hedyotis diffusaem> Willd has been used as a major component in several Chinese medicine formulas for the clinical treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC. However, the precise mechanism of its anti-tumor activity remains largely unclear. Using a CRC mouse xenograft model, in the present study we evaluated the effect of the ethanol extract of<em> Hedyotis diffusaem> Willd (EEHDW on tumor growth <em>in vivoem> and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that EEHDW reduced tumor volume and tumor weight, but had no effect on body weight gain in CRC mice, demonstrating that EEHDW can inhibit CRC growth <em>in vivoem> without apparent adverse effect. In addition, EEHDW treatment suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation in tumor tissues, which in turn resulted in the promotion of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. Moreover, EEHDW treatment altered the expression pattern of several important target genes of the STAT3 signaling pathway, <em>i.e.>, decreased expression of Cyclin D1, CDK4 and Bcl-2 as well as up-regulated p21 and Bax. These results suggest that suppression of the STAT3 pathway might be one of the mechanisms by which EEHDW treats colorectal cancer.

  6. Neospora caninum em bovinos em matadouros de Pernambuco e Alagoas

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    Rodolfo L.G. Amaral

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A neosporose bovina é uma doença infecciosa causada pelo Neospora caninum, parasito intracelular obrigatório, sendo considerada uma das principais causas de aborto na espécie bovina em diversos países. Objetivou-se estudar a ocorrência de N. caninum em vacas e fetos nos Estados de Pernambuco e Alagoas, Brasil. Foram coletadas 306 amostras de soro sanguíneo de vacas abatidas causada pelo Neospora caninum, parasito intracelular obri-e 30 fetos nos Estados de Pernambuco e Alagoas. Para o gatório, sendo considerada uma das principais causas de diagnóstico sorológico utilizou-se a técnica de Reação de aborto na espécie bovina em diversos países. Objetivou-se Imunoflurescência Indireta (RIFI com ponto de corte estudar a ocorrência de N. caninum em vacas e fetos nos 1:200 para os soros das vacas e para os soros fetais utilizou Estados de Pernambuco e Alagoas, Brasil. Foram coletadas 306 amostras de soro sanguíneo de vacas abatidas e 30 fetos nos Estados de Pernambuco e Alagoas. Para o diagnóstico sorológico utilizou-se a técnica de Reação de Imunoflurescência Indireta (RIFI com ponto de corte 1:200 para os soros das vacas e para os soros fetais utilizou ponto de corte 1:25. Para a pesquisa do DNA parasitário utilizaram-se tecidos fetais submetidos à técnica da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR. Na sorologia, observou-se 39/306 (12,6% das vacas positivas e 5/30 (16,7% dos fetos positivos. Na detecção do parasito 8/30 (26,6% dos fetos foram positivos na PCR. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo quanto à presença do parasito nos fetos são inéditos para a região estudada e permitem concluir que este agente deve ser incluído no estudo das causas de aborto na espécie bovina nesta região do Brasil.

  7. Culturas orais em sociedades letradas

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    Geraldi João Wanderley

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Na relação entre linguagem e cultura, um aspecto essencial diz respeito às diferentes funções da escrita e às formas de sua apropriação social em sociedades letradas. Tomando como inspiração a forma de um uso específico da escrita pelo povo indígena Jarawara e narrativas de ribeirinhos do rio Madeira do mito amazônico Cobra Norato, são discutidas as diferentes relações entre oralidade e escrita que, atravessadas pelas relações de poder, transformam o alfabeto, de artefato histórico construído para o registro da oralidade, em espaço social de construção de distinções, clivagens e exclusões.

  8. Bacharelado em psicopedagogia = Psycopedagogy Course

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    Ramos, Maria Beatriz Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto mostra a história da implantação do Curso de Bacharelado em Psicopedagogia na FACED, PUCRS. Neste texto são apresentados os referenciais teóricos e dados sobre a atuação do psicopedagogo nos campos preventivo e terapêutico explicitando a relevância da formação de profissionais nesta área

  9. Acoustics of native-American ceremonial sites in prehispanic America (Acustica en los espacios escenios rituales prehispanicos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Isabel

    2003-11-01

    This thesis establishes a methodology that incorporates the latest procedures used in architectural acoustics for the study of open spaces of this general type, and definitions are given for the acoustic variables of interest. The ``Juego de Pelota'' (ball game) sites are the only ceremonial sites built specifically for the performance of a fertility ritual, and are ideal for the study of prehispanic architectural topographies. Analysis of the acoustic properties of such sites revealed that the topographical characteristics of the elevation profiles of these architectural structures determine the acoustic behavior of these spaces. Such profiles are classified into three basic types: (i) inclined profile, (ii) terraced profile, and (iii) mixed profile. The terraced profiles are the most efficient, and the mixed profiles are the least efficient, in regard to acoustics. The consideration of the acoustic behavior of architectural structures intended for the ``Ball Game,'' as the designs evolved over time, leads to the conclusion that acoustical sensations that contributed effectively to the characteristic mystical atmosphere of the ceremonial rituals were characteristic only of those sites constructed in the ``classical'' period. Thesis advisors: Jaime Navarro and Juan J. Sendra Copies of this thesis written in Spanish may be obtained by contacting the advisor, Jaime Navarro, E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Sevilla, Dpto. de Construcciones Arquitectonicas I, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail address: jnavarro@us.es

  10. Architectural acoustics and the heritage of theater architecture in Andalusia (Acustica arquitectonica y patrimonio teatral en Andalucia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Angel Luis

    2003-11-01

    This thesis reports on the study of the acoustic properties of 18 theaters belonging to the Andalusian historical and architectural heritage. These theaters have undergone recent renovations to modernize and equip them appropriately. Coincident with this work, evaluations and qualification assessments with regard to their acoustic properties have been carried out for the individual theaters and for the group as a whole. Data measurements for this purpose consisted of acoustic measurements in situ, both before the renovation and after the renovation. These results have been compared with computer simulations of sound fields. Variables and parameters considered include the following: reverberation time, rapid speech transition index, back-ground noise, definition, clarity, strength, lateral efficiency, interaural cross-correlation coefficient, volume/seat ratio, volume/audience-area ratio. Based on the measurements and analysis, general conclusions are given in regard to the acoustic performance of theaters whose typology and size are comparable to those that were used in this study (between 800 and 8000 cubic meters). It is noted that these properties are comparable to those of the majority of European theaters. The results and conclusions are presented so that they should be of interest to architectural acoustics practitioners and to architects who are involved in the planning of renovation projects for theaters Thesis advisors: Juan J. Sendra and Jaime Navarro Copies of this thesis written in Spanish may be obtained by contacting the author, Angel L. Leon, E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Sevilla, Dpto. de Construcciones Arquitectonicas I, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail address: leonr@us.es

  11. Trabalho em grupo com enlutados

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    Melissa Pascoal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A cada dia temos mais famílias vivenciando o luto gerado por homicídios, acidentes e violência, e isso tem causado alguns problemas psicológicos para as pessoas que estão nesta situação. Este artigo é um relato da experiência profissional vivida no Hospital e Maternidade Mauá com um grupo de autoajuda para pacientes em processo de luto, e seu objetivo é compartilhar a experiência e difundir este trabalho. Em 15 encontros pré-estruturados de acordo com a demanda apresentada pelo próprio grupo, foi possível trabalhar diversos temas relacionados à perda que influenciaram as participantes e ao mesmo tempo proporcionaram, além de conforto, uma possibilidade de identificação e troca, e consequentemente o ressurgimento da autoconfiança. Por meio da articulação da teoria com a prática, é evidenciado que o atendimento em grupo para enlutados é uma alternativa viável que trouxe resultados positivos e inspiradores e sua divulgação é importante para ampliar horizontes e criar novas possibilidades.

  12. <em>Myoxus glisem> as a cave dwelling animal

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    Dino Scaravelli

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract <em>Myoxus glisem> sometimes use crevices, holes in rocks and buildings as refuges. The authors give data on the occurrence of <em>M. glisem> remains in some Italian cave deposits and on some particular cases of recent cave occupation and nest construction. Riassunto <em>Myoxus glisem> un animale vivente in grotta - <em>Myoxus glisem> può utilizzare quali rifugi, oltre ai cavi degli alberi, cavità e buchi nella roccia e edifici di vario tipo. Nel presente lavoro si espongono dati sul ritrovamento di resti ossei appartenenti alla specie in recenti depositi in alcune cavità ipogee italiane e sulla presenza in sistemi ipogei con costruzione di nidi riproduttivi e non.

  13. Trophic systems and chorology: data from shrews, moles and voles of Italy preyed by the barn owl / Sistemi trofici e corologia: dati su <em>Soricidae>, <em>Talpidae> ed <em>Arvicolidae> d'Italia predati da <em>Tyto albaem> (Scopoli 1769

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    Longino Contoli

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In small Mammals biogeography, available data are up to now by far too scanty for elucidate the distribution of a lot of taxa, especially with regard to the absence from a given area. In this respect, standardized quantitative sampling techniques, like Owl pellets analysis can enable not only to enhance faunistic knowledges, but also to estimate the actual absence probability of a given taxon "m", lacking from the diet of an individual raptor. For the last purpose, the relevant frequencies of "m" in the other ecologically similar sites of the same raptor species diets are averaged ($f_m$ : the relevant standard error (multiplicated by a coefficient, according to the desired degree of accuracy, in relation of the integral of probabilities subtracted ($overline{F}_m - a E$: then, the probability that a single specimen is not pertaining to "m" is obtained ($P_0 = 1 - F_m + a E$; lastly, the desiderate accuracy probability ($P_d$ is chosen. Now, "$N_d$" (the number of individuals of all prey species in a single site needed for obtain, with the desired probability, a specimen at least of "m" is obtained through $$N = frac{ln P_d}{ln P_0}$$ Obviously, every site-diet with more than "N" preyed individuals and without any "i" specimen is considered to be lacking of such taxon. A "usefulness index" for the above purposes is outlined and checked about three raptors. Some exanples about usefulness of the Owl pellet analysis method in biogeography are given, concerning <em>Tyto albaem> diets in peninsular Italy about: - <em>Sorex minutusem>, lacking in some quite insulated areas; - <em>Sorex araneusem> (sensu stricto, after GRAF et al., 1979, present also in lowland areas in Emilia-Romagna; - <em>Crocidura suaveolensem> and - <em>Suncus etruscusem>, present also in the southermost part of Calabria (Reggio province; - <em>Talpa caecaem>, present also in the Antiapennines of Latium (Cimini mounts; - <em>Talpa romanaem

  14. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from <em>Rosmarinus officinalisem>>

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    Chunjian Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from <em>Rosmarinus officinalisem>. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from <em>R. officinalisem>> em>compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

  15. Saponins with Neuroprotective Effects from the Roots of <em>Pulsatilla cernuaem>

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Hao Fan; Zong-Gui Yu; Hui Zhang; Yong-Nan Xu; Li-Bo Zou; Yi-Xia Gong; Hui-Ming Hua; Jian-Yu Liu; Ying-Li Guan

    2012-01-01

    Four new oleanene-type triterpenoid saponins together with six known saponins were isolated from the roots of <em>P>ulsatilla cernuaem> and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 2D NMR spectra and chemical evidence. Among these one of the aglycones (gypsogenin) is reported for the first time from this genus. Some of these compounds showed significant neuroprotective effects against the

  16. Feeding habits of the genet <em>Genetta genettaem> in an Iberian continental wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Maite Sánchez; Patricia Rodrigues; Vicente Ortuño; Juan Herrero

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This study quantified the diet of the genet <em>Genetta genettaem> in an Iberian continental wetland, the Galachos Nature Reserve, northern Spain, based on the frequency with which items appeared in five monthly-surveyed latrines during 2004-2005. Prey types were identified <em>de visuem> using identification keys and expert advice. the genet was confirmed as an opportunistic and generalist predator, its diet including mam...

  17. Butylated Hydroxytoluene Analogs: Synthesis and Evaluation of Their <em>Multipotent em>Antioxidant Activities

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    Wageeh A. Yehye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A computer-aided predictions of antioxidant activities were performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of Substances (PASS program. Antioxidant activity of compounds 1, 3, 4 and 5 were studied using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and lipid peroxidation assays to verify the predictions obtained by the PASS program. Compounds 3 and 5 showed more inhibition of DPPH stable free radical at 10−4 M than the well-known standard antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Compound 5 exhibited promising <em>in> <em>vitro> inhibition of Fe2+-induced <em>lipid peroxidationem> of the essential egg yolk as a lipid-rich medium<em> em>(83.99%, IC50 16.07 ± 3.51 µM/mL compared to a-tocopherol (a-TOH, 84.6%, IC50 5.6 ± 1.09 µM/mL. The parameters for drug-likeness of these BHT analogues were also evaluated according to the Lipinski’s “rule-of-five” (RO5. All the BHT analogues were found to violate one of the Lipinski’s parameters (Log<em>P> > 5, even though they have been found to be soluble in protic solvents. The predictive polar surface area (PSA and absorption percent (% ABS data allow us to conclude that they could have a good capacity for penetrating cell membranes. Therefore, one can propose these new multipotent antioxidants (MPAOs as potential antioxidants for tackling <em>oxidative stressem> and <em>lipid peroxidation processes.em>> em>

  18. Briareolate Esters from the Gorgonian <em>Briareum asbestinumem>

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    Lyndon M. West

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new briarane diterpenoids briareolate esters J (1 and K (2 were isolated from the methanolic extract of the octocoral <em>Briareum> asbestinum em>collected off the coast of Boca Raton, Florida. The structures of briaranes 1 and 2 were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data. Briareolate ester K (2 showed weak growth inhibition activity against human embryonic stem cells (BG02.

  19. Free Radical Scavenging, Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Activities of <em>Orthosiphon stamineusem>

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    Nabil S. Harmal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available <em>Orthosiphon stamineus em>is considered an important traditional folk medicine. In this study ethanol and aqueous extracts of <em>O. stamineusem> were evaluated<em> in vitro em>for their antioxidant, antimicrobial as well as for their immunomodulatory properties on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. The DPPH radical scavenging method was used for the determination of antioxidant activity, while the antibacterial efficacy was investigated by both disc diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC against four bacterial strains (Gram-positive and Gram-negative. Furthermore, the immunomodulatory potential of the extracts was investigated through the MTT assay. Aqueous extract of <em>O. stamineusem> exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity with IC50 9.6 µg/mL, whereas the IC50 for the ethanol extract was 21.4 µg/mL. The best antimicrobial activity was shown by the aqueous extract of <em>O. stamineus em>against <em>Staphylococcus aureusem>, with inhibition zone of 10.5 mm and MIC value 1.56 mg/mL. Moreover, the results observed from the MTT assay showed that both plant extracts stimulated the PBMCs proliferation<em> in vitroem> in a concentration-dependent manner, but the aqueous extract has remarkable activity against PBMCs. These findings indicate that <em>O. stamineusem> showed high antioxidant activity and may be considered as an immunomodulatory agent.

  20. Variabilità morfologica ed ecologica in <em>Neomys fodiensem> e <em>Neomys anomalusem> nell'Appennino settentrionale

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    Dino Scaravelli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available I due <em>Neomys> italiani sono ancora da chiarire dal punto di vista della loro caratterizzazione morfologica e ecologica. Il lavoro prende in considerazione un campione di entrambe le specie proveniente da habitat forestali dell?Appennino settentrionale per i quali sono stati identificati i principali parametri ambientali. Vengono quindi descritte la variabilità dei tratti morfologici delle due specie in aree localizzate nel Parco Nazionale Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona e Campigna nell?Appennino tosco-romagnolo. Risultano di sicuro effetto discriminatorio la maschera facciale, il rapporto piede posteriore/coda e i caratteri cranici. Sulla base dei criteri identificativi si sono realizzate rilevazioni di misure corporee per le due specie e una comparazione degli habitat utilizzati. <em>N. fodiensem> appare unica specie nelle faggete-abetine e dominante nei castagneti, mentre nell?Ontaneta e nelle zone aperte e termofile si registra la sola presenza di <em>N. anomalusem>. Mancano entrambi nei prati cespugliati, nella pecceta e nella cerreta. I gradienti presenti sono quindi illustrati. Non appare una differenza altitudinale nel campione esaminato, posto in stazioni tra i 400 e i 1300 m, ma per entrambe vi sono maggiori riscontri nella fascia tra 700 e 850 m. Nell?analisi multivariata rispetto alle altre specie e alle variabili ambientali si riscontra sempre una discreta correlazione con la presenza di acqua di una certa ampiezza, che comunque è significativa solo per <em>N. fodiensem>, mentre risulta di interesse la positiva correlazione di <em>N. anomalusem> con <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem>.

  1. Atividade de glutationa S-transferase na metabolização de acetochlor, atrazine e oxyfluorfen em milho (<em>Zea maysem> L.), sorgo (<em>Sorghum bicolorem> L.) e trigo (<em>Triticum aestivumem> L.) (Poaceae) Glutathione S-transferase activity in acetochlor, atrazine and oxyfluorfen metabolization in maize (<em>Zea maysem> L.), sorghum (<em>Sorghum bicolorem> L.) and wheat (<em>Triticum aestivumem>L.) (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ethel Lourenzi Barbosa Novelli; José Claudionir Carvalho; Guilherme Fernando Gomes Déstro; Karina Luiz Chamma; Leonardo César Ferreira; Ana Catarina Cataneo

    2002-01-01

    Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a seletividade em plantas dos herbicidas acetochlor, atrazine e oxyfluorfen em relação à atividade da glutationa S-transferase (GST) em plantas de milho (Zea mays L.), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L.) e trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) (Poaceae). A atividade da GST foi detectada às 24, 48 e 72 horas após as aplicaç��es dos tratamentos. Os tratamentos do experimento consistiram de aplicação com água (controle), acetochlor (3 L.ha-1), atrazine (4 L.ha-1) e oxyf...

  2. Utilização da fosfina em combinação com o dióxido de carbono no controle do Rhyzopertha dominica (f. Combination of phosphine and carbon dioxide on the control of Rhyzopertha dominica (f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA PAULA MARTINAZZO

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da utilização de fosfina, associada a uma atmosfera rica em dióxido de carbono (CO2, no controle efetivo do inseto Rhyzopertha dominica (F. em todas as suas fases de desenvolvimento. Para isso, foram realizadas fumigações com atmosfera sintética contendo 21% de CO2 e 79% de N2 associada a níveis reduzidos de fosfina (0,25, 0,50 e 0,75 g m-3. Para posterior comparação dos resultados, foram realizados dois tratamentos com ar ambiente associado às dosagens de zero e 1,00 g m-3 de fosfina. Todos os tratamentos foram realizados em três períodos de exposição (24, 72 e 120 horas, à temperatura de 29°C e umidade relativa de 60%. A análise dos resultados permitiu concluir que o aumento no período de exposição resultou no aumento da eficácia dos tratamentos em atmosferas sintética e ambiente. O controle efetivo de todas as fases do inseto foi obtido, em geral, com 0,50 e 0,75 g m-3 de fosfina + CO2, em período de exposição de 120 horas. Ovos e adultos foram as fases mais suscetíveis, e pupa, a mais resistente.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of low levels of phosphine associated with atmospheres containing high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2 on the effective control of all life stages of the insect Rhyzopertha dominica (F.. To this purpose, fumigations were carried out using a synthetic atmosphere containing 21% of CO2 and 79% of N2 associated with the following levels of phosphine: 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 g m-3. Results were compared with mortality rates achieved with ambient air containing zero and 1.00 g m-3 of phosphine. All tests were carried out using three levels of exposure time (24, 72, and 120 hours, and one level of temperature and relative humidity, 29°C and 60%, respectively. Analyses of the results indicated that increasing the exposure time resulted in an increase in mortality rates in all tests conducted with synthetic and ambient air. Effective control of all

  3. Acrilamida em doçaria Portuguesa

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus, Susana; Delgado, Inês; Ramos, Ana; Brandão, Carlos; Félix, Nelson; Castanheira, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    A acrilamida é um composto de estrutura vinílica, com propriedades carcinogénicas (Grupo 2A- IARC) que tem vindo a ser identificado, em alimentos processados, desde 2002. Segundo os últimos documentos publicados pela EFSA deve ser prioritário a determinação do teor de acrilamida em produtos de panificação e pastelaria. Este estudo teve como objetivo a determinação da quantidade de acrilamida em doçaria portuguesa. Trinta amostras de doces e pão fabricados em estabelecimentos hoteleiros do Nor...

  4. Biocerâmicas em Endodontia

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Pedro Miguel da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária Introdução e Objectivos: Biocerâmicas incluem materiais cerâmicos projetados especificamente para uso em Medicina e Medicina Dentária. O objetivo deste trabalho é efetuar uma revisão bibliográfica em que demonstre a avaliação das propriedades físico-químicas das biocerâmicas e o seu uso em Endodontia. Radiopacidade, Fluid...

  5. Lectin from <em>Canavalia brasiliensisem> Seeds (ConBr Is a Valuable Biotechnological Tool to Stimulate the Growth of <em>Rhizobium tropiciem> <em>in Vitroem>

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    Ricardo Pires dos Santos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the interactions between a <em>Rhizobium tropiciem> strain and lectins isolated from the seeds of <em>Canavalia ensiformisem> (ConA and <em>Canavalia brasiliensisem> (ConBr, a lectin fluorescence assay was performed. In addition, an experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of the two lectins on bacterial growth. Both lectins were found to bind to <em>R. tropiciem> cells, but the interactions were inhibited by D-mannose. Interestingly, only ConBr stimulated bacterial growth in proportion to the concentrations used (15.6–500 µg/mL, and the bacterial growth stimulation was inhibited by D-mannose as well. Structure/Function analyses by bioinformatics were carried out to evaluate the volume and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD configuration of ConA and ConBr. The difference of spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may indicate the variation between biological activities of both lectins. The results suggest that ConBr could be a promising tool for studies focusing on the interactions between rhizobia and host plants.

  6. Encapsulation-Induced Stress Helps <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae em>Resist Convertible Lignocellulose Derived Inhibitors

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    Johan O. Westman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of macroencapsulated <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae em>CBS8066<em> em>to withstand readily and not readily <em>in situem> convertible lignocellulose-derived inhibitors was investigated in anaerobic batch cultivations. It was shown that encapsulation increased the tolerance against readily convertible furan aldehyde inhibitors and to dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, but not to organic acid inhibitors that cannot be metabolized anaerobically. Gene expression analysis showed that the protective effect arising from the encapsulation is evident also on the transcriptome level, as the expression of the stress-related genes <em>YAP1em>, <em>ATR1em> and <em>FLR1em> was induced upon encapsulation. The transcript levels were increased due to encapsulation already in the medium without added inhibitors, indicating that the cells sensed low stress level arising from the encapsulation itself. We present a model, where the stress response is induced by nutrient limitation, that this helps the cells to cope with the increased stress added by a toxic medium, and that superficial cells in the capsules degrade convertible inhibitors, alleviating the inhibition for the cells deeper in the capsule.

  7. Altitudinal distribution of the common longeared bat <em>Plecotus auritusem> (Linnaeus, 1758 and grey long-eared bat <em>Plecotus austriacusem> (J. B. Fischer, 1829 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae in the Tatra mountains (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Piksa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Distribuzione altitudinale di Orecchione bruno (<em>Plecotus auritusem> e Orecchione meridionale (<em>Plecotus austriacusem> nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale. Vengono riportati nuovi dati relativi alla distribuzione altitudinale nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale di <em>Plecotus auritusem> e <em>P. austriacusem>. Tali segnalazioni incrementano le conoscenze relative alla presenza di questi chirotteri a quote elevate, in particolare per la Polonia. In inverno <em>P. auritusem> è stato rinvenuto a 1921 m s.l.m. mentre in estate è stato rinvenuto a 2250 m s.l.m.; in aggiunta, sono stati ritrovati resti ossei a 1929 m s.l.m. <em>P. austriacusem> è stato segnalato in ibernazione a 1294 m s.l.m.

  8. Tumores em bovinos encontrados em abatedouros frigoríficos

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    Bianca Tessele

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Numa pesquisa em abatedouros a procura de lesões em bovinos, realizada de janeiro de 2011 a julho de 2014, 544 foram encontradas, das quais 65 eram neoplasmas. Quarenta e dois porcento desses tumores eram de origem mesenquimal; 37% eram epiteliais; 14,5% eram derivados da crista neural; 5% eram tumores do cordão sexual; e 1,5 eram tumores originários do sistema nervoso periférico. O tumor mais frequentemente encontrado foi o linfoma (28% de todos os tumores, a maioria dos casos como parte do complexo leucose bovina enzoótica. O carcinoma de células escamosas foi o segundo tumor mais frequente (15% de todos os tumores. É chamada a atenção para a frequência desses tumores e para a sua importância no diagnóstico diferencial no abatedouro frigorífico entre eles e outras lesões importantes, incluindo as lesões granulomatosas da tuberculose. Houve uma ocorrência significativa do feocromocitoma adrenal (13% de todos os tumores. Papilomatose representou apenas 3% de todos os tumores. Como papilomas são comuns em bovinos, seu baixo número nesse estudo pode ser explicado pelo fato de que eles não são usualmente diagnosticados no exame post mortem (quando o couro já foi retirado da carcaça, mas sim no exame ante mortem, como ocorreu na maioria dos casos deste estudo. Tumores encontrados com menor frequência (cada um perfazendo entre 1.5 e 3% de todos os tumores incluíram adenocarcinoma apócrino misto da cauda, adenocarcinoma mamário, adenocarcinoma uterino, carcinoma de células renais, fibroma interdigital, hemangiossarcoma, leiomioma uterino, lipoma, lipossarcoma, mesotelioma, neurofibroma, tumor de células da granulosa, tumor estromal gastrointestinal, tumores hepáticos, tumores melanocíticos, e tumores pulmonares primários. Pretende-se que os resultados dessa pesquisa possam ajudar na identificação das lesões na inspeção oficial em matadouros frigoríficos.

  9. <em>Plecotus alpinusem>: primi dati sull'utilizzo dell'habitat

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    Adriano Martinoli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni il numero delle specie di Chirotteri note per l?Europa si è accresciuto, grazie all?uso di tecniche di genetica molecolare, ed in particolare il genere <em>Plecotus> è quello che ha registrato maggiori cambiamenti con la descrizione di tre nuove specie: <em>Plecotus kolombatoviciem>, <em>P. alpinusem> e <em>P. sardusem> (Kiefer & Veith, 2001; Mucedda <em>et al.em>, 2002. Alla luce di queste nuove scoperte, la distribuzione geografica e le preferenze dell?habitat delle due specie ?storiche? di Orecchione in Europa, <em>Plecotus auritusem> e <em>P. austriacusem>, dovrebbero essere riviste: in questo contesto si inserisce l?indagine svolta nel Parco Regionale Campo dei Fiori (in provincia di Varese sulla prima colonia riproduttiva di <em>Plecotus alpinusem> segnalata per la regione Lombardia. Al fine di valutare le preferenze nell?uso dell?habitat e le direttrici di spostamento preferenziali di tale specie, nonché per l?identificazione di siti di rilevanza per l?allevamento della prole, si è fatto ricorso a tecniche di radiolocalizzazione, subordinate alla cattura a vivo degli animali. Le catture si sono svolte nel periodo 15 giugno ? 15 agosto del 2002 e del 2003. Per ogni individuo catturato, oltre alla determinazione di specie, sesso e classe d?età, sono stati rilevati i dati biometrici e prelevati campioni di tessuto destinati all?analisi genetica. Sono state inoltre registrate le emissioni ultrasonore. Durante il primo anno di indagine sono state seguite mediante radiolocalizzazione 5 femmine adulte (4 allattanti ed una non allattante e due femmine subadulte, mentre durante il secondo anno sono state munite di radiocollare 6 femmine adulte (5 allattanti ed una non allattante ed una femmina subadulta. Ai pipistrelli è stato applicato un emettitore radio (<em>tag> modello LB-2, Holohil Systems Ltd, Ontario, Canada. Il segnale emesso è stato ricevuto in campo mediante l?utilizzo di radio (Wildlife

  10. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from <em>Duguetia lanceolataem> St. Hil. Barks

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    Maria A. C. Kaplan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of <em>Duguetia lanceolataem> barks, obtained at 2 (T2 and 4 h (T4, were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. β-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7% and β-selinene (8.4 and 10.4% were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of <em>Staphylococcus aureusem>,> Streptococcus pyogenesem>, <em>Escherichia coliem> and <em>Candida albicansem>. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine shrimp. The extraction time influenced the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from the barks of <em>D. lanceolataem>.

  11. Predazione di Chirotteri da parte del Barbagianni (<em>Tyto albaem>) in Italia

    OpenAIRE

    Edoardo Vernier

    1994-01-01

    Abstract Predation of Bats by the Barn Owl (<em>Tyto albaem>) in Italy - The examination of Barn Owl (<em>Tyto albaem>) pellets collected in northern Italy (Lombardia region, PO valley) has revealed the presence of a number much higher than usual (0.03-0.26%) of bat remains (2.37%). Enclosed is a tentative explanation of the relatively high frequence of the presence of bats of the genus <em>Pipistrell...

  12. OCCURENCE OF Salmonella IN CHICKEN CARCASSES AND CUTS COMMERCIALIZED IN GOIÂNIA-GO OCORRÊNCIA DE Salmonella EM CARCAÇAS E CORTES DE FRANGOS COMERCIALIZADOS EM GOIÂNIA-GO

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    Iolanda Aparecida Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Its was analised 53 chicken carcasses and commercial cuts acquired in supermarkets of Goiânia-GO aiming to isolate <em>Salmonella>. The contamination rate was 13.2% and serotypes <em>S. brandenburgem>, <em>S. typhimuriumem>, <em>S. agonaem>, <em>S. derbyem> and <em>S. hadorem> were identified.

    KEY-WORDS: <em>Salmonella>; chicken; chicken carcasses; commercial cuts.

    No presente estudo foram analisadas, com vistas ao isolamento de <em>Salmonella>, 53 amostras de carcaças e cortes comerciais de frangos colhidas em supermercados e casas de carnes de Goiânia - GO. Observou-se freqüência média do patógeno de 13,2%, sendo identificados os sorotipos <em>E. brandenburgem>, <em>S. typhimuriumem>, <em>S.> <em>agona>, <em>S. derbyem> e <em>S. Hadarem>.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: <em>Salmonella>; frango de corte; carcaça; cortes comerciais.

  13. Are workers of <em>Atta> leafcutter ants capable of reproduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkstra, Michiel Bendert; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    ovaries. Workers of Atta leafcutter ants only lay trophic eggs in queenright colonies. Although Atta colonies are commonly kept at universities, museums, and zoos, no reports of worker sons in orphaned colonies exist, suggesting that Atta workers are infertile. To explicitly test this, we created eleven...... orphaned laboratory nests of Atta cephalotes, A. sexdens, and A. colombica, and maintained them for 3-6 months after queen loss. Eight colonies did not produce any brood, but three nests produced 1-4 worker-derived male larvae and pupae. Microsatellite genotyping indicated that these were worker sons...... fertility is low compared to the sister genus Acromyrmex, where workers routinely produce normally-size males after queen loss in the laboratory. We hypothesize that worker reproduction in orphaned Atta field colonies is almost never successful because the last workers die before their sons can be raised to...

  14. EM transmission-line metamaterials

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    George V. Eleftheriades

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials are understood to be artificially engineered materials that exhibit unusual or difficult to obtain electromagnetic (EM properties. Such properties would include negative or low values of permittivity, permeability and index of refraction. In this article, we review the fundamentals of metamaterials with emphasis on negative-refractive-index ones, which are synthesized using loaded transmission lines. A number of applications of such metamaterials are discussed, including peculiar lenses that can overcome the diffraction limit and small antennas for emerging wireless communication applications.

  15. Bioassay-Guided Antidiabetic Study of <em>Phaleria macrocarpaem> Fruit Extract

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    Mohd Z. Asmawi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An earlier anti-hyperglycemic study with serial crude extracts of <em>Phaleria macrocarpaem> (PM fruit indicated methanol extract (ME as the most effective. In the present investigation, the methanol extract was further fractionated to obtain chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF, <em>n>-butanol (NBF and aqueous (AF fractions, which were tested for antidiabetic activity. The NBF reduced blood glucose (<em>p> < 0.05 15 min after administration, in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT similar to metformin. Moreover, it lowered blood glucose in diabetic rats by 66.67% (<em>p> em>< 0.05, similar to metformin (51.11%, glibenclamide (66.67% and insulin (71.43% after a 12-day treatment, hence considered to be the most active fraction. Further fractionation of NBF yielded sub-fractions I (SFI and II (SFII, and only SFI lowered blood glucose (<em>p em>< 0.05, in IPGTT similar to glibenclamide. The ME, NBF, and SFI correspondingly lowered plasma insulin (<em>p em>< 0.05 and dose-dependently inhibited glucose transport across isolated rat jejunum implying an extra-pancreatic mechanism. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenes and tannins, in ME, NBF and SFI, and LC-MS analyses revealed 9.52%, 33.30% and 22.50% mangiferin respectively. PM fruit possesses anti-hyperglycemic effect, exerted probably through extra-pancreatic action. Magniferin, contained therein may be responsible for this reported activity.

  16. 蚕蛹基础日粮中添加不同脂肪源对框鳞镜鲤生长、体成分及健康状况的影响%EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LIPID SOURCES IN THE SILKWORM PUPA-BASED DIET FOR MIRROR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO VAR. SPECULARIS) ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, BODY COMPOSITION AND HEALTH STATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小飞; 田晶晶; 吉红; 李南充; 钟雷; 方程; 刘超

    2013-01-01

    将324尾健康框鳞镜鲤Cyprinus carpio var. specularis (10.70±0.70) g随机平均分配在室内循环水养殖系统的12个养殖缸里。在蚕蛹基础饲料中分别添加2%的大豆油(SO)、菜籽油(RO)、鱼油(FO)及混合油(MIX,大豆油∶菜籽油∶鱼油=1∶1∶1),配制4组等氮(36.5%)等脂(7.0%)饲料,饲养58d后,探讨框鳞镜鲤对不同脂肪源的利用效果。结果表明:(1)大豆油组终末体重显著大于混和油组,肠长比显著大于其他各组,肥满度和肠指数显著大于鱼油组(P0.05);(3)肝胰脏和肌肉脂肪酸组成基本反映了饲料的脂肪酸组成;肝胰脏PUFA水平大豆油和菜籽油组相近,均显著高于鱼油组(P0.05);(5)组间血清T-SOD活性没有显著差异(P>0.05),大豆油组GSH-XP活性显著大于其他各组(P0.05)。综上所述,框鳞镜鲤对大豆油的利用效果最好,其次是菜籽油、鱼油和混合油利用效果较差。%A total of 324 healthy mirror carps Cyprinus carpio var. specularis [initial weight: (10.70±0.70) g] were randomly and equally distributed in 12 breeding cylinders with the indoor circulating water system. 2% soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), fish oil (FO), and mixed oil (MIX, in which soybean oil, rapeseed oil and fish oil are 1∶1∶1) were added to the silkworm pupa based diet respectively, and four groups of isonitrogenous (36.5%crude protein), and isolipidic (7%crude fat) experimental diets were formulated. They were fed to apparent satiation three times a day for 58 days, and the effects of different lipid sources on growth performance, body composition and health status were dis-cussed. The following results were concluded. Firstly, the final weight of SO group was significantly heavier than that of the MIX group (P0.05). Thirdly, fatty acids composition in hepatopancreas and muscle generally reflected the composition in the diet; polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in hepatopancreas showed similar level between fish fed SO and RO

  17. Dualismos em duelo Dueling dualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Fausto-Sterling

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Os modos europeus e norte-americanos de entender como funciona o mundo dependem em grande parte do uso de dualismos - pares de conceitos, objetos ou sistemas de crenças opostos. Este ensaio enquadra especialmente três deles: sexo/gênero, natureza/criação e real/construído. Embora este texto verse sobre gênero, discuto regularmente o modo como as idéias de raça e gênero surgem a partir de supostos subjacentes sobre a natureza física do corpo. Entender como operam raça e gênero - em conjunto e independentemente - nos ajuda a compreender melhor como o social se torna corporificado.Euro-American ways of understanding how the world works depend heavily on the use of dualisms - pairs of opposing concepts, objects, or belief sytems. This text focuses especially on three of these: sex/gender, nature/nurture, and real/constructed. And although this text focuses on gender, I regularly discuss the ways in which the ideas of both race and gender emerge from underlying assumptions about the body's physical nature. Understanding how race and gender work - together and independently - help us learn more about how the social becomes embodied.

  18. Dois funcionalistas franceses em confronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Eugenio Hoyos-Andrade

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Comparamos, neste artigo, de modo aproximativo e provisório, dois modelos de análise sintática e dois métodos de representação gráfica dessas análises: trata-se dos modelos e métodos de André Martinet e Lucien Tesnière. Depois de algumas considerações introdutórias relativas ao funcionalismo dos autores em causa, arrolamos um conjunto de características que aproximam ou opõem os seus respectivos modelos. Apresentamos, em seguida, no intuito de beneficiar os estudantes universitários de sintaxe, as representações gráficas de um mesmo enunciado segundo o método estemático de Tesnière e segundo o método de visualização das relações sintáticas de Martinet, para concluir que os dois modelos/métodos, embora diferentes, poderiam eventualmente ser integrados num único sistema de análise e representação.

  19. Terapia breve em hospital fechado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Sandler

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo cuida de pacientes "difíceis" da clínica psiquiátrica e psicoterápica: os pacientes que apresentam o fenômeno da atuação, cuja aproximação terapêutica tem se demonstrado problemática, mesmo com o advento das modernas técnicas de psicoterapia e das comunidades terapêuticas. Os diagnósticos psiquiátricos destes pacientes variam: são neuróticos, apresentam transtornos de pesonalidade, são psicóticos e quase sempre com graves doenças secundárias: alcoolismo e toxicomania (Códigos Classificação Internacional de Doenças 295 a 299, 300. 301, 303 e 304. Propõe-se, à luz da compreensão psicanalítica destas pessoas, um tratamento psicoterápico breve, focal, com o auxílio de uma hospitalização em regime fechado. Para a avaliação dos resultados do método psicoterápico diádico, criaram-se critérios de cura coerentes com a proposta terapêutica, e equiparam-se estes critérios clínicos a valores numéricos. Utilizando 36 pacientes internados, verificou-se até que ponto eles alcançavam estes critérios. Cada paciente recebeu um escore - valor numérico - que expressou o seu desempenho durante o tratamento em regime de internação, e sua conduta pós-alta hospitalar, durante um seguimento médio de 21 meses. Estes 36 pacientes puderam ser divididos em dois grupos: os de evolução favorável (obtivemos 36,1% e os de evolução desfavorável. Por meio de uma amostra sistemática composta por 41 pacientes que não foram submetidos ao método, internados no mesmo período de tempo, no mesmo hospital, e pareados com nossa casuística, fêz-se uma comparação estatística entre os percentis obtidos nas evoluções dos dois grupos. O valor do teste estatístico, o chi quadrado, não foi significante. O exame das proporções correspondentes a cada patologia em separado sugeriu fortemente que o tratamento estaria indicado nas neuroses e nas psicoses, mas que seria realmente ineficaz nos transtornos de

  20. Alimentazione di <em>Marmota marmotaem> in praterie altimontane delle dolomiti bellunesi

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    Alessandro Rudatis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of <em>Marmota marmotaem> in the mountain prairie of south-eastern Italian Alps. Diet composition of two family groups of alpine marmots was investigated in two areas of the Agordino’s Dolomites (Italian Alps in June-September 2001, by means of microscopic analysis of faeces and of direct observation of feeding activity. During the whole period of activity, a high consume of Angiosperms was confirmed, especially plants in flower; among them the “graminoids” seemed to play an important role only during the initial part of the active period. Generally vegetative parts predominated over flowers. The ingestion of animal preys was not confirmed by the analysis of droppings. Comparing diet composition of the two groups, Graminaceae (<em>Poa>, <em>Phleum>, Compositae (<em>Achillea>, Cyperaceae/Juncaceae, Leguminosae (<em>Anthyllis>, Rosaceae, and Labiatae (<em>Prunella>, <em>Stachys> formed the bulk of marmot diet in the study areas. Diet showed low diversity considering the abundance of plant species in the surrounding environment. Food resources were probably used in relation to their easy digestibility, with a high content in proteins, sugar and water. The knowledge of vegetation features in relation to marmot trophic habits can represent a useful tool for the management of this species. Riassunto Il regime alimentare di due gruppi di Marmotta alpina è stato studiato in giugno-settembre 2001 in due aree delle Dolomiti agordine (SE Italia, attraverso l’analisi microscopica delle feci e l’osservazione diretta dell’attività alimentare. Durante tutto il periodo di attività si è notato un forte consumo di Angiosperme, specialmente piante a fiore, mentre le ”graminoidi” sembra giochino un ruolo importante all’inizio della stagione. In generale le parti vegetali predominano sui fiori. L’ingestione di prede animali non è stata

  1. A Favela posta em Cena

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    Fabiana Valdoski Ribeiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Em uma realidade de urbanização calcada no aprofundamento dos processos de expropriação e espoliações se consolida o fenômeno da produção de uma morfologia intitulada Favela, que continua a representar um desafio teórico e prático para pesquisadores. Este desafio é enfrentado de várias formas sendo uma delas desenhada no âmbito de duas publicações do Observatório das Favelas (Rio de Janeiro assentadas na busca conceitual do termo favela e objetivando a efetivação de políticas públicas. Esta meta remonta a trajetória deste Observatório que criado em 2001 pensa a inserção da Favela no âmbito das políticas de Estado. A primeira publicação intitulada “Favela: alegria e dor na cidade” (2005 se compõem de quatro capítulos que expõem um movimento da história de formação das favelas na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, as formas de intervenção do Estado, a prática cotidiana dos moradores como manifestação das transgressões diante as opressões e finaliza com as propostas de caminhos possíveis de superação das desigualdades e ampliação da democracia. O argumento central dos autores se direciona para o questionamento das visões de homogeneidade, ausência, carência e apartamento das favelas diante da cidade apontando a urgência de construção de um projeto de cidade democrático e fraterno.Ao longo do texto os autores vão descrevendo os exemplos destas visões e analisa o resultado delas por meio de como a população residente vive, pois são ora invisíveis, ora criminalizados, ora caracterizados enquanto um problema social estabelecendo, portanto, uma lógica autoritária que legitimará no decorrer da história das favelas, as intervenções estatais. Este movimento molda uma linha argumentativa que tenta explicitar o negativo diante a produção possível para o “morar’, que calcado na impossibilidade do acesso à terra pelo imperativo da propriedade privada empurra grandes contingentes populacionais

  2. Fatores associados ao fumo em gestantes avaliadas em cidades brasileiras

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    Kroeff Locimara Ramos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a correlação dos fatores sociodemográficos e estilo de vida com o hábito de fumar em gestantes atendidas em hospitais. MÉTODOS: O delineamento foi o de um estudo transversal. A amostra foi composta por 5.539 gestantes atendidas em ambulatórios de pré-natal em hospitais públicos credenciados nas cidades de Manaus, Fortaleza, Salvador, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo e Porto Alegre, entre 1991 e 1995. A seleção foi consecutiva para todas as gestantes com 20 anos ou mais de idade, excetuando-se aquelas com diabetes prévia à gestação. Foram realizadas medidas antropométricas e entrevistas entre a 21ª e a 28ª semanas da gravidez. Por meio de um questionário padronizado, considerou-se como fumante quem informou fumar um ou mais cigarros por dia, como ex-fumante quem informou ter fumado mais de um cigarro por dia e ter cessado, e não fumantes quem informou nunca ter fumado um ou mais cigarros por dia. RESULTADOS: O hábito de fumar na gestação associou-se à baixa escolaridade (RC=2,13; IC 95%: 1,76-2,57 e paridade (RC=1,84; IC 95%: 1,53-2,21. Para o aumento da idade da gestante e uso de bebidas alcóolicas também foram observadas associações positivas com o fumo na gestação. Não foi observada nenhuma associação significativa entre cor da pele e situação ocupacional com fumo na gestação. Um efeito protetor foi observado para mulheres casadas ou com companheiro (RC=0,55; IC 95%: 0,42-0,72. Entre as cidades, tomando Manaus como referência, Porto Alegre apresentou o maior risco para fumo na gestação (RC=5,00; IC 95%: 3,35-7,38, seguida de São Paulo (RC=3,42; IC 95%: 2,25-5,20, Rio de Janeiro (RC=2,53; IC 95%: 1,65-3,88 e Fortaleza (RC=2,56; IC95%: 1,74-3,78. CONCLUSÕES: Os achados são semelhantes àqueles descritos na literatura com relação à escolaridade, paridade e situação conjugal. Entretanto, nenhuma associação com a cor da pele foi observada na análise multivariada. As ex-fumantes mostraram

  3. Inhibition of <em>Burkholderia multivoransem> Adhesion to Lung Epithelial Cells by Bivalent Lactosides

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    Trinidad Velasco-Torrijos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Burkholderia cepaciaem> complex (Bcc is an opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis patients which is inherently resistant to antimicrobial agents. The mechanisms of attachment and pathogenesis of Bcc, a group of 17 species, are poorly understood. The most commonly identified Bcc species in newly colonised patients,<em> Burkholderia multivoransem>, continues to be acquired from the environment. Development of therapies which can prevent or reduce the risk of colonization on exposure to Bcc in the environment would be a better alternative to antimicrobial agents. Previously, it has been shown that Bcc strains bound to many glycolipid receptors on lung epithelia. Using a real-time PCR method to quantify the levels of binding of <em>B. multivoransem> to the lung epithelial cells, we have examined glycoconjugate derivatives for their potential to inhibit host cell attachment. Bivalent lactosides previously shown to inhibit galectin binding significantly reduced the attachment of <em>B. multivoransem> to CF lung epithelial cells at micromolar concentrations. This was in contrast to monosaccharides and lactose, which were only effective in the millimolar range. Development of glycoconjugate therapies such as these, which inhibit attachment to lung epithelial cells, represent an alternative means of preventing infection with inherently antimicrobially resistant pathogens such as <em>B. multivoransem>.

  4. Antioxidative Properties of Crude Polysaccharides from <em>Inonotus obliquusem>

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    Jinyou Duan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mushroom <em>Inonotus obliquusem>> em>has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA were isolated from <em>I. obliquusem>, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1 and IOA-1 were obtained respectively after deproteination and depigmentation. Their contents, such as neutral carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein, were measured. Their antioxidant properties against chemicals-induced reactive species (ROS including 1,1'-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical, as well as their protective effects on H2O2-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. Results showed that <em>I. obliquusem> polysaccharides can scavenge all ROS tested above in a dose-dependent manner. IOA and its product IOA-1 could rescue PC12 cell viability from 38.6% to 79.8% and 83.0% at a concentration of 20µg/mL. Similarly, IOW and its product IOW-1 at the same dose, can also increase cell viability to 84.9% and 88.6% respectively. The antioxidative activities of water-soluble and alkali-soluble polysaccharide constituents from <em>I. obliquusem> might contribute to diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom.

  5. <em>Emaravirus>: A Novel Genus of Multipartite, Negative Strand RNA Plant Viruses

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    Hans-Peter Mühlbach

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ringspot symptoms in European mountain ash (<em>Sorbus aucupariaem> L., fig mosaic, rose rosette, raspberry leaf blotch, pigeonpea sterility mosaic (<em>Cajanus cajanem> and High Plains disease of maize and wheat were found to be associated with viruses that share several characteristics. They all have single-stranded multipartite RNA genomes of negative orientation. In some cases, double membrane-bound virus-like particles of 80 to 200 nm in diameter were found in infected tissue. Furthermore, at least five of these viruses were shown to be vectored by eriophyid mites. Sequences of <em>European mountain ash ringspot-associated virusem> (EMARaV, <em>Fig mosaic virusem> (FMV, rose rosette virus (RRV, raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV, pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus and High Plains virus strongly support their potential phylogenetic relationship. Therefore, after characterization of EMARaV, the novel genus <em>Emaravirus> was established, and FMV was the second virus species assigned to this genus. The recently sequenced RRV and RLBV are supposed to be additional members of this new group of plant RNA viruses.

  6. Elongation Factor 1β' Gene from <em>Spodoptera exiguaem>: Characterization and Function Identification through RNA Interference

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    Li-Na Zhao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Elongation factor (EF is a key regulation factor for translation in many organisms, including plants, bacteria, fungi, animals and insects. To investigate the nature and function of elongation factor 1β' from <em>Spodoptera> exiguaem> (SeEF-1β', its cDNA was cloned. This contained an open reading frame of 672 nucleotides encoding a protein of 223 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 24.04 kDa and pI of 4.53. Northern blotting revealed that <em>SeEF-1β'em> mRNA is expressed in brain, epidermis, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, ovary and tracheae. RT-PCR revealed that <em>SeEF-1β'em> mRNA is expressed at different levels in fat body and whole body during different developmental stages. In RNAi experiments, the survival rate of insects injected with<em> SeEF-1β'em>> em>dsRNA was 58.7% at 36 h after injection, which was significantly lower than three control groups. Other elongation factors and transcription factors were also influenced when EF-1β' was suppressed. The results demonstrate that <em>SeEF-1β' em>is a key gene in transcription in <em>S. exiguaem>.

  7. Echolocation calls and morphology in the Mehelyi’s (<em>Rhinolophus mehelyiem> and mediterranean (<em>R. euryaleem> horseshoe bats: implications for resource partitioning

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    Egoitz Salsamendi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract <em>Rhinolophus euryaleem> and <em>R. mehelyiem> are morphologically very similar species and their distributions overlap extensively in the Mediterranean basin. We modelled their foraging behaviour using echolocation calls and wing morphology and, assuming niche segregation occurs between the two species, we explored how it is shaped by these factors. Resting frequency of echolocation calls was recorded and weight, forearm length, wing loading, aspect ratio and wing tip shape index were measured. <em>R. mehelyiem> showed a significantly higher resting frequency than <em>R. euryaleem>, but differences are deemed insufficient for dietary niche segregation. Weight and forearm length were significantly larger in <em>R. mehelyiem>. The higher values of aspect ratio and wing loading and a lower value of wing tip shape index in <em>R. melehyiem> restrict its flight manoeuvrability and agility. Therefore, the flight ability of <em>R. mehelyiem> may decrease as habitat complexity increases. Thus, the principal mechanism for resource partitioning seems to be based on differing habitat use arising from differences in wing morphology. Riassunto Ecolocalizzazione e morfologia nei rinolofi di Mehely (<em>Rhinolophus mehelyiem> e euriale (<em>R. euryaleem>: implicazioni nella segregazione delle risorse trofiche. <em>Rhinolophus euryaleem> e <em>R. mehelyiem> sono specie morfologicamente molto simili, la cui distribuzione risulta largamente coincidente in area mediterranea. Il comportamento di foraggiamento delle due specie è stato analizzato in funzione delle caratteristiche dei segnali di ecolocalizzazione e della morfologia alare, ed è stata valutata l’incidenza di questi fattori nell’ipotesi di una segregazione delle nicchie. È stata rilevata la frequenza a riposo dei segnali ultrasonori, così come il peso, la lunghezza dell’avambraccio, il carico alare, e due

  8. Training for Defense? From Stochastic Traits to Synchrony in Giant Honey Bees (<em>Apis dorsataem>

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    Gerald Kastberger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Giant Honey Bees, abdomen flipping happens in a variety of contexts. It can be either synchronous or cascaded, such as in the collective defense traits of shimmering and rearing-up, or it can happen as single-agent behavior. Abdomen flipping is also involved in flickering behavior, which occurs regularly under quiescent colony state displaying singular or collective traits, with stochastic, and (semi- synchronized properties. It presumably acts via visual, mechanoceptive, and pheromonal pathways and its goals are still unknown. This study questions whether flickering is preliminary to shimmering which is subject of the <em>fs em>(flickering-shimmering-transition> hypothesis? We tested the respective prediction that trigger sites (<em>ts> at the nest surface (where shimmering waves had been generated show higher flickering activity than the alternative non-trigger sites (<em>nts>. We measured the flickering activity of <em>ts>- and <em>nts>-surface bees from two experimental nests, before and after the colony had been aroused by a dummy wasp. Arousal increased rate and intensity of the flickering activity of both <em>ts>- and <em>nts> cohorts (P < 0.05, whereby the flickering intensity of <em>ts>-bees were higher than that of <em>nts>-bees (P < 0.05. Under arousal, the colonies also increased the number of flickering-active <em>ts>- and <em>nts>-cohorts (P < 0.05. This provides evidence that cohorts which are specialist at launching shimmering waves are found across the quiescent nest zone. It also proves that arousal may reinforce the responsiveness of quiescent curtain bees for participating in shimmering, practically by recruiting additional trigger site bees for expanding repetition of rate and intensity of shimmering waves. This finding confirms the <em>fs-transition> hypothesis and constitutes evidence that flickering is part of a basal colony-intrinsic information system

  9. Effect of Dieckol, a Component of <em>Ecklonia cavaem>, on the Promotion of Hair Growth

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    Sang-Cheol Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of <em>Ecklonia cavaem>, a marine alga native to Jeju Island in Korea, on the promotion of hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract (which contains more than 35% of dieckol for 21 days, <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract increased hair-fiber length. In addition, after topical application of the 0.5% <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair-shaft was induced. The treatment with <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract resulted in the proliferation of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPC. Especially, dieckol, among the isolated compounds from the <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract, showed activity that increased the proliferation of DPC. When NIH3T3 fibroblasts were treated with the <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract and the isolated compounds from the <em>E. cava> enzymatic extract, the <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract increased the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, but the isolated compounds such as eckol, dieckol, phloroglucinol and triphlorethol-A did not affect the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts. On the other hand, the <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract and dieckol significantly inhibited 5α-reductase activity. These results suggest that dieckol from <em>E. cavaem> can stimulate hair growth by the proliferation of DPC and/or the inhibition of 5α-reductase activity.

  10. Cytotoxicity and Glycan-Binding Properties of an 18 kDa Lectin Isolated from the Marine Sponge <em>Halichondria em>okadai>

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    Yasuhiro Ozeki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A divalent cation-independent lectin—HOL-18, with cytotoxic activity against leukemia cells, was purified from a demosponge, <em>Halichondria okadaiem>. HOL-18 is a 72 kDa tetrameric lectin that consists of four non-covalently bonded 18 kDa subunits. Hemagglutination activity of the lectin was strongly inhibited by chitotriose (GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAc, fetuin and mucins from porcine stomach and bovine submaxillary gland. Lectin activity was stable at pH 4–12 and temperatures lower than 60 °C. Frontal affinity chromatography with 16 types of pyridylaminated oligosaccharides indicated that the lectin had an affinity for <em>N>-linked complex-type and sphingolipid-type oligosaccharides with <em>N>-acetylated hexosamines and neuramic acid at the non-reducing termini. The lectin killed Jurkat leukemia T cells and K562 erythroleukemia cells in a dose- and carbohydrate-dependent manner.

  11. HAICAIS EM MANOEL DE BARROS

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    Profª Drª Nery Reiner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo, voltado para a criação poética de Manoel de Barros, é focalizar o conceito da obra de arte como jogo. Escolhemos Manoel de Barros, porque o lúdico, a brincadeira e o humor estão sempre presentes em sua obra. A escolha dos dados, o encaixe de palavras escolhidas a dedo, no eixo paradigmático, formam um caleidoscópio, mostrando novas estruturas, deixando explícito o desejo de brincar com os elementos linguísticos e da natureza. Para este trabalho, escolhemos, para análise, pequenos poemas semelhantes aos haicais japoneses e outros menores ainda, com dois ou até um verso apenas. Contaremos, nesta pesquisa, com a ajuda de teóricos como Johan Huizinga, Ezra Pound, Octavio Paz, Lévi-Strauss, Olga Savary e Alfredo Bosi.

  12. Poderes locais em perspectiva comparada

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    Fernando Ruivo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available “Os romances não começam como queremos, mas como eles querem”, afirmou Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Similarmente, as nossas vidas nunca decorrem como individualmente as tínhamos pensado, desejado e planeado. Ora, tal como as nossas vidas, também as reformas político-administrativas e as políticas públicas territorializadas não começam, deve dizer-se, como queremos, isto é, como pensámos, desejámos e planeámos, mas em boa parte como elas querem, como se tivessem, afinal, alguma vida própria, a qual...

  13. O Trabalho Plurativo em Presidente Prudente

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    Sandro Mauro Guirro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, vêm ocorrendo mudanças no campo brasileiro, principalmente nas  propriedades localizadas próximas a malha urbana da cidade. Esse processo se verifica com mais intensidade em cidades como Campinas, Sorocaba, Jundiaí entre outras cidades próximas aos grandes centros urbanos. Em Presidente Prudente, esse processo dá sinais de existência em resposta à crise pela qual vem passando, sobretudo a pequena agricultura. Está-se diante da intensificação das mudanças de funções do trabalho inserido na lavra agrária.

  14. Determinantes do endividamento municipal em Portugal

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    Ferreira, Fernando Diogo Vilaça

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Economia, Mercados e Políticas Públicas O objectivo desta dissertação consiste em analisar os factores que explicam o índice de endividamento dos Municípios portugueses entre 2003 e 2007. Em Portugal, os municípios surgiram no pós-25 de Abril de 1974 com atribuições desempenhadas até aí pela Administração Central. No entanto, nem sempre foram acompanhadas por transferências suficientes provocando o recurso ao crédito. Este endividamento municipal t...

  15. Sistemas de Indicadores de Desempenho em Projetos

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    Julia Garaldi Borges; Marly Monteiro de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho visa propor um sistema de indicadores de desempenho de projetos, a partir da análise da importância dos critérios de sucesso em projetos. A abordagem metodológica foi a de pesquisa-ação desenvolvida em uma empresa de engenharia, com atuação em diversos setores. Foram utilizadas várias fontes de evidência, tais como análise do atual sistema de indicadores da empresa, análise dos projetos nas bases de dados e entrevistas com representantes do escritório de projetos e com ger...

  16. Comorbidades psiquiátricas em dependentes químicos em abstinência em ambiente protegido Psychiatric comorbidities in abstinent drug addict in a protected environment

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    Adriana Raquel Binsfeld Hess; Rosa Maria Martins de Almeida; André Luiz Moraes

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar a frequência de comorbidades psiquiátricas, utilizando Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, em diferentes grupos de dependentes químicos em abstinência, em ambiente protegido, classificados de acordo com o tipo de droga utilizada: (1) grupo controle (n = 37); (2) dependentes em abstinência de álcool (n = 8); (3) dependentes em abstinência de álcool, maconha e crack/cocaína (n = 24); e (4) dependentes em abstinência de múltiplas substâncias psi...

  17. <em>Cassia spectabilis em>(DC Irwin et Barn: A Promising Traditional Herb in Health Improvement

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    Subramanian Deivanai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus <em>Cassia>, comprising about 600 species widely distributed worldwide is well known for its diverse biological and pharmacological properties. <em>Cassia spectabilis em>(sin <em>Senna spectabilisem> (DC Irwin et Barn (Fabaceae is widely grown as an ornamental plant in tropical and subtropical areas. <em>C. spectabilis em>has been commonly used in traditional medicine for many years. Information in the biomedical literature has indicated the presence of a variety of medicinally-important chemical constituents in <em>C. spectabilisem>. Pharmacological studies by various groups of investigators have shown that <em>C. spectabilisem> possesses significant biological activity, such as antibacterial, antibiofilm, antifungal and antioxidant properties. Beside this, toxicity studies of this plant have revealed no toxic effect on mice. In view of the immense medicinal importance of <em>C. spectabilisem>, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on <em>C. spectabilisem>’s botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and mechanism of actions, toxicology and its ethnomedicinal uses.

  18. Three dimensional geometric morphometric study of the Ethiopian <em>Myomys - Stenocephalemysem> complex (Murinae, Rodentia

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    Carlo Fadda

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Geometric morphometrics was used to investigate the Ethiopian <em>Myomys - Stenocephalemysem> complex, and to suggest possible explanations for differences in size and shape. The four species of the complex (<em>M. albipesem>, <em>M. ruppiem>, <em>S. griseicaudaem>, <em>S. albocaudataem> and a Kenyan species, <em>M. fumatusem>, were studied using Procrustes analysis of three dimensional landmarks collected over the skull. All these species occur in very different habitats, from forests at 1000 m up to the Afro Alpine moorlands above 4000 m. There is a substantial contradiction between phylogenetic relationships based on chromosomal rearrangements and allozymes (two distinct lineages corresponding to the two genera, and mtDNA (<em>Stenocephalemys> being paraphyletic. Geometric morphometrics supports the former hypothesis. Partial Least-Squares analysis shows a significant relation between variation in size and shape and altitude, which strongly suggests that adaptation is a major causal factor for divergence in the morphology of the skull. Size increases with altitude, paralleling a clinal change in shape, which involves stenocephaly as characterising the highland species. This shape modification allows the rodents to scan the sky efficiently for birds, which represent the main category of predators in the Afro Alpine moorlands.

  19. Feeding habits of the genet <em>Genetta genettaem> in an Iberian continental wetland

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    Maite Sánchez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study quantified the diet of the genet <em>Genetta genettaem> in an Iberian continental wetland, the Galachos Nature Reserve, northern Spain, based on the frequency with which items appeared in five monthly-surveyed latrines during 2004-2005. Prey types were identified <em>de visuem> using identification keys and expert advice. the genet was confirmed as an opportunistic and generalist predator, its diet including mammals (95.0%, plants (68.3% and arthropods (60.0% as main prey. With the exception of a newly available prey species, the alien crayfish <em>Procambarus clarkiiem>, the genet probably consumed arthropods because of chance encounters rather than active search. The consumption of fruits and small mammals varied seasonally. Riassunto Alimentazione della genetta <em>Genetta genettaem> in un'area umida continentale della penisola iberica La dieta della genetta è stata investigata in un'area umida interna della Spagna settentrionale, la riserva Naturale dei Galachos. La frequenza di ciascuna categoria alimentare è stata espressa come numero di occorrenze mansili in cinque latrine monitorate per il periodo 2004-2005. Le categorie sono state identificate <em>de visuem> tramite chiavi per il riconoscimento o l'intervento di singoli esperti. I risultati confermano il comportamento alimentare generalista e opportunista della genetta. La dieta ha incluso principalmente mammiferi (95%, vegetali (68.3% e artropodi (60%. Questi ultimi, con l'eccezione del gambero <em>Procambarus clarkiiem>, introdotto e di recente presenza, sono probabilmente utilizzati in modo opportunistico, piuttosto che in seguito a ricerca attiva. L'uso dei frutti e dei micromammiferi varia stagionalmente.

  20. The Low Temperature Tolerance Ability of American White Moth Overwintering Pupae along the Railway Lines and Stations within Liaoning Province%辽宁省境内铁路沿线及车站内美国白蛾越冬蛹耐低温能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪娇; 贺有为; 刘剑

    2013-01-01

    The continuing outbreak of American white moth has brought serious harm to the greening trees along the railway lines and stations administered by Shenyang Forestry Farm of Shenyang Railway Bureau. This article reports studies on the changes of American white moth overwintering pupae in supercooling ability and body water content in the course of the winter in a bid to provide theoretical guidance for simulation and prediction of biological control of American white moth on a regional scale.%美国白蛾的持续爆发已经严重危害到沈阳铁路局沈阳林业总场管内的铁路沿线和车站内的绿化树木。研究美国白蛾越冬蛹在越冬过程中过冷却能力及体内水分含量的变化,为在区域尺度上模拟和预测美国白蛾的生物防治提供理论指导。

  1. Identification of Volatile Components of Liverwort (<em>Porella cordaeanaem> Extracts Using GC/MS-SPME and Their Antimicrobial Activity

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    Maria Elisabetta Guerzoni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical constituents of liverwort (<em>Porella cordaeanaem> extracts have been identified using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS. The methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts were rich in terpenoids such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (53.12%, 51.68%, 23.16%, and monoterpene hydrocarbons (22.83%, 18.90%, 23.36%, respectively. The dominant compounds in the extracts were β-phellandrene (15.54%, 13.66%, 12.10% and β-caryophyllene (10.72%, 8.29%, 7.79%, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated against eleven food microorganisms using the microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC varied from 0.50 to 2.00 mg/mL for yeast strains (<em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae 635em>, <em>Zygosacharomyces bailii 45em>, <em>Aerobasidium pullulans L6Fem>, <em>Pichia membranaefaciens OC 71em>, <em>Pichia membranaefaciens OC 70em>, <em>Pichia anomalaem> <em>CBS 5759em>, <em>Pichia anomala DBVPG 3003em> and<em> em>>Yarrowia lipolytica RO13em>, and from 1.00 to 3.00 mg/mL for bacterial strains<em> em>(Salmonella> <em>enteritidis 155em>, <em>Escherichia coli 555em> and <em>Listeria monocytogenes 56Lyem>. Methanol extract showed better activity in comparison with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. High percentages of monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons could be responsible for the better antimicrobial activity.

  2. Synthesis and Sensory Evaluation of <em>ent>-Kaurane Diterpene Glycosides

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    Venkata Sai Prakash Chaturvedula

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenation of the three <em>ent>-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from <em>Stevia rebaudianaem>, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH2 and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and chemical studies. Also, we report herewith the sensory evaluation of all the reduced compounds against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose for the sweetness property of these molecules.

  3. Biologia comparada de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cebola, mamona, soja e feijão Compared biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in onion, castor oil plant, soybean and bean

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    Alvimar Bavaresco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. sobre quatro hospedeiros naturais (folhas de cebola, mamona, soja cv. Embrapa 48 e feijão cv. Carioca. Foram avaliados a duração e viabilidade das fases imaturas e do ciclo total, número de ínstares, peso de pupas, razão sexual, porcentagem de deformação de adultos e de adultos não liberados dos invólucros pupais, longevidade de adultos, fecundidade e viabilidade de ovos. Observou-se menor duração e maior viabilidade do período ovo-adulto para mamona e cebola (39,7 dias e 21,7% e 40,5 dias e 21,8%, respectivamente, do que para soja (46,0 dias e 3,9%. O peso pupal foi de 444,6 mg em cebola, 420,0 em feijão, 396,6 em mamona e 298,7 em soja. Constatou-se um predomínio de seis ínstares larvais em folhas de cebola e mamona, ocorrendo também sete para alguns indivíduos, enquanto que em soja predominou a ocorrência de sete, também verificando oito ínstares, indicando uma menor adequação nutricional deste hospedeiro. As fêmeas apresentaram duração da fase pupal significativamente menor do que os machos em todos hospedeiros, fazendo com que a emergência do adulto ocorresse antes dos machos. Em cebola, a longevidade de adultos foi significativamente superior aos demais hospedeiros. A fecundidade foi maior em cebola e mamona (3224 e 3206 ovos/fêmea, respectivamente, enquanto que para soja observou-se 1353 ovos/fêmea. Em folhas de feijão, o desenvolvimento do inseto foi prejudicado por caracteres morfológicos - pilosidade, que promoveram elevada mortalidade na fase larval.The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. was studied on four natural hosts (onion leaves, castor oil plant, soy cv. Embrapa 48 and bean cv. Carioca. The duration and viability of immature phases and total cycle, instar number, pupals weight, sexual ratio, percentage of deformed adults and adults not released of pupal beg, adults' longevity, fecundity and eggs viability were evaluated. It was observed in

  4. Deterrência alimentar em Ascia monuste orseis Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae induzida por soluções homeopáticas

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    Nilbe Carla Mapeli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A couve, Brassica oleracea var. acephala, destaca-se entre as plantas hortícolas como sendo frequentemente atacada por pragas, dentre as quais o curuquerê da couve, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Pieridae. O controle desse inseto tem sido feito com inseticidas. Na agricultura orgânica, o uso dos referidos produtos é proibido e já existem alguns casos em que agricultores estão substituindo-o, por outras alternativas menos danosas ao meio ambiente, como as soluções homeopáticas, substâncias apontadas como ferramentas para Agroecologia. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar se soluções homeopáticas proporcionam mecanismos de antibiose, como deterrência alimentar, em Ascia monuste orseis, em couve 'manteiga cv. Santo Antônio' e se podem ser utilizadas no controle de pragas. As soluções testadas foram: - Sulphur 12CH; Phosphorus 5CH; Magnesia carbonica 30CH; Ruta 5CH. A testemunha foi água destilada + álcool de cereais 70% 5CH. Para o preparo de cada solução, foram retirados 0,2 ml de cada preparado homeopático, adicionados a 200 ml de água destilada pulverizados nas folhas e nos solo dos vasos. As características analisadas foram peso de lagartas no início e no final do 4° instar; peso seco de pupa (biomassa incorporada, comprimento de lagarta no 4° instar, duração do ciclo ovo-adulto, percentagem de emergência de adultos, comprimento alar, fecundidade das fêmeas e valor nutritivo das couves tratadas. Sulphur 12CH pode ser recomendado como método alternativo eficiente no controle de A. monuste orseis. Todas as soluções homeopáticas, com exceção do Phosphorus 5CH, promoveram deterrência alimentar, mecanismo de antibiose, interferindo no ciclo biológico de A. monuste orseis.

  5. Characterization of the Antibacterial Activity and the Chemical Components of the Volatile Oil of the Leaves of <em>Rubus parvifoliusem> L.

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    Yongqing Cai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Rubus parvifoliusem> L. (Rp is a medicinal herb that possesses antibacterial activity. In this study, we extracted the volatile oil from the leaves of Rp to assess its antibacterial activity and analyze its chemical composition. A uniform distribution design was used to optimize the extraction procedure, which yielded 0.36% (<em>w/w> of light yellowish oil from the water extract of Rp leaves. We found that the extracted oil effectively inhibited the growth of a wide range of Gram positive and negative bacteria, including <em>Staphylococcus aureusem>, <em>Staphylococcus epidermidisem>, <em>Enterococcus faecalisem>, <em>Escherichia coliem>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosaem>, <em>Acinetobacter baumaniiem>, <em>Bacillus cloacaeem>, and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniaeem>. We further analyzed the components contained in the hydro-distillated Rp volatile oil by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Twenty nine compounds were identified, including 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (66%, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (10% and 4-<em>tert>-butylbenzoic acid (2%. Our results suggest that one or multiple constituents contained in Rp volatile oil may account for its antibacterial activity.

  6. EMS in Taiwan: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Chu; Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Wang, Hui-Chih; Yang, Chi-Wei; Shih, Fuh-Yuan; Hsiung, Kuang-Hua; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan is a small island country located in East Asia. From around 1995 modern concepts of the EMS were imported and supported by legislation. Considerable progress has since been made towards the construction of an effective pre-hospital care system. This article introduces the current status of the EMS in Taiwan, including the systems, response configurations, funding, personnel, medical directorship, and outcome research. The features and problems of in-hospital emergency care are also discussed. Key areas for further development in the country vary depending on regional differences in available resource and population density. An analysis of the strength, weakness, opportunity, and threats of the evolving EMS in Taiwan could be an example for other countries where the EMS is undergoing a similar process of development and optimisation. PMID:19059690

  7. Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF Antagonistic Activity of a New Biflavonoid from <em>Garcinia nervosaem> var. <em>pubescens> King

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    Azura Abdul Ghani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the leaves of <em>Garcinia nervosaem> var. <em>pubescens> King, which showed strong inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF receptor binding, was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation to obtain a new biflavonoid, II-3,I-5, II-5,II-7,I-4',II-4'-hexahydroxy-(I-3,II-8-flavonylflavanonol together with two known flavonoids, 6-methyl-4'-methoxyflavone and acacetin. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit PAF receptor binding to rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. The biflavonoid and acacetin showed strong inhibition with IC50 values of 28.0 and 20.4 µM, respectively. The results suggest that these compounds could be responsible for the strong PAF antagonistic activity of the plant.

  8. <em>Helicobacter pyloriem> Disrupts Host Cell Membranes, Initiating a Repair Response and Cell Proliferation

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    Hsueh-Fen Juan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Helicobacter pyloriem> (<em>H. pyloriem>, the human stomach pathogen, lives on the inner surface of the stomach and causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Plasma membrane repair response is a matter of life and death for human cells against physical and biological damage. We here test the hypothesis that <em>H. pyloriem> also causes plasma membrane disruption injury, and that not only a membrane repair response but also a cell proliferation response are thereby activated. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA have been considered to be major <em>H. pyloriem> virulence factors. Gastric cancer cells were infected with <em>H. pyloriem> wild type (vacA+/cagA+, single mutant (ΔvacA or ΔcagA or double mutant (ΔvacA/ΔcagA strains and plasma membrane disruption events and consequent activation of membrane repair components monitored. <em>H. pyloriem> disrupts the host cell plasma membrane, allowing localized dye and extracellular Ca2+ influx. Ca2+-triggered members of the annexin family, A1 and A4, translocate, in response to injury, to the plasma membrane, and cell surface expression of an exocytotic maker of repair, LAMP-2, increases. Additional forms of plasma membrane disruption, unrelated to <em>H.> pylori em>exposure, also promote host cell proliferation. We propose that <em>H. pyloriem> activation of a plasma membrane repair is pro-proliferative. This study might therefore provide new insight into potential mechanisms of <em>H. pyloriem>-induced gastric carcinogenesis.

  9. Local feeding specialization of the red fox (<em>Vulpes vulpesem>) in response to eastern cottontail (<em>Sylvilagus floridanusem>) introduction (NW Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Balestrieri; Luigi Remonti; Claudio Prigioni

    2006-01-01

    Abstract To appreciate the influence of the introduction of the Eastern cottontail (<em>Sylvilagus floridanusem>) on the food habits of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), between June 1998 and February 2000 fox diet was investigated by means of scat analysis (N=115) in a 250 ha wide Natural Reserve of NW Italy, and compared with data collected in the same area prior to cottontail colonization (1988-1989). Comparison included also the diet of badgers (...

  10. Feeding strategies of <em>Rattus norvegicusem>: a review / Una sintesi di alcuni aspetti della strategia alimentare del ratto <em>Rattus norvegicusem>

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Cagnin

    1987-01-01

    Abstract Some of the most relevant aspects of the feeding behaviour of the rat (<em>Rattus norvegicusem>, Berkenhout, 1769) were examined with particular interest in the data collected on wild rats and in natural environments. The rat is considered as an omnivore and generalist species, but both in the wild and in the laboratory marked individual differences were recorded in food preferences and diet spectrum, which probably allow the natural popula...

  11. <em>Hedyotis diffusaem> Willd Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Growth <em>in Vivoem> via Inhibition of STAT3 Signaling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Peng; Wei Xu; Aling Shen; Zhenfeng Hong; Jianwei Zeng; Youzhi Zhan; Ling Zhang; Lili Wang; Lihui Wei; Jiumao Lin; Qiaoyan Cai

    2012-01-01

    Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), a common oncogenic mediator, is constitutively activated in many types of human cancers; therefore it is a major focus in the development of novel anti-cancer agents. <em>Hedyotis diffusaem> Willd has been used as a major component in several Chinese medicine formulas for the clinical treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the precise mechanism of its anti-tumor activity remains largely unclear. Using a CRC mous...

  12. Net Energy, CO2 Emission and Land-Based Cost-Benefit Analyses of <em>Jatropha> em>Biodiesel: A Case Study of the Panzhihua Region of Sichuan Province in China

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    Xiangzheng Deng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy is currently regarded as a renewable energy source with a high growth potential. Forest-based biodiesel, with the significant advantage of not competing with grain production on cultivated land, has been considered as a promising substitute for diesel fuel by many countries, including China. Consequently, extracting biodiesel from <em>Jatropha> curcasem> has become a growing industry. However, many key issues related to the development of this industry are still not fully resolved and the prospects for this industry are complicated. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the net energy, CO2 emission, and cost efficiency of <em>Jatropha> biodiesel as a substitute fuel in China to help resolve some of the key issues by studying data from this region of China that is well suited to growing <em>Jatropha>. Our results show that: (1 <em>Jatropha> biodiesel is preferable for global warming mitigation over diesel fuel in terms of the carbon sink during <em>Jatropha> tree growth. (2 The net energy yield of <em>Jatropha> biodiesel is much lower than that of fossil fuel, induced by the high energy consumption during <em>Jatropha> plantation establishment and the conversion from seed oil to diesel fuel step. Therefore, the energy efficiencies of the production of <em>Jatropha> and its conversion to biodiesel need to be improved. (3 Due to current low profit and high risk in the study area, farmers have little incentive to continue or increase <em>Jatropha> production. (4 It is necessary to provide more subsidies and preferential policies for <em>Jatropha> plantations if this industry is to grow. It is also necessary for local government to set realistic objectives and make rational plans to choose proper sites for <em>Jatropha> biodiesel development and the work reported here should assist that effort. Future research focused on breading high-yield varieties, development of efficient field

  13. Bioatividade do óleo de nim sobre Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae em sementes de amendoim Bioactivity of neem oil on Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae in stored peanut seeds

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    Aderdilânia I. B. de Azevedo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a bioatividade do óleo de nim sobre Alphitobius diaperinus, em sementes armazenadas. Sementes de amendoim cultivar BRS Havana foram tratadas com óleo de nim nas concentrações de 0,0; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0% (volume/massa de sementes e mantidas em bandejas durante 24 h. Cinquenta gramas de sementes foram colocados em recipientes plásticos e infestados com 20 insetos adultos de A. diaperinus. Avaliaram-se, aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento, a mortalidade, o número de descendentes (larvas, pupas e adultos e o número de sementes perfuradas. Para análise de variância dos dados utilizou-se o teste de Friedman (p £ 0,05, sendo a comparação das médias realizada pelo teste de Student Newman Keuls (p £ 0,05. Calculou-se, também, a eficiência do produto pelo método de Henderson & Tilton (1955. Eficiência do óleo de nim sobre a mortalidade de A. diaperinus acima de 74,92% foi observada a partir dos 90 dias do armazenamento, para as concentrações de 3 e 4%; entretanto, o produto conferiu proteção às sementes de amendoim, em todas as concentrações, nos períodos estudados, visto que afetou todos os descendentes de A. diaperinus da geração F1.This work aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of neem oil on Alphitobius diaperinus, in stored seed. Peanuts seeds, cultivar BRS Havana, were treated with neem oil at concentrations of 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0% (volume/weight and kept in trays for 24 h. Fifty grams of seeds were put in plastic containers and infested with 20 adult insects of A. diaperinus. The mortality, the offspring number (larvae, pupae and adults and the number of punched seeds were evaluated at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. For variance analysis of data, Friedman test (p £ 0.05 was used. Student Newman Keuls test (p £ 0.05 was used for comparison of means. The product efficiency was also analysed by using Henderson & Tilton (1955 method. Neem oil efficiency on the mortality

  14. Development of 101 Gene-based Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in Sea Cucumber, <em>Apostichopus japonicusem>>

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    Wei Lu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are currently the marker of choice in a variety of genetic studies. Using the high resolution melting (HRM genotyping approach, 101 gene-based SNP markers were developed for <em>Apostichopus japonicusem>, a sea cucumber species with economic significance for the aquaculture industry in East Asian countries. HRM analysis revealed that all the loci showed polymorphisms when evaluated using 40 <em>A. japonicusem> individuals collected from a natural population. The minor allele frequency ranged from 0.035 to 0.489. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.050 to 0.833 and 0.073 to 0.907, respectively. Thirteen loci were found to depart significantly from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE after Bonferroni corrections. Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD was detected in one pair of markers. These SNP markers are expected to be useful for future quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis, and to facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS in <em>A. japonicusem>.

  15. Em busca do dossel sagrado

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    Rodrigo Portella

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar algumas teorias de base sociológica que possam explicar o surgimento, em nossa época, de movimentos eclesiais católicos de cunho tradicional, que resgatam estilos de vida religiosa identificados com o passado, ou melhor, com características de uma igreja anterior ao Concílio Vaticano II. A tese central, ainda que como conclusão provisória, é que, num mundo fragmentado e secularizado, pessoas, especialmente jovens, buscam orientação de vida e fé em formas religiosas identificadas com o passado, pois estas ofereceriam segurança e proteção diante de uma sociedade e igreja cada vez mais secularizadas e sem um dossel sagrado determiná-las. Assim, analisamos a tendência pósmoderna de se voltar a costumes, liturgias e doutrinas mais rígidas ou conservadoras, justa e paradoxalmente no intuito de resistir à pós-modernidade ou à racionalidade moderna. Nosso estudo tem como pano de fundo o movimento da Toca de Assis e, até certo ponto, as teorias sociológicas de Peter Berger. Assim, a metodologia deste estudo é a sociológica.Palavras-chave: Igreja Católica; Jovens; Movimentos eclesiais.ABSTRACTThis article aims to present some sociological theories that can explain the present emergence of Catholic ecclesiastical movements of a “traditional” nature, which rescue religious life styles identified with the past, that is, with the Church before Vatican Council II. The central thesis, though inconclusive, is that, in a fragmented and secularized world, people, especially the young, would search for life guidance and faith in religious forms identified with the past, as they would offer security and protection in a society and in a church rendered more and more secular, and deprived of a sacred canopy to define them. Thus, it analyzes the post-modern trend to return to more rigid or conservative habits, liturgies and doctrines, precisely – and paradoxically – as a form of resistance to post

  16. A MORTE EM CINCO ATOS

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    André Lira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumoOs avanços técnicos atuais põem adiante muitasexpectativas relativas à nossa mortalidade.Devedores de uma longa tradição de dicotomias,como corpo e alma, cultura e naturezae muitas outras, nós estamos realmente observandoa virtualização crescente da realidade.Por que isso está ocorrendo e a que isso estáconduzindo? Nós iremos propor uma dançaapaixonada com a questão da morte, não parasuperá-la ou repeli-la, como normalmente éexperienciada no mundo moderno. Em vezdisso, nessa mesma dança, tentaremos redescobrirnossas raízes terrenas, articulando odivino e a singularidade de nossas vidas comodevidos ao horizonte que a morte revela.Morte como horizonte, isto é, a própria possibilidadede ser, quer dizer que a mortalidadeé o próprio dom da felicidade, o permanentee essencial sentido da história. E o horizontedas possibilidades que a morte oferece a cadaum dos seres humanos aparece como um silênciosagrado, sempre um espelho escuro requisitandoe questionando nossas identidadese certezas, nos pondo em movimento. Nessesentido, recuperar o sentido existencial damorte é pedir abrigo, mais uma vez, no ventremisterioso da terra.Palavras-chave: Morte; corpo; terra.AbstractTh e current technical advancements putforward many expectations concerning ourmortality. In debt of a long tradition of dichotomies,such as body and soul, cultureand nature and many others, we are indeedwatching the increasing virtualization of reality.Why is that happening and what is it leadingto? We will propose a passionate dancewith the question of death, not to overcomeor repel it, as it normally is experienced in themodern world. Instead, in that very dance,we will try to rediscover our earthly roots, articulatingthe divinity and singularity of ourlives as due to the horizon that death unveils.Death as horizon, that is, the possibility ofbeing itself, means that mortality is the truegift of happiness, the everlasting and essentialmeaning of history

  17. LESÕES FOLIARES EM MUDAS DE PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliensis Cambess) LEAF LESIONS OF YOUNG PLANTS OF PEQUIZEIRO

    OpenAIRE

    Yvo de Carvalho; Leila Garcez de Araújo

    2007-01-01

    Foram descritas as características de lesões e morfologia de colônias de <em>Pestalotia> <em>sp>., <em>Phomopsis spem>., <em>Stigmella spem>., <em>Chaetophoma sp.em>, <em>Helminthosporium sp.em> e <em>Epicoccum sp. em>obtidas de folhas de mudas de pequizeiro em viveiros nos municípios de Goiânia e Hidrolândia (GO). ...

  18. Development of New Microsatellite Markers for <em>Salvia officinalisem> L. and Its Potential Use in Conservation-Genetic Studies of Narrow Endemic <em>Salvia brachyodonem> Vandas

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    Zlatko Liber

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine new microsatellite markers (SSR were isolated from <em>Salvia officinalisem> L. A total of 125 alleles, with 8 to 21 alleles per locus, were detected in a natural population from the east Adriatic coast. The observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.46 to 0.83, 0.73 to 0.93 and 0.70 to 0.92, respectively. New microsatellite markers, as well as previously published markers, were tested for cross-amplification in <em>Salvia brachyodon em>Vandas, a narrow endemic species known to be present in only two localities on the Balkan Peninsula. Out of 30 microsatellite markers tested on the natural <em>S. brachyodonem> population, 15 were successfully amplified. To obtain evidence of recent bottleneck events in the populations of both species, observed genetic diversity (<em>H>E was compared to the expected genetic diversity at mutation-drift equilibrium (<em>H>EQ and calculated from the observed number of alleles using a two-phased mutation model (TPM. Recent bottleneck events were detected only in the <em>S. brachyodonem> population. This result suggests the need to reconsider the current threat category of this endemic species.

  19. Dermatite multifatorial em um canino

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    C.B. Matos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatou-se um caso clínico de dermatite multifatorial em cão, envolvendo Demodex canis, Sporothrix schenckii e bactérias dos gêneros Staphylococcus e Streptococcus. O animal, macho, da raça Pit Bull, com um ano e três meses de idade, apresentou lesões úmidas, hiperêmicas, descamativas e ulcerativas nas regiões do pescoço e do tórax. Exames laboratoriais confirmaram o diagnóstico de infecção concomitante por fungo, bactéria e parasito. A terapia antimicrobiana com moxidectina, itraconazol e amoxicilina foi efetiva, com remissão dos sinais clínicos após 30 dias de tratamento. Este relato salienta a importância do diagnóstico de certeza, que foi determinante para estabelecimento da terapêutica adequada e recuperação do animal.

  20. Actinomicose da Mama em Gestante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mottola Jr Juvenal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A actinomicose mamária é doença inflamatória rara, com poucos casos descritos na literatura. Pode ser primária da mama quando resultante de traumas na pele e papila mamária, e, secundária, quando de origem toracopleural. Sua apresentação clínica é variável, devendo ser diferenciada das doenças mais comuns, dentre elas as mastites e também as neoplasias, como o carcinoma inflamatório. Seu diagnóstico é realizado pela cultura da secreção, com a identificação das colônias de Actinomyces sp. Seu tratamento é a drenagem, quando indicada, a antibioticoterapia endovenosa e manutenção oral por tempo prolongado. Os autores relatam caso de abscesso retromamário por Actinomyces sp. em gestante de 12 semanas que apresentava tumoração mamária expansiva na mama esquerda.

  1. Monorquidismo em um equino marchador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Fontana de Magalhães

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O monorquidismo é um quadro raramente descrito em equinos, que não apresenta descrições prévias na literatura nacional. Trata-se de um equino adulto brasileiro, com oito anos de idade, sem raça definida, porém com características de raças de origem nacional. Por abordagem inguinal do lado esquerdo, localizou-se a túnica vaginal intacta, que, aberta, continha a cauda de um epidídimo mal formado, o ducto deferente e um delgado pedículo vascular, mas sem indícios de testículo. Exames histológicos e hormonais confirmaram a ausência de tecido testicular. Conclui-se que os exames histológicos e hormonais são essenciais para o diagnóstico de monorquidismo que, apesar de raro, também pode acometer equinos nacionais

  2. Self: um conceito em desenvolvimento

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    Lídia Suzana Rocha de Macedo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversas definições de self coexistem nas teorias e práticas psicológicas. Essa variedade é resultante de bases epistemológicas a partir das quais se adotam estratégias diferentes para abordar e demarcar os limites do objeto em questão e descrevê-lo. Este estudo teve como objetivo oferecer uma revisão dos conceitos de self e uma reflexão sobre como esse conceito se articula nas diferentes abordagens teóricas da psicologia. Destaca-se que dilemas centrais à psicologia do desenvolvimento atravessam o conceito de self. Por essa razão, apresenta-se a tese de que, ao analisar cada definição de self, deve-se buscar responder como cada teoria colocou-se diante das dicotomias estabilidade versus transformação, específico versus universal e mundo interno versus mundo externo.

  3. Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from the Cave Sponge <em>Xestospongia em>sp.

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    Sridevi Ankisetty

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the cave sponge <em>Xestospongia em>sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the new metabolites was also evaluated.

  4. Enzymatic Properties and Mutational Studies of Chalcone Synthase from <em>Physcomitrella patensem>

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    Mahiran Basri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Pp>CHS is a member of the type III polyketide synthase family and catalyses the synthesis of the flavonoid precursor naringenin chalcone from <em>p>-coumaroyl-CoA. Recent research reports the production of pyrone derivatives using either hexanoyl-CoA or butyryl-CoA as starter molecule. The Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad found in other plant chalcone synthase predicted polypeptides is conserved in <em>Pp>CHS. Site directed mutagenesis involving these amino acids residing in the active-site cavity revealed that the cavity volume of the active-site plays a significant role in the selection of starter molecules as well as product formation. Substitutions of Cys 170 with Arg and Ser amino acids decreased the ability of the <em>Pp>CHS to utilize hexanoyl-CoA as a starter molecule, which directly effected the production of pyrone derivatives (products. These substitutions are believed to have a restricted number of elongations of the growing polypeptide chain due to the smaller cavity volume of the mutant’s active site.

  5. Preussianone, a New Flavanone-Chromone Biflavonoid from <em>Garcinia preussiiem> Engl.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhard Bringmann; Kurt Hostettmann; Jean-Luc Wolfender; Alain Meli Lannang; Nkengfack, Augustin E; Barbara Hertlein-Amslinger; Karine Ndjoko-Ioset; Bernadette Biloa Messi

    2012-01-01

    A new flavanone-chromone biflavonoid, preussianone (1), has been isolated from the leaves of <em>Garcinia preussiiem>, along with four known biflavonoids. The absolute stereostructures were elucidated by chemical, spectroscopic, and chiroptical methods. The biological properties of the new biflavonoid against several bacterial strains were evaluated.

  6. Commensal <em>Pseudomonas> Species Isolated from Wastewater and Freshwater Milieus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, as Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistant Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I. Okoh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available <em>Pseudomonas> species are opportunistic pathogens with implications in a wide range of diseases including cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anaemia. Because of their status as multidrug resistant (MDR and extremely drug resistant (XDR bacteria <em>Pseudomonas> species represent a threat to public health. Prevalence, antibiogram and associated antibiotic resistant genes of <em>Pseudomonas> species isolated from freshwater and mixed liquor environments in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR based technique was used to identify the isolates and screen for antibiotic resistant genes. The result shows occurrence of <em>Pseudomonas> spp. in freshwater and mixed liquor as follows: 71.42% and 37.5% (<em>P. putidaem>, 14.28% and 31.25% (<em>P. flourescensem>, 7.14% and 6.25% (<em>P. aeruginosaem> and 7.14% and 25% for other <em>Pseudomonas> species respectively. Disk diffusion antibiogram of the <em>Pseudomonas> isolates from the two locations showed 100% resistance to penicillin, oxacillin, clindamycin, rifampicin and 100% susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin with varied percentage resistances to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and ampicillin. The <em>blaTEM> antibiotic resistant gene was detected in 12.5% of <em>P. putidaem>, 57.14% of <em>P. fluorescensem>, 100% <em>P. aeruginosaem> and 40% in other <em>Pseudomonas> species. Similarly, Integrons conserved segment were detected in 12.5% of <em>P. putidaem>, 57.14% of <em>P. fluorescensem>, 100% of <em>P. aeruginosaem> and 40% of other <em>Pseudomonas> species. The presence of <em>blaTEM> gene and integrons conserved segment in some of the isolates is worrisome and suggest <em>Pseudomona>s species as important reservoirs of multidrug resistance genes in the Eastern Cape Province environment.

  7. Local feeding specialization of the red fox (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in response to eastern cottontail (<em>Sylvilagus floridanusem> introduction (NW Italy

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    Alessandro Balestrieri

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To appreciate the influence of the introduction of the Eastern cottontail (<em>Sylvilagus floridanusem> on the food habits of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, between June 1998 and February 2000 fox diet was investigated by means of scat analysis (N=115 in a 250 ha wide Natural Reserve of NW Italy, and compared with data collected in the same area prior to cottontail colonization (1988-1989. Comparison included also the diet of badgers (<em>Meles melesem>, considered as potential competitors for food resources. Alien lagomorphs (mean percent volume, Vm% = 68% represented by far the most exploited resource, only three other food items reaching values of mean percent volume barely higher than 5%. Cottontails frequency of occurrence did not vary according either to season or to their reproductive cycle (II-IX vs. X-I, whilst diet niche breadth varied inversely proportional to the use of this key-resource. Overall fox trophic niche breadth varied from 0.64 in 1988-89 to 0.31 in 1998-00 (B, Levin’s index. These findings led us to consider the feeding habits of the fox in the study area as a result of local specialization of a typical generalist carnivore, according to the predictions of optimal foraging theory. No variation occurred in the badger niche breadth since cottontail introduction, whilst niche overlap between foxes and badgers decreased from 0.59 to 0.13 (O, Pianka’s index, possibly reducing competition for food in summer. Riassunto Specializzazione alimentare a livello locale della Volpe <em>Vulpes vulpesem> in risposta all’introduzione del Silvilago <em>Sylvilagus floridanusem> (Italia nord occidentale. Per valutare gli effetti dell’introduzione del Silvilago (<em>Sylvilagus floridanusem> sul comportamento alimentare della volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem>, nel periodo giugno 1998-febbraio 2000, la dieta del carnivoro è stata definita tramite l’analisi di 115

  8. Home range dynamics of mountain hare (<em>Lepus timidusem> in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Genini-Gamboni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known on the ecology and behaviour of alpine mountain hare (<em>Lepus timidusem>. Between 1996 and 1997 we analysed by radiotracking the pattern of space use of 8 mountain hares from the Swiss Alps. We estimated home range size using both the kernel density estimator and the minimum convex polygon. We found smaller ranges (38 ha compared to those reported for the species in boreal or arctic habitats, but similar to ranges in Scotland. Hares did not use a centre of major activity (core area and showed high home range overlap, confirming their non-territorial behaviour. Smaller ranges were used during winter compared to the other seasons, whilst no difference in size was found between sexes. Riassunto Dinamica dell'uso dello spazio della lepre bianca (<em>Lepus timidusem> nelle Alpi Svizzere Le informazioni relative all'ecologia e al comportamento della lepre alpina (<em>Lepus timidusem> sono ad oggi scarse. In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l'utilizzo dello spazio di una popolazione di lepre bianca sulle Alpi Svizzere. Tra il 1996 e il 1997 sono stati marcati con redio collare 8 individui di lepre alpina. L'<em>home rangeem> è stato calcolato utilizzando lo stimatore di densità kernel (KDE ed il metodo del minimo poligono convesso (MCP. L'ampiezza degli <em>home rangeem> (38 ha è risultata inferiore a quella riportata per la specie in habitat boreali ed artici. ma simile a quella riscontrata in Scozia. All'interno dell <em>home rangeem> non è stato rilevato alcun centro di maggiore attività (<em>core areaem> ed è stata evidenziata una notevole sovrapposizione tra gli stessi, confermando la non territorialità della specie. Le aree frequentate in inverno sono risultate più piccole rispetto alle altre stagioni e non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i sessi.

  9. Infracommunities of intestinal helminths of the Red Fox <em>Vulpes vulpesem> (Linnaeus, 1758 from Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Di Cerbo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available <em>Vulpes vulpesem> (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most common carnivore in Italy and its spread includes almost the whole national territory. The species shows an high ecological plasticity and a variable diet composition connected in part to human sources. This high adaptability permits the red foxes to colonize different habitats like the suburbs of large cities as well as the small villages located in mountain areas. On the other hand, the tourism pressure seems to assume a great importance in the Alps, also in those areas where the foxes live. So, indirect interactions could take place between these animals and the humans. The role of <em>V. vulpesem> in the zoonoses has not to be understated since this carnivore could transmit parasitic diseases that are able to cause serious pathologies in humans. This study aims just to investigate on intestinal communities of helmiths of <em>V. vulpesem> in order to make progress in current knowledge on epidemiological situation in Italian Alps. During 1998-2003, we have examined 450 foxes from Trentino Alto Adige, Veneto, Lombardia and Valle d'Aosta. The specimens collected were found dead or have been hunted (according to national law n. 157/92 in localities situated between 170 and 2200 m a.s.l. The carcasses were carried to the provincial sections of Zooprofilattici Institutes, where the intestine was drawn by each sample and all the material was sent to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Milan. Parasitological examination of the small intestines was performed by the analysis of the whole sediment and counting technique (SCT. Parasites were preserved in alcohol 70° before to be clarified or stained and identified by microscope (Zeiss Axioscop. Mean abundance, mean intensity and prevalence were calculated for each taxon of helminth. Dates of sampling were grouped within the four seasons. Statistic tests were performed with software package SPSS rel. 11.5 and spatial analysis with the

  10. Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of 13-<em>n>-Alkyl Berberine and Palmatine Analogues as Anticancer Agents

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    Lei Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available By introducing long carbon-chain alkyl groups at the C-13 position of berberine and palmatine, 13-<em>n>-hexyl/13-<em>n>-octyl berberine and palmatine chloride analogues 4ad were synthesized and examined by MTT assays for cytotoxic activity in seven human cancer cell lines (7701QGY, SMMC7721, HepG2, CEM, CEM/VCR, KIII, Lewis, yielding IC50 values of 0.02 ± 0.01–13.58 ± 2.84 μM. 13-<em>n>-Octyl palmatine (compound 4d gave the most potent inhibitor activity, with an IC50 of 0.02 ± 0.01 μM for SMMC7721. In all cases, the 13-<em>n>-alkyl berberine and palmatine analogues 4ad were more cytotoxic than berberine and palmatine. In addition, compounds 4ad also exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than berberine and palmatine in mice with S180 sarcoma xenografted<em> in vivoem>. The primary screening results indicated that the 13-<em>n>-hexyl/13-<em>n>-octyl berberine and palmatine analogues might be valuable source for new potent anticancer drug candidates.

  11. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Expression of the Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene from <em>Juglans regiaem>

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    Feng Xu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL is the first key enzyme of the phenypropanoid pathway. A full-length cDNA of <em>PAL> gene was isolated from <em>Juglans regiaem> for the first time, and designated as <em>JrPAL>. The full-length cDNA of the <em>JrPAL> gene contained a 1935bp open reading frame encoding a 645-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 70.4 kD and isoelectric point (pI of 6.7. The deduced JrPAL protein showed high identities with other plant PALs. Molecular modeling of JrPAL showed that the 3D model of JrPAL was similar to that of PAL protein from <em>Petroselinum crispumem> (PcPAL, implying that JrPAL may have similar functions with PcPAL. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that JrPAL shared the same evolutionary ancestor of other PALs and had a closer relationship with other angiosperm species. Transcription analysis revealed that <em>JrPAL> was expressed in all tested tissues including roots, stems, and leaves, with the highest transcription level being found in roots. Expression profiling analyses by real-time PCR revealed that <em>JrPAL> expression was induced by a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses, including UV-B, wounding, cold, abscisic acid and salicylic acid.

  12. Identification and Antibacterial Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds from <em>Garcinia kolaem> (Heckel Seeds

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    Christinah T. Seanego

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the bioactivity of <em>G. kolaem> seeds on <em>Streptococcus pyogenesem>, <em>Staphylococcus aureusem>, <em>Plesiomonas shigelloidesem> and<em> Salmonella typhimuriumem>. The crude ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, acetone and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar-well diffusion method and their activities were further determined by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC assays. The extracts were fractionated by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. Bioautography was used to assess the activity of the possible classes of compounds present in the more active extracts. Column chromatography was used to purify the active compounds from the mixture, while GC-MS was used to identify the phytocomponents of the fractions. The inhibition zone diameters of the extracts ranged from 0–24 ± 1.1 mm, while MIC and MBC values ranged between 0.04–1.25 mg/mL and 0.081–2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The chloroform/ethyl acetate/formic acid (CEF solvent system separated more active compounds. The MIC of the fractions ranged between 0.0006–2.5 mg/mL. CEF 3 (F3, CEF 11 (F11 and CEF 12 (F12 revealed the presence of high levels of linoleic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl ester, respectively. The results obtained from this study justify the use of this plant in traditional medicine and provide leads which could be further exploited for the development of new and potent antimicrobials.

  13. Mammal prey of the Barn Owl (<em>Tyto albaem> in Parque Luro Reserve, La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Tiranti

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the barn owl was studied through the analysis of pellets obtained in various sites within the Parque Luro reserve, located in an area of xerophyte Caldén forests. The study of 1241 prey items revealed a high dominance of the cricetid rodents <em>Calomys> sp., <em>Akodon molinaeem> and <em>Eligmodontia typusem>, followed by other 8 species of rodents, one species of marsupial and undetermined birds and anuran amphibians. For comparing the diets from a relatively undisturbed forested area (Parque Luro and a deforested site, two subcollections of pellets were analyzed. Differences in FNB values and in the prevalence and composition of prey assemblages were observed between these areas. Riassunto Mammiferi predati dal Barbagianni (<em>Tyto albaem> nella Riserva Parque Luro, La Pampa, Argentina - La dieta del Barbagianni (<em>Tyto albaem> è stata studiata attraverso l'analisi delle borre ottenute in varie località all'interno della riserva Parque Luro, situata in un'area con boschi xerofili a <em>Prosopis caldeniaem>. Lo studio di 1241 campioni ha rivelato un'elevata prevalenza di roditori cricetidi <em>Calomys> sp., <em>Akodon molinaeem> and <em>Eligmodontia typusem>, seguiti da altre 8 specie di roditori, una specie di marsupiali e uccelli e anfibi anuri indeterminati. Per il confronto delle diete sono state analizzate due sub-raccolte di borre di rapaci provenienti da un'area boscata relativamente indisturbata e da un sito disboscato. In queste aree sono state osservate differenze nei valori della FNB e nella prevalenza e composizione delle prede.

  14. Carbono orgânico e elementar em partículas em suspensão em habitações

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Isabel Cristina Correia de

    2011-01-01

    As concentrações de partículas em suspensão na atmosfera (PM10) e o seu conteúdo em carbono foram determinadas em amostras recolhidas em quatro locais distintos do concelho de Aveiro. Na recolha das amostras foram utilizados dois amostradores, de baixo caudal um para o ar interior e outro para o ar exterior, em simultâneo, com tempos de amostragem de 48 horas. As concentrações de PM10 foram determinadas por gravimetria, enquanto que o material carbonoso foi determinado ...

  15. 细胞实验检测蓖麻蚕蛹生物反应器表达的重组人表皮生长因子的生物学活性%Expression of Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor in Samia Cynthia Ricini Pupae Bioreactor and Its Biological Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍玉婷; 黄元姣; 雷丹青; 吴勇浒; 李牡艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the biological activity of purified recombinant human epidermal growth factor ( rhEGF ) obtained from Samia cynthia ricini pupae bioreactor. Methods rhEGF was identify by Tricine-SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis( Tricine-SDS-PAGE ) and Western blot, then methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium( MTT ) assay and bypan blue staining technique were performed for the detection of the biological activity of balb/c3T3 cell. Results Successful expression of desired proteins could be observed by methods of Tricine-SDS-PAGE and Western blot. MTT assay showed that the purified rhEGF caused the promotion of the enzyme activity in Balb/c3T3 cell in a dose-dependent manner ranged from 0.0625 to 1.0 μg/L. The best concentration in enzyme activity promoting was 1.0 μg/L,and its effect was stronger than that of standard rhEGF( P <0.05 ). The purified rhEGF could stimulate the proliferation of Balb/c3T3 ,and its effect was much more stronger in proliferation stimulating compared with the standard rhEGP( P <0.05 ). Conclusion The purified rhEGF obtained from Samia cynthia ricini pupae bioreactor has similar biological activity with natural hEGF,which has a better effect compared with standard rhEGF. This research provides a basis for the further animal test of rhEGF.%目的 探讨蓖麻蚕蛹生物反应器中分离纯化获得的重组人表皮生长因子(rhEGF)蛋白质的生物学活性.方法 采用Tricine-SDS-PAGE和免疫印迹法(Western blot)鉴定rhEGF,通过MTT和台盼蓝法检测rhEGF的细胞活性.结果 Tricine-SDS-PAGE、Western blot结果显示,蓖麻蚕蛹中分离纯化获得的rhEGF具有正确的分子量和免疫原性;MTT法显示,纯化的rhEGF具有酶促活性,且酶促活性优于rhEGF标准蛋白(P<0.05),其最高活性浓度为1.0 μg/L,在0.0625~1.0 μg/L浓度范围内具有剂量依赖性;rhEGF能够促进Balb/c3T3细胞的分裂增殖,效果优于rhEGF标准蛋白(P<0.05).结论 AnpehEGF感染的蓖麻蚕蛹中分离纯化获

  16. The EM technology development strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Technology Development (TD) supports research and development of technologies that will lower cost, reduce risk, improve safety, and accelerate cleanup of the Nuclear Weapons Complex and provide solutions to currently untractable environmental problems. The TD strategic plan outlines Applied Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT and E) that will provide needed technology products to be used by Environmental Restoration and Waste Management operations (i.e., our customers). The TD strategic plan is derived from EM Goals, Objectives, and Strategy and is incorporated into DOE'S Five-Year Plan for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The TD strategic plan is developed based on integrating customer requirements, and is complemented by a top-down, bottom-up analysis of Site Specific Technology Needs and environmental problems. The execution of TD's strategic plan is implemented largely through Integrated Programs (IP) and Integrated Demonstrations (ID). IDs have proven to be a cost-effective method of managing technology development, testing and evaluation, and implementation of successful technology systems into the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs. The Savannah River ID for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Saturated Soils resulted in a 51 percent cost savings over stand-alone demonstrations, saving over $8 million. The IPs and IDs are selected based on customer needs, technical complexity, and complex-wide regulatory and compliance agreements. New technology systems are selected for incorporation into an IP or ID from offerings of the DOE laboratories, industry, and the universities. A major TD initiative was announced in August 1991, with the release of a Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) requesting industry and universities to propose innovative new technologies to clean up the Weapons Complex. (author)

  17. EMS adaptation for climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  18. EM International, July 1994, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM's mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department's nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM's objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities

  19. Roost selection by barbastelle bats (<em>Barbastella barbastellusem>, Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in beech woodlands of central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Russo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The barbastelle bat, <em>Barbastella barbastellusem> (Schreber, 1774 is a medium-sized, tree-dwelling vespertilionid classified as ?Endangered? in Italy; in western Europe it may be one of the rarest bat species. <em>B. barbastellusem> shows roosting preferences that should be regarded as a key point in conservation protocols. We examined roost selection in a breeding population of <em>B. barbastellusem> from the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park (central Italy at three levels: woodland structure and management type; tree characteristics; and cavity characteristics. In 2001-2002, we fitted 31 adult <em>B. barbastellusem> (29 lactating females, one pregnant female and one male with 0.48g radio-tags and tracked them to their roost-trees. The bats were tracked for 4.5 ± 3.7 days (range: 0-12 days. We located 33 roosts used by 25 subjects (1.8±1.2 roosts/bat, range 1-5. The bats switched roosts frequently: 13 bats used more than one tree over the study period. A chi-square analysis showed that the roosts were not distributed at random across woodland categories: unmanaged woodland was positively selected, whereas shelterwood-harvested woodland was used in proportion to its availability, and ?pastures+scattered trees? was avoided. Twenty out of 33 roost trees were dead <em>Fagus sylvaticaem> trees; conversely, living <em>F. sylvaticaem> dominated in a tree sample obtained at random; dead trees were used more than expected (Χ² test, <em>P> <0.001. Overall, roost trees were significantly taller and had a larger diameter at breast?s height and more cavities than random trees; they also had a lower percent canopy closure than random trees. To highlight which variables were actually associated with selection, we devised a logistic regression model. The full model was significant (<em>P> <0.001; removal of tree type and tree height affected the model significantly, but the other variables did not produce detectable effects. The

  20. Tricolemoma em coelho Tricholemmoma in a rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Duro de Oliveira

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Tricolemoma é um raro tumor benigno, composto por células epiteliais claras derivadas da bainha externa da raiz do folículo piloso. Esses tumores têm sido descritos no homem e raramente em cães. No presente relato, descreve-se a ocorrência de um tricolemoma, de 1cm de diâmetro em um coelho adulto, cujas características histológicas são muito semelhantes às descritas para esses tumores em cães.Tricholemmoma is a rare benign tumor composed of clear epithelial cells derived from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. The tumor has been described in man and rarely in dogs. This report deals with the occurrence of a tricholemmoma , with a diemeter of 1cm, in an adult rabbit. The histologic features are similar to those described in such tumors in dogs.

  1. The diet of the fox (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in woodlands of Orobie Alps (Lombardy region, Northern Italy / Alimentazione della Volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in aree boscate delle Alpi Orobie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cantini

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the fox was investigated by analysis of 273 scats, collected along standard trails from April to November 1987 and 1988. Food habits of foxes were described for three altitudinal ranges. Mammals, mainly <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> and <em>Microtus multiplexem>, were the staple food (percentage of frequency 42.8%, followed by fruits and other vegetables (26.7% and 37.3% respectively. Birds, Invertebrates (mainly Insects and garbage were little eaten. The game species (ungulates, hares, pheasants occurred with a low frequency (8.4% in the diet. The trophic niche breadth varied little through the altitudinal ranges and the seasons. The trophic niche overlap between the fox and the genus <em>Martes> (190 scats of <em>M. martesem> and <em>M. foinaem> were examined is relatively wide (O=0.868. Riassunto La dieta della Volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in aree boscate delle Alpi Orobie (Val Lesina è stata indagata nel periodo aprile-novembre 1987 e 1988 mediante l'analisi di 273 feci, raccolte lungo percorsi-campione ricadenti in tre piani vegetazionali. I Mammiferi, in particolare <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> e <em>Microtus multiplexem>, sono la componente principale della dieta (frequenza percentuale 42,8%. Rilevante è anche il consumo di frutti (soprattutto in estate e autunno e di altri vegetali (26,7% e 37,3% rispettivamente, mentre poco frequente è quello di Uccelli, Invertebrati e rifiuti. Complessivamente ridotta è l'azione predatoria della Volpe nei confronti delle specie di interesse venatorio (Ungulati, lepri, Galliformi. L'ampiezza della nicchia trofica mostra modeste variazioni stagionali e altitudinali. I1 grado di sovrapposizione tra la nicchia trofica della Volpe e quella del genere <em>Martes>, quest'ultima ricavata dall'analisi di 190 feci di Martora (<em>M. martesem> e Faina (<em>M. foinaem>, è elevato (O=0,868. Tuttavia, poiché in condizioni di

  2. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Pink Stem Borer, <em>Sesamia inferensem>, in Comparison with Four Other Noctuid Moths

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    Yu-Zhou Du

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The complete 15,413-bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome of <em>Sesamia inferensem> (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae was sequenced and compared with those of four other noctuid moths. All of the mitogenomes analyzed displayed similar characteristics with respect to gene content, genome organization, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Twelve-one protein-coding genes (PCGs utilized the standard ATN, but the <em>cox1 em>gene used CGA as the initiation codon; <em>cox1em>, <em>cox2em>, and <em>nad4em> genes had the truncated termination codon T in the <em>S. inferens em>mitogenome. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for <em>trnS1(AGNem>, in which the dihydrouridine (DHU arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Both the secondary structures of <em>rrnL> and <em>rrnS> genes inferred from the <em>S. inferens em>mitogenome closely resembled those of other noctuid moths. In the A+T-rich region, the conserved motif “ATAGA” followed by a long T-stretch was observed in all noctuid moths, but other specific tandem-repeat elements were more variable. Additionally, the <em>S. inferens em>mitogenome contained a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 17-bp repeat element, a decuplicated segment, and a microsatellite “(AT7”, without a poly-A element upstream of the<em> trnM em>in the A+T-rich region. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed based on amino acid sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs, which support the traditional morphologically based view of relationships within the Noctuidae.

  3. Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb <em>Hypericum japonicumem>: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureusem> (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen-Chun Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb <em>Hypericum japonicumem> Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant S<em>taphylococcus aureusem> (MRSA. The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 μg/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC50/MBC50 at 8/16 μg/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ, Levofloxacin (LEV and Ampicillin (AMP, with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI50 at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log10CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity, 0.92 (CAZ, indifference and 0.82 (AMP, indifference, respectively. These <em>in vitroem> anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA.

  4. The Fox (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> L.) as a principal reservoir of trichinellosis in Italy / La Volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> L.) principale serbatoio della trichinellosi in Italia

    OpenAIRE

    Edoardo Pozio

    1991-01-01

    Abstract The fox (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> L.) is the principal reservoir of trichinellosis in Italy. The prevalence of infection varies from 1% to over 25% in some localities of central-southern Italy. The vulpine infection is not present in Sicily and Sardinia. A biochemical analysis was employed to identify the aetiological agent as <em>Trichinella> T3, a taxon distributed in the Palearctic region. Infected fox ...

  5. Marcas de luxo em Portugal: o sucesso em contexto de crise económica

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Filipa Marques Serra

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing “O «Luxury Goods Worldwide Market Study» estima que as vendas globais aumentem 10% este ano, para 191 mil milhões de euros” in Diário Económico 2011/10/23. Portugal não é excepção. Surgem constantemente manchetes de jornais acerca do crescimento de mercado de luxo em contexto de crise. As razões que levam os consumidores a escolherem produtos de luxo são muitas e de diversas dimensões: financeira, funcional, individual e social. Além disso, o luxo hoje em dia pode ...

  6. Variabilità microsatellitare in popolazioni italiane di martora, <em>Martes martesem>

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    Licia Colli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La martora, <em>Martes martesem>, è un mustelide storicamente presente su gran parte del territorio italiano, soprattutto dove siano presenti foreste mature altamente strutturate e ricche di risorse. Nel corso dei decenni passati, cause quali la deforestazione con conseguente frammentazione dell'habitat, la caccia e la persecuzione da parte dell'uomo hanno portato ad un sensibile declino sia nel numero d'individui sia di popolazioni in tutta l'Europa. Frammentazione degli areali e diminuzione del numero di soggetti costituiscono le cause principali di un limitato flusso genico con conseguente formazione di popolazioni isolate di martora e perdita di variabilità genetica (Kyle <em>et al.em>, 2003. Per queste ragioni la martora risulta attualmente tutelata secondo quanto previsto dalla Convenzione di Berna (appendice III e dalla Direttiva europea 92/43/CEE "Habitats & Species". Di fronte a prospettive di tipo conservazionistico, diventa necessario disporre di metodologie per la valutazione della variabilità residua nella specie a livello d'individui e di popolazioni. Secondo numerosi Autori, i microsatelliti costituiscono marcatori molto efficaci nella descrizione della struttura genetica e della storia demografica di specie (Beaumont & Bruford, 1999; Linares, 1999. Il presente lavoro propone i risultati ottenuti attraverso il confronto di due campioni costituiti da individui di <em>Martes martesem> provenienti dalla Sardegna (25 esemplari e dal territorio italiano (6 esemplari. L'analisi è stata condotta a livello di 7 loci microsatellitari dinucleotidici polimorfici. Il valore di FST calcolato dal confronto dei due gruppi è risultato pari a 0,102 e ricade nel <em>range> di variazione identificato di recente in popolazioni nord-europee di martora (Kyle <em>et al.em>, 2003. L'analisi della varianza molecolare (AMOVA, condotta a due livelli gerarchici, ha permesso in particolare di ripartire la varianza del campione

  7. o caso da Semana Santa em Braga

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, José Fernando Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências Empresariais. A realização de eventos tem vindo a ser considerada uma das mais importantes manifestações do Turismo em Portugal e no Mundo, sendo notório que os mesmos geram uma dinâmica na economia das localidades. Assim, importa saber que tipos de impactos resultam desses eventos. A Semana Santa da Cidade de Braga é um dos maiores eventos de recriação r...

  8. Ensinar e aprender em ambientes virtuais tridimensionais

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Vitor

    2012-01-01

    Os mundos virtuais constituem ambientes simulados, normalmente tridimensionais, mediados através de tecnologias de informação e comunicação e que se destinam a ser frequentados por utilizadores que interagem com outros através de avatares. Estes ambientes virtuais tridimensionais (3D) podem ser desenvolvidos recorrendo a software de desenho 3D em versões comerciais e open source ou criados em servidores de mundos virtuais tridimensionais já existentes, tais como o Second Life ou similares. No...

  9. NITROSAMINAS VOLÁTEIS EM ALIMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. DUTRA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Nitrosaminas são compostos potencialmente carcinogênicos para o homem, as quais podem ocorrer em alimentos como produto da reação entre aminas secundárias e agentes nitrosantes. Neste artigo de revisão são fornecidas informações sobre os aspectos toxicológicos, epidemiológicos, presença em alimentos e legislação sobre estes compostos.

  10. NITROSAMINAS VOLÁTEIS EM ALIMENTOS

    OpenAIRE

    C. B. DUTRA; Rath, S.; F. G. R. REYES

    2008-01-01

    Nitrosaminas são compostos potencialmente carcinogênicos para o homem, as quais podem ocorrer em alimentos como produto da reação entre aminas secundárias e agentes nitrosantes. Neste artigo de revisão são fornecidas informações sobre os aspectos toxicológicos, epidemiológicos, presença em alimentos e legislação sobre estes compostos.

  11. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a

  12. O potencial evocado cognitivo em adultos normais

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    Franco Glaucio M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os resultados do potencial cognitivo auditivo em um grupo de adultos normais. Os testes foram realizados registrando-se a resposta evocada em Cz e Fz. Os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente. São descritas neste trabalho as latências médias de N1, P2, P2AP, N2 e P3, a amplitude de P3, bem como o desvio padrão destas variáveis. Comentam-se algumas dificuldades encontradas na interpretação do teste destacando as limitações de seu uso clínico.

  13. Ceratomicose em equinos Equine keratomycosis

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    Paula Diniz Galera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O cavalo, dado o seu meio ambiente, está sujeito a afecções frequentes da córnea e da conjuntiva, tecidos oculares bastante expostos a bactérias e fungos, principalmente Aspergillus spp. e Fusarium spp. As ceratites ulcerativas bacterianas e fúngicas, bem como as ceratites fúngicas não ulcerativas, caracterizadas principalmente pelo abscesso estromal, são frequentes nessa espécie. Ocorrida a lesão inicial, perpetua-se um ciclo vicioso, com liberação de citocinas inflamatórias, que desencadeiam uma rápida e severa infiltração corneal por células polimorfonucleares. A córnea torna-se sujeita à destruição por enzimas proteolíticas liberadas pelos micro-organismos e por células inflamatórias, capazes de desencadear a dissolução estromal e a perfuração do bulbo ocular. O tratamento clínico para a resolução da doença corneal e o controle da uveíte reflexa deve ser agressivo e associado, muitas das vezes, à terapia cirúrgica. Este artigo discorre sobre a fisiopatologia e o tratamento da ceratomicose em equinos.Environmental and behavioral factors make horses susceptible to corneal and conjunctival lesions, since these structures are constantly exposed to bacteria and fungi specially Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. Bacterial and fungal ulcerative keratitis, as well as non-ulcerative fungal keratitis such as stromal abscess, are frequent in horses. A "cascade" effect follows the initial lesion which triggers the release of inflammatory cytokines followed by an acute and severe infiltrate of polymorphonuclear cells in the cornea. The cornea becomes susceptible to the activity of proteolytic enzymes released by microorganisms and polymorphonuclear cells, resulting in stromal degradation and ocular perforation. The medical treatment targeting the corneal disease and the controlling of reflexive uveitis should be aggressive and surgical therapy should be associated in most of the cases. This paper reviews the

  14. The role of common toads in the winter diet of recolonising Eurasian otters (<em>Lutra lutraem>

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    Pablo García-Díaz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Importanza del rospo comune nella dieta invernale di una popolazione di lontra (<em>Lutra lutraem> in espansione.
    Tramite analisi dei resti fecali, abbiamo evidenziato il ruolo fondamentale degli anfibi nella dieta invernale della lontra <em>Lutra lutraem> in stagni artificiali della Spagna nord-occidentale. I numerosi “laghi di cava” presenti nell’area umida di Ribeiras do Louro e Gandaras de Budiño sono stati monitorati nel 2007-2009. Il rospo comune (<em>Bufo bufoem> era la principale preda della lontra, costituendo l’88% della biomassa consumata, mentre il gambero americano <em>Procambarus clarkiiem> e i pesci erano prede secondarie. I nostri risultati contrastano con la ben nota preferenza della lontra per le rane rispetto al rospo. Il mantenimento della popolazione di lontra nel bacino del fiume Louro dipende strettamente dalla corretta gestione degli stagni artificiali.

  15. Syntheses of Enantiopure Aliphatic Secondary Alcohols and Acetates by Bioresolution with Lipase B from <em>Candida antarcticaem>

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    Richele P. Severino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The lipase B from <em>Candida antarcticaem> (Novozym 435®, CALB efficiently catalyzed the kinetic resolution of some aliphatic secondary alcohols: (±-4-methylpentan-2-ol (1, (±-5-methylhexan-2-ol (3, (±-octan-2-ol (4, (±-heptan-3-ol (5 and (±-oct-1-en-3-ol (6. The lipase showed excellent enantioselectivities in the transesterifications of racemic aliphatic secondary alcohols producing the enantiopure alcohols (>99% <em>ee> and acetates (>99% <em>ee> with good yields. Kinetic resolution of <em>rac>-alcohols was successfully achieved with CALB lipase using simple conditions, vinyl acetate as acylating agent, and hexane as non-polar solvent.

  16. Geographical peninsular effects on the trophic system "<em>Tyto albaem> - micromammals" in Salento (Italy

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    Corrado Battisti

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The following study contains data from 2420 preys found in Barn Owl pellets from 16 sites of the Salento peninsula (Apulia, Italy. Nine preyed species were detected. <em>Microtus saviiem> was the most frequent prey. No specimen of <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem>, <em>Muscardinus avellanariusem> and <em>Sorex> spp. were ever found, probably for ecological and bioclimatological reasons. The relatively low values of some ecological parameters (Richness, Trophic level, Diversity suggest that the micromammalian populations in Salento are influenced, locally, by both anthropic and biogeographical factors. These results may be inserted into the general debate on the "peninsula effects".

  17. Fire and EMS Districts, EMS Districts, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire and EMS Districts dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'EMS...

  18. Regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana Em genes : role of AB15

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carles, C.; Bies-Etheve, N.; Aspart, L.; Léon-Kloosterziel, K.M.; Koornneef, M.; Echeverria, M.; Delseny, M.

    2002-01-01

    In order to identify new factors involved in Em (a class I Late Embryogenesis Abundant protein) gene expression, Arabidopsis mutants with an altered expression of an Em promoter GUS fusion construct and a modified accumulation of Em transcripts and proteins were isolated. Germination tests on ABA sh

  19. <em>Botulinum Neurotoxinem> A Injections Influence Stretching of the Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit in an Animal Model

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    Christopher J. Tuohy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Botulinum Neurotoxinem> A (BoNT-A injections have been used for the treatment of muscle contractures and spasticity. This study assessed the influence of (BoNT-A injections on passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. Mouse gastrocnemius muscle (GC was injected with BoNT-A (<em>n> = 18 or normal saline (<em>n> = 18 and passive, non-destructive, <em>in vivoem> load relaxation experimentation was performed to examine how the muscle-tendon unit behaves after chemical denervation with BoNT-A. Injection of BoNT-A impaired passive muscle recovery (15% <em>vs.> 35% recovery to pre-stretching baseline, <em>p> < 0.05 and decreased GC stiffness (0.531 ± 0.061 N/mm <em>vs.> 0.780 ± 0.037 N/mm, <em>p> < 0.05 compared to saline controls. The successful use of BoNT-A injections as an adjunct to physical therapy may be in part attributed to the disruption of the stretch reflex; thereby modulating <em>in vivoem> passive muscle properties. However, it is also possible that BoNT-A injection may alter the structure of skeletal muscle; thus modulating the <em>in vivoem> passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit.

  20. Uso de plasma rico em plaquetas em úlceras de córnea em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Merlini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar, clínica e macroscopicamente, o tratamento adjuvante com plasma rico em plaquetas na forma de colírio ou tampão, em úlceras de córnea de cães atendidos no Serviço de Oftalmologia Veterinária. Foram analisados 20 olhos com diagnóstico de ceratite ulcerativa, distribuídos em dois grupos experimentais. O grupo colírio (GC foi constituído por olhos tratados topicamente com colírio autólogo de plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP, e o grupo tampão (GT por olhos submetidos ao tratamento à base de tampão sólido de PRP, associado ao recobrimento com terceira pálpebra para retenção deste. Os grupos foram avaliados, por meio de avaliação clínica, macroscópica e análise da redução do defeito epitelial, em diferentes momentos, aos três, cinco, dez, 15 e 30 dias, com exceção do terceiro dia no GT. O recobrimento da terceira pálpebra foi removido no quinto dia no GT. Em ambos os grupos, houve redução dos sinais de inflamação, melhora na sensibilidade ocular e adequada reparação do defeito epitelial. Todos os olhos do GT apresentaram completa cicatrização no quinto dia e 70% no GC, atingindo a totalidade no 10º dia. O PRP na forma de colírio ou tampão é uma excelente terapia adjuvante a ser instituída no tratamento clínico da úlcera de córnea em cães, pois atua na diminuição dos sinais inflamatórios, da dor ocular e auxilia potencialmente na cicatrização do defeito epitelial.

  1. Design of Higher-<em>k> and More Stable Rare Earth Oxides as Gate Dielectrics for Advanced CMOS Devices

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    Yi Zhao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available High permittivity (<em>k> gate dielectric films are widely studied to substitute SiO2 as gate oxides to suppress the unacceptable gate leakage current when the traditional SiO2 gate oxide becomes ultrathin. For high-<em>k> gate oxides, several material properties are dominantly important. The first one, undoubtedly, is permittivity. It has been well studied by many groups in terms of how to obtain a higher permittivity for popular high-<em>k> oxides, like HfO2 and La2O3. The second one is crystallization behavior. Although it’s still under the debate whether an amorphous film is definitely better than ploy-crystallized oxide film as a gate oxide upon considering the crystal boundaries induced leakage current, the crystallization behavior should be well understood for a high-<em>k> gate oxide because it could also, to some degree, determine the permittivity of the high-<em>k> oxide. Finally, some high-<em>k> gate oxides, especially rare earth oxides (like La2O3, are not stable in air and very hygroscopic, forming hydroxide. This topic has been well investigated in over the years and significant progresses have been achieved. In this paper, I will intensively review the most recent progresses of the experimental and theoretical studies for preparing higher-<em>k> and more stable, in terms of hygroscopic tolerance and crystallization behavior, Hf- and La-based ternary high-<em>k> gate oxides.

  2. Osservazioni in cattività sul ciclo stagionale del peso corporeo e sull'efficienza digestiva di <em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem> e <em>Hypsugo saviiem> (Chiroptera: Verspertilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Dondini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Captivity observation on body weight cycle and digestive efficiency in <em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem> and <em>Hypsugo saviiem> (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae Many bat species of cold-temperate climate are subject to seasonal variation of temperature and food availability. Fat reserve during summer-autumn is therefore a physiological adaptation to spend the winter months by hibernating or to sustain migration. During a research on bats in urban areas, two juveniles of Kuhl's bat (<em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem>, 2 females and two juveniles of Savi's bat (<em>Hypsugo saviiem>, 1 male and 1 female were collected in 1997 in the urban area of Florence (central Italy. Bats were kept in a cage of 50x40x30 cm with a temperature between 17° and 22° C. Every day they were weighted with an electronic balance before eating mealworms (<em>Tenebrio molitorem>. Digestive efficiency, calculated on dry material, was about 90% for both species. In about six months <em>P. kuhliiem> and <em>H. saviiem> increased on the average of 450% and 280% in weight respectively. Deposition of fat reserve seemed to be faster in <em>P. kuhliiem> than in <em>H. saviiem>. Both species showed a circannual cycle in the variation of weight. Riassunto Molte specie di pipistrelli dei climi temperato-freddi sono soggette a marcate variazioni stagionali di temperatura e disponibilità di cibo. L'accumulo di grasso in tarda estate-autunno è quindi un adattamento fisiologico per trascorrere in ibernazione i mesi invernali o per intraprendere la migrazione. Nell'ambito di una ricerca pluriennale sui pipistrelli in ambienti urbani, 4 esemplari giovani, di cui 2 di Pipistrello albolimbato (<em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem>, 2 femmine e due di Pipistrello di Savi (<em>Hypsugo saviiem>, 1 maschio e 1 femmina, sono stati raccolti nella pianura di Firenze durante l'estate del 1997 e mantenuti in un contenitore di 50x40x30 cm ad

  3. Marcha em pontas idiopática em idade pediátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, Sara; Melo, Cláudia; Magalhães, Catarina; Figueiroa, Sónia; Carrilho, Inês; Temudo, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    A marcha em pontas tem uma incidência de 7-24% na popu¬lação pediátrica em geral e é uma causa relativamente frequente de referenciação à consulta de neurologia pediátrica. A marcha em pontas idiopática ocorre em crianças saudáveis, sem espas¬ticidade e com reflexos osteotendinosos normais; é evidente desde o início da marcha autónoma, sempre bilateral e não pro¬gressiva. A sua etiologia é desconhecida, pelo que se trata de um diagnóstico de exclusão. Assim, na avaliação destas crian¬ças é es...

  4. Referencia e Contrarreferencia na atencao Secundaria em odontologia em Campinas, SP, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana de Lima Vazquez; Luciane Miranda Guerra; Eduardo de Sant Anna Vitor; Glaucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano; Fabio Luis Mialhe; Marcelo de Castro Meneghim; Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2014-01-01

    O artigo tem por objetivo avaliar o referenciamento da demanda de atenção especializada em saúde bucal em Campinas em relação à distribuição da oferta e influência de variáveis socioeconômicas, além de percepção e informações dos usuários sobre à contrarreferência. Estudo observacional exploratório, selecionando duas Regiões Administrativas de Saúde (RAS): uma com Centro de Especialidades Odontológicas (CEO), e outra sem CEO, dividido em 2 fases: 1) todos os encaminhamentos para atenção secun...

  5. Alimentazione di <em>Marmota marmotaem> in praterie altimontane delle dolomiti bellunesi

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Rudatis; Renzo De Battisti

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The diet of <em>Marmota marmotaem> in the mountain prairie of south-eastern Italian Alps. Diet composition of two family groups of alpine marmots was investigated in two areas of the Agordino’s Dolomites (Italian Alps) in June-September 2001, by means of microscopic analysis of faeces and of direct observation of feeding activity. During the whole period of activity, a high consume of Angiosperms was co...

  6. New Cembrane Diterpenoids from a Hainan Soft Coral <em>Sinularia> sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Yonghong Liu; Yan Peng; Xiubao Li; Xiuping Lin; Juan Liu; Xian-Wen Yang; Xuefeng Zhou; Hui Huang; Bin Yang

    2012-01-01

    Five new cembrane diterpenoids, named sinuflexibilins A–E (15), along with nine other known diterpenoids (614), have been isolated from the organic extract of a Hainan soft coral <em>Sinularia em>sp. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and by comparison of their spectral data with those of related metabolites. Compoun...

  7. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of <em>Eucalyptus globulusem> Bark—A Promising Approach for Triterpenoid Production<em>>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus bark contains significant amounts of triterpenoids with demonstrated bioactivity, namely triterpenic acids and their acetyl derivatives (ursolic, betulinic, oleanolic, betulonic, 3-acetylursolic, and 3-acetyloleanolic acids. In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of <em>Eucalyptus> <em>globulus> deciduous bark was carried out with pure and modified carbon dioxide to recover this fraction, and the results were compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane. The effects of pressure (100–200 bar, co-solvent (ethanol content (0, 5 and 8% wt, and multistep operation were studied in order to evaluate the applicability of SFE for their selective and efficient production. The individual extraction curves of the main families of compounds were measured, and the extracts analyzed by GC-MS. Results pointed out the influence of pressure and the important role played by the co-solvent. Ethanol can be used with advantage, since its effect is more important than increasing pressure by several tens of bar. At 160 bar and 40 °C, the introduction of 8% (wt of ethanol greatly improves the yield of triterpenoids more than threefold.

  8. Qualidade de vida em pacientes coronariopatas

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    Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme Gallani

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo comparou as medidas de qualidade de vida (QV entre 49 sujeitos com infarto do miocárdio (IM e 27 com angina pectoris (AP, atendidos em ambulatório em um hospital universitário. Os dados foram obtidos por meio da aplicação de um questionário para levantamento de dados sociodemográficos e clínicos e do instrumento SF-36 para avaliação da QV. Constatou-se, em ambos os grupos, comprometimento da QV nas dimensões: aspectos físicos, dor, estado geral de saúde, vitalidade, aspectos sociais e saúde mental. Variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas foram associadas com menores escores de QV em diferentes dimensões. Estudos futuros devem ser conduzidos, visando a ampliação do tamanho da amostra, e a compreensão da magnitude do efeito destas variáveis sobre a QV do coronariopata.

  9. Desenvolvimento puberal em meninas tratadas de LLA

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    Monteiro I.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento puberal após o tratamento de leucemia linfóide aguda (LLA na infância, foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo, em meninas tratadas de janeiro de 1980 a janeiro de 1991, no Centro de Investigações Hematológicas "Dr. Domingos A. Boldrini", em Campinas-SP. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas 42 meninas, tratadas antes da puberdade com quimioterapia sistêmica e intratecal e radioterapia cranial, utilizando doses de 18 ou 24 Grays (Gy. RESULTADOS: As idades médias da telarca, pubarca e menarca foram inferiores às do grupo-controle, embora com significância estatística apenas para a idade da telarca. Não houve diferenças entre os grupos tratados com 18 ou 24Gy. As meninas tratadas antes dos cinco anos de idade apresentaram idade média da menarca estatisticamente inferior àquelas tratadas após cinco anos e em relação ao grupo-controle. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram que o desenvolvimento puberal em meninas tratadas de LLA na infância foi mais precoce que o de meninas saudáveis.

  10. A robust approach to Meta-EMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, R.H.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was concerned with the meta-Energy Mediation System (meta-EMS) problem. We consider several companies from the horticulture industry, for which we have to match supply and demand of different commodities a few days ahead. We have introduced the problem and considered the relevant literatu

  11. EMS – Elektron Musik Studion in Stockholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    In 1964 the electronic music studio EMS, Stockholm opened as a conventional analogue studio. The primary intension with the institution was to build the world’s most advanced hybrid studio and to conduct an international research program into sound and sound perception. With financial support from...

  12. Badger <em>Meles melesem> and Fox <em>Vulpes vulpesem> food in agricultural land in the western Po Plain (Italy

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    Luca Canova

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fox and badger diets were studied by means of scat analysis in agricultural land in northern Italy. Earthworms and corn were the staple food for the badger, while foxes fed mainly on animal food (birds and mammals. Dietary overlap between the two species was low. Fox diets were substantially similar to those in north-central Europe and other areas of Italy. Badger diets differed from those in mediterranean areas of Italy and were similar to diets of north European populations. Riassunto Alimentazione di Tasso <em>Meles melesem> e Volpe <em>Vulpes vulpesem> in aree agricole della Pianura Padana occidentale - La dieta di tasso e volpe in un'area agricola della Pianura Padana occidentale è stata studiata mediante analisi delle feci. Lombrichi e mais rappresentano la principale fonte alimentare per il tasso, mentre la dieta della volpe è basata prevalentemente su uccelli e mammiferi. La sovrapposizione alimentare fra le due specie è ridotta. La dieta della volpe è simile a quella delle popolazioni dell'Europa centrale e settentrionale; la dieta del tasso differisce nettamente da quella delle popolazioni italiane che vivono in ambiente mediterraneo.

  13. Enrichment and Purification of Syringin, Eleutheroside E and Isofraxidin from <em>Acanthopanax> <em>senticosus> by Macroporous Resin

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    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to screen a suitable resin for the preparative simultaneous separation and purification of syringin, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin from <em>Acanthopanax> <em>senticosus>, the adsorption and desorption properties of 17 widely used commercial macroporous resins were evaluated. According to our results, HPD100C, which adsorbs by the molecular tiers model, was the best macroporous resin, offering higher adsorption and desorption capacities and higher adsorption speed for syringin, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin than other resins. Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests were carried out to optimize the process parameters. The optimal conditions were as follows: for adsorption, processing volume: 24 BV, flow rate: 2 BV/h; for desorption, ethanol–water solution: 60:40 (v/v, eluent volume: 4 BV, flow rate: 3 BV/h. Under the above conditions, the contents of syringin, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin increased 174-fold, 20-fold and 5-fold and their recoveries were 80.93%, 93.97% and 93.79%, respectively.

  14. Locas al Rescate: The Transnational Hauntings of Queer <em>Cubanidad>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    “Locas al Rescate: The Transnational Hauntings of Queer <em>Cubanidad>” (originally published in <em>Cuba Transnationalem> offers a significant contribution both to transnational American Studies and to gender studies. In telling the insider story of the alternative identity formation, practices, and forms of “rescue” initiated by the affective activism of the Cuban American society in drag in 1990s Miami/South Beach, Lima resuscitates the liberatory gestures of a subculture defined by its pursuit of its own acceptance, value, and freedom. With their aesthetic and political life on a raft, the gay micro-communities inside Cuban America asserted their own islandic space, Lima observes, performing “takeovers” in and of parks and bars and beaches—creating a post-Habermasian sphere of public activism focused on private parts, saving themselves from AIDS, from the disaffection and disaffiliation of the right-wing Cuban immigrant community, and from the failure of their own yearning to belong, to be wanted, to be embodied as the figure of their compelling <em>Cubanidad>. Against the hegemony of the invented collective politics of the sacrificing immigrants whose recognition of the queer side of being (of a being constituted by identity loss is yet to come, Lima suggests a spectral return—a personal and transnational reckoning of those whose lives the dream of freedom drowned.

  15. The Italian Action Plan for the endangered Eurasian otter <em>Lutra lutraem>

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    Anna Loy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    Although recent evidence of the species recovery has been reported for many European countries, in Italy the Eurasian otter <em>Lutra lutraem> is still considered endangered. Otter populations are confined to few river basins in the southern part of the peninsula and these are both geographically and genetically isolated from other European populations. This critical situation led the Italian Ministry of Environment to promote the production of an Action Plan for the otter in Italy, whose methods, aims and actions are briefly summarized.

    Riassunto
    Il Piano d'Azione Nazionale per la Lontra <em>Lutra lutraem>
    Nonostante i segnali di recupero segnalati in molti paesi europei, la lontra <em>Lutra lutraem> è ancora una delle specie più minacciate della fauna italiana, in virtù delle piccole dimensioni della popolazione e del suo isolamento , sia geografico, sia genetico, dal resto delle popolazioni europee. Sulla base di queste considerazioni il Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del territorio e del Mare ha recentemente promosso la realizzazione di un Piano d’Azione Nazionale per la Conservazione della Lontra, i cui contenuti, obiettivi, e azioni sono riassunti in questo lavoro.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-21.1-4483

  16. Uso de digital em idosos admitidos em unidade de geriatria de um hospital geral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha Ulisses Gabriel de Vasconcelos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETVO: Detectar a freqüência da prescrição do digital, assim como as suas indicações, em idosos admitidos em unidade de geriatria de um hospital geral. MÉTODOS: Foram investigados, consecutivamente, 130 pacientes não selecionados, de ambos os sexos (100 mulheres e 30 homens, com idades > ou = 65 (média 80±9 anos. Os pacientes foram avaliados através de exame clínico completo, rotina básica de sangue, radiografia simples de tórax, eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma Doppler. Baseados na avaliação clínica e exames complementares, o uso do digital foi considerado adequado, questionável ou inadequado. RESULTADOS: Estavam em uso de digital 27,6% dos pacientes. A indicação foi considerada adequada em 36,1%, questionável em 11,1% e inadequada em 52,7%. CONCLUSÃO: Uma alta prevalência de prescrição do digital foi detectada nos idosos admitidos, sendo que a maior parte a adotava por razões consideradas inadequadas ou questionáveis. Devido ao risco aumentado de intoxicação digitálica nessa faixa etária, a droga deveria ser prescrita sob indicações mais criteriosas.

  17. A new karyotype of <em>Calomyscus> from the Khorasan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeeli Somayeh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a new karyotype of <em>Calomyscus> from two localities of the Khorasan Province (Aghdarband, 36° 11’ 3”N, 60° 44’ 6” E and Khajemorad, 36° 8’ 5” N, 59° 41’ 58” E. Chromosomes were examined by conventional staining and C-banding techniques. The diploid chromosome number (2n and the fundamental autosomal arm number (FNa were 44 and 60 respectively. The autosomal set consisted of 12 pairs of telocentrics, 5 pairs of acrocentrics and 4 pairs of sub-metacentrics. Both heterosomes were small telocentrics. Riassunto Un nuovo cariotipo del genere <em>Calomyscus> dalla provincia di Khorasan, Iran. Si descrive un nuovo cariotipo appartenente al genere <em>Calomyscus>, scoperto in due località della provincia di Khorasan (Aghdarband, 36° 11’ 3”N, 60° 44’ 6” E e Khajemorad, 36° 8’ 5” N, 59° 41’ 58” E. I cromosomi sono stati analizzati con le tecniche standard di colorazione e bandeggio. Il numero diploide di cromosomi (2n e il numero fondamentale di bracci autosomici sono risultati pari a 44 e 60 rispettivamente. Il set di cromosomi autosomici è composto da 12 paia di telocentrici, 5 di acrocentrici e 4 di sub-metacentrici. Entrambi i cromosomi sessuali si presentano come piccoli telocentrici.

  18. Babesiose cerebral em bovinos: 20 casos

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    Rodrigues Aline

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Num estudo retrospectivo de 1.071 necropsias de bovinos, foram encontrados 20 casos de babesiose cerebral confirmados pelo exame de esfregaços do córtex telencefálico. A maioria desses casos ocorreu no verão, em bovinos adultos de raças européias ou suas cruzas. Além dos sinais clínicos neurológicos, observou-se hemoglobinúria, anorexia, febre, taquicardia, taquipnéia e queda na produção de leite. O hemograma realizado em cinco bovinos afetados revelou acentuada anemia regenerativa; em média, 20% dos eritrócitos estavam parasitados por Babesia bovis. Na necropsia de todos os casos, a substância cinzenta dos córtices telencefálico e cerebelar e dos núcleos da base era consistente e caracteristicamente róseo-cereja. Essa coloração devia-se ao seqüestro de eritrócitos nos capilares encefálicos. Nesses eritrócitos, podiam-se observar, tanto em esfregaços do córtex como em preparações histológicas do encéfalo, microorganismos com morfologia compatível com B. bovis. Outros achados de necropsia incluíam hemoglobinúria, rins vermelho-escuros, hepatoesplenomegalia, fígado vermelho-alaranjado, icterícia, hemorragias epicárdicas e endocárdicas e edema e congestão dos linfonodos mesentéricos.

  19. Cartilagem tragal com pericondrio em timpanoplastias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Testa José Ricardo Gurgel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: os enxertos de cartilagem começaram a ser usados por Jansen em 1963 que sugeriu que teriam sua indicação em casos mais avançados por ser mais rígido resistindo melhor à reabsorções e retrações. Em 1998 Eavey descreve o uso de cartilagem tragal com pericôndrio bilateral e a sua colocação sem incisões no meato acústico externo. Forma de estudo: clínico prospectivo randomizado. material e método: Foram estudados 100 pacientes portadores de seqüelas de otites médias crônicas, com perfurações da membrana timpânica com rebordo e submetidos a timpanoplastias com cartilagem tragal e pericôndrio. As dimensões das perfurações foram em média 40% da área da membrana timpânica. Na avaliação auditiva observamos média pré-operatória de perda condutiva de 28.3 dB e pós-operatória de 9.8 dB. Resultados: O fechamento da perfuração foi total em 95.0% dos casos. Conclusão: Estudando os resultados concluímos que o método é de fácil realização, com poucas complicações, bons resultados auditivos e ótimos resultados anatômicos. Sendo uma ótima opção para o otologista na resolução das seqüelas das otites crônicas.

  20. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Immunity-Enhancing Activities of <em>Sargassum pallidumem> Aqueous Extract in Gastric Cancer Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Kang Zhou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of <em>Sargassum pallidumem> (brown seaweed aqueous extract on the immunity function and antioxidant activities in was studied gastric cancer rats. Treatment with <em>Sargassum pallidumem> aqueous extract at oral doses 400, 600 or 800 mg/kg body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against <em>Nem>-methyl-N′-nitro-N>-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG-induced immunity damage and oxidative injury by enhancing serum interleukin-2 (IL-2, interleukin-4 (IL-4, interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels, decreasing interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels, preserving normal antioxidant enzymes activities, and by inhibiting lipid peroxidation in gastric mucosa. It can be concluded that <em>Sargassum pallidumem> aqueous extract may enhance the immunity and antioxidant activities in gastric cancer rats.

  1. On the occurrence of <em>Myotis alcathoeem> von Helversen and Heller, 2001 in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Spitzenberger

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2006, one male and two females of <em>Myotis alcathoeem> were captured in mistnets at two localities in southern Burgenland, Austria. For two individuals the preliminary specific identification based on external measurements was confirmed by sequencing parts of the mitochondrial ND1 gene. Across the sequenced region, the two analysed bats share a 100% identical haplotype that corresponds to the haplotype found in Hungarian bats identified as <em>M. alcathoeem>, and was found also in Spanish, French and Slovakian samples. The three animals from Burgenland constitute the first records of this species in Austria. Age related differences in pelage and membrane colouration and measurements of <em>M. alcathoeem> are described. A comparison of skull length measurements between <em>M. alcathoeem> and <em>Myotis mystacinusem> seems to indicate that the interspecific difference in external dimensions is not reflected in skull dimensions. The Austrian localities of <em>M. alcathoeem> belong to the Pannonian part of the range like findings in Slovakia and Hungary. Riassunto Sulla presenza di <em>Myotis alcathoeem> von Helversen and Heller, 2001 in Austria. Nel 2006, due maschi e una femmina di <em>Myotis alcathoeem> sono stati catturati tramite mist-nets in due località del Burgenland meridionale, Austria. Per due individui, l’identificazione preliminare su basi morfologiche è stata confermata dall’analisi del gene mitocondriale ND1. Nella sequenza analizzata, gli aplotipi dei due individui coincidono al 100% e corrispondono a quelli evidenziati in soggetti spagnoli, francesi e sloveni. I tre esemplari del Burgenland rappresentano la prima segnalazione certa di questa specie per l’Austria. Vengono descritte alcune differenze nella colorazione della pelliccia e del patagio tra adulti e subadulti. Il confronto delle misure del cranio di <em>M. alcathoeem> e <em

  2. Sorteio de domicílios em favelas em inquéritos por amostragem

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    Maria Cecilia Goi Porto Alves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar vantagens e desvantagens do uso de segmentos em relação ao sorteio feito a partir da lista completa de endereços, para o sorteio de domicílios em amostragem por conglomerados em múltiplos estágios em favelas. PROCEDIMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: Estudo qualitativo realizado em quatro favelas sorteadas no Inquérito de Saúde do Município de São Paulo, SP, 2008, nas quais foram aplicadas as duas técnicas. Foram realizados grupos focais com pesquisadores de campo - "arroladores" e entrevistadores do inquérito. Os conteúdos das conversações foram analisados, agrupados em categorias e organizados em núcleos temáticos. ANÁLISE DOS RESULTADOS: A utilização de segmentos de domicílios foi associada a numerosas vantagens e poucas desvantagens. Entre as vantagens, constaram a rapidez e facilidade na elaboração do cadastro de endereços e na localização e identificação de domicílios na etapa de realização das entrevistas, maior segurança dos entrevistadores e da população, maior acesso aos entrevistados, maior estabilidade e maior cobertura do cadastro produzido, e menor ocorrência de erros na identificação dos domicílios sorteados. CONCLUSÕES: A construção de cadastro de domicílios por meio da criação de segmentos é vantajosa em relação à listagem completa de endereços, quando feita em favelas. Por ter se mostrado uma opção econômica e fácil de ser aplicada, constitui alternativa para a simplificação do processo de amostragem em áreas com as suas características de desorganização e adensamento de domicílios.

  3. Ocorrência de parasitas e comensais intestinais em crianças de escola localizada em assentamento de sem-terras em Campo Florido, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Ferreira Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de parasitas e comensais intestinais em crianças de escola localizada em assentamento de sem-terras em Campo Florido, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Exames coproparasitológicos realizados em 72 indivíduos evidenciaram 59,7% de positividade, sendo identificados 4 tipos de protozoários e 5 de helmintos. Concluiu-se que há necessidade de acompanhamento das condições de saúde desta população.

  4. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (<em>Labisia pumila em>Benth) Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in <em>Labisia pumilaem> var. <em>alata,> em>under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s) for...

  5. Commensal <em>Pseudomonas> Species Isolated from Wastewater and Freshwater Milieus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, as Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistant Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh, Anthony I.; Mvuyo Tom; Anibal Sosa; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.

    2012-01-01

    <em>Pseudomonas> species are opportunistic pathogens with implications in a wide range of diseases including cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anaemia. Because of their status as multidrug resistant (MDR) and extremely drug resistant (XDR) bacteria <em>Pseudomonas> species represent a threat to public health. Prevalence, antibiogram and associated antibiotic resistant genes of <em>Pseudomonas> species isolated from freshwater and mixed liquor envi...

  6. Use of trophic resources and forest habitats by the genus <em>Martes> in Adamello-Brenta Park (Central Italian Alps)

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Pedrini; Claudio Prigioni; Gilberto Volcan

    1995-01-01

    Abstract Habitat use and diet of genus <em>Martes> (<em>M. martesem> and <em>M. foinaem>) were studied in alpine forest habitat (Adamello-Brenta Park, Central Italian Alps) from July 1991 to September 1992. Marten scats were looked for along 3 transects representative of 5 forest habitats in order to analyse seasonal variations in habitat selection. The food habits were studied analysing 225 scats collected along the tr...

  7. Estudos sobre a Esquistosomose em Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggeu Magalhães

    1940-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores referem os resultados dos estudos sobre esquistosomose realisados, em Pernambuco, de Novembro de 1938 a Dezembro de 1939. Não se extendem em discussão, nem comentarios, tampouco, relacionam suas verificações com o que já foi relatado sobre o assunto em trabalhos nacionais e estrangeiros, pelo fato de que, não se trata de um resultado definitivo e sim de atividades que irão proseguir. Os estudos sistematicos em torno da endemia esquistosomica foram executados em duas localidades diversas pela população e pela situação geografica e ecologica. Pontezinha é uma povoação de 1200 habitantes localizada proximo a um conjunto de charcos e lagõas de agua dôce onde pululam caramujos do tipo olivaceus de Spix, e apresenta uma taxa de infestação de 21,4% para individuos do sexo masculino, e de 14,7% para os do sexo feminino. A distribuição por grupos de idade mostra que a incidencia cresce até o grupo de 16 a 20 anos de idade, quando atinge a percentagem de 37,8%, para decrescer em seguida. Em Vitoria a incidencia foi maior nos indivíduos do sexo feminino, atingindo a taxa de 41,4%, dando o sexo masculino a taxa de 36,9%. Por idade a percentagem maxima é atingida pelo grupo de 11 a 15 anos. Vitoria é uma cidade de 1500 habitantes, construida á margem do rio Tapacurá, onde se encontram numerosos caramujos do tipo centimetralis Lutz. A divergencia de incidencia corre por conta dos habitos da população e pela utilização que ela faz do rio, sendo maior em Vitoria porque a proximidade do rio facilita o uso de suas aguas para banho e serviços domesticos, condicionando este ultimo fato, a maior infestação das mulheres. O estudo da frequencia da infestação dos caramujos por cercarias de diversos trematodios, permite suspeitar uma relação inversa entre a taxa de infestação e o diametro maximo atingido pelos caramujos, parecendo este fato confirmar os trabalhos de Vianna Martins sobre a identidade dos hospedeiros

  8. Referencia e Contrarreferencia na atencao Secundaria em odontologia em Campinas, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana de Lima Vazquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem por objetivo avaliar o referenciamento da demanda de atenção especializada em saúde bucal em Campinas em relação à distribuição da oferta e influência de variáveis socioeconômicas, além de percepção e informações dos usuários sobre à contrarreferência. Estudo observacional exploratório, selecionando duas Regiões Administrativas de Saúde (RAS: uma com Centro de Especialidades Odontológicas (CEO, e outra sem CEO, dividido em 2 fases: 1 todos os encaminhamentos para atenção secundária foram coletados de todas as equipes de Saúde Bucal, além de dados populacionais, socioeconômicos e distribuição dos encaminhamentos; 2 entrevista com 331 usuários, verificando-se a contrarreferência, qualidade de atendimento e razões para faltas ou desistências. Em relação à contrarreferência, a maioria dos usuários realizou os tratamentos especializados, os quais qualificaram como bom e esperaram menos de 1 mês para o agendamento. O modelo de gestão não influenciou estatisticamente no acesso à atenção secundária em saúde bucal. As discrepâncias foram menos evidentes em uma RAS, havendo correlação dos coeficientes de tratamento e variáveis socioeconômicas, além de menor percentual de faltas, demonstrando maior compromisso com a integralidade e equidade.

  9. Prolapso vaginal e uterino em ovelhas

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    Maíra Bianchi R. Alves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou realizar um estudo retrospectivo sobre os prolapsos vaginal e uterino em ovelhas atendidas no Serviço de Clínica de Bovinos e Pequenos Ruminantes (CBPR da FMVZ/USP no período compreendido entre 2000 a 2010, no qual, foram atendidas 56 ovinos com problemas inerentes ao sistema reprodutivo, dessas, 25 apresentaram prolapso vaginal ou uterino (44,6%. O prolapso vaginal total foi o de maior frequência (72%. As ovelhas acometidas, em sua maioria, possuíam idade superior a quatro anos (64%, eram sem raça definida (44% ou da raça Ile de France (40%. As manifestações clínicas observadas durante a maioria dos atendimentos foram: taquipnéia, taquicardia, mucosas oculares avermelhadas indicando estado de toxemia, decúbito esternal ou lateral, apatia e anorexia. O tratamento instituído para todos os casos foi a limpeza, desinfecção e reintrodução do órgão prolapsado. A sutura de Bühner foi feita em 84% dos casos e a histeropexia em um caso (4%. A evolução foi satisfatória em 80% dos casos atendidos, nos demais casos (20% observou-se óbito da fêmea acometida. Do total de óbitos, os prolapsos vaginais foram responsáveis por 60% (3/5 e os prolapsos uterinos por 40% (2/5. A etiologia dos prolapsos não foi definida nos casos atendidos, sendo esses associados com o período pós-parto em sua maioria (56%, provavelmente associados com quadros de hipocalcemia, altas concentrações séricas de estrógeno e hipertonia uterina. Além disso, a predisposição genética não pode ser descartada.

  10. Comparative Studies on the Induction of <em>Trichoderma harzianumem> Mutanase by α-(1→3-Glucan-Rich Fruiting Bodies and Mycelia of <em>Laetiporus sulphureusem>

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    Grzegorz Janusz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutanase (α-(1→3-glucanase is a little-known inductive enzyme that is potentially useful in dentistry. Here, it was shown that the cell wall preparation (CWP obtained from the fruiting body or vegetative mycelium of polypore fungus <em>Laetiporus sulphureusem> is rich in α-(1→3-glucan and can be successfully used for mutanase induction in <em>Trichoderma harzianumem>. The content of this biopolymer in the CWP depended on the age of fruiting bodies and increased along with their maturation. In the case of CWP prepared from vegetative mycelia, the amount of α-(1→3-glucan depended on the mycelium age and also on the kind of medium used for its cultivation. All CWPs prepared from the individually harvested fruiting body specimens induced high mutanase activity (0.53–0.82 U/mL in <em>T>. <em>harzianum> after 3 days of cultivation. As for the CWPs obtained from the hyphal mycelia of <em>L. sulpureusem>, the maximal enzyme productivity (0.34 U/mL after 3 days of incubation was recorded for CWP prepared from the 3 week-old mycelium cultivated in Sabouraud medium. Statistically, a high positive correlation was found between the total percentage content of α-(1→3-glucan in the CWP and the mutanase activity.

  11. Small mammals in barn owl, <em>Tyto albaem>, pellets from central-east Sardinia / Dati sui micromammiferi da borre di barbagianni, <em>Tyto albaem>, di un sito della Sardegna centro-orientale

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    Claudio Di Russo

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During May 1985, Barn Owl pellets were collected in a central-east Sardinia localities (M. Albo-Nuoro, near the natura1 cave called "Sa conca manna de Loccoli". Pellets contained 208 preys (2.48 per pellets of which 73% was represented by 4 species of rodents and 25% by 2 insectivore species. Diversity index of the diet was 1.36 (Shannon, 0.70 (Gini-Simpson. The most common rodent prey was <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> (40%, while for insectivores <em>Crocidura russulaem> (16%. Ecologica1 and faunistical comparisons were performed with other 8 tyrrhenic <em>Tyto albaem> localities, using thermoxerophily index, climatic index (De Martonne, faunistical affinity index (Sørensen and biocoenotic affinity index (Renkonen. Riassunto Dall'analisi delle 208 prede raccolte nei resti alimentari del Barbagianni, si è trovato che <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> risulta la specie dominante fra i Roditori (40% e <em>Crocidura russulaem> fra gli Insettivori (16%. Sono effettuati confronti di tipo ecologico e faunistico con altri 8 siti insulari e peninsulari tirrenici di Barbagianni, utilizzando indici di termoxerofilia, climatico di De Martonne, di affinità faunistica (Sørensen e biocenotica (Renkonen.

  12. Occurrence of adults and biological aspects of Geniates borelli Camerano (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae in Aquidauana, MS, Brazil Ocorrência de adultos e aspectos biológicos de Geniates borelli Camerano (Coloptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae em Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Sergio Roberto Rodrigues

    2012-09-01

    estes realizassem a oviposição. Foram obtidos 535 ovos com dimensões de 2,30 x 1,60 mm e com o desenvolvimento embrionário ocorre aumento de tamanho para 3,00 x 2,70 mm e essa mudança do formato ocorreu entre o 6º e 10º dia após a oviposição. O período embrionário durou 17,9 dias, o primeiro, segundo e terceiro instar duraram 37,6, 49,7 e 74 dias, respectivamente. A pré-pupa durou 65,9 dias e a fase de pupa durou a média de 18,5 dias. O ciclo biológico completa-se em 315,8 dias, o que caracteriza a espécie como univoltina. A longevidade média das fêmeas foi de 35,4 dias e dos machos 28,5 dias.

  13. Prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns em trabalhadores de enfermagem em um hospital da Bahia

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    Eder Pereira Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, objetivou-se descrever a prevalência de "suspeitos" de transtornos mentais comuns (TMC em trabalhadores de enfermagem em um hospital geral, no estado da Bahia. Realizou-se um estudo epidemiológico, de corte transversal, com 309 profissionais de enfermagem, que trabalhavam em atividades assistenciais em um hospital de grande porte. Os profissionais de enfermagem referiram sobrecarga de trabalho e baixa remuneração. As queixas de saúde mais frequentes estavam relacionadas à postura corporal e a saúde mental. A prevalência geral de "suspeitos" de TMC foi de 35,0%. Em relação aos aspectos psicossociais do trabalho, relataram uma alta demanda psicológica e baixo controle sobre as atividades laborais. Os resultados obtidos apontam que as condições de trabalho e saúde observadas, não são adequadas para a efetiva realização do trabalho de enfermagem no hospital estudado.

  14. Salmonelose humana e animal em Araraquara, S. Paulo: prevalência de Shigella em casos humanos

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    Deise Pasetto Falcão

    1975-10-01

    Full Text Available Admitida uma baixa freqüência de Salmonella com base em verificações anteriores em casos de diarréia aguda na cidade de Araraquara, S. Paulo, realizou-se uma investigação com um esquema ampliado para o isolamento de Salmonella a partir de 47 casos de gastroenterite infantil, 51 amostras de fezes de animais e 50 amostras de carnes e vísceras de animais destinados a alimentação. Foram isoladas Salmonella em 6,3% dos casos de gastroenterite, 5,8% de fezes de animais e 8,0% de amostras de alimentos, nesse último caso verificando-se a contaminação exclusivamente em fígado de porco, senão negativos todos os resultados de carne e vísceras de bovinos. Os sorotipos isolados corresponderam, em ordem decrescente de freqüência a S. anatum, S. derby e S. daytona. Nas gastroenterites infantis a freqüência de Shigella (12,7% foi duas vezes superior à de Salmonella (6,3%.

  15. Os Códigos QR em museus

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rui Pedro de Oliveira Reis da

    2012-01-01

    Mestrado em Museologia: Conteúdos Expositivos O estudo realizado na presente dissertação consiste em desenvolver uma planificação de medidas e técnicas, que permite aos técnicos de museu realizarem uma implementação, de uma forma simples, acessível e gratuita dos Códigos QR (Quick Response). O Código QR é um código bidimensional capaz de armazenar mais informação que um código de barras, sendo possível a sua descodificação através de uma aplicação instalada num smartphone. As análise...

  16. o caso da Primark em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana Daniela Antunes da Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos de obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências da Comunicação, Ramo de Relações Públicas O valor da marca e a satisfação do consumidor são dois temas que têm vindo a ser abordados ao longo de décadas, por diversos autores. Como tal, surgiu o interesse de relacionar ambas as variáveis uma vez que não existe nenhum estudo em concreto que apresente uma relação entre as duas. Deste modo, o tema da presente pesquisa é a...

  17. Tratamento de feridas em cavalos no terreno

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Maria Raquel Faísca

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária As feridas cutâneas em cavalos são bastante comuns podendo, por vezes, ocorrerem complicações como infeção, sequestro ósseo, deiscência de sutura ou artrite séptica. O prognóstico de uma ferida depende de vários fatores, entre eles a sua localização e os tecidos afetados, podendo ser responsável pelo fim de uma carreira desportiva. De tal modo é importante uma intervenção atempada por parte do médico veterinário. O processo de ci...

  18. Formas farmacêuticas em pediatria

    OpenAIRE

    Valente, Sara Carolina Cachado Gomes Jacinto

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado, Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2014 Em 2010, cerca de 21% da população europeia era constituída por crianças: uma percentagem correspondente a mais de 100 milhões de pessoas. As crianças representam um grupo da população vulnerável, com diferenças de desenvolvimento, fisiológicas e psicológicas em relação aos adultos. Não são meros “adultos pequenos”. A investigação relacionada com a idade e com o desenvolviment...

  19. Espaço Público em Habermas

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Filipe Carreira da

    2002-01-01

    Neste livro, em que se sublinha a importância da história das ideias para a teoria em ciências sociais, Filipe Carreira da Silva analisa a evolução da noção de espaço público na obra de Jürgen Habermas, desde A Mudança Estrutural da Esfera Pública (1962) até ao recente Entre Factos e Normas (1992). A principal conclusão deste estudo aponta para uma notável continuidade na forma como Habermas conceptualiza aquela noção, não obstante a clara evolução das suas posições ao longo de quase quarenta...

  20. Influence of Chemical Extraction Conditions on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Polysaccharide Gum from Durian (<em>Durio> <em>zibethinus> Seed

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    Bahareh Tabatabaee Amid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Durian seed is an agricultural biomass waste of durian fruit. It can be a natural plant source of non-starch polysaccharide gum with potential functional properties. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of chemical extraction variables (<em>i.e>., the decolouring time, soaking temperature and soaking time on the physicochemical properties of durian seed gum. The physicochemical and functional properties of chemically-extracted durian seed gum were assessed by determining the particle size and distribution, solubility and the water- and oil-holding capacity (WHC and OHC. The present work revealed that the soaking time should be considered as the most critical extraction variable affecting the physicochemical properties of crude durian seed gum.

  1. NITROSAMINAS VOLÃTEIS EM ALIMENTOS

    OpenAIRE

    C. B. DUTRA; Rath, S.; F. G. R. REYES

    2008-01-01

    Nitrosaminas são compostos potencialmente carcinogênicos para o homem, as quais podem ocorrer em alimentos como produto da reação entre aminas secundárias e agentes nitrosantes. Neste artigo de revisão são fornecidas informações sobre os aspectos toxicológicos, epidemiológicos, presença em alimentos e legislação sobre estes compostos.

    ...

  2. Listeria monocytogenes em alimentos prontos para consumo

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, José Luís Draper Mineiro Romano de

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Nota introdutória - Bactéria matou 13 em 22 meses Um surto de Listeriose que se regista na região de Setúbal e Almada há 22 meses, desde Janeiro de 2009, já afectou, pelo menos, 24 pessoas, 13 das quais morreram. O CM apurou que uma grávida perdeu o filho na 32ª semana de gestação após comer alimentos infectados com a bactéria Listeria. As vítimas mortais foram idosos e pessoas imunodeprimidas (com o sistema imunit...

  3. Conhecer os utilizadores de Homebanking em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Negas, Mário Carrilho; Lopes, José Martinho

    2012-01-01

    O artigo tem como objetivo caracterizar os utilizadores dos serviços de homebanking em Portugal, e identificar quais as operações bancárias mais realizadas no âmbito do serviço de homebanking. A análise da população portuguesa quanto à utilização dos meios eletrónicos bancários divide-a em três grupos distintos: os utilizadores da banca tradicional, que apenas se relacionam com o seu banco deslocando-se à agência física; os utilizadores da primeira geração de canais eletrónicos, como as Caixa...

  4. LESÕES FOLIARES EM MUDAS DE PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliensis Cambess LEAF LESIONS OF YOUNG PLANTS OF PEQUIZEIRO

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    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram descritas as características de lesões e morfologia de colônias de <em>Pestalotia> <em>sp>., <em>Phomopsis spem>., <em>Stigmella spem>., <em>Chaetophoma sp.em>, <em>Helminthosporium sp.em> e <em>Epicoccum sp. em>obtidas de folhas de mudas de pequizeiro em viveiros nos municípios de Goiânia e Hidrolândia (GO. Respostas positivas para patogenicidade foram obtidas de todos os isolados, exceto para <em>Chaetophoma sp.em> que foram consideradas inconclusivas. Observou-se que lesões foliares foram importante fator de retardamento no crescimento das mudas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: <em>Caryocar brasiliensisem>; pequizeiro; doenças foliares de pequizeiro; pequizeiro.

    Leaf lesions and morphological description of <em>Pestalotia sp.em>, <em>Phomopsis spem>., <em>Stigmella sp.em>, <em>Chaetophoma sp.em>, <em>Helminthosporium sp.em> and <em>Epicoccum sp.em> cultures obtained from young plants of pequizeiro (<em>Caryocar brasiliensis Camb.em> in nurseries in Goiânia and Hidrolândia counties. All the isolates except <em>Chaetophoma sp.em>, showed pathogenicity. Leaf spots greatly reduced plant growth.

    KEY-WORDS: Leaf diseases of pequizeiro.

  5. Imunoistoquímica em oligodendrogliomas

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    Hilbig Arlete

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Os oligodendrogliomas (OL são tumores gliais caracterizados histologicamente pela presença de núcleo redondo e homogêneo com halo claro perinuclear. A diferenciação microscópica desses tumores com neurocitoma central, DNT e algumas vezes com ependimoma de células claras pode ser difícil. O estudo imunoistoquímico com marcadores glial e neuronal tem sido utilizado e pode auxiliar no diagnóstico diferencial. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a diferenciação neuronal e glial por meio de técnica imunoistoquímica utilizando anticorpos de rotina em tumores com características microscópicas de OL. Foram estudados 42 pacientes com idade entre 4 e 60 anos. Dez apresentavam sinais de maior malignidade (anaplásico. Trinta e três casos (78,5% mostraram positividade para GFAP, sendo em 10 focal e 6 casos com expressão intensa. Doze casos (28,5% apresentaram positividade para NSE e/ou sinaptofisina, demonstrando alguma diferenciação neuronal, principalmente focal. Trinta e quatro casos (80,9% foram positivos para S-100 e três casos (7,1% foram positivos focalmente para NeuN. Concluimos que áreas focais de diferenciação neuronal e/ou glial podem estar presente em OL típicos e, portanto, é necessário cautela no diagnóstico diferencial em amostras pequenas de tumor. A positividade difusa para marcadores neuronais deve sugerir o diagnóstico de neurocitoma central.

  6. Medicina embasada em evidências

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    Duncan B.B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O aumento crescente das opções diagnósticas e terapêuticas cria a necessidade de avaliar sua efetividade, o que pode ser feito, por exemplo, com o ensaio clínico randomizado. A difusão deste e de outros métodos da epidemiologia clínica na prática médica propicia o paradigma da "medicina embasada em evidências". Ao enfatizar a necessidade de evidências clínico-epidemiológicas sólidas para as decisões clínicas, a medicina embasada em evidências forma a estrutura para a integração dos resultados de pesquisas na prática clínica. A evidência é graduada pelo delineamento de pesquisa, fornecendo normas que estabelecem qual o grau adequado para a tomada de decisão médica. A combinação desse novo paradigma com o poder das telecomunicações modernas está causando uma revolução no modo em que a medicina é praticada. O processo é facilitado pelo acesso dos clínicos às revisões quantitativas e aos guidelines (posicionamentos clínicos delas derivados. As limitações das fontes tradicionais de evidências médicas e as vantagens das novas fontes de evidências, como o ACP Journal Club e a Cochrane Collaboration, são descritas. É importante que o médico se familiarize com os conceitos e técnicas do paradigma de medicina embasada em evidências.

  7. Nd:Yag laser em catarata infantil

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    Di Giovanni Maria Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever e avaliar a utilização do Nd:Yag laser em crianças pseudofácicas. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados prospectivamente 24 olhos de 22 pacientes pseudofácicos no Serviço de Catarata Congênita da Universidade Federal de São Paulo/Escola Paulista de Medicina, no período de junho de 2001 a março de 2003, com opacidade da cápsula posterior, submetidos à capsulotomia posterior com Nd:Yag laser. Analisamos a idade na cirurgia, tipo de cirurgia, tipo e localização da lente intra-ocular, tempo entre a cirurgia e a opacidade capsular posterior, o número de sessões, energia utilizada, lateralidade, acuidade visual pré e pós- Nd:Yag laser. RESULTADOS: Todos os 24 olhos pseudofácicos foram submetidos a capsulotomia posterior com Nd:Yag laser. Destes, quatro (16,6% apresentavam lente intra-ocular acrílica e 18 (75% de PMMA. Sendo 12 LIOs no saco capsular e nove no sulco ciliar. A energia utilizada foi de 0,8mJ a 2mJ por disparo, total de 100mJ por sessão. A utilização do Nd:Yag laser mostrou-se viável em 22 (91,6% olhos. Em dois (8,3% olhos houve necessidade de capsulotomia cirúrgica. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a capsulotomia com Nd:Yag laser possa ser boa opção para a obtenção da transparência do eixo visual e melhora da qualidade visual em crianças pseudofácicas.

  8. Subsurface imaging by electrical and EM methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report consists of 3 subjects. 1) Three dimensional inversion of resistivity data with topography : In this study, we developed a 3-D inversion method based on the finite element calculation of model responses, which can effectively accommodate the irregular topography. In solving the inverse problem, the iterative least-squares approach comprising the smoothness-constraints was taken along with the reciprocity approach in the calculation of Jacobian. Furthermore the Active Constraint Balancing, which has been recently developed by ourselves to enhance the resolving power of the inverse problem, was also employed. Since our new algorithm accounts for the topography in the inversion step, topography correction is not necessary as a preliminary processing and we can expect a more accurate image of the earth. 2) Electromagnetic responses due to a source in the borehole : The effects of borehole fluid and casing on the borehole EM responses should thoroughly be analyzed since they may affect the resultant image of the earth. In this study, we developed an accurate algorithm for calculating the EM responses containing the effects of borehole fluid and casing when a current-carrying ring is located on the borehole axis. An analytic expression for primary vertical magnetic field along the borehole axis was first formulated and the fast Fourier transform is to be applied to get the EM fields at any location in whole space. 3) High frequency electromagnetic impedance survey : At high frequencies the EM impedance becomes a function of the angle of incidence or the horizontal wavenumber, so the electrical properties cannot be readily extracted without first eliminating the effect of horizontal wavenumber on the impedance. For this purpose, this paper considers two independent methods for accurately determining the horizontal wavenumber, which in turn is used to correct the impedance data. The 'apparent' electrical properties derived from the corrected impedance

  9. Screening Commercially Available Entomopathogenic Biocontrol Agents for the Control of <em>Aethina tumidaem> (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles E. Budge

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Small hive beetle, <em>Aethina tumidaem>, is an invasive pest of honey bees. Indigenous to sub-Saharan Africa, it has now become established in North America and Australia. It represents a serious threat to European honey bees. Commercially available entomopathogenic agents were screened for their potential to control beetle larvae. Entomopathogenic fungi investigated had minimal impact. The nematodes <em>Steinernema> krausseiem> and <em>S. carpocapsaeem> provided excellent control with 100% mortality of larvae being obtained. Sequential applications of the nematodes following larvae entering sand to pupate also provided excellent control for up to 3 weeks. The information gained supports the development of contingency plans to deal with <em>A. tumidaem> should it occur in the UK, and is relevant to the management of Small hive beetle where it is already present.

  10. Lei natural e lei civil em Locke

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    Gustavo Hessmann Dalaqua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O artigo aborda a relação entre lei natural e lei civil na filosofia de John Locke. Embora leituras consagradas tenham afirmado que a relação entre ambas é dedutiva, este artigo tentará apresentar uma interpretação diferente, qual seja, a de que a relação entre lei civil e lei natural é de determinação. Longe de ser mera dedução de uma lei natural imutável, a lei civil possui papel determinante com relação à lei natural. Como mostraremos, esta interpretação realça algo que Locke tinha em alta estima: o caráter deliberativo da lei natural. A deliberação dos cidadãos na legislatura cria, em certa medida, a lei natural. Os cidadãos são livres para determinar a lei, e a participação em tal determinação é crucial para a manutenção de sua liberdade política. Nesse sentido, como veremos, a liberdade política lockiana é tributária do republicanismo.

  11. Helicopter EMS: Research Endpoints and Potential Benefits

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    Stephen H. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients, EMS systems, and healthcare regions benefit from Helicopter EMS (HEMS utilization. This article discusses these benefits in terms of specific endpoints utilized in research projects. The endpoint of interest, be it primary, secondary, or surrogate, is important to understand in the deployment of HEMS resources or in planning further HEMS outcomes research. The most important outcomes are those which show potential benefits to the patients, such as functional survival, pain relief, and earlier ALS care. Case reports are also important “outcomes” publications. The benefits of HEMS in the rural setting is the ability to provide timely access to Level I or Level II trauma centers and in nontrauma, interfacility transport of cardiac, stroke, and even sepsis patients. Many HEMS crews have pharmacologic and procedural capabilities that bring a different level of care to a trauma scene or small referring hospital, especially in the rural setting. Regional healthcare and EMS system's benefit from HEMS by their capability to extend the advanced level of care throughout a region, provide a “backup” for areas with limited ALS coverage, minimize transport times, make available direct transport to specialized centers, and offer flexibility of transport in overloaded hospital systems.

  12. Agrupando amostras que diferem alometricamente em tamanho

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    William D. Ross

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Um introdução ilustrada à teoria dimensional é utilizada para enfocar a questão do agrupamento de amostras que diferem alometricamente em tamanho. Nenhuma das idéias foram originadas pelo autor. Na realidade, os princípios são bem conhecidos. Os proponentes do índice de massa corporal que utilizam uma escala comum para indivíduos entre 20 e 65 anos de idade os ignoram escandalosamente. O erro ao agrupar amostras é demonstrado utilizando-se regressões log-log do peso em relação ao preditor altura para homens, mulheres e amostras combinadas de homens e mulheres em incrementos de 5 anos de 20 a 65 anos de idade. Este artigo serve como um convite para examinar a premissa da constância biológica ilustrada pelo tão conhecido índice de massa corporal, que nunca foi verdadeiro e, agora na era do microcomputador, é desnecesário.

  13. Resultados da microcirurgia em 54 aneurismas intracranianos

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    Paulo Niemeyer

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available O autor apresenta sua experiência em 54 aneurismas arteriais intracranianos operados com técnica microcirúrgica, no período de janeiro de 1971 a março de 1974. Em 40 doentes classificados nos grupos I, II e III, não houve mortalidade. Incluindo 8 doentes do grupo IV, onde ocorreram 3 óbitos, a mortalidade foi de 6,2%. Nos doentes do grupo V, a mortalidade continua proibitiva, seja qual for a técnica usada. Os doentes foram operados com microscópio cirúrgico de fabricação brasileira, sendo usados clips de Yasargil, Scoville, Mayfield e de modelo do autor. Comparando os resultados atuais de microcirurgia (1971-1974, com a experiência anterior, baseada em cerca de 400 casos, no período de 1949 a 1970, o autor conclui que a cirurgia dos aneurismas com auxílio do microscópio é benigna e sem mortalidade nos doentes de bom risco cirúrgico. Considera a existência de espasmo o maior problema e julga que o momento mais oportuno de operar é quando surgem as melhoras clínicas, coincidindo com o desaparecimento do espasmo, entre o 7º e 10º dia, geralmente.

  14. Protective Effect of <em>T. violaceaem> Rhizome Extract Against Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats

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    Olorunnisola Sinbad Olorunnisola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the effect of methanolic extract of <em>T. violaceaem> rhizomes on high cholesterol (2% diet fed rats (HCD. At the end of 4 weeks, serum total protein, albumin, reduced glutathione (GSH, and markers of oxidative stress viz., catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS—a marker of lipid peroxidation, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the serum, aorta, liver and heart of HCD and normal rats were assessed and compared. A significant (<em>p> < 0.05 elevation in TBARS, and a reduction (<em>p> < 0.05 in serum total protein, albumin, GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities was observed in tissues of HCD fed rats compared with the normal group. Co-administration of crude extracts of <em>T. violaceaem> rhizomes protected the liver, heart, serum and aorta against HCD-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose dependant manner. The activities of the extract (500 mg/kg compared favorably with gemfibrozil. The extracts also protected against HCD-induced reduction in serum total protein, GSH and restored the activities of antioxidant tissues (liver, heart and aorta enzymes to near normal values. This result suggested that consumption of <em>T. violaceaem> rhizome may help to protect against hypercholesterolemia- induced oxidative stress diseases in the heart and liver.

  15. Antioxidative Characteristics of <em>Anisomeles indicaem> Extract and Inhibitory Effect of Ovatodiolide on Melanogenesis

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    Li-Ling Chang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the antioxidant characteristics of <em>Anisomeles indicaem> methanol extract and the inhibitory effect of ovatodiolide on melanogenesis. In the study, the antioxidant capacities of <em>A. indicaem> methanol extract such as DPPH assay, ABTS radical scavenging assay, reducing capacity and metal ion chelating capacity as well as total phenolic content of the extract were investigated. In addition, the inhibitory effects of ovatodiolide on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Our results revealed that the antioxidant capacities of <em>A. indicaem> methanol extract increased in a dose-dependent pattern. The purified ovatodiolide inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 0.253 mM, the compound also effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 0.469 mM and decreased the amount of melanin (IC50 = 0.435 mM in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells. Our results concluded that <em>A. indicaem> methanol extract displays antioxidant capacities and ovatodiolide purified from the extract inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. Hence, <em>A. indicaem> methanol extract and ovatodiolide could be applied as a type of dermatological whitening agent in skin care products.

  16. Surveying for the rare Bechstein’s bat (<em>Myotis bechsteiniiem> in northern Iberian peninsula by means of an acoustic lure

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    Urtzi Goiti

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Araba province (Basque Country, Iberian Peninsula we surveyed for the rare Bechstein’s bat (<em>Myotis bechsteiniiem> using a recently developed method based on an acoustic lure, the Sussex AutoBat. We surveyed 16 deciduous woodlands, an irrigation pool and a cave, a total of 45 sites. The synthesized calls were played behind mist nets following an established protocol. In total, we captured 32 bats representing 6 genera and 10 species; among these, 6 <em>M. bechsteiniiem>, 3 <em>M. daubentoniiem>, 4 <em>Nyctalus leisleriem>, 5 <em>Plecotus auritusem>, 1 <em>P. austriacusem>, and 1 <em>Barbastella barbastellusem> were caught using the acoustic lure. Two of the Bechstein’s bats were lactating females. By radiotracking one of them, we found the third known breeding colony for this rare species in the Iberian Peninsula. The acoustic lure proved to be a promising method for improving the trapping success of this species. Riassunto Indagine sul Vespertilio di Bechstein (<em>Myotis bechsteiniiem> in Spagna mediante emissioni sonore. Il monitoraggio del Vespertilio di Bechstein (<em>Myotis bechsteiniiem>, specie rara di chirottero nella provincia di Araba (Paesi Baschi, penisola iberica, è stato effettuato mediante l’utilizzo di emissioni ultrasonore per attrarre gli animali (Sussex AutoBat. Sono stati monitorati 45 siti, distribuiti in 16 differenti boschi a latifoglie, un bacino utilizzato per scopi irrigui e una grotta. In ciascun sito sono state utilizzate reti mist net di varia lunghezza e sono stati emessi richiami ultrasonori in prossimità delle reti stesse, secondo una procedura standardizzata. In totale, grazie all'utilizzo delle emissioni sonore sono stati caturati 32 pipistrelli appartenenti a 10 specie, tra cui 6 <em>M. bechsteiniiem>, 3 <em>M. daubentoniiem>, 4 <em>Nyctalus leisleriem>, 5 <em>Plecotus auritusem>, 1 <em>P. austriacusem

  17. Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in <em>Labisia pumilaem> (Myrisinaceae

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    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol−1 on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and antioxidant activity in three varieties of <em>Labisia pumilaem> Benth. (var. <em>alata,> pumila em>and> lanceolataem> after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO2 concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO2 levels and <em>L. pumilaem> varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO2 (1,200 µmol·mol−1