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Sample records for acusticas em pupas

  1. Effects of acoustic waves on pupas of Ceratitis capitata. (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae); Efeitos das ondas acusticas em pupas de Ceratitis capitata. (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

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    Barros, Adilson Camilo de

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this research has been to investigate the hypothesis that acoustic waves would provoke a measurable effect on a population of fruit flies, a treatment denominated sonication. Ionizing radiation, the causative agent for the treatment designated by irradiation has been used as a reference, as long as its effects on living beings and particularly on insects are widely known. This research also enquiries into the possible effects of acoustic waves and gamma rays. The experiments of sonication were carried out in the Laboratory of Entomology of the Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo. The experiments of radiation were carried out in the Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes - IPEN, located within the campus of the University of Sao Paulo. It has been employed a Gamma cell source model 220 with average activity of 757.069 {+-} 293.484 curies (Ci) and an average doses rate of 3.106 {+-} 0.245 kilo grays per hour (kGy/h). Levels applied to the sonication treatment, in hertz and kilo Hertz were: 0 Hz (control) ; 5.0 Hz; 10.0 Hz; 20.0 Hz; 40.0 Hz; 60.0 Hz; 80.0 Hz; 1.0 k Hz; 2.0 k Hz; 10.0 k Hz; 15.0 k Hz e 20.0 k Hz. Irradiation doses applied in Grays were: 5.0 Gy; 7.5 Gy; 10.0 Gy; 12.5 Gy; 15 Gy; 50 Gy; 100 Gy; 150 Gy and 200 Gy. It has been used an acoustic tube made of glass - 40.6 cm in length and 9.1 cm in diameter - and sinusoidal waves originated from three acoustic sources, with response in decibels, which sound intensity varied from 93.60 {+-} 1.51 dB to 123.96 {+-} 0.23 dB. Final results have pointed to evidences that would justify the rejection of null hypothesis H{sub 0}, to which the average of the treatments due to acoustic waves do not differ significantly from each other.(author)

  2. Seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados em pessegueiro sobre ovos e pupas do predador Chrysoperla externa

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    Rodolfo Vargas Castilhos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a seletividade de dezenove agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro sobre ovos e pupas do predador Chrysoperla externa em condições laboratoriais (temperatura 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotofase 14 horas. Os agrotóxicos foram pulverizados diretamente sobre ovos e pupas por meio de uma torre de Potter, utilizando a máxima dosagem recomendada para a cultura do pessegueiro. Foi avaliada a viabilidade de ovos e pupas, além da fecundidade e fertilidade de adultos emergidos de pupas tratadas. Os agrotóxicos foram classificados para ovos em função da redução na eclosão e, para pupas, em função do efeito total, conforme a escala de toxicidade proposta pela IOBC. A maioria dos agrotóxicos avaliados (8 inseticidas, 8 fungicidas e 2 herbicidas se mostrou inócua (classe 1 a ovos e pupas, com redução na eclosão de larvas e efeito total em pupas inferiores a 30%. A exceção se deu para o inseticida óleo mineral, que reduziu a eclosão de larvas em 69,55% quando pulverizado em ovos e proporcionou efeito total em pupas de 36,22%, sendo classificado como levemente nocivo (classe 2 a ovos e pupas de C. externa

  3. Primeiro relato de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: pteromalidae em pupas de fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: fanniidae no Brasil First report of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae in Brazil

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    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae, no Brasil. Pupas de F. pusio foram coletadas em armadilhas utilizando-se fezes humanas como atrativo para os adultos. Obtiveram-se 10 pupas, das quais duas estavam parasitadas por S. nigroaenea, verificando-se uma porcentagem de parasitismo de 20,0%.The first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae is reported. Pupae of F. pusio were collected in traps using human feces to attract the adults. Ten pupae were obtained, of which two were parasitized by S. nigroaenea, thus demonstrating a parasitism rate of 20.0%.

  4. First occurrence of Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae in pupae of Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae in Itumbiara, Goiás State, Brazil/ Primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae em pupas de Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae coletados em plantas de milho em Itumbiara, Goiás

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    Márcio Cleiber Rabelo Costa

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available First occurrence of Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae parasitizing pupae of Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae in Itumbiara, Goiás. This work reports, for the first time, Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae parasitizing pupae of Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae in a maize crops in Itumbiara, GO. The prevalence was of 33,3%.Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência, de Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae parasitando pupas de Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae em cultura de milho em Itumbiara, GO. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 33,3%.

  5. Ação de produtos fitossanitários utilizados em cafeeiros sobre pupas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

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    Silva Rogério Antônio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ação de produtos fitossanitários usados em cafeeiros sobre pupas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos no Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brasil. Os tratamentos avaliados, em g i.a.L-1 de água, foram: 1- endosulfan (Thiodan 350 CE - 1,75, 2- chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 480 CE -1,2, 3- betacyfluthrin (Turbo 50 CE - 0,013, 4- enxofre (Kumulus 800 PM - 4,0, 5- azocyclotin (Peropal 250 PM - 0,31, 6- oxicloreto de cobre (Cuprogarb 500 PM - 5,0 e 7- Testemunha (água. As pulverizações foram realizadas diretamente sobre pupas e adultos do crisopídeo por meio de torre de Potter. As pupas foram colocadas em tubos de vidro e os adultos em gaiolas de PVC, e mantidos em sala climatizada a 25 ? 2degreesC, UR de 70 ? 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e dez repetições, sendo cada parcela formada por quatro pupas ou um casal de C. externa. Os produtos foram distribuídos nas quatro classes de toxicidade conforme escala estabelecida pela IOBC. O chlorpyrifos mostrou-se levemente nocivo para pupas (classe 2, 30?E?79%, e os demais produtos foram inócuos (classe 1, E99%. Os produtos testados à base de endosulfan, enxofre, azocyclotin e oxicloreto de cobre podem ser recomendados em programas de manejo de pragas do cafeeiro em associação com C. externa, em função da baixa toxidade apresentada por esses compostos ao predador.

  6. Desempenho reprodutivo de Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas crioconservadas de Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae: avaliação preliminar Reproductive performance of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae on Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae cryopreserved pupae: preliminary evaluation

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    Eliane Maria Vieira Milward-de-Azevedo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho reprodutivo de Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas de Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae previamente armazenadas a - 20ºC de temperatura, durante 77 dias, com e sem passagem prévia em nitrogênio líquido (NL por um, três e 15 minutos. O grupo controle foi caracterizado por pupas hospedeiras frescas. Os muscóides foram expostos aos parasitóides durante 72 horas. Utilizou-se a relação de uma pupa muscóide por fêmea parasitóide. A amostra de pupas frescas permitiu a emergência de 15 parasitóides/ pupa, em média, enquanto 10 parasitóides / pupa emergiram dos espécimens prévia e diretamente armazenados em freezer (-20ºC. Observou-se um acentuado decréscimo do desempenho reprodutivo dos microhimenópteros que exploraram os substratos previamente submetidos ao NL durante um, três e 15 minutos (: 6,1; 5,5 e 5,7, respectivamente. A dissecação das pupas hospedeiras revelou um expressivo número de pteromalídeos imaturos, nas amostras que foram expostas ao NL, e de adultos faratos, em todos os tratamentosThe reproductive performance of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae was evaluated on pupae of Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae kept at -20ºC, during 77 days, with and no previous passage for liquid nitrogen (NL by one, three and 15 minutes. Control groups were characterized for fresh pupae hosts. There was one pupa for each parasitoid. The sample of fresh pupae exhibited average of 15 emergent parasitoids / pupa while pupae stored directly at freezer (-20ºC presented an average of 10 emergent parasitoids / pupa. In the samples exposed at one, three and 15 minutes in NL, accentuated decrease was observed on emergent hymenopterans reproductive performance (: 6.1; 5.5 and 5.7 respectively. The dissection of pupae revealed a large number of immature pteromalid in the groups with liquid nitrogen passage and farate adults in

  7. Ciclo biológico, exigências térmicas e parasitismo de Muscidifurax uniraptor em pupas de mosca doméstica Life cycle, thermal requirements and parasitism of Muscidifurax uniraptor on house fly pupae

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    Marcílio José Thomazini

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Os parasitóides pupais estão entre os principais responsáveis pela redução populacional de mosca doméstica em aviários, e Muscidifurax uniraptor Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae é um dos principais parasitóides presentes nestes ambientes no Estado de São Paulo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a duração do ciclo biológico, as exigências térmicas e o parasitismo de M. uniraptor em pupas de Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae em temperaturas constantes. Os testes foram realizados em câmaras climatizadas nas temperaturas de 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 e 32 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% U.R. e 14 h de fotofase. Em cada câmara 200 pupas de mosca doméstica, com 24 a 48 h de idade, foram expostas a 40 parasitóides fêmeas partenogenéticas, com 0 a 24 h de idade, por 24 h. A temperatura influenciou o desenvolvimento e a reprodução de M. uniraptor. O menor valor do período de ovo a adulto foi a 30°C (17 dias e as porcentagens de parasitismo e de emergência de descendentes foram maiores a 28°C, com 87 e 63,5%, respectivamente. A temperatura base encontrada para fêmeas do parasitóide foi de 9,43°C, com uma constante térmica de 366,62 graus-dia (GD. A elevação da temperatura diminui a duração do período de ovo a adulto (entre 18 e 30°C e aumenta o parasitismo (entre 18 e 28°C de M. uniraptor. A faixa de temperatura entre 28 e 30°C é considerada a mais adequada para criação de M. uniraptor em pupas de mosca doméstica.The pupal parasitoids are among the most important organisms responsible for house fly population reduction in poultry farms. Muscidifurax uniraptor Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae is one of the main parasitoids that occur in poultry farms at São Paulo State, Brazil. The objective of this study was to determine the life cycle duration, the thermal requirements and the parasitism of M. uniraptor on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae pupae under constant temperatures. The experiment was

  8. Sobrevivência de pupas de Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae após submersão em laboratório Survival of Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae pupae after submersion in laboratory

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    Alex Sandro Barros de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre Maio e Junho de 2008 foi observado a sobrevivência das pupas de Lucilia eximia (Diptera, Calliphoridae após submersão em laboratório. Para este experimento foram utilizadas 480 pupas de mesma idade, sendo estas divididas em oito grupos: o controle não foi submerso e os demais grupos foram submersos de um a sete dias. O aumento do período de submersão diminui a sobrevivência, com um dia de submersão a sobrevivência é de 80%, com dois dias 40%, é de 30% a partir do terceiro dia, no quarto dia cai para 23,34% e no quinto dia fica em 10%. Após este período a mortalidade sobe para 100%. Este padrão pode ser explicado pela curva "U-shaped" que ocorre no consumo de O2 durante o período pupal, onde o consumo é maior no início e no final do período pupal. O tempo de submersão também afeta o tempo de desenvolvimento, aumentando o período pupal. Estes dados têm o potencial para serem utilizados em investigações envolvendo Entomologia Forense, para a estimativa do tempo de submersão de um cadáver.Between May and June of 2008, the survival of the pupae of Lucilia eximia (Diptera, Calliphoridae was observed after submersion in laboratory. For this experiment 480 pupae of same age were used, these were divided in eight groups: the group control was not submerged and the other groups were submerged from one to seven days. The increase of the submersion period reduces the survival, with one day of submersion the survival is of 80%, with two days 40%, of 30% with three days, in the fourth day it falls to 23,34% and in the fifth day it is 10%. After this period the mortality rises to 100%. This pattern can be explained by the curve "U-shaped" that happens in the consumption of O2 during the pupal period, where the consumption is larger at the beginning and at the end of the pupal period. The time of submersion also affects the development time, increasing the pupal period. These data are potentially useful in estimating duration of

  9. Freqüência de larvas e pupas de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus em armadilhas, Brasil Frequency of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae and pupae in traps, Brazil

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    Nildimar Alves Honório

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência mensal de larvas e pupas de Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti e de outras espécies de mosquitos e verificar a influência de fatores ambientais dessas espécies em pneus. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no município de Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Efetuaram-se coletas mensais de formas imaturas, em quatro pneus, no período de novembro de 1997 a outubro de 1998. Os pneus foram numerados e dispostos em forma de pirâmide, um na base (pneu 1 e os três restantes (2, 3 e 4 inclinados sobre o primeiro. Os pneus 1 e 4 eram mais sombreados, e 2 e 3 eram expostos ao sol, já que não eram alcançados, como os demais, pela sombra de árvores e de um galinheiro próximos a esses pneus. Foram estudadas as variáveis: pluviosidade; temperatura ambiente; volume; pH da água; e condições de isolamento de água em pneus. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se 10.310 larvas e 612 pupas. Ae. albopictus foi a espécie predominante tanto na fase larvar quanto na de pupa; Ae. aegypti e Ae. albopictus foram coletados em todos os meses, sendo mais freqüentes naqueles de maior pluviosidade. A temperatura, a pluviosidade e o volume de água apresentaram diferenças significativas, quando correlacionados ao número de larvas de Ae. aegypti. Não houve diferença significativa na freqüência de larvas quanto ao pH da água. Registrou-se maior número de larvas de Ae. albopictus em pneus mais sombreados. CONCLUSÕES: Ae. albopictus instala-se muito mais freqüentemente em pneus do que Ae. aegypti. Pneus descartados parecem representar importantes focos de manutenção de ambos os Aedes, durante todo o ano. Mesmo próximo uns ao outros, os pneus podem oferecer diferentes condições para a colonização desses mosquitos, de acordo com o volume d'água e a exposição ao sol.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the monthly frequency of larvae and pupae of Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and other mosquitoe species in tires, and the influence

  10. Influência do aumento do número de pupas hospedeiras de Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera, Calliphoridae no desenvolvimento do parasitóide Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em laboratório Influence of the increase of the number of the host pupae of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera, Calliphoridae in the development of the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in laboratory

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    Leandro S. Barbosa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento pós-embrionário, a produtividade, a taxa de parasitismo e a razão sexual de Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836 criada em pupa de Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775 foram estudados. Densidades diferentes de hospedeiro foram usadas (proporções 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 e 1:5 com tempo de exposição de 72 horas, em cada uma delas. Fêmeas nulíparas originárias da colônia estoque foram individualizadas em tubos de teste cobertos com algodão hidrófobo e contendo as pupas hospedeiras. Cada tratamento constituiu-se de 10 repetições. Depois da exposição, as vespas foram descartadas e as pupas hospedeiras foram individualizadas em tubos de teste até a emergência dos adultos de C. macellaria ou N. vitripennis. Amostras das pupas hospedeiras não expostas ao parasitismo e recebendo o mesmo tratamento experimental foram usadas como controle. Os parasitóides mostraram um desenvolvimento mais lento em relação ao aumento da densidade de hospedeiros. Houve uma diminuição na produção de parasitóides por hospedeiro em densidades elevadas. A razão sexual tendeu para um desvio para nascimento de fêmeas com o aumento da densidade do hospedeiro. Os índices de parasitismo mostraram uma diminuição quando o parasitóide foi exposto a mais de duas pupas hospedeiras.The post-embryonic development, productivity, rate of parasitism and sexual ratio of Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836 reared in pupae of Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775 were studied. Different densities of the host were used (proportion 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5 and the exposition in each one lasted 72 hours. Nulliparous females originating from the stock colony were individualized in test tubes covered with hydrophobic cotton and containing the host pupae. Each treatment was constituted by 10 repetitions. After the exposition, the wasps were discarded and the host pupae were individualized in test tubes until the emergence of the adults of C. macellaria

  11. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions Fenologia de Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em pupas de Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae em condições de laboratório

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    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of Objetivando conhecer o ciclo de desenvolvimento de Spalangia endius sob condições de laboratório, 360 pupas de Musca domestica com idade de 24 a 48 horas foram expostas a 15 casais de S. endius por um período de 48 horas a 26 ± 2ºC. Estas pupas foram mantidas em BOD. Com mesma temperatura, umidade relativa <70% e com fotofase de 12 horas, onde diariamente dissecava-se 15 espécimes para avaliar o estágio e tempo de desenvolvimento do himenóptero. A fenologia permite concluir que S. endius apresenta um ciclo de desenvolvimento de 19 dias, cujo período de incubação foi de 24 horas, o desenvolvimento de larvas de S. endius ocorreu nos oito dias subsequentes nos quais uma série de alterações morfológicas foi observada. O estágio de pré-pupa deu-se no décimo dia onde cessa a movimentação e inicia a eliminação de mecônio. O estágio pupal ocorreu do décimo primeiro dia ao décimo nono, momento da emergência dos primeiros machos, já as fêmeas iniciaram a emergência aproximadamente 24 horas após. Estes resultados permitem avaliar aspectos da bionomia pormenorizada do desenvolvimento de S. endius para armazenar e programar a produção deste parasitóide, otimizando sua utilização como agente de controle biológico.

  12. Search efficiency of <em>Spalangia cameroni em>and <em>Muscidifurax raptorem> on <em>Musca domesticaem> pupae in dairy cattle farms in Denmark

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    Skovgård, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    ). Overall, parasitism increased significantly from 5.3 to 28.8--28.7% of the exposed house fly pupae due to the release of pupal parasitoids. Spalangia cameroni was by far the most dominant species, contributing approximately 71.5--72.3% of the parasitism in the release and post-release period, whereas 20...

  13. Parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae coletados em pupários no substrato rim bovino Parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae collected in pupae in the bovine kidney

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    Jean Patrick Bonani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo, identificar as principais espécies de parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, em Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil, cujas larvas foram alimentadas com rim bovino. As coletas foram realizadas durante o período de agosto de 2003 a março de 2004. Um total de 921 parasitóides foram coletados em 942 pupas dessa mosca. A prevalência natural de parasitismo foi de 97%.The study aimed at identifying the main parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. The larvae were feed on bovine kidney. Samplings were conducted from August 2003 to March 2004, in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 921 parasitoids in 942 pupae fly were collected. The prevalence natural parasitism was 97%.

  14. Progeny of Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae) non-viable pupae irradiated by gamma Cobalt-60 and cold stored; Progenie de Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) em pupas de Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae) que foram inviabilizadas com a radiacao gama do cobalto 60 e resfriadas

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    Itepan, Sara Eloiza Zen

    1992-06-01

    This study was designed to test acceptability of cold stored irradiated and non-irradiated pupae of Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae) by the parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). The work was carried out in the laboratory of the Entomology Section of the Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP) and in the laboratory of Biological Control of House Flies Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto of Entomology Department of the College of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The gamma radiation source used was a Cobalt-60 irradiator, Gamma bean-650, with an initial activity of 1,6265 x 10{sup 4} Bq (6,746 Ci). The radiation LD{sup 50} e LD{sup 100}, using a dose ratio of 1457 Gy/h, for 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours old pupae and resulted in 15.35; 15.69; 11.30; 49.4; 142.78 and 175 Gy for LD{sup 50} and 20, 22.5; 32.5; 175; 225 and 300 Gy for LD`1{sup 00} respectively. Following exposure, the pupae were kept in climate chamber at 27 {+-} 3{sup 0} C and 75 {+-} % of relative humidity, until all adults had emerged. In succession, 24, 48 and 72 hour-old pupae were exposed to gamma irradiation with a dose of 1440 Gy/hour, in their respective lethal doses. Following the exposure the pupae were stored at cool temperature (10 {+-} 2{sup 0} C) for different periods of time (5, 15, 20 and 30 days). The same treatment was given for non-irradiated pupae. After the storage period the pupae were expose for 24 h to S. endius in a ratio of 1:10 parasitoid-host. It was not observed any statistical difference (Turkey 5%) in progeny of males and females emerged from irradiated and non-irradiated pupae. There was a preference of the parasitoid to pupae of 48 hours old followed by 24 and 72 hours old for storage period more than 5 days and shorter than 20 days. (author). 50 refs., 6 figs., 17 tabs.

  15. Ocorrência de Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em pupas de Musca domestica L. e Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera, Muscidae no sul do Rio Grande do Sul

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    R.K Brandão

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It was reported the occurrence of Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae as a parasitoid of pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae and Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae in the extreme Southern of Brazil. The collection of pupae was performed in January and February, 2008. The pupae of M. domestica and S. calcitrans were collected from bovine feces using the flotation method. The pupae were individualized in glass tubes and maintained in acclimatized chamber at 27±2ºC with relative air humidity > 70% until the emergence of the flies or the parasitoids. The referred occurrence consists in the first report to Rio Grande do Sul.

  16. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

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    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  17. The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira Krüger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Species of Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are found in decomposing bodies, usually in fresh, bloated and decay stages. Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, for example, can be found in animal carcasses. The influence of environmental factors has not been evaluated in puparia of O. albuquerquei. Thus, the focus of this work was motivated by the need for models to predict the development of a necrophagous insect as a function of abiotic factors. Colonies of O. albuquerquei were maintained in the laboratory to obtain pupae. On the tenth day of each month 200 pupae, divided equally into 10 glass jars, were exposed to the environment and checked daily for adult emergence of each sample. We concluded that the high survival rate observed suggested that the diets used for rearing the larvae and maintaining the adults were appropriate. Also, the data adjusted to robust generalized linear models and there were no interruptions of O. albuquerquei pupae development within the limits of temperatures studied in southern Rio Grande do Sul, given the high survival presented.Efeito de fatores ambientais sobre o desenvolvimento e sobrevivência de pupas de Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Espécies de Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 são encontradas em corpos em decomposição, usualmente nas fases fresca, inchamento e murcha. Entre estas espécies, Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, 1985 pode ser encontrada em carcaças de ratos e coelhos. A influência de fatores ambientais sobre pupas de O. albuquerquei não tinha sido avaliada até o momento. Desta maneira, o foco deste trabalho foi motivado pela necessidade por modelos de previsão do desenvolvimento de insetos necrófagos em função de fatores abióticos. Colônias de O. albuquerquei foram mantidas em laboratório para a obtenção de pupas. Até o décimo dia de cada mês, 200

  18. BLACK FLY (DIPTERA: SIMULIIDAE PUPAE MICROHABITAT CHARACTERIZATION IN THE ITATIAIA NATIONAL PARK, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Cristina Campos-de-Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi conduzido no Parque Nacional do Itatiaia localizado no estado do Rio de Janeiro e teve como objetivo determinar os padrões de preferência de habitat e micro-habitat de pupas de Simuliidae. As coletas foram realizadas em quatro sítios no Parque, sendo medidos pH, luminosidade, condutividade e temperatura da água. As pupas foram identificadas e quantificadas em laboratório e seus padrões de preferência de microhabitat foram determinados por meio de análise de correspondência canônica (CCA, enquanto suas comunidades comparadas quanto às similaridades entre si por meio de um escalonamento métrico não dimensional (NMDS.

  19. Structure and morphology of mythimna pupa under diffraction enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Wanxia; Yuan Qingxi; Zhu Peiping; Wang Junyue; Liu Yijin; Chen Bo; Shu Hang; Hu Tiandou; Wu Ziyu; Ge Siqin

    2007-01-01

    As a technique of X-ray phase contrast imaging, the diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) attracts much interest due to its high resolution and contrast. The top images of DEI were used to study the growth of a complete metamorphic mythimna in the period of pupa. Clear images about the pupa structure were obtained. The entire growth process of the pupa was observed, including the evolvement of part of organs and tissues from larva to imago. (authors)

  20. La mappa acustica dinamica di Milano da un numero limitato di punti di monitoraggio. Primi risultati - Milan dynamic noise mapping from few monitoring stations. First results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Zambon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Il questa memoria sono riportati i primi risultati del progetto Dynamap relativi all’area pilota di Milano. Il progetto sviluppa un approccio alla rappresentazione del rumore derivante da traffico stradale che consenta una mappatura acustica dinamica attraverso la scalatura di mappe precalcolate mediante un collegamento diretto con un numero limitato di stazioni di monitoraggio. La possibilità di controllare la mappa acustica di una rete stradale estesa mediante pochi punti di controllo si attua mediante una necessaria aggregazione degli archi stradali in gruppi omogenei. ------ This memory reports the first results of Dynamap project related to the Milan pilot area. The project develops an approach to represent road traffic noise with the outcome of a dynamic noise mapping achieved through the scaling of precalculated maps; scaling is based upon a direct connection to a limited number of noise monitoring stations. The possibility of controlling the acoustic map of an extended road network by means of a few monitoring sites is implemented through a preliminary aggregation of road stretches into homogeneous groups.

  1. Analise acustica das vogais orais do Portugues de Florianopolis-Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Ronaldo

    1991-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Centro de Comunicação e Expressão O objetivo principal é estabelecer as freqüências de cada vogal oral do português de Florianópolis-SC. Para a caracterização acústica das vogais trabalhou-se sobre amostras de fala natural, produzidas por 5 informantes criteriosamente selecionados. Com base em um corpus elaborado para este fim o material sonoro, contendo vogais orais tônicas, pré-tônicas e pós-tônicas em sílaba inicial, media...

  2. Proteomic analysis of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. pupae head development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijuan Zheng

    Full Text Available The honeybee pupae development influences its future adult condition as well as honey and royal jelly productions. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates honeybee pupae head metamorphosis is still poorly understood. To further our understand of the associated molecular mechanism, we investigated the protein change of the honeybee pupae head at 5 time-points using 2-D electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Accordingly, 58 protein spots altered their expression across the 5 time points (13-20 days, of which 36 proteins involved in the head organogenesis were upregulated during early stages (13-17 days. However, 22 proteins involved in regulating the pupae head neuron and gland development were upregulated at later developmental stages (19-20 days. Also, the functional enrichment analysis further suggests that proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, development, cytoskeleton and protein folding were highly involved in the generation of organs and development of honeybee pupal head. Furthermore, the constructed protein interaction network predicted 33 proteins acting as key nodes of honeybee pupae head growth of which 9 and 4 proteins were validated at gene and protein levels, respectively. In this study, we uncovered potential protein species involved in the formation of honeybee pupae head development along with their specific temporal requirements. This first proteomic result allows deeper understanding of the proteome profile changes during honeybee pupae head development and provides important potential candidate proteins for future reverse genetic research on honeybee pupae head development to improve the performance of related organs.

  3. Proteomic analysis of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) pupae head development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Aijuan; Li, Jianke; Begna, Desalegn; Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Song, Feifei

    2011-01-01

    The honeybee pupae development influences its future adult condition as well as honey and royal jelly productions. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates honeybee pupae head metamorphosis is still poorly understood. To further our understand of the associated molecular mechanism, we investigated the protein change of the honeybee pupae head at 5 time-points using 2-D electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Accordingly, 58 protein spots altered their expression across the 5 time points (13-20 days), of which 36 proteins involved in the head organogenesis were upregulated during early stages (13-17 days). However, 22 proteins involved in regulating the pupae head neuron and gland development were upregulated at later developmental stages (19-20 days). Also, the functional enrichment analysis further suggests that proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, development, cytoskeleton and protein folding were highly involved in the generation of organs and development of honeybee pupal head. Furthermore, the constructed protein interaction network predicted 33 proteins acting as key nodes of honeybee pupae head growth of which 9 and 4 proteins were validated at gene and protein levels, respectively. In this study, we uncovered potential protein species involved in the formation of honeybee pupae head development along with their specific temporal requirements. This first proteomic result allows deeper understanding of the proteome profile changes during honeybee pupae head development and provides important potential candidate proteins for future reverse genetic research on honeybee pupae head development to improve the performance of related organs.

  4. Transcriptomic Response of Drosophila Melanogaster Pupae Developed in Hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Hateley, Shannon; Bhardwaj, Shilpa R.; Pachter, Lior; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The metamorphosis of Drosophila is evolutionarily adapted to Earth's gravity, and is a tightly regulated process. Deviation from 1g to microgravity or hypergravity can influence metamorphosis, and alter associated gene expression. Understanding the relationship between an altered gravity environment and developmental processes is important for NASA's space travel goals. In the present study, 20 female and 20 male synchronized (Canton S, 2 to 3day old) flies were allowed to lay eggs while being maintained in a hypergravity environment (3g). Centrifugation was briefly stopped to discard the parent flies after 24hrs of egg laying, and then immediately continued until the eggs developed into P6-staged pupae (25 - 43 hours after pupation initiation). Post hypergravity exposure, P6-staged pupae were collected, total RNA was extracted using Qiagen RNeasy mini kits. We used RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR techniques to profile global transcriptomic changes in early pupae exposed to chronic hypergravity. During the pupal stage, Drosophila relies upon gravitational cues for proper development. Assessing gene expression changes in the pupa under altered gravity conditions helps highlight gravity dependent genetic pathways. A robust transcriptional response was observed in hypergravity-exposed pupae compared to controls, with 1,513 genes showing a significant (q Drosophila pupae in response to hypergravity.

  5. Online monitoring of accessories for underground electrical installations through acoustics emissions; Monitoreo en linea de accesorios de instalaciones electricas subterraneas mediante emisiones acusticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casals-Torrens, P. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Espana)]. E-mail: p.casals@upc.edu; Gonzalez-Parada, A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mail: gonzaleza@salamanca.ugto.mx; Bosch-Tous, R. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Espana)

    2012-04-15

    The acoustic waves caused by Partial Discharges inside the dielectric materials, can be detected by acoustic emission (AE) sensors and analyzed in the time domain. The experimental results presented, show the online detection capability of these sensors in the environment near a cable accessory, such as a splice or terminal. The AE sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference and constitute a detection method non-intrusive and non-destructive, which ensures a galvanic decoupling with respect to electric networks, this technique of partial discharge detection can be applied as a test method for preventive or predictive maintenance (condition-based maintenance) to equipment or facilities of medium and high voltage in service and represents an alternative method to electrical detection systems, conventional or not, that continue to rely on the detection of current pulses. This paper presents characterization tests of the sensors AE through comparative tests of partial discharge on accessories for underground power cables. [Spanish] Las ondas acusticas provocadas por las descargas parciales en el interior de un dielectrico pueden ser detectadas por sensores de Emisiones Acusticas (EA) y analizadas en el dominio del tiempo. Los resultados experimentales que se presentan, evidencian la capacidad de deteccion en linea de estos sensores, en el entorno proximo a un accesorio de cable, empalme o terminal. Los sensores EA son inmunes a las interferencias electromagneticas, son un metodo de deteccion no destructivo y garantizan desacople galvanico respecto a la red electrica; esta tecnica de deteccion de descargas parciales puede ser aplicada como metodo de prueba para mantenimiento preventivo o predictivo (mantenimiento basado en la condicion), en equipos o instalaciones de media y alta tension en servicio, y representa una alternativa a los sistemas electricos de deteccion, convencionales o no, que continuan basandose en la deteccion del impulsos de corriente. En el

  6. Cold hardiness of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.C. Morey; W.D. Hutchison; R.C. Venette; E.C. Burkness

    2012-01-01

    An insect's cold hardiness affects its potential to overwinter and outbreak in different geographic regions. In this study, we characterized the response of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) pupae to low temperatures by using controlled laboratory measurements of supercooling point (SCP), lower lethal temperature (LT50), and lower...

  7. How <em>Varroa> Parasitism Affects the Immunological and Nutritional Status of the Honey Bee, <em>Apis melliferaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Aronstein

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite <em>Varroa destructorem> on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, <em>Apis melliferaem>, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from honey bee colonies at one site in S. Texas, USA. <em>Varroa>‑infested bees displayed elevated titer of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV, suggestive of depressed capacity to limit viral replication. Expression of genes coding three anti-microbial peptides (<em>defensin1, abaecin, hymenoptaecinem> was either not significantly different between <em>Varroa>-infested and uninfested bees or was significantly elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested bees, varying with sampling date and bee developmental age. The effect of <em>Varroa> on nutritional indices of the bees was complex, with protein, triglyceride, glycogen and sugar levels strongly influenced by life-stage of the bee and individual colony. Protein content was depressed and free amino acid content elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested pupae, suggesting that protein synthesis, and consequently growth, may be limited in these insects. No simple relationship between the values of nutritional and immune-related indices was observed, and colony-scale effects were indicated by the reduced weight of pupae in colonies with high <em>Varroa> abundance, irrespective of whether the individual pupa bore <em>Varroa>.

  8. Founding weaver ant queens (Oecophylla longinoda) increase production and nanitic worker size when adopting non-nestmate pupae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouagoussounon, Issa; Offenberg, Joachim; Sinzogan, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    of offspring). Forty-five fertilized queens were divided into three treatments: 0 (control), 100 or 300 non-nestmate pupae transplanted to each colony. Pupae transplantation resulted in highly increased growth rates, as pupae were readily adopted by the queens and showed high proportions of surviving (mean...... pupae. The size of hatching pupae produced by the resident queen also increased with the number of pupae transplanted, leading to larger nanitic workers in colonies adopting pupae. In conclusion, pupae transplantation may be used to produce larger colonies with larger worker ants and may thus reduce...

  9. Misure in laboratorio di acustica edilizia a bassa frequenza: un approccio modale - Laboratory measurements of building acoustics at low frequency: a modal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Prato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nei tipici ambienti ordinari e di laboratorio (40-80 m3 e a bassa frequenza (50-100 Hz, il campo acustico risulta non diffuso a causa della presenza dei modi. In tali condizioni, le misure classiche di acustica edilizia (isolamento acustico per via aerea e da impatto, tempi di riverbera-zione sono inadeguate per caratterizzare correttamente le proprietà acustiche di partizioni, si-stemi di pavimentazioni e spazi chiusi. L’approccio modale permette di valutare tali proprietà studiando il comportamento dei modi. Sulla base di ciò, appropriate procedure di misura e nuovi descrittori sono proposti e discussi in modo da fornire possibili soluzioni per tali problematiche. ------ In typical laboratory and ordinary rooms (40-80 m3 and at low frequencies (50-100 Hz, the acoustic field is non-diffuse due to the presence of room modes. Under such conditions, standard building acoustics measurements (airborne and impact sound insulation, reverberation time and descriptors are not adequate to correctly characterize the acoustic property of partitions, flooring systems and rooms. The modal approach allows to evaluate such properties by studying the behavior of modes. On the basis of this, proper measurement procedures and new descriptors are proposed and discussed in order to provide possible solutions for such issues.

  10. Physicochemical Properties of Meat Batter Added with Edible Silkworm Pupae (Bombyx mori) and Transglutaminase

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yoo-Sun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Lee, Cheol-Won; Shin, Dong-Min; Han, Sung Gu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical properties of meat batters prepared with fresh pork meat, back fat, water, and salt and formulated with three different amounts (5%, 10%, and 15%) of silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) powder and transglutaminase (TG). Meat batters formulated with silkworm pupae powder showed significantly higher contents of protein and ash than control batter. Addition of silkworm pupae to batter also showed significantly lower cooking loss than the contr...

  11. Physicochemical Properties of Meat Batter Added with Edible Silkworm Pupae (Bombyx mori) and Transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo-Sun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Lee, Cheol-Won; Shin, Dong-Min; Han, Sung Gu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical properties of meat batters prepared with fresh pork meat, back fat, water, and salt and formulated with three different amounts (5%, 10%, and 15%) of silkworm pupae ( Bombyx mori ) powder and transglutaminase (TG). Meat batters formulated with silkworm pupae powder showed significantly higher contents of protein and ash than control batter. Addition of silkworm pupae to batter also showed significantly lower cooking loss than the control. Moreover, meat batter containing 15% silkworm pupae showed no significant difference in redness value compared to the control. In addition, pH, viscosity, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were improved after the addition of silkworm pupae. Furthermore, meat batter formulated with TG and silkworm pupae showed improved hardness, gumminess, chewiness and viscosity compared to control batter. Addition of 1% TG with 15% silkworm pupae to meat batter resulted in significantly higher pH, textures, and viscosity. Our data suggest that both silkworm pupae and TG can be added to meat batter to improve its physicochemical properties. Therefore, combination of silkworm pupae and TG could be a new nutritional and functional source for meat products.

  12. Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract in the conversion of larvae to pupa and pupa to mature of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster M.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fani Yazdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativusL., a native plant from Iran and especially of Khorasan region, has a specific place for people's diet. According to several studies about effects of saffron and because there are no specific studies on the effects of saffron aqueos extract on the development of Drosophila melanogaster as an animal model, this subject evaluated in conversion of larvae to pupa and pupa to mature of fruit flies. 5 pairs of 3-day-old wild D. melanogaster were transferred to every culture plate containing different concentrations of saffron aqueos extract in order to intercross and oviposition and were brought out after 8 hrs. The percent of larvae to pupa transitionand pupa to mature conversion, were evaluated in all concentrations. The obtained data were evaluated statistically using SAS software and the mean of data were compared using Tukey test with minimum significance level of pD. elanogaster depends on dose proportionately. It means that saffron has some effects on the percentage of conversion of larvae to pupa, pupa to mature in low volumes and increased consuming concentrations of saffron may have inverse effects on that.

  13. Morphology of caterpillars and pupae of European Maculinea species (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an identification table

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliwinska, Ewa B.; Nowicki, Piotr; Nash, David Richard

    2006-01-01

    the caterpillars of these species for effective conservation. We present the morphology of the larvae and pupae of these three species, and a simple key to their identification. Inter-specific differences among larvae and pupae, and within-species differences among larval instars, are underlined in order to enable...

  14. Effects of gamma radiation on the pupae of Pieris brassicae L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Miah, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Pupae of Pieris brassicae L. anchor themselves to a substratum with a silk thread stretched across the thorax. Anchoring pupae detached for irradiation purposes facilitated adult emergence. Pupae were irradiated from a 60 Co source with dose rate 1.229 Krad/min. The doses delivered to pupae were 30, 35 and 40 Krad. Irradiation of pupae reduced successful adult emeru.ence. Mortality among the successfully emerged adults was higher at higher doses. But in 30 and 35 Krad treatments the few that survived lived longer than those in the control and 40 Krad treatments. In general, irradiation of males decreased the mating frequency and the oviposition of females mating with them. Fertility was found to decrease with increasing dose and 40 Krad induced sterlity in males. (author)

  15. Pupation Behavior and Predation on Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Pupae in Maine Wild Blueberry Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballman, Elissa S; Collins, Judith A; Drummond, Francis A

    2017-12-05

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive vinegar fly and pest of soft fruits in North America, including wild blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) in Maine. Despite its presence in the continental United States for 9 yr, little is known about its natural enemy complex. Here we report the results of a 3-yr study designed to identify naturally-occurring predators in Maine's wild blueberry fields. Experiments were conducted to determine pupation site and pupation depth to understand D. suzukii's predation vulnerability. Predation rates in the field of fully-exposed, caged, and buried pupae were measured. Pitfall traps were deployed to identify the potential predator assemblage, and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how many pupae were consumed by commonly occurring ground beetle species (Carabidae) and field crickets (Gryllus pennsylvanicus Burmeister). The most commonly collected predators were ants, ground beetles, harvestmen, and field crickets. Significantly more pupae were found to occur in the soil compared to blueberry fruit, with most pupae in the top 0.5 cm layer of soil. Pupal predation rates in the field were high, with higher rates of predation on exposed pupae compared to buried pupae. Laboratory studies revealed that ground beetles and field crickets are likely predators of D. suzukii pupae. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Sensitivity of larvae, pupae, and adults of the driedfruit beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Raisins infested with three different ages of larvae of dried fruit beetle, Carpophilus hemipterus (L.), were treated with gamma radiation doses of 130-798 Gy. Pupae and unmated adults were also treated at 338 and 486 Gy. All doses to larvae prevented adult development. Only the oldest treated larvae were able to develop to the wandering stage (late third instar) before dying. Complete larval mortality occurred sooner at higher doses. Most younger larvae died within the raisins. Mortality of irradiated pupae at both doses was 90%, and adults emerging from treated pupae died within 48 h. Irradiated adults produced no progeny and died within 1 wk after treatment

  17. Insights into the transcriptome of oenocytes from Aedes aegypti pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ferreira Martins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Oenocytes are ectodermic cells present in the fat body of several insect species and these cells are considered to be analogous to the mammalian liver, based on their role in lipid storage, metabolism and secretion. Although oenocytes were identified over a century ago, little is known about their messenger RNA expression profiles. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome of Aedes aegypti oenocytes. We constructed a cDNA library from Ae. aegypti MOYO-R strain oenocytes collected from pupae and randomly sequenced 687 clones. After sequences editing and assembly, 326 high-quality contigs were generated. The most abundant transcripts identified corresponded to the cytochrome P450 superfamily, whose members have roles primarily related to detoxification and lipid metabolism. In addition, we identified 18 other transcripts with putative functions associated with lipid metabolism. One such transcript, a fatty acid synthase, is highly represented in the cDNA library of oenocytes. Moreover, oenocytes expressed several immunity-related genes and the majority of these genes were lysozymes. The transcriptional profile suggests that oenocytes play diverse roles, such as detoxification and lipid metabolism, and increase our understanding of the importance of oenocytes in Ae. aegypti homeostasis and immune competence.

  18. Efeitos da aplicação de agrotóxicos utilizados na produção integrada de maçã sobre pupas de Chrysoperla externa Effects of pesticides application used in integrated apple production on Chrysoperla externa pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pinho de Moura

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Devido à grande importância de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae como agente de controle biológico de artrópodes-praga na cultura da macieira no Brasil, avaliaram-se os efeitos dos agrotóxicos (g i.a. L-1 abamectina (0,02, carbaril (1,73, enxofre (4,80, fenitrotiona (0,75, metidationa (0,40 e triclorfom (1,50 em pupas desse predador, oriundas de Bento Gonçalves e Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, bem como sobre o desenvolvimento dos adultos obtidos e sua reprodução. A aplicação dos compostos e de água destilada (testemunha foi realizada sobre as pupas utilizando-se torre de Potter. Carbaril e triclorfom causaram mortalidade significativa de pupas tratadas de ambas as populações. Abamectina somente causou mortalidade de pupas oriundas de Vacaria; enxofre, fenitrotiona e metidationa mostraram-se inócuos ao predador. Não foram constatadas reduções no número de ovos depositados por C. externa de Bento Gonçalves; entretanto, fenitrotiona causou reduções nessa característica biológica de fêmeas provenientes de Vacaria. Apenas carbaril e abamectina não afetaram negativamente a viabilidade dos ovos depositados por C. externa oriundas de pupas tratadas, provenientes de Bento Gonçalves e Vacaria, respectivamente. Baseando-se no efeito total (E, enxofre, fenitrotiona e metidationa são inócuos, enquanto abamectina, carbaril e triclorfom são levemente prejudiciais a insetos oriundos de Bento Gonçalves. Abamectina e enxofre são inócuos a indivíduos de Vacaria, enquanto carbaril, fenitrotiona, metidationa e triclorfom são levemente prejudiciais, conforme classificação da IOBC.Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae is an important biological control agent of artropod-pests in apple crop. In this research the effects of the pesticides (g a.i. L-1 abamectin (0.02, carbaryl (1.73, fenitrothion (0.75, methidathion (0.40, sulphur (4.80 and trichlorfon (1.50, on C. externa pupae from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria regions

  19. Redescripción de la Larva y la Pupa de Toxorhynchites ( Lynchiella guadeloupensis (Diptera: Culicidae Redescription of the larva and pupa of Toxorhynchites ( Lynchiella guadeloupensis (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia M. Augier

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente contribución es redescribir, en forma completa, la quetotaxia de larva y pupa de Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar & Knab. Además se describe por primera vez el aparato bucal de la larva. El material estudiado procede de la provincia de Tucumán en el noroeste argentino.The objetive of the present contribution is to redescribe the quetotaxia of the larva and the pupa of Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar & Knab. The larval mouthpart is described for the first time. The material examined is from Tucumán province in the Argentina northwestern.

  20. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi, E-mail: lsasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 {+-}5 deg C and 70 {+-}5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  1. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi; Arthur, Paula B.

    2011-01-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ±5 deg C and 70 ±5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  2. Seletividade de inseticidas recomendados para a cultura do algodão ao parasitóide de pupas Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Wagner Faria

    2010-01-01

    Insetos pragas podem reduzir a produção do algodoeiro e o controle biológico pode reduzir o uso excessivo de inseticidas nessa cultura. O endoparasitóide gregário de pupas de lepidópteros e coleópteros Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), por ter hábito generalista e facilidade de criação em hospedeiro alternativo, pode ser utilizado no controle biológico de pragas do algodoeiro. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi estudar o impacto dos inseticidas acefato, cartape, cl...

  3. PENGGUNAAN METODE SURVEI PUPA UNTUK MEMPREDIKSI RISIKO PENULARAN DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE DI LIMA WILAYAH ENDEMIS DI DKI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Shinta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Demam berdarah dengue (DBD adalah salah satu masalah kesehatan di Indonesia. Untuk saat ini, belum ada obat atau vaksin untuk mencegah DBD. Oleh karena itu pencegahan dan pengendalian vektor menjadi sangat penting. Indikator yang digunakan untuk melakukan surveilans dalam pengawasan kepadatan populasi Ae. aegypti dan memprediksi risiko penularan adalah pupa indeks. Pupa indeks digunakan untuk mengukur HPI, CPI, pupa/orang, pupa/rumah, dan pupa/ kontainer. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui habitat reproduksi terbesar, kepadatan penduduk dan persentase pupa di lima kecamatan di DKI Jakarta yaitu Johar Baru (Jakarta Pusat, Tanjung Priok (Jakarta Utara, Kramat Jati (Jakarta Timur, Kebun Jeruk (Jakarta Barat, dan Cilandak (Jakarta Selatan. Metode yang digunakan adalah deskriptif dengan teknik stratified random sampling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan habitat pupa Ae. Aegypti, yaitu kontainer air (bak mandi, bak WC, drum, tempayan, bak wudhu, dan bak tandu, wadah air  tidak permanen (barang bekas, bekas sumur, vas/pot bunga, kolam/akuarium, tempat minum unggas, tatakan dispenser, wastafel dan bath tube, habitat alami (potongan bambu dan pelepah daun. Nilai rata-rata indeks pupa di lima wilayah penelitian adalah CPI = 8,45%; HPI = 23,98%; pupa/orang = 0,65; pupa/rumah = 3,58; dan pupa/kontainer = 0,96. Ada konsistensi nomor indeks di semua wilayah penelitian;  Jika indeks HPI tinggi, indeks pupa lainnya akan tinggi juga. Kata kunci: Aedes aegypti, pupa indeks, DBD Abstract Dengue fever is one of the most concerning health problems in Indonesia. For this time, there are merely no known medicines or vaccines to prevent this disease from manifesting. Rigorous studies are still conducted intensively.  Hence, vector prevention and control efforts become very important. Indicator used here to conduct surveillance, measure Ae.aegypti population density and predict transmission risk was pupa index. Pupa index was used to measure HPI, CPI

  4. Effects of pre-irradiation conditioning of Medfly pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): Hypoxia and quality of sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E.; Islam, S.M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Caceres, C.

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation of pupae in sterile insect technique (SIT) projects is usually undertaken in hypoxic atmospheres, which have been shown to lessen the deleterious effects of irradiation on the quality of adult sterile flies. Although this is the accepted technology in most mass-rearing and sterilization facilities, to date no information has been generated on the actual levels of oxygen (O 2 ) in pupae-packing containers during irradiation. The present study utilized recently-developed technology to investigate the O 2 level inside bags in which pupae of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) are packed prior to irradiation, the ability of pupae to create hypoxic environments in these bags, and the effect of O 2 atmospheres on the quality of irradiated males. Pupae, 1 d before adult emergence, were shown to deplete the O 2 level in sealed bags in approximately 1 h. The rate of O 2 consumption was dependent upon pupal age and incubation temperature. Incubation temperature did not significantly affect the quality of pupae or mating capacity of resultant adult males if pupae were irradiated under maximal hypoxic conditions inside packing bags. In contrast, mating competitiveness drastically decreased when pupae were irradiated under ambient O 2 conditions, with the packing bag open. There was no difference in the mating capacity of males when pupae were irradiated in sealed bags under either 10% or 2% O 2 levels, or under maximal hypoxia. Normal doses of fluorescent dye, applied to pupae to mark sterile flies, did not affect the ability of pupae to create hypoxic conditions inside packing bags, nor the quality control parameters of either pupae or adults. Current practices in mass-rearing facilities are discussed in the light of these results. (author) [es

  5. [Effects of venom from Sclerodermus sichuanensis Xiao on pupa of Tenebrio molitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Zhi-Hang; Yang, Wei; Qin, Huan; Yang, Chun-Ping; Yang, Hua; Xu, Dan-Ping

    2013-11-01

    To explore the regulatory mechanisms of parasitism of Sclerodermus sichuanensis on Tenebrio molitor, the methods of natural parasitism and venom injection were adopted to investigate the effects of the venom from S. sichuanensis on the pupa of T. molitor in the parasitic process. Under venom injection, the paralytic degree of the pupa had a positive correlation with the concentration of injected venom, and the number of recovered pupa had a negative correlation with the injected venom concentration. The T. molitor pupa was in slight and reversible paralysis when injected with 0.01 VRE (venom reservoir equivalent) of venom, and in non-reversible and complete paralysis when 0.2 VRE was injected. The pupa died massively and appeared a wide range of melanization when injected with soil bacterial suspension alone, but the melanization delayed and the mortality declined significantly when the mixed liquor of bacterium and venom was injected. The bacteriostasis of the venom on Staphylococcus aureus was significantly stronger than that on Escherichia coli. Within a definite range of temperature, the paralytic activity decreased significantly with increasing temperature, the bacteriostasis on S. aureus increased significantly, while that on E. coli was opposite. This study showed that the venom from S. sichuanensis had the effects of paralysis, bacteriostasis, inhibiting exuviations, and delaying melanization.

  6. Survival and reproductive capacity of the tobacco budworm, heliothis virescens (lepidoptera:noctuidae), irradiated as diapausing and young nondiapausing pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proshold, F.I.; North, D.T.

    1978-01-01

    Pupal survival, mating, and sperm transfer in tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), irradiated as diapause pupae, decreased proportionately with increasing doses of 3, 5, and 7.5 krad. Also, the fertility of tobacco budworms irradiated as nondiapause pupae and of the F 1 progeny of such males decreased with increasing dose. When the female partner received eupyrene sperm, insects irradiated while the pupae were in diapause were fertile as were their progeny. Therefore, it does not appear plausible to irradiate diapause pupae of our strain of tobacco budworms to obtain sterile insects for a release program. (author)

  7. Nutrient composition and protein quality evaluation of eri silkworm (Samia ricinii) prepupae and pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longvah, T; Mangthya, K; Ramulu, P

    2011-09-15

    Eri silkworm (Samia ricinii) is a traditional source of food in northeast India, where it is grown primarily for silk and food uses. Nutrient analysis showed that the proximate composition of eri silkworm prepupae and pupae grown on either castor or tapioca were comparable and it was a good source of protein (16g%), fat (8g%) and minerals. The amino acid scores of eri prepupae and pupae protein were 99 and 100, respectively, with leucine as the limiting amino acid in both cases. Net protein utilisation (NPU) of prepupae and pupae was 41 as compared to 62 in casein. Protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) was 86. The high protein content in the defatted eri silkworm meal (75%) with 44% total essential amino acids makes it an ideal candidate for preparing protein concentrate isolates with enhanced protein quality that can be used in animal nutrition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Larval x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in pupae of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Third instar larvae were exposed to X-ray treatment of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Irradiated pupae were collected daily. Biological performance parameters of pupae and adults of larvae treated with X-ray irradiation were evaluated. Standard proteomics procedures such as densitometr...

  9. Hormonal control of the orange coloration of diapause pupae in the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Akira; Imai, Hiroshi; Adachi, Miwa; Komatsu, Mitsunobu; Islam, A T M Fayezul; Kodama, Ichiro; Kitazawa, Chisato; Endo, Katsuhiko

    2004-10-01

    Diapause pupae of Papilio xuthus show color polymorphism, represented by diapause-green, orange, and brownish-orange types that are each associated with specific pupation sites. We investigated the role of the site of pupation on the induction of the development of orange types (or brownish-orange types), and the endocrine mechanism underlying the control of color polymorphism in short-day pupae. All short-day larvae of the wandering stage developed into orange or brownish-orange type pupae when they were placed in rough-surfaced containers after gut-purge. Utilizing a pharate pupal ligation between the thorax and abdomen, the endocrine mechanism underlying the control of color polymorphism was shown to involve a head-thorax factor (Orange-Pupa-Inducing Factor: OPIF) that induced orange types in short-day pupae. OPIF was bioassayed using the ligated abdomens of short-day pharate pupae. OPIF was extractable with 2% NaCl solution from 5th-instar larval ganglia complexes following the mesothoracic complex (TG(2,3)-AG(1-7)), but it could not be extracted with either acetone or 80% ethanol solution. OPIF may not exist in the brains of day-0 pupae or in brain-subesophageal ganglion and prothoracic ganglion complexes of 5th-instar larvae. The short-day pharate pupae responded to OPIF in a dose-dependent manner.

  10. Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) females are lighter feeding on Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae subjected to ventral nerve cord transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The movement observed in the Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae can be a type of defense strategy. This makes it significant to study the development and reproduction of the predatory stinkbugs Asopinae with the immobilized pupae of this prey. The aim was to evaluate the per...

  11. Suitability of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pupae for Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang-De; Lu, Yong-Yue; Zhao, Hai-Yan

    2015-06-01

    Spalangia endius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is found to be one of the most important natural enemies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae in China. In this study, the influence of host pupal age on the preference for and suitability of the host by the parasitoid S. endius was determined using choice and nonchoice tests. S. endius females accepted the 1-7 d-old B. dorsalis pupae for oviposition, and their offspring developed successfully. However, the S. endius preferentially parasitized the 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old host pupae. The emergence rate of the adult progeny was not affected by the host pupal age, nor was the male body weight, male longevity, and sex ratio of the parasitoid offspring. However, the shortest development time of both male and female progeny and the greatest size and adult longevity of female progeny were observed in hosts that were ≤4 d old. Females emerged later and lived longer than males, and they weighed more than the males. Host mortality decreased as the age of the host increased for 1-7-d-old hosts. Our findings suggest that 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old B. dorsalis pupae would be the best host ages at which to rear S. endius for effective control in field releases. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Matthew D; Daniels, Jaret C; Kobziar, Leda N; Colburn, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    Butterflies such as the atala hairstreak, Eumaeus atala Poey, and the frosted elfin, Callophrys irus Godart, are restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where their larval host plants occur. Pupae of these butterflies are noted to reside at the base of host plants or in the leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape direct mortality by fire, a prominent disturbance in many areas they inhabit. The capacity of these species to cope with fire is a critical consideration for land management and conservation strategies in the locations where they are found. Survival of E. atala pupae in relation to temperature and duration of heat pulse was tested using controlled water bath experiments and a series of prescribed fire field experiments. Survival of E. atala pupae was correlated to peak temperature and heat exposure in both laboratory and field trials. In addition, E. atala survival following field trials was correlated to depth of burial; complete mortality was observed for pupae at the soil surface. Fifty percent of E. atala survived the heat generated by prescribed fire when experimentally placed at depths ≥ 1.75 cm, suggesting that pupation of butterflies in the soil at depth can protect from fatal temperatures caused by fire. For a species such as E. atala that pupates above ground, a population reduction from a burn event is a significant loss, and so decreasing the impact of prescribed fire on populations is critical.

  13. Rearing and gamma radiation effects on mature pupae of pink bollworm and their F1 progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Z.A.; Ahmed, N.; Hussain, T.

    1993-01-01

    Pink bollworm larvae were successfully reared in captivity on a casein wheat germ diet. The substitution of casein with soyflour, corn-cob grit and wheat germ, and casein for peanut flour, resulted in delayed development, reduced pupal recovery and fecundity of the adult moths. This reduction was more drastic in corn-cob grit and peanut flour diets. The irradiation of mature pupae at 50-200 Gy resulted in decreased adult emergence with increased gamma radiation doses, and more deformed moths were recorded at a dose of 200 Gy. Adults following irradiation of mature pupae when crossed with untreated males or females or treated individuals crossed to treated exhibited reduced fecundity and fertility with the increasing doses. This reduction was more pronounced when treated males were crossed with treated females. Females were relatively more sensitive to gamma radiation, as a reduced number of eggs was obtained when treated females were crossed with untreated males. At 200 Gy, no F 1 progeny were obtained from any cross involving treated parents. The fecundity and fertility were reduced significantly when F 1 males or F 1 females from male parents irradiated as mature pupae were mated with untreated insects at both 100 and 150 Gy. However, inherited sterility was more pronounced when F 1 males were crossed with untreated females than when F 1 females were crossed with untreated males. Similarly reduced fecundity and fertility in F 1 progeny from female parents irradiated as mature pupae, both at 100 and 150 Gy, were also recorded in crosses as described for male F 1 progeny. The fecundity and fertility were the lowest in F 1 progeny of both male and female parents irradiated as mature pupae when compared with the F 1 progeny of male or female irradiated parents separately. (author). 28 refs, 7 tabs

  14. Encontro do parasita Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae em Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae no Brasil Finding of Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae parasite breeding in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Marchiori

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência de Hemencyrtus herbertii parasitando pupas de Musca domestica em fezes humanas no Brasil.This is the first report of the occurrence of Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae parasitizing pupae of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in human feces in Brazil.

  15. Encontro de anofelinos do subgênero Nyssorhynchus em recipientes artificiais, Maricá, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreira-Alves João R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Registram-se o encontro de larvas e uma pupa de anofelinos em recipientes artificiais desativados. Foram encontradas larvas de Anopheles argyritarsis em uma caixa d'água abandonada, na localidade de Pedregulho, distrito de Ponta Negra, e uma pupa de Anopheles aquasalis em um recipiente experimental, a céu aberto, no distrito de Itaipuaçu, onde ocorreram três casos de malária em 1997. Ambos os encontros ocorreram no município de Maricá, RJ, Brasil.

  16. TEPUNG PUPA-MULBERRY (PURY SEBAGAI BAHAN PANGAN ALTERNATIF KAYA GIZI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trina Astuti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Silkworm pupae is immature stage of moth.  It is inner part of the silkworm cocoon shell which usually disposed from yarn silk production, and now has become a valuable ingredient of human food in many countries, however it is not common yet in Indonesia. The purpose of study is to develop a weaning food as nutritious basic formula of complementary food from pupae waste. A silkworm pupae was a major constituents used as materials. There are sixth  steps to get PURY properly: select a fresh, fine and clean pupae, steamed well about 10 seconds, grinded and sifted it  to get liquid, added 10% maize powder, dried in oven at 60ºC for 6 hours, and refine on blender. A fine powder, so called “PURY”, has a well balanced amount of moisture, protein, fat included PUFA, carbohydrate, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Through a simple processing, the dry product of fine PURY powder can be obtained and used as a basic formula of complementary food and snacks and has made great contribution to reduce pupae waste. Research is continued to scale up producing PURY based product for more food-technological uses in order to reduce prevalence of malnutrition in Indonesia. Keywords: silkworm, pupae waste, PURY, complementary food, malnutrition

  17. Susceptibility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae pupae to entomopathogenic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrini Giulia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is one of the most serious and economically damaging insects worldwide, affecting the quality and quantity of both olive oil and table olives. Laboratory bioassays were conducted for the first time to evaluate the susceptibility of B. oleae pupae to two entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN species, Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The nematodes tested caused pupal mortality of 62.5% and 40.6%, respectively. The most noteworthy result was obtained with S. carpocapsae which was able to infect 21.9% of the emerged adults. Since this tephritid fly spent several months in the soil as pupa, the use of EPNs could be a promising method to control this pest.

  18. Quality of Sterile Male Tsetse after Long Distance Transport as Chilled, Irradiated Pupae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momar Talla Seck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes that cause human and African animal trypanosomosis, a debilitating disease of humans (sleeping sickness and livestock (nagana. An area-wide integrated pest management campaign against Glossina palpalis gambiensis has been implemented in Senegal since 2010 that includes a sterile insect technique (SIT component. The SIT can only be successful when the sterile males that are destined for release have a flight ability, survival and competitiveness that are as close as possible to that of their wild male counterparts.Tests were developed to assess the quality of G. p. gambiensis males that emerged from pupae that were produced and irradiated in Burkina Faso and Slovakia (irradiation done in Seibersdorf, Austria and transported weekly under chilled conditions to Dakar, Senegal. For each consignment a sample of 50 pupae was used for a quality control test (QC group. To assess flight ability, the pupae were put in a cylinder filtering emerged flies that were able to escape the cylinder. The survival of these flyers was thereafter monitored under stress conditions (without feeding. Remaining pupae were emerged and released in the target area of the eradication programme (RF group. The following parameter values were obtained for the QC flies: average emergence rate more than 69%, median survival of 6 days, and average flight ability of more than 35%. The quality protocol was a good proxy of fly quality, explaining a large part of the variances of the examined parameters.The quality protocol described here will allow the accurate monitoring of the quality of shipped sterile male tsetse used in operational eradication programmes in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.

  19. Cholinergic Synaptic Transmissions Were Altered after Single Sevoflurane Exposure in Drosophila Pupa

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Rongfa; Zhang, Tao; Kuang, Liting; Chen, Zhen; Ran, Dongzhi; Niu, Yang; Xu, Kangqing; Gu, Huaiyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Sevoflurane, one of the most used general anesthetics, is widely used in clinical practice all over the world. Previous studies indicated that sevoflurane could induce neuron apoptosis and neural deficit causing query in the safety of anesthesia using sevoflurane. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on electrophysiology in Drosophila pupa whose excitatory neurotransmitter is acetylcholine early after sevoflurane exposure using whole brain recordin...

  20. Sexual Dimorphism of Pupae and Adults of the Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Francisco J.; Virdiana, Ike; Navies, Maisin; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Hebbar, Prakash

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the main distinguishing characteristics of female and male pupae and adults of cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Two pairs of tubercles present on the sterna of segments IX and X of the female pupae are useful in differentiating female from male pupae. The female genital opening is located anterior to the first pair of tubercles and forms a plateau in which the center has a light brown longitudinal depression that indicates the female genital opening. The male genital opening is a conspicuous, brown, longitudinal slit located between the two pairs of tubercles. The sex of the adult moth can be determined by examining the ventrocaudal segments of the abdomen. The last segment of the female abdomen is white, compressed laterally and at the tip, and the hairy anal papillae can be seen. In the male, the ventrocaudal end of the abdomen is black and robust. This information will be useful for laboratory and field diagnosis and while working on sex ratios of this important pest of cocoa. PMID:21861656

  1. Morphology and Ecological Notes on the Larvae and Pupae of Simulium (Simulium from Korea

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    Sam-Kyu Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphological features of larvae and pupae of twelve species of Simulium (Simulium from Korea are investigated and redescribed. Detailed descriptions of immature stages of each species are provided with photographs. For the Korean members of subgenus Simulium, combinations of the following characteristics can be used to separate them from other Korean subgenera: larval abdomen without a pair of conical-shaped ventral tubercles; postgenal cleft variously shaped, viz., miter shaped, spearhead, bullet shaped or triangular; rectal papillae 3 simple lobe or compound lobes; pupal gill of 6-16 filaments; cocoon shoe, boot or slipper shaped; and head trichomes 3 pairs (1 facial+2 frontal. Habitat information and other ecological aspects of each species are provided. Updated keys to larvae and pupae of the Korean species of the subgenus Simulium are also provided to facilitate species identification. Taxonomic treatment based on external morphologies of larvae and pupae of Korean species of the subgenus Simulium are focused and included in this study. To understand their interspecific relationships, phylogenetic analyses using multiple data from molecule, morphology, and ecology are warranted in future research. Also continued exploration for new character systems is needed to establish more stable boundaries for subgenus and species delimitations.

  2. Production of highly immunogenic virus-like particles of bovine papillomavirus type 6 in silkworm pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoko; Iizuka, Tetsuya; Hatama, Shinichi; Kanno, Toru; Mase, Masaji; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2017-10-13

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are the causative agent of bovine teat papillomatosis, which can lead to severe economic losses in dairy cattle. Among the 14 identified BPV genotypes, BPV type 6 (BPV6) is the most frequently detected in teat papilloma lesions, and is therefore thought to play a major role in teat papillomatosis. To develop an effective vaccine against BPV6 infection, we produced virus-like particles of BPV6 (BPV6-VLP) in silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupae and purified these by heparin affinity chromatography using a single column. About 0.7mg purified BPV6-VLP was obtained from one pupa. BPV6-VLP-immunized mice produced a specific IgG to BPV6 that recognized BPV6 antigen with high sensitivity in an immunohistochemical analysis. Thus, silkworm pupae are a useful bioreactor for the production of BPV6-VLP, which can potentially be used as a vaccine for bovine teat papillomatosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Description of fourth instar larva and pupa of Atrichopogon delpontei Cavalieri and Chiossone (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Pablo I; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Ferreira-Keppler, Ruth; Ronderos, María M

    2017-01-01

    The fourth instar larva and pupa of Atrichopogon delpontei Cavalieri and Chiossone are described for the first time. The immatures were collected from stream margins in the northern Brazilian states Rondônia and Piauí, and subsequently reared to adults. Larvae and pupae are illustrated and photomicrographed. Details on the rearing process and feeding behavior in laboratory, bionomics and notes on habitats are also provided.

  4. First occurrence of parasitoid Spalangia endius (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchiori C. H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first occurrence of the parasitoid Spalangia endius collected in pupae of Zaprionus indianus using traps with fruit bait. The experiment was carried out at the University of Lavras in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from November to December, 2001. A total of 4 Spalangia endius specimens were obtained from 105 Zaprionus indianus pupae. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 3.8%.

  5. Nutritional Value of Pupae Versus Larvae of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as Food for Rearing Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe; Shelby, Kent S; Coudron, Thomas A

    2016-04-01

    Life-table analysis yielded demographic parameter values that indicate that Tenebrio molitor (L.) pupae are potentially more suitable factitious prey to mass-produce the predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) and are more suitable prey than the larvae. P. maculiventris developed faster (23.2 vs. 25.5 d), weighed more (females 80.9 vs. 66.6 mg and males 64.7 vs. 53.7 mg), and had a higher survival rate (0.88 vs. 0.7), fecundity, and reproductive output (87.1 vs. 22.8 eggs/female) when reared on pupae compared with larvae of T. molitor. The total protein content and soluble protein content were significantly higher in pupae (60.2 and 23%, respectively) than larvae (53.1 and 14.4%, respectively). Lipid content was significantly lower in pupae (32.1%) than larvae (35.9%), and larvae had more polyunsaturated fatty acids (83.6 vs. 56.6 mg/g) and less oleic (0.1 mg/g) and steric (6.1 mg/g) acids than pupae (37.3 and 12.3 mg/g, respectively). The total sugar content was not significantly different between pupae and larvae. However, larvae had significantly more fructose than pupae, but pupae had more galactose, glucosamine, glucose, mannose, and trehalose than larvae. Differences in nutritional composition and its impact on predator demographic parameters are potential factors that make the pupal stage a better food source.

  6. Hymenopterous parasitoids attacking Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae pupae in Kohgiluyeh Safflower farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Safflower capsule fly (SCF, Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae is the most destructive insect pest attacking the Safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. plant which are cultivated as an oil crop. It is mainly controlled through application of broad-spectrum insecticides, which can adversely affect safflower farms ecosystem and consequently human health. Since a first step in setting up an integrated pest management program is to assess the biological control agents within the ecosystem. Therefore, in this research work the pupal parasitoids of Safflower capsule fly a main insect pest attacking Safflower plants were identified. The impact of these parasitoids against this pest was evaluated on the varying pest generations and within different locations in Kohgiluyeh province during 2008-2009 seasons. Pupal parasitoid adults of SCF were recorded from fieldreared pupae, which had been collected from heavily infested small flower heads of the first generation as well from large flower heads of the second and third generations. Rate of parasitism on A. helianthi pupae was estimated as the number of parasitoids over the total count of parasitoids and flies. Ten hymenopterous species belonging to different families parasitizing insect pupae were screened as follows: Bracon hebetor (Spinola, 1808 and Bracon luteator (Spinola, 1808 (Braconidae; Isocolus tinctorious (Melika and Gharaei, 2006 (Cynipidae; Pronotalia carlinarum (Szelenyi and Erdos, 1951 (Eulophidae; Eurytoma acroptilae (Zerova, 1986 (Eurytomidae; Ormyrus orientalis (Walker, 1871 (Ormyridae; Colotrechnus viridis (Masi, 1921 and Pteromalus sp. (Walker, 1976 (Pteromalidae; and Antistrophoplex conthurnatus (Zerova, 2000 and Microdontomenus annulatus (Masi, 1899 (Torymidae. The average parasitization rate was 23±1 as revealed through the present study. The highest parasitization rate occurred during the first generation in all localities tested, as well as in years. Statistical

  7. Transcriptomic immune response of Tenebrio molitor pupae to parasitization by Scleroderma guani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Yang, Pu; Zhang, Zhong; Wu, Guo-Xing; Yang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Host and parasitoid interaction is one of the most fascinating relationships of insects, which is currently receiving an increasing interest. Understanding the mechanisms evolved by the parasitoids to evade or suppress the host immune system is important for dissecting this interaction, while it was still poorly known. In order to gain insight into the immune response of Tenebrio molitor to parasitization by Scleroderma guani, the transcriptome of T. molitor pupae was sequenced with focus on immune-related gene, and the non-parasitized and parasitized T. molitor pupae were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE) analysis with special emphasis on parasitoid-induced immune-related genes using Illumina sequencing. In a single run, 264,698 raw reads were obtained. De novo assembly generated 71,514 unigenes with mean length of 424 bp. Of those unigenes, 37,373 (52.26%) showed similarity to the known proteins in the NCBI nr database. Via analysis of the transcriptome data in depth, 430 unigenes related to immunity were identified. DGE analysis revealed that parasitization by S. guani had considerable impacts on the transcriptome profile of T. molitor pupae, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 3,431 parasitism-responsive transcripts. The expression of a total of 74 unigenes involved in immune response of T. molitor was significantly altered after parasitization. obtained T. molitor transcriptome, in addition to establishing a fundamental resource for further research on functional genomics, has allowed the discovery of a large group of immune genes that might provide a meaningful framework to better understand the immune response in this species and other beetles. The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive T. molitor immune gene expression information at the transcriptional level following parasitization, and sheds valuable light on the molecular understanding of the host-parasitoid interaction.

  8. Transcriptomic immune response of Tenebrio molitor pupae to parasitization by Scleroderma guani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ying Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Host and parasitoid interaction is one of the most fascinating relationships of insects, which is currently receiving an increasing interest. Understanding the mechanisms evolved by the parasitoids to evade or suppress the host immune system is important for dissecting this interaction, while it was still poorly known. In order to gain insight into the immune response of Tenebrio molitor to parasitization by Scleroderma guani, the transcriptome of T. molitor pupae was sequenced with focus on immune-related gene, and the non-parasitized and parasitized T. molitor pupae were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE analysis with special emphasis on parasitoid-induced immune-related genes using Illumina sequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a single run, 264,698 raw reads were obtained. De novo assembly generated 71,514 unigenes with mean length of 424 bp. Of those unigenes, 37,373 (52.26% showed similarity to the known proteins in the NCBI nr database. Via analysis of the transcriptome data in depth, 430 unigenes related to immunity were identified. DGE analysis revealed that parasitization by S. guani had considerable impacts on the transcriptome profile of T. molitor pupae, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 3,431 parasitism-responsive transcripts. The expression of a total of 74 unigenes involved in immune response of T. molitor was significantly altered after parasitization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: obtained T. molitor transcriptome, in addition to establishing a fundamental resource for further research on functional genomics, has allowed the discovery of a large group of immune genes that might provide a meaningful framework to better understand the immune response in this species and other beetles. The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive T. molitor immune gene expression information at the transcriptional level following parasitization, and sheds valuable light on the molecular

  9. Almacenaje de pupas y adultos del parasitoide Tamarixia triozae (Hyamenoptera: Eulophidae) a temperaturas bajas.

    OpenAIRE

    Cerón González, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Tamarixia triozae es un ectoparasitoide con alto potencial para su uso en programas de manejo integrado del psílido de la papa, Bactericera cockerelli. Aunque ya se produce comercialmente, no existe información de su almacenaje a bajas temperaturas, esta información puede tener importancia para optimizar la conservación de estos organismos. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la respuesta de pupas y adultos de T. triozae después de almacenarlos a 5, 8 y 10°C por 7, 14 y 21 días. Los resultados s...

  10. Survival and swimming behavior of insecticide-exposed larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is essentially a container-inhabiting species that is closely associated with urban areas. This species is a vector of human pathogens, including dengue and yellow fever viruses, and its control is of paramount importance for disease prevention. Insecticide use against mosquito juvenile stages (i.e. larvae and pupae) is growing in importance, particularly due to the ever-growing problems of resistance to adult-targeted insecticides and human safety concerns regarding such use in human dwellings. However, insecticide effects on insects in general and mosquitoes in particular primarily focus on their lethal effects. Thus, sublethal effects of such compounds in mosquito juveniles may have important effects on their environmental prevalence. In this study, we assessed the survival and swimming behavior of A. aegypti 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae exposed to increasing concentrations of insecticides. We also assessed cell death in the neuromuscular system of juveniles. Methods Third instar larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of azadirachtin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid and spinosad. Insect survival was assessed for 10 days. The distance swam, the resting time and the time spent in slow swimming were assessed in 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae. Muscular and nervous cells of L4 and pupae exposed to insecticides were marked with the TUNEL reaction. The results from the survival bioassays were subjected to survival analysis while the swimming behavioral data were subjected to analyses of covariance, complemented with a regression analysis. Results All insecticides exhibited concentration-dependent effects on survival of larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito. The pyrethroid deltamethrin was the most toxic insecticide followed by spinosad, imidacloprid, and azadirachtin, which exhibited low potency against the juveniles. All insecticides except azadirachtin reduced L4 swimming speed and

  11. Feeding preferences and functional responses of Calathus granatensis and Pterostichus globosus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on pupae of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, A M; Pereira, J A; Benhadi-Marín, J; Santos, S A P

    2016-12-01

    Carabid beetles are important predators in agricultural landscapes feeding on a range of prey items. However, their role as predators of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most serious pests of olives, is unknown. In this context, the feeding preferences and the functional responses of two carabid beetle species, Calathus granatensis (Vuillefroy) and Pterostichus globosus (Fabricius), were studied under laboratory conditions. Feeding preference assays involved exposing carabid beetles to different ratios of B. oleae pupae and an alternative prey, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Both species fed on B. oleae pupae however, C. granatensis always showed a significant preference for that prey whereas P. globosus switched to C. capitata pupae when the offered ratio was below 0.5. The total prey biomass consumed was significantly higher for P. globosus than for C. granatensis. Functional response curves were estimated based on different densities of B. oleae pupae and both carabid beetle species exhibited a type II functional response using Rogers' random-predator equation. P. globosus showed shorter handling time (1.223 ± 0.118 h) on B. oleae pupae than C. granatensis (3.230 ± 0.627 h). Our results suggest that both species can be important in reducing the densities of B. oleae in olive groves, although P. globosus was more efficient than C. granatensis.

  12. Factors Affecting Species Identifications of Blow Fly Pupae Based upon Chemical Profiles and Multivariate Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, William; Carroll, Clinton; Dixon, Darren A; Goodpaster, John V; Picard, Christine J

    2017-04-11

    Alternative methods for the identification of species of blow fly pupae have been developed over the years that consist of the analyses of chemical profiles. However, the effect of biotic and abiotic factors that could influence the predictive manner for the tests have not been evaluated. The lipids of blowfly pupae ( Cochliomyia macellaria , Lucilia cuprina , Lucilia sericata , and Phormia regina ) were extracted in pentane, derivatized, and analyzed by total-vaporization solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TV-SPME GC-MS). Peak areas for 26 compounds were analyzed. Here we evaluated one biotic factor (colonization) on four species of blow flies to determine how well a model produced from lipid profiles of colonized flies predicted the species of flies of offspring of wild-caught flies and found very good species identification following 10 generations of inbreeding. When we evaluated four abiotic factors in our fly rearing protocols (temperature, humidity, pupation substrate, and diet), we found that the ability to assign the chemical profile to the correct species was greatly reduced.

  13. Parasitization by Scleroderma guani influences protein expression in Tenebrio molitor pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wu, Guo-Xing; Ze, Sang-Zi; Stanley, David W; Yang, Bin

    2014-07-01

    Ectoparasitoid wasps deposit their eggs onto the surface and inject venom into their hosts. Venoms are chemically complex and they exert substantial impact on hosts, including permanent or temporary paralysis and developmental arrest. These visible venom effects are due to changes in expression of genes encoding physiologically relevant proteins. While the influence of parasitization on gene expression in several lepidopterans has been reported, the molecular details of parasitoid/beetle relationships remain mostly unknown. This shortcoming led us to pose the hypothesis that envenomation by the ectoparasitic ant-like bethylid wasp Scleroderma guani leads to changes in protein expression in the yellow mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor. We tested our hypothesis by comparing the proteomes of non-parasitized and parasitized host pupae using iTRAQ-based proteomics. We identified 41 proteins that were differentially expressed (32↑- and 9↓-regulated) in parasitized pupae. We assigned these proteins to functional categories, including immunity, stress and detoxification, energy metabolism, development, cytoskeleton, signaling and others. We recorded parallel changes in mRNA levels and protein abundance in 14 selected proteins following parasitization. Our findings support our hypothesis by documenting changes in protein expression in parasitized hosts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In Vivo Bioassay of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Synthesized in B. mori Pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanglian Lan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The human growth hormone (hGH has been expressed in prokaryotic expression system with low bioactivity previously. Then the effective B. mori baculovirus system was employed to express hGH identical to mature hGH successfully in larvae, but the expression level was still limited. In this work, the hGH was expressed in B. mori pupae by baculovirus system. Quantification of recombinant hGH protein (BmrhGH showed that the expression of BmrhGH reached the level of approximately 890 μg/mL pupae supernatant solution, which was five times more than the level using larvae. Furthermore, Animals were gavaged with BmrhGH at the dose of 4.5 mg/rat.day, and the body weight gain (BWG of treated group had a significant difference (P<.01 compared with the control group. The other two parameters of liver weight and epiphyseal width were also found to be different between the two groups (P<.05. The results suggested that BmrhGH might be used as a protein drug by oral administration.

  15. Rasgos morfológicos asociados a la viabilidad de pupas en parasitoides del género Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae Morphological traits associated with pupae viability in Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae parasitoids

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    Patricia J. Folgarait

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Fóridos del género Pseudacteon Coquillett oviponen en forrajeras del género Solenopsis Westwood y empupan en sus cabezas. Se evaluó la relación entre la viabilidad de los parasitoides, la presencia de cuernos respiratorios y el color en los opérculos de los puparios de cuatro especies de Pseudacteon criados sobre Solenopsis invicta Buren y Solenopsis richteri Forel. La presencia de cuernos respiratorios estuvo asociada a la viabilidad de las pupas para las especies consideradas (p 0,09; excepto cuando Pseudacteon cultellatus Borgmeier se desarrolló sobre hormigas de la reserva y niñeras de S. invicta (p ABSTRACT. Pseudacteon Coquillett phorid flies oviposit on Solenopsis Westwood ants and pupate within the ant's head. We have evaluated the relationship between pupae's viability, presence of respiratory horns and the operculum color in four species of Pseudacteon reared on Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis richteri Forel ants. The presence of respiratory horns was significantly associated with pupae's viability for all species considered (p 0,09, except (p < 0,01 when Pseudacteon cultellatus Borgmeier had developed on S. invicta nanitic and reserve workers. Pupae with light-colored opercula were more frequent in P. cultellatus, whereas brown opercula were more frequent for the other species that attack bigger ants. Mimetism can be invoked to explain the similarity in opercula color with that of the head of the parasitized ant as a way to avoid recognition by members of the colony. We conclude that the presence of respiratory horns is necessary for pupae survival of most of the pupae and we suggest to use the presence of respiratory horns as an indicator of the efficiency of rearing protocols for this group of parasitoids. We also recommend using forager ants because other casts do not seem to be appropriate hosts.

  16. Effect of gamma rays on sex ratio, emergence and lifespan of cucurbits fruit fly dacus ciliatus (low) irradiated as pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shmmary, A. J. M.; Al-Taweel, A. A.; Ahmed, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    The result showed the pupae at the age 1 or 2 days old was very sensitive to all doses of gamma rays, the percentage of adults emerged was zero at the dose of 45 gray and highest and the gigh percentage of adults emergence was recorded when the pupae irradiated at five days ald and the mean percentage of emerged adults was approximated with that of the control group. This study also showed that there was an effect of gamma radiation on the average percentage of deformed at adult stage and it was about 1:1 (male: female). On the other hand, the mean lifespan of females and mice s adult were decreased as the dose of gamma rays increases and the pupae irradiated at youngest ages. The longest life span of females was recorded when the pipa irradiated at five days old with any of the gamma rays dose. (Author)

  17. Parasitism, emergence, and development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in pupae of different ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host-parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3-5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6-7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2-5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6-7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  18. Binding sites of mosquitocidal toxins of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis on pupae and larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, K Athisaya; Paily, K P; Hoti, S L; Balaraman, K

    2015-01-01

    Two of the potential bacterial isolates, viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens (VCRC B-426) and Bacillus subtilis (VCRC B-471) whose toxins kill the mosquito pupae/larvae have been identified at our center. As the mode of action of these bacteria are not known, an attempt was made to find out the binding sites of the toxic proteins through immunological methods. Antibodies were raised in BALB/c mice and egg yolk system of chicken layers against the mosquitocidal proteins. The antibodies showed specific binding on to the cephalic and thoracic cuticle of the pupae as well as the paddles of the larvae, indicating the binding of the mosquitocidal proteins.

  19. Utilisation of multiple queens and pupae transplantation to boost early colony growth of weaver ants Oecophylla smaragdina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Renkang; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Offenberg, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius) have been increasingly used as biocontrol agents of insect pests and as insect protein for human food and animals. For either of these purposes, mature ant colonies are essential. However, for a newly established colony to develop to a suitable mature...... donor colony was conducted in 2010 at Darwin, Australia. The survival rates of the imago workers from transplanted pupae ranged between 73 - 97%, suggesting that queens in incipient colonies accepted foreign pupae. Colony size was positively related to the number of founding queens. Compared...

  20. Populational parameters of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Pupae of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) treated with two strains of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil. (Deuteromycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuona, Roberto; Crespo, Diana; La Rossa, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker is an efficient controller of Dipteran pupae, such as Musca domestica L. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil. is a regulator of insect populations, including these synanthropic pests. The aim of this work was to explore the possibilities of utilizing both agents in a combined form for the biocontrol of the domestic fly. Recently formed M. domestica pupae were inoculated by immersion in conidia suspension (10(8) conidia/ml) with two strains of B. bassiana (Bb6 and Bb10). The inoculated pupae were offered to the female parasitoid. In one bioassay they were offered pupae inoculated a single day and in other, pupae inoculated the following day as well. In both bioassays non inoculated (control) pupae were offered to the parasitoids until their death. Thirty females of S. endius were used for each strain and bioassay. From the study of the parasitoid offspring, life tables were built and the reproduction net rate (R(0)) and intrinsic natural increase (r(m)) were obtained among other demographic parameters; the parasitism percentages and sex ratios were also analyzed. B. bassiana did not affect significantly the biodemography of the parasitoid when pupae were inoculated a single time. On the other hand the R0 and the rm were smaller than that of the control without the fungus when pupae were inoculated twice, although sporulation was not observed in the cadavers of S. endius.

  1. Are the Pupae and Eggs of the Lacewing Ceraeochrysa cubana (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Tolerant to Insecticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugno, Gabriel Rodrigo; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen) pupae and eggs to 11 insecticides was evaluated under laboratory conditions, based on lethal and sublethal effects. Eggs at three ages (≤24-h-old, 48- to 72-h-old, and 96- to 120-h-old) and pupae at ≤48-h-old were used. All the insecticides were considered harmless when applied at the pupal stage. Phosmet and pyriproxyfen insecticides were considered harmless to eggs irrespective of the age. Esfenvalerate was harmless to eggs at the ages of ≤24-h-old and 48- to 72-h-old. Imidacloprid SC and azadirachtin were harmless to eggs at ages of 48- to 72-h-old and 96- to 120-h-old, and thiamethoxam was only harmless to eggs at 96- to 120-h-old of age. In contrast, chlorpyrifos and malathion were harmful to eggs at the age of 96- to 120-h-old, and imidacloprid WG was slightly harmful to the three egg ages evaluated. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole and lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam were slightly and/or moderately harmful to all egg ages evaluated. Based on the life table parameters, the insecticides thiamethoxam, imidacloprid SC, phosmet, pyriproxyfen, and azadirachtin did not affect the net rate of reproduction (Ro) of C. cubana. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole decreased the Ro and increased the population doubling time (Td) independently of the egg ages evaluated. Therefore, the insecticides pyriproxyfen and phosmet are compatible with eggs of the predator C. cubana, but other insecticides should be evaluated under field conditions to verify their effects on the predator. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A report on the pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, T K; Abu Hassan, A; Che Salmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2010-04-01

    The pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) were collected from a human corpse found indoor in active decay stage together with the larvae of Sarcophagidae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). This research note is the first report of the Desmometopa sp. recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

  3. The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira Krüger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Species of Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are found in decomposing bodies, usually in fresh, bloated and decay stages. Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, for example, can be found in animal carcasses. The influence of environmental factors has not been evaluated in puparia of O. albuquerquei. Thus, the focus of this work was motivated by the need for models to predict the development of a necrophagous insect as a function of abiotic factors. Colonies of O. albuquerquei were maintained in the laboratory to obtain pupae. On the tenth day of each month 200 pupae, divided equally into 10 glass jars, were exposed to the environment and checked daily for adult emergence of each sample. We concluded that the high survival rate observed suggested that the diets used for rearing the larvae and maintaining the adults were appropriate. Also, the data adjusted to robust generalized linear models and there were no interruptions of O. albuquerquei pupae development within the limits of temperatures studied in southern Rio Grande do Sul, given the high survival presented.

  4. Gas-exchange patterns of Mediterranean fruit fly Pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): A tool to forecast developmental stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E.; Alchanatis, V.

    2007-01-01

    The pattern of gas-exchange (CO 2 emission) was investigated for developing Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) pupae incubated at different temperatures. This study was undertaken to explore the usefulness of gas-exchange systems in the determination of physiological age in developing pupae that are mass produced for sterile insect technique projects. The rate of CO 2 emission was measured in a closed flow-through system connected to commercial infrared gas analysis equipment. Metabolic activity (rate of CO 2 emission) was related to pupal eye-color, which is the current technique used to determine physiological age. Eye-color was characterized digitally with 3 variables (Hue, Saturation and Intensity), and color separated by discriminant analysis. The rate of CO 2 emission throughout pupal development followed a U-shape, with high levels of emission during pupariation, pupal transformation and final pharate adult stages. Temperature affected the development time of pupae, but not the basic CO 2 emission patterns during development. In all temperatures, rates of CO 2 emission 1 and 2 d before adult emergence were very similar. After mid larval-adult transition (e.g., phanerocephalic pupa), digital eye-color was significantly correlated with CO 2 emission. Results support the suggestion that gas-exchange should be explored further as a system to determine pupal physiological age in mass production of fruit flies. (author) [es

  5. Effects of climate change on overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Li, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Climate change significantly affects insects' behaviors. Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most serious insect pests in the world. Much is known about the survival of the overwintering population and spring emergence of H. armigera. However, little is known about the effects of climate change on overwintering and spring emergence of H. armigera. This study investigated the effects of changes of air and soil temperatures and precipitation on overwintering pupae of H. armigera by analyzing historical data from Magaiti County in northwest China using statistical methods. The results showed that during the period of 1989-2006, the climate warming advanced the first-appearance date of overwintering pupae eclosion (FD) and end date of overwintering pupae eclosion (ED) by 1.276 and 0.193 days per year, respectively; the duration between the FD and ED (DFEPE) was prolonged by 1.09 days per year, which resulted in more eclosion of overwintering pupae. For a 1 °C increase in the maximum air temperature ( T max) in winter, the FD became earlier by 3.234 days. Precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED and produced little relative influence on DFEPE. A 1-mm increase of precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED by 0.850 and 0.494 days, respectively. Mean air temperature ( T mean) in March, with a 41.3 % relative influence, precipitation in winter, with a 49.0 % relative influence, and T mean in March, with a 37.5 % relative influence, were the major affecting factors on FD, ED, and DFEPE, respectively. T max in February with a 53.0 % relative influence was the major affecting factor on the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP). Increased soil temperatures in October and November and autumn and air temperatures in winter could decrease the MOP, though the relative influences were lower than T max in February. Increased precipitation in winter increased the MOP, but the relative influence was only 4.2 % because of little precipitation

  6. Physiology of diapause and cold hardiness in the overwintering pupae of the fall webworm Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y -P.; Goto, M; Ito, S; Sato, Y; Sasaki, K; Goto, N

    2001-09-01

    The fall webworm Hyphantria cunea Drury, which was accidentally introduced to Japan in 1945, overwinters on the ground in pupal diapause. Diapause termination, as indicated by the respiration rate and the period required for adult emergence, began in March and ended in April. Cold hardiness (the ability to survive exposure to -15 degrees C) decreased linearly with diapause development from November to the following April under field conditions. Cold hardiness of diapause pupae (DP) decreased as the acclimation temperature decreased from 15 to -10 degrees C, whereas cold hardiness of non-diapause pupae (NDP) remained high as the acclimation temperature decreased from 5 to -5 degrees C. However, H. cunea in Japan can survive exposure to -5 degrees C for two weeks, whether it is in a diapause or non-diapause state. Trehalose was the main sugar detected in the body, but its level was less than 0.8%. Trehalose levels increased in field-collected pupae from January to March. DP accumulated less trehalose than NDP, as the acclimation temperature was decreased from 5 to -5 degrees C. The alanine content in field-collected pupae increased from November to February. Both diapause and low temperature caused an accumulation of alanine. These results suggest that under field conditions, overwintering pupae of H. cunea in Japan do not accumulate high levels of sugars and polyols and do not develop a high level of cold hardiness. Furthermore, DP do not accumulate high levels of sugars and polyols and their ability to survive exposure to -15 degrees C is not greater than that of NDP. The physiological and biochemical bases of diapause in H. cunea from Japan are discussed.

  7. Long distance transport of irradiated male Glossina palpalis gambiensis pupae and its impact on sterile male yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagabeleguem, Soumaila; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba

    2015-01-01

    The application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires mass-production of sterile males of good biological quality. The size of the project area will in most cases determine whether it is more cost effective to produce the sterile flies locally (and invest in a mass-rearing facility) or import the sterile flies from a mass-rearing facility that is located in another country. This study aimed at assessing the effect of long distance transport of sterile male Glossina palpalis gambiensis pupae on adult male fly yield. The male pupae were produced at the Centre International de Recherche-Developpement sur l'Elevage en zone Subhumide (CIRDES), Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, and shipped with a commercial courier service in insulated transport boxes at a temperature of ±10° to Senegal (36 h of transport). Upon arrival in the insectary in Dakar, the pupae were transferred to an emergence room and the flies monitored for 3-6 days. The results showed that the used system of isothermal boxes that contained phase change material packs (S8) managed to keep the temperature at around 10° which prevented male fly emergence during transport. The emergence rate was significantly higher for pupae from batch 2 (chilled at 4° for one day in the source insectary before transport) than those from batch 1 (chilled at 4° for two days in the source insectary before transport) i.e. an average (±sd) of 76.1 ± 13.2% and 72.2 ± 14.3%, respectively with a small proportion emerging during transport (0.7 ± 1.7% and 0.9 ± 2.9%, respectively). Among the emerged flies, the percentage with deformed (not fully expanded) wings was significantly higher for flies from batch 1 (12.0 ± 6.3%) than from batch 2 (10.7 ± 7.5%). The amount of sterile males available for release as a proportion of the total pupae shipped was 65.8 ± 13.3% and 61.7 ± 14.7% for batch 1 and 2 pupae, respectively. The results also showed that the temperature inside the parcel must be controlled around 10

  8. Description of the adults and pupa of Simulium (Trichodagmia perplexum, new species (Diptera: Simuliidae Descrição dos adultos e da pupa de Simulium (Grenierella perplexum, espécie nova (Diptera: Simuliidae

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    A. J. Shelley

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulium perplexum, new species, is described from the male, female and pupa and compared with the closely related S. guianense Wise. The distribution and biology of the new species are discussed. The confusion between S. perpelxum and S. guianense has hitherto prevented accurate identification of the primary vector of human onchocerciasis in highling, hyperendemic areas of the Amazônia focus of Brazil and southern Venezuela.Macho, fêmea e pupa de Simulium perplesum sp. n. são comparados com sua espécie próxima S. guianense Wise. Discutimos sua biologia e distribuição. A identidade incerta de S. guianense impedia a correta identificação do vetor primário da oncocercose humana nas áreas elevadas e hiperendêmicas do foco amazônico brasileiro e venezuelano.

  9. Infection of army ant pupae by two new parasitoid mites (Mesostigmata: Uropodina

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    Adrian Brückner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A great variety of parasites and parasitoids exploit ant societies. Among them are the Mesostigmata mites, a particularly common and diverse group of ant-associated arthropods. While parasitism is ubiquitous in Mesostigmata, parasitoidism has only been described in the genus Macrodinychus. Yet information about the basic biology of most Macrodinychus species is lacking. Out of 24 formally described species, information about basic life-history traits is only available for three species. Here we formally describe two new Macrodinychus species, i.e. Macrodinychus hilpertae and Macrodinychus derbyensis. In both species, immature stages developed as ecto-parasitoids on ant pupae of the South-East Asian army ant Leptogenys distinguenda. By piercing the developing ant with their chelicera, the mites apparently suck ant hemolymph, ultimately killing host individuals. We compare infection rates among all studied Macrodinychus species and discuss possible host countermeasures against parasitoidism. The cryptic lifestyle of living inside ant nests has certainly hampered the scientific discovery of Macrodinychus mites and we expect that many more macrodinychid species await scientific discovery and description.

  10. Cholinergic Synaptic Transmissions Were Altered after Single Sevoflurane Exposure in Drosophila Pupa

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    Rongfa Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Sevoflurane, one of the most used general anesthetics, is widely used in clinical practice all over the world. Previous studies indicated that sevoflurane could induce neuron apoptosis and neural deficit causing query in the safety of anesthesia using sevoflurane. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on electrophysiology in Drosophila pupa whose excitatory neurotransmitter is acetylcholine early after sevoflurane exposure using whole brain recording technique. Methods. Wide types of Drosophila (canton-s flies were allocated to control and sevoflurane groups randomly. Sevoflurane groups (1% sevoflurane; 2% sevoflurane; 3% sevoflurane were exposed to sevoflurane and the exposure lasted 5 hours, respectively. All flies were subjected to electrophysiology experiment using patch clamp 24 hours after exposure. Results. The results showed that, 24 hours after sevoflurane exposure, frequency but not the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs was significantly reduced P<0.05. Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanism and found that calcium currents density, which partially regulated the frequency of mEPSCs, was significantly reduced after sevoflurane exposure P<0.05. Conclusions. All these suggested that sevoflurane could alter the mEPSCs that are related to synaptic plasticity partially through modulating calcium channel early after sevoflurane exposure.

  11. Cholinergic synaptic transmissions were altered after single sevoflurane exposure in Drosophila pupa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongfa; Zhang, Tao; Kuang, Liting; Chen, Zhen; Ran, Dongzhi; Niu, Yang; Xu, Kangqing; Gu, Huaiyu

    2015-01-01

    . Sevoflurane, one of the most used general anesthetics, is widely used in clinical practice all over the world. Previous studies indicated that sevoflurane could induce neuron apoptosis and neural deficit causing query in the safety of anesthesia using sevoflurane. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on electrophysiology in Drosophila pupa whose excitatory neurotransmitter is acetylcholine early after sevoflurane exposure using whole brain recording technique. Wide types of Drosophila (canton-s flies) were allocated to control and sevoflurane groups randomly. Sevoflurane groups (1% sevoflurane; 2% sevoflurane; 3% sevoflurane) were exposed to sevoflurane and the exposure lasted 5 hours, respectively. All flies were subjected to electrophysiology experiment using patch clamp 24 hours after exposure. The results showed that, 24 hours after sevoflurane exposure, frequency but not the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanism and found that calcium currents density, which partially regulated the frequency of mEPSCs, was significantly reduced after sevoflurane exposure (P < 0.05). All these suggested that sevoflurane could alter the mEPSCs that are related to synaptic plasticity partially through modulating calcium channel early after sevoflurane exposure.

  12. A new species of Crinibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi

    2016-08-29

    A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed.

  13. Changes in physicochemical properties of chitin at developmental stages (larvae, pupa and adult) of Vespa crabro (wasp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Murat; Sofi, Karwan; Sargin, Idris; Mujtaba, Muhammad

    2016-07-10

    It is already known that chitin in a single organism can exhibit huge differences depending on the functions it serves in different body parts, but the alterations in the characteristics of chitin in course of developmental stages of an organism still remain unknown. This study presents findings on how chitin matrix is changing physicochemically through discrete morphological stages - larva, pupa and adult - of an insect (Vespa crabro). Chitin content of the organisms were found to increase gradually as the organism grew; 2.1, 6.2 and 10.3%, with a dramatic increase in chitin deposition (nearly 3 folds) during the instar from larva to pupa. Enzymatic digestion test demonstrated that chitin isolates were close to pure. Chitin isolates were also subjected to thermal pyrolysis and no variations were observed in the thermal stability of the samples. However, it was observed that surface characteristics of chitin changed greatly as the insect grew. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Scanning electron microscopic (Sem studies on fourth instar larva and pupa of Anopheles (Cellia stephensi Liston (Anophelinae: Culicidae

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    Jagbir Singh Kirti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Cellia stephensi Liston is a major vector species of malaria in Indian subcontinent. Taxonomists have worked on its various morphological aspects and immature stages to explore additional and new taxonomic attributes. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM studies have been conducted on the fourth instar larva and pupa of An. stephensi to find additional taxonomic features for the first time from Punjab state.

  15. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions

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    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of <70%, and 12 hours photophase. Fifteen hymenopteran specimens were dissected daily to evaluate their stage and development time. The phenology concluded that S. endius had a development cycle of 19 days with an incubation period of 24 hours. The development of the larvae of S. endius occurred in the subsequent eight days, during which a series of morphological alterations were observed. The pre-pupal stage occurred on the tenth day, where the movement ceased and elimination of the meconium started. The pupal stage occurred from the 11th to the 19th day, with emergence of males first, followed by female emergence approximately 24 hours later. These results allowed the evaluation of aspects of the detailed bionomics of the development of S. endius in order to record and program production of this parasitoid, thus optimizing its utilization as a biological control agent.

  16. Communal use of integumental wounds in honey bee (Apis mellifera) pupae multiply infested by the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbar, Ghazwan; Engels, Wolf

    2005-09-30

    The ectoparasitic bee mite, Varroa destructor, is highly adapted to its natural and adopted honey bee hosts, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera. Adult females perforate the integument of bee pupae in such a way that they and their progeny can feed. We examined the wounds that founder females made, and usually found one, and rarely up to three, integumental wounds on pupae of A. mellifera multiply infested by V. destructor. The punctures were mainly on the 2nd abdominal sternite of the host. These perforations are used repeatedly as feeding sites by these hemolymph-sucking mites and by their progeny. The diameter of the wounds increased during pupal development. In brood cells containing 4-5 invading female mites and their progeny, healing of the wound is delayed, normally occurring just before the imaginal moult of the bee pupa. These wounds are subject to microbial infections, and they are relevant to the evolution of behavioral traits in these parasitic mites and their relations to host bees.

  17. Parasitoid wasp usurps its host to guard its pupa against hyperparasitoids and induces rapid behavioral changes in the parasitized host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Prabitha; Sinu, Palatty Allesh

    2017-01-01

    Some parasites have an ability to fabricate the behavior of their host and impel the host to guard parasites' offspring, which is popularly called as bodyguard manipulation. Psalis pennatula larva parasitized by a braconid parasitoid wasp Microplitis pennatula exhibits some behavioral changes including the guarding of the parasitoid pupa from its natural enemies. We hypothesized that these behavioral change exhibited by the parasitized host larva are induced by the parasitoid and can be considered as an example of bodyguard manipulation. Even though hyperparasitoids are the more specialized natural enemy of parasitoids than predators, very few studies tested the success of guarding parasitoid pupa against hyperparasitoids. This study analyzed the success of guarding behavior of the parasitized host against hyperparasitoids. The onsets of parasite-induced phenotypic alterations (PIPAs) in the parasitized host were inspected to analyze whether these behavioral changes in the host larva manifests gradually or abruptly. The study concludes that parasitized host larva defends the parasitoid pupa from hyperparasitoids and the PIPAs in the parasitized host develops abruptly only after the egression of parasitoid prepupa.

  18. Predation on pupa of Chrysomya rufifacies (Marquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by parasitoid, Exoristobia philippinensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Ophyra spinigera larva (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Heo Chong; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Lim, Lee Han; Jeffery, John; Omar, Baharudin; Dhang, Chen Chee; Weng, Lau Koon; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2009-12-01

    A forensic entomological study was conducted using monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) that were placed in either an outdoor or indoor environment at a coastal area in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia during May until August 2008. We collected pupae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Marquart) from the carcasses and kept them individually. The emergence of 13 parasitic microhymenopteran, from one of the pupae occurring within a week were identified as Exoristobia philippinensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Another observation was made whereby a pupa of C. rufifacies was predated by a muscid larva, Ophyra spinigera (Stein). The larva squeezed into the pupa and consumed the contents. This paper report C. rufifacies as a new host record for E. philippinensis in Malaysia and highlighted the predatory behavior of O. spinigera larva in natural environment.

  19. Immune related gene expression in worker honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica pupae exposed to neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and Varroa mites (Varroa destructor.

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    Tanja Tesovnik

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is one of the most common parasites of honey bee colonies and is considered as a possible co-factor for honey bee decline. At the same time, the use of pesticides in intensive agriculture is still the most effective method of pest control. There is limited information about the effects of pesticide exposure on parasitized honey bees. Larval ingestion of certain pesticides could have effects on honey bee immune defense mechanisms, development and metabolic pathways. Europe and America face the disturbing phenomenon of the disappearance of honey bee colonies, termed Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD. One reason discussed is the possible suppression of honey bee immune system as a consequence of prolonged exposure to chemicals. In this study, the effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica, pupae infested with Varroa destructor mites were analyzed at the molecular level. Varroa-infested and non-infested honey bee colonies received protein cakes with or without thiamethoxam. Nurse bees used these cakes as a feed for developing larvae. Samples of white-eyed and brown-eyed pupae were collected. Expression of 17 immune-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR. Relative gene expression in samples exposed only to Varroa or to thiamethoxam or simultaneously to both Varroa and thiamethoxam was compared. The impact from the consumption of thiamethoxam during the larval stage on honey bee immune related gene expression in Varroa-infested white-eyed pupae was reflected as down-regulation of spaetzle, AMPs abaecin and defensin-1 and up-regulation of lysozyme-2. In brown-eyed pupae up-regulation of PPOact, spaetzle, hopscotch and basket genes was detected. Moreover, we observed a major difference in immune response to Varroa infestation between white-eyed pupae and brown-eyed pupae. The majority of tested immune-related genes were upregulated only in brown-eyed pupae, while in white-eyed pupae they were

  20. Immune related gene expression in worker honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica) pupae exposed to neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and Varroa mites (Varroa destructor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesovnik, Tanja; Cizelj, Ivanka; Zorc, Minja; Čitar, Manuela; Božič, Janko; Glavan, Gordana; Narat, Mojca

    2017-01-01

    Varroa destructor is one of the most common parasites of honey bee colonies and is considered as a possible co-factor for honey bee decline. At the same time, the use of pesticides in intensive agriculture is still the most effective method of pest control. There is limited information about the effects of pesticide exposure on parasitized honey bees. Larval ingestion of certain pesticides could have effects on honey bee immune defense mechanisms, development and metabolic pathways. Europe and America face the disturbing phenomenon of the disappearance of honey bee colonies, termed Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). One reason discussed is the possible suppression of honey bee immune system as a consequence of prolonged exposure to chemicals. In this study, the effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica, pupae infested with Varroa destructor mites were analyzed at the molecular level. Varroa-infested and non-infested honey bee colonies received protein cakes with or without thiamethoxam. Nurse bees used these cakes as a feed for developing larvae. Samples of white-eyed and brown-eyed pupae were collected. Expression of 17 immune-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR. Relative gene expression in samples exposed only to Varroa or to thiamethoxam or simultaneously to both Varroa and thiamethoxam was compared. The impact from the consumption of thiamethoxam during the larval stage on honey bee immune related gene expression in Varroa-infested white-eyed pupae was reflected as down-regulation of spaetzle, AMPs abaecin and defensin-1 and up-regulation of lysozyme-2. In brown-eyed pupae up-regulation of PPOact, spaetzle, hopscotch and basket genes was detected. Moreover, we observed a major difference in immune response to Varroa infestation between white-eyed pupae and brown-eyed pupae. The majority of tested immune-related genes were upregulated only in brown-eyed pupae, while in white-eyed pupae they were downregulated.

  1. Increase of acceptability period of Musca domestic l., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae, irradiated by gamma radiation as host of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia endius, Walker, 1839 (hymenoptera: pteromalidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itepan, Natanael M.; Itepan, Sara E.D.Z.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source used was a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10 13 Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestic L., 1758 and the parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity. This experiment was designed to investigate if the non-viabilization M. domestic pupae, using gamma radiation, could build up the acceptability period as host of the pupal parasitoid S. endius. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy respectively. The 1, 2, 3 and 4 days old pupae were irradiated (dose rate: 1,510 Gy/hr) and exposed to the parasitoid S. endius at a proportion of one female parasitoid to five housefly pupae, during different periods after the irradiation. The results allow us to conclude that irradiation increase the acceptability period of the housefly pupae by the parasitoid. The best age to irradiate the housefly pupae was one day. (author)

  2. Increase of acceptability period of Musca domestic l., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae, irradiated by gamma radiation as host of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia endius, Walker, 1839 (hymenoptera: pteromalidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael M., E-mail: nmitepan@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Sara E.D.Z., E-mail: sarazenitepan@ig.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source used was a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10{sup 13} Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestic L., 1758 and the parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity. This experiment was designed to investigate if the non-viabilization M. domestic pupae, using gamma radiation, could build up the acceptability period as host of the pupal parasitoid S. endius. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy respectively. The 1, 2, 3 and 4 days old pupae were irradiated (dose rate: 1,510 Gy/hr) and exposed to the parasitoid S. endius at a proportion of one female parasitoid to five housefly pupae, during different periods after the irradiation. The results allow us to conclude that irradiation increase the acceptability period of the housefly pupae by the parasitoid. The best age to irradiate the housefly pupae was one day. (author)

  3. Quantitative proteomics reveals divergent responses in Apis mellifera worker and drone pupae to parasitization by Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlis, Carla; Carolan, James C; Coffey, Mary; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2017-12-19

    Varroa destructor is a haemophagous ectoparasite of honeybees and is considered a major causal agent of colony losses in Europe and North America. Although originating in Eastern Asia where it parasitizes Apis cerana, it has shifted hosts to the western honeybee Apis mellifera on which it has a greater deleterious effect on the individual and colony level. To investigate this important host-parasite interaction and to determine whether Varroa causes different effects on different castes we conducted a label free quantitative proteomic analysis of Varroa-parasitized and non-parasitized drone and worker Apis mellifera pupae. 1195 proteins were identified in total, of which 202 and 250 were differentially abundant in parasitized drone and worker pupae, respectively. Both parasitized drone and worker pupae displayed reduced abundance in proteins associated with the cuticle, lipid transport and innate immunity. Proteins involved in metabolic processes were more abundant in both parasitized castes although the response in workers was more pronounced. A number of caste specific responses were observed including differential abundance of numerous cytoskeletal and muscle proteins, which were of higher abundance in parasitized drones in comparison to parasitized workers. Proteins involved in fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism were more abundant in parasitized workers as were a large number of ribosomal proteins highlighting either potentially divergent responses to Varroa or a different strategy by the mite when parasitizing the different castes. This data improves our understanding of this interaction and may provide a basis for future studies into improvements to therapy and control of Varroasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Purification and functional characterization of a protein: Bombyx mori human growth hormone like protein in silkworm pupa.

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    Jianqing Chen

    Full Text Available Human growth hormone (hGH is a peptide hormone secreted by eosinophils of the human anterior pituitary, and a regulatory factor for a variety of metabolic pathways. A 30-kD protein from the pupa stage of silkworm was detected by Western blotting and confirmed by immunoprecipitation based on its ability to bind to anti-hGH antibody. This protein, named BmhGH-like protein, was purified from fresh silkworm pupas through low-temperature homogenization, filtration, and centrifugation to remove large impurity particles. The supernatants were precipitated, resuspended, and passed through a molecular sieve. Further purification by affinity chromatography and two-dimensional electrophoresis resulted in pure protein for analysis by MS MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. An alignment with predicted proteins indicated that BmhGH-like protein consisted of two lipoproteins, which we named hGH-L1 and hGH-L2. These proteins belong to the β-trefoil superfamily, with β domains similar to the spatial structure of hGH. Assays with K562 cells demonstrated that these proteins could promote cell division in vitro. To further validate the growth-promoting effects, hGH-L2 was cloned from pupa cDNA to create recombinant silkworm baculovirus vBmNPV-hGH-L2, which was used to infect silkworm BmN cells at low titer. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the protein shortened the G0/G1 phase of the cells, and enabled the cells to rapidly traverse the G1/S phase transition point to enter S phase and promote cell division. Discovery of hGH-like protein in silkworm will once again arouse people's interest in the potential medicinal value of silkworm and establish the basis for the development of new hormone drugs.

  5. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 400 Gy for Lepidoptera that infest shipped commodities as pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Parker, Andrew C; Blackburn, Carl M

    2013-04-01

    The pros and cons of a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose against all Lepidoptera pupae on all commodities are discussed. The measure of efficacy is to prevent the F1 generation from hatching (F1 egg hatch) when late pupae are irradiated. More data exist for this measure than for others studied, and it is also commercially tenable (i.e., prevention of adult emergence would require a high dose not tolerated by fresh commodities). The dose required to prevent F1 egg hatch provides a liberal margin of security for various reasons. A point at issue is that correctly irradiated adults could be capable of flight and thus be found in survey traps in importing countries resulting in costly and unnecessary regulatory action. However, this possibility would be rare and should not be a barrier to the adoption of this generic treatment. The literature was thoroughly examined and only studies that could reasonably satisfy criteria of acceptable irradiation and evaluation methodology, proper age of pupae, and adequate presentation of raw data were accepted. Based on studies with 34 species in nine families, we suggest an efficacious dose of 400 Gy. However, large-scale confirmatory testing (> or = 30,000 individuals) has only been reported for one species. A dose as low as 350 Gy might suffice if results of more large-scale studies were available or the measure of efficacy were extended beyond prevention of F1 egg hatch, but data to defend measures of efficacy beyond F1 egg hatch are scarce and more would need to be generated.

  6. Combined Effect of Thermal and Irradiation Treatment of Parental Male Pupae of Spodoptera Littoralis on Certain Biological Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; Ibrahim, S.M.; Hazaa, M.A.M.; Abdel-Rahman, H.A.; El-sayed, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the effects of exposure of full-grown pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) to different high temperatures and/or sub sterilizing doses of gamma radiation on certain biological aspects of the parental (P1) and the first filial (F1) generations. It includes the effect on adult longevity malformation, mating, insemination, fecundity and egg hatch; beside larval survival till adult emergence and sex ratio of produced adults at different mating crosses between treated and untreated or treated other sex. Special attention is given to inherited sterility as well as to the mating competitiveness ability of treated males

  7. Description of male, pupa and larva of Psorophora (Grabhamia) paulli and redescription of the female (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Marina; Carlos Rossi, Gustavo; Ricardo Almirón, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The female of Psorophora (Grabhamia) paulli Paterson & Shannon is redescribed, and the pupa, fourth-instar larva and male genitalia are described and illustrated for the first time. Information about the distribution, bionomics and taxonomy is also included. Adults of Ps. paulli can be separated from the other species of the genus and subgenus by its small size. The larva of Ps. paulli is similar to that of Ps. varinervis Edwards and Ps. discolor (Coquillett) but can be separated based on the development of setae 1-X and 5-VIII, the length of the anal papillae and the comb on a sclerotized area.

  8. Characterization of the Copy Number and Variants of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV in the Pairs of Honey Bee Pupa and Infesting Varroa destructor or Tropilaelaps mercedesae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent honey bee colony losses, particularly during the winter, have been shown to be associated with the presence of both ectoparasitic mites and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV. Whilst the role of Varroa destructor mites as a viral vector is well established, the role of Tropilaelaps mercedesae mites in viral transmission has not been fully investigated. In this study, we tested the effects that V. destructor and T. mercedesae infestation have on fluctuation of the DWV copy number and alteration of the virus variants in honey bees by characterizing individual pupae and their infesting mites. We observed that both mite species were associated with increased viral copy number in honey bee pupae. We found a positive correlation between DWV copy number in pupae and copy number in infesting mites, and the same DWV type A variant was present in either low or high copy number in both honey bee pupae and infesting V. destructor. These data also suggest that variant diversity is similar between honey bee pupae and the mites that infest them. These results support a previously proposed hypothesis that DWV suppresses the honey bee immune system when virus copy number reaches a specific threshold, promoting greater replication.

  9. In vitro infection of pupae with Israeli acute paralysis virus suggests disturbance of transcriptional homeostasis in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto F Boncristiani

    Full Text Available The ongoing decline of honey bee health worldwide is a serious economic and ecological concern. One major contributor to the decline are pathogens, including several honey bee viruses. However, information is limited on the biology of bee viruses and molecular interactions with their hosts. An experimental protocol to test these systems was developed, using injections of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV into honey bee pupae reared ex-situ under laboratory conditions. The infected pupae developed pronounced but variable patterns of disease. Symptoms varied from complete cessation of development with no visual evidence of disease to rapid darkening of a part or the entire body. Considerable differences in IAPV titer dynamics were observed, suggesting significant variation in resistance to IAPV among and possibly within honey bee colonies. Thus, selective breeding for virus resistance should be possible. Gene expression analyses of three separate experiments suggest IAPV disruption of transcriptional homeostasis of several fundamental cellular functions, including an up-regulation of the ribosomal biogenesis pathway. These results provide first insights into the mechanisms of IAPV pathogenicity. They mirror a transcriptional survey of honey bees afflicted with Colony Collapse Disorder and thus support the hypothesis that viruses play a critical role in declining honey bee health.

  10. Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) pupae: a timeline of external morphological development and a new age and PMI estimation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine; Thorne, Alan; Harvey, Michelle

    2015-07-01

    The minimum postmortem interval (PMI(min)) is commonly estimated using calliphorid larvae, for which there are established age estimation methods based on morphological and development data. Despite the increased duration and sedentary nature of the pupal stage of the blowfly, morphological age estimation methods are poorly documented and infrequently used for PMI determination. The aim of this study was to develop a timeline of metamorphosis, focusing on the development of external morphology (within the puparium), to provide a means of age and PMI estimation for Calliphora vicina (Rob-Desvoidy) pupae. Under controlled conditions, 1,494 pupae were reared and sampled at regular time intervals. After puparium removal, observations of 23 external metamorphic developments were correlated to age in accumulated degree hours (ADH). Two age estimation methods were developed based on (1) the combination of possible age ranges observed for each characteristic and (2) regression analyses to generate age estimation equations employing all 23 characteristics observed and a subset of ten characteristics most significantly correlated with age. Blind sample analysis indicated that, using the combination of both methods, pupal age could be estimated to within ±500 ADH with 95% reliability.

  11. Development of a foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A empty capsid subunit vaccine using silkworm (Bombyx mori pupae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Li

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that inflicts severe economic losses in the livestock industry. In 2009, FMDV serotype A caused outbreaks of FMD in cattle in China. Although an inactivated virus vaccine has proven effective to control FMD, its use may lead to new disease outbreaks due to a possible incomplete inactivation of the virus during the manufacturing process. Here, we expressed the P1-2A and the 3C coding regions of a serotype A FMDV field isolate in silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori and evaluated the immunogenicity of the expression products. Four of five cattle vaccinated with these proteins developed high titers of FMDV-specific antibody and were completely protected against virulent homologous virus challenge with 10,000 50% bovine infectious doses (BID(50. Furthermore, the 50% bovine protective dose (PD(50 test was performed to assess the bovine potency of the empty capsid subunit vaccine and was shown to achieve 4.33 PD(50 per dose. These data provide evidence that silkworm pupae can be used to express immunogenic FMDV proteins. This strategy might be used to develop a new generation of empty capsid subunit vaccines against a variety of diseases.

  12. In vitro infection of pupae with Israeli acute paralysis virus suggests disturbance of transcriptional homeostasis in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncristiani, Humberto F; Evans, Jay D; Chen, Yanping; Pettis, Jeff; Murphy, Charles; Lopez, Dawn L; Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Strand, Micheline; Tarpy, David R; Rueppell, Olav

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing decline of honey bee health worldwide is a serious economic and ecological concern. One major contributor to the decline are pathogens, including several honey bee viruses. However, information is limited on the biology of bee viruses and molecular interactions with their hosts. An experimental protocol to test these systems was developed, using injections of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV) into honey bee pupae reared ex-situ under laboratory conditions. The infected pupae developed pronounced but variable patterns of disease. Symptoms varied from complete cessation of development with no visual evidence of disease to rapid darkening of a part or the entire body. Considerable differences in IAPV titer dynamics were observed, suggesting significant variation in resistance to IAPV among and possibly within honey bee colonies. Thus, selective breeding for virus resistance should be possible. Gene expression analyses of three separate experiments suggest IAPV disruption of transcriptional homeostasis of several fundamental cellular functions, including an up-regulation of the ribosomal biogenesis pathway. These results provide first insights into the mechanisms of IAPV pathogenicity. They mirror a transcriptional survey of honey bees afflicted with Colony Collapse Disorder and thus support the hypothesis that viruses play a critical role in declining honey bee health.

  13. Case Report of Human Urinary Myiasis Caused by Clogmia albipunctata (Diptera: Psychodidae with Morphological Description of Larva and Pupa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ali El-Dib

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary myiasis is a form of myiasis caused mainly by larvae of Fannia scalaris, Musca, Sarcophaga, Lucilia, Wohlfahrtia, Calliphora, and rarely by Eristalis and Clogmia albipunctata.Methods: This report presents a case of female patient complaining of dysuria and frequency of micturition associ­ated with intermittent passage of small, motile, dark-colored worm-like organisms in urine. She was a married housewife aged 24 years old referred from the Tropical Outpatient Clinic of Beni-Suef University Hospital, Egypt. The patient was subjected to a full questionnaire sheet and investigations such as CBC, stool and urine analysis and uri­nary ul­traso­nography. Collected larvae and pupae from urine samples were examined macroscopically and micro­scopically.Results: The examined larvae and pupae belonged to C. albipunctata. Ivermectin was prescribed to the patient with complaint withdrawal and complete disappearance of the larvae from urine.Conclusion: This study reports the first case of urinary myiasis caused by C. albipunctata in Beni-Suef Governorate, the second in Egypt and third case worldwide. The study throws some light on the medical importance and manage­ment of urinary myiasis.

  14. Increase of acceptability period of Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae) pupae, irradiated by gamma radiations as host of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae); Aumento do periodo de aceitabilidade de pupas de Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae), irradiadas com raios gama, como hospedeiras de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael Marcio

    1995-04-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate if the non-viabilization of Musca domestica, L.; 1758 pupae, with gamma radiation, could build up the acceptability period as host of the pupal parasitoids, Spalangia endius, Walker, 1839, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875) e Muscidifurax uniraptor, (Kogan and Legner, 1970). A dose rate of 1500 Gy/h was used to inhibit the adult emergence from 1, 2, 3 and 4 days-old house fly pupae. At these age intervals, the LD50 was 14.8, 128.04, 243.09 and 353.57 Gy, while the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy, respectively. The 1, 2, 3 and 4 days-old pupae were irradiated (dose ratio: 1510 Gy/hour) and exposed to the parasitoids S. endius, P. vindemiae and M. uniraptor, at a proportion of one female parasitoid to five house fly pupae, during different periods after the irradiation. The results allow to conclude that the irradiation increase the acceptability period of the house fly pupae by the parasitoid. The best age to irradiated the house fly pupae was one day. (author). 40 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. LD50 and inviably dose of gamma radiation for Musca domestica L., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae aged 1, 2, 3 and 4 days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itepan, Natanael M.; Itepan, Sara E.D.Z.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source that was used is a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10 13 Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestica had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity, until reaching the desired ages. Lots of pupae of M. domestica that had been used, gotten by the flotation process. They had been irradiated with the ages of 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. The used doses for 1 day pupae was 0 (control) 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30 Gy; for 2 days pupae: 0 (control), 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300 Gy; for 3 days pupae: 0 (control), 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, 280, 320 and 360 Gy; and for 4 days pupae: 0 (control), 40; 80; 120; 160, 200, 240, 280, 320, 360, 400 480 and 520 Gy. The dose rate was about 1,500Gy/hr. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy and the LD50 was 14.28, 128.04, 243.09 e 353.57 Gy, respectively. (author)

  16. Silkworm Pupa Protein Hydrolysate Induces Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptosis and S Phase Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotong Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori are a high-protein nutrition source consumed in China since more than 2 thousand years ago. Recent studies revealed that silkworm pupae have therapeutic benefits to treat many diseases. However, the ability of the compounds of silkworm pupae to inhibit tumourigenesis remains to be elucidated. Here, we separated the protein of silkworm pupae and performed alcalase hydrolysis. Silkworm pupa protein hydrolysate (SPPH can specifically inhibit the proliferation and provoke abnormal morphologic features of human gastric cancer cells SGC-7901 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, flow cytometry indicated that SPPH can induce apoptosis and arrest the cell-cycle in S phase. Furthermore, SPPH was shown to provoke accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. Western blotting analysis indicated that SPPH inhibited Bcl-2 expression and promoted Bax expression, and subsequently induced apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome C release, which led to the activation of initiator caspase-9 and executioner caspase-3, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, eventually caused cell apoptosis. Moreover, SPPH-induced S-phase arrest was mediated by up-regulating the expression of E2F1 and down-regulating those of cyclin E, CDK2 and cyclin A2. Transcriptome sequencing and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA also revealed that SPPH treatment could affect gene expression and pathway regulation related to tumourigenesis, apoptosis and cell cycle. In summary, our results suggest that SPPH could specifically suppress cell growth of SGC-7901 through an intrinsic apoptotic pathway, ROS accumulation and cell cycle arrest, and silkworm pupae have a potential to become a source of anticancer agents in the future.

  17. Emergence of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & Lasalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from pupae of Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner, [1809]) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Poderoso, Júlio César Melo; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2013-01-01

    Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner, [1809]) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is an abundant insect pest on crops of Citrus spp. (Rutaceae) in Brazil and pupae of this defoliator could be used for the mass rearing of parasitoids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitism of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on H. anchisiades capys pupae in the laboratory. Twenty 1-day-old H. anchisiades capys pupae were individualized in test tubes (14 cm length x 2.2 cm diameter) with a drop of honey as food and with ten mated P. elaeisis females for ten days. The duration of the life cycle (egg to adult), emergence rate, total individuals emerged per pupa, sex ratio, size of the body and longevity of P. elaeisis males and females emerged from H. anchisiades capys pupae were evaluated. The duration of the life cycle of P. elaeisis was 21.15 +/- 0.15 days. Forty percent of H. anchisiades capys pupae showed emergence of parasitoids, with an average of 323 +/- 38 individuals from each one and a sex ratio of 0.95 +/- 0.02. The total number of parasitoids emerged was 2,584 individuals. The size of the body and the head capsule (mm) of female and male P. elaeisis progeny were 1.92 +/- 0.04; 0.52 +/- 0.02 and 1.28 +/- 0.04; 0.40 +/- 0.02, respectively. The average longevity was 23.72 +/- 1.15 days for females and 30.1 +/- 2.42 days for males of P. elaeisis. Heraclides anchisiades capys, abundant on crops of Citrus spp. in Brazil, has potential to be used as a host for mass rearing of P. elaeisis in the laboratory for biological control programs.

  18. LD50 and inviably dose of gamma radiation for Musca domestica L., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae aged 1, 2, 3 and 4 days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael M., E-mail: nmitepan@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Sara E.D.Z., E-mail: sarazenitepan@ig.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source that was used is a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10{sup 13} Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestica had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity, until reaching the desired ages. Lots of pupae of M. domestica that had been used, gotten by the flotation process. They had been irradiated with the ages of 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. The used doses for 1 day pupae was 0 (control) 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30 Gy; for 2 days pupae: 0 (control), 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300 Gy; for 3 days pupae: 0 (control), 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, 280, 320 and 360 Gy; and for 4 days pupae: 0 (control), 40; 80; 120; 160, 200, 240, 280, 320, 360, 400 480 and 520 Gy. The dose rate was about 1,500Gy/hr. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy and the LD50 was 14.28, 128.04, 243.09 e 353.57 Gy, respectively. (author)

  19. Use of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) pigments in the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goche, D; Vigueras, A L; Portillo, L; Llanderal, C

    2012-06-01

    Carmines obtained from the dye of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) were used for the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) in broccoli inflorescences. Larvae were dyed with carmine II and red cochineal, while the majority of the dyes, with the exception of carmine III and the aqueous extract, were suitable to dye pupae. In the broccoli lumps exposed to the dyes, only the verge of the stems were actually dyed, right in the position where the incision took place, an appropriate characteristic for implementing this technique for commercial use.

  20. Modelizacion, simulacion y caracterizacion acustica de materiales para su uso en acustica arquitectonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia Sanchis, Ernesto

    The global objective of this thesis consists on evaluating the viability of applying new sound absorbent materials that attempt, on one hand, to be an alternative to those materials classically used (as mineral wools) and, on the other hand, to offer a solution to one of the most important problems: the use of waste products of the textile industries by means of the recycled. For carrying out this study, some of the parameters that allow to characterize the acoustic behaviour of sound absorbent materials (such as the acoustic impedance, the acoustic absorption coefficient and the flow resistivity, among other) have been studied. Different experimental methods used to obtain these acoustic parameters have also been described. Among the methods presented in this work, the attention has been focused in those based on the acoustic impedance tube (Kundt tube). This technique presents advantages, for example, that only a small space in the laboratory is required as well as the samples of the testing materials are of small dimensions. The study has settled on three fundamental pillars: mathematical modelization, acoustic characterization of materials and numerical simulation. In the first place, after reviewing the main models and theories used in the acoustic evaluation of the porous and fibrous sound absorbent materials, a new mathematical model has been proposed and its validity is demonstrated for the type of studied materials. With regard to the acoustic characterization, diverse campaigns of measurements have been carried out with the purpose of obtaining the acoustic absorption coefficient and the flow resistivity of different type of materials. Finally, by means of a computer program based on the finite element method, the technique of the numerical simulation has been applied with the purpose of contrasting the obtained results experimentally, as well as for the evaluation of one of the most significant industrial applications from the acoustic point of view: the acoustic filters, that are devices designed to reduce the acoustic emission in a tube (as the expansion chambers in the exhaust pipes of the combustion engines). In a first phase of the study, it is observed that the obtained results agree with the experience and, in a second phase, a parametric study to evaluate the efficiency of this type of components is carried out. The numerical simulation presents the advantage of carrying out these studies without necessity of building the real models, with the saving in cost and time that this supposes. In this work, it has been sought to contribute to the knowledge of the acoustic behaviour of different type of materials and devices that are used to improve the acoustic isolation and acoustic conditioning.

  1. Effect of mutual interference on the ability of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to attack and parasitize pupae of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgard, H.; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of mutual interference on the attack efficiency and the rate of successful parasitism on the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) attacking pupae of the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Female parasitoids (2, 4, 8, 16, or 32) were exposed to 100 fly pupae during 24...

  2. [Optimization of the storage of housefly pupae as a utilizer of organic wastes in a human biological life support system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, E G; Nosov, V V

    1983-01-01

    The method of experimental orthogonal planning was used to study the combined effect of three factors (ambient temperature, humidity, and storage time) on the yield characteristics of the storage of Musca domestica L. pupae as utilizers of organic wastes in the biological life support system. The application of the type 2(3-1) fractional factorial experiment with the generating ratio x3 = x2x1 and analysis of the resultant regression equation showed that the pupal viability tended to grow as the temperature increased and the time storage and humidity decreased. Step-by-step optimization according to Box-Wilson gave the following optimal conditions for pupal storage (without viability losses); ambient temperature +16 degrees C, relative humidity 37-39%, and storage time 15 days.

  3. APA-style human milk fat analogue from silkworm pupae oil: Enzymatic production and improving storage stability using alkyl caffeates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Wang, Xudong; Pang, Na; Zhu, Weijie; Zhao, Xingyu; Wang, Fangqin; Wu, Fuan; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-08

    Silkworm pupae oil derived from reeling waste is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA), which has multipal applications. ALAs were added in sn-1, 3 positions in a triacylglycerol (TAG) to produce an APA-human milk fat analogues (APA-HMFAs, A: α-linolenic acid, P: palmitic acid). The optimum condition is that tripalmitin to free fatty acids of 1:12 (mole ratio) at 65 °C for 48 h using lipase Lipozyme RM IM. Results show that, the major TAG species that comprised APA-HMFAs were rich in ALA and palmitic acid, which contained 64.52% total unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and 97.05% PA at the sn-2 position. The melting point of APA was -27.5 °C which is much lower than tripalmitin (40.5 °C) indicating more plastic character. In addition, the practical application of alkyl caffeates as liposoluble antioxidants in APA was developed. Alkyl caffeate showed a superior IC50 (1.25-1.66 μg/mL) compared to butyl hydroxy anisd (1.67 μg/mL) and L-ascorbic acid-6-palmitate (L-AP) (1.87 μg/mL) in DPPH analysis. The addition of ethyl caffeate to oil achieved a higher UFAs content (73.58%) at high temperatures. Overall, APA was obtained from silkworm pupae oil successfully, and the addition of caffeates extended storage ranges for APA-HMFAs.

  4. Characteristic properties of proteins from pre-ecdysial cuticle of larvae and pupae of the mealworm <em>Tenebrio molitorem>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2002-01-01

    chains tend to collapse into a more closed structure and to interact more tightly with hydrophobic regions in neighbouring molecules. In dilute solutions in the test tube this results in aggregation and precipitation of the proteins; in intact, pharate cuticle at ambient temperatures the proteins...

  5. Immuno-suppressive effects of aqueous extract of soapnut Sapindus emarginatus on the larvae and pupae of vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Mullainadhan, Periasamy; Arumugam, Munusamy

    2013-06-01

    We recently reported the presence of potent anti-mosquito activity in aqueous kernel extract of the soapnut, Sapindus emarginatus, and demonstrated its impact on marker enzymes in larvae and pupae of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. As a sequel to these findings, the present study elucidates immunotoxicity of this extract with respect to hemocyte-mediated cellular immune responses in fourth instar larvae and pupae as well as cuticular melanization reaction in the larvae of A. aegypti. The exposure of these two developmental stages of the mosquito to the soapnut extract at a lethal threshold concentration neither affected hemocyte viability tested up to 3h in vitro nor did it influence the hemocyte count. By contrast, exposure of the mosquito larvae and pupae to this extract significantly reduced the ability of their hemocytes to bind yeast cells, an important early event in the process of non-self recognition by immune cells. Consequently, the phagocytic activity of these hemocytes against yeast cells was also found to be adversely affected upon exposure of larvae and pupae to the extract. Besides, a perceptible initial delay in melanization reaction at the injured site of the cuticle in the extract-exposed larvae was observed. All these findings demonstrate, for the first time, the immuno-suppressive potential of a botanical biocide in the vector mosquito. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larva ve pupasının yağ asidi bileşimi

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞKIN, Deniz; AKSOYLAR, M. Yaşar

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of last instar larvae and pupae of Tenebrio molitor were analysed by gas chromatographic methods. It was determined that total fatty acid compositions of both stages were contituted C12:0-C18:2 fatty acids. Oleic acid was found as the major fatty acid. Palmitic and linoleic acids also were high pencentage fatty acids.

  7. Toxicity assessment of four insecticides with different modes of action on pupae and adults of Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a relevant predator of the Neotropical Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Marilina Noelia; Schneider, Marcela Inés; Rimoldi, Federico; Ladux, Lorena Sabrina; Desneux, Nicolas; Ronco, Alicia Estela

    2016-08-01

    Pesticides can be toxic to nontarget organisms including the natural enemies of agricultural pests, thus reducing the biodiversity of agroecosystems. The lethal and sublethal effects of four insecticides with different modes of action-pyriproxyfen, teflubenzuron, acetamiprid, and cypermethrin-were evaluated on pupae and adults of Eriopis connexa, an effective predator in horticultural crops. Pupal survival was reduced by pyriproxyfen (26 %) and cypermethrin (41 %). Malformations in adults emerged from treated pupae were observed after acetamiprid (82.7 and 100 % for 100 and 200 mg a.i./l, respectively), pyriproxyfen (48.6 %), and cypermethrin (13.3 %) treatments. A longer mean oviposition time was also observed in adults emerged from pupae treated with cypermethrin. Moreover, the latter insecticide as well as teflubenzuron did not reduce reproductive parameters, whereas females emerged from pyriproxyfen-treated pupae were not be able to lay eggs even when females showed large abdomens. Upon exposure of adults, survival was reduced to approximately 90 % by acetamiprid, but no reduction occurred with pyriproxyfen, teflubenzuron, or cypermethrin though the fecundity at fifth oviposition time of the female survivors was reduced. Pyriproxyfen decreased the hatching at all the oviposition times tested, whereas fertility was reduced in the fourth and fifth ovipositions by teflubenzuron and in the first and third ovipositions by cypermethrin. In conclusion, all four insecticides tested exhibited lethal or sublethal effects, or both, on E. connexa. The neurotoxic insecticides were more harmful than the insect-growth regulators, and pupae were more susceptible than adults. The toxicity of insecticides on the conservation of predators in agroecosystems of the Neotropical Region is discussed.

  8. Parasitóides de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius coletados em Itumbiara, Goiás Parasitoids of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius collected in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

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    Carlos H Marchiori

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinadas as espécies de parasitóides associadas com Chrysomya megacephala, coletados com isca de rins de bovino, em Itumbiara, Estado de Goiás. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação, individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina e mantidas até a emergência das moscas e/ou dos parasitóides. A prevalência total de parasitismo foi de 18,6%. Brachymeria podagrica, Nasonia vitripennis e Pachycrepoideus vindemiae apresentaram uma freqüência de 8,6%, 8,6% e 1,4%, respectivamente. Relata-se a primeira ocorrência de Brachymeria podagrica em pupas de Chrysomya megacephala.This study determined the species of parasitoids associated with Chrysomya megacephala, collected on bovine kidney baits, in Itumbiara, State of Goias, Brazil. The pupae were obtained by flotation. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the adult flies or their parasitoids. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 18.6%. Brachymeria podagrica, Nasonia vitripennis and Pachycrepoideus vindemiae presented frequencies of 8.6%, 8.6% and 1.4%, respectively. This work reports for the first time the occurrence of Brachymeria podagrica in pupae of Chrysomya megacephala.

  9. Larvae and pupae of two North American darkling beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Stenochiinae, Glyptotus cribratus LeConte and Cibdelis blaschkei Mannerheim, with notes on ecological and behavioural similarities

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    Warren Steiner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes and illustrates the larvae and pupae of two North American darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae in the subfamily Stenochiinae, Glyptotus cribratus LeConte from the southeastern United States, and Cibdelis blaschkei Mannerheim from California. Both species inhabit forested regions where adults and larvae occur in soft rotten dry wood of dead branches on living trees or in sections recently fallen from them. Species identity was confirmed by rearing of adults and pupae and the discovery of both in pupal cells with associated exuvia. Specimen label data and notes on habitats are provided. Antipredator defense structures and behaviour are noted for larvae and pupae of both species.

  10. Sterilization of fully grown pupae of the rice weevil with gamma radiation and its effect on mating competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.Y.Y.; El-Kady, E.A.; Salem, Y.S.; Hsaballa, Z.A.

    1984-01-01

    When fully grown pupae of sitophilus oryzae I were treated with 8 K.rad, the resulting adults were sterile when they were paired with untreated opposite sex. A ratio of 1:1 irradiated males: unirradiated males and unirradiated females resulted in 53.7% adult emergence. Ratios of irradiated to unirradiated males of 5:1 or 10:1 produced 14.9 and 5.8% adult emergence, respectively. Thus, irradiated males were competitive with the 1st ratio, and fully competitive with the other ratios. When both irradiated males and females were placed with untreated males and females to give ratios in the sequence of 1:1:1, 5:5:1, 10:10:1:1: or 15:15:1:1 the percentages of adult emergence were 48.9,7.5,4.7 and 2.4%, respectively. The percentage of the actual adult emergence was more than the expected adult emergence for all ratios used. The competitiveness value (CV) for the 1st ratio was 0.65 (i.e. sterile adults were not competitive with normal adults). The percent of F 1 adults from fertile pairs (0:0:1:1) decreased from 100 to 48.9 at 1:1:1:1 (Tables 2). Generally, competitiveness values for irradiated adults increased with an increasing ratio of irradiated to unirradiated adults. The competitiveness was good at all but the lowest ratio

  11. Side Effects of IGR Cyromazine on Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, a Parasitic Wasp of House Fly Pupae

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    B Vazirianzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Combination of cyromazine as an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenop¬tera: Pteromalidae a parasitic wasp may be an effective tool for reducing the house-fly populations in poultry houses and livestock farms. This study was conducted to assess the side effects of the IGR cyromazine on the level of parasit¬ism and numbers and the longevity of emerged N. vitripennis parasitoids from house fly pupae."nMethods: Cyromazine treated cloth target was used as the contaminating method of the parasitoids which was ap¬plied in this research study. "nResults: The Weibull distribution showed that there was no significant difference among controls and cyromazine treated targets for longevity data. There was no significant effect of cyromazine on the level of parasitism of N. vitripennis using 2 test. One-way ANOVA showed that the actual numbers emerging were significantly higher in the control than in two cyromazine treatments; however, it is a useful phenomenon because of reducing the hyperparasitism."nConclusion: There is a good consistency between using N. vitripennis and 1.1% or 0.9% cyromazine treated targets. There¬fore cyromazine treated targets can be applied as a safe delivery vehicle for applying the cyromazine IGR in the poultry houses and livestock farms in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program.

  12. Side Effects of IGR Cyromazine on Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, a Parasitic Wasp of House Fly Pupae

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    B Vazirianzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combination of cyromazine as an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenop¬tera: Pteromalidae a parasitic wasp may be an effective tool for reducing the house-fly populations in poultry houses and livestock farms. This study was conducted to assess the side effects of the IGR cyromazine on the level of parasit¬ism and numbers and the longevity of emerged N. vitripennis parasitoids from house fly pupae.Methods: Cyromazine treated cloth target was used as the contaminating method of the parasitoids which was ap¬plied in this research study. Results: The Weibull distribution showed that there was no significant difference among controls and cyromazine treated targets for longevity data. There was no significant effect of cyromazine on the level of parasitism of N. vitripennis using 2 test. One-way ANOVA showed that the actual numbers emerging were significantly higher in the control than in two cyromazine treatments; however, it is a useful phenomenon because of reducing the hyperparasitism.Conclusion: There is a good consistency between using N. vitripennis and 1.1% or 0.9% cyromazine treated targets. There¬fore cyromazine treated targets can be applied as a safe delivery vehicle for applying the cyromazine IGR in the poultry houses and livestock farms in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program.

  13. The sexual difference in degradation of sulfur amino acids in pupae and adults of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinbo, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    The degradation of sulfur amino acids in pupae and adults of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, was investigated. The rate of 14 CO 2 production from DL-cystine-1- 14 C varied during pupal development and also between male and female significantly; in the male the 14 CO 2 production increased markedly according to pupal development, whereas in the female it was kept at a low level until emergence, then increased slightly. Total sulfur in meconium of the female was less than a half the quantity of that of the male. However, in the ovary-ectomyzed female the amount of total sulfur in meconium and the rate of 14 CO 2 production were increased, almost similar to the case of the male. It was also confirmed that the 14 C of DL-cystine-1- 14 C was incorporated efficiently into egg protein at the end of pupal stage. These results indicated that the rate of degradation of sulfur amino acids in the pupal stage was much active in male than in female. Such a sexual difference is considered to be related closely to the formation of egg, especially egg-shell. (auth.)

  14. BIOLOGICAL AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES ON THE HAEMOCYTES OF F1 LARVAE OF THE GAMMA IRRADIATED GREAT WAX MOTH PUPAE GALLERIA MELLONELLA (L.) (LEPIDOPTERA : GAELLERIDAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-KHOLY, E.M.S.; EL-NAGGAR, S.E.M.; ABD EL-AZIZ, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out on the full grown male pupae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L., when irradiated with 100, 150, 300 and 400 Gray of gamma radiation. Two groups of newly moulted 4 th instar larvae were set up, each group consisted of 50 larvae. The first group was exposed in the pupal stage to 100 Gy and the second with 150 Gy then the larval haemolymph was collected. Also, a control group of 50 larvae (non-irradiated) was investigated. The morphological changes in the irradiated blood cells, as compared to the control, were examined using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Vacuolization of cytoplasm, disorganization and swelling of mitochondria were appeared. The biological effects of gamma irradiation of the parental male pupae on the reproduction of adult moths when treated males were mated with normal females (male line) and when normal males were mated with treated females (female line) were studied. The latent biological effects of four gamma doses (100, 150, 300 and 400 Gy) on the F1 generation showed that the average number of eggs per mated female, the percentage of egg hatch and the percent of mating were gradually reduced when the given gamma dose to male parents was increased at all treatments (male and female lines). The reduction in the fecundity and the percentage of egg hatch among female line pairings (females descendant of irradiated parental male pupae) was reduced than that among male line pairings (males descendant of irradiated parental male pupae) with increasing the gamma dose

  15. Effects of soil temperature and snow cover on the mortality of overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests in the world. However, little is known about the effects of snow cover and soil temperature on the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. A field experiment was conducted from November 2, 2012 to April 24, 2013 at the agrometeorological experimental station in Wulanwusu, China. Overwintering pupae were embedded into the soil at depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm in the following four treatments: without snow cover, snow cover, and increased temperatures from 600 and 1200 W infrared lights. The results showed that snow cover and rising temperatures could all markedly increase soil temperatures, which was helpful in improving the survival of the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. The mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) at a depth of 15 cm was the highest, and the MOP at a depth of 5 cm followed. The lower accumulated temperature (≤0 °C) (AT ≤ °C) led to the higher MOP, and the lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR) likely led to the lower MOP. After snowmelt, the MOPs at the depths of 5 and 10 cm increased as the soil temperature increased, especially in April. The AT of the soil (≤0 °C) was the factor with the strongest effect on MOP. The soil moisture content was not a major factor affecting the MOP in this semiarid region because precipitation was 45 mm over the entire experimental period. With climate warming, the MOP will likely decrease, and the overwintering boundary air temperatures of H. armigera should be expanded due to higher soil temperatures and increased snow cover.

  16. Effects of soil temperature and snow cover on the mortality of overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests in the world. However, little is known about the effects of snow cover and soil temperature on the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. A field experiment was conducted from November 2, 2012 to April 24, 2013 at the agrometeorological experimental station in Wulanwusu, China. Overwintering pupae were embedded into the soil at depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm in the following four treatments: without snow cover, snow cover, and increased temperatures from 600 and 1200 W infrared lights. The results showed that snow cover and rising temperatures could all markedly increase soil temperatures, which was helpful in improving the survival of the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. The mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) at a depth of 15 cm was the highest, and the MOP at a depth of 5 cm followed. The lower accumulated temperature (≤0 °C) (AT ≤ °C) led to the higher MOP, and the lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR) likely led to the lower MOP. After snowmelt, the MOPs at the depths of 5 and 10 cm increased as the soil temperature increased, especially in April. The AT of the soil (≤0 °C) was the factor with the strongest effect on MOP. The soil moisture content was not a major factor affecting the MOP in this semiarid region because precipitation was 45 mm over the entire experimental period. With climate warming, the MOP will likely decrease, and the overwintering boundary air temperatures of H. armigera should be expanded due to higher soil temperatures and increased snow cover.

  17. Expression of AeaHsp26 and AeaHsp83 in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae and Pupae in Response to Heat Shock Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The heat shock protein 90 chaperone complex: an evolving therapeutic target. Curr. Cancer Drug Targets 8: 522Ð532. Boone, A. N., and M. M. Vijayan... nematodes . Int. J. Parasitol. 39: 1071Ð 1081. Gkouvitsas, T., D. Kontogiannatos, and A. Kourti. 2009. Cognate Hsp70 gene is induced during deep...Lung Cancer (in press). Received 16 September 2009; accepted 12 December 2009. May 2010 ZHAO ET AL.: Ae. aegypti LARVAE AND PUPAE IN RESPONSE TO HSPs 375

  18. Baeuveria bassiana (BalsVuill and Metarhizium anisioplae (Metsch. Sorokin in the pupas control of Prodiplosis longifila Gagné on asparagus crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cedano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the entomopathogen fungi Baeuveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisioplae of the Prodiplosis longifila pupas, in order to reduce the adult population of this insect. The treatments consisted on the application of two different propagel concentrations (mycel and conidia of each entomopathogen. One of these concentration was 1x106 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 25 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen; and the other one, was 1x107 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 40 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen. As a check a non application treatment was considered. The applications were trough the irrigation system and started 15 days after the end of harvest and were repeated each five days during a month, coincident with the period of most falls of pupas of the soil. As a result Baeuveria bassiana at 1x107 propagels/ml shown 53.4 % of the total pupas colonized by the entomopathogen, which allows indicating B. bassiana as a promissory biocontrol of this specie

  19. Description and comparison of the pupae of a further two Culicoides (Avaritia species from the dung of large herbivores in South Africa (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

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    Hilda Nevill

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 Nevill, Venter, Meiswinkel & Nevill demonstrated that the pupae of five Culicoides species belonging to the Imicola complex of the subgenus Avaritia could readily be differentiated from one another using various morphological characters. Three of the described species, Culicoides bolitinos Meiswinkel 1989; Culicoides loxodontis Meiswinkel 1992 and Culicoides sp. # 107 (= C. kwagga, Meiswinkel, unpublished thesis 1995, were reared from the dung of large herbivores, which included buffaloes, elephants, white and black rhinoceroses and zebras. However, during that study a further two Avaritia species, neither of which belonged to the Imicola complex, were reared from dung and these are the subject of the present study. For the past 20 years the adults of these two new closely related species have been known as Culicoides sp. # 54 pale form (p.f. Meiswinkel and Culicoides sp. # 54 dark form (d.f. Meiswinkel. The taxonomic description and formal naming of the adults of these two species has yet to be done. The present description and comparison of their pupae show that they are two clearly distinct species; that there is no group of morphological characters that can be used to differentiate these two species from the previously described five species of the Imicola complex; and finally that there was no difference between the pupae of C. sp. # 54 d.f. nor C. sp. # 54 p.f. reared from the dung of different host animals.

  20. Baeuveria bassiana (BalsVuill y Metarhizium anisioplae (Metsch. Sorokin para el control de pupas de Prodiplosis longifila Gagné en el cultivo de esparrago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cedano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de los hongos entomopatógenos Baeuveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisioplae sobre la s pupas de Prodiplosis longifila para reducir la población de adultos de este insecto. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación de dos concentraciones diferentes de propágulos (micelio y conidias de cada entomopatógeno, una fue de 1x10 6 propágulos /mililitro (provenientes de 25 kilos de arroz colonizado por el entomopatógeno y la otra de 1x10 7 propágulos /mililitro (provenientes de 40 kilos de arroz colonizado por el entomopatógeno más un testigo sin aplicación. La aplicación se realizó a través del sistema de riego y se inició 15 días después del desaporque (término de cosecha, repitiéndose cada 5 días durante un mes coincidiendo con la etapa de mayor caída de pupas al suelo. El tratamiento de Baeuveria bassiana a la concentración de 1 x10 7 propágulos /mililitro presentó el 5 3 . 4 % de las pupas en el suelo con micelio del hongo. Estos resultados permiten indicar a B. bassiana como un biocontrolador promisorio de esta plaga.

  1. Efeitos de extratos de plantas na biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae mantida em dieta artificial Effects of plant extracts on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae maintained under artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Pedreira Santiago

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos a 10% de folhas e ramos de arruda (Ruta graveolens L., folhas e ramos de melão-de-são-caetano (Momordica charantia L., folhas do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e fruto verde de mamona (Ricinus communis L., sobre a biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda, mantida em dieta artificial. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupa, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de adultos. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram colocadas em tubos de ensaio com dieta artificial, contendo os extratos de cada material testado. O extrato aquoso do fruto verde de R. communis apresentou bioatividade, nos parâmetros duração larval e pupal e peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens reduziu o peso de pupa. A dieta contendo extrato de folhas e ramos de M. charantia reduziu a viabilidade larval e o peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de folhas de L. sidoides não afetou as fases larval e pupal, reduziu a postura e a viabilidade de ovos e aumentou a longevidade de adultos de S. frugiperda. A viabilidade de pupa não foi afetada pelos extratos testados.The effects of aqueous extracts, at 10% concentration of leaves and branches of Ruta graveolens L., leaves and branches of Momordica charantia L., leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. and green fruits of Ricinus communis L. were evaluated on the biology of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda maintained under artificial diet. The evaluated parameters were: duration and viability of the larval and pupal phases, pupa weight, fecundity, fertility and longevity of adults. Just-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda was placed in test tube with artificial diet containing extracts of each tested material. The aqueous extract of the green fruits of R. communis presented bioactivity upon duration and weight of larval and pupal phases. The aqueous extract of R. graveolens reduced weight of pupa. The diet

  2. A Chromosome-Scale Assembly of theBactrocera cucurbitaeGenome Provides Insight to the Genetic Basis ofwhite pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sheina B; Geib, Scott M

    2017-06-07

    Genetic sexing strains (GSS) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs are textbook examples of how classical Mendelian genetics can be directly implemented in the management of agricultural insect pests. Although the foundation of traditionally developed GSS are single locus, autosomal recessive traits, their genetic basis are largely unknown. With the advent of modern genomic techniques, the genetic basis of sexing traits in GSS can now be further investigated. This study is the first of its kind to integrate traditional genetic techniques with emerging genomics to characterize a GSS using the tephritid fruit fly pest Bactrocera cucurbitae as a model. These techniques include whole-genome sequencing, the development of a mapping population and linkage map, and quantitative trait analysis. The experiment designed to map the genetic sexing trait in B. cucurbitae , white pupae ( wp ), also enabled the generation of a chromosome-scale genome assembly by integrating the linkage map with the assembly. Quantitative trait loci analysis revealed SNP loci near position 42 MB on chromosome 3 to be tightly linked to wp Gene annotation and synteny analysis show a near perfect relationship between chromosomes in B. cucurbitae and Muller elements A-E in Drosophila melanogaster This chromosome-scale genome assembly is complete, has high contiguity, was generated using a minimal input DNA, and will be used to further characterize the genetic mechanisms underlying wp Knowledge of the genetic basis of genetic sexing traits can be used to improve SIT in this species and expand it to other economically important Diptera. Copyright © 2017 Sim and Geib.

  3. A Chromosome-Scale Assembly of the Bactrocera cucurbitae Genome Provides Insight to the Genetic Basis of white pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheina B. Sim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic sexing strains (GSS used in sterile insect technique (SIT programs are textbook examples of how classical Mendelian genetics can be directly implemented in the management of agricultural insect pests. Although the foundation of traditionally developed GSS are single locus, autosomal recessive traits, their genetic basis are largely unknown. With the advent of modern genomic techniques, the genetic basis of sexing traits in GSS can now be further investigated. This study is the first of its kind to integrate traditional genetic techniques with emerging genomics to characterize a GSS using the tephritid fruit fly pest Bactrocera cucurbitae as a model. These techniques include whole-genome sequencing, the development of a mapping population and linkage map, and quantitative trait analysis. The experiment designed to map the genetic sexing trait in B. cucurbitae, white pupae (wp, also enabled the generation of a chromosome-scale genome assembly by integrating the linkage map with the assembly. Quantitative trait loci analysis revealed SNP loci near position 42 MB on chromosome 3 to be tightly linked to wp. Gene annotation and synteny analysis show a near perfect relationship between chromosomes in B. cucurbitae and Muller elements A–E in Drosophila melanogaster. This chromosome-scale genome assembly is complete, has high contiguity, was generated using a minimal input DNA, and will be used to further characterize the genetic mechanisms underlying wp. Knowledge of the genetic basis of genetic sexing traits can be used to improve SIT in this species and expand it to other economically important Diptera.

  4. Uncovering the Molecular Mechanism of Anti-Allergic Activity of Silkworm Pupa-Grown Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Feng; Chan, Yu-Yi; Shi, Wan-Yin; Jhong, Meng-Ting

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris has been widely used as an herbal drug and tonic food in East Asia and has also been recently studied in the West because of its various pharmacological activities such as antitumoral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-allergic activity of ethanol extract prepared from silkworm pupa-cultivated Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies in activated mast cells. Our results showed that ethanol extract treatment significantly inhibited the release of [Formula: see text]-hexosaminidase (a degranulation marker) and mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text] as well as interleukin-4 in RBL-2H3 cells. The cells were sensitized with 2,4-dinitrophenol specific IgE and then stimulated with human serum albumin conjugated with 2,4-dinitrophenol. Oral administration of 300[Formula: see text]mg/kg ethanol extract significantly ameliorated IgE-induced allergic reaction in mice with passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Western immunoblotting results demonstrated that ethanol extract incubation significantly inhibited Syk/PI3K/MEKK4/JNK/c-jun biochemical cascade in activated RBL-2H3 cells, which activated the expression of various allergic cytokines. In addition, it suppressed Erk activation and PLC[Formula: see text] evocation, which would respectively evoke the synthesis of lipid mediators and Ca[Formula: see text] mobilization to induce degranulation in stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. A compound, identified as [Formula: see text]-sitostenone, was shown to inhibit [Formula: see text]-hexosaminidase secretion from activated mast cells. Our study demonstrated that ethanol extract contained the ingredients, which could inhibit immediate degranulation and de novo synthesis of allergic lipid mediators and cytokines in activated mast cells.

  5. ASPECTOS BIOLÓGICOS DE Anticarsia gemmatalis HÜEBNER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE EM CULTIVARES DE SOJA (Glycine max MERRIL BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF Anticarsia gemmatalis HÜEBNER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE ON SOYBEAN CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Baldin Pinheiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Entomologia da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em condições controladas de temperatura (25+2ºC, umidade relativa (40+10% e fotofase de 13h, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito das cultivares Emgopa 316, FT-Estrela, IAC 100 e IAC 17, no desenvolvimento de <em>Anticarsia> <em>gemmatalis>. Foram observadas a duração do período larval, o tamanho e o peso de lagartas e peso de pupas. Na cultivar Emgopa 316, as larvas apresentaram uma diminuição no período larval e um aumento nos pesos larval e pupal, enquanto IAC 100 mostrou alguma evidência de antibiose, aumentando o período larval e diminuindo o peso de lagartas e de pupas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; antibiose; <em>insecta>.

    A laboratory work was conducted at Universidade Federal de Goiás, under controlled conditions of temperature (25+2º, relative humidity (40+10% and photophase (13h. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the soybean cultivars Emgopa 316, FT-Estrela, IAC 100 and IAC 17 on the development of <em>Anticarsia> <em>gemmatalis> Hüebner, 1818. Duration of the development phases, length of larvae and weight of pupae were observed. Emgopa 316 showed a decreasing duration of larval stage and an increase in larvae and pupae weight; IAC 100 showed some evidence of antibiosis, increasing the larval stage and decreasing larvae and pupae weight.

    KEY-WORDS: <em>Insecta>; resistance; antibiosis.

  6. Phytophagy on eucalyptus plants increases the development and reproduction of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae = Fitofagia em plantas de eucaliptos aumenta o desenvolvimento e a reprodução do predador Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Mathias Holtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant feeding on biological aspects of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae was evaluated. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae on Eucalyptus urophylla plants inthe field or only with pupae of this prey in the laboratory. The development and nymphal survival, as well as the pre-oviposition period, number of egg masses, number, fertility and viability of eggs and the longevity of females of this predator were evaluated. The eucalyptus plants improved the development of P. nigrispinus. This demonstrates that this predator can present higher population growth with eucalyptus plants and T. molitor pupae than in the laboratory (controlled conditions only with this prey. These plants can supply nutrients that can the population growth and efficiency of P. nigrispinus for biological control in eucalyptus plantations.O efeito da alimentação em plantas sobre os aspectos biológicos de Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae foi avaliado. Ninfas e adultos desse predador foram alimentados com pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleotpera: Tenebrionidae em plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla no campo ou, apenas, em laboratório. O desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência ninfal desse predador, além do período de pré-oviposição, número de posturas, viabilidade dos ovos e afertilidade e longevidade de fêmeas foram avaliados. A planta de eucalipto proporcionou um incremento no desenvolvimento de P. nigrispinus. Isto demonstra que esse predador pode apresentar maior crescimento populacional com plantas de eucalipto e pupas de T. molitor alimentado com apenas a presa (condições controladas. A planta pode fornecer nutrientes que aumentam o crescimento populacional e a eficiência de P. nigrispinus para o controle biológico em plantios de eucalipto.

  7. Desenvolvimento e reprodução da mosca-do-mediterrâneo em caquizeiro, macieira, pessegueiro e videira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odimar Zanuzo Zanardi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o desenvolvimento e reprodução de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae em frutos de caqui 'Fuyu', maçã 'Gala', pêssego 'Maciel' e uva 'Itália'. Foram feitas avaliações quanto a: duração e viabilidade do ovo, duração do estágio larval, peso de pupa, duração e viabilidade da pupa, duração do período ovo-adulto, razão sexual, período de pré-oviposição e oviposição, fecundidade diária e total e longevidade de machos e fêmeas. A maior duração do período ovo-adulto ocorreu em maçã, em consequência do aumento do estágio larval, seguido por uva, caqui e pêssego. Larvas que se alimentaram de pêssego apresentaram maior peso médio de pupa. A maior viabilidade pupal foi registrada em pêssego, equivalente à de uva e caqui. O período de pré-oviposição foi maior para fêmeas provenientes de maçã e uva. Fêmeas provenientes de pêssego apresentaram período de oviposição mais longo, além de maior fecundidade média diária e fecundidade total. A longevidade de adultos foi superior em insetos criados em pêssego. Frutos de pessegueiro são mais adequados para o desenvolvimento de C. capitata, em comparação aos de caqui, maçã e uva.

  8. Presence of snow coverage and its thickness affected the mortality of overwintering pupae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Helicoverpa armigera causes serious damage to most crops around the world. However, the impacts of snow thickness on the H. armigera overwintering pupae are little known. A field experiment was employed in 2012-2015 at Urumqi, China. At soil depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm, overwintering pupae were embedded with four treatments: no snow cover (NSC), snow cover (SC), increasing snow thickness to 1.5 times the thickness of SC (ISSC-1), and to two times the thickness of SC (ISSC-2). Results suggested that snow cover and increasing snow thickness both significantly increased soil temperatures, which helped to decrease the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) of H. armigera. However, the MOP did not always decrease with increases in snow thickness. The MOPs in NSC and ISSC-1 were the highest and the lowest, respectively, though ISSC-2 had much thicker snow thickness than ISSC-1. A maximum snow thickness of 60 cm might lead to the lowest MOP. The longer the snow cover duration (SCD) at a soil depth of 10 cm in March and April was, the higher the MOP was. A thicker snow cover layer led to a higher soil moisture content (SMC) and a lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR). The highest and the lowest MOP were at a depth of 15 and 10 cm, respectively. The SMC at the depths of 10 and 15 cm had significant effects on MOP. A lower accumulated temperature (≤0 °C) led to a higher MOP. The DSTR in March of approximately 4.5 °C might cause the lowest MOP. The largest influence factor for the MOPs at depths of 5 and 10 cm and the combined data were the SCDs during the whole experimental period, and for the MOPs at a depth of 15 cm was the soil temperature in November.

  9. Daily thermal fluctuations experienced by pupae via rhythmic nursing behavior increase numbers of mushroom body microglomeruli in the adult ant brain

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    Agustina eFalibene

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Social insects control brood development by using different thermoregulatory strategies. Camponotus mus ants expose their brood to daily temperature fluctuations by translocating them inside the nest following a circadian rhythm of thermal preferences. At the middle of the photophase brood is moved to locations at 30.8°C; 8 h later, during the night, the brood is transferred back to locations at 27.5°C. We investigated whether daily thermal fluctuations experienced by developing pupae affect the neuroarchitecture in the adult brain, in particular in sensory input regions of the mushroom bodies (MB calyces. The complexity of synaptic microcircuits was estimated by quantifying MB-calyx volumes together with densities of presynaptic boutons of microglomeruli (MG in the olfactory lip and visual collar regions. We compared young adult workers that were reared either under controlled daily thermal fluctuations of different amplitudes, or at different constant temperatures. Thermal regimes significantly affected the large (non-dense olfactory lip region of the adult MB calyx, while changes in the dense lip and the visual collar were less evident. Thermal fluctuations mimicking the amplitudes of natural temperature fluctuations via circadian rhythmic translocation of pupae by nurses (amplitude 3.3°C lead to higher numbers of MG in the MB calyces compared to those in pupae reared at smaller or larger thermal amplitudes (0.0, 1.5, 9.6°C, or at constant temperatures (25.4, 35.0°C. We conclude that rhythmic control of brood temperature by nursing ants optimizes brain development by increasing MG densities and numbers in specific brain areas. Resulting differences in synaptic microcircuits are expected to affect sensory processing and learning abilities in adult ants, and may also promote interindividual behavioral variability within colonies.

  10. Nutrigenomics in Arma chinensis: transcriptome analysis of Arma chinensis fed on artificial diet and Chinese oak silk moth Antheraea pernyi pupae.

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    Deyu Zou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The insect predator, Arma chinensis, is capable of effectively controlling many pests, such as Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Our previous study demonstrated several life history parameters were diminished for A. chinensis reared on an artificial diet compared to a natural food source like the Chinese oak silk moth pupae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis health are unclear. So we utilized transcriptome information to better understand the impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis at the molecular level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina HiSeq2000 was used to sequence 4.79 and 4.70 Gb of the transcriptome from pupae-fed and artificial diet-fed A. chinensis libraries, respectively, and a de novo transcriptome assembly was performed (Trinity short read assembler. This resulted in 112,029 and 98,724 contigs, clustered into 54,083 and 54,169 unigenes for pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis, respectively. Unigenes from each sample's assembly underwent sequence splicing and redundancy removal to acquire non-redundant unigenes. We obtained 55,189 unigenes of A. chinensis, including 12,046 distinct clusters and 43,143 distinct singletons. Unigene sequences were aligned by BLASTx to nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG (E-value <10(-5, and further aligned by BLASTn to nt (E-value <10(-5, retrieving proteins of highest sequence similarity with the given unigenes along with their protein functional annotations. Totally, 22,964, 7,898, 18,069, 15,416, 8,066 and 5,341 unigenes were annotated in nr, nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG and GO, respectively. We compared gene expression variations and found thousands of genes were differentially expressed between pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides abundant genomic data and offers comprehensive sequence information for studying A. chinensis. Additionally, the physiological

  11. Gamma irradiation of the melon fly: laboratory studies of the sexual competitiveness of flies treated as pupae 2 days before eclosion or as 2-day-old adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.; Chatha, N.; Ohinata, K.; Harris, E.J.

    1975-01-01

    Gamma irradiation (6 krad 2 days before eclosion or 8 krad 2 days after eclosion) induced 98-99% sterility in a laboratory strain of male Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett. Comparable females with 4 krad at the same ages were completely infecund. In trials with 5:1:1 ratios of sterile males-normal males-normal females, sexual competitiveness of males sterilized with 8 krad as 2-day-old adults was similar to that of males treated as pupae with 6 krad. The suppression of the fertility of normal flies by the introduction of sterile females was negligible

  12. Biosurveillance and morphological variations of larvae and pupae of common malaria vectors, Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus group species in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Leopoldo M; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Debboun, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    A total of 4,576 Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus Group larvae belonging to 6 species (An. belenrae, An. kleini, An. sinensis, An. pullus, An. lesteri, and An. sineroides) were collected from 7 different habitat types in 3 provinces of the Republic of Korea. The occurrence and relative abundance of 6 Anopheles species were noted. The descriptions in the article of the waxy body ornamentations or patterns of An. (Ano.) Hyrcanus Group larvae and pupae may be useful for rapid field species identification when conducting larval mosquito surveillance.

  13. Progeny of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitising pupae of Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) of different ages; Progenie de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare e LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) parasitando pupas de Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera:Bombycidae) de diferentes idades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabricio F.; Favero, Kellen; Grance, Elizangela L.V. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Biologicas e Ambientais], e-mail: fabriciofagundes@ufgd.edu.br, e-mail: kellenfavero@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: eli_vargasgrance@yahoo.com.br; Zanuncio, Jose C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal], e-mail: zanuncio@ufv.br; Serrao, Jose E. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil), Dept. de Biologia Geral], e-mail: jeserrao@ufv.br; Oliveira, Harley N. [Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, MS (Brazil)], e-mail: harley@cpao.embrapa.br

    2009-09-15

    Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle is a natural pupal parasitoid of eucalyptus defoliator lepidopterans and is considered a promising biocontrol agent. However, the development of efficient rearing techniques for this natural enemy are fi rst required before it can be used in biocontrol programs. Bombyx mori L. pupae are potential alternative hosts for this parasitoid mass rearing, and they are easy to rear. Therefore, we investigated the most suitable host age and the effects of parasitoid age on progeny production of P. elaeisis. B. mori pupae, 24 h-, 48 h-, 72 h- or 96 h-old were exposed to P. elaeisis females of similar age. The duration of the life cycle (egg-adult) of P. elaeisis was not affected by the age of the parasitizing female; however, the host age affected parasitoid development. The best parasitization was obtained for 72h- to 96h-old parasitoid females when offered to 48h- to 72h-old host pupae, allowing the synchronized rearing of a large number of P. elaeisis offspring. (author)

  14. Primeiro relato do parasitóide Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitando pupas Sarcodexia lambens Wiedemann (Diptera: Sarcophagidae no Brasil First report on Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitizing pupae of Sarcodexia lambens Wiedemann (Diptera: Sarcophagidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência de Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitando estágios imaturos de Sarcodexia lambens Walker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae em fezes humanas no Brasil. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 18,2%.This work reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitizing immature stages of Sarcodexia lambens Walker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae in human feces in Brazil. The parasitism prevalence was 18.2%.

  15. Sperm production and mating potential of males after a cold shock on pupae of the parasitoid wasp Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoume, Sandrine; Bressac, Christophe; Chevrier, Claude

    2007-10-01

    For ectothermic species, temperature is a key environmental factor influencing several aspects of their physiology and ecology, acting particularly on reproduction. To measure the consequences of a severe thermal stress during development on male reproduction, a cold shock (1h at -18 degrees C) was tested on Dinarmus basalis pupae. D. basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a parasitoid wasp in which sperm management in both male and female is of prime importance. After a cold shock, developmental success was reduced, with a quarter of cold-shocked males not emerging correctly. The stress effects were estimated at the level of sperm stock in seminal vesicles of males at different ages and on the ability of 2-day-old males to access females in single and multiple mating and in male-male competition. Cold-shocked males had a reduced sperm stock compared to control males and this difference persisted with age. The rate of sperm production was similar in both groups. The consequences of a cold shock on male reproductive ability were perceptible in multiple mating and male-male competition but not in single mating. Cold-shocked males were at a disadvantage, inseminating fewer females and copulating less frequently. Finally, male pupae of D. basalis were able to withstand severe temperature stresses and their reproductive functions were partially preserved.

  16. Correlating Remote Sensing Data with the Abundance of Pupae of the Dengue Virus Mosquito Vector, Aedes aegypti, in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max J. Moreno-Madriñán

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using a geographic transect in Central Mexico, with an elevation/climate gradient, but uniformity in socio-economic conditions among study sites, this study evaluates the applicability of three widely-used remote sensing (RS products to link weather conditions with the local abundance of the dengue virus mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti. Field-derived entomological measures included estimates for the percentage of premises with the presence of Ae. aegypti pupae and the abundance of Ae. aegypti pupae per premises. Data on mosquito abundance from field surveys were matched with RS data and analyzed for correlation. Daily daytime and nighttime land surface temperature (LST values were obtained from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS/Aqua cloud-free images within the four weeks preceding the field survey. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM-estimated rainfall accumulation was calculated for the four weeks preceding the field survey. Elevation was estimated through a digital elevation model (DEM. Strong correlations were found between mosquito abundance and RS-derived night LST, elevation and rainfall along the elevation/climate gradient. These findings show that RS data can be used to predict Ae. aegypti abundance, but further studies are needed to define the climatic and socio-economic conditions under which the correlations observed herein can be assumed to apply.

  17. DIVERGENCIA LATITUDINAL EN LA COMUNICACION ACUSTICA DE PLEURODEMA THAUL

    OpenAIRE

    VELASQUEZ SOTO, NELSON ANDRES

    2011-01-01

    La comunicación es un proceso por medio del cual se lleva a cabo la transferencia de información entre un emisor y un receptor. Este proceso es particularmente impmtante en la evolución de las especies que utilizan señales comunicativas durante la reproducción, ya que éstas se constituyen en barreras precigóticas, promoviendo el aislamiento reproductivo y la especiación. La variación intraespecífica de las señales producidas por los emisores y las respuestas conductuales desple...

  18. Analise elasto-acustica de casos axi-simetricas

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Nilton Martini

    1996-01-01

    Resumo: Neste trabalho estuda-se o problema elasto-acústico de cascas axisimétricas interagindo com fluido interior. Os modelos matemáticos para casca axi-simétrica, para fluido e para acoplamento são apresentados na forma de equações diferenciais. A partir das equações diferenciais são obtidas formas integrais associadas, utilizando o método dos resíduos ponderados. Assume-se uma solução harmônica para o problema. O Método dos Elementos Finitos, (MEF), aplicado as equações integrais, é utili...

  19. A simple, fast, and inexpensive CTAB-PVP-silica based method for genomic DNA isolation from single, small insect larvae and pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanca-Mamani, W; Rivera-Cabello, D; Maita-Maita, J

    2015-07-17

    In this study, we report a modified CTAB-PVP method combined with silicon dioxide (silica) treatment for the extraction of high quality genomic DNA from a single larva or pupa. This method efficiently obtains DNA from small specimens, which is difficult and challenging because of the small amount of starting tissue. Maceration with liquid nitrogen, phenol treatment, and the ethanol precipitation step are eliminated using this methodology. The A260/A280 absorbance ratios of the isolated DNA were approximately 1.8, suggesting that the DNA is pure and can be used for further molecular analysis. The quality of the isolated DNA permits molecular applications and represents a fast, cheap, and effective alternative method for laboratories with low budgets.

  20. Leafcutter bee nests and pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: implications for understanding the paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Holden

    Full Text Available The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ∼23,000-40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower

  1. Actividades enzimáticas en aislamientos bacterianos de tractos digestivos de larvas y del contenido de pupas de Automeris zugana y Rothschildia lebeau (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Pinto-Tomás

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El tracto digestivo de orugas constituye un microambiente extremo, debido a su elevado pH y presencia de sustancias antimicrobianas secretadas por el insecto o derivadas del tejido vegetal ingerido. Al mismo tiempo, el intestino alberga gran cantidad de alimento, por el cual los microorganismos presentes podrían competir entre sí y con su hospedero. Existe poca información sobre la microbiota asociada con el intestino de orugas tropicales, aunque se ha demostrado la presencia de bacterias de diversos géneros tanto en el intestino como en el interior de pupas. El estudio de las actividades enzimáticas de estos microorganismos constituye un punto de partida en la comprensión de la posible relación metabólica y fisiológica que establecen con sus hospederos, a la vez que permite investigar enzimas con potenciales aplicaciones biotecnológicas. En este trabajo se evaluó la presencia de actividades gelatinolítica, caseinolítica, esterásica, lipolítica, quitinolítica, amilásica, celulolítica y xilanolítica en dos colecciones de aislamientos bacterianos provenientes de tractos digestivos de orugas y de pupas de los lepidópteros Automeris zugana y Rothschildia lebeau. Se utilizaron ensayos bioquímicos tradicionales para detectar enzimas secretadas en condiciones aerobias, en las que ambas colecciones exhibieron un comportamiento enzimático similar. Ningún aislamiento produjo un resultado positivo en todas las pruebas, pero como conjunto ambas colecciones fueron capaces de utilizar todos los sustratos evaluados. Los aislamientos obtenidos de pupas presentaron prácticamente las mismas actividades que sus homólogos provenientes de intestinos. En ambas colecciones fue posible agrupar los aislamientos de acuerdo con su patrón de producción de enzimas. Además de un conjunto heterogéneo de aislamientos poco activos (dos o menos actividades, se destacan dos grupos muy activos (al menos cinco actividades, que manifiestan una aparente

  2. Effects of juvenile hormone and ecdysone on the timing of vitellogenin appearance in hemolymph of queen and worker pupae of Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Roberto Barchuk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The caste-specific regulation of vitellogenin synthesis in the honeybee represents a problem with many yet unresolved details. We carried out experiments to determine when levels of vitellogenin are first detected in hemolymph of female castes of Apis mellifera, and whether juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids modulate this process. Vitellogenin levels were measured in hemolymph using immunological techniques. We show that in both castes the appearance of vitellogenin in the hemolymph occurs during the pupal period, but the timing was different in the queen and worker. Vitellogenin appears in queens during an early phase of cuticle pigmentation approximately 60h before eclosion, while in workers the appearance of vitellogenin is more delayed, initiating in the pharate adult stage, approximately 10h before eclosion. The timing of vitellogenin appearance in both castes coincides with a slight increase in endogenous levels of juvenile hormone that occurs at the end of pupal development. The correlation between these events was corroborated by topical application of juvenile hormone. Exogenous juvenile hormone advanced the timing of vitellogenin appearance in both castes, but caste-specific differences in timing were maintained. Injection of actinomycin D prevented the response to juvenile hormone. In contrast, queen and worker pupae that were treated with ecdysone showed a delay in the appearance of vitellogenin. These data suggest that queens and workers share a common control mechanism for the timing of vitellogenin synthesis, involving an increase in juvenile hormone titers in the presence of low levels of ecdysteroids.

  3. Parasitóides de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae coletados em Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil Parasitoids of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae collected in Caldas Novas, Goiás, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com este estudo, objetivou-se verificar as espécies de insetos parasitando Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidaeem Caldas Novas, Goiás, de agosto de 2003 a maio de 2004, empregando como atrativo de alimentação iscas formadas por fezes humanas, fígado bovino e peixe, com pupas sendo isoladas pelo método da flutuação, em água e individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas e/ou dos seus parasitóides. As porcentagens de parasitismo apresentada por Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, Spalangia nigra Latrielle, 1805 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae Paraganaspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh., 1996 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae e Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae foram de 4,3, 1,5 0,9 e 0,6%, respectivamente. A porcentagem total de parasitismo observada foi de 7,4%. Relata-se a primeira ocorrência de S. nigra em pupas de F. pusio no Brasil.The aim of this study was to report the insect species parasitizing Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae, in Caldas Novas, State of Goiás, between August 2003 and May 2004. Flies were attracted to baits consisting of human feces, bovine liver and fish, with the pupae being isolated by the flotation method, in water, and individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the flies and/or their parasitoids. The parasitism percentages presented by Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, Spalangia nigra Latrielle, 1805 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, Paraganaspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh, 1996 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae were 4.3, 1.5, 0.9 and 0.6%, respectively. The total percentage of parasitism was 7.4%. This study reports the first occurrence of S. nigra in pupae of F. pusio in Brazil.

  4. Quantitative determination of juvenile hormone III and 20-hydroxyecdysone in queen larvae and drone pupae of Apis mellifera by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinhui; Qi, Yitao; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yi; Xue, Xiaofeng; Wu, Liming; Zhang, Jinzhen; Chen, Fang

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a method for the rapid and sensitive analysis of juvenile hormone III (JH III) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in queen larvae and drone pupae samples was presented. Ultrasound-assisted extraction provided a significant shortening of the leaching time for the extraction of JH III and 20E and satisfactory sensitivity as compared to the conventional shake extraction procedure. After extraction, determination was carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operating in electrospray ionization positive ion mode via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) without any clean-up step prior to analysis. A linear gradient consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid, and a ZORBAX SB-Aq column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) were employed to obtain the best resolution of the target analytes. The method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification, recovery, matrix effects, precision and stability. Drone pupae samples were found to contain 20E at concentrations of 18.0 ± 0.1 ng/g (mean ± SD) and JH III was detected at concentrations of 0.20 ± 0.06 ng/g (mean ± SD) in queen larvae samples. This validated method provided some practical information for the actual content of JH III and 20E in queen larvae and drone pupae samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Aspectos biológicos de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick 1909 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em dietas artificiais com diferentes fontes proteicas Biological aspects of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick, 1909 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in artificial diets with different protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Manfredi-Coimbra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se aspectos da biologia de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick em dietas artificiais com diferentes fontes proteicas: D1-feijão branco, germe de trigo, proteína de soja e caseína; D2-feijão carioca e levedura de cerveja e D3-feijão carioca, levedura de cerveja e germe de trigo, avaliando-se a duração e viabilidade e todas as fases de desenvolvimento desse inseto (ovo, lagarta, pré-pupa e pupa e do ciclo total (ovo-adulto, razão sexual, peso de pupas, fecundidade, longevidade e tabela de vida de fertilidade. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório a 25±1°C, 65±10% UR e fotofase de 14 horas. A duração da fase de ovo foi de 6,6 dias nas três dietas. A maior duração das fases lagarta e pré-pupa foi em D1 e de pupa em D2, resultando em maior duração do ciclo total nestas duas dietas (30,9 e 30,8 dias. A viabilidade total foi superior a 62% em todas as dietas, independente da fonte proteica. O número de ínstares foi de quatro a cinco nas três dietas. A menor fecundidade foi observada em D1. Através da tabela de vida de fertilidade, a dieta D3 foi a mais adequada para criação de A. sphaleropa por ter proporcionado menor duração de desenvolvimento (T, maior razão finita de aumento (l e viabilidade total superior a 75%.Biology aspects of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick fed on artificial diets with different protein sources were studied: D1-white bean, wheat germ, soybean protein and casein; D2-common bean and yeast and D3-common bean, yeast and wheat germ, evaluating the duration and viability of all developmental stages (egg, larval, prepupa and pupa and of the total cycle (egg-adult, sex ratio, pupa weight, fecundity, longevity and life table of fertility. Tests were conducted in the laboratory at 25±1°C, 65±10% RH and 14h of photophase. Duration of the egg stage was 6.6 days on all diets. The longest duration of larval and prepupal stages on D1 and pupal stages on D2, resulting in a longer duration of the

  6. Toxicity of some insecticides to F1 progeny of the cotton leaf worm; Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) gamma irradiated as parental pupae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shall, S.S.A.; Hazaa, M.A.M.; Alm El-Din, M.M.S.

    2006-01-01

    The response of the F1 Progeny of Cotton Leaf worm; Spodoptera littoralis Boisd, (from male irradiated as parental pupae with 0, 50, 100 and 150 Gy of gamma irradiation) to Silicron, Atabron and Catabroun were studied. The lethal concentration doses of insecticides that kill 10,50 and 90 % of population (LC 10 , LC 50 and LC 90 ); The lethal time that kill 50% of population (LT 50 ) and the Tolerance Ratio(T.R) to the different previous insecticides were employed as parameters for measuring the response of irradiated and un-irradiated progeny. The results indicated that, the dose of irradiation and time post insecticides application had a great role in alter the response of F1 progeny of S. littoralis to the different-insecticides. Also, gamma irradiation increased the toxicity of Silicron at 2 and 4 days post insecticide treatments. By time elapsing after insecticide application the irradiated larvae became virtually the same degree of susceptibility as compared to non-irradiated ones. As well, 50 Gy slightly alter the toxicity of Atabron, while population irradiated with 100 and 150 Gy showed a high level of susceptibility to Atabron at 22 and 26 days post insecticide treatments as compared to un-irradiated population. In addition, the toxicity of Catabroun increased in case of irradiated population at most of interval time post insecticide treatments as compared to un-irradiated ones. Furthermore, a Comparison was made and discussed between the susceptibility of irradiated population only, population treated with insecticides only and population treated with both insecticides and radiation by using the standard parameter LT 50

  7. Detrimental effect of rutin on Anticarsia gemmatalis Efeito prejudicial de rutina em Anticarsia gemmatalis

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    Clara Beatriz Hoffmann-Campo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and nutritional effect of rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinosídeo on Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lep.: Noctuidae, a major soybean defoliator in Brazil, was evaluated from the third instar to pupation. Rutin is one of the flavonol glycosides identified in the leaves of the wild soybean PI 227687. Larval weight and amount of ingested food decreased as rutin concentration in the diet increase. An interactive effect between feeding time and diet (treatment was observed on insect growth; when larvae fed on pure-diet, feeding time elongation resulted in heavier pupae. Differently, the weight of larvae fed on rutin-diet remained almost stable, in spite of eating for longer. A. gemmatalis growth was negatively influenced by rutin-diet not only by feeding deterrence but also by post-ingestive effect on insect growth, since after adjustment of pupal weight by the amount of ingested food (covariate, the effect of diet remained significant. Rutin negatively influenced A. gemmatalis growth as result of pre-ingestive effect, indicated by reduction in food consumption, and post-ingestive effect, indicated by lower conversion of ingested food into body mass and food assimilation.O efeito de dieta contendo rutina (quercetina 3-O-rutinosídeo no comportamento e na nutrição do principal desfolhador da soja, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lep.: Noctuidae foi avaliado do terceiro ínstar até a formação da pupa. Rutina é um dos flavonóis glicosídicos identificados em folhas da soja selvagem PI 227687. O peso das lagartas e o consumo decresceram com o aumento na concentração de rutina na dieta. Houve interação entre o tempo de alimentação e a dieta no crescimento do inseto; lagartas alimentadas com dieta pura, cujo tempo de alimentação prolongou-se, originaram pupas mais pesadas. O peso das pupas alimentadas com dieta contendo rutina permaneceu estável, apesar do maior tempo de alimentação. Rutina afetou negativamente o crescimento do inseto

  8. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

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    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv. Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem> is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various <em>E. songoricumem> plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions.<em> EsEFem> and <em>Esα-TUB> were sufficient for various stress conditions, <em>EsEF> and <em>EsACT> were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and <em>EsGAPDH>and <em>Es>UBQ em>were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The <em>Es18Sem> gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor <em>EsDREB2em>> em>verified the utility of<em> E. songoricumem> reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in <em>E. songoricumem>, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  9. The single water-surface sweep estimation method accurately estimates very low (n = 4) to low-moderate (n = 25-100) and high (n > 100) Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) pupae numbers in large water containers up to 13 times faster than the exhaustive sweep and total count method and without any sediment contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Vivas, C M; Llinás, H; Falconar, A K

    2015-03-01

    To confirm that a single water-surface sweep-net collection coupled with three calibration factors (2.6, 3.0 and 3.5 for 1/3, 2/3 and 3/3 water levels, respectively) (WSCF) could accurately estimate very low to high Aedes aegypti pupae numbers in water containers more rapidly than the exhaustive 5-sweep and total count (ESTC) method recommended by WHO. Both methods were compared in semi-field trials using low (n = 25) to moderate (n = 50-100) pupae numbers in a 250-l drum at 1/3, 2/3 and 3/3 water levels, and by their mean-time determinations using 200 pupae in three 220- to 1024-l water containers at these water levels. Accuracy was further assessed using 69.1% (393/569) of the field-based drums and tanks which contained  100) pupae numbers/container and without sediment disturbance. The simple WSCF method sensitively, accurately and robustly estimated total pupae numbers in their principal breeding sites worldwide, containers with >20 l water volumes, significantly (2.7- to 13.0-fold: all P-values water by sediment disturbance which is generated using the WHO-recommended ESTC method. The WSCF method seems ideal for global community-based surveillance and control programmes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Produtividade de criadouro de Aedes albopictus em ambiente urbano

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O encontro de Aedes albopictus na cidade de Cananéia, região Sudeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, ensejou a ocasião de realizar observações que visassem avaliar a produtividade de criadouro grande e permanente. Como objetivo, após selecionar o habitat a ser estudado, tentou-se avaliar-lhe a contribuição para a densidade local do mosquito. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Em área predeterminada procedeu-se a levantamento de criadouros potenciais. Constatada a presença da espécie, foi selecionado um dos recipientes que preenchia os requisitos desejados. O acompanhamento foi feito de maneira ininterrupta, no período de novembro de 1996 a maio de 1997. As observações obdeceram a ritmo quinzenal retirando, cada vez, amostra da água correspondente a 0,14, ou seja, um sétimo do volume total de 70 litros. Procurou-se coletar, identificar e numerar, por sexo, as pupas existentes. Concomitantemente, procedeu-se à captura de formas adultas. Foi utilizada a isca humana das 15:00 às 18:00h, instalada a cerca de 6 metros do mencionado criadouro. Finda essa coleta, foi feita aspiração com 30 min. de duração em locais de abrigo representados pela abundante vegetação circunjacente. RESULTADOS: Nas coletas de formas imaturas do criadouro, o Ae. albopictus compareceu com 44,9%. Ao longo de 15 amostras regularmente realizadas obteve-se a média de 31,13 pupas pertencentes a essa espécie. O índice de emergência(E foi de 2,1. A multiplicação desse valor por sete forneceu a média diária de 14,7 fêmeas. Nas coletas de adultos desse sexo, a média de Williams para a isca humana foi de 30,7, enquanto a densidade média horária da aspiração dos locais de abrigo foi de 9,2. O cálculo do acúmulo diário concluiu pela presença de 22,8 fêmeas, por dia, capazes de freqüentar a isca humana, nessa situação e condições. DISCUSSÃO: A contagem de pupas possibilitou estimar a produtividade de criadouro de Ae. albopictus, tipo grande

  11. Produtividade de criadouro de Aedes albopictus em ambiente urbano

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    Forattini Oswaldo Paulo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O encontro de Aedes albopictus na cidade de Cananéia, região Sudeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, ensejou a ocasião de realizar observações que visassem avaliar a produtividade de criadouro grande e permanente. Como objetivo, após selecionar o habitat a ser estudado, tentou-se avaliar-lhe a contribuição para a densidade local do mosquito. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Em área predeterminada procedeu-se a levantamento de criadouros potenciais. Constatada a presença da espécie, foi selecionado um dos recipientes que preenchia os requisitos desejados. O acompanhamento foi feito de maneira ininterrupta, no período de novembro de 1996 a maio de 1997. As observações obdeceram a ritmo quinzenal retirando, cada vez, amostra da água correspondente a 0,14, ou seja, um sétimo do volume total de 70 litros. Procurou-se coletar, identificar e numerar, por sexo, as pupas existentes. Concomitantemente, procedeu-se à captura de formas adultas. Foi utilizada a isca humana das 15:00 às 18:00h, instalada a cerca de 6 metros do mencionado criadouro. Finda essa coleta, foi feita aspiração com 30 min. de duração em locais de abrigo representados pela abundante vegetação circunjacente. RESULTADOS: Nas coletas de formas imaturas do criadouro, o Ae. albopictus compareceu com 44,9%. Ao longo de 15 amostras regularmente realizadas obteve-se a média de 31,13 pupas pertencentes a essa espécie. O índice de emergência(E foi de 2,1. A multiplicação desse valor por sete forneceu a média diária de 14,7 fêmeas. Nas coletas de adultos desse sexo, a média de Williams para a isca humana foi de 30,7, enquanto a densidade média horária da aspiração dos locais de abrigo foi de 9,2. O cálculo do acúmulo diário concluiu pela presença de 22,8 fêmeas, por dia, capazes de freqüentar a isca humana, nessa situação e condições. DISCUSSÃO: A contagem de pupas possibilitou estimar a produtividade de criadouro de Ae. albopictus, tipo grande

  12. Ultrafast Screening of a Novel, Moderately Hydrophilic Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme-Inhibitory Peptide, RYL, from Silkworm Pupa Using an Fe-Doped-Silkworm-Excrement-Derived Biocarbon: Waste Conversion by Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Wei, Yanan; Chang, Qing; Sun, Huaju; Chai, Kungang; Huang, Zuqiang; Zhao, Zhenxia; Zhao, Zhongxing

    2017-12-27

    A novel, moderately hydrophilic peptide (RYL) with high ACE-inhibitory activity was screened ultrafast via a concept of waste conversion using waste. This novel peptide was screened from silkworm pupa using an Fe-doped porous biocarbon (FL/Z-SE) derived from silkworm excrement. FL/Z-SE possessed magnetic properties and specific selection for peptides due to Fe's dual functions. The selected RYL, which has moderate hydrophilicity (LogP = -0.22), exhibited a comparatively high ACE-inhibitory activity (IC 50 = 3.31 ± 0.11 μM). The inhibitory kinetics and docking-simulation results show that, as a competitive ACE inhibitor, RYL formed five hydrogen bonds with the ACE residues in the S1 and S2 pockets. In this work, both the screening carbon material and the selected ACE-inhibitory peptide were derived from agricultural waste (silkworm excrement and pupa), which offers a new way of thinking about the development of advanced uses of the silkworm byproducts and wastes.

  13. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of Cd (II Complex with <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine

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    Xishi Tai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new trinuclear Cd (II complex [Cd3(L6(2,2-bipyridine3] [L =<em> Nem>-phenylsulfonyl-L>-leucinato] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The results show that the complex belongs to the orthorhombic, space group<em> Pem>212121 with<em> aem> = 16.877(3 Å, <em>b> em>= 22.875(5 Å, <em>c em>= 29.495(6 Å, <em>α> em>= <emem>= <emem>= 90°, <em>V> em>= 11387(4 Å3, <em>Z> em>= 4, <em>Dc>= 1.416 μg·m−3, <emem>= 0.737 mm−1, <em>F> em>(000 = 4992, and final <em>R>1 = 0.0390, <em>ωR>2 = 0.0989. The complex comprises two seven-coordinated Cd (II atoms, with a N2O5 distorted pengonal bipyramidal coordination environment and a six-coordinated Cd (II atom, with a N2O4 distorted octahedral coordination environment. The molecules form one dimensional chain structure by the interaction of bridged carboxylato groups, hydrogen bonds and p-p interaction of 2,2-bipyridine. The luminescent properties of the Cd (II complex and <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine in solid and in CH3OH solution also have been investigated.

  14. Larval and pupal stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in sweet and field corn genotypes Fases larval e pupal de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em genótipos de milho doce e comum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Santos

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm, is a very significant polyphagous pest due to the damages it causes, and control difficulties. Lack of information about its impact on sweet corn motivated a comparison of its biology, with respect to the larval and pupal stages, among the genotypes ELISA, BR 400 (sweet corns, and BR PAMPA (field corn. In laboratory conditions (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% RH; photophase 12 hours, 35 caterpillars were individualized and fed daily with 3.14 cm² sections of corn leaves from the referred-to genotypes, cultivated in plots in the experimental area of the Departament of Fitossanidade, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS from October to November 2000. The caterpillars were weighed daily; after each molt, the cephalic capsules were collected and measured (in width, to establish growth rate; pupae were weighed and sexed when 24 hours old. The duration of the larval instars, the pupal sex ratio, and the mortality of larvae and pupae were evaluated. In the first three instars there were no differences registered in capsule width. In the fourth and fifth instars, capsules of caterpillars kept in BR 400 were smaller. The weight of caterpillars and pupae, instar duration and sex ratio did not differ among the genotypes. Pupal phase duration was less in females kept in BR 400. Mortality was greater in the larval phase in ELISA and in the pupal phase in BR PAMPA.Spodoptera frugiperda, a lagarta-do-cartucho-do-milho, é uma praga polífaga de grande importância agrícola pelos danos e dificuldade de controle. A ausência de informações sobre seu impacto em milho doce motivou a comparação de sua biologia, no que tange as fases larval e pupal, entre os genótipos de milho ELISA, BR 400 (milhos doces e BR PAMPA (milho comum. Em condições de laboratório (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% UR; fotofase 12 horas, 35 lagartas foram individualizadas e alimentadas, diariamente, com seções de folhas de 3,14 cm² dos referidos genótipos, provenientes

  15. Persistência e eficácia do regulador de crescimento pyriproxyfen em condições de laboratório para Aedes aegypti Persistence and efficacy of growth regulator pyriproxyfen in laboratory conditions for Aedes aegypti

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    Marcelo Carvalho de Resende

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A persistência e a eficácia do regulador de crescimento pyriproxyfen foram testadas em concentrações de 0,01 e 0,05ppm, contra larvas de Aedes aegypti, utilizando os recipientes caixas d'água (45 litros, frascos de vidro (5 litros e baldes de plástico (20 litros. As avaliações foram nos dias 1, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 e 120 após o tratamento usando larvas de 3º e 4º estádio de Aedes aegypti. Foi calculado o percentual de mortalidade de larvas, pupas e adultos, percentual de inibição de emergência de adulto e duração dos bioensaios. Observou-se que a persistência foi de 45 dias e 90 dias para concentração final de 0,01 e 0,05ppm de pyriproxyfen, respectivamente. Observamos que a mortalidade de pupas foi significativamente maior que a de larvas e de adultos para todos os recipientes e concentrações.The persistence and efficacy of growth regulator pyriproxyfen were evaluated in two final concentrations 0.01 and 0.05ppm against Aedes aegypti larvae in laboratory conditions using three types of containers: cement box (45 liters, glass bottle (5 litersand plastic bucket (20 liters. The tests were carried after 1, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 days of treatment against Aedes aegypti larvae 3rd and 4th instar. The percentages of larvae, pupae and adult mortality, the percentage of adult emergence inhibition and time duration of bioassays were calculated. A was observed a persistence of 45 and 90 days by using 0.01 and 0.05ppm final concentrations of pyriproxyfen, respectively, was observed. We observed that mortality in the pupa stage was significantly higher than larvae and adults mortality for all containers and concentrations.

  16. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Three <em>FLOWERING LOCUS T (FTem> Homologous Genes from Chinese <em>Cymbidium>

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    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The <em>FLOWERING LOCUS Tem> (<em>FT> gene plays crucial roles in regulating the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase. To understand the molecular mechanism of reproduction, three homologous <em>FT> genes were isolated and characterized from <em>Cymbidium sinenseem> “Qi Jian Bai Mo”, <em>Cymbidium goeringiiem> and <em>Cymbidium ensifoliumem> “Jin Si Ma Wei”. The three genes<em> em>contained 618-bp nucleotides with a 531-bp open reading frame (ORF of encoding 176 amino acids (AAs. Alignment of the AA sequences revealed that CsFT, CgFT and CeFT contain a conserved domain, which is characteristic of the<em> em>PEBP-RKIP superfamily, and which share high identity with FT of other plants in GenBank: 94% with OnFT<em> em>from <em>Oncidium em>Gower Ramsey, 79% with Hd3a from <em>Oryza sativaem>, and 74% with FT from <em>Arabidopsis thalianaem>. qRT-PCR analysis showed a diurnal expression pattern of <em>CsFT>, <em>CgFT> and <em>CeFT> following both long day (LD, 16-h light/8-h dark and short day (SD, 8-h light/16-h dark treatment. While the transcripts of both <em>CsFT em>and <em>CeFT em>under LD were significantly higher than under SD, those of <em>CgFT em>were> em>higher under SD. Ectopic expression of <em>CgFT> in transgenic <em>Arabidopsis> plants resulted in early flowering compared to wild-type plants and significant up-regulation of <em>APETALA1em> (<em>AP1em> expression. Our data indicates that CgFT is a putative phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene in <em>Cymbidium> that may regulate the vegetative to reproductive transition in flowers, similar to its <em>Arabidopsis> ortholog.

  17. <em>α>-Glucosidase Inhibitory Constituents from <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harm Leaves

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    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new triterpene glycoside, 3-<em>O-[(α>-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2]-[<em>β>-D-glucuronopyranosyl-6-<em>O>-methyl ester]-olean-12-ene-28-olic acid (1 and a new indole alkaloid, 5-methoxy-2-oxoindolin-3-acetic acid methyl ester (5 were isolated from the leaves of <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harms along with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of 2D-NMR experiments and chemical methods. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their glycosidase inhibition activities and compound 6 showed significant <em>α>-glucosidase inhibition activity.

  18. Parâmetros biológicos da lagarta falsa-medideira em cultivares de algodoeiro com as proteínas Cry1Ac e Cry1F

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    Daniela de Lima Viana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de cultivares transgênicas de algodoeiro que expressam as proteínas Cry1Ac e Cry1F, nos parâmetros biológicos da lagarta falsa-medideira (Chrysodeixis includens. Lagartas neonatas foram alimentadas durante toda a fase larval com folhas de cultivares transgênicas e de suas isolinhas convencionais. Na cultivar Nuopal (Bollgard I (Cry1Ac, 62% das lagartas sobreviveram e se transformaram em pupas normais. A cultivar FM 975 (WideStrike (Cry1Ac e Cry1F é letal para lagartas de primeiro instar, com 100% de mortalidade.

  19. Parâmetros biológicos da lagarta falsa-medideira em cultivares de algodoeiro com as proteínas Cry1Ac e Cry1F

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela de Lima Viana; Jacob Crosariol Netto; Oniel Jeremías Aguirre-Gil; Antonio Carlos Busoli

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de cultivares transgênicas de algodoeiro que expressam as proteínas Cry1Ac e Cry1F, nos parâmetros biológicos da lagarta falsa-medideira (Chrysodeixis includens). Lagartas neonatas foram alimentadas durante toda a fase larval com folhas de cultivares transgênicas e de suas isolinhas convencionais. Na cultivar Nuopal (Bollgard I) (Cry1Ac), 62% das lagartas sobreviveram e se transformaram em pupas normais. A cultivar FM 975 (WideStrike) (Cry1Ac e...

  20. Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters <em>in em>Vivo> and <em>in em>Vitro> Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs

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    Chad H. Stahl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4 deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P, supra-adequate (1.2% total P in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured <em>in vitroem> for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (<em>P> < 0.05 feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. <em>In vivoem> satellite cell proliferation was reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered <em>in vitroem> expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted.

  1. Flutuação populacional de curculionídeos-das-raízes em citros Population dynamics of root weevils in citrus

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    Jerson Vanderlei Carús Guedes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi estudar a flutuação populacional de curculionídeos-das-raízes em citros. Foram feitas amostragens quinzenais das fases de larva, de pupa e adulta, em laranjeiras de quatro fazendas, em Itapetininga, São Paulo, de março de 2000 a fevereiro de 2002. A emergência dos adultos foi quantificada em gaiolas sob a copa das plantas e a população de adultos, na copa das plantas, com pano-de-batida; as larvas e pupas em trincheiras abertas no solo, sob a copa das plantas. Com base na flutuação populacional das fases, é possível afirmar que os insetos são univoltinos. A maioria dos adultos emergiu de outubro a abril, com picos no início do período. Foram encontradas as espécies Parapantomorus fluctuosus (Boheman, Naupactus cervinus Boheman e Naupactus versatilis Hustache, sendo as duas últimas as mais freqüentes, embora com picos em épocas diferentes. Ocorreram larvas praticamente o ano inteiro, com picos populacionais no período de junho a janeiro. A população de curculionídeos foi menor no segundo ano de estudo, provavelmente em conseqüência da estiagem. Dentre as fases estudadas, os adultos e as larvas, amostrados com pano-de-batida e em trincheiras no solo, podem servir para detecção, quantificação e previsão da ocorrência dos curculionídeos-das-raízes dos citros.The goal of this study was to evaluate the population dynamics of citrus root weevils. Samples of the larval, pupa and adult phases were taken every 15 days in four citrus farms in Itapetininga, State of São Paulo, Brazil, between March, 2000 and February, 2002. The emergence of adults was evaluated in cages under plant canopy and the adult population at plant canopy with a beating cloth; larvae and the pupae in ditches opened in the soil, under plant crowns. Based on the population dynamics, the insects are univoltine. Most adults emerged from October to April, with peaks at the beginning of the period. Species Parapantomorus

  2. Constituents from <em>Vigna em>vexillata> and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of <em>Vigna em>genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of<em> V. vexillata em>demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of <em>V. vexillataem>. One new sterol (1 and two new isoflavones (2,3 were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23, abscisic acid (25, and quercetin (40 displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release.

  3. Trealose e trealase em tenebrio molitor L Trehalose and Trehalase in Tenebrio molitor L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Piedras Lopes

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a concentração em trealose e a atividade em trealase do Tenebrio molitor L. durante as tres fases da metamorfose (larva, ninfa, imago. Verificou-se que na larva e no adulto os valores são mais elevados conforme a curva da fig. 3. A trealose foi expressa em mg/g de Tenebrio e a trealose por µg de glicose/mg proteina.Trehalose and trehalase were determined in the Tenebrio molitor L., using larva, pupa and imago. A total number of 895 animals was analyzed. A growth curve up to the end of the larval stage was established (Fig. 1 and compared with the normal one obtained by Fraenkel. It was shown that trehalose and trehalase are more concentrated in the larva and imago presenting a curve with two arms as depicted in the Fig. 3. Trehalase was expressed in mg/g of Tenebrio and trehalase in µg of glucose /mg proteín.

  4. Dermatoses em renais cronicos em terapia dialitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Batista Peres

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: As desordens cutâneas e das mucosas são comuns em pacientes em hemodiálise a longo prazo. A diálise prolonga a expectativa de vida, dando tempo para a manifestação destas anormalidades. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de problemas dermatológicos em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC em hemodiálise. Métodos: Cento e quarenta e cinco pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise foram estudados. Todos os pacientes foram completamente analisados para as alterações cutâneas, de cabelos, mucosas e unhas por um único examinador e foram coletados dados de exames laboratoriais. Os dados foram armazenados em um banco de dados do Microsolft Excel e analisados por estatística descritiva. As variáveis contínuas foram comparadas pelo teste t de Student e as variáveis categóricas utilizando o teste do qui-quadrado ou o teste Exato de Fischer, conforme adequado. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 145 pacientes, com idade média de 53,6 ± 14,7 anos, predominantemente do sexo masculino (64,1% e caucasianos (90,0%. O tempo médio de diálise foi de 43,3 ± 42,3 meses. As principais doenças subjacentes foram: hipertensão arterial em 33,8%, diabetes mellitus em 29,6% e glomerulonefrite crônica em 13,1%. As principais manifestações dermatológicas observadas foram: xerose em 109 (75,2%, equimose em 87 (60,0%, prurido em 78 (53,8% e lentigo em 33 (22,8% pacientes. Conclusão: O nosso estudo mostrou a presença de mais do que uma dermatose por paciente. As alterações cutâneas são frequentes em pacientes em diálise. Mais estudos são necessários para melhor caracterização e manejo destas dermatoses.

  5. Ação do fungo Beauveria bassiana, isolado 986, sobre o ciclo biológico do cascudinho Alphitobius diaperinus em laboratório Action of the fungus Beauveria bassiana, strain 986, over the biologic cycle of the Alphitobius diaperinus beetle in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado para verificar a eficácia do fungo Beauveria bassiana em todas as etapas de desenvolvimento de Alphitobius diaperinus e assim saber em que fase ele é mais susceptível ao controle biológico. O fungo B. bassiana, isolado 986, foi testado em duas concentrações (3,4 X 10(6 e 3,4 X 10(8 conídios ml-1 mais um grupo controle. Foram realizadas duas leituras, uma sete e outra quatorze dias após a aplicação dos fungos. Na concentração 3,4 X 10(6, 54% dos ovos tratados estavam inférteis, ocorrendo 54% de mortalidade de larvas tratadas nos estádios I, II e III, 22,5% nos estádios IV, V e VI, 9,5% nos estádios VII e VIII e 24,5% de mortalidade das pupas. Na concentração 3,4 X 10(8, 66,8% dos ovos tratados estavam inviáveis, ocorrendo mortalidade de 56% das larvas tratadas nos estádios I, II e III, 34% nos estádios IV, V e VI, 24,5% nos estádios VII e VIII e 49,5% das pupas. Já no grupo controle, 13,3% dos ovos estavam inviáveis, ocorrendo mortalidade de 10% das larvas nos estádios I, II e III, 4% nos estádios IV, V e VI e 0% de mortalidade nos estádios VII, VIII e em pupas. Sobre o cascudinho adulto, o fungo não teve efeito nocivo em nenhum grupo analisado. Com base nesses resultados, observou-se que o fungo nas concentrações testadas apresentou efeito nocivo às fases do ciclo biológico do cascudinho, com exceção do inseto adulto.The present research was carried out to verify the Beauveria bassiana fungus efficacy in all development phases of Alphitobius diaperinus and to know in which phase it is more susceptible for biologic control. The B. bassiana, 986-isolated fungus, was tested in two different concentrations (3.4 x 10(6 and 3.4 x 10(8 conidium ml-1 and a control group. Two readings were realized, one after 7 days of fungus application and the other after 14 days. At concentration of 3.4 x 10(6 conidium ml-1, 54% of treated eggs were infertile, with larva death of 54% at I, II and III

  6. Primeiro registro de Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae em Roraima, Brasil First record of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in the state of Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducineia Barros Aguiar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus é registrado pela primeira vez no estado de Roraima, Brasil. Entre junho de 2006 e maio de 2007 foram coletadas três pupas e dez larvas, duas das quais chegaram à fase adulta, durante atividades de vigilância rotineiras em três bairros urbanos da cidade de Boa Vista. Embora essa espécie não seja incriminada como vetor primário do dengue, a sua presença pode favorecer a ligação entre os ciclos silvestre e urbano da febre amarela e de outras arboviroses no Brasil.Aedes albopictus is registered for the first time in Roraima, Brazil. From June 2006 to May 2007, three pupae and ten larvae of Ae. albopictus were collected, during routine surveillance work in three urban neighborhoods in the city of Boa Vista. Two larvae reached adulthood as females. Although Ae. albopictus is not presently considered of primary importance in dengue transmission, its occurrence could favor a linkage between urban and forest cycles of yellow fever and other arboviruses in Brazil.

  7. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  8. Mitochondrial cytochrome <em>B> sequence divergence among Spanish, Alpine and Abruzzo chamois (genus <em>Rupicapra>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mucci

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have studied genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships of Alpine, Spanish and Abruzzo chamois (genus <em>Rupicapra> by sequencing a region of 330 nucleotides within the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome <em>b> gene (mtDNA cyt <em>b>. These sequences were aligned with additional homologous sequences of Caprinae: Japanese serow, Chinese goral, Canadian mountain goat, Mishmi takin, muskox, Sardinian mouflon and domestic goat. Results suggest that, using representatives of the Bovini as outgroups, the Caprinae constitute a monophyletic clade. However, inferred phylogenetic relationships among and within tribes of Caprinae were poorly defined and did not reflect current evolutionary and taxonomical views. In fact, the Asian Rupicaprini goral and serow constituted a strongly supported clade, which included the muskox, while the takin grouped with <em>Ovis>. Therefore, the monophyly of Ovibovini was not supported by cyt <em>b> sequences. Species of <em>Rupicapra> joined a strongly supported monophyletic clade, which was distantly related to the Asian rupicaprins and <em>Oreamnos>. Therefore, the monophyly of the Rupicaprini was not supported by these cyt <em>b> sequences. There were sister species relationships within <em>Rupicapra>, Spanish and Alpine chamois and the Abruzzo chamois (<em>Rupicapra pyrenaica ornataem> was strictly related to the Spanish chamois (<em>Rupicapra pyrenaica parvaem>, as previously suggested by allozyme data and biogeographic reconstructions.

  9. New Trifluoromethyl Triazolopyrimidines as Anti-<em>Plasmodium> <em>falciparum> Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Boechat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, half of the World’s population, approximately 3.3 billion people, is at risk for developing malaria. Nearly 700,000 deaths each year are associated with the disease. Control of the disease in humans still relies on chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a limiting factor, and the search for new drugs is important. We have designed and synthesized new 2-(trifluoromethyl[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine derivatives based on bioisosteric replacement of functional groups on the anti-malarial compounds mefloquine and amodiaquine. This approach enabled us to investigate the impact of: (i ring bioisosteric replacement; (ii a CF3 group substituted at the 2-position of the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine scaffold and (iii a range of amines as substituents at the 7-position of the of heterocyclic ring; on <em>in vitroem> activity against <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>. According to docking simulations, the synthesized compounds are able to interact with <em>P. falciparumem> dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (<em>Pf>DHODH through strong hydrogen bonds. The presence of a trifluoromethyl group at the 2-position of the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine ring led to increased drug activity. Thirteen compounds were found to be active, with IC50 values ranging from 0.023 to 20 µM in the anti-HRP2 and hypoxanthine assays. The selectivity index (SI of the most active derivatives 5, 8, 11 and 16 was found to vary from 1,003 to 18,478.

  10. Genotoxicity of <em>Euphorbia hirtaem>: An <em>Allium cepaem> Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Yuet Ping

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of <em>Euphorbia hirta em>which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using <em>Allium cepaem> assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of <em>A. cepaem>. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative control. The result showed that mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of <em>E. hirtaem> extract increased. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed. Abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at interphase. Result of this study confirmed that the methanol extracts of <em>E. hirta em>exerted significant genotoxic and mitodepressive effects at 1,000 µg/mL.

  11. Leak detection and localization system through acoustics; Sistema de deteccao e localizacao de vazamentos por acustica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Julio [Aselco Automacao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Acoustic Leak Detection Systems (ALDS) are used on both liquid and gas pipelines as well as multi-phase flow pipelines to detect leaks quickly and provide a means of limiting product loss. The real-time acoustic signal is continuously compared against signature leak profiles for the particular operating and geometric conditions. These profiles were developed from a database established from over 20 years of experimental and field leak tests. This technique not only drastically reduces the false alarm rate, but also significantly improves the sensitivity and leak location accuracy. This system will also detect leaks with shut-in flow (zero flow rate in the pipeline). With the use of GPS (Global Positioning System) it not only improves leak location accuracy, but also allows for continuous leak detection during the loss of communications. (author)

  12. Tecnicas avanzadas de medida en intensimetria acustica para la caracterizacion de materiales aislantes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuera Saura, Gregorio

    The measurement rate of acoustic reduction (R) in an insulating material is determined in special designed enclosures according to UNE EN ISO 140-1 standard. The construction of a testing room that complies with the standards requires a significant financial investment, that too often can not be provided by general machinery manufacturers. The outdoor machines have to be designed considering the noise emission limits established in the European Directive 2000/14, making the installment of insulating materials in enclosures of machines necessary. Suppliers of insulating materials for industrial use does not normally provide the insulating properties of their products, which are often obtained from rock wool, polyethylene, polyurethane, synthetic rubber, etc. It is difficult to test these materials that are characterized by low density surface in a room standardized test procedure that is based on the measurement of sound pressure. The main problem is getting the validation of the measurement when the rate of acoustic reduction is relatively low, as in the case of materials mentioned above. An alternative procedure is proposed in this Doctoral Thesis based on the measurement of sound intensity. The vector nature of this parameter allows just the flow of energy through a given surface to be measured. The validation of the measurement is achieved with the highest degree of accuracy by applying the criteria included in the standard UNE EN ISO 9614. A steel plate 6 mm thick incorporated with a sound source for amplification of a pink noise signal is designed for carrying out the tests. Faced with the source is placed a piece of material to test. The source is connected and the transmitted sound intensity is measured with a probe consisting of two microphones located opposite one another. Previously it has been determined the flow of acoustic energy that impinges on the piece. The difference between the two measures provides directly the rate of acoustic reduction. The main advantage of the described test procedure is that it can be done in a room with normal dimensions and without specific conditioning. The vibroacoustic behaviour of the testing box and its influence on the measures is another important aspect to be considered. A test of modal analysis has been carried out with a steel plate similar to the enclosures of the box. A mathematical model based on the Statistical Energy Analysis SEA has been developed to estimate the paths of energy transmission from the sound source to the point of measurement with the sound intensity probe. The commercial software AUTOSEA2 LT is used. General conclusions regarding the alternative method of measurement and specific ones related to the capacity of insulation of the tested materials have been obtained. As for the general conclusions, the limitations of measuring with the intensity probe at low and high frequencies have been proved, validating measurements with an accuracy of 0.5 dB according to the criteria set forth in the standard UNE EN ISO 9614 Part 3 have been obtained, and a new test procedure for easy determination of the rate of acoustic reduction of an insulating material with low density surface has been established. Finally, the devised procedure allows future developments in the field of vibroacoustics, such as the application of the principle of reciprocity and the determination of acoustic impedance of materials by application of techniques for measuring of acoustics intensity.

  13. Produtividade de criadouro de Aedes albopictus em ambiente urbano Productivity of container-breeding Aedes albopictus in an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O encontro de Aedes albopictus na cidade de Cananéia, região Sudeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, ensejou a ocasião de realizar observações que visassem avaliar a produtividade de criadouro grande e permanente. Como objetivo, após selecionar o habitat a ser estudado, tentou-se avaliar-lhe a contribuição para a densidade local do mosquito. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Em área predeterminada procedeu-se a levantamento de criadouros potenciais. Constatada a presença da espécie, foi selecionado um dos recipientes que preenchia os requisitos desejados. O acompanhamento foi feito de maneira ininterrupta, no período de novembro de 1996 a maio de 1997. As observações obdeceram a ritmo quinzenal retirando, cada vez, amostra da água correspondente a 0,14, ou seja, um sétimo do volume total de 70 litros. Procurou-se coletar, identificar e numerar, por sexo, as pupas existentes. Concomitantemente, procedeu-se à captura de formas adultas. Foi utilizada a isca humana das 15:00 às 18:00h, instalada a cerca de 6 metros do mencionado criadouro. Finda essa coleta, foi feita aspiração com 30 min. de duração em locais de abrigo representados pela abundante vegetação circunjacente. RESULTADOS: Nas coletas de formas imaturas do criadouro, o Ae. albopictus compareceu com 44,9%. Ao longo de 15 amostras regularmente realizadas obteve-se a média de 31,13 pupas pertencentes a essa espécie. O índice de emergência(E foi de 2,1. A multiplicação desse valor por sete forneceu a média diária de 14,7 fêmeas. Nas coletas de adultos desse sexo, a média de Williams para a isca humana foi de 30,7, enquanto a densidade média horária da aspiração dos locais de abrigo foi de 9,2. O cálculo do acúmulo diário concluiu pela presença de 22,8 fêmeas, por dia, capazes de freqüentar a isca humana, nessa situação e condições. DISCUSSÃO: A contagem de pupas possibilitou estimar a produtividade de criadouro de Ae. albopictus, tipo grande

  14. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  15. <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> in red foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and badgers (<em>Meles melesem> from Central and Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, 189 foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and 6 badgers (<em>Meles melesem> were collected in different areas of Central Northern Italy (Piedmont, Liguria and Tuscany and examined for <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly different in the areas considered, with the highest values in the district of Imperia (80%, Liguria and in Montezemolo (70%, southern Piedmont; the prevalence in Tuscany was 7%. One badger collected in the area of Imperia turned out to be infected, representing the first report of the parasite in this species in Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role played by fox populations as reservoirs of infection and the probability of its spreading to domestic dogs.
    Riassunto <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> nella volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e nel tasso (<em>Meles melesem> in Italia centro-settentrionale. Nel 2004-2005 e 2007-2008, 189 volpi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e 6 tassi (<em>Meles melesem> provenienti da differenti aree dell'Italia settentrionale e centrale (Piemonte, Liguria Toscana, sono stati esaminati per la ricerca di <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem>. La prevalenza del nematode è risultata significativamente diversa nelle varie zone, con valori elevati nelle zone di Imperia (80% e di Montezemolo (70%, provincia di Cuneo; la prevalenza in Toscana è risultata del 7%. Un tasso proveniente dall'area di Imperia è risultato positivo per A. vasorum; questa è la prima segnalazione del parassita in tale specie in Italia. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per valutare il potenziale della volpe come serbatoio e la possibilità di diffusione della parassitosi ai cani domestici.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4442

  16. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Emergency medicine service (EMS) systems in the five Nordic countries have more similarities than differences. One similarity is the involvement of anaesthesiologists as pre-hospital physicians and their strong participation for all critically ill and injured patients in-hospital. Discrepancies do...... exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system...... is the only country that has emergency medicine (EM) as a recognised speciality but there is a need for more fully trained specialists in EM; (4) Norway: the ordinary ground ambulance is pointed out as the weakest link in the EM chain and a health reform demands extensive co-operation between the new health...

  17. Influence of photoperiod on body weight and depth of burrowing in larvae of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae and implications for forensic entomology A influência do fotoperíodo no peso corpóreo e na profundidade de enterramento em larvas de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae e as implicações para entomologia forense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Blowflies use discrete, ephemeral breeding sites for larval nutrition. After exhaustion of the food supply, the larvae disperse in search of sites to pupate or to seek other sources of food in a process known as post-feeding larval dispersal. In this study, some of the most important aspects of this process were investigated in larvae of the blowflies Chrysomya megacephala exposed to a variety of light: dark (LD cycles (0:0 h, 12:12 h and 24:0 h and incubated in tubes covered with vermiculite. For each pupa, the body weight and depth of burrowing were determined. Statistical tests were used to examine the relationship of depth of burrowing and body weight to photoperiod at which burrowing occurred. The study of burial behavior in post-feeding larval dispersing can be useful for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI of human corpses in forensic medicine.Moscas-varejeiras usam substratos discretos e efêmeros para nutrição larval. Após a exaustão do suprimento de comida, as larvas dispersam na procura por locais para pupação na outros recursos de alimento em um processo conhecido como dispersão larval pós- alimentar. Nesse estudo, alguns dos aspectos mais importantes desse processo foram investigados em larvas de moscas-varejeiras Chrysomya megacephala expostas a uma variação de ciclos luz: escuro (LD (0:24h, 12:12h e 24:0h e incubadas em tubos cobertos com vermiculita. Para cada pupa, o peso corpóreo e a profundidade de enterramento foram determinados. Testes estatísticos foram usados para examinar a relação entre profundidade de enterramento e o peso corpóreo e o fotoperíodo a que esse enterramento ocorreu. O estudo do comportamento de enterramento na dispersão larval pós-alimentar pode ser útil para estimar o intervalo pós-morte (IPM em cadáveres humanos em medicina forense.

  18. Entomopathogenic fungi recorded from the harlequin ladybird, <em>Harmonia axyridisem>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Harding, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were recorded from field samples of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis, an invasive coccinellid that has recently arrived in Denmark. Larvae, pupae and adults were found to be infected by Isaria farinosa, Beauveria bassiana and species of Lecanicillium. This is the fi...

  19. Interplay between <em>De Novoem> Biosynthesis and Sequestration of Cyanogenic Glucosides in Arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel

    . Adult females are shown to transfer CNglcs to the eggs following emergence from the pupa, providing protection against predation at this vulnerable developmental stage. It is finally speculated that de novo biosynthesis of CNglcs enabled colonization of and subsequently sequestration from the food plant...

  20. O ator em jogo

    OpenAIRE

    Daves Otani

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: O Ator em Jogo é uma reflexão pessoal sobre aspectos do processo criativo em dois espetáculos teatrais encenados pelo grupo Boa Companhia: PRIMUS (adaptado do conto "Comunicado a uma Academia", de Franz Kafka) e MISTER K. E OS ARTISTAS DA FOME (adaptado do conto "O artista da fome", de Kafka). Utilizando a experiência prática da capoeira, que serviu como matriz criativa nessas duas montagens, em cada uma a seu modo específico, faço uma reflexão a partir de um diário que relata experiê...

  1. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-01-01

    exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system...... enterprises to re-establish a nation-wide air ambulance service; (5) Sweden: to create evidence based medicine standards for treatment in emergency medicine, a better integration of all part of the chain of survival, a formalised education in EM and a nation wide physician staffed helicopter EMS (HEMS) cover....

  2. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-01-01

    . Access to on-line medical advice of a physician is not available; (2) Finland: the autonomy of the individual municipalities and their responsibility to cover for primary and specialised health care, as well as the EMS, and the lack of supporting or demanding legislation regarding the EMS; (3) Iceland...... exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system...

  3. Expression of Selected <em>Ginkgo em>>biloba em>Heat Shock Protein Genes After Cold Treatment Could Be Induced by Other Abiotic Stress

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    Feng Xu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, three <em>HSP> genes were isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library of <em>Ginkgo bilobaem> leaves treated with cold stress. Based on the molecular weight, the three genes were designated <em>GbHSP16.8em>, <em>GbHSP17em> and <em>GbHSP70em>. The full length of the three genes were predicted to encode three polypeptide chains containing 149 amino acids (Aa, 152 Aa, and 657 Aa, and their corresponding molecular weights were predicted as follows: 16.67 kDa, 17.39 kDa, and 71.81 kDa respectively. The three genes exhibited distinctive expression patterns in different organs or development stages. <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70em> showed high expression levels in leaves and a low level in gynoecia, <em>GbHSP17em> showed a higher transcription in stamens and lower level in fruit. This result indicates that <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70 em>may play important roles in <em>Ginkgo> leaf development and photosynthesis, and <em>GbHSP17em> may play a positive role in pollen maturation. All three <em>GbHSPs> were up-regulated under cold stress, whereas extreme heat stress only caused up-regulation of <em>GbHSP70em>, UV-B treatment resulted in up-regulation of <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP17em>, wounding treatment resulted in up-regulation of <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70em>, and abscisic acid (ABA treatment caused up-regulation of <em>GbHSP70em> primarily.

  4. Bioecological aspects of Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on persimmon cultivars = Aspectos bioecológicos de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cultivares de caquizeiro

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    Celso Luiz Hohmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology of Hypocala andremona (Cramer on persimmon (Diospyrus kaki L. leaves of the cultivars Atago and Giombo was studied in laboratory (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% RH, 14 hours photo period and egg distribution on plants of the cultivar Giombo in a commercial orchard, during the 2001/2002 crop season, in Londrina, Paraná state. The developmental period of larvae fed on ‘Giombo’ was longer (17.8 . 0.17 days in comparison to that of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ (15.8 . 0.27 days. In contrast, the duration of the pupal stage of insects raised on ‘Giombo’ was lower (12.0 . 0.29 days than that of insects reared on ‘Atago’ (13.3 . 0.17 days. The viabilities of larvae were 60.8 and 38.8% for insects reared on ‘Giombo’ and on ‘Atago’, respectively. Pupal viability was similar (ca. 93% between treatments. The duration of the preoviposition and incubation periods of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ were 4.0 days and 2.1 days, respectively, the fecundity 524.7 eggs, egg viability 77% and adult longevity 12.9 days. No eggs were obtained when H. andremona larvae were reared on ‘Giombo’ in laboratory. Adults preferred to lay their eggs on leaveslocated at the top of the persimmon tree canopy.A biologia de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foi estudada em folhas das cultivares de caquizeiro (Diospyrus kakiL. Atago e Giombo em laboratório (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% UR, 14h fotofase e a distribuição de ovos em plantas da cultivar Giombo em pomar comercial, durante o período de 2001/2002, em Londrina, Estado do Paraná. O período de desenvolvimento das lagartas alimentadas com ‘Giombo’ foi maior (17,8 . 0,17 dias em relação às alimentadas com‘Atago’ (15,8 . 0,27 dias. Entretanto, a duração do estágio de pupa de insetos criados em ‘Giombo’ foi menor (12,0 . 0,29 dias do que as criadas em ‘Atago’ (13,3 . 0,17 dias. As viabilidades das lagartas foram 60,8 e 38,8% para insetos alimentados em ‘Giombo’ e

  5. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, in laboratory, with different natural diets Desenvolvimento de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, em laboratório, com diferentes dietas naturais

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    Giani L. B. Missirian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp., fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm, the mean weight (mg or the mean body size (mm in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments.Larvas de formiga-leão são conhecidas por suas armadilhas ("funis" que constroem em solo arenoso, sob as quais esperam por suas presas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas naturais [formigas-cortadeiras (Atta spp., larvas de moscas-das-frutas (Anastrepha spp. e Ceratitis capitata e dieta mista (Atta spp. e larvas de moscas-das-frutas] sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal de M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 e estimar o número e tamanho de presas capturadas, por instar larval, em cada dieta. No segundo e terceiro instares, as larvas de M. brasiliensis alimentadas com formigas-cortadeiras consumiram um número maior de presas e a

  6. Avaliação da eficácia do Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis no controle de formas imaturas do Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti ( Linnaeus, 1762 em ambiente de laboratório.

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    Cleber Barreto Espindola

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumoAedes aegypti (L., 1762 é considerado um mosquito cosmopolita, com ocorrência nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais. No Brasil, está restrito às vilas e cidades, sempre com características domiciliares e peridomicíliares e, raramente é encontrado em ambientes onde a densidade populacional é baixa. Este mosquito é o único vetor do arbovírus da dengue e da febre amarela urbana em todo território nacional, e é considerado um dos vetores mais importantes na veiculação de patógenos a humanos. A grande resistência dos mosquitos a inseticidas químicos e a freqüente preocupação social com a poluição ambiental, resultou na procura de alternativas para o controle desses insetos, tais como a utilização de bactérias entomopatogênicas. Esse trabalho foi realizado objetivando mensurar a eficácia dessa bactéria no controle das formas imaturas de Ae. aegypti. Para a realização deste, foram criadas individualmente 350 larvas de geração F2 de Ae. aegypti em copos plásticos de 200 ml, contendo 100 ml de água não clorada. Na contaminação foi usado 5mg de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis para cada estágio larval. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste de Mann-Whitney a 5%. A mortalidade das larvas contaminadas foi de 100%, 98%, 98%, 100% e 4% para o 2º, 3º, 4º estágio e pupa A média do número de dias de vida das larvas após contaminação no 1º, 2º, 3º, 4º estágio e pupa foi de 1,36; 2,46; 1,24; 1,22 e 3,46 dias respectivamente, exceto para a pupa, a duração dos estágios foi menor para os indivíduos contaminados, (P<0,05. O B. thuringiensis var. israelensis demonstrou ser um bioinseticida eficaz, causando mortalidade total de 99,5% das larvas contaminadas, embora para a fase de pupa não tenha sido eficaz. Desta forma ele representa uma boa opção para o controle de larvas de Ae. aegypti, entretanto para as pupas, outras alternativas devem ser estudadas.Evaluation of efficacy of Bacillus

  7. <em>In Vitro em>and <em>in em>Vivo> Antitumor Effect of Trachylobane-360, a Diterpene from<em> Xylopia langsdorffianaem>

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    João Carlos Lima Rodrigues Pita

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Trachylobane-360 (<em>ent>-7α-acetoxytrachyloban-18-oic acid was isolated from <em>Xylopia langsdorffianaem>. Studies have shown that it has weak cytotoxic activity against tumor and non-tumor cells. This study investigated the <em>in vitroem>> em>and <em>in vivoem> antitumor effects of trachylobane-360, as well as its cytotoxicity in mouse erythrocytes. In order to evaluate the <em>in vivoem> toxicological aspects related to trachylobane-360 administration, hematological, biochemical and histopathological analyses of the treated animals were performed. The compound exhibited a concentration-dependent effect in inducing hemolysis with HC50 of 273.6 µM, and a moderate <em>in vitroem>> em>concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of sarcoma 180 cells with IC50 values of 150.8 µM and 150.4 µM, evaluated by the trypan blue exclusion test and MTT reduction assay, respectively. The <em>in vivoem> inhibition rates of sarcoma 180 tumor development were 45.60, 71.99 and 80.06% at doses of 12.5 and 25 mg/kg of trachylobane-360 and 25 mg/kg of 5-FU, respectively. Biochemical parameters were not altered. Leukopenia was observed after 5-FU treatment, but this effect was not seen with trachylobane-360 treatment. The histopathological analysis of liver and kidney showed that both organs were mildly affected by trachylobane-360 treatment. Trachylobane-360 showed no immunosuppressive effect. In conclusion, these data reinforce the anticancer potential of this natural diterpene.

  8. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity Against <em>Sitophilus zeamaisem> of the Essential Oils Derived from <em>Artemisia giraldiiem> and <em>Artemisia subdigitataem>

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    Zhi-Long Liu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oils derived from flowering aerial parts of <em>Artemisia giraldii em>Pamp. and <em>A. subdigitataem> Mattf. (Family: Asteraceae against the maize weevil (<em>Sitophilus zeamaisem> Motsch.. Essential oils of aerial parts of <em>A. giraldiiem> and <em>A. subdigitataem> were obtained from hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. A total of 48 and 33 components of the essential oils of <em>A. giraldiiem> and <em>A. subdigitataem> were identified, respectively. The principal compounds in <em>A. giraldiiem> essential oil were β-pinene (13.18%, <em>iso>-elemicin (10.08%, germacrene D (5.68%, 4-terpineol (5.43% and (<em>Z>-β-ocimene (5.06%. 1,8-Cineole (12.26% and α-curcumene (10.77% were the two main components of the essential oil of <em>A. subdigitataem>, followed by β-pinene (7.38%, borneol (6.23% and eugenol (5.87%. The essential oils of <em>A. giraldiiem> and <em>A. subdigitataem> possessed fumigant toxicity against the maize weevils with LC50 values of 6.29 and 17.01 mg/L air, respectively. The two essential oils of <em>A. giraldiiem> and <em>A. subdigitataem> also exhibited contact toxicity against <em>S. zeamaisem> adults with LD50 values of 40.51 and 76.34 µg/adult, respectively. The results indicated that the two essential oils show potential in terms of fumigant and contact toxicity against grain storage insects.

  9. Purification, Characterization and Antioxidant Activities <em>in Vitroem>> em>and <em>in Vivoem> of the Polysaccharides from <em>Boletus edulisem> Bull

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    Yijun Fan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A water-soluble polysaccharide (BEBP was extracted from <em>Boletus edulis em>Bull using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharide BEBP was further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, giving three major polysaccharide fractions termed BEBP-1, BEBP-2 and BEBP-3. In the next experiment, the average molecular weight (Mw, IR and monosaccharide compositional analysis of the three polysaccharide fractions were determined. The evaluation of antioxidant activities both <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivo em>suggested that BEBP-3 had good potential antioxidant activity, and should be explored as a novel potential antioxidant.

  10. Methyl 2-Benzamido-2-(1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate

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    Alami Anouar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The heterocyclic carboxylic α-aminoester methyl 2-benzamido-2-(1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate is obtained by <em>O>-alkylation of methyl α-azido glycinate <em>N>-benzoylated with 1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethanol.

  11. Sulla presenza di <em>Sorex antinoriiem>, <em>Neomys anomalusem> (Insectivora, Soricidae e <em>Talpa caecaem> (Insectivora, Talpidae in Umbria

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    A.M. Paci

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Lo scopo del contributo è di fornire un aggiornamento sulla presenza del Toporagno del Vallese <em>Sorex antinoriiem>, del Toporagno acquatico di Miller <em>Neomys anomalusem> e della Talpa cieca <em>Talpa caecaem> in Umbria, dove le specie risultano accertate ormai da qualche anno. A tal fine sono stati rivisitati i reperti collezionati e la bibliografia conosciuta. Toporagno del Vallese: elevato di recente a livello di specie da Brünner et al. (2002, altrimenti considerato sottospecie del Toporagno comune (<em>S. araneus antinoriiem>. È conservato uno di tre crani incompleti (mancano mandibole ed incisivi superiori al momento prudenzialmente riferiti a <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>antinorii>, provenienti dall?Appennino umbro-marchigiano settentrionale (dintorni di Scalocchio - PG, 590 m. s.l.m. e determinati sulla base della pigmentazione rossa degli ipoconi del M1 e M2; Toporagno acquatico di Miller: tre crani (Breda in Paci e Romano op. cit. e un esemplare intero (Paci, ined. sono stati trovati a pochi chilometri di distanza gli uni dall?altro tra i comuni di Assisi e Valfabbrica, in ambienti mediocollinari limitrofi al Parco Regionale del M.te Subasio (Perugia. In provincia di Terni la specie viene segnalata da Isotti (op. cit. per i dintorni di Orvieto. Talpa cieca: sono noti una femmina e un maschio raccolti nel comune di Pietralunga (PG, rispettivamente in una conifereta a <em>Pinus nigraem> (m. 630 s.l.m. e nelle vicinanze di un bosco misto collinare a prevalenza di <em>Quercus cerrisem> (m. 640 s.l.m.. Recentemente un terzo individuo è stato rinvenuto nel comune di Sigillo (PG, all?interno del Parco Regionale di M.te Cucco, sul margine di una faggeta a 1100 m s.l.m. In entrambi i casi l?areale della specie è risultato parapatrico con quello di <em>Talpa europaeaem>.

  12. Glycosylation of Vanillin and 8-Nordihydrocapsaicin by Cultured <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> Cells

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    Naoji Kubota

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of vanilloids such as vanillin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin by cultured plant cells of <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> was studied. Vanillin was converted into vanillin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside, vanillyl alcohol, and 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranosylvanillyl alcohol by <em>E. perriniana em>cells. Incubation of cultured <em>E. perrinianaem> cells with 8-nor- dihydrocapsaicin gave 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside and 8-nordihydro- capsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-gentiobioside.

  13. Identification of the wood-borer and the factors affecting its attack on Caryocar brasiliense trees in the Brazilian Savanna=Identificação do broqueador de tronco e os fatores que afetam o seu ataque em árvores de Caryocar brasiliense no cerrado brasileiro.

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to identify the wood-borer of the trunk of Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Caryocaraceae and the effects of tree size, chemical and physical soil attributes, and floristic diversity in its attack. The wood-boring caterpillar of the trunck of C. brasiliense belongs to the family Cossidae (Lepidoptera. The number of pupae and the amount of sawdust produced by the wood-borer per tree was higher in the pasture 1 of Montes Claros and pasture in Ibiracatu than in the other four areas (pastures and savanna in Montes Claros and savanna in Ibiracatu. The number of pupae and the amount of sawdust was highest in the trunks of trees with diameters having a breast height (DBH more than 30 cm. This may explain the severity of attack in the areas mentioned above, which contain a higher percentage of plants with DBH> 30 cm. The soil properties also positively associate with higher attack of the wood-borer on trees when the soil is rich in potassium, calcium, magnesium, sum of bases, capacity of cationic exchange, and organic matter, while there was a negative correlation between attack and fine sand content. Systems with less floristic diversity, particularly trees of other species, may concentrate the attack of the wood-borer in the trunks of C. Brasiliense trees. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar o broqueador do tronco de Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Caryocaraceae e os efeitos de tamanho de árvore, atributos químico-físicos do solo e da diversidade florística em seu ataque. A lagarta broqueadora do tronco de C. brasiliense pertence à família Cossidae (Lepidoptera. O número de pupas e de serragem do broqueador por árvore foi maior na pastagem (1 em Montes Claros e pastagem em Ibiracatu do que nas outras quatro áreas (pastagens e cerrado em Montes Claros e cerrado em Ibiracatu. O número de pupas e da quantidade de serragem do broqueador foi maior em árvores cujo diâmetro de tronco na altura do peito (DAB foi

  14. Controle da infestação natural de ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 (Diptera, Tephritidae em pêssegos(Prunus persica através das radiações gama Control of naturally infested peaches (Prunus persica by mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata through the use of gamma radiation

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    V. Arthur

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose desinfestante de radiações gama para pêssegos, Prunus persica, infestados com larvas da mosca do Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata. Utilizaram-se frutas de procedência conhecida no campo fazendo-se uma amostragem prévia, constatando-se que cada fruta continha em média nove larvas do último ínstar da mosca praga. As frutas foram irradiadas em uma fonte de Cobalto-60 com as seguintes doses de radiação gama: 0 (test., 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 e 1200 Gy, sob uma taxa de 58 Gy por minuto. Após a irradiação as frutas foram colocadas em câmaras climatizadas com a temperatura variando entre 23 e 27°C e a umidade relativa variando entre 65 e 75%. Aguardou-se que as larvas deixassem as frutas e se transformassem em pupas e adultos. A dose letal para larvas, pelos resultados obtidos no experimento, concluiu-se ser de 600 Gy. A dose letal para pupas provenientes de larvas irradiadas dentro das frutas foi de 50 Gy, impedindo totalmente a emergência de adultos.Determination of the dose of gamma radiation to disinfest peaches, Prunus pérsica infested with larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 was made. Fruits were collected in the field, each one holding about nine larvae of the last instar of the fruit-fly. The fruits were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation source at the following doses: 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gy; at a dose rate of 58 Gy per minute. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted between 23 and 27°C, and relative humidity between 65 and 75 percent, until the larvae left the fruits and were transformed into pupae and adults. It was concluded that the lethal dose of gamma radiation for larvae at the last instar, in naturally infested peaches, was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the emergency of adults.

  15. Study of the <em>in Vitroem> Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial and Antitrypanosomal Activities of Medicinal Plants from Saudi Arabia

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    Nawal M. Al-Musayeib

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the <em>in vitroem> antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened <em>in vitroem> against erythrocytic schizonts of <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>, intracellular amastigotes of <em>Leishmania infantum em>and <em>Trypanosoma cruzi em>and free trypomastigotes of<em> T. bruceiem>. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity<em>. em>The criterion for activity was an IC50 < 10 µg/mL (4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the<em> em>extracts of<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem> and <em>Punica granatumem>. Antileishmanial activity<em> em>against <em>L. infantumem> was demonstrated in <em>Caralluma sinaicaem> and <em>Periploca aphylla.em> Amastigotes of<em> T. cruzi em>were affected by the methanol extract of<em> em>>Albizia lebbeckem>> em>pericarp, <em>Caralluma sinaicaem>,> Periploca aphylla em>and <em>Prosopius julifloraem>. Activity against<em> T. brucei em>was obtained in<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem>. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 < 10 µg/mL and hence non-specific activities were observed for<em> em>>Conocarpus lancifoliusem>.>

  16. Retratos em movimento.

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    Luiz Carlos Oliveira Junior

    Full Text Available resumo O artigo aborda aspectos da relação do cinema com a arte do retrato. Buscamos, em primeiro lugar, uma definição estética do que seria um retrato cinematográfico, sempre em tensão com os critérios formais e padrões estilísticos que historicamente constituíram o retrato pictórico. Em seguida, relacionamos essa questão com a importância que se deu à representação do close-up de rosto nas primeiras décadas do cinema, quando foi atribuído aos filmes um papel inédito no estudo da fisionomia e da expressão facial. Por fim, apresentamos exemplos de autorretratos na pintura e no cinema para expor a forma como a autorrepresentação põe em crise as noções de subjetividade e identidade em que a definição clássica do retrato se apoiava.

  17. ASPECTOS DA BIOLOGIA DE Anthistarcha binocularis MEYRICK EM INFLORESCÊNCIA DE CAJUEIRO ASPECTS OF Anthistarcha binocularis MEYRICK BIOLOGY ON CASHEW INFLORESCENCE

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    Antônia R. de Abreu Sobral

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A biologia da broca-das-pontas do cajueiro, Anthistarcha binocularis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, foi estudada em inflorescências usando-se dois métodos. No primeiro, secções de inflorescências foram usadas e trocadas a cada três dias. No segundo método, usou-se inflorescências inteiras até o início do seu secamento. A partir desse momento, seguiu-se o mesmo procedimento do primeiro método. As informações coletadas mostraram um período de 33,7; 10,7 e 6,5 dias para larva, pupa e adulto, respectivamente, no primeiro método, e 35,5; 14,0 e 6,3 dias para larva, pupa e adulto, respectivamente, no segundo método. Além disso, pode-se considerar o método que utiliza secções de inflorescências o mais adequado para a criação, pois também apresentou menor desvio padrão e coeficiente de variação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; Anacardium occidentale; brocadas.

    The biology of the cashew shoot borer, Anthistarcha inocularis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, was studied in lant inflorescences using two methods. In the first method nflorescence sections were used and changed every three days. n the second, the whole inflorescence was used up to the beginning f the drying process. Afterwards, the first method was used. or the first method, results showed periods of 33.7, 10.7, and .5 days for larva, pupa and adult stages, respectively. For the econd method, periods of 35.5, 14.0, and 6.3 days for larva, upa, and adult stages were observed, respectively. Besides, it hould be considered that the use of inflorescence sections was he most appropriated rearing method, because it also presented he lowest standard deviation and coefficient of variation.

    KEY-WORDS: Insecta; Anacardium

  18. Natural Products from Antarctic Colonial Ascidians of the Genera <em>Aplidium> and <em>Synoicum>: Variability and Defensive Role

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    Conxita Avila

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ascidians have developed multiple defensive strategies mostly related to physical, nutritional or chemical properties of the tunic. One of such is chemical defense based on secondary metabolites. We analyzed a series of colonial Antarctic ascidians from deep-water collections belonging to the genera <em>Aplidium> and <em>Synoicum> to evaluate the incidence of organic deterrents and their variability. The ether fractions from 15 samples including specimens of the species <em>A.> <em>falklandicum>, <em>A.> <em>fuegiense>, <em>A.> <em>meridianum>, <em>A.> <em>millari> and <em>S.> <em>adareanum> were subjected to feeding assays towards two relevant sympatric predators: the starfish <em>Odontaster> <em>validus>, and the amphipod <em>Cheirimedon> <em>femoratus>. All samples revealed repellency. Nonetheless, some colonies concentrated defensive chemicals in internal body-regions rather than in the tunic. Four ascidian-derived meroterpenoids, rossinones B and the three derivatives 2,3-epoxy-rossinone B, 3-epi-rossinone B, 5,6-epoxy-rossinone B, and the indole alkaloids meridianins A–G, along with other minoritary meridianin compounds were isolated from several samples. Some purified metabolites were tested in feeding assays exhibiting potent unpalatabilities, thus revealing their role in predation avoidance. Ascidian extracts and purified compound-fractions were further assessed in antibacterial tests against a marine Antarctic bacterium. Only the meridianins showed inhibition activity, demonstrating a multifunctional defensive role. According to their occurrence in nature and within our colonial specimens, the possible origin of both types of metabolites is discussed.

  19. Nietzsche em voga

    OpenAIRE

    Borromeu, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Resumo:Texto publicado em 1941, na revista de orientação católica A Ordem, no Rio de Janeiro. Seu autor considera que Nietzsche teria negado a moral tradicional, concebendo em seu lugar outra, porém imoral e brutal. Acusa o filósofo, por fim, de ser responsável pela Guerra ora e curso na Europa. Abstract:Text published in 1941 in the Catholic orientation magazine, A Ordem, in Rio de Janeiro. The author believes that Nietzsche would have denied traditional morality, conceiving another in it...

  20. Primeiras frases em Libras

    OpenAIRE

    Comissão Editorial

    2017-01-01

    "Primeiras Frases em Libras" é um CD-ROM com interface interativa que tem por objetivo a iniciação na Língua Brasileira de Sinais - Libras. A partir de temas do cotidiano, permite à criança relacionar a imagem a uma estrutura frasal da Libras de forma lúdica, contribuindo para aquisição de conceitos e aspectos culturais. Para a utilização desse material é importante que sejam identificadas as diferenças regionais existentes em alguns sinais e que sejam adaptadas para a Libras local, tornando-...

  1. Identification and Determination of <em>Aconitum> Alkaloids in <em>Aconitum> Herbs and <em>Xiaohuoluo Pillem> Using UPLC-ESI-MS

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    Li Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, specific, and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS method to examine the chemical differences between <em>Aconitum> herbs and processed products has been developed and validated. Combined with chemometrics analysis of principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal projection to latent structural discriminate analysis, diester-diterpenoid and monoester-type alkaloids, especially the five alkaloids which contributed to the chemical distinction between <em>Aconitum> herbs and processed products, namely mesaconitine (MA, aconitine (AC, hypaconitine (HA, benzoylmesaconitine (BMA, and benzoylhypaconitine (BHA, were picked out. Further, the five alkaloids and benzoylaconitine (BAC have been simultaneously determined in the <em>Xiaohuoluo pillem>. Chromatographic separations were achieved on a C18 column and peaks were detected by mass spectrometry in positive ion mode and selected ion recording (SIR mode. In quantitative analysis, the six alkaloids showed good regression, (<em>r> > 0.9984, within the test ranges. The lower limit quantifications (LLOQs for MA, AC, HA, BMA, BAC, and BHA were 1.41, 1.20, 1.92, 4.28, 1.99 and 2.02 ng·mL−1, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 99.7% to 101.7%. The validated method was applied successfully in the analysis of the six alkaloids from different samples, in which significant variations were revealed. Results indicated that the developed assay can be used as an appropriate quality control assay for <em>Xiaohuoluo pillem> and other herbal preparations containing <em>Aconitum> roots.

  2. Complexo de parasitóides de Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae em dois pomares de citros em Montenegro, RS, Brasil Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae and its parasitoids in two citrus orchards in Montenegro, RS, Brazil

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    Simone M. Jahnke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversas vespas parasitóides, especialmente Eulophidae e Chalcididae, têm sido registrados atuando sobre populações de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, 1856 (larva-minadora-dos-citros, uma das principais pragas da citricultura mundial. O presente trabalho objetivou identificar o complexo de parasitóides de P. citrella em dois pomares de citros situados em Montenegro, RS, um de tangerineira variedade Montenegrina e outro do híbrido tangor Murcott. Em amostragens quinzenais de julho de 2001 a junho de 2003, todos os brotos de plantas sorteadas aleatoriamente eram inspecionados. Todas as folhas com pupas de P. citrella foram coletadas e acondicionadas individualmente em placas de Petri até a emergência dos parasitóides ou dos adultos de P. citrella. No primeiro ano foram obtidos 101 parasitóides, dos gêneros Elasmus Westwood, 1833, Cirrospilus Westwood, 1832, Sympiesis Förster, 1856 e Galeopsomyia fausta LaSalle, 1997 (Eulophidae. Ageniaspis citricola Logvinovskaya, 1983 (Encyrtidae foi registrada somente na área de 'Murcott'. Esta espécie foi intencionalmente introduzida em pomares próximos para o controle do minador. No segundo ano foi amostrado um total de 609 parasitóides e A. citricola foi também registrada na área de 'Montenegrina'. Com a introdução e o estabelecimento da espécie exótica nos pomares, houve uma grande mudança na freqüência relativa das espécies. Ageniaspis citricola representou mais de 75% dos indivíduos presentes em ambos pomares no segundo ano, diminuindo a freqüência relativa das espécies nativas. Estudos sobre a comunidade de inimigos naturais associados ao minador-dos-citros, e o efetivo impacto que a espécie exótica causa sobre as nativas, são necessários antes de tomarem-se quaisquer medidas de controle.Several parasitoid wasps, mainly from Eulophidae and Chalcididae families, have been registered acting upon the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, 1856 populations, one of

  3. Parasitóides associados às moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea em café orgânico com e sem arborização em Valença, RJ, Brasil Parasitoids associated with fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea in organic coffee plantation under shaded and unshaded management in Valença, RJ, Brazil

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    Elen de Lima Aguiar-Menezes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com esse trabalho, determinar as espécies de parasitóides associados às moscas-das-frutas infestando seis cultivares de café arábica (Coffea arabica L., em sistema de cultivo com e sem arborização, sob manejo orgânico. Uma amostra de 1 kg de frutos maduros por cultivar foi colhida em maio de 2005. Os frutos foram depositados em bandejas plásticas, contendo uma camada de areia, a qual serviu como substrato para a fase de pupa. Os pupários foram quantificados e mantidos em copos plásticos transparentes com areia até a emergência dos insetos. Sete espécies de parasitóides da ordem Hymenoptera foram identificadas, das quais cinco da família Braconidae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, Opius bellus Gahan e Opius sp., e duas da Figitidae: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes e Lopheucoila anastrephae Weld. Larvas de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae infestando frutos dos seis cultivares foram parasitadas por Braconidae e Figitidae, com média de 14,2% e 7,7% nos sistemas sem e com arborização, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to determine the parasitoid species associated with fruit flies infesting six cultivars of arabic coffee under shaded and unshaded organic management. A 1kg-sample of maturing fruits per cultivar was harvested in May 2005. The fruits were placed in plastic trays containing a layer of thin sand, as a substrate for pupa phase. The puparia were quantified and kept in transparent plastic cups with sand until the emergence of the insects. Seven parasitoid species of the order Hymenoptera were identified, from which five belong to the family Braconidae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, Opius bellus Gahan and Opius sp., and two of the Figitidae: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes and Lopheucoila anastrephae Weld. Larvae of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae infesting fruits of the six

  4. Espondiloptose em atleta

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    Ana Paula Luppino Assad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Os atletas adolescentes estão sob maior risco de lombalgia e lesões estruturais da coluna. A espondilólise é responsável pela maioria das lombalgias em jovens esportistas e raramente ocorre em adultos. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 13 anos, atleta de judô, que chegou a nosso serviço com quadro de cinco meses de lombalgia progressiva durante os treinos, sendo inicialmente atribuída a causas mecânicas, sem que houvesse uma investigação mais detalhada por métodos de imagem. Na admissão já apresentava deformidade lombar, postura antálgica e manobra de hiperextensão lombar em unipodálico positiva bilateralmente. Realizou-se investigação, que evidenciou espondiloptose, sendo, então, submetida a tratamento cirúrgico. Com base neste relato de caso, discutimos a abordagem diagnóstica de lombalgia em atletas jovens, uma vez que a queixa de lombalgia crônica pode ser marcador de uma lesão estrutural, a qual pode ser definitiva e trazer perda funcional irreversível.

  5. Accountability em listas abertas

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    Luis Felipe Miguel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute criticamente a percepção, corrente em estudos sobre o sistema eleitoral brasileiro, de que a representação proporcional com listas abertas é um obstáculo à efetivação da accountability. Tal percepção está, em grande medida, baseada em visões equivocadas sobre a natureza do vínculo eleitoral no Brasil e o sentido da accountability, vista como uma relação entre o eleitor e seu candidato e não entre os constituintes e os representantes. O foco nas deficiências do sistema eleitoral, por outro lado, leva a ofuscar outros aspectos mais importantes para o aprimoramento da representação, relacionados à democratização da informação e ao fortalecimento da sociedade civil. Mesmo os problemas identificados nas listas abertas são melhor enfrentados com a ampliação do debate público e o fortalecimento da sociedade civil, que permitiria aos eleitores aproveitar de forma mais consistente as oportunidade de escolha que lhe são oferecidas, mais amplas do que em outros sistemas eleitorais.

  6. Controle de Rhyzopertha dominica pela atmosfera controlada com CO2, em trigo Control of Rhyzopertha dominica using a controlled atmosphere with CO2, in wheat

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    Rogério Amaro Gonçalves

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de gases inertes como fumigantes no controle de pragas é uma alternativa ao uso de fosfina. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de uma atmosfera com CO2 no controle de Rhyzoperta dominica (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae em grãos de trigo armazenado. O trabalho constou de cinco concentrações de CO2 (0, 30 , 40, 50 e 60%, completadas com N2, três períodos de exposição (5, 10, 15 dias, três populações de R. dominica (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae (Campo Mourão, PR, Sete Lagoas, MG e Santa Rosa, RS e sete fases de desenvolvimento do inseto (ovo, larva de 1º, 2º, 3º e 4º ínstar, pupa e adulto com três repetições. As diferentes fases da R. dominica foram acondicionadas em tecido organza e levadas para câmaras de expurgo de 200 litros com 75% deste volume repletos de grãos. As câmaras foram vedadas com borracha de silicone para garantir a hermeticidade. Após a vedação das câmaras injetavam-se os gases contendo diferentes teores de CO2. Os resultados mostraram que todos os teores de CO2 causaram 100% de mortalidade de adultos das três populações nos três períodos de exposição utilizados. Em pupas a mortalidade atingiu 100% no teor de 60% de CO2 para as três populações no período de 15 dias de exposição; porém, todos os teores de CO2 utilizados no período de 15 dias de exposição causaram 100% de mortalidade das pupas da população de Santa Rosa. Para o adequado controle de larvas de diferentes ínstares são necessários teores de CO2 iguais ou acima de 50%. Nos períodos de 10 e 15 dias de exposição, todos os teores de CO2 causaram 100% de mortalidade dos ovos das três populações avaliadas.Controlled atmosphere with inert gases offers an alternative to phosphine use to control stored grain pests. The objective of this research was to test a controlled atmosphere with CO2 to control Rhyzoperta dominica, (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae, an important pest of stored wheat

  7. Fumigant Antifungal Activity of Myrtaceae Essential Oils and Constituents from <em>Leptospermum petersoniiem> against Three <em>Aspergillus> Species

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    Il-Kwon Park

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercial plant essential oils obtained from 11 Myrtaceae plant species were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against <em>Aspergillus ochraceusem>, <em>A. flavusem>, and <em>A. nigerem>. Essential oils extracted from<em> em>Leptospermum> <em>petersonii> at air concentrations of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL and 28 × 10−3 mg/mL completely inhibited the growth of the three <em>Aspergillus> species. However, at an air concentration of 14 × 10−3 mg/mL, inhibition rates of <em>L. petersoniiem> essential oils were reduced to 20.2% and 18.8% in the case of <em>A. flavusem> and <em>A. nigerem>, respectively. The other Myrtaceae essential oils (56 × 10−3 mg/mL only weakly inhibited the fungi or had no detectable affect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 16 compounds in <em>L. petersoniiem>> em>essential> em>oil.> em>The antifungal activity of the identified compounds was tested individually by using standard or synthesized compounds. Of these, neral and geranial inhibited growth by 100%, at an air concentration of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL, whereas the activity of citronellol was somewhat lover (80%. The other compounds exhibited only moderate or weak antifungal activity. The antifungal activities of blends of constituents identified in <em>L. petersoniiem> oil indicated that neral and geranial were the major contributors to the fumigant and antifungal activities.

  8. Himenópteros parasitóides de larvas de Anastrepha spp. em frutos de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. na região de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brasil Himenopterous parasitoids of Anastrepha spp. larvae, in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. In divinópolis region, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de conhecer os parasitóides de moscas-da-fruta na região de Divinópolis-MG. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação, sendo individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas adultas ou de seus parasitóides. A prevalência total de parasitismo foi de 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha foi a espécie mais comum, com 44,5%.The objective of this work was to identify the parasitoids of fruit flies in Divinópolis-MG region. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha was the most common specie with a frequency of 44,5%.

  9. Iodo em alimentos consumidos em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Inês; Delgado, Inês; Costa, Sofia; Castanheira, Isabel; Calhau, Maria Antónia

    2015-01-01

    O iodo é um elemento vestigial essencial na dieta humana e animal, com uma importância nutricional bem estabelecida. É indispensável para a síntese das hormonas da tiroide, tiroxina e triiodotirosina, cujo principal papel está relacionado com o crescimento e desenvolvimento dos órgãos, em particular do cérebro. A fonte natural de iodo são os alimentos. Contudo, de acordo com a OMS um terço da população mundial sofre de algum tipo de carência de iodo. A deficiência crônica de iodo pode levar a...

  10. SUSCEPTIBILIDADE DE Chrysomya albiceps A Beauveria bassiana EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CHRYSOMYA ALBICEPS TO BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN LABORATORY CONDITION

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    Ana Célia Rodrigues Athayde

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann é um importante vetor de doenças de animais e humanos, e também causador de miíases secundárias. Avaliou-se a patogenicidade de <em>Beauveria bassianaem> (Balsamo Vuillemin (URM 3447, <em>in vitroem>, sobre ovos, larvas e adultos em condições de laboratório climatizado sob a temperatura de 28 ± 1 °C. Foram feitas suspensões de conídios (104, 105, 106, 107 e 108 conídios.mL-1, para análise dos parâmetros biológicos. No bioensaio com ovos, o percentual de eclosão variou de 84,81% a 97,22%. No bioensaio com larvas, o período de pré-pupa variou de 1 a 1,04 e de pupa, de 5,00 a 5,09 dias; o percentual de emergência de adultos a partir de larvas tratadas variou de 30,88% a 80,82%. No bioensaio com adultos, a longevidade para machos e fêmeas foi de 4,51 a 6,77 e 10,19 a 14,67 dias, respectivamente; a mortalidade acumulada no 7° dia variou de 47,50 % a 81,20% para machos e de 23,70 % a 55,00% dias para fêmeas; o período de postura variou de 10 a 17,75 dias e o percentual de larvas eclodidas a partir de fêmeas infectadas variou de 71,39% a 91,25%.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Fungo entomopatogênico, parâmetros biológicos, patogenicidade.

    Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann is an important vector of animal and diseases as well as causer of secondary myiasis. In order to minimize the effect of the problems caused by <em>C. albicepsem>, the pathogenicity of the <em>Beauveria bassianaem> (Balsamo Vuillemin (URM 3447, in vitro, over eggs, larvae and adults in acclimatized laboratorial conditions under the temperature of 28 ± 1 °C was evaluated. Suspensions of conidia (104, 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia.mL-1

  11. Biological and behavior aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 on cotton plantsAspectos biológicos e comportamentais de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 em algodoeiro

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    Luciano Pacelli Medeiros Macedo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study biological and behavior aspects of larvae and adults of Chrysoperla externa in greenhouse, on cotton plants. Recently hatched larvae were released on the upper third of cotton plants, which were previously infested with Aphis gossypii,. After emergence, adults were separated by sex and packed in cylindrical PVC recipients with cotton plant. We evaluated the duration of each larval, pre-pupal and pupal periods, pre-oviposition, oviposition, effective oviposition and post-oviposition periods, male and female logevity, daily and total oviposition capacity. The behavior of pupal stage was also evaluated, which released three larvae of the 3rd instar per cotton plant and they were put on the lower, medium and upper sections. As treatments, it was used naked soil, dried leaves from cotton plant, crushed rock nº 1; and crushed rock nº 1 + dried leaves. Larvae from different instars were released on the upper section of the cotton plants infested with A. gossypii to verify the search timing that marked the period the prey was exposed to the predator. C. externa larvae passed through all the phases of their biological cycle and there was no significant influence on the type of the soil covering used on pupal stage, since all of them were significantly higher on naked soil. There was no significative difference on the prey search by C. externa larvae.Objetivou-se estudar aspectos biológicos e comportamentais de larvas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa em casa-de-vegetação, em plantas de algodão. Larvas recém eclodidas foram liberadas no terço superior de plantas de algodão previamente infestadas com Aphis gossypii, onde permaneceram até a pupação. Após a emergência, adultos foram separados por sexo, acondicionados em recipientes cilíndricos de PVC contendo uma planta de algodoeiro. Avaliaram-se a duração de cada ínstar, dos períodos larval, pré-pupal e pupal, dos períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposi

  12. Dispersão larval pós-alimentar de Lucilia sericata (Diptera, Calliphoridae em condições de laboratório Post-feeding larval dispersion of Lucilia sericata (Diptera, Calliphoridae in laboratory

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    Sabrina M Pires

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os dípteros califorídeos são os primeiros indivíduos a compor a sucessão faunística de cadáveres em decomposição, auxiliando assim na estimativa do intervalo pós-morte. Estudos de dispersão pós-alimentar de suas larvas possuem relevância para investigações médico-criminais. Diante disto, uma arena circular, simulando o ambiente natural, foi montada em laboratório a fim de verificar-se a dispersão larval radial pós-alimentar de Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826, tentando assim estabelecer relações entre as variáveis peso, distância e profundidade de enterramento na arena. Os resultados demonstraram que 45% das pupas foram recuperadas a uma profundidade compreendida entre 6 cm e 8 cm e a uma distância entre 33 cm e 45 cm do centro da arena. Não houve diferenças significativas quanto à propagação e profundidade de enterramento de machos, fêmeas e indivíduos inviáveis. Com relação ao peso, verificou-se que a média das fêmeas (x = 32,35 mg foi superior a dos machos (x = 30,28 mg. A análise de correlação e de regressão entre peso e distância percorrida e entre peso e profundidade foram positivas, ou seja, pupas oriundas de larvas mais pesadas propagaram e se aprofundaram mais. O experimento permitiu ainda concluir que uma arena circular possibilita o deslocamento das larvas em todas as direções.Calliphorid flies are the first organisms of the faunal succession associated with decomposing bodies, and can help in the estimation of post-mortem interval. Therefore, studies on post-feeding larval dispersion are relevant to medico-criminal investigations. A circular arena simulating the natural environment was built in the laboratory in order to examine the radial post-feeding larval dispersion of Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826 and the relationship between weight, distance, and depth of burial. Our findings indicated that most pupae were recovered at a depth between 6 cm and 8 cm and at a distance of 33 cm and 45 cm

  13. Efecto de extractos vegetales de <em>Polygonum hydropiperoidesem>, <em>Solanum nigrumem> y <em>Calliandra pittieriem> sobre el gusano cogollero (<em>Spodoptera frugiperdaem>

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    Lizarazo H. Karol

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El gusano cogollero <em>Spodoptera frugiperdaem> es una de las plagas que más afectan los cultivos en la región de Sumapaz (Cundinamarca, Colombia. En la actualidad se controla principalmente aplicando productos de síntesis química, sin embargo la aplicación de extractos vegetales surge como una alternativa de menor impacto sobre el ambiente. Este control se emplea debido a que las plantas contienen metabolitos secundarios que pueden inhibir el desarrollo de los insectos. Por tal motivo, la presente investigación evaluó el efecto insecticida y antialimentario de extractos vegetales de barbasco <em>Polygonum hydropiperoidesem> (Polygonaceae, carbonero <em>Calliandra pittieriem> (Mimosaceae y hierba mora <em>Solanum nigrumem> (Solanaceae sobre larvas de <em>S. frugiperdaem> biotipo maíz. Se estableció una cría masiva del insecto en el laboratorio utilizando una dieta natural con hojas de maíz. Posteriormente se obtuvieron extractos vegetales utilizando solventes de alta polaridad (agua y etanol y media polaridad (diclorometano los cuales se aplicaron sobre las larvas de segundo instar. Los resultados más destacados se presentaron con extractos de <em>P. hydropiperoidesem>, obtenidos con diclorometano en sus diferentes dosis, con los cuales se alcanzó una mortalidad de 100% 12 días después de la aplicación y un efecto antialimentario representado por un consumo de follaje de maíz inferior al 4%, efectos similares a los del testigo comercial (Clorpiriphos.

  14. Primeiras frases em Libras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comissão Editorial

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available "Primeiras Frases em Libras" é um CD-ROM com interface interativa que tem por objetivo a iniciação na Língua Brasileira de Sinais - Libras. A partir de temas do cotidiano, permite à criança relacionar a imagem a uma estrutura frasal da Libras de forma lúdica, contribuindo para aquisição de conceitos e aspectos culturais. Para a utilização desse material é importante que sejam identificadas as diferenças regionais existentes em alguns sinais e que sejam adaptadas para a Libras local, tornando-se mais um exercício enriquecedor para aquisição e prática da Língua de Sinais. Maiores informações sobre o material no site da Editora Arara Azul: www.editora-arara-azul.com. br

  15. Quedas em idosos

    OpenAIRE

    Meneses, Joana Gonçalves de

    2016-01-01

    Trabalho final do mestrado em medicina do desporto com vista à atribuição do Grau de Mestre (área científica de geriatria), apresentado à Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra As quedas na população idosa constituem um grande problema de saúde pública, tendo em conta a sua dimensão física, psicológica, económica e social. Subjacente à ocorrência destes acontecimentos existe uma série de fatores de risco, como a idade, falta de equilíbrio, sedentarismo, doenças crónicas, a polime...

  16. Hipervitaminose D em animais

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    Paulo V. Peixoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de revisão da literatura, são apresentados dados referentes ao metabolismo da vitamina D, bem como aos principais aspectos toxicológicos, clínicos, bioquímicos, macroscópicos, microscópicos, ultraestruturais, imuno-histoquímicos e radiográficos de animais intoxicados natural e experimentalmente por essa vitamina, em diferentes espécies. Este estudo objetiva demonstrar a existência de muitas lacunas no conhecimento sobre mineralização fisiológica e patológica, em especial na mediação hormonal do fenômeno, bem como alertar para os riscos de ocorrência dessa intoxicação.

  17. CORANTES ARTIFICIAIS EM ALIMENTOS

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    Marcelo Alexandre PRADO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    O emprego de aditivos químicos é, sem dúvida, um dos mais polêmicos avanços alcançados pela indústria de alimentos. Os corantes artificiais pertencem a uma dessas classes de aditivos alimentares e têm sido objeto de muitas críticas, já que seu uso em muitos alimentos justifica-se apenas por questões de hábitos alimentares. Ainda existem diferentes opiniões quanto à inocuidade dos diversos corantes artificiais. Visando, principalmente, o controle no uso dos corantes sintéticos, mas tendo em vista que produtos coloridos artificialmente são exportados e importados, a análise desses aditivos requer métodos eficientes e rápidos para a detecção, identificação e quantificação. A cromatografia em papel e em camada delgada, apesar de serem técnicas relativamente rápidas, apresentam dados com baixa exatidão e precisão. Já na cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE as maiores dificuldades encontram-se nas etapas de extração, mas principalmente no alto custo do equipamento. A eletroforese capilar apresenta os mesmos problemas da CLAE, aliados ao fato de se tratar de uma técnica relativamente recente para a análise desse tipo de substância e, portanto, existem poucos estudos a cerca da determinação e quantificação. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Corantes artificiais; análise; legislação; CLAE; EC

  18. O estresse em escolares

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    Marilda E. Novaes Lipp

    Full Text Available A presença de sintomas de estresse foi pesquisada em uma amostra de 255 escolares de 7 a 14 anos de idade, oriundos de três tipos diferentes de escolas (municipal, particular e particular confessional filantrópica. Os dados foram analisados em termos de diferenças entre as escolas, sexo e série do ensino fundamental em que as crianças se encontravam. Constatou-se que o tipo de escola tinha uma forte associação com o nível de estresse dos alunos e que o número de meninas com estresse era significativamente maior do que o dos meninos. Verificou-se também que o estresse diminui nas séries mais elevadas e estava mais presente na primeira série. Pode-se concluir que as escolas têm um papel relevante no estresse infantil e que é possível dentro de uma escola apresentar níveis baixos de estresse, dependendo das características da mesma.

  19. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers with 454 Pyrosequencing in a Vulnerable Fish<em>,> the Mottled Skate<em>, Raja em>pulchra>

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    Jung-Ha Kang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mottled skate, <em>Raja pulchraem>, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62% produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two <em>R. pulchra em>populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1–10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni’s correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other <em>Rajidae> family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three <em>Rajidae> family species and the <em>Dasyatidae> family. Two <em>Rajidae> polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species.

  20. Dípteros minadores e seus parasitóides em plantas de crescimento espontâneo em pomar orgânico de citros em Montenegro, RS, Brasil Diptera leafminers and their parasitoids in spontaneous vegetation in organic citrus orchard in Montenegro, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Pereira dos Santos

    Full Text Available A análise de comunidades minadores e seus parasitóides é importante para a compreensão da regulação biótica e para a manutenção da biodiversidade em agroecossistemas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos registrar os dípteros minadores e seus parasitóides na vegetação de crescimento espontâneo de um pomar orgânico de citros, de maio de 2003 a maio de 2004. O trabalho foi conduzido no município de Montenegro, RS, em um pomar do híbrido tangor 'Murcott'. Realizaram-se amostragens quinzenais, coletando-se em cada ocasião todas as folhas contendo minas presentes na área delimitada por um aro de 0,28 m², que era jogado nas linhas e nas entrelinhas de 30 árvores sorteadas. No laboratório registrou-se o número de larvas e pupas de dípteros minadores por folha. Foram registradas 15 espécies de dípteros minadores, 15 espécies de plantas hospedeiras (distribuídas em seis famílias e 15 espécies de microimenópteros parasitóides (distribuídas em três famílias. Os dípteros minadores apresentaram grande especificidade às suas plantas hospedeiras. Portanto, o manejo adequado desta vegetação pode favorecer o estabelecimento e a multiplicação de inimigos naturais destes insetos minadores.Leafminers and their parasitoids communities analysis is necessary to supply information about the biotic regulation and to maintenance of the biodiversity in the agroecosystem. This study aimed to register Diptera leafminers and their parasitoids, present in the vegetation spontaneously growing at the citrus orchard from May 2003 to May 2004. The work was conducted in Montenegro, RS, in an organic orchard of the hybrid 'Murcott'. Samplings were taken fortnightly, collecting in each occasion all the plants with mines found in an area delimited by a 0.28 m² arc thrown in the lines and between lines of 30 randomly chosen trees. In the lab, the number of larvae and pupae per leaf of Diptera leafminers were recorded. Throughout the study, it was

  1. Solidariedade em Redes

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    Angie Gomes Gomes Biondi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O discurso da comum humanidade que vinculava sofredor e espectador na base de uma moralidade piedosa caducou frente às solicitações de uma sociedade tecnológica, multicultural e pluralista. Ao repertório do protesto e da denúncia, como instrumentos privilegiados da modernidade, prevalecem agora novos apelos à chamada “sensibilidade humanitária” (CHOULIARAKI, 2013 posta diretamente a cada sujeito social conectado. Deste modo, uma profusão de causas individuais tem se amontoado nas redes sociais (não raro, multiplicadas pelos meios de comunicação tradicionais todos os dias. Causas que se declaram legítimas e justificáveis em tempos de uma precária e insuficiente participação do Estado e que se orientam para uma ação direta às vítimas e oprimidos. Contudo, as interações afetivas que subjazem estes apelos solidários se coadunam à lógica de um capitalismo flexível que toma a própria vida em sua vertente criativa, como núcleo de produção econômica, ou seja, como forma de capitalização da própria vida cotidiana. Neste texto buscamos desenvolver uma etapa descritiva destas convocações solidárias como uma prática baseada na lógica conexionista que tem vigorado em nossa sociedade. Alguns casos são trazidos para pensar o lugar da vítima enquanto instância privilegiada de sua própria enunciação, os mecanismos de visibilidade que são articulados na comunicação modulada pelas redes e em que medida é possível pensar tais práticas como uma espécie de atualização das ações solidárias baseadas em uma “política do conexionismo”, conforme indicam os estudos de Boltanski e Chiapello (2013.

  2. Acarofauna em plantas ornamentais

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    Jania Claudia Camilo dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE O cultivo e o comercio de plantas ornamentais vem cada vez mais ganhando espaço no Brasil, pela grande variedade das espécies existentes e exuberância de suas flores, que oferecem uma maior riqueza ao local. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar o levantamento da população de ácaros associados às plantas ornamentais no município de Arapiraca-AL, em função dos diversos problemas acarretados por essa espécie. O levantamento foi realizado entre os meses de abril a março, através de amostragens mensais de folhas coletadas da parte basal, intermediária e apical de plantas existentes em praças e jardins. Foram coletados 55 ácaros pertencentes à ordem Prostigmata em 20 famílias de plantas. As plantas com as maiores riquezas de ácaros foram as Coleus blumei L. e Bxuxus sempervirens L., que apresentaram 65% dos valores amostrais. Analisando-se as coletas realizadas, pode-se observar que houve uma maior incidência populacional de ácaros na coleta do mês de maio, cuja percentagem foi de 36% de ácaros levantados, sendo que no levantamento dos dados amostrais de março a percentagem encontrada foi de 14%, nas amostragens dos meses de abril e junho, a percentagem amostrada dos dados foi de 22 e 28%, respectivamente. O estudo do levantamento de ácaros em plantas ornamentais permitiu observar a relação entre ácaros e a relação com a planta hospedeira, facilitando posteriormente um estudo mais aprofundado sobre plantas hospedeiras, e pode-se observar que em períodos chuvosos ocorre uma menor incidência populacional.

  3. Deacidification of <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis> Oil as a Promising Non-Edible Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in China

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    Yuan Meng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis> seed oil is proposed as a promising non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Different extraction methods were tested and compared to obtain crude oil from the seed of <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis>, along with various deacidification measures of refined oil. The biodiesel was produced through catalysis of sodium hydroxide (NaOH and potassium hydroxide (KOH. The results showed that the acid value of <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis> oil was successfully reduced to 0.23 mg KOH/g when it was extracted using ethanol. Consequently, the biodiesel product gave a high yield beyond 96.0%. The transesterification catalysed by KOH was also more complete. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was used to monitor the transesterification reaction. Analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID certified that the <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis> biodiesel mainly consisted of C18 fatty acid methyl esters (81.07% with a high percentage of methyl oleate. Furthermore, the measured fuel properties of the biodiesel met the required standards for fuel use. In conclusion, the <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis> biodiesel is a qualified and feasible substitute for fossil diesel.

  4. On subspecific taxonomy of <em>Microtus saviiem> (Rodentia, Arvicolidae

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    Longino Contoli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Sulla tassonomia sottospecifica di <em>Microtus saviiem> (Rodentia, Arvicolidae Viene riveduta e riassunta la situazione tassonomica sottospecifica di <em>Microtus (Terricola saviiem>, anche tramite la descrizione di due nuovi taxa: <em>Microtus (Terricola savii tolfetanusem>, dei Monti della Tolfa e <em>Microtus (Terricola savii niethammericusem>, del Gargano.

  5. Specificity in chemical profiles of workers, brood and mutualistic fungi in <em>Atta, Acromyrmexem>, and <em>Sericomyrmex> fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Poulsen, Michael; Drijfhout, Falko

    2007-01-01

    Neotropical attine ants live in obligatory symbiosis with a fungus that they grow for food on a substrate of primarily plant material harvested by workers. Nestmate recognition is likely based on chemical cues as in most other social insects, but recent studies have indicated that both the ants...... and their mutualistic fungi may contribute to the recognition templates. To investigate the within-colony variation in chemical profiles, we extracted and identified compounds from the cuticle of workers, the postpharyngeal gland of workers, ant pupae and larvae, and the fungal symbiont of three species of higher...

  6. Antioxidant Profile of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L.

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    Heidy Schwartsova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the antioxidant properties of five different extracts of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L. (Leguminosae leaves, various assays which measure free radical scavenging ability were carried out: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenger capacity tests and lipid peroxidation assay. In all of the tests, only the H2O and (to some extent the EtOAc extracts showed a potent antioxidant effect compared with BHT and BHA, well-known synthetic antioxidants. In addition, <em>in vivo em>experiments were conducted with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx in liver homogenate and blood of mice after their treatment with extracts of <em>T. pratenseem> leaves, or in combination with CCl4. Besides, in the extracts examined the total phenolic and flavonoid amounts were also determined, together with presence of the selected flavonoids: quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, naringenin and kaempferol, which were studied using a HPLC-DAD technique. HPLC-DAD analysis showed a noticeable content of natural products according to which the examined <em>Trifolium pratenseem> species could well be regarded as a promising new source of bioactive natural compounds, which can be used both as a food supplement and a remedy.

  7. Proximate Composition, Nutritional Attributes and Mineral Composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L. (Ketumpangan Air Grown in Malaysia

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    Maznah Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (31.22% suggests a high-value mineral composition comprising potassium, calcium and iron as the main elements. The present study inferred that <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> would serve as a good source of protein and energy as well as micronutrients in the form of a leafy vegetable for human consumption.

  8. Sade em Lacan

    OpenAIRE

    Riaviz, Eduardo

    2000-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Esta dissertação analisa o lugar do Marquês de Sade no ensino de Lacan. Começamos por reconstruir a recepção de Sade pela vanguarda francesa, particularmente no movimento surrealista e nos seus dissidentes. Em seguida, acompanhamos as modificações do lugar de Sade na obra de Lacan. Para isto nos orientamos nos seis paradigmas do gozo através dos quais J.-A. Miller ordena a doutrina lacaniana...

  9. Branqueamento em dentes endodonciados

    OpenAIRE

    Melício, Joianne Sandrine Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária Uma vez que a procura pela estética dentária vem aumentando significativamente, houve necessidade de procurar alternativas para a recuperação da coloração natural dos dentes quando esta é perdida por inúmeros fatores. O Branqueamento dentário, entre outras técnicas, tornou-se uma possibilidade para restaurar a perda da cor e tonalida...

  10. Quedas em idosos institucionalizados

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Emiko Fleming Uchida; Sheila de Melo Borges

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a frequência de quedas em idosos institucionalizados, bem como descrever os fatores de risco para quedas dessa população. As informações foram obtidas por meio de análise de prontuários, de entrevistas e pelos testes Timed Up and Go, Short Physical Performance Battery, Mini-exame do Estado Mental, Medida de Independência Funcional e Escala de Depressão Geriátrica-15. A frequência de quedas foi de 22,2% e verificou-se que os fatores de risco são freq...

  11. Flashes em Circuito

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    Ivete Lara Camargos Walty

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflexão sobre o papel da narrativa urbana no tratamento do tema da exclusão social, tendo como ponto de partida uma leitura do livro Passaporte, de Fernando Bonassi, que envolve a discussão do próprio gênero, a partir, sobretudo, da teoria do conto de Ricardo Piglia e de sua retomada das Seis propostas para o próximo milênio, de Ítalo Calvino, em artigo recente.

  12. Effects of <em>Citrus aurantiumem> (Bitter Orange Fruit Extracts and <em>p>-Synephrine on Metabolic Fluxes in the Rat Liver

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    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The fruit extracts of <em>Citrus aurantiumem> (bitter orange are traditionally used as weight-loss products and as appetite supressants. An important fruit component is <em>p>-synephrine, which is structurally similar to the adrenergic agents. Weight-loss and adrenergic actions are always related to metabolic changes and this work was designed to investigate a possible action of the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract on liver metabolism. The isolated perfused rat liver was used to measure catabolic and anabolic pathways, including oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure. The <em>C. aurantiumem> extract and <em>p>-synephrine increased glycogenolysis, glycolysis, oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure. These changes were partly sensitive to a- and b-adrenergic antagonists. <em>p>-Synephrine (200 mM produced an increase in glucose output that was only 15% smaller than the increment caused by the extract containing 196 mM <em>p>-synephrine. At low concentrations the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract tended to increase gluconeogenesis, but at high concentrations it was inhibitory, opposite to what happened with <em>p>-synephrine. The action of the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract on liver metabolism is similar to the well known actions of adrenergic agents and can be partly attributed to its content in <em>p>-synephrine. Many of these actions are catabolic and compatible with the weight-loss effects usually attributed to <em>C. aurantiumem>.

  13. Identification and Characterization of a <em>Bursaphelenchus xylophilusem> (Aphelenchida: Aphelenchoididae Thermotolerance-Related Gene: <em>Bx-HSP90em>

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    Danlei Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures directly influence the distribution and intensity of pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode, <em>Bursaphelenchus xylophilusem>. To date, however, little is known about the causation and mechanism of this influence. The molecular chaperone HSP90 is a key component that contributes to survival in the abiotic stress response. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the survival of <em>B. xylophilusem> and the functionality of the HSP90 gene<em>.> <em>Bx-HSP90 em>was cloned from a suppression subtractive hybridization library. <em>In situem> mRNA hybridization showed that <em>Bx-HSP90em> was constitutively expressed in response to all of the temperatures tested, and RT-PCR indicated that all of the temperatures could induce <em>Bx-HSP90 em>transcription, with the highest transcript level detected at 30 °C. The suppression of the <em>Bx-HSP90em> transcript by RNA interference led to a 25% reduction in the number of nematodes at 30 °C after 44 h. Sharp declines in the survival of the RNAi-treated nematodes were observed after 8 days at 25 °C, 48 h at 30 °C and 24 h at 35 °C. Both heat shock and the knockdown of <em>Bx-HSP90 em>hindered the growth of the <em>B. xylophilusem> populations. The results indicate that <em>Bx-HSP90em> is essential for the survival of <em>B. xylophilusem>, confirming the thermoregulatory function of the gene, and delineate the timeframe and temperature range within which the gene function occurs.

  14. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activities of the Essential Oils and Crude Extracts of<em> Euphorbiaem>> macrorrhizaem>

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    Haji Akber Aisa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils extracted from <em>Euphorbia macrorrhizaem> collected from Northwest China. The major constituents of the essential oils of aerial parts and roots of <em>E. macrorrhizaem> are acorenone B (16.72% and 25.80%, (+-cycloisosativene (14.94% and 12.40%, 3a-hydroxy-5b-androstane (10.62% and 5.52%, copaene (7.37% and 6.29%, l-calamenene (4.13% and 4.65% and β-cedrene (8.40% and 7.98%, respectively. The minor components of them are thymene, γ-terpinene, thymecamphor, α-cedrene, zingiberene, trans-caryophyllene, β-chamigrene, curcumene, pentadecane, (−-α-muurolene, cuparene, γ-cadinene, (<em>Z>-3-heptadecene, 1,3,7,7-tetramethyl-2-oxabicyclo(4.4.0dec-5-en-4-one, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, γ-elixene and palmitinic acid. The antimicrobial and antitumor activitiy of the <em>E. macrorrhizaem> essential oil against <em>Staphyloccocus aureusem>, <em>Escherichia coliem>, <em>Canidia Albicansem> and Caco-2 cells were evaluated. Among all the tested microorganisms and Caco-2 cells, the essential oils showed the strongest inhibitory effect on <em>Staphyloccocus aureus em>(MIC = 2.8 μg/mL and Caco-2 cell (IC50 = 11.86 μg/mL, whereas no effect on <em>Escherichia coliem> and <em>Candida em>albicans>. The data of this study suggested that the <em>E. macrorrhizaem> essential oils have great potential as a natural medicine for microbial infections and cancers.

  15. Aspectos biológicos e morfológicos de Mimallo amilia (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae em folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla Biological and morphological aspects of Mimallo amilia (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae in Eucalyptus urophylla leaves

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    Teresinha Vinha Zanuncio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Mimallo amilia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae foi estudada em folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla em laboratório a 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% de umidade relativa e fotoperíodo de 12 horas de luz e 12 horas de escuro. Essa espécie teve duração da fase larval de 34,88 dias e cinco estádios larvais. Houve mortalidade de lagartas no primeiro, terceiro e quarto estádios com 5,00; 7,89; e 14,28%, respectivamente. Os períodos de pré-pupa e de pupa foram de 4,33 ± 0,33 e 3,90 ± 0,23 e de 18,78 ± 0,69 e 18,82 ± 0,41 dias para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente. Cada fêmea de M. amilia depositou 4,86 ± 0,48 posturas com 19,84 ± 1,76 ovos por postura. O período de incubação dos ovos foi de 8,60 ± 0,24 dias, com viabilidade de 88,63%. A longevidade de adultos foi de 5,66 ± 0,61 e 9,22 ± 0,79 dias, com envergadura das asas de 42,70 ± 0,32 e 49,70 ± 0,17 mm para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente, e razão sexual de 0,56. As lagartas dessa espécie apresentaram tamanho de 0,90 ± 0,01 mm no primeiro estádio a 4,40 ± 1,42 mm no último.The biology of Mimallo amilia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae was studied on Eucalyptus urophylla leaves in laboratory conditions (25 ± 2ºC, 60 ± 10% relative humidity and 12L:12D photoperiod. This species showed 33.88 day for the larval stage with five larval instars. Larval mortality occurred during first, third and fourth instars with 5.00, 7.89 and 14.28%, respectively. Pre-pupa and pupa stages lasted 4.33 ± 0.33 and 3.90 ± 0.23, and 18.78 ± 0.69 and 18.82 ± 0.41 days for males and females, respectively. Each female laid 4.86 ± 0.48 egg masses with 19.84 ± 1.76 eggs per egg mass. Incubation period lasted 8.60 ± 0.24 days with 88.63%. egg viability. Adult longevity was 5.66 ± 0.61 and 9.22 ± 0.79 days with adult wingspan of 42.70 ± 0.32 and 49.70 ± 0.17 mm for males and females, respectively, with 0.56 sex ratio. Length of this species' caterpillars was 0.90 ± 0.01 mm at the

  16. Ocorrências da família Sarcophagidae (Insecta, Díptera em carcaças de Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Suidae em Belém-PA, colonização da carcaça e sua relação com o tempo de morte do animal

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    Paula Daniela Raiol Bitar de Araujo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa verificar a ocorrência de Dípteros de interesse forense em uma carcaça de suíno, sua colonização e relação com o tempo de morte do animal, dando maior ênfase na família Sarcophagidae, por constituírem fauna constante e obrigatória de carcaça e por utilizarem esse substrato como sítio de procriação. O experimento foi realizado em uma área de mata, localizada nas dependências do Instituto de Pesquisa Museu Emílio Goeldi, em Belém-Pa. Foi utilizado como isca um suíno (Sus scrofa L. inteiro (com vísceras, de 14,5 Kg, recém abatido. Este foi exposto sob uma armadilha do tipo suspensa modificada, adequada à coletas de insetos adultos, sendo que também foram coletadas larvas e pupas, diretamente na carcaça. A ocorrência dos insetos adultos e de seus estágios larvais foi correlacionada com o tempo de morte do animal, a fim de possibilitar futuras inferências de tempo de morte com base na presença e dispersão destes insetos. O tempo de decomposição e a duração de cada estágio de decomposição foram registrados, tendo sido afetados provavelmente pelo tamanho da carcaça e pela estação do ano. Diferenças quanto ao padrão de sucessão não foram observadas

  17. Occurrence and biology of Tolype innocens (Burmeister on blueberry Ocorrência e biologia de Tolype innocens (Burmeister em mirtilo

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    Renata Salvador Louzada

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 is reported for the first time damaging blueberry (Vaccinium ashei plants in Brazil having the caterpillars feeding on leaves and new shoots. T. innocens biology was studied on blueberry leaves in laboratory conditions and then a fertility life table was elaborated. Developmental time and viability of egg, larval and pupal stages and egg-adult period were 15.0 and 35.3, 33.3 and 84.5, 20.6 and 100, and 69.2 days and 45%, respectively. Average pupal weight was 0.840g for the females and 0.580g for the males. The sex ratio was 0.5. Pre-oviposition and oviposition time lasted 6.34 and 12.1 days, respectively. Mean fecundity was 251 eggs per female. Eggs were laid either individually or in masses. Longevity was 19.0 and 20.0 days for males and females, respectively. T. innocens population increased 47 times per generation, with a mean generation time of 77 days, and a finite rate of increase of 1.02. This data on biological parameters will be useful for establishing control strategies.A ocorrência de Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 (Lasiocampidae é relatada pela primeira vez danificando o mirtileiro (Vaccinium ashei no Brasil, sendo que as lagartas se alimentam das folhas e ramos novos. Em laboratório, foi estudada a biologia em folhas de mirtilo em condições controladas de temperatura (25±1ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotofase (12h e elaborada a tabela de vida de fertilidade. A duração e a viabilidade dos estágios de ovo, lagarta e pupa, e período ovo-adulto foram de 15,0 e 35,3; 33,3 e 84,5; 20,6 e 100; e 69,2 dias e 45%, respectivamente. O peso médio de pupas foi de 0,840g para as fêmeas e 0,580g para os machos. A razão sexual foi de 0,5. Os períodos de pré-oviposição e oviposição foram de 6,34 e 12,1 dias, respectivamente. A fecundidade média foi de 251 ovos por fêmea, colocados de forma isolada ou em massas. A longevidade dos machos foi de 19,0 dias e das fêmeas de 20,0 dias. T

  18. Further Insights on the Carotenoid Profile of the Echinoderm <em>Marthasteria>s glacialisem> L.

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    Natércia Teixeira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the carotenoid profile of the echinoderm <em>Marthasterias glacialisem> L. was established using HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS/MS equipped with a C30 column. This approach rendered the identification of 20 compounds, eight of them reported for the first time in this marine organism. Differentiation of carotenoid isomers was also achieved.

  19. O insight em psiquiatria

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    Ana Margarida P. Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O sinal de que algo está a acontecer contribui para que o paciente reconheça que alguma coisa de estranho se está a passar consigo. Este reconhecimento faz com que o sujeito possa desempenhar uma função activa e seja um elemento colaborante do seu processo de recuperação. Cada doença apresenta, contudo, diferentes sintomas, uma vez que cada doença psiquiátrica consiste em diferentes perturbações com diversos efeitos sobre o funcionamento mental. Desta maneira, o fenómeno do insight que é registado em cada doença é diferente e expressa-se sob diferentes formas, não somente devido às manifestações clínicas da doença mas também devido às características individuais do sujeito.

  20. Antibioticos profilaticos em neurocirurgia

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    Reynaldo A. Brandt

    1979-03-01

    Full Text Available O índice de infecções pós-operatórias em pacientes neuro-cirúrgicos que receberam antibióticos profiláticos neste período foi comparado com o de pacientes que não receberam antibióticos. Infecções ocorreram em proporções significativamente maiores nos pacientes que receberam antibióticos, particularmente naqueles com afecções intracranianas graves; estas infecções foram graves e fatais na maioria dos casos. A administração de antibióticos profiláticos nestes pacientes não só foi incapaz de prevenir o aparecimento de infecções pós-operatórias, como aparentemente favoreceu o seu desenvolvimento. Tal se deveu, provavelmente, à destruição do equilíbrio microbiano no organismo, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de germes patogênicos e resistentes aos antibióticos usuais

  1. Mulheres em movimento

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    Carneiro Sueli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available ESSE artigo busca demarcar a trajetória de luta das mulheres negras brasileiras no interior do movimento feminista nacional. Trata-se de colocar em questão a perspectiva feminista clássica fundada numa concepção universalista de mulher, que tem o seu paradigma na mulher branca ocidental, o que obscurece a percepção das múltiplas contradições intragênero e entre gêneros que a racialidade aporta. Dessas contradições, impõem-se para as mulheres negras a sua afirmação como um novo sujeito político, portador de uma nova agenda, esta resultante de uma identidade específica na qual se articulam as variáveis de gênero, raça e classe, colocando novos e mais complexos desafios para realização da eqüidade de gênero e raça em nossa sociedade.

  2. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  3. A democracia em Cuba

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    Julio César Guanche Zaldívar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O triunfo revolucionário de 1959 consagrou em Cuba um novo conceito de democracia, com o intuito de garantir o acesso à vida política ativa de grandes setores da população, antes excluídos. Para isso, foi desenvolvida uma política de inclusão social com caráter universal. A prática política popular deixou as riquezas do país em mãos da população carente e gerou uma grande mobilidade social, fato que foi central para o aumento da participação popular. O contexto de agressão imperialista e o próprio desenvolvimento do processo produziram a consolidação de noções que limitaram a participação popular: o apogeu da burocracia, a compreensão da unidade como unanimidade e o seguimento, em certa medida, de correntes do marxismo soviético. Os desafios atuais para aprofundar a democracia em Cuba se apresentam em três planos: socializar o poder, promover a sociodiversidade e desenvolver a ideologia revolucionária.El triunfo revolucionario de 1959 consagró en Cuba un nuevo concepto de democracia, basado en garantizar acceso a la vida política activa a grandes sectores poblacionales, antes excluidos de ella. Para ello desarrolló una política de inclusión social con carácter universal. La práctica política popular puso las riquezas del país en manos de los desposeídos y generó gran movilidad social, hecho que resultó clave para el aumento de la participación popular. El contexto de agresión imperialista y el propio desarrollo del proceso produjo el afianzamiento de nociones que limitaron la participación popular: el auge de la burocracia, la comprensión de la unidad como unanimidad y el seguimiento, en parte, de corrientes del marxismo soviético. Los desafíos actuales se presentan en tres planos para profundizar la democracia en Cuba: socializar el poder, promover la sociodiversidad y desarrollar la ideología revolucionaria.The revolutionary triumph of 1959 established in Cuba a new concept of democracy, one that

  4. Microhimenópteros parasitóides de dípteros muscóides coletados em diferentes substratos em área de mata em Itumbiara, Goiás Microhimenopterous parasitoids of muscoids dipterous collected from different substrata in a wood area in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

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    C.H. Marchiori

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the occurrence of parasitoids in pupae of flies (Diptera collected from several different substrata in Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil. The pupae were isolated by flotation. They were individually placed into gelatin capsules and kept until the emergency of adult flies or their parasitoids. From March 2001 through April 2002, a total of 684 parasitoids and 830 pupae of flies were collected from humans feces, chicken viscera, fish, and bovine kidney. Brachymeria podagrica were identified in a high number of samples. The prevalence of parasitism was of 82.4%.

  5. Four Novel Cellulose Synthase (CESA Genes from <em>Birch> (<em>Betula platyphylla em>Suk. Involved in Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

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    Xuemei Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose synthase (CESA, which is an essential catalyst for the generation of plant cell wall biomass, is mainly encoded by the <em>CesA> gene family that contains ten or more members. In this study; four full-length cDNAs encoding CESA were isolated from<em> Betula platyphyllaem> Suk., which is an important timber species, using RT-PCR combined with the RACE method and were named as <em>BplCesA3em>, <em>−4em>,> −7 em>and> −8em>. These deduced CESAs contained the same typical domains and regions as their <em>Arabidopsis> homologs. The cDNA lengths differed among these four genes, as did the locations of the various protein domains inferred from the deduced amino acid sequences, which shared amino acid sequence identities ranging from only 63.8% to 70.5%. Real-time RT-PCR showed that all four <em>BplCesAs> were expressed at different levels in diverse tissues. Results indicated that BplCESA8 might be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and floral development. BplCESA3 appeared in a unique expression pattern and was possibly involved in primary cell wall biosynthesis and seed development; it might also be related to the homogalacturonan synthesis. BplCESA7 and BplCESA4 may be related to the formation of a cellulose synthase complex and participate mainly in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The extremely low expression abundance of the four BplCESAs in mature pollen suggested very little involvement of them in mature pollen formation in <em>Betula>. The distinct expression pattern of the four <em>BplCesAs> suggested they might participate in developments of various tissues and that they are possibly controlled by distinct mechanisms in <em>Betula.>

  6. Osteoporose em caprinos

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    Fábio B. Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de casos de osteoporose em caprinos provenientes de uma propriedade na área de abrangência do LPV-UFSM, determinando a epidemiologia, o quadro clínico-patológico e discutindo os prováveis mecanismos patogenéticos. Cinco cabras, fêmeas, SRD, de seis meses a seis anos de idade foram afetadas. As cabras eram mantidas em campo nativo, sem suplementação com ração e sob superlotação. Os principais sinais clínicos foram emagrecimento, dificuldade de locomoção e permanência em decúbito por longos períodos. As principais alterações macroscópicas nos ossos examinados foram vistas nas superfícies de corte e caracterizavam-se por depleção do osso esponjoso (porosidade e redução acentuada da espessura do osso cortical. Havia também marcada atrofia serosa da gordura da medula óssea. Microscopicamente, nas regiões avaliadas (úmero proximal, rádio distal, fêmur distal, tíbia proximal e corpos das vértebras lombares foi observada redução moderada a acentuada do número e da espessura das trabéculas ósseas nas epífises e metáfises dos ossos longos e nos corpos vertebrais. Os achados clínico-patológicos indicaram que a osteoporose observada provavelmente foi causada pela desnutrição. As alterações ósseas (diminuição no número e na espessura das trabéculas do osso esponjoso sugerem que ambos os mecanismos, má formação óssea e reabsorção óssea aumentada, contribuíram para a ocorrência de osteoporose nos caprinos deste estudo.

  7. Architectural acoustics and the heritage of theater architecture in Andalusia (Acustica arquitectonica y patrimonio teatral en Andalucia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Angel Luis

    2003-11-01

    This thesis reports on the study of the acoustic properties of 18 theaters belonging to the Andalusian historical and architectural heritage. These theaters have undergone recent renovations to modernize and equip them appropriately. Coincident with this work, evaluations and qualification assessments with regard to their acoustic properties have been carried out for the individual theaters and for the group as a whole. Data measurements for this purpose consisted of acoustic measurements in situ, both before the renovation and after the renovation. These results have been compared with computer simulations of sound fields. Variables and parameters considered include the following: reverberation time, rapid speech transition index, back-ground noise, definition, clarity, strength, lateral efficiency, interaural cross-correlation coefficient, volume/seat ratio, volume/audience-area ratio. Based on the measurements and analysis, general conclusions are given in regard to the acoustic performance of theaters whose typology and size are comparable to those that were used in this study (between 800 and 8000 cubic meters). It is noted that these properties are comparable to those of the majority of European theaters. The results and conclusions are presented so that they should be of interest to architectural acoustics practitioners and to architects who are involved in the planning of renovation projects for theaters Thesis advisors: Juan J. Sendra and Jaime Navarro Copies of this thesis written in Spanish may be obtained by contacting the author, Angel L. Leon, E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Sevilla, Dpto. de Construcciones Arquitectonicas I, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail address: leonr@us.es

  8. Acoustics of native-American ceremonial sites in prehispanic America (Acustica en los espacios escenios rituales prehispanicos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Isabel

    2003-11-01

    This thesis establishes a methodology that incorporates the latest procedures used in architectural acoustics for the study of open spaces of this general type, and definitions are given for the acoustic variables of interest. The ``Juego de Pelota'' (ball game) sites are the only ceremonial sites built specifically for the performance of a fertility ritual, and are ideal for the study of prehispanic architectural topographies. Analysis of the acoustic properties of such sites revealed that the topographical characteristics of the elevation profiles of these architectural structures determine the acoustic behavior of these spaces. Such profiles are classified into three basic types: (i) inclined profile, (ii) terraced profile, and (iii) mixed profile. The terraced profiles are the most efficient, and the mixed profiles are the least efficient, in regard to acoustics. The consideration of the acoustic behavior of architectural structures intended for the ``Ball Game,'' as the designs evolved over time, leads to the conclusion that acoustical sensations that contributed effectively to the characteristic mystical atmosphere of the ceremonial rituals were characteristic only of those sites constructed in the ``classical'' period. Thesis advisors: Jaime Navarro and Juan J. Sendra Copies of this thesis written in Spanish may be obtained by contacting the advisor, Jaime Navarro, E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Sevilla, Dpto. de Construcciones Arquitectonicas I, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail address: jnavarro@us.es

  9. Quedas em idosos institucionalizados

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    Julia Emiko Fleming Uchida

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a frequência de quedas em idosos institucionalizados, bem como descrever os fatores de risco para quedas dessa população. As informações foram obtidas por meio de análise de prontuários, de entrevistas e pelos testes Timed Up and Go, Short Physical Performance Battery, Mini-exame do Estado Mental, Medida de Independência Funcional e Escala de Depressão Geriátrica-15. A frequência de quedas foi de 22,2% e verificou-se que os fatores de risco são frequentes nessa população, mostrando, assim, um risco importante para quedas futuras. Palavras-chave: Saúde do Idoso Institucionalizado; Acidentes por quedas; Fatores de risco.

  10. INDICADORES EM SANEAMENTO

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Samuel Alves Barbi; Côrtes, Larissa Silveira; Coelho Netto, Taiana; Freitas Junior, Moacyr Moreira de

    2016-01-01

    Este artigo se propõe a analisar a evolução dos prestadores de serviços de saneamento do estado de MinasGerais entre os anos de 2005 e 2010 com base nos indicadores do Sistema Nacional de Informações em Saneamento(SNIS). Foram definidos parâmetros técnicos para a análise dos indicadores, classificados os resultados como satisfatórios(verdes) ou insatisfatórios (vermelhos). Esta categorização atende a concepção da Regulação Sunshine, trazendo à tona omonitoramento do progresso das ações no set...

  11. O humano em Womanity

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Dâmaris de Oliveira Batista da

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia. A cultura da comunicação transforma e cria uma nova forma urbana, a comunicação urbana que produzida é para nos capturar e envolver com maior intensidade nessa sociedade do consumo. Há na comunicação publicitária uma proposta ideológica, pois cada signo é dirigido a alguém e o diálogo é constituído pelo poder. Nossa inserção no mundo define e é d...

  12. Em favor da talassografia

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    Jean-Louis Boudou

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A Talassografia (“descrição do mar” interessa-sepelos impactos físicos, biológicos, ecológicos... culturais da violenta antropização dos ambientes costeiros (oceânicos e continentais, caracterizados pelaexigüidade, vulnerabilidade, fragilidade e plasticidade. Como o Brasil é um “país marítimo”, os geó-grafos (os talassógrafos brasileiros são convidadosa intensificar suas pesquisas nas áreas costeiras e acriar novas estruturas para divulgá-las: Revista, Encontros, Associação, Pós-Graduação... tudo em prolda talassografia.

  13. Imagem digital em movimento

    OpenAIRE

    Travisani, Tatiana Giovannone [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho reúne análises sobre as imagens digitais com questões estruturais e poéticas do movimento, fazendo um levantamento histórico e artístico desde os primeiros experimentos em cronofotografia, até as manifestações atuais, do universo digital, que incorporam o movimento como temática. A imagem digital tratada não é de cunho sintético, mas sim que passou por algum processo de captura analógica, por meio de câmeras, e após isso, foi digitalizada. A partir daí, a pesquisa reflete as tra...

  14. INFLUÊNCIA ESTOICA NA CONCEPÇÃO DE <em>STATUS> E <em>DICTUM> COMO <em> QUASI RES EM> (ὡσανεì τινά EM ABERLARDO STOIC INFLUENCE IN ABELARD'S CONCEPTION OF <em>STATUS> AND <em>DICTUM> AS <em>QUASI RESem> (ὡσανεì τινά.

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    Guy Hamelin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Na sua obra, Pedro Abelardo (1079-1142 destaca duas noções metafísicas que fundamentam sua teoria lógica: o <em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">statusem> e o <em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">dictum propositionisem>, ao causar, respectivamente, a imposição (<em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">impositioem> dos termos universais e o valor de verdade das proposições. Trata-se de expressões que se referem a naturezas ontológicas peculiares, na medida em que não são consideradas coisas (<em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">resem>, mesmo que constituem causas. Todavia, também não são nada. Abelardo as chama de ‘quase coisas’ (<em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">quasi resem>. No presente artigo, explicamos, primeiro, essas duas noções essenciais da lógica abelardiana, antes de tentar, em seguida, encontrar a fonte dessa metafísica particular. Em oposição a comentadores importantes da lógica de Abelardo, que estimam que haja uma forte influência platônica sobre essa concepção específica, defendemos antes, com apoio de textos significativos e de acordo com o nominalismo abelardiano, que a maior ascendência sobre a metafísica do nosso autor é a do estoicismo, sobretudo, antigo.In his work, Peter Abelard (1079-1142 highlights two metaphysical notions, which sustain his logical theory: the <em>status> and the <em>dictum propositionisem>, causing respectively both the imposition (<em>impositio> of universal terms and the thuth-value of propositions. Both expressions refer to peculiar ontological natures, in so far as they are not considered things (<em>res>, even if they constitute causes. Nevertheless, neither are they ‘nothing’. Abelard calls them ‘quasi-things’ (<em>quasi resem>. In the present article, we expound first these two essential notions of Abelardian logic before then trying to find the source of this particular metaphysics. Contrary to some important

  15. Aggiornamento sulla distribuzione di <em>Talpa europaeaem> in Umbria

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    A.M. Paci

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available L?Umbria, in ragione della sua posizione centrale nella Penisola, appare particolarmente interessante dal punto di vista biogeografico. Per quanto riguarda le talpe, ad esempio, sono presenti tutti i <em>taxa> italiani ma, essendo ancora scarse e frammentarie le informazioni sulla loro distribuzione regionale, viene intanto aggiornato lo status di <em>T. europaeaem> con la sintesi di alcuni dati inediti raccolti nella provincia di Perugia: <em>Zoccolanti>, Città di Castello, 300 m as pa, 13-IV-2001; <em>Monte Maggioreem>, Città di Castello, 605 m bc pa vu, 13-VI-2003; <em>San Secondoem>, Città di Castello, 260 m ci pb vf, 3-VI-1995 / 9-V-2001; <em>Lugnano>, Città di Castello, 260 m ci pb vf, 25-XI-1992; <em>Niccone>, Umbertide, 250 m ce pb vf 14-VI-2003; <em>Pietralunga>, 505 m as pa, 19-IV-2002; <em>Monte Cuccoem>, Sigillo, 1050 m bc bm vu, 5-V-2003 <em>Castiglione>, Gubbio, 840 m bc pa, 30-V-1999; <em>Schifanoia>, Valfabbrica, 350 m bc pa, 30-V-2000; <em>Oscano>, Perugia, 470 m bc pa, 2002; <em>Monte Melinoem>, Magione, 225 m ci ps vt, 19-I-2001; <em>Sant?Arcangelo>, Magione; 260 m zu ps vt, IV-2002; <em>Città della Pieveem>, 500 m as pa, 29-VI-2001 (bc bosco di caducifoglie, ce colture estensive, ci colture intensive, as area suburbana, zu zona umida, pa piano bioclimatico altocollinare, pb piano bioclimatico bassocollinare, bm piano bioclimatico bassomontano, ps piano bioclimatico collinare submediterraneo, vu variante umida, vf variante fredda, vt variante temperata. In letteratura la specie viene segnalata anche nel Comune di Assisi. In due località dell?Umbria nord-orientale ? Pietralunga e Monte Cucco - <em>T. europaeaem> è risultata in parapatria con <em>T. caecaem> mentre, da recentissima bibliografia, entrerebbe in contatto con <em>T. romanaem> nella fascia centrale della regione. Contemporaneamente si è creduto opportuno riportare notizie relative ad individui marchigiani

  16. Preferencia alimenticia del ácaro depredador <em>Balaustium> sp. en condiciones controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Karen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó la preferencia de presas de <em>Balaustium> sp., enemigo natural de diferentes artrópodos plaga, y el cual es nativo de la Sabana de Bogotá. En unidades experimentales construidas con foliolos de plantas de rosa se colocaron independientemente individuos de <em>Balaustium> sp. y se registró el número de presas consumidas. De esta manera se determinó la preferencia de los tres estados móviles del ácaro depredador <em>Balaustium> sp. por diferentes edades de tres presas. Las especies y edades de las presas estudiadas fueron: huevos, ninfas y adultos de <em>Trialeurodes vaporariorumem>, huevos, ninfas y adultos de <em>Tetranychus urticaeem>, y larvas de primer y segundo instar y adultos de <em>Frankliniella occidentalisem>. Los estados menos desarrollados fueron preferidos, aunque se observó que los adultos del depredador tienen gran habilidad para consumir adultos de <em>T. vaporariorumem>. La presa preferida por las larvas de <em>Balaustium> sp. fue los huevos de <em>T. urticaeem> con una proporción de consumo de 0,54 de los huevos que se ofrecieron de esta presa; las deutoninfas del depredador eligieron huevos de <em>T. vaporariorumem> (0,537 o de <em>T. urticaeem> (0,497 y los adultos de <em>Balaustium> sp. prefrieron los huevos de <em>T. vaporariorumem> (0,588.

  17. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodré, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  18. Flutuação populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton em Citrus deliciosa e no híbrido Murcott Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton population fluctuation in Citrus deliciosa and Murcott hybrid Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ramos de Jesus

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a dinâmica populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae, o minador-dos-citros, em pomares de tangerineira Citrus deliciosa Tenore variedade Montenegrina e de tangoreiro híbrido "Murcott" Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck X Citrus reticulata Blanco, com manejo orgânico, em Montenegro (29° 68'S e 51° 46'O, Rio Grande do Sul. Foram realizadas amostragens quinzenais de julho de 2001 a junho de 2003. Os brotos coletados foram examinados em laboratório e submetidos à análise do número de folhas por broto, a da presença ou ausência de minas, do número de minas, dos ovos, das larvas e das pupas de P. citrella. Em ambos os pomares não houve registro de minas de P. citrella no primeiro fluxo de brotação, de agosto a outubro. No ano I, as maiores densidades de minas foram registradas em meados de novembro, início de janeiro e início de abril, em ambos os pomares. No ano II, constataram-se as maiores densidades de minas e larvas em janeiro e em abril, em C. deliciosa, e de dezembro a março em "Murcott". Embora o número médio de brotos registrado tenha sido sempre maior em C. deliciosa, a colonização e o estabelecimento do minador-dos-citros seguiram o mesmo padrão em ambos os pomares. A temperatura mínima e média e a umidade relativa do ar foram os fatores abióticos que apresentaram maior influência no número de minas e de larvas de P. citrella.To evaluate the population dynamics of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae, the citrus leafminer, in tangerine Citrus deliciosa Tenore var. Montenegrina and tangor 'Murcott' Citrus sinensis L Osbeck X Citrus reticulata Blanco in organically managed orchards, in Montenegro (29° 68'S e 51° 46'W, RS, fortnightly samples were carried out from July 2001 to June 2003. Sampled shoots were examined in the lab and the number of leaves, presence or absence of mines and the number of mines, eggs, larvae and

  19. Synthesis of 1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives and <em>in Vitroem> Antifungal Evaluation on <em>Candida> Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir G. Wanderley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available 1,2,3-Triazoles have been extensively studied as compounds possessing important biological activities. In this work, we describe the synthesis of ten 2-(1-aryl-1<em>H>-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylpropan-2-ols via copper catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAc or <em>click chemistryem>. Next the<em> in vitroem> antifungal activity of these ten compounds was evaluated using the microdilution broth method against 42 isolates of four different <em>Candida> species. Among all tested compounds, the halogen substituted triazole 2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl-1<em>H>-(1,2,3triazol-4-yl]propan-2-ol, revealed the best antifungal profile, showing that further modifications could be done in the structure to obtain a better drug candidate in the future.

  20. Extraction of Dihydroquercetin<em> em>from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> em>with Ultrasound-Assisted and Microwave-Assisted Alternant Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasound and microwave assisted alternant extraction method (UMAE was applied for extracting dihydroquercetin (DHQ from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> wood. This investigation was conducted using 60% ethanol as solvent, 1:12 solid to liquid ratio, and 3 h soaking time. The optimum treatment time was ultrasound 40 min, microwave 20 min, respectively, and the extraction was performed once. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the target analyte was obtained. Relative to ultrasound-assisted or microwave-assisted method, the proposed approach provides higher extraction yield. The effect of DHQ of different concentrations and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability in soy bean oil stored for 20 days at different temperatures (25 °C and 60 °C was compared. DHQ was more effective in restraining soy bean oil oxidation, and a dose-response relationship was observed. The antioxidant activity of DHQ was a little stronger than that of BHA and BHT. Soy bean oil supplemented with 0.08 mg/g DHQ exhibited favorable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation. The <em>L. gmeliniiem> wood samples before and after extraction were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the UMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation.

  1. Molluscicidal Activity of Methomyl and Cardenolide Extracts from <em>Calotropis proceraem> and <em>Adenium> <em>arabicum> Against the Land Snail <em>Monacha cantianaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Bayoumi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have evaluated the molluscicidal activity of two cardenolide extracts from <em>Adenium arabicumem> Balf f. [the benzene (B and methanol (M extracts], one cardenolide extract from <em>Calotropis proceraem> (Aiton W.T. Aiton (extract C, and methomyl against the harmful land snail <em>Monacha cantianaem> (Montagu. The contact LD50 values for the above mentioned plant extracts were 12.62, 34.63, and 34.35 mg·kg−1 of body weight, respectively, while the LD50 for methomyl was 116.62 mg·kg−1, that is, the plant extracts were 9.24, 3.37, and 3.4 times more toxic than methomyl. In addition, a simple colorimetric method, based on Kedde reagent, was modified to determine cardenolide concentrations in plant extracts. Thin layer chromatography analysis (TLC showed several cardiac glycosidal compounds in each plant extract. The results proved that cardiac glycosides are promising candidate compounds that could be used to control land snails, or exploited to develop new, effective, and environmentally friendly molluscicides.

  2. Conjuntivite em animais de companhia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Mariana Inês Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária, Ciências Veterinárias A conjuntivite é a doença ocular mais frequentemente diagnosticada em Medicina Veterinária, tanto em cães como em gatos. O facto de a conjuntiva ser uma membrana mucosa tão exposta a agentes externos faz com que esteja bastante suscetível a sofrer lesões, com consequente inflamação. Nesta dissertação abordam-se os diferentes tipos de conjuntivite, que são classificados de acordo com a sua etiologia. No Hospita...

  3. Occurrence, biology and behavior of Liogenys fuscus Blanchard (Insecta, Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Ocorrência, biologia e comportamento de Liogenys fuscus Blanchard (Insecta, Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae em Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Roberto Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    , Brasil. Na fazenda experimental da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS, campus de Aquidauana, foi instalada diariamente, armadilha luminosa, de fevereiro de 2005 a janeiro de 2007 para coleta dos adultos. Os adultos coletados foram encaminhados para laboratório e acondicionados em caixas de plástico, contendo solo e mudas de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf (Poaceae. Foi possível obter ovos e realizar os estudos de biologia, em câmara climatizada a 26 ± 1º C e fotofase de 12 horas. Os adultos revoaram entre agosto e setembro a dezembro nos dois anos de estudos, nos horários das 18h00 às 6h00, em maior quantidade das 19h00 às 22h00. Os ovos, de 1,5 x 1,0 mm, foram depositados no solo individualmente ou agrupados em câmaras; possuem coloração branca e quando estão próximos da eclosão adquirem cor amarela. O período embrionário durou 14,3 dias, o primeiro, segundo e terceiro instares duraram 28,5, 48,8 e 68,2 dias respectivamente. O período de prépupa, que permaneceu inativa no solo, durou 120,2 dias. A fase de pupa durou em média de 27,5 dias e os adultos apresentaram longevidade média de 23,6 dias. Em laboratório foi observado comportamento de chamamento entre machos e fêmeas e a cópula durou em média 25 minutos.

  4. Regional Suppression of <em>Bactrocera> Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Bactrocera> fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of <em>Bactrocera> spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of <em>Bactrocera> <em>cucurbitae> (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, <em>Psyttalia> <em>fletcheri> (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of <em>Bactrocera> <em>dorsalis> (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which <em>Fopius> <em>arisanus> (Sonan, <em>Diachasmimorpha> <em>longicaudata> (Ashmead and <em>Fopius> <em>vandenboschi> (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for <em>Bactrocera> spp. but also for <em>Ceratitis> and <em>Anastrepha> spp. Most recently, in 2002, <em>F.> <em>arisanus> was introduced into French Polynesia where <em>B.> <em>dorsalis> had invaded in 1996. Establishment of <em>D.> <em>longicaudata> into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against <em>Anastrepha> spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of <em>Bactrocera> spp. into new areas of the world (<em>i.e.>, South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where <em>B.> <em>carambolae> and <em>B.> <em>invadens>, respectively, have become established. In addition, <em>P.> <em>fletcheri> is a candidate for biological control of <em>B.> <em>cucurbitae> in Africa. We review past and more

  5. CATETERES EM TERAPIA INTENSIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Deus Lisboa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa com os objetivos de identificar falhas na administração de medicamentos por sondas e caracterizar a interrupção ou não da nutrição no caso de medicamentos que exigem jejum relativo. Estudo epidemiológico, transversal, observacional, numa terapia intensiva, com amostra de 350 doses administradas por 56 técnicos de enfermagem. Resultados mostraram que não houve pausa entre a administração do medicamento e a infusão de dieta enteral em 116 (33,14% doses de medicamentos que necessitavam de jejum relativo, entre os quais captopril, varfarina sódica, levotiroxina sódica, digoxina e fenitoína sódica. A irrigação das sondas não ocorreu na maioria dos casos (94,28%. Conclui-se que é possível que os medicamentos citados tenham tido sua biodisponibilidade sérica reduzida, comprometendo sua eficácia terapêutica e que a falta da prática de irrigar sondas com água estéril, antes de administrar medicamentos, configura-se como a ausência de um cuidado específico fundamental para evitar a obstrução das mesmas.

  6. Hemoptises em jovens adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Peter Know

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A hemoptise é uma queixa médica frequente que pode requerer broncoscopia para o seu diagnóstico e tratamento. Não está completamente esclarecido quais são os doentes que beneficiam da broncoscopia como abordagem precoce. Está estabelecido que os jovens adultos com hemoptises são doentes de baixo risco, quando comparados com velhos; contudo, não há muitos trabalhos sobre o interesse da broncoscopia na abordagem deste grupo etário.Os autores resolveram avaliar, retrospectivamente, todos os doentes submetidos a broncoscopia por hemoptises, caracterizando a apresentação clínica e a avaliação diagnóstica dos jovens adultos (18 aos 40 anos, incluindo a utilidade diagnóstica da broncoscopia.Satisfizeram os critérios de inclusão 18 doentes. Na broncoscopia realizada nos doentes com hemoptises que apresentavam radiografia do tórax e T AC do tórax normal não foram identificadas quaisquer alterações endobrônquicas.Os autores, perante estes resultados preconizam que os doentes jovens adultos com hemoptises, com radiografias do tórax e TAC do tórax normais, não necessitam da avaliação broncoscópica inicial, devendo ser seguidos em follow-up clínico apertado.

  7. Possível fonte de resistência ao caruncho (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1855 em Milho-de-palha(Zea Mays, L. A possible source of resistance to Sitophilus zeamais in corn in the husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em condições de laboratório o comportamento, em relação ao Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky 1855 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, de milhos sintéticos (composto flint, composto dent. e centralmex, híbridos comerciais (Ag 152 e Hmd 7974, pipoca comercial (pirapoca e um milho supostamente resistente (acre. Analisaram-se as correlações. existentes entre o comprimento da palha além da ponta da espiga, compacidade, dureza do grão, ataque de Heliothis zea Boddie, 1850 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, com o ataque de Sitophilus zeamais. Os resultados sugerem que o fator mais importante na resistência do milho-em-palha, a Sitophilus zeamais é a compacidade da mesma, vindo em segundo lugar o furo causado pela saída da lagarta Heliothis zea que atinge o solo para entrar no estádio de pupa.Under laboratory conditions and artificial infestations, it was demonstrated that the open pollinated corn variety Acre collected in the Amazonas region was less infested by Sitophilus zeamais than six other corn germplasms (synthetics and hybrids utilized as checks. The Acre has longer husks beyond the tip, more compact husks, is a flint type corn and had the lowest percentage of ears with exit holes made by the Heliothis zea caterpillar. It is probable that the favorable combination of these four characteristics in only one variety explains its lower degree of infestation by the rice weevil. The compactness of the husk was the factor that showed the highest correlation with the degree of infestation by the weevil.

  8. Activity-Guided Isolation of Antioxidant Compounds from <em>Rhizophora apiculataem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available <em>Rhizophora apiculataem> (<em>R. apiculataem> contains an abundance of biologically active compounds due its special salt-tolerant living surroundings. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of various extract and fractions of stem of <em>R. apiculataem> were investigated. Results indicated that butanol fraction possesses the highest total phenolic content (181.84 mg/g GAE/g dry extract with strongest antioxidant abilities. Following <em>in vitroem> antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, lyoniresinol-3α-<em>O>-β-arabinopyranoside (1, lyoniresinol-3α-<em>O>-β-rhamnoside (2, and afzelechin-3-<em>O>-L-rhamno-pyranoside (3 were separated from the butanol fraction. These compounds showed more noticeable antioxidant activity than a BHT standard in the DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. HPLC analysis results showed that among different plant parts, the highest content of 13 was located in the bark (0.068%, 0.066% and 0.011%, respectively. The results imply that the <em>R. apiculataem> might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 13 are antioxidant ingredients in <em>R. apiculataem>.

  9. Tratamento da dor em queimados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo José Alencar de Castro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Apesar dos avanços, ainda é observado manejo analgésico inadequado dos pacientes com queimaduras. O objetivo desta revisão foi coletar dados sobre tratamento da dor em queimados. CONTEÚDO: Foi feita revisão sobre os mecanismos de dor, avaliação do paciente com queimadura e o tratamento farmacológico e não farmacológico. CONCLUSÕES: O manejo da dor em pacientes vítimas de queimaduras ainda é um desafio por parte da equipe multiprofissional. A avaliação frequente e contínua da resposta apresentada pelo paciente é muito importante, tendo em vista os vários momentos por que passa o paciente internado em decorrência de uma queimadura, além de uma terapêutica combinada com medicações analgésicas e medidas não farmacológicas. Entender a complexidade de alterações fisiopatológicas, psicológicas e bioquímicas apresentadas por um paciente em tratamento de queimadura é o primeiro passo para alcançar o sucesso no seu manejo analgésico.

  10. Imagens de um Sujeito em Devir: Autorretrato em Rede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Leite Araujo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se prope a discutir o fenmeno da circulao das fotografias pessoais em plataformas virtuais e o surgimento de uma possvel nova esttica do cotidiano e do efmero. Assim, iniciamos com um quadro conceitual sobre as possibilidades da fotografia digital referentes s imagens do cotidiano e apresentamos uma anlise sobre as particularidades estticas do autorretrato contemporneo, um processo de criao que envolve conceitos como fabulao, performance e o efmero, em um espao de interao com as ferramentas de comunicao na comunidade do Flickr.

  11. Alcaloides pirrolizidinicos em borboletas Ithomiinal : alguns aspectos em ecologia quimica

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Roberto Trigo

    1993-01-01

    Resumo: Alcalóides pirrolizidínicos (PAs) são ésteres de 1-metilhidroxilpirrolizidínas, sendo o aminoálcool chamado de base necina e a parte ácida de ácidos nécicos. Geralmente ocorrem em forma de monoésteres, diésteres abertos ou cíclicos, podendo apresentar uma insaturação no anel (PAs insaturados) ou não (PAs saturados). Estas substâncias apresentam mais de 200 estruturas isoladas de plantas, ocorrendo principalmente em Senecio, Eupatorium (Asteraceae), Crotalaria (Fabaceae) e Heliotropium...

  12. Consumo ecologicamente consciente em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Schoor, Maria Adelaide Oliveira van

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências da Comunicação, ramo de Marketing e Publicidade Esta Dissertação de Mestrado faz uma análise ao consumo ecologicamente consciente em Portugal. Tento em conta as questões ambientais que tem vindo a ser debatidas nas últimas décadas, o desenvolvimento de estratégias de produção e promoção de produtos e serviços mais ecológicos tem vindo a aumentar significativamente. A...

  13. Objetos mediadores em museus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Um museu participativo incentiva a que a experiência da visita seja criativa e pessoal. Facilita a participação biográfica do visitante - com a sua experiência, conhecimento e interesses. Muitas exposições, porém, não promovem esse envolvimento pessoal. Neste artigo apresentamos uma revisão da literatura que indicia que a mediação com objetos mediadores facilita o envolvimento pessoal, a construção de conhecimento e a criatividade. O problema teórico que colocamos é se os museus mais tradicionais se podem abrir à participação e, neste contexto, o nosso objetivo é perceber que papel podem ter os objetos mediadores nesse processo. Discutimos o recurso a objetos mediadores como forma de adicionar múltiplos níveis de relação e modos de ver, potencial que consideramos subaproveitado em muitos museus. Começamos por apresentar o museu como espaço potencialmente participativo, que convida a um envolvimento ativo e crítico – ativo, porque o visitante é desafiado a fazer coisas; crítico, porque é estimulado a pensar, optar, discutir e refletir. Discutimos depois diferentes formas de usar objetos mediadores para incentivar o visitante a um envolvimento com os artefactos, recorrendo à memória, experiência, conhecimento e sentimentos. A participação biográfica potencia o cruzamento entre o mundo interior do visitante e os artefactos e conteúdos do museu. Esse espaço de cruzamento - inbetween - é o espaço da construção de conhecimento. Apresentamos diversas formas de um museu, mesmo não sendo interativo, se tornar mais criativo e participativo, o que pode contribuir para uma mudança nas práticas dos museus, nomeadamente na montagem e remodelação de exposições permanentes.

  14. Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma Emergency medical ... injuries treated in emergency departments? How can a rural EMS unit find funding for major equipment, such ...

  15. EM Mortar Technology Development for Indirect Fire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turman, B. N; Kaye, R. J; Crawford, M; Magnotti, P; Nguyen, D; van Reuth, E; Johnson, S. A; Poppe, R

    2006-01-01

    The DARPA Electromagnetic (EM) Mortar Laboratory Demonstration Program is a focused development and demonstration effort for an EM gun system for vehicle-based, non-line-of-sight, artillery applications...

  16. Trombo flutuante em veia femoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Bertanha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O trombo venoso flutuante em veia femoral é um tipo de trombo com alto potencial de embolização pulmonar. Entretanto, ainda é controversa a conduta mais apropriada nesses casos. Tratamentos clínicos com anticoagulantes ou fibrinolíticos e trombectomias abertas ou por meio de dispositivos endovasculares vêm sendo empregados ainda sem um critério de indicação bem definido. Apresentamos três casos clínicos de trombos flutuantes em veia femoral, de etiologias distintas, cujos tratamentos e respectivas evoluções serão discutidos.

  17. Eletrons interagentes em bilhares magneticos

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Gregorio G. de V. Dias da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Resumo: Consideramos o problema de dois elétrons confinados em um Bilhar quadrado, interagindo por um potencial repulsivo de alcance finito do tipo Yukawa e sujeitos a um campo magnético ortogonal. Calculamos o espectro de energia do sistema para singletos e tripletos de spin em todas as classes de simetria como função da intensidade e alcance da interação e do campo magnético. Mostramos que a natureza de curto alcance da interação suprime a formação de estados fundamentais "Moléculas de Wign...

  18. Factores de risco em implantologia

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Inês Silveira e Luz Nunes de

    2015-01-01

    A Implantologia tem ganho popularidade na medicina dentária pelos resultados previsíveis em reabilitações de áreas edêntulas, permitindo minimizar as consequências funcionais, fonéticas e estéticas que advém da perda de dentes através de uma solução fixa que satizfaz os pacientes. Esta é uma revisão da literatura existente sobre factores de risco, fracassos e complicações inerentes ao tratamento com implantes dentários. Categorizam-se os factores de risco em implantologia co...

  19. Efeito da enxertia em mandioca

    OpenAIRE

    Bomfim, Nayra Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    Enxertos de duas espécies silvestres (M. glaziovii e M. fortalezensis) sobre M. esculenta, mandioca, foram estudados morfologicamente, anatomicamente e citogeneticamente e a fim de se avaliar possíveis efeitos devido à interação entre enxerto e porta-enxerto. Foram feitas análises anatômicas das raízes dos porta-enxertos UnB 201 e UnB 122 (variedades de M. esculenta), em comparação com as variedades não enxertadas. Analisou-se a meiose em enxerto da espécie M. glaziovii que apresentava morfol...

  20. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Deuterollyta majuscula (Lep.: Pyralidae em abacateiro (Persea americana MILL. Biology, damage and fertility life table of Deuterollyta majuscula (Lep.: Pyralidae in avocado (Persea americana MILL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dori Edson Nava

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available As lagartas de Deuterollyta majuscula (Herrich-Schaffer podem, ao se alimentar, causar danos às folhas e frutos do abacateiro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia em condições de laboratório, mantido a 25±2ºC, UR de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas e descrever os danos provocados pela praga. O ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto foi de 39,6 dias e a viabilidade total de 55%. Foram determinados 5 instares. O peso de pupas foi de 0,0966 mg para fêmeas e 0,0901 mg para os machos. As fêmeas colocaram, em média, 201 ovos durante aproximadamente 7,6 dias. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas foi de 15,3 e 13,9 dias, respectivamente, e a razão sexual de 0,56. Através da tabela de vida de fertilidade determinou-se uma capacidade de aumento de 64 vezes a cada geração, sendo a duração média de uma geração de 46 dias e a razão finita de aumento (ll de 1,095. Estes resultados fornecem subsídios que podem ser utilizados para o estabelecimento de estratégias de manejo do inseto.Deuterollyta majuscula (Herrich-Schaffer causes injuries to leaves and fruits of avocado. The aim of this work was study the biology under laboratory conditions, at 25±2ºC, 70±10% of RH, and 14-hour of photophase and to describe the damage caused by this pest. The biological cycle (egg-adult was 39.6 days and the total viability was 55%. Five instars were observed. The pupae weight was 0.0966 mg for females and 0.0901 mg for males. The females laid an average of 201 eggs in approximately 7.6 days. The mean longevity of males and females was 15.3 and 13.9 days, respectively, and sex ratio of 0.56. The fertility life table showed a 64-fold increase capacity in each generation, with one generation lasting an average of 46 days, with finite rate of increase (lambdal of 1.095. These results can provide background information to the establishment of strategies to manage this new avocado pest.

  1. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade em aveia em ambientes estratificados

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    Bertan Ivandro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L. foram avaliados para rendimento de grãos nas safras agrícolas de 2001 e 2002 em nove locais dos estados do Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar as estimativas dos componentes de adaptabilidade e estabilidade do rendimento de grãos em ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis em presença e ausência de aplicação de fungicida. Foi empregada a metodologia de EBERHART & RUSSELL (1966. A presença de significância para anos, genótipos, fungicidas e locais, indicou comportamento diferencial de genótipos frente às variações de ambiente e a aplicação de fungicida, nas condições de ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis. A aplicação de fungicida e o favorecimento do ambiente de cultivo afetaram intensamente os parâmetros de adaptabilidade (b1 e estabilidade (s²d i, indicando que estas estimativas devam ser realizadas em ambientes estratificados, apesar de nenhuma constituição genética ter evidenciado o biótipo ideal, conforme preconizado pelo modelo adotado.

  2. EM Algorithm and Stochastic Control in Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Kou, Steven; Peng, Xianhua; Xu, Xingbo

    2016-01-01

    Generalising the idea of the classical EM algorithm that is widely used for computing maximum likelihood estimates, we propose an EM-Control (EM-C) algorithm for solving multi-period finite time horizon stochastic control problems. The new algorithm sequentially updates the control policies in each time period using Monte Carlo simulation in a forward-backward manner; in other words, the algorithm goes forward in simulation and backward in optimization in each iteration. Similar to the EM alg...

  3. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Aqueous Extracts and Fractionation of Different Parts of <em>Elsholtzia em>ciliata>

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    Yuangang Zu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity of extract and fractions from various parts of <em>Elsholtzia ciliataem>. The inflorescences, leaves, stems and roots of <em>E. ciliataem> were extracted separately and two phenolic component enrichment methods: ethyl acetate-water liquid-liquid extraction and macroporous resin adsorption-desorption, were adopted in this study. The antioxidant activities of water extracts and fractions of <em>E. ciliataem> were examined using different assay model systems <em>in vitroem>. The fraction root E (purified by HPD300 macroporous resin exhibited the highest total phenolics content (497.2 ± 24.9 mg GAE/g, accompanied with the highest antioxidant activity against various antioxidant systems <em>in vitroem> compared to other fractions. On the basis of the results obtained, <em>E. ciliataem> extracts can be used potentially as a ready accessible and valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  4. A Novel Apoptosis Correlated Molecule: Expression and Characterization of Protein Latcripin-1 from <em>Lentinula em>edodes> C91–3

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    Min Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An apoptosis correlated molecule—protein Latcripin-1 of <em>Lentinula> edodesem> C91-3—was expressed and characterized in <em>Pichia pastorisem> GS115. The total RNA was obtained from <em>Lentinula edodesem> C91–3. According to the transcriptome, the full-length gene of Latcripin-1 was isolated with 3'-Full Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE and 5'-Full RACE methods. The full-length gene was inserted into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K. The protein Latcripin-1 was expressed in <em>Pichia pastorisem> GS115 and analyzed by Sodium Dodecylsulfonate Polyacrylate Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The Western blot showed that the protein was expressed successfully. The biological function of protein Latcripin-1 on A549 cells was studied with flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide (MTT method. The toxic effect of protein Latcripin-1 was detected with the MTT method by co-culturing the characterized protein with chick embryo fibroblasts. The MTT assay results showed that there was a great difference between protein Latcripin-1 groups and the control group (<em>p em>< 0.05. There was no toxic effect of the characterized protein on chick embryo fibroblasts. The flow cytometry showed that there was a significant difference between the protein groups of interest and the control group according to apoptosis function (<em>p em>< 0.05. At the same time, cell ultrastructure observed by transmission electron microscopy supported the results of flow cytometry. The work demonstrates that protein Latcripin-1 can induce apoptosis of human lung cancer cells A549 and brings new insights into and advantages to finding anti-tumor proteins.

  5. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, <em>Bactrocera dorsalisem> Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Hongyu Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, <em>Bactrocera dorsalisem> (Hendel, and evaluate the chemotaxis of <em>B>. <em>dorsalis> to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE, 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were assigned to the five bacterial classes <em>Betaproteobacteria>, <em>Alphaproteobacteria>, <em>Gammaproteobacteria>, <em>Bacilli> and <em>Actinobacteria>. Nine OTUs were assigned to <em>Gammaproteobacteria>, which was the most highly represented class. <em>Enterobacteriaceae> constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including <em>Enterobacter sakazakiiem>, <em>Klebsiella> <em>oxytoca>, <em>Klebsiella> <em>pneumoniae,> Raoultellaem> <em>terrigena em>and <em>Enterobacter> <em>amnigenus>. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by <em>R.> terrigenaem>, <em>K. oxytocaem> and <em>K.> pneumoniae em>were attractive to the <em>B.> dorsalisem> adults, and in field studies, <em>B.> dorsalisem> adults were most attracted to <em>K.> oxytocaem>. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly.

  6. Rodent hosts of <em>Maritrema> sp. (Digenea, Microphallidae in Sardinia Island

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    Juan Carlos Casanova

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Prospections on helminth fauna of rodents were carried out in the Cedrino river (Eastern of Sardinia island. Twelve <em>Rattus rattusem> (L., 1758 and eight <em>Mus domesticusem> (Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943 were captured by Sherman traps. Parasitological study revealed in <em>R. rattusem> the presence of an intestinal helminth belonging to the genus <em>Maritrema> (family Microphallidae. The transmission of this Digenetic Trematode among vertebrates involves the participation of aquatic invertebrate organisms, molluscs and crustacea, acting as intermediate hosts. Dissection of 117 individuals of the Amphipod Crustacea <em>Gammarus italicusem>, collected in the same biotope, allowed the detection of encysted metacercariae. These larvae constitute the infesting stage of the parasite for vertebrates, acting these as definitive hosts ingesting parasitized crustacea as preys. Adults of <em>Maritrema> sp. were also obtained experimentally in the laboratory mice (<em>Mus domesticusem> CD1 strain. These were infested by inoculating them, using gastric probe, metacercarial cysts isolated from <em>G. italicusem>. Post-infection mice dissection was performed at different intervals of time getting adults in various maturity stages. Experimental facts confirm that <em>Maritrema> sp., as it occurs in other trematodes, do not present strict specificity to the definitive host, being able to develop as well in <em>Mus>. In nature, the presence or absence of this digenean in mammals species will be dependent of host ethological factors, mainly related to feeding habitats. This study was partially supported by the ?Comissionat per Recerca i Universitats de la Generalitat de Catalunya? 2001SGR00088.

  7. Antifungal Activity, Toxicity and Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of <em>Coriandrum sativumem> L. Fruits

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    Erika H. S. Brito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to test the antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil from <em>C. sativumem> L. fruits. The essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Linalool was the main constituent (58.22%. The oil was considered bioactive, showing an LC50 value of 23 µg/mL in the <em>Artemia salinaem> lethality test. The antifungal activity was evaluated against <em>Microsporum canisem> and <em>Candida> spp. by the agar-well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC were established by the broth microdilution method. The essential oil induced growth inhibition zones of 28 ± 5.42 and 9.25 ± 0.5 for <em>M. canisem> and <em>Candida> spp. respectively. The MICs and MFCs for <em>M. canisem> strains ranged from 78 to 620 and 150 to 1,250 µg/mL, and the MICs and MFCs for <em>Candida> spp strains ranged from 310 to 620 and 620 to 1,250 µg/mL, respectively. <em>C. sativumem> essential oil is active<em> in vitroem> against <em>M. canis em>and> Candidaem> spp. demonstrating good antifungal activity.

  8. Bens virtuais em social games

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    Rebeca Recuero Rebs

    Full Text Available O artigo foca a compreensão dos significados da aquisição de bens virtuais por usuários de social games. Conjuntamente, busca estimular a reflexão sobre os usos e as identificações que motivam os jogadores à compra destes bens. Com base em autores que trabalham com a produção e as simbologias de bens integrados às práticas de consumo da sociedade, o trabalho apresenta dados de uma observação participante por sete meses em dez social games e de questionários aplicados em 140 jogadores. Por fim, propõe-se uma classificação de bens virtuais em social games baseada nos dados adquiridos e na dinâmica social do jogo. Os resultados apontam para a circulação de significações atribuídas aos bens virtuais a partir de contextos pré-estabelecidos pelos social games e pelas origens culturais de seus jogadores, atuando possivelmente na edificação e/ou manifestação identitária dos sujeitos no ciberespaço.

  9. Allometric and Isometric variations in the Italian <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> and <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> with respect to the conditions of allopatry and sympatry / Variazioni allometriche e isometriche in <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> e <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> italiani, rispetto alle condizioni di allopatria e simpatria

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    Giovanni Amori

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy there are two species of <em>Apodemus> (<em>Sylvaemus>: <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> on the mainland and the main island, and <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> only on the mainland. The trend of some morphometric characters of the skull (incisive foramen length - FI; interorbital breadth = IO; length of palatal bridge = PP; upper alveolar length = $M^1M^3$ was analized and some theoretical models verified for <em>A. sylvaticusem>. If one considers the sympatric population of <em>A. sylvaticusem> and <em>A. flavicollisem> simultaneously the characters PP, IO and $M^1M^3$ appear significantly isometric being directly correlated ($P leq O.O1$, while FI character results allometric with respect to the previous ones, as expected. If one considers the sympatric populations of each of the species separately, the scenario is different. For <em>A. sylvaticusem> only PP and $M^1M^3$ are isometric ($P leq 0.05$. For <em>A. flavicollisem> only $M^1M^3$ and FI appear to be correlated, although not as significantly as for <em>A. sylvaticusem> ($P le 0.05$; one tail. The insular populations of <em>A. sylvaticusem> do not show significant correlations, except for FI and $M^1M^3$ ($P le 0.05$. On the contrary, considering all populations, sympatric and allopatric, of <em>A. sylvaticusem> at the same time are significant correlations ($P le 0.05$ in all combinations of characters, except for those involving the IO. We suggest that the isometric relations in sympatric assemblages are confined within a morphological range available to the genus <em>Apodemus>. In such a space, the two species are split in two different and innerly homogeneous distributions. We found no evidence to confirm the niche variation hypothesis. On the contrary, the variability expressed as SO or CV's appears higher in the sympatric populations than in the allopatric ones, for three of the four characters, confirming previous results

  10. First sign of <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> in the Po valley plain / Prima segnalazione in Pianura Padana di <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem>

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    Luis Nieder

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> (Schreber, 1790 populations is reported in the Po valley, formerly considered outside the distribution area of the species. An initial series of captures was made in the high-water area of the Po near S. Nazzaro (Monticelli d'Ongina - PC following with research was extended along the river's banks in Emilia both upstream and downstream. The search for this species was carried out by analysing food pellets relating to <em>Strix alucoem>, <em>Tyto albaem> e <em>Athene noctuaem>, thought to be among the most common predators of these intensive herbaceous and arboreal agricultural biocoenosis. The information we gathered was integrated with other Authors' unpublished and bibliographical data. The presence of <em>C. glareolusem> was noted in habitats quite different from the expected ones. Many of the problems raised by the presence of this species in "islands" along the main body of the Po river and its tributaries, and by its presumed absence from particulary suitable environments such as the Carrega woods, the Ticino park and Mesola wood must still be resolved. Riassunto Viene segnalata la presenza di popolazioni di <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> (Schreber 1790 nella pianura Padana precedentemente considerata al di fuori dell'areale della specie. A partire da una prima serie di catture nell'area golenale del Po presso S. Nazzaro (Monticelli d'Ongina - PC, si è successivamente proceduto ad allargare l'area di ricerca lungo l'argine emiliano del Po, sia a monte sia a valle. La ricerca di questa specie è avvenuta tramite l'analisi di boli alimentari relativi a <em>Strix alucoem>, <em>Tyto albaem> e <em>Athene noctuaem>, ritenuti tra i più comuni predatori di queste biocenosi agricole intensive erbacee ed arboree. I dati da noi raccolti sono stati integrati con quelli bibliografici e inediti di altri Autori. È stata riscontrata la presenza

  11. Comportamento de Apis mellifera L. africanizada em flor de girassol (Helianthus annuus L. e avaliação do desenvolvimento de uma colônia de Apis mellifera em área de girassol coberta Behavior of Apis mellifera L. Africanized honeybees in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and evaluation of Apis mellifera L. colony inside covered area of sunflower

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    Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento objetivou avaliar o comportamento polinizador da Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae africanizada e o desenvolvimento da colônia em área coberta de girassol, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae. Foi utilizada uma área somente demarcada de 8 m x 3 m, e o desenvolvimento da colônia dentro de uma gaiola telada com 8 m x 3 m com dois metros de altura na sua porção mais alta. A abelha mais constante visitando o girassol durante todo o dia foi a Apis mellifera, embora os halictídeos tenham sido os mais freqüentes coletores de pólen, sendo estes vistos somente nas manhãs até às 11h. Na área coberta, houve uma redução de 34,74% no peso do enxame, 38,08% de mel, 100% no número de pupas de operárias e uma redução de 99,37% no número de ovos/larvas. As abelhas coletaram mais néctar do que pólen uniformemente ao longo do dia. No girassol, as abelhas coletoras de néctar têm influência na polinização da cultura maior do que as coletoras de pólen e néctar/pólenThis research was carried out to evaluate the behavior of africanized honeybees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae and the development of a colony inside a covered area of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae crop. It was used an area marked with 8 m x 3 m, and a second area in which a honeybee colony was installed inside a covered area with wire screen of 8m x 3m, two meters high in the highest part. The honeybees were constantly on sunflower during all day, however the Halictidae bees had been the most frequent in pollen harvesting, but these bees were seen until 11 a.m. In covered area, it occurred a reduction of 34.74% in swarm weight, 38.08% in honey, 100% in worker pupae, and 99.37% in egg-larvae. The honeybees gathered more nectar than pollen during the day. The nectar forager has more effect upon crop pollination than pollen foragers and pollen/nectar foragers, in sunflower.

  12. Parasitic zoonoses: survey in foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in the northern Apennines / Zoonosi parassitarie: indagini in volpi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> dell'Appennino settentrionale

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    Vittorio Guberti

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A parasitological survey on 153 foxes was carried out in the northern Apennines, during the period 1984-1987. The following parasites were identified: <em>Toxocara canisem> (46.4%, <em>Taenia> sp. (17%, <em>Uncinaria stenocephalaem> (11.8%, <em>Mesocestoides lineatusem> (11.1%, <em>Ancylostoma caninumem> (3.9%, <em>Taenia hydatigenaem> (3.3%, <em>Trichuris vulpisem> (3.3%, <em>Dipylidium caninumem> (2.6%, <em>Taenia crassicepsem> (2%. All foxes were negative for <em>Trichinella> sp. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate differences in the parasitic fauna according to the sex and age classes of the hosts. The role that the fox could have as a reservoir of helminthic zoonoses is discussed. The results are compared with those of similar studies carried out in Italy. Riassunto Nel periodo 1984-1987 è stata condotta un'indagine parassitologica su 153 volpi abbattute nell'Appennino romagnolo. Sono stati reperiti i seguenti parassiti: <em>Toxocara canisem> (46,4%, <em>Taenia> sp. (17%, <em>Uncinaria stenocephalaem> (11,8%, <em>Mesocestoides lineatusem> (11,1%, <em>Ancylostoma caninumem> (3,9%, <em>Taenia hydatigenaem> (3,3%, <em>Trichuris vulpisem> (3,3%, <em>Dipylidium caninumem> (2,6%, <em>Taenia crassicepsem> (2%. Tutte le volpi esaminate sono risultate negative per <em>Trichinella> sp. È stata effettuata l'analisi statistica dei dati per evidenziare eventuali differenze della fauna parassitaria in relazione al sesso e all'età delle volpi. Sulla base dei dati ottenuti viene discussa l'importanza che la Volpe può assumere come serbatoio di zoonosi elmintiche. I risultati acquisiti sono inoltre comparati con quelli ottenuti in analoghe ricerche condotte in Italia.

  13. Atração do predador Doru luteipes (Scudder (Dermaptera: Forficulidae por estímulos olfativos de dietas alternativas em laboratório Attraction of the predator Doru luteipes (Scudder (Dermaptera: Forficulidae by olfactory stimulus of alternative diets in the laboratory

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    Mariana Campana Nonino

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Doru luteipes consome lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda, que é atualmente a principal praga da cultura do milho no Brasil. Normalmente, se 70% das plantas tivessem o predador, a praga seria mantida abaixo do nível de dano econômico. Entretanto, o predador ocorre após a praga danificar as plantas. Assim, a disponibilidade de materiais que atraíssem e antecipassem a presença do predador na lavoura poderia reduzir populações da praga. Desta forma, estudou-se em laboratório a atratividade de dietas artificiais para machos e fêmeas do predador D. luteipes. Os tratamentos foram: pupa desidratada e moída do bicho-da-seda; pólen misto, nas quantidades de 0,05; 0,1; 0,2; 0,5 e 1,0g para ambas as dietas. Em olfatômetro, os estímulos da dieta foram comparados à testemunha. Foram realizadas 30 repetições. Os resultados mostraram que houve atratividade tanto para machos quanto para fêmeas. Em geral, a atração foi aumentada com o aumento da quantidade das dietas. Estudos adicionais foram propostos para testar a viabilidade do uso dos materiais como estratégia de manejo da praga no campo.Doru luteipes consumes larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda, which is at this moment the main pest of maize crop in Brazil. In general, if 70% of the plants had this predator the pest would be kept under the threshold of economic damage. However, the predator occurs after the pest damages the plants. Thus, the availability of materials that would attract and anticipate the presence of predator in the field,could reduce pest populations. In such a way, it was studied in the laboratory the attractiveness of artificial diets for males and females of the D. luteipes. The treatments were: ground dehydrated pupa of the silk worm and pollen mixture in the amounts of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 e 1.0g, for both the diets The diet stimulus were compared to control using a olfactometer. In general, attraction increased with rising amounts of the diets. Further investigations

  14. Cefaleia em salvas: aspectos clinicos e terapeuticos em 26 casos

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    Wilson Luiz Sanvito

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e seis casos de cefaléia-em-salvas são estudados do ponto de vista clínico e terapêutico. Nos aspectos clínicos são ressaltados a dramaticidade deste tipo de cefaléia, o nítido predomínio no sexo masculino, a média de idade dos pacientes, a presença de manifestações associadas e os fatores desencadeantes das crises nos períodos suscetíveis. Do ponto de vista terapêutico três esquemas medicamentosos foram utilizados: maleato de metisergida, prednisona e associação de ambas as drogas. Em 88,3% dos casos um resultado significativo foi alcançado, traduzido por melhora ou abolição das crises.

  15. Transcriptomic response of Drosophila melanogaster pupae developed in hypergravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical forces greatly influence the growth and function of an organism. Altered gravity can perturb normal development and induce corresponding changes in gene...

  16. Mechanical aspects of heartbeat reversal in pupae of Manduca sexta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2003), s. 645-657 ISSN 0022-1910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : anterograde heartbeat * retrograde heartbeat * cardiac pulsations Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.933, year: 2003

  17. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti pupae to neem seed kernal extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts (NSKE) on Aedes aegypti. The neem seed kernel powder was sequentially extracted with hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone, DMSO, 2-propanol, ethanol, methanol and dstiledwater.

  18. Effect of radiation on female Ae. aegypti pupae for SIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes aegypti is a vector mosquito that can transmit pathogens that can cause disease in humans and animals. However, it is difficult to control them through larvicides and/or source reduction because they can develop in a wide range of water holding containers. One method that has been explored is ...

  19. Effects of sodium chloride concentrations on larvae and pupae of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aedes aegypti is one of the commonest mosquitoes in the tropics and sub topics, feeding on human blood when exposed and is responsible for the transmission of urban yellow fever in Africa and out side Africa, it transmits dengue fever. Aedes aegypti are basically freshwater mosquito. The effect of different concentrations ...

  20. Fatores de risco cardiovascular em alcoolistas em tratamento

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    Mayla Cardoso Fernandes Toffolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de fatores de risco cardiovascular, com ênfase na hipertensão e na adiposidade corporal, em alcoolistas abstinentes ou não abstinentes em tratamento. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com 65 pacientes alcoolistas em tratamento no CAP-Sad. O grau de dependência do álcool foi avaliado pelo SADD (Short Alcohol Dependence Data e o uso de outras drogas, pelo ASSIST (Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Foram avaliados o perfil bioquímico e o antropométrico dos usuários. RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo 42 homens e 23 mulheres. A maioria dos participantes (67,74% apresentou dependência alcoólica grave, com uso de álcool associado principalmente a cigarro (66,15%. A média da circunferência da cintura (CC foi significativamente maior entre os abstinentes, em comparação aos não abstinentes (AB: 88,15 ± 15,95 x NA: 81,04 ± 9,86; p = 0,03. Pacientes abstinentes há mais tempo tiveram maior sobrepeso/obesidade e adiposidade abdominal (CC do que os não abstinentes e abstinentes recentes, com razão de chances de 5,25. Os abstinentes apresentaram razão de chances de 3,38 para %GC acima da média, independente do tempo de abstinência. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes alcoolistas abstinentes apresentam mais sobrepeso/ obesidade, adiposidade corporal (%GC e abdominal (CC do que os não abstinentes. É importante o acompanhamento multiprofissional no tratamento de alcoolistas com abordagem para fatores de risco cardiovasculares, principalmente evitando o ganho de peso.

  1. Enfermagem em cardiologia baseada em evidência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Rejane Rabelo da Silva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresentamos, dentro do cenário cardiovascular, estudos recentes do nosso grupo. Buscando melhores evidências de enfermagem investigamos por meio de ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR estratégias de educação e acompanhamento destes pacientes (pctes. O primeiro ECR avaliou o impacto da educação individual e da orientação em grupo no conhecimento sobre doença e autocuidado em pctes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC. No grupo intervenção, houve uma melhora do conhecimento dos cuidados essenciais (controle de sal e da ingesta hídrica, peso diário, realização de atividade física P=0,008, demonstrando que o atendimento em grupo é semelhante ao individual. No ambiente hospitalar, segundo ECR, comparamos o efeito da educação de enfermagem e seguimento telefônico após alta versus educação sem a monitorização por telefone. Demonstramos que intervenção educativa durante a internação melhora o conhecimento da doença, autocuidado e qualidade de vida (P

  2. Fadiga em idosos em tratamento quimioterápico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalyta Cristina Mansano-Schlosser

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa com delineamento transversal, realizada de agosto a dezembro de 2010, que objetivou identificar a presença e intensidade da fadiga em 140 idosos (média de idade 69,8 anos, 52,1% do sexo feminino com diagnóstico de câncer, em tratamento quimioterápico ambulatorial. Utilizou-se um questionário para caracterização sociodemográfica e clínica e a Escala de Fadiga de Piper-revisada. Identificou-se a presença de fadiga em 60 idosos (42,9% e a causa atribuída foi o câncer (64,1%, a quimioterapia (32,8% e o tratamento (3,1%. Como fator de alívio, os idosos entrevistados relataram "dormir", "rezar" e "morrer", enquanto 45% deles disseram "não ter o que fazer", pois a fadiga não poderia ser aliviada. Espera-se que este estudo alerte os profissionais de enfermagem para a relevância da fadiga e os estimule a identificar e realizar intervenções de enfermagem que visem o adequado manejo desse sintoma no paciente idoso oncológico.

  3. <em>Ipomoea aquaticaem> Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda it is recommended to consume <em>Ipomoea em>aquatica> to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of <em>I. aquaticaem> against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were orally fed with <em>I. aquaticaem> (250 and 500 mg/kg for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months. The results showed that the treatment of <em>I. aquaticaem> significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time. The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by <em>I. aquaticaem> treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that <em>I. aquaticaem> has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of <em>I. aquaticaem> in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of <em>I. aquaticaem> for the treatment of liver disorders.

  4. Natural regulation of <em>Delia radicumem> in organic cabbage production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Navntoft, Søren; Philipsen, Holger Frederik

    2013-01-01

    In a field experiment, we evaluated effects of three different organic white cabbage-cropping systems (O1, O2, O3) on the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, and its egg predators and pupal parasitoids over 3 years. The three systems all complied with regulations for organic production, but varied...... in external nutrient input and N-recycling, and were compared to a conventionally farmed control. One organic system (O3) included an intercropped strip of green manure between crop rows. Oviposition by D. radicum was generally not reduced in organic cropping systems. However, higher pupae/egg ratios were...... observed in the conventional compared to all organic systems, indicating that immature survival from oviposition to pupation was reduced under all the three organic farming practices. In organic system O2 most small coleopteran predators were recorded, but predation on fly eggs was not significantly higher...

  5. Tipos polínicos encontrados em colônias de abelhas africanizadas sujeitas à doença cria ensacada brasileira Pollen types found in africanized honeybees colonies submitted to brazilian sac brood disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodrigues Pacheco

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O pólen de algumas espécies de Stryphnodendron (Mimosoidea, conhecidas popularmente por barbatimão, tem sido apontado como agente causador da mortandade de larvas pré-pupas observada na cria ensacada brasileira (CEB. Neste estudo, objetivou-se identificar os tipos polínicos encontrados em amostras de pólen coletadas em colméias de Apis mellifera L., no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, a fim de elucidar as fontes florais utilizadas por essa espécie de abelhas em períodos sujeitos a CEB, com especial atenção para a presença do pólen de Stryphnodendron spp. Foram coletadas amostras de pólen apícola e pão de abelhas em sete apiários, em três municípios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. A amostragem foi tomada um mês antes e durante a ocorrência da CEB. As famílias botânicas mais representativas foram: Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae e Myrtaceae. O pólen de Stryphnodendron não esteve presente nas amostras analisadas. A ausência de Stryphnodendron no menu floral das colônias africanizadas acometidas pela CEB em condições naturais sugere outro fator causal para a CEB no Estado do Rio de Janeiro.The pollen of some Stryphnodendron species (Mimosoidea, commonly known as barbatimão, has been identified as a causative agent of pre-pulps larvae mortality, observed in Brazilian sac brood disease (BSB. The goal of this study is to identify the pollen types found in samples of pollen collected by Apis mellifera L. to elucidate the floral diet used by this honeybee specie in Rio de Janeiro state during the periods where BSB usually occurs. Particular attention was given to the pollen of Stryphnodendron spp presence. Samples of pollen and bee bread were collected from seven apiaries located in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Sampling procedures were done a month before BSB usual occurrence and also during its occurrence. Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae and Myrtaceae were most representative botanical families on

  6. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of <em>Amaranthus cruentusem> L. and <em>Amaranthus hybridusem> L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne F. Millogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of <em>Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentusem> and <em>Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridusem>, two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE, methanolic (ME, and aqueous extracts (AE from the aerial parts were screened for <em>in vitroem> antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight in <em>A. cruentusem> and <em>A. hybridusem>, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method and iron reducing power (FRAP method ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of <em>A. cruentus em>and <em>A. hybridusem> were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively.<em> em>The> A. hybridusem> extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants.

  7. Virtude e felicidade em Sêneca

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    José João Neves Barbosa Vicente

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Viver feliz é o que todos almejam, mas o caminho para a felicidade não parece estar claro para todos. Os ensinamentos de Sêneca nos apontam alguns caminhos, ainda que para o nosso tempo, são caminhos considerados de acesso difícil, pois Sêneca nos diz que, para sermos felizes, devemos dirigir nossos olhares sempre para as virtudes e nunca para o gozo dos prazeres, estes nos escravizam, enquanto aquelas nos libertam. Portanto, o propósito deste texto é refletir, ainda que seja em termos introdutórios, sobre a felicidade em Sêneca que pode ser entendido a partir de uma relação com a virtude; ou seja, para ele, não é possível ser feliz se deixarmos de buscar ou viver nas virtudes.

  8. Governo e Poder em Foucault

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    Monica Loyola Stival

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O presente artigo mostra que o conceito de "governo" de Michel Foucault ocupa o espaço aberto por sua crítica ao poder moderno. Foucault passa aos poucos do conceito de poder à noção de governo em suas análises. Porém, não se trata de substituição de conceitos equivalentes, mas de um refinamento conceitual que ilumina a dimensão da atividade dos sujeitos como base das relações sociais e políticas modernas. Assim, este texto tem dois momentos distintos e complementares: mostra a possibilidade de passar do conceito de poder ao conceito de governo, pelo menos como elemento central da análise social e política, e discute o alcance do conceito de governo, que se instala em uma dimensão diferente daquela do poder.

  9. Sinais em neurorradiologia: parte 1

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    Fabrício Guimarães Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de sinais ou analogias na interpretação de imagens na radiologia médica é prática comum e antiga entre os radiologistas. Comparação entre achados de imagem com animais, alimentos ou objetos se faz de modo natural. Muitos sinais são bastante específicos e em alguns casos patognomônicos. Independentemente do grau de especificidade, sinais auxiliam a prática radiológica. Vários sinais já foram descritos em neurorradiologia. Neste artigo os autores demonstrarão 15 sinais neurorradiológicos. Serão abordados as principais características de cada um, a sua importância na prática clínica e os seus achados de imagem.

  10. Paratuberculose em ruminantes no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Yamasaki,Elise M.; Brito,Marilene F.; Mota,Rinaldo A.; McIntosh,Douglas; Tokarnia,Carlos H.

    2013-01-01

    A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) e comumente afeta ruminantes domésticos, no entanto, pode infectar várias espécies de mamíferos. Está presente nos cinco continentes e é considerada endêmica em algumas regiões pela Organização Internacional de Epizootias (OIE). Pertence à lista de enfermidades notificáveis, que compreende as doenças transmissíveis de importância sócio-econômica e/ou em saúde-pública...

  11. Culturas orais em sociedades letradas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldi João Wanderley

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Na relação entre linguagem e cultura, um aspecto essencial diz respeito às diferentes funções da escrita e às formas de sua apropriação social em sociedades letradas. Tomando como inspiração a forma de um uso específico da escrita pelo povo indígena Jarawara e narrativas de ribeirinhos do rio Madeira do mito amazônico Cobra Norato, são discutidas as diferentes relações entre oralidade e escrita que, atravessadas pelas relações de poder, transformam o alfabeto, de artefato histórico construído para o registro da oralidade, em espaço social de construção de distinções, clivagens e exclusões.

  12. Bacharelado em psicopedagogia = Psycopedagogy Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos, Maria Beatriz Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto mostra a história da implantação do Curso de Bacharelado em Psicopedagogia na FACED, PUCRS. Neste texto são apresentados os referenciais teóricos e dados sobre a atuação do psicopedagogo nos campos preventivo e terapêutico explicitando a relevância da formação de profissionais nesta área

  13. Iatrogenia em pacientes idosos hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho-Filho Eurico T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisar as complicações iatrogênicas apresentadas por idosos hospitalizados. Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários de 96 pacientes, 48 do sexo masculino e 48 do feminino, com idades variando de 60 a 93 anos (média: 75,7 anos, hospitalizados durante o ano de 1995 em enfermaria geriátrica. A análise da evolução dos pacientes durante o período de hospitalização permitiu evidenciar: 1 em 42 (43,7% pacientes ocorreram uma ou mais complicações iatrogênicas, num total de 56 episódios; 2 manifestações relacionadas aos procedimentos diagnósticos corresponderam a 17,9% das iatrogenias; 3 alterações relacionadas às medidas terapêuticas corresponderam a 58,9%, sendo 32,1% referentes à terapêutica farmacológica e 26,8% a outros procedimentos terapêuticos; 4 manifestações iatrogênicas não relacionadas diretamente às afecções (úlceras de decúbito, quedas e fraturas corresponderam a 23,2%; 5 a presença de manifestações iatrogênicas correlacionou-se com período mais prolongado de internação; 6 cinco pacientes faleceram em conseqüência direta de complicações iatrogênicas. A iatrogenia é freqüente em pacientes idosos hospitalizados, podendo determinar manifestações graves e mesmo fatais. Como uma significativa proporção dessas complicações pode ser evitada através de medidas adequadas, deve-se procurar identificar suas causas e desenvolver métodos para previni-la ou reduzir seus efeitos.

  14. COMPETÊNCIA EM MEDICINA

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    Hélio Teixeira MD.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Competência no exercício da medicina depende de um processo evolutivo ao longo da vida do profissional, processo este fundamentado em eficiência, experiência e em princípios éticos. A eficiência depende da cultura médica, de habilidades técnicas e relacionamento interpessoal com o paciente. A experiência ao longo da vida vai refinando o médico, favorecendo o evolver do conhecimento e da sabedoria vivencial. Finalmente, a ética médica se fundamenta na justiça, compaixão e amor ao próximo. Didaticamente, distinguimos 3 fases da evolução profissional do médico: a infância profissional ou visão linear: o médico se restringe em geral ao atendimento da doença, negligenciando o doente. É quase exclusivamente técnico e tem percepção acanhada da medicina-arte. b Maturidade profissional ou visão humanística: resultado de evolução da personalidade, da cultura e da experiência do médico, agora voltado para o doente com sua doença. c Excelência profissional ou visão holística: estágio máximo que se pode alcançar, quando o médico vislumbra a si e ao seu cliente em todas suas dimensões integradas e atua como mestre, procurando despertar no paciente condições próprias de cura, oriundas de sua essência. Conclui-se que exercer medicina com competência significa desempenhar adequadamente a ciência e a arte médica.

  15. Iatrogenia em pacientes idosos hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurico T. Carvalho-Filho

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Analisar as complicações iatrogênicas apresentadas por idosos hospitalizados. Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários de 96 pacientes, 48 do sexo masculino e 48 do feminino, com idades variando de 60 a 93 anos (média: 75,7 anos, hospitalizados durante o ano de 1995 em enfermaria geriátrica. A análise da evolução dos pacientes durante o período de hospitalização permitiu evidenciar: 1 em 42 (43,7% pacientes ocorreram uma ou mais complicações iatrogênicas, num total de 56 episódios; 2 manifestações relacionadas aos procedimentos diagnósticos corresponderam a 17,9% das iatrogenias; 3 alterações relacionadas às medidas terapêuticas corresponderam a 58,9%, sendo 32,1% referentes à terapêutica farmacológica e 26,8% a outros procedimentos terapêuticos; 4 manifestações iatrogênicas não relacionadas diretamente às afecções (úlceras de decúbito, quedas e fraturas corresponderam a 23,2%; 5 a presença de manifestações iatrogênicas correlacionou-se com período mais prolongado de internação; 6 cinco pacientes faleceram em conseqüência direta de complicações iatrogênicas. A iatrogenia é freqüente em pacientes idosos hospitalizados, podendo determinar manifestações graves e mesmo fatais. Como uma significativa proporção dessas complicações pode ser evitada através de medidas adequadas, deve-se procurar identificar suas causas e desenvolver métodos para previni-la ou reduzir seus efeitos.

  16. Complaints against an EMS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Christopher B; Pons, Peter T; Pi, Randy

    2003-11-01

    Complaints against Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies represent a concerning and potentially time-consuming problem for all involved in the delivery of prehospital emergency medical care. The objective of this study was to identify the source of complaints against an EMS system to help focus quality and performance improvement and customer service efforts. We conducted a retrospective review of complaints filed against a busy urban EMS agency over a 6-year period. All complaints were included, totaled by season and by year, and categorized by originator and nature of the complaint. A total of 286 complaints were registered during the 6-year period, with an average of 48 per year and 9.3 per 10,000 responses. The most common originators of complaints were patients (53%) followed by medical personnel (19%) and family members or friends (12%). Rude behavior accounted for 23% of the complaints registered, followed by technical skills (20%), transport problems (18%), and loss of belongings (13%). The identification of areas of dissatisfaction will allow focused quality and performance improvement programs directed at customer service and risk management.

  17. Existe sujeito em Michel Maffesoli?

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    Marli Appel da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio discute a concepção de sujeito na abordagem teórica de Michel Maffesoli. As ideias desse autor estão em voga em alguns meios acadêmicos no Brasil e são difundidas por algumas mídias de grande circulação nacional. Entretanto, ao longo de suas obras, os pressupostos que definem quem é o sujeito maffesoliano se encontram pouco clarificados. Portanto, para alcançar o objetivo a que se propõe, este ensaio desenvolve uma análise da epistemologia e da ontologia maffesoliana com a finalidade de compreender as origens dos pressupostos desse autor, ou seja, as teorias e os autores em que Maffesoli se baseou para desenvolver uma visão de sujeito. Com essa compreensão, pretende-se responder à questão: existe sujeito na abordagem teórica de Maffesoli.

  18. Adding large EM stack support

    KAUST Repository

    Holst, Glendon

    2016-12-01

    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  19. Paratuberculose em ruminantes no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise M. Yamasaki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map e comumente afeta ruminantes domésticos, no entanto, pode infectar várias espécies de mamíferos. Está presente nos cinco continentes e é considerada endêmica em algumas regiões pela Organização Internacional de Epizootias (OIE. Pertence à lista de enfermidades notificáveis, que compreende as doenças transmissíveis de importância sócio-econômica e/ou em saúde-pública, cujo controle é necessário para o comércio internacional de animais e alimentos de origem animal. A importância da doença de Johne não se restringe somente aos prejuízos econômicos causados à indústria animal, mas também na possível participação do Map na íleocolite granulomatosa que afeta seres humanos, conhecida como doença de Crohn. No Brasil, a paratuberculose já foi descrita em diversas espécies de ruminantes e em vários estados. Embora os relatos naturais da enfermidade sejam pontuais, acredita-se na possibilidade da transmissão interespecífica e na disseminação do agente através da compra e venda de animais infectados. O objetivo deste artigo foi reunir as informações disponíveis referentes aos aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais da paratuberculose em bovinos, bubalinos, caprinos e ovinos no Brasil, e salientar a necessidade de implementação de medidas de controle sanitário da enfermidade no país, o que possibilitaria a melhoria da qualidade e valorização dos produtos de origem animal no mercado internacional.

  20. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from <em>Rosmarinus officinalisem>>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from <em>Rosmarinus officinalisem>. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from <em>R. officinalisem>> em>compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

  1. Trophic systems and chorology: data from shrews, moles and voles of Italy preyed by the barn owl / Sistemi trofici e corologia: dati su <em>Soricidae>, <em>Talpidae> ed <em>Arvicolidae> d'Italia predati da <em>Tyto albaem> (Scopoli 1769

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In small Mammals biogeography, available data are up to now by far too scanty for elucidate the distribution of a lot of taxa, especially with regard to the absence from a given area. In this respect, standardized quantitative sampling techniques, like Owl pellets analysis can enable not only to enhance faunistic knowledges, but also to estimate the actual absence probability of a given taxon "m", lacking from the diet of an individual raptor. For the last purpose, the relevant frequencies of "m" in the other ecologically similar sites of the same raptor species diets are averaged ($f_m$ : the relevant standard error (multiplicated by a coefficient, according to the desired degree of accuracy, in relation of the integral of probabilities subtracted ($overline{F}_m - a E$: then, the probability that a single specimen is not pertaining to "m" is obtained ($P_0 = 1 - F_m + a E$; lastly, the desiderate accuracy probability ($P_d$ is chosen. Now, "$N_d$" (the number of individuals of all prey species in a single site needed for obtain, with the desired probability, a specimen at least of "m" is obtained through $$N = frac{ln P_d}{ln P_0}$$ Obviously, every site-diet with more than "N" preyed individuals and without any "i" specimen is considered to be lacking of such taxon. A "usefulness index" for the above purposes is outlined and checked about three raptors. Some exanples about usefulness of the Owl pellet analysis method in biogeography are given, concerning <em>Tyto albaem> diets in peninsular Italy about: - <em>Sorex minutusem>, lacking in some quite insulated areas; - <em>Sorex araneusem> (sensu stricto, after GRAF et al., 1979, present also in lowland areas in Emilia-Romagna; - <em>Crocidura suaveolensem> and - <em>Suncus etruscusem>, present also in the southermost part of Calabria (Reggio province; - <em>Talpa caecaem>, present also in the Antiapennines of Latium (Cimini mounts; - <em>Talpa romanaem

  2. Bioactive Compounds from a Gorgonian Coral <em>Echinomuricea> sp. (Plexauridae

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    Jih-Jung Chen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new labdane-type diterpenoid, echinolabdane A (1, and a new sterol, 6-<em>epi>-yonarasterol B (2, were isolated from a gorgonian coral identified as <em>Echinomuricea> sp. The structures of metabolites 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Echinolabdane A (1 possesses a novel tetracyclic skeleton with an oxepane ring jointed to an α,β-unsaturated-γ-lactone ring by a hemiketal moiety, and this compound is the first labdane-type diterpenoid to be obtained from marine organisms belonging to the phylum Cnidaria. 6-<em>epi>-Yonarasterol B (2 is the first steroid derivative to be isolated from gorgonian coral belonging to the genus <em>Echinomuricea>, and this compound displayed significant inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anions and the release of elastase by human neutrophils.

  3. Bioactivities of the Genus <em>Combretum> (Combretaceae: A Review

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    Josean Fechine Tavares

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Combretaceae is a large family of herbs, shrubs and trees, comprising about 20 genera and 600 species with tropical distribution around the globe and centers of diversity in Africa and Asia. Some <em>Combretum> species are extensively used in traditional medicine against inflammation, infections, diabetes, malaria, bleeding, diarrhea and digestive disorders and others as a diuretic. The present work is a literature survey of <em>Combretum> species that have been evaluated for their ability to exert biological activities. A total number of 36 <em>Combretum> species are discussed with regard to plant parts used, component tested and bioassay models. This review is of fundamental importance to promoting studies on <em>Combretum> species, thereby contributing to the development of new therapeutic alternatives that may improve the health of people suffering from various health problems.

  4. Alkaloids Isolated from the Lateral Root of <em>Aconitum carmichaeliiem>

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    Qin-Mei Zhou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new alkaloids, aconicarmine (1 and aconicaramide (5, were isolated from the EtOH extract of the lateral roots of <em>Aconitum carmichaeliiem>, together with five known compounds: fuziline (2, neoline (3, <em>N>-ethylhokbusine B (4, 5-hydroxymethylpyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (6, and oleracein E (7. Their structures were elucidated by physical and NMR analysis. Pyrrole alkaloids were isolated from <em>A. carmichaeliiem> for the first time. In the <em>in vitroem> assays, compounds 2 and 3 showed activity against pentobarbital sodium-induced cardiomyocytes damage by obviously recovering beating rhythm and increasing the cell viability, while compounds 5 and 7 showed moderate antibacterial activity.

  5. Morphological identification of the Soprano Pipistrelle (<em>Pipistrellus pygmaeusem> Leach, 1825 in Croatia.

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    Igor Pavlinić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After the discovery of two different phonic types within the common pipistrelle (<em>Pipistrellus pipistrellusem>, mtDNA analysis confirmed the existence of two separate species named as common pipistrelle (<em>P. pipistrellusem> and soprano pipistrelle (<em>P. pygmaeusem>. The discrimination of these two cryptic species using external characters and measures has proved to be somewhat problematic. We examined two colonies of soprano pipistrelle from Donji Miholjac, Croatia. As a result, only two characters proved to be of help for field identification: wing venation (89% of cases and penis morphology and colour for males. The difference in length between the 2nd and 3rd phalanxes of the 3rd finger should be discarded as diagnostic trait between <em>P. pipistrellusem> and <em>P. pygmaeusem> in Croatia. Riassunto Identificazione su basi morfologiche del pipistrello pigmeo (<em>Pipistrellus pygmeausem>, Leach, 1825 in Croazia. A seguito della descrizione di due differenti "tipi fonici" nel pipistrello nano (<em>Pipistrellus pipistrellusem> e della successiva conferma su basi genetiche dell'esistenza di due specie distinte, designate come pipistrello nano (<em>P. pipistrellusem> e pipistrello pigmeo (<em>P. pygmaeusem>, la distinzione delle due specie in base a caratteristiche morfologiche esterne si è dimostrata un problema di difficile soluzione. Sulla base delle caratteristiche distintive e delle differenze biometriche proposte da altri Autori, sono state esaminate due colonie di pipistrello pigmeo a Donji Miholjac, in Croazia. I risultati ottenuti evidenziano che, tra tutti i potenziali caratteri sinora proposti, solo due risultano utili per un'identificazione diretta sul campo: la venatura delle ali, risultata utile alla discriminazione nell'89% degli esemplari analizzati, e la colorazione e morfologia del pene nei maschi. La

  6. Variabilità morfologica ed ecologica in <em>Neomys fodiensem> e <em>Neomys anomalusem> nell'Appennino settentrionale

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    Dino Scaravelli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available I due <em>Neomys> italiani sono ancora da chiarire dal punto di vista della loro caratterizzazione morfologica e ecologica. Il lavoro prende in considerazione un campione di entrambe le specie proveniente da habitat forestali dell?Appennino settentrionale per i quali sono stati identificati i principali parametri ambientali. Vengono quindi descritte la variabilità dei tratti morfologici delle due specie in aree localizzate nel Parco Nazionale Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona e Campigna nell?Appennino tosco-romagnolo. Risultano di sicuro effetto discriminatorio la maschera facciale, il rapporto piede posteriore/coda e i caratteri cranici. Sulla base dei criteri identificativi si sono realizzate rilevazioni di misure corporee per le due specie e una comparazione degli habitat utilizzati. <em>N. fodiensem> appare unica specie nelle faggete-abetine e dominante nei castagneti, mentre nell?Ontaneta e nelle zone aperte e termofile si registra la sola presenza di <em>N. anomalusem>. Mancano entrambi nei prati cespugliati, nella pecceta e nella cerreta. I gradienti presenti sono quindi illustrati. Non appare una differenza altitudinale nel campione esaminato, posto in stazioni tra i 400 e i 1300 m, ma per entrambe vi sono maggiori riscontri nella fascia tra 700 e 850 m. Nell?analisi multivariata rispetto alle altre specie e alle variabili ambientali si riscontra sempre una discreta correlazione con la presenza di acqua di una certa ampiezza, che comunque è significativa solo per <em>N. fodiensem>, mentre risulta di interesse la positiva correlazione di <em>N. anomalusem> con <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem>.

  7. Crecimiento foliar y radical en plantas de fique (<em>Furcraea castillaem> y <em>F. macrophyllaem> bajo estrés por encharcamiento

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    Casierra-Posada Fánor

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En regiones tropicales y subtropicales se producen pérdidas en las plantas cultivadas como consecuencia de lluvias estacionales prolongadas. El exceso de agua produce condiciones de anoxia en el suelo en pocas horas. Las raíces sufren hipoxia o anoxia, lo cual tiene como resultado una crisis energética que afecta el crecimiento de la planta. El presente estudio se orientó hacia la determinación de crecimiento foliar y radical en dos especies de fique (<em>Furcraea castillaem> y <em>F. macrophyllaem> cultivadas en encharcamiento en campo abierto en Tunja, Colombia. Las plantas se desarrollaron a partir de bulbilos, en bolsas plásticas con 3 kg de suelo. Las plantas control se regaron cada 4 días. Las bolsas de las plantas encharcadas se cubrieron con una bolsa plástica adicional para limitar el drenaje y se regaron hasta mantener el agua 1 cm por encima de la superficie del suelo. En ambas especies la materia seca total de la planta, el peso específico de las hojas y el área foliar se redujeron con el encharcamiento, mientras que la longitud total radical se incrementó. La relación raíz:vástago se redujo en <em>F. macrophyllaem> pero se incrementó en <em>Furcraea castillaem>. A pesar de que ambas especies fueron fuertemente afectadas por el encharcamiento, <em>F. macrophyllaem> mostró mejor adaptación a este factor de estrés que <em> F. castillaem>.

  8. Reconhecimento da prole por operárias companheiras e não companheiras de ninho em Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae Brood recognition by workers of Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Danival José de Souza

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a capacidade de discriminação de formas jovens de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus por operárias adultas da mesma subespécie. Eram oferecidas, na área de forrageamento, larvas e pupas companheiras e não companheiras de ninho, sendo quantificado o comportamento frente a essas formas jovens. Foram utilizadas colônias oriundas do município de Paraopeba, MG, Brasil, mantidas em condições de laboratório. Os resultados evidenciaram que essa subespécie não é capaz de discriminar formas jovens companheiras e não companheiras de ninho, ou seja, transportaram indiscriminadamente as formas jovens oferecidas para o interior do ninho. Também não se observou diferença significativa para o tempo de resposta de aceitação de prole companheira e não companheira de ninho.This study investigated the behavioral response (acception or rejection of Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus to their brood and to brood from different colonies of this subespecies. The four colonies used in the bioassays came from Paraopeba, MG, Brazil. Workers accepted either brood from their colonies or from different colonies. There was no significant difference on the time for brood acceptance (transport to the interior of the nest among nestmates and non-nestmates.

  9. Tumores em bovinos encontrados em abatedouros frigoríficos

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    Bianca Tessele

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Numa pesquisa em abatedouros a procura de lesões em bovinos, realizada de janeiro de 2011 a julho de 2014, 544 foram encontradas, das quais 65 eram neoplasmas. Quarenta e dois porcento desses tumores eram de origem mesenquimal; 37% eram epiteliais; 14,5% eram derivados da crista neural; 5% eram tumores do cordão sexual; e 1,5 eram tumores originários do sistema nervoso periférico. O tumor mais frequentemente encontrado foi o linfoma (28% de todos os tumores, a maioria dos casos como parte do complexo leucose bovina enzoótica. O carcinoma de células escamosas foi o segundo tumor mais frequente (15% de todos os tumores. É chamada a atenção para a frequência desses tumores e para a sua importância no diagnóstico diferencial no abatedouro frigorífico entre eles e outras lesões importantes, incluindo as lesões granulomatosas da tuberculose. Houve uma ocorrência significativa do feocromocitoma adrenal (13% de todos os tumores. Papilomatose representou apenas 3% de todos os tumores. Como papilomas são comuns em bovinos, seu baixo número nesse estudo pode ser explicado pelo fato de que eles não são usualmente diagnosticados no exame post mortem (quando o couro já foi retirado da carcaça, mas sim no exame ante mortem, como ocorreu na maioria dos casos deste estudo. Tumores encontrados com menor frequência (cada um perfazendo entre 1.5 e 3% de todos os tumores incluíram adenocarcinoma apócrino misto da cauda, adenocarcinoma mamário, adenocarcinoma uterino, carcinoma de células renais, fibroma interdigital, hemangiossarcoma, leiomioma uterino, lipoma, lipossarcoma, mesotelioma, neurofibroma, tumor de células da granulosa, tumor estromal gastrointestinal, tumores hepáticos, tumores melanocíticos, e tumores pulmonares primários. Pretende-se que os resultados dessa pesquisa possam ajudar na identificação das lesões na inspeção oficial em matadouros frigoríficos.

  10. Consumo de fibra em detergente neutro por bovinos em confinamento

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    Detmann Edenio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN por bovinos em confinamento e os principais fatores que influenciam esta variável, correlacionado-a ao consumo de matéria seca (MS total. Foram avaliados dados publicados na Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia e Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, no período de 1991 e 2000, totalizando 45 trabalhos científicos e 181 médias de tratamentos. O nível de nutrientes digestíveis totais mostrou-se negativamente correlacionado ao nível de FDN nas dietas (r = -0,6006; P0,10. A descrição da relação entre consumo de MS e nível de FDN na dieta foi realizada de forma bifásica, buscando similaridade às curvas propostas por um modelo estático de predição do consumo. A interseção das curvas projetou consumo de FDN (CFDN de 11,93 g/kg PV. No entanto, a avaliação dos CFDN estimados durante a fase atribuída aos controladores físicos do consumo mostrou inconstância, gerando divergência entre os pontos de consumo máximo de MS e FDN, indicando ser a transição entre os mecanismos físicos e fisiológicos, possivelmente, determinada por um intervalo com interação entre mecanismos. A avaliação do CFDN em função do nível de volumosos nas dietas mostrou perfis estáveis em concentrações superiores a 60%, sendo de 13,53 g/kg PV no intervalo de 80 a 100%. Possíveis interações com a fração indigestível da FDN podem ditar a plasticidade do limite diário de CFDN.

  11. COLABORAÇÃO EM MASSA OU AMADORISMO EM MASSA?

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    Resende da Silva, Paulo; Rodrigues, Fernando Nifrário

    2013-01-01

    O alfa e o ómega deste estudo é a tentativa de provar a credibilidade da colaboração em massa enquanto pedra angular do modelo de negócio comummente denominado por open source. Para o demonstrar, realizou-se um estudo comparativo entre a qualidade dos artigos da Wikipédia e da Enciclopédia Britânica, tendo sido dado particular relevo à metodologia utilizada de modo a que os resultados obtidos fossem os mais fidedignos e abrangentes possíveis. É utilizada uma amostra aleatória representativ...

  12. Lectin from <em>Canavalia brasiliensisem> Seeds (ConBr Is a Valuable Biotechnological Tool to Stimulate the Growth of <em>Rhizobium tropiciem> <em>in Vitroem>

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    Ricardo Pires dos Santos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the interactions between a <em>Rhizobium tropiciem> strain and lectins isolated from the seeds of <em>Canavalia ensiformisem> (ConA and <em>Canavalia brasiliensisem> (ConBr, a lectin fluorescence assay was performed. In addition, an experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of the two lectins on bacterial growth. Both lectins were found to bind to <em>R. tropiciem> cells, but the interactions were inhibited by D-mannose. Interestingly, only ConBr stimulated bacterial growth in proportion to the concentrations used (15.6–500 µg/mL, and the bacterial growth stimulation was inhibited by D-mannose as well. Structure/Function analyses by bioinformatics were carried out to evaluate the volume and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD configuration of ConA and ConBr. The difference of spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may indicate the variation between biological activities of both lectins. The results suggest that ConBr could be a promising tool for studies focusing on the interactions between rhizobia and host plants.

  13. Encapsulation-Induced Stress Helps <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae em>Resist Convertible Lignocellulose Derived Inhibitors

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    Johan O. Westman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of macroencapsulated <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae em>CBS8066<em> em>to withstand readily and not readily <em>in situem> convertible lignocellulose-derived inhibitors was investigated in anaerobic batch cultivations. It was shown that encapsulation increased the tolerance against readily convertible furan aldehyde inhibitors and to dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, but not to organic acid inhibitors that cannot be metabolized anaerobically. Gene expression analysis showed that the protective effect arising from the encapsulation is evident also on the transcriptome level, as the expression of the stress-related genes <em>YAP1em>, <em>ATR1em> and <em>FLR1em> was induced upon encapsulation. The transcript levels were increased due to encapsulation already in the medium without added inhibitors, indicating that the cells sensed low stress level arising from the encapsulation itself. We present a model, where the stress response is induced by nutrient limitation, that this helps the cells to cope with the increased stress added by a toxic medium, and that superficial cells in the capsules degrade convertible inhibitors, alleviating the inhibition for the cells deeper in the capsule.

  14. Altitudinal distribution of the common longeared bat <em>Plecotus auritusem> (Linnaeus, 1758 and grey long-eared bat <em>Plecotus austriacusem> (J. B. Fischer, 1829 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae in the Tatra mountains (southern Poland

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    Krzysztof Piksa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Distribuzione altitudinale di Orecchione bruno (<em>Plecotus auritusem> e Orecchione meridionale (<em>Plecotus austriacusem> nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale. Vengono riportati nuovi dati relativi alla distribuzione altitudinale nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale di <em>Plecotus auritusem> e <em>P. austriacusem>. Tali segnalazioni incrementano le conoscenze relative alla presenza di questi chirotteri a quote elevate, in particolare per la Polonia. In inverno <em>P. auritusem> è stato rinvenuto a 1921 m s.l.m. mentre in estate è stato rinvenuto a 2250 m s.l.m.; in aggiunta, sono stati ritrovati resti ossei a 1929 m s.l.m. <em>P. austriacusem> è stato segnalato in ibernazione a 1294 m s.l.m.

  15. Funcionalidade familiar em longevos residentes em domicílio

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    Ivania Vera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar os fatores associados à funcionalidade familiar de longevos não institucionalizados residentes em Goiânia (GO, Brasil. Método: tratou-se de um estudo epidemiológico, de base populacional, com delineamento transversal. Foram aplicadas escalas de avaliação da capacidade funcional e cognitiva. A dinâmica familiar foi mensurada utilizando o Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection and Resolve (APGAR por meio de entrevista domiciliar com 131 longevos. Resultados: houve prevalência do sexo feminino, média de idade de 83,87 anos, condição de viuvez, residindo em família extensa, escolaridade primária e autopercepção de saúde regular. Grande parcela despontou independência para autocuidado e dependência parcial para Atividades Instrumentais de Vida Diária. A funcionalidade familiar prevaleceu com média do escore de 9,06 pontos. Conclusão: concluiu-se que a funcionalidade familiar nos longevos está associada à autopercepção de saúde ruim/péssima, osteoporose e queda. Os resultados permitiram caracterizar a funcionalidade familiar de longevos, com vistas à valorização e à priorização da família como cuidadora.

  16. Brasil em obras, peões em luta, sindicatos surpreendidos

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    Roberto Véras

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda as revoltas e greves ocorridas em março de 2011 em canteiros de obras do Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento (PAC, do Governo Federal, que alcançou grande repercussão nacional. Tem como foco os conflitos e as negociações, envolvendo trabalhadores, sindicatos, empresários, Governo, Justiça, Ministério Público do Trabalho, entre outros atores, estabelecidos durante a construção das Usinas Hidroelétricas de Jirau e Santo Antônio, situadas no Norte do país. Visou identificar as posições dos referidos atores e, sob uma perspectiva sociológica, propor reflexões sobre as potencialidades e os limites da atividade sindical. Que questões trouxeram tais acontecimentos ao sindicalismo, quanto às relações deste, de um lado, com suas próprias bases e, de outro, com o atual projeto governamental?

  17. Conceito de liberdade em Vigotski

    OpenAIRE

    Toassa, Gisele

    2004-01-01

    Este texto sintetiza os fundamentos do conceito de liberdade vigotskiano, procurando elucidar suas conexões a partir das investigações do autor sobre linguagem, vontade, funções psíquicas superiores, pensamento e imaginação. Discutem-se, ainda, os antecedentes filosóficos presentes no seu conceito de liberdade e se esboça uma análise das condições concretas necessárias para a livre-escolha em tempos de alienação. This text summarises the fundamental points of Vygotsky´s freedom concept, wi...

  18. Conceito de liberdade em Vigotski

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    Gisele Toassa

    Full Text Available Este texto sintetiza os fundamentos do conceito de liberdade vigotskiano, procurando elucidar suas conexões a partir das investigações do autor sobre linguagem, vontade, funções psíquicas superiores, pensamento e imaginação. Discutem-se, ainda, os antecedentes filosóficos presentes no seu conceito de liberdade e se esboça uma análise das condições concretas necessárias para a livre-escolha em tempos de alienação.

  19. A melancolia em Al Berto

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Emanuele Martins de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho objetiva estudar, sob a perspectiva da melancolia, os livros Salsugem (1984) e Horto de Incêndio (1997), de Al Berto. O autor português produz escritos em que a temática da melancolia atravessa a palavra, o que justifica o debruçar-se sobre as construções textuais da poética albertiana, a fim de traçar-lhe novas possibilidades de leitura por esse ângulo. Para isso, com o intuito de compreender o discurso melancólico segue-se o embasamento teórico: de Klibansky, Panosfsky e Saxl ...

  20. A Favela posta em Cena

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    Fabiana Valdoski Ribeiro

    2010-08-01

    As publicações do Observatório das Favelas nos instigam na construção de um espaço transgressor Possível como necessidade de uma ação urgente, contudo a perspectiva do Impossível como projeto nos promove a revelar os limites, as normas e as ideologias que perpassam as ações internas ao Estado, já que este se constitui agente fundamental da engrenagem da produção de desigualdades e em sua força legitimadora realiza a ideologia mais eficiente.

  1. O humor em cuidados paliativos

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Cláudia Joana Alves

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Cuidados Paliativos apresentada na Escola Superior de Saúde do Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo O ser humano diferencia-se dos outros seres vivos pela capacidade que possui de sorrir. Esta característica ajuda-o a enfrentar os problemas que se lhe afiguram no quotidiano da vida, sejam eles de índole pessoal, profissional, familiar ou relacional. Assim o humor, presente desde sempre, emerge como uma necessidade para o crescimento individual, e ...

  2. Deterrência alimentar em Ascia monuste orseis Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae induzida por soluções homeopáticas

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    Nilbe Carla Mapeli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A couve, Brassica oleracea var. acephala, destaca-se entre as plantas hortícolas como sendo frequentemente atacada por pragas, dentre as quais o curuquerê da couve, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Pieridae. O controle desse inseto tem sido feito com inseticidas. Na agricultura orgânica, o uso dos referidos produtos é proibido e já existem alguns casos em que agricultores estão substituindo-o, por outras alternativas menos danosas ao meio ambiente, como as soluções homeopáticas, substâncias apontadas como ferramentas para Agroecologia. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar se soluções homeopáticas proporcionam mecanismos de antibiose, como deterrência alimentar, em Ascia monuste orseis, em couve 'manteiga cv. Santo Antônio' e se podem ser utilizadas no controle de pragas. As soluções testadas foram: - Sulphur 12CH; Phosphorus 5CH; Magnesia carbonica 30CH; Ruta 5CH. A testemunha foi água destilada + álcool de cereais 70% 5CH. Para o preparo de cada solução, foram retirados 0,2 ml de cada preparado homeopático, adicionados a 200 ml de água destilada pulverizados nas folhas e nos solo dos vasos. As características analisadas foram peso de lagartas no início e no final do 4° instar; peso seco de pupa (biomassa incorporada, comprimento de lagarta no 4° instar, duração do ciclo ovo-adulto, percentagem de emergência de adultos, comprimento alar, fecundidade das fêmeas e valor nutritivo das couves tratadas. Sulphur 12CH pode ser recomendado como método alternativo eficiente no controle de A. monuste orseis. Todas as soluções homeopáticas, com exceção do Phosphorus 5CH, promoveram deterrência alimentar, mecanismo de antibiose, interferindo no ciclo biológico de A. monuste orseis.

  3. Bioatividade do óleo de nim sobre Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae em sementes de amendoim Bioactivity of neem oil on Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae in stored peanut seeds

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    Aderdilânia I. B. de Azevedo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a bioatividade do óleo de nim sobre Alphitobius diaperinus, em sementes armazenadas. Sementes de amendoim cultivar BRS Havana foram tratadas com óleo de nim nas concentrações de 0,0; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0% (volume/massa de sementes e mantidas em bandejas durante 24 h. Cinquenta gramas de sementes foram colocados em recipientes plásticos e infestados com 20 insetos adultos de A. diaperinus. Avaliaram-se, aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento, a mortalidade, o número de descendentes (larvas, pupas e adultos e o número de sementes perfuradas. Para análise de variância dos dados utilizou-se o teste de Friedman (p £ 0,05, sendo a comparação das médias realizada pelo teste de Student Newman Keuls (p £ 0,05. Calculou-se, também, a eficiência do produto pelo método de Henderson & Tilton (1955. Eficiência do óleo de nim sobre a mortalidade de A. diaperinus acima de 74,92% foi observada a partir dos 90 dias do armazenamento, para as concentrações de 3 e 4%; entretanto, o produto conferiu proteção às sementes de amendoim, em todas as concentrações, nos períodos estudados, visto que afetou todos os descendentes de A. diaperinus da geração F1.This work aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of neem oil on Alphitobius diaperinus, in stored seed. Peanuts seeds, cultivar BRS Havana, were treated with neem oil at concentrations of 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0% (volume/weight and kept in trays for 24 h. Fifty grams of seeds were put in plastic containers and infested with 20 adult insects of A. diaperinus. The mortality, the offspring number (larvae, pupae and adults and the number of punched seeds were evaluated at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. For variance analysis of data, Friedman test (p £ 0.05 was used. Student Newman Keuls test (p £ 0.05 was used for comparison of means. The product efficiency was also analysed by using Henderson & Tilton (1955 method. Neem oil efficiency on the mortality

  4. Laddering em pesquisa de marketing

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    Tânia Modesto Veludo-de-Oliveira

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a técnica de pesquisa laddering em marketing, considerando a proposta de renovação de conhecimentos sobre metodologia na área. Para isso investiga diversos estudos, artigos e pesquisas que tratam do assunto em nível nacional e internacional. O conceito de cadeias meios-fins é abordado pela estrutura teórica que fundamenta a técnica, ligando atributos, conseqüências percebidas do consumo e valores pessoais relativos a um produto. O artigo segue com a explicação dos procedimentos de campo, como a entrevista e a análise dos dados. A laddering é um instrumento de pesquisa qualitativa bastante útil e poderoso, mas ainda pouco utilizado tanto por acadêmicos como por profissionais de mercado, no Brasil, provavelmente por desconhecimento e pouca divulgação. Cabe, portanto, uma maior disseminação de seu uso.

  5. Grupo Focal em Pesquisas Sociais

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    Maria Lúcia Silva Servo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a técnica de grupo focal em pesquisas sociais. Apresenta-se as concepções sobre grupo focal. Traz-se os postulados de Pichon-Rivière sobre grupo operativo, os instrumentos de planificação, os vetores do campo grupal para nortear a dinâmica e a observação do campo grupal, bem como a organização, a operacionalização e a análise dos dados das sessões de grupo focal. Através desta técnica de coleta de dados em pesquisas sociais, é possível a construção do ECRO grupal sobre a tarefa proposta pelo pesquisador; e, a elaboração do projeto grupal a partir da aceitação ativa dos sujeitos sociais participantes da investigação.

  6. Fatores antinutricionais em plantas forrageiras

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    Natanael de Souza Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As análises bromatológicas definem a qualidade nutricional das forragens: degradabilidade ruminal, digestibilidade e composição química. No entanto, existem compostos denominados de antinutricionais (limitam a ingestão e a digestão das forragens que não são determinados pelas análises convencionais. Os fatores antinutricionais são de natureza química ou estrutural. Os principais fatores químicos limitantes das forragens são os alcalóides, compostos fenólicos e substâncias terpênicas, enquanto que os estruturais são a arquitetura tissular, as células lignificadas e a sílica. Desta forma, com o presente trabalho objetiva-se apresentar os principais fatores antinutricionais em plantas forrageiras relatados na literatura. Futuras pesquisas envolvendo a avaliação de plantas forrageiras devem levar em conta uma série de características, dentre estas: seus aspectos agronômicos e bromatológicos, sua natureza estrutural, presença de matabólitos secundários e desempenho animal, visando com isso, avaliar o seu real potencial nutritivo.

  7. Dualismos em duelo Dueling dualism

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    Anne Fausto-Sterling

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Os modos europeus e norte-americanos de entender como funciona o mundo dependem em grande parte do uso de dualismos - pares de conceitos, objetos ou sistemas de crenças opostos. Este ensaio enquadra especialmente três deles: sexo/gênero, natureza/criação e real/construído. Embora este texto verse sobre gênero, discuto regularmente o modo como as idéias de raça e gênero surgem a partir de supostos subjacentes sobre a natureza física do corpo. Entender como operam raça e gênero - em conjunto e independentemente - nos ajuda a compreender melhor como o social se torna corporificado.Euro-American ways of understanding how the world works depend heavily on the use of dualisms - pairs of opposing concepts, objects, or belief sytems. This text focuses especially on three of these: sex/gender, nature/nurture, and real/constructed. And although this text focuses on gender, I regularly discuss the ways in which the ideas of both race and gender emerge from underlying assumptions about the body's physical nature. Understanding how race and gender work - together and independently - help us learn more about how the social becomes embodied.

  8. A agricultura paulista em 1905

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    Francisco Vidal Luna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo revelou a importância da cafeicultura e que a grande produção cafeeira coexistia com milhares de pequenos e médios produtores também dedicados à cafeicultura. Mostrou também a existência de ampla produção agrícola voltada ao mercado interno, cultivos em grande parte feitos em unidades produtoras de café. A Mogiana era a região agrícola mais importante e o Vale do Paraíba havia perdido importância na agricultura paulista. O estudo também demonstra a alta produtividade das áreas novas. A ampla rede ferroviária existente permitia expandir a agricultura mantendo ou mesmo ampliando a produtividade da agricultura. Com disponibilidade de terras e com uma intensa imigração europeia, apenas o mercado poderia evitar a expansão da cafeicultura. Merece realce a baixa tecnologia adotada. Poucos agricultores, mesmo nas regiões mais dinâmicas, utilizavam arados e outros equipamentos similares ou se serviam de adubos químicos.

  9. Metodologia de minienxertia em maracujazeiros

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    Rodrigo Sobreira Alexandre

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a metodologia de enxertia pela modalidade garfagem no topo hipocotiledonar em fenda cheia, utilizando miniestacas adultas de segmentos apicais de P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis, P. alata, P. mucronata e P. foetida e internodais de P. mucronata. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação equipada com sistema de irrigação com nebulização intermitente, do Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo (CEUNES, da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES. Os índices de pegamento nas combinações de P. edulis f. flavicarpa/P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis/P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. alata/P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. mucronata/P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. foetida/P. edulis f. flavicarpa foram de 90; 90; 68; 80 e 90, respectivamente. A metodologia empregada é uma nova opção de enxertia para essas espécies do gênero Passiflora.

  10. Ser marrano em Minas Colonial

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    Anita Novinsky

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Baseado em 57 Processos inéditos de marranos (cristãos-novos, conversos presos em Minas Gerais no século XVIII, este artigo procura mostrar seu papel na Idade de Ouro do Brasil. 64% deles eram mercadores e 23% eram mineiros. Pertenciam à classe média e raros eram os magnatas. Nenhum dele esteve envolvido no tráfico negreiro. Acusados do crime de judaísmo e de pertencerem a sociedades secretas, representaram 42% dos brasileiros condenados à morte. Ser marrano entre os portugueses no Brasil mais um sentimento e uma visão de mundo do que uma prática religiosa.Based on 57 unknown trials of marranos (new christians, conversos arrested by the Inquisition in Minas Gerais in the XVIII the century, this article shows their role in shapping the history of Minas Gerais. 64% of them were merchants na 23% were miners. Most of them belonged to a middle class and rare were those whit great fortunes. No one of them were engaged in slave trade. Acused of judaism and of participating in secret society the marranos of Minas represented 42% of the Brazilian burned at the stake. Being a marrano in Minas Gerais was not always being a crypto-new. Marranism in Brasil was a feeling and a approach to life.

  11. PEG Enhancement for EM1 and EM2+ Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von der Porten, Paul; Ahmad, Naeem; Hawkins, Matt

    2018-01-01

    NASA is currently building the Space Launch System (SLS) Block-1 launch vehicle for the Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) test flight. The next evolution of SLS, the Block-1B Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2), is currently being designed. The Block-1 and Block-1B vehicles will use the Powered Explicit Guidance (PEG) algorithm. Due to the relatively low thrust-to-weight ratio of the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS), certain enhancements to the Block-1 PEG algorithm are needed to perform Block-1B missions. In order to accommodate mission design for EM-2 and beyond, PEG has been significantly improved since its use on the Space Shuttle program. The current version of PEG has the ability to switch to different targets during Core Stage (CS) or EUS flight, and can automatically reconfigure for a single Engine Out (EO) scenario, loss of communication with the Launch Abort System (LAS), and Inertial Navigation System (INS) failure. The Thrust Factor (TF) algorithm uses measured state information in addition to a priori parameters, providing PEG with an improved estimate of propulsion information. This provides robustness against unknown or undetected engine failures. A loft parameter input allows LAS jettison while maximizing payload mass. The current PEG algorithm is now able to handle various classes of missions with burn arcs much longer than were seen in the shuttle program. These missions include targeting a circular LEO orbit with a low-thrust, long-burn-duration upper stage, targeting a highly eccentric Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) orbit, targeting a disposal orbit using the low-thrust Reaction Control System (RCS), and targeting a hyperbolic orbit. This paper will describe the design and implementation of the TF algorithm, the strategy to handle EO in various flight regimes, algorithms to cover off-nominal conditions, and other enhancements to the Block-1 PEG algorithm. This paper illustrates challenges posed by the Block-1B vehicle, and results show that the improved PEG

  12. Terapia breve em hospital fechado

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    Paulo Cesar Sandler

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo cuida de pacientes "difíceis" da clínica psiquiátrica e psicoterápica: os pacientes que apresentam o fenômeno da atuação, cuja aproximação terapêutica tem se demonstrado problemática, mesmo com o advento das modernas técnicas de psicoterapia e das comunidades terapêuticas. Os diagnósticos psiquiátricos destes pacientes variam: são neuróticos, apresentam transtornos de pesonalidade, são psicóticos e quase sempre com graves doenças secundárias: alcoolismo e toxicomania (Códigos Classificação Internacional de Doenças 295 a 299, 300. 301, 303 e 304. Propõe-se, à luz da compreensão psicanalítica destas pessoas, um tratamento psicoterápico breve, focal, com o auxílio de uma hospitalização em regime fechado. Para a avaliação dos resultados do método psicoterápico diádico, criaram-se critérios de cura coerentes com a proposta terapêutica, e equiparam-se estes critérios clínicos a valores numéricos. Utilizando 36 pacientes internados, verificou-se até que ponto eles alcançavam estes critérios. Cada paciente recebeu um escore - valor numérico - que expressou o seu desempenho durante o tratamento em regime de internação, e sua conduta pós-alta hospitalar, durante um seguimento médio de 21 meses. Estes 36 pacientes puderam ser divididos em dois grupos: os de evolução favorável (obtivemos 36,1% e os de evolução desfavorável. Por meio de uma amostra sistemática composta por 41 pacientes que não foram submetidos ao método, internados no mesmo período de tempo, no mesmo hospital, e pareados com nossa casuística, fêz-se uma comparação estatística entre os percentis obtidos nas evoluções dos dois grupos. O valor do teste estatístico, o chi quadrado, não foi significante. O exame das proporções correspondentes a cada patologia em separado sugeriu fortemente que o tratamento estaria indicado nas neuroses e nas psicoses, mas que seria realmente ineficaz nos transtornos de

  13. Bioassay-Guided Antidiabetic Study of <em>Phaleria macrocarpaem> Fruit Extract

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    Mohd Z. Asmawi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An earlier anti-hyperglycemic study with serial crude extracts of <em>Phaleria macrocarpaem> (PM fruit indicated methanol extract (ME as the most effective. In the present investigation, the methanol extract was further fractionated to obtain chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF, <em>n>-butanol (NBF and aqueous (AF fractions, which were tested for antidiabetic activity. The NBF reduced blood glucose (<em>p> < 0.05 15 min after administration, in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT similar to metformin. Moreover, it lowered blood glucose in diabetic rats by 66.67% (<em>p> em>< 0.05, similar to metformin (51.11%, glibenclamide (66.67% and insulin (71.43% after a 12-day treatment, hence considered to be the most active fraction. Further fractionation of NBF yielded sub-fractions I (SFI and II (SFII, and only SFI lowered blood glucose (<em>p em>< 0.05, in IPGTT similar to glibenclamide. The ME, NBF, and SFI correspondingly lowered plasma insulin (<em>p em>< 0.05 and dose-dependently inhibited glucose transport across isolated rat jejunum implying an extra-pancreatic mechanism. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenes and tannins, in ME, NBF and SFI, and LC-MS analyses revealed 9.52%, 33.30% and 22.50% mangiferin respectively. PM fruit possesses anti-hyperglycemic effect, exerted probably through extra-pancreatic action. Magniferin, contained therein may be responsible for this reported activity.

  14. OCCURENCE OF Salmonella IN CHICKEN CARCASSES AND CUTS COMMERCIALIZED IN GOIÂNIA-GO OCORRÊNCIA DE Salmonella EM CARCAÇAS E CORTES DE FRANGOS COMERCIALIZADOS EM GOIÂNIA-GO

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    Iolanda Aparecida Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Its was analised 53 chicken carcasses and commercial cuts acquired in supermarkets of Goiânia-GO aiming to isolate <em>Salmonella>. The contamination rate was 13.2% and serotypes <em>S. brandenburgem>, <em>S. typhimuriumem>, <em>S. agonaem>, <em>S. derbyem> and <em>S. hadorem> were identified.

    KEY-WORDS: <em>Salmonella>; chicken; chicken carcasses; commercial cuts.

    No presente estudo foram analisadas, com vistas ao isolamento de <em>Salmonella>, 53 amostras de carcaças e cortes comerciais de frangos colhidas em supermercados e casas de carnes de Goiânia - GO. Observou-se freqüência média do patógeno de 13,2%, sendo identificados os sorotipos <em>E. brandenburgem>, <em>S. typhimuriumem>, <em>S.> <em>agona>, <em>S. derbyem> e <em>S. Hadarem>.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: <em>Salmonella>; frango de corte; carcaça; cortes comerciais.

  15. Species Differentiation of Chinese <em>Mollitrichosiphum> (Aphididae: Greenideinae Driven by Geographical Isolation and Host Plant Acquirement

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    Gexia Qiao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of both the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP and the separation of the Taiwan and Hainan Islands on the evolution of the fauna and flora in adjacent regions has been a topic of considerable interest. <em>Mollitrichosiphum> is a polyphagous insect group with a wide range of host plants (14 families and distributions restricted to Southeast Asia. Based on the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI and Cytochrome b (Cytb genes, the nuclear elongation factor-1α (EF-1α gene, and the detailed distribution and host plant data, we investigated the species differentiation modes of the Chinese <em>Mollitrichosiphum> species. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of <em>Mollitrichosiphum>. The divergence time of <em>Mollitrichosiphum tenuicorpus em>(c>. 11.0 mya (million years ago, <em>Mollitrichosiphum nandiiem> and<em> Mollitrichosiphum montanumem> (<em>c>. 10.6 mya was within the time frame of the uplift of the QTP. Additionally, basal species mainly fed on Fagaceae, while species that fed on multiple plants diverged considerably later. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests that Fagaceae may be the first acquired host, and the acquisition of new hosts and the expansion of host range may have promoted species differentiation within this genus. Overall, it can be concluded that geographical isolation and the expansion of the host plant range may be the main factors driving species differentiation of <em>Mollitrichosiphum>.

  16. Biologia comparada de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cebola, mamona, soja e feijão Compared biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in onion, castor oil plant, soybean and bean

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    Alvimar Bavaresco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. sobre quatro hospedeiros naturais (folhas de cebola, mamona, soja cv. Embrapa 48 e feijão cv. Carioca. Foram avaliados a duração e viabilidade das fases imaturas e do ciclo total, número de ínstares, peso de pupas, razão sexual, porcentagem de deformação de adultos e de adultos não liberados dos invólucros pupais, longevidade de adultos, fecundidade e viabilidade de ovos. Observou-se menor duração e maior viabilidade do período ovo-adulto para mamona e cebola (39,7 dias e 21,7% e 40,5 dias e 21,8%, respectivamente, do que para soja (46,0 dias e 3,9%. O peso pupal foi de 444,6 mg em cebola, 420,0 em feijão, 396,6 em mamona e 298,7 em soja. Constatou-se um predomínio de seis ínstares larvais em folhas de cebola e mamona, ocorrendo também sete para alguns indivíduos, enquanto que em soja predominou a ocorrência de sete, também verificando oito ínstares, indicando uma menor adequação nutricional deste hospedeiro. As fêmeas apresentaram duração da fase pupal significativamente menor do que os machos em todos hospedeiros, fazendo com que a emergência do adulto ocorresse antes dos machos. Em cebola, a longevidade de adultos foi significativamente superior aos demais hospedeiros. A fecundidade foi maior em cebola e mamona (3224 e 3206 ovos/fêmea, respectivamente, enquanto que para soja observou-se 1353 ovos/fêmea. Em folhas de feijão, o desenvolvimento do inseto foi prejudicado por caracteres morfológicos - pilosidade, que promoveram elevada mortalidade na fase larval.The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. was studied on four natural hosts (onion leaves, castor oil plant, soy cv. Embrapa 48 and bean cv. Carioca. The duration and viability of immature phases and total cycle, instar number, pupals weight, sexual ratio, percentage of deformed adults and adults not released of pupal beg, adults' longevity, fecundity and eggs viability were evaluated. It was observed in

  17. Fatores associados ao fumo em gestantes avaliadas em cidades brasileiras

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    Kroeff Locimara Ramos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a correlação dos fatores sociodemográficos e estilo de vida com o hábito de fumar em gestantes atendidas em hospitais. MÉTODOS: O delineamento foi o de um estudo transversal. A amostra foi composta por 5.539 gestantes atendidas em ambulatórios de pré-natal em hospitais públicos credenciados nas cidades de Manaus, Fortaleza, Salvador, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo e Porto Alegre, entre 1991 e 1995. A seleção foi consecutiva para todas as gestantes com 20 anos ou mais de idade, excetuando-se aquelas com diabetes prévia à gestação. Foram realizadas medidas antropométricas e entrevistas entre a 21ª e a 28ª semanas da gravidez. Por meio de um questionário padronizado, considerou-se como fumante quem informou fumar um ou mais cigarros por dia, como ex-fumante quem informou ter fumado mais de um cigarro por dia e ter cessado, e não fumantes quem informou nunca ter fumado um ou mais cigarros por dia. RESULTADOS: O hábito de fumar na gestação associou-se à baixa escolaridade (RC=2,13; IC 95%: 1,76-2,57 e paridade (RC=1,84; IC 95%: 1,53-2,21. Para o aumento da idade da gestante e uso de bebidas alcóolicas também foram observadas associações positivas com o fumo na gestação. Não foi observada nenhuma associação significativa entre cor da pele e situação ocupacional com fumo na gestação. Um efeito protetor foi observado para mulheres casadas ou com companheiro (RC=0,55; IC 95%: 0,42-0,72. Entre as cidades, tomando Manaus como referência, Porto Alegre apresentou o maior risco para fumo na gestação (RC=5,00; IC 95%: 3,35-7,38, seguida de São Paulo (RC=3,42; IC 95%: 2,25-5,20, Rio de Janeiro (RC=2,53; IC 95%: 1,65-3,88 e Fortaleza (RC=2,56; IC95%: 1,74-3,78. CONCLUSÕES: Os achados são semelhantes àqueles descritos na literatura com relação à escolaridade, paridade e situação conjugal. Entretanto, nenhuma associação com a cor da pele foi observada na análise multivariada. As ex-fumantes mostraram

  18. Alimentazione di <em>Marmota marmotaem> in praterie altimontane delle dolomiti bellunesi

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    Alessandro Rudatis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of <em>Marmota marmotaem> in the mountain prairie of south-eastern Italian Alps. Diet composition of two family groups of alpine marmots was investigated in two areas of the Agordino’s Dolomites (Italian Alps in June-September 2001, by means of microscopic analysis of faeces and of direct observation of feeding activity. During the whole period of activity, a high consume of Angiosperms was confirmed, especially plants in flower; among them the “graminoids” seemed to play an important role only during the initial part of the active period. Generally vegetative parts predominated over flowers. The ingestion of animal preys was not confirmed by the analysis of droppings. Comparing diet composition of the two groups, Graminaceae (<em>Poa>, <em>Phleum>, Compositae (<em>Achillea>, Cyperaceae/Juncaceae, Leguminosae (<em>Anthyllis>, Rosaceae, and Labiatae (<em>Prunella>, <em>Stachys> formed the bulk of marmot diet in the study areas. Diet showed low diversity considering the abundance of plant species in the surrounding environment. Food resources were probably used in relation to their easy digestibility, with a high content in proteins, sugar and water. The knowledge of vegetation features in relation to marmot trophic habits can represent a useful tool for the management of this species. Riassunto Il regime alimentare di due gruppi di Marmotta alpina è stato studiato in giugno-settembre 2001 in due aree delle Dolomiti agordine (SE Italia, attraverso l’analisi microscopica delle feci e l’osservazione diretta dell’attività alimentare. Durante tutto il periodo di attività si è notato un forte consumo di Angiosperme, specialmente piante a fiore, mentre le ”graminoidi” sembra giochino un ruolo importante all’inizio della stagione. In generale le parti vegetali predominano sui fiori. L’ingestione di prede animali non è stata

  19. Do Surrealismo em David Lynch

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    Mirian Tavares

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O surrealismo, como a arte do seu tempo, propõe uma nova estética, capaz de extrair o belo do absurdo e de instaurar o desvio para que daí surja, de fato, o real. Através da análise de algumas obras de David Lynch e dos livros Les champs magnétiques de Breton e Philippe Soupault e Poisson soluble, de Breton, irei mostrar a pertinência da designação surrealista para a obra do cineasta norte-americano. Lynch, como os surrealistas, constrói uma operação dialética entre o racional/irracional. Ao mesmo tempo em que opera no campo artístico em direção à irracionalidade absoluta, Lynch não nega a sua inserção na sociedade. Acredito que o realizador, como os surrealistas, tenha conseguido encontrar um equilíbrio entre as duas formas de se estar no mundo, racional/irracional, jogando com suas antíteses. O prazer do jogo surrealista consiste em ir até as profundezas do inconsciente e retornar com matéria suficiente para fazer uma obra de arte.Surrealism, as the art of its time, proposes a new aesthetics, one that is able to extract the beautiful from the absurd and to establish the swerve from the standard, from which, in fact, the real comes through. Through the analysis of some works by David Lynch, of Breton and Soupault's Les champs magnétiques, and of Breton's Poisson soluble, I will attempt to show the relevance of the surrealist designation for the work of the American filmmaker. Lynch, like the surrealists, builds a dialectic operation between the rational and the irrational. While operating in the artistic field towards absolute irrationality, Lynch does not deny its role in society. It is my belief that the director, as the surrealists, has managed to find a balance between the two ways of being in the world: rational and irrational; by playing with their antitheses. The pleasure of the surrealist game is to go to the depths of the unconscious and return with sufficient material to make a work of art out of it.

  20. <em>luxS> Mutant Regulation: Quorum Sensing Impairment or Methylation Disorder?

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    Zhengwei Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AI-2–mediated quorum sensing has been identified in various bacteria, including both Gram-negative and Gram-positive species, and numerous phenotypes have been reported to be regulated by this mechanism, using the <em>luxS>-mutant strain. But the AI-2 production process confused this regulatory function; some considered this regulation as the result of a metabolic change, which refers to an important metabolic cycle named activated methyl cycle (AMC, caused by<em> luxSem>-mutant simultaneously with the defect of AI-2. Herein we hypothesized that the quorum sensing system—not the metabolic aspect—is responsible for such a regulatory function. In this study, we constructed plasmids infused with<em> sahHem> and induced protein expression in the <em>luxS>-mutant strain to make the quorum-sensing system and metabolic system independent. The biofilm-related genes were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and the results demonstrated that the quorum-sensing completed strain restored the gene expression of the defective strain, but the metabolically completed one did not. This evidence supported our hypothesis that the autoinducer-2-mediated, quorum-sensing system, not the AMC, was responsible for <em>luxS> mutant regulation.

  1. <em>Emaravirus>: A Novel Genus of Multipartite, Negative Strand RNA Plant Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Mühlbach

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ringspot symptoms in European mountain ash (<em>Sorbus aucupariaem> L., fig mosaic, rose rosette, raspberry leaf blotch, pigeonpea sterility mosaic (<em>Cajanus cajanem> and High Plains disease of maize and wheat were found to be associated with viruses that share several characteristics. They all have single-stranded multipartite RNA genomes of negative orientation. In some cases, double membrane-bound virus-like particles of 80 to 200 nm in diameter were found in infected tissue. Furthermore, at least five of these viruses were shown to be vectored by eriophyid mites. Sequences of <em>European mountain ash ringspot-associated virusem> (EMARaV, <em>Fig mosaic virusem> (FMV, rose rosette virus (RRV, raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV, pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus and High Plains virus strongly support their potential phylogenetic relationship. Therefore, after characterization of EMARaV, the novel genus <em>Emaravirus> was established, and FMV was the second virus species assigned to this genus. The recently sequenced RRV and RLBV are supposed to be additional members of this new group of plant RNA viruses.

  2. Registro periodontal simplificado em gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda L. Rosell

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar através do PSR (Registro Periodontal Simplificado a prevalência, severidade e necessidades básicas de tratamento da doença periodontal em gestantes que freqüentaram a Clínica de Prevenção da Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara ­ UNESP. MÉTODOS: Foram examinadas 41 gestantes com idades que variaram de 16 a 37 anos. O PSR foi aplicado com auxílio de uma sonda especialmente recomendada para este exame (sonda Trinity - tipo 621 OMS, indicando os códigos 0 a 4 cujos critérios identificam de saúde gengival, sangramento, cálculo, bolsa periodontal rasa e profunda. Estes foram atribuídos a cada sextante, podendo ou não estarem associados a um asterisco (* diante da presença de recessão gengival, invasão de furca, mobilidade ou alterações muco-gengivais. RESULTADOS: Demonstraram que 100% das gestantes apresentaram alguma alteração gengival, sendo os códigos 2 (56,1% e o * (19,5% os mais prevalentes. Os grupos etários de 15-19 e 20-24 anos, apresentaram o código 2 como maior escore e ausência de sextante excluído (X. A partir do grupo de 25-29 anos, além da maior prevalência ainda ser do código 2 (54,5%, ocorreram os códigos 3 e 4 (bolsa periodontal. Os códigos * e sextante excluído (X tenderam a aumentar com a idade no grupo de 30-37 anos. De modo geral, os códigos 1 e 2, prevaleceram em relação ao percentual de sextantes afetados, correspondendo a 41,6% e 39,8%, respectivamente e afetando 2,49 e 2,39 sextantes, em média, por gestante. Em relação às necessidades de tratamento, 90,2% das gestantes necessitaram tratamentos adicionais aos preventivos, ou seja, 61,0% das gestantes necessitaram de raspagem e alisamento radicular e/ou eliminar margens de restaurações defeituosas e 29,2% de tratamento complexo. CONCLUSÃO: O atendimento às necessidades de tratamento na gravidez deve receber especial atenção com o intuito de se promover saúde bucal e motivação, e conseqüentemente, contribuir

  3. Registro periodontal simplificado em gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosell Fernanda L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar através do PSR (Registro Periodontal Simplificado a prevalência, severidade e necessidades básicas de tratamento da doença periodontal em gestantes que freqüentaram a Clínica de Prevenção da Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara ­ UNESP. MÉTODOS: Foram examinadas 41 gestantes com idades que variaram de 16 a 37 anos. O PSR foi aplicado com auxílio de uma sonda especialmente recomendada para este exame (sonda Trinity - tipo 621 OMS, indicando os códigos 0 a 4 cujos critérios identificam de saúde gengival, sangramento, cálculo, bolsa periodontal rasa e profunda. Estes foram atribuídos a cada sextante, podendo ou não estarem associados a um asterisco (* diante da presença de recessão gengival, invasão de furca, mobilidade ou alterações muco-gengivais. RESULTADOS: Demonstraram que 100% das gestantes apresentaram alguma alteração gengival, sendo os códigos 2 (56,1% e o * (19,5% os mais prevalentes. Os grupos etários de 15-19 e 20-24 anos, apresentaram o código 2 como maior escore e ausência de sextante excluído (X. A partir do grupo de 25-29 anos, além da maior prevalência ainda ser do código 2 (54,5%, ocorreram os códigos 3 e 4 (bolsa periodontal. Os códigos * e sextante excluído (X tenderam a aumentar com a idade no grupo de 30-37 anos. De modo geral, os códigos 1 e 2, prevaleceram em relação ao percentual de sextantes afetados, correspondendo a 41,6% e 39,8%, respectivamente e afetando 2,49 e 2,39 sextantes, em média, por gestante. Em relação às necessidades de tratamento, 90,2% das gestantes necessitaram tratamentos adicionais aos preventivos, ou seja, 61,0% das gestantes necessitaram de raspagem e alisamento radicular e/ou eliminar margens de restaurações defeituosas e 29,2% de tratamento complexo. CONCLUSÃO: O atendimento às necessidades de tratamento na gravidez deve receber especial atenção com o intuito de se promover saúde bucal e motivação, e conseqüentemente, contribuir

  4. Soybean breeding with EMS mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Aiqiu; Geng Yuxuan; Zhu Baogo

    1990-01-01

    Full text: 'Yudou No. 2' is a good soybean variety grown in the Honan Province. EMS was applied to seeds and valuable mutants were selected among the descendants. In a short period, several genetically stable strains were obtained. In the M 2 population, the early-maturing mutants were the most frequent, followed by short culm mutants. Other mutations altered leaf shape, grain size, habit of pod bearing, number of pods etc. One of the best strains is '86-180'. It is highly disease-resistant and ripens 19 days earlier than the original 'Yodou No. 2'. It bears more pods, although the seeds are a little bit smaller and is highly productive (4110kg/ha). Another good strain is '86-223'. It is also disease-resistant and highly productive (3390kg/ha). (author)

  5. Novas perspectivas em vacinas virais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schatzmayr Hermann G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com base nas pesquisas moleculares sobre o genoma e proteínas, novas vacinas virais deverão ser utilizadas de forma rotineira nas próximas décadas. Por outro lado, espera-se que cada vez mais sejam associados diferentes antígenos imunizantes em uma mesma dose, visando a reduzir o número de aplicações de vacinas nas populações a serem imunizadas. Pela importância de sua estrutura científica e tecnológica, o Brasil deve aumentar a participação nos processos de desenvolvimento de novas vacinas e na avaliação de sua eficácia, envolvendo maior número de pesquisadores e tecnologistas, com o incremento de investimento nessas atividades.

  6. Mastites em ruminantes no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Atzel Candido; Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza da; Medeiros, Elizabeth Sampaio; Pinheiro-Júnior, José Wilton; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: A mastite é uma doença complexa e considerada uma das principais causas de perdas à indústria leiteira mundial. Objetivou-se com esta revisão compilar informações dos últimos dez anos sobre a mastite em ruminantes no Brasil. A prevalência da mastite subclínica chega a 48,64% na espécie bovina, 30,7% na espécie caprina, 31,45% na espécie ovina e 42,2% na espécie bubalina, destacando-se a etiologia por Staphylococcus spp. Os fatores de risco associados à ocorrência de mastite estão rela...

  7. Qualidade de Vida em Cardiologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Roseli Winkelmann

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A busca de qualidade de vida vem assumindo um papel importante dentro da área da saúde e é uma das metas dentro da cardiologia preventiva e terapêutica. Este artigo teve como propósito realizar uma revisão da literatura na qualidade de vida em cardiologia, enfocando as principais concepções, métodos de mensuração e mudanças clínicas significativas. Observa-se a neces-sidade de mais pesquisas dentro desta área através de mensurações cuidadosamente selecionadas, sendo de grande relevância para o paciente e para o profissional responsável pela saúde do mesmo.

  8. Echolocation calls and morphology in the Mehelyi’s (<em>Rhinolophus mehelyiem> and mediterranean (<em>R. euryaleem> horseshoe bats: implications for resource partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egoitz Salsamendi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract <em>Rhinolophus euryaleem> and <em>R. mehelyiem> are morphologically very similar species and their distributions overlap extensively in the Mediterranean basin. We modelled their foraging behaviour using echolocation calls and wing morphology and, assuming niche segregation occurs between the two species, we explored how it is shaped by these factors. Resting frequency of echolocation calls was recorded and weight, forearm length, wing loading, aspect ratio and wing tip shape index were measured. <em>R. mehelyiem> showed a significantly higher resting frequency than <em>R. euryaleem>, but differences are deemed insufficient for dietary niche segregation. Weight and forearm length were significantly larger in <em>R. mehelyiem>. The higher values of aspect ratio and wing loading and a lower value of wing tip shape index in <em>R. melehyiem> restrict its flight manoeuvrability and agility. Therefore, the flight ability of <em>R. mehelyiem> may decrease as habitat complexity increases. Thus, the principal mechanism for resource partitioning seems to be based on differing habitat use arising from differences in wing morphology. Riassunto Ecolocalizzazione e morfologia nei rinolofi di Mehely (<em>Rhinolophus mehelyiem> e euriale (<em>R. euryaleem>: implicazioni nella segregazione delle risorse trofiche. <em>Rhinolophus euryaleem> e <em>R. mehelyiem> sono specie morfologicamente molto simili, la cui distribuzione risulta largamente coincidente in area mediterranea. Il comportamento di foraggiamento delle due specie è stato analizzato in funzione delle caratteristiche dei segnali di ecolocalizzazione e della morfologia alare, ed è stata valutata l’incidenza di questi fattori nell’ipotesi di una segregazione delle nicchie. È stata rilevata la frequenza a riposo dei segnali ultrasonori, così come il peso, la lunghezza dell’avambraccio, il carico alare, e due

  9. decidual em itaara, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Luiz Munari Vogel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado na fazenda da Brigada Militar no município de Itaara, RS, Brasil, e teve como principal objetivo avaliar a devolução de serapilheira em uma Floresta Estacional Decidual. Para a coleta de serapilheira, foram demarcadas seis parcelas de 25 m x 17 m cada, alocadas no interior da floresta. Em cada parcela, foram distribuídos cinco coletores, totalizando 30 coletores, constituídos por uma moldura de ferro de forma circular, com 50 cm de diâmetro. As coletas de serapilheira foram realizadas mensalmente, durante um período de 2 anos. No laboratório, o material foi separado nas frações folhas, galhos finos (< 1 cm e miscelânea (flores, frutos, sementes e restos vegetais não-identificáveis. Nos dois anos de coleta, houve grande devolução de serapilheira no início do inverno e principalmente na primavera, aumentando nos meses de setembro e novembro, no primeiro ano. No segundo ano, apesar da menor devolução mensal, essa tendência manteve-se mais ou menos constante, indicando um padrão sazonal nessa floresta. A devolução média anual de serapilheira foi de 7436,0 kg ha-1, com uma distribuição relativa de 71,7% de folhas, 16,5% de galhos finos e 11,8% de miscelânea. Não foi verificada uma correlação significativa entre as variáveis climáticas precipitação e temperatura e a devolução de serapilheira.

  10. PODER DA VOZ EM MEDEIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tércia Montenegro Lemos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se debruça sobre a peça teatral Medeia, de Eurípides, vista em diálogo com algumas de suas retextualizações forjadas ao longo dos tempos, incluindo-se em nosso corpus de análise a obra Medée, do dramaturgo francês Jean Anouilh, e Gota d’água, peça brasileira criada por Chico Buarque e Paulo Pontes. Partindo do trabalho de Romilly (1975, buscamos demonstrar como tragédia e retórica são interdependentes na composição das citadas obras, sobretudo pela carga dramática das falas das personagens. Para tanto, estabelecemos um diálogo entre a retórica antiga e o moderno conceito de etos, tal como a Análise do discurso de linha francesa o entende. A categoria do etos contribui de modo importante para estabelecer fronteiras entre as variantes literárias do mito e possibilita reflexões sobre os procedimentos de intertextualidade adotados. Após as análises, observamos como o investimento da enunciação se expõe através do poder da voz nas versões de Medeia, criando um poderoso efeito psicológico para compor o perfil da protagonista.Palavras-chave: Tragédia; Retórica; Análise do discurso.

  11. Poder da voz em MEDEIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tércia Montenegro Lemos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se debruça sobre a peça teatral Medeia, de Eurípides, vista em diálogo com algumas de suas retextualizações forjadas ao longo dos tempos, incluindo-se em nosso corpus de análise a obra Medée, do dramaturgo francês Jean Anouilh, e Gota d’água, peça brasileira criada por Chico Buarque e Paulo Pontes. Partindo do trabalho de Romilly (1975, buscamos demonstrar como tragédia e retórica são interdependentes na composição das citadas obras, sobretudo pela carga dramática das falas das personagens. Para tanto, estabelecemos um diálogo entre a retórica antiga e o moderno conceito de etos, tal como a Análise do discurso de linha francesa o entende. A categoria do etos contribui de modo importante para estabelecer fronteiras entre as variantes literárias do mito e possibilita reflexões sobre os procedimentos de intertextualidade adotados. Após as análises, observamos como o investimento da enunciação se expõe através do poder da voz nas versões de Medeia, criando um poderoso efeito psicológico para compor o perfil da protagonista.Palavras-chave: Tragédia; Retórica; Análise do discurso.

  12. Training for Defense? From Stochastic Traits to Synchrony in Giant Honey Bees (<em>Apis dorsataem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Kastberger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Giant Honey Bees, abdomen flipping happens in a variety of contexts. It can be either synchronous or cascaded, such as in the collective defense traits of shimmering and rearing-up, or it can happen as single-agent behavior. Abdomen flipping is also involved in flickering behavior, which occurs regularly under quiescent colony state displaying singular or collective traits, with stochastic, and (semi- synchronized properties. It presumably acts via visual, mechanoceptive, and pheromonal pathways and its goals are still unknown. This study questions whether flickering is preliminary to shimmering which is subject of the <em>fs em>(flickering-shimmering-transition> hypothesis? We tested the respective prediction that trigger sites (<em>ts> at the nest surface (where shimmering waves had been generated show higher flickering activity than the alternative non-trigger sites (<em>nts>. We measured the flickering activity of <em>ts>- and <em>nts>-surface bees from two experimental nests, before and after the colony had been aroused by a dummy wasp. Arousal increased rate and intensity of the flickering activity of both <em>ts>- and <em>nts> cohorts (P < 0.05, whereby the flickering intensity of <em>ts>-bees were higher than that of <em>nts>-bees (P < 0.05. Under arousal, the colonies also increased the number of flickering-active <em>ts>- and <em>nts>-cohorts (P < 0.05. This provides evidence that cohorts which are specialist at launching shimmering waves are found across the quiescent nest zone. It also proves that arousal may reinforce the responsiveness of quiescent curtain bees for participating in shimmering, practically by recruiting additional trigger site bees for expanding repetition of rate and intensity of shimmering waves. This finding confirms the <em>fs-transition> hypothesis and constitutes evidence that flickering is part of a basal colony-intrinsic information system

  13. Cytotoxicity and Glycan-Binding Properties of an 18 kDa Lectin Isolated from the Marine Sponge <em>Halichondria em>okadai>

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    Yasuhiro Ozeki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A divalent cation-independent lectin—HOL-18, with cytotoxic activity against leukemia cells, was purified from a demosponge, <em>Halichondria okadaiem>. HOL-18 is a 72 kDa tetrameric lectin that consists of four non-covalently bonded 18 kDa subunits. Hemagglutination activity of the lectin was strongly inhibited by chitotriose (GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAc, fetuin and mucins from porcine stomach and bovine submaxillary gland. Lectin activity was stable at pH 4–12 and temperatures lower than 60 °C. Frontal affinity chromatography with 16 types of pyridylaminated oligosaccharides indicated that the lectin had an affinity for <em>N>-linked complex-type and sphingolipid-type oligosaccharides with <em>N>-acetylated hexosamines and neuramic acid at the non-reducing termini. The lectin killed Jurkat leukemia T cells and K562 erythroleukemia cells in a dose- and carbohydrate-dependent manner.

  14. Qualidade do ar em ambientes internos hospitalares

    OpenAIRE

    Quadros, Marina Eller

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Ambiental. A qualidade de vida das pessoas é grandemente influenciada pela qualidade do ar que respiram. Em centros urbanos, mais de 80% do tempo é passado em ambientes internos. No caso específico de unidades de saúde, a qualidade do ar pode exercer influência direta no tempo de recuperação dos pacientes e na ocorrência de infecções hospitalares. O objetivo deste tr...

  15. O Trabalho Plurativo em Presidente Prudente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Mauro Guirro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, vêm ocorrendo mudanças no campo brasileiro, principalmente nas  propriedades localizadas próximas a malha urbana da cidade. Esse processo se verifica com mais intensidade em cidades como Campinas, Sorocaba, Jundiaí entre outras cidades próximas aos grandes centros urbanos. Em Presidente Prudente, esse processo dá sinais de existência em resposta à crise pela qual vem passando, sobretudo a pequena agricultura. Está-se diante da intensificação das mudanças de funções do trabalho inserido na lavra agrária.

  16. ESPECIFICANDO FORMALMENTE TOPOLOGIAS PARA REDES EM CHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Eliselma Vieira dos; Ramos, Karla Darlene Nepomuceno

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo trata da utilização de métodos formais na especificação de topologias para redes em chip. As redes em chip apresentam similaridades com as redes tradicionais, entretanto, por estarem inseridas em sistemas embarcados apresentam características mais restritivas do ponto de vista de espaço, consumo de energia e latência. A topologia descreve o fluxo de dados através da rede e a estrutura física de como os dispositivos estão conectados, bem como, pode determinar o grau de escalabilid...

  17. Supercondutividade em materiais a base de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Borges Merlo

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: Evidências experimentais e teóricas recentes de que a supercondutividade nas várias formas alotrópicas do carbono pode ocorrer em temperaturas próximas ou até acima da temperatura ambiente, desencadearam um grande interesse científico. Resultados do presente trabalho demonstraram a ocorrência de supercondutividade em compósitos de carbono vítreo-enxofre (CV-S) a T = 3 K. Nossas medidas revelaram que a supercondutividade ocorre em uma pequena fração da amostra, e que a grafitização do ...

  18. Caracteristicas das leucemias agudas em Teresina

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Fortes Napoleão do Rego

    2002-01-01

    Resumo: Variações na distribuição da idade, sexo e tipos FAB têm sido descrita em vários países. Neste trabalho avaliaram-se as características clínicas e resposta ao tratamento da LMA e LLA de Teresina entre 1989 e 2000 e comparamos esses resultados com outros descritos no Brasil e em outros países. Dados clínicos e laboratoriais de 345 pacientes (230 com LLA e 115 com LMA) foram revisados. LMA ocorreu predominantemente em adultos (77%). A mediana de idade foi de 34 anos, semelhante ao que s...

  19. Ondas de spin em redes decoradas

    OpenAIRE

    WanÃssa FaÃanha da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Sistema de baixa dimensionalidade tÃm atraÃdo uma grande atenÃÃo ultimamente devido a sistemas como grafeno e nanotubos de carbono. Tais sistemas tÃm grandes possibilidades de aplicaÃÃes tecnolÃgicas, em particular na criaÃÃo de dispositivos eletrÃnicos, devido Ãs suas propriedades eletrÃnicas especÃficas. Nesse sentido, o estudos de outros sistemas em baixa dimensÃo se torna urgente. Mais especificamente, o estudo de propriedades magnÃticas de materiais de materiais em baixa dimensionalidade...

  20. Religiosidade em alunos e professores portugueses

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Ana Maria Mendes dos Santos Veríssimo

    2005-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências da Educação na especialidade de Educação Intercultural apresentada à Universidade Aberta Esta tese pretende analisar a religiosidade em alunos e professores, sendo a religiosidade entendida como o grau de ligação ou aceitação que cada indivíduo tem face à instituição religiosa (Alston, 1875) e à forma como põe em prática as crenças e os rituais (Shafranske e Malony, 1990). Para medir a religiosidade foram utilizados diversos instrumentos – a escala de Atitu...

  1. Candomblé - discurso em transe

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Moraes

    2012-01-01

    Utilizando como objeto de análise o discurso, numa perspectiva baseada em Foucault, Bakhtin, Fairclough e outros, este estudo busca entender como o transe se contstitui ritualmente e como a sua produção é formadora da vivencia religiosa no candomblé e também formadora do que as pessoas entendem como candomblé e do que o candomblé é em si mesmo. Questionando a leigos sobre o que mais se espera ver em um terreiro de candomblé, a resposta quase unanime é "a possessão". Como mais de uma re...

  2. Mastite em pequenos ruminantes no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto,Rodolfo de M.; Mota,Rinaldo Aparecido; Costa,Mateus M. da

    2010-01-01

    Este artigo objetivou revisar as informações recentes sobre mastite em pequenos ruminantes, abrangendo etiologia, epidemiologia, aspectos de controle e profilaxia. Houve a preocupação em reunir resultados de estudos desenvolvidos no Brasil, uma vez que a mastite tem a interferência de uma série de fatores, como fatores ambientais e outros decorrentes dos sistemas de manejo empregados, condições essas determinantes para etiologia e epidemiologia da enfermidade. A prevalência da mastite em capr...

  3. ANION GAP NO SANGUE VENOSO EM EQUINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Ribeiro Fan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A influência do sangue venoso na determinação do anion gap foi estudada em 50 equinos adultos clinicamente sadios no município de Santa Maria, RS. Os resultados obtidos em mEq/1 foram: sódio 140 ± 2,0; potássio 4,2 ± 0,5; cloreto 102 ± 12 e bicarbonato 26,9 ± 2,0. Conclui-se que o sangue venoso pode substituir o arterial na determinação do anion gap em equinos.

  4. 7 CFR 1945.35 - Special EM loan training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., District and County employees, provided there has not been a recent training meeting in that State. (b... County personnel properly trained in the current methods of processing EM loan applications and EM loan... employees in administering the EM loan program. (d) Comprehensive EM loan training package. A comprehensive...

  5. Metabolic Profiling of <em>Lactococcus lactisem> Under Different Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normah Mohd Noor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS and headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS were used to study metabolites produced by <em>Lactococcus lactisem> subsp. <em>cremoris> MG1363 grown at a temperature of 30 °C with and without agitation at 150 rpm, and at 37 °C without agitation. It was observed that <em>L. lactisem> produced more organic acids under agitation. Primary alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and polyols were identified as the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS derivatives, whereas amino acids and organic acids, including fatty acids, were detected through methyl chloroformate derivatization. HS analysis indicated that branched-chain methyl aldehydes, including 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 2-methylpropanal are degdradation products of isoleucine, leucine or valine. Multivariate analysis (MVA using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA revealed the major differences between treatments were due to changes of amino acids and fermentation products.

  6. Feeding habits of the genet <em>Genetta genettaem> in an Iberian continental wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Sánchez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study quantified the diet of the genet <em>Genetta genettaem> in an Iberian continental wetland, the Galachos Nature Reserve, northern Spain, based on the frequency with which items appeared in five monthly-surveyed latrines during 2004-2005. Prey types were identified <em>de visuem> using identification keys and expert advice. the genet was confirmed as an opportunistic and generalist predator, its diet including mammals (95.0%, plants (68.3% and arthropods (60.0% as main prey. With the exception of a newly available prey species, the alien crayfish <em>Procambarus clarkiiem>, the genet probably consumed arthropods because of chance encounters rather than active search. The consumption of fruits and small mammals varied seasonally. Riassunto Alimentazione della genetta <em>Genetta genettaem> in un'area umida continentale della penisola iberica La dieta della genetta è stata investigata in un'area umida interna della Spagna settentrionale, la riserva Naturale dei Galachos. La frequenza di ciascuna categoria alimentare è stata espressa come numero di occorrenze mansili in cinque latrine monitorate per il periodo 2004-2005. Le categorie sono state identificate <em>de visuem> tramite chiavi per il riconoscimento o l'intervento di singoli esperti. I risultati confermano il comportamento alimentare generalista e opportunista della genetta. La dieta ha incluso principalmente mammiferi (95%, vegetali (68.3% e artropodi (60%. Questi ultimi, con l'eccezione del gambero <em>Procambarus clarkiiem>, introdotto e di recente presenza, sono probabilmente utilizzati in modo opportunistico, piuttosto che in seguito a ricerca attiva. L'uso dei frutti e dei micromammiferi varia stagionalmente.

  7. Comparação de custos entre os processos construtivos em concreto armado e em alvenaria estrutural em blocos cerâmico e de concreto

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Alisson Hoffmann da

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Civil. Questiona-se a viabilidade econômica do processo construtivo em alvenaria estrutural em relação ao processo construtivo em concreto armado. Entre as obras em alvenaria estrutural, a indagação ocorre sobre qual tipo de unidade, de cerâmica ou de concreto, produz resultados mais efetivos em termos de custos. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de comparar o custo de ...

  8. A Favela posta em Cena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Valdoski Ribeiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Em uma realidade de urbanização calcada no aprofundamento dos processos de expropriação e espoliações se consolida o fenômeno da produção de uma morfologia intitulada Favela, que continua a representar um desafio teórico e prático para pesquisadores. Este desafio é enfrentado de várias formas sendo uma delas desenhada no âmbito de duas publicações do Observatório das Favelas (Rio de Janeiro assentadas na busca conceitual do termo favela e objetivando a efetivação de políticas públicas. Esta meta remonta a trajetória deste Observatório que criado em 2001 pensa a inserção da Favela no âmbito das políticas de Estado. A primeira publicação intitulada “Favela: alegria e dor na cidade” (2005 se compõem de quatro capítulos que expõem um movimento da história de formação das favelas na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, as formas de intervenção do Estado, a prática cotidiana dos moradores como manifestação das transgressões diante as opressões e finaliza com as propostas de caminhos possíveis de superação das desigualdades e ampliação da democracia. O argumento central dos autores se direciona para o questionamento das visões de homogeneidade, ausência, carência e apartamento das favelas diante da cidade apontando a urgência de construção de um projeto de cidade democrático e fraterno.Ao longo do texto os autores vão descrevendo os exemplos destas visões e analisa o resultado delas por meio de como a população residente vive, pois são ora invisíveis, ora criminalizados, ora caracterizados enquanto um problema social estabelecendo, portanto, uma lógica autoritária que legitimará no decorrer da história das favelas, as intervenções estatais. Este movimento molda uma linha argumentativa que tenta explicitar o negativo diante a produção possível para o “morar’, que calcado na impossibilidade do acesso à terra pelo imperativo da propriedade privada empurra grandes contingentes populacionais

  9. Complete BWR--EM LOCA analysis using the WRAP--EM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmeyer, R.R.; Gregory, M.V.; Buckner, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    The Water Reactor Analysis Package, Evaluation Model (WRAP--EM), provides a complete analysis of postulated loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA's) in light--water nuclear power reactors. The system is being developed at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for use by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to interpret and evaluate reactor vendor, evaluation model (EM) analyses. The initial version of the WRAP--EM system for analysis of boiling water reactors (BWR's) is operational. To demonstrate the complete capability of the WRAP--BWR--EM system, a LOCA analysis has been performed for the Hope Creek Plant

  10. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas em lactação em diferentes sistemas forrageiros

    OpenAIRE

    Olivo,Clair Jorge; Ziech,Magnos Fernando; Meinerz,Gilmar Roberto; Both,José Francisco; Agnolin,Carlos Alberto; Vendrame,Tiago

    2008-01-01

    Estudou-se o comportamento alimentar de vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação mantidas em pastagem de misturas de espécies de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) e outras de crescimento espontâneo. Como diferencial destas pastagens, introduziu-se trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L.) ou amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krapov. & Greg.). Nos meses de julho, agosto e outubro de 2005, foram feitas avaliações em pastejo utilizando-se em cada uma seis v...

  11. Two New Aryltetralin Lignans from the Roots of <em>Dolomiaea soulieiem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new aryltetralin-type lignans, dolomiaeasin A (1 and dolomiaeasin B (2, were isolated from the roots of <em>Dolomiaea soulieiem>. Their structures were elucidated by means of various spectroscopic analyses. The cytotoxicities of 1 and 2 were tested by the MTT method, and both compounds showed no significant cytotoxic activities against the A549 and A2780 human cancer cell lines. This is the first time that aryltetralin-type lignans were isolated from the genus <em>Dolomiaea>.

  12. Synthesis and Sensory Evaluation of <em>ent>-Kaurane Diterpene Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sai Prakash Chaturvedula

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenation of the three <em>ent>-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from <em>Stevia rebaudianaem>, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH2 and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and chemical studies. Also, we report herewith the sensory evaluation of all the reduced compounds against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose for the sweetness property of these molecules.

  13. Probióticos em avicultura

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    Gil de los Santos João Rodrigo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante os últimos anos, o incremento de toxinfecções alimentares em humanos pela ingestão de produtos avícolas contaminados com bactérias, sugeriu que produtos oriundos de aves portadoras dessas bactérias podem veiculá-las ao consumidor, provocando doenças entéricas em humanos. Essas observações e a restrição, por parte do mercado consumidor, ao uso de antimicrobianos na produção animal, aumentaram o interesse mundial pelos probióticos e, conseqüentemente, o número de pesquisas realizadas. Esta revisão mostra os avanços e a situação em que se encontram os probióticos em relação à indústria avícola.

  14. More on EM for ML Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Donald B.; Thayer, Dorothy T.

    1983-01-01

    The authors respond to a criticism of their earlier article concerning the use of the EM algorithm in maximum likelihood factor analysis. Also included are the comments made by the reviewers of this article. (JKS)

  15. Qualidade de vida em saúde

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Zilda

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo avaliar uma provável contribuição da terapia floral, como prática complementar em saúde, na promoção de uma melhor qualidade de vida em pacientes com doenças crônicas. Como modelo metodológico foi escolhido o estudo de casos retrospectivo com abordagem qualitativa, baseado em registros de prontuários clínicos....

  16. Osteocondromatose em gato: relato de caso

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    S. Winter

    Full Text Available RESUMO A osteocondromatose é caracterizada por nódulos únicos ou múltiplos decorrentes de um crescimento ósseo excessivo benigno. É encontrada em cães, gatos, equinos e humanos. Em felinos, tem maior incidência dos dois aos quatro anos de idade. A etiologia em gatos está relacionada ao vírus da leucemia felina, e também já foi encontrada relação com o fibrossarcoma. A manifestação clínica depende do local acometido e do tamanho da lesão. O diagnóstico definitivo é por meio de histopatologia e o prognóstico é desfavorável, pois ocorrem muitas recidivas. Este relato de caso objetiva descrever a apresentação dessa enfermidade em um felino jovem.

  17. Metadiscurso em entrevista televisiva: um enfoque interacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Cândida Abreu Spinardi Jubran

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo destaca a presença, em entrevista televisiva, de uma modalidade de procedimento metadiscursivo: a menção a atividades linguageiras prototípicas desse evento comunicativo. Fundamentando-se em uma concepção pragmática de linguagem como ação verbal entre os participantes envolvidos em um ato comunicativo, centra-se em uma perspectiva interacional, com base na qual a referência às atividades linguageiras processadas durante a entrevista será vista como recurso indiciador das relações interpessoais estabelecidas entre entrevistador eentrevistado. Será focalizada especificamente a incidência do estatuto sócio-institucional dos entrevistados no processo interativo desencadeado ao longo da entrevista.

  18. Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF Antagonistic Activity of a New Biflavonoid from <em>Garcinia nervosaem> var. <em>pubescens> King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azura Abdul Ghani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the leaves of <em>Garcinia nervosaem> var. <em>pubescens> King, which showed strong inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF receptor binding, was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation to obtain a new biflavonoid, II-3,I-5, II-5,II-7,I-4',II-4'-hexahydroxy-(I-3,II-8-flavonylflavanonol together with two known flavonoids, 6-methyl-4'-methoxyflavone and acacetin. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit PAF receptor binding to rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. The biflavonoid and acacetin showed strong inhibition with IC50 values of 28.0 and 20.4 µM, respectively. The results suggest that these compounds could be responsible for the strong PAF antagonistic activity of the plant.

  19. O sevofluorano em cadelas gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsubara Lídia Mitsuko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Com este experimento, objetivou-se avaliar como a anestesia geral inalatória, com o sevofluorano, interfere nos parâmetros fisiológicos de cadelas gestantes. Nove cadelas sem raça definida, adultas, com idade média de três anos, foram submetidas ao mesmo procedimento anestésico em dois períodos distintos, sendo o primeiro na condição não gestante e o segundo aos 45 dias de gestação. Todas receberam acepromazina (0,05mg kg-1 pela via intravenosa como medicação pré-anestésica, propofol (5mg kg-1 pela mesma via e sevofluorano diluído em oxigênio. As variáveis estudadas foram freqüência cardíaca e respiratória, pressão arterial sistólica, média e diastólica, temperatura retal, pressão parcial de CO2 ao final da expiração, saturação de oxigênio nas hemoglobinas, pH sangüíneo, pressão parcial arterial de oxigênio, pressão parcial arterial de CO2, bicarbonato e excesso de base. Os parâmetros foram avaliados antes da medicação pré-anestésica (M0 e 15 minutos após (M1, 15 minutos após a estabilização da anestesia inalatória (M2 e, depois, a cada 15 minutos durante 60 minutos (M3, M4, M5 e M6, com exceção das variáveis hemogasométricas que foram avaliadas em M0, M2 e M6. A análise estatística foi realizada com Análise de Variância e teste de Tukey, sendo considerado o nível de significância de 5%. A freqüência cardíaca elevou-se na paciente gestante no momento basal e 15 minutos após a medicação pré-anestésica, sendo observado ainda diminuição da pressão arterial e da temperatura retal nas gestantes. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que o protocolo anestésico não alterou as variáveis mensuradas neste experimento, podendo ser utilizado com segurança para as cadelas, se houver a necessidade de intervenção cirúrgica e/ou anestésica aos 45 dias de sua gestação.

  20. O cortiço em pauta

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, João Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Este artigo faz um cotejo de posições críticas acerca do romance O cortiço de Aluísio Azevedo, priorizando o confronto entre a leitura dialética de Antonio Candido, em seu ensaio clássico “De cortiço a cortiço”, e outras interpretações recentes da obra em questão.

  1. Isolamento de Corynebacterium aquaticum em leite bubalino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Alice da Fonseca Oliveira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se 548 quartos mamários de búfalas, realizando-se exame clínico, CMT para detecção de mastite e coleta de amostras para isolamento bacteriano. Houve crescimento em duas amostras de Corynebacterium aquaticum caracterizadas bioquimicamente. Relata-se a participação do agente como colonizador do úbere e possível causador de mastites em bubalinos.

  2. Comments on theoretical foundation of "EM Drive"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C.-W.

    2018-03-01

    The concept of EM Drive has attracted much attention and groups of work have been conducted to prove or verify it, of which the published experimental outcome is criticized in great details while the theoretical foundation has not been discussed. The present essay investigates on the theoretical derivations of the net thrust in the "EM drive" and reveals the self-contradiction arising at the very start, when the law of conservation of momentum was utilized and opposed simultaneously.

  3. Em busca do dossel sagrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Portella

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar algumas teorias de base sociológica que possam explicar o surgimento, em nossa época, de movimentos eclesiais católicos de cunho tradicional, que resgatam estilos de vida religiosa identificados com o passado, ou melhor, com características de uma igreja anterior ao Concílio Vaticano II. A tese central, ainda que como conclusão provisória, é que, num mundo fragmentado e secularizado, pessoas, especialmente jovens, buscam orientação de vida e fé em formas religiosas identificadas com o passado, pois estas ofereceriam segurança e proteção diante de uma sociedade e igreja cada vez mais secularizadas e sem um dossel sagrado determiná-las. Assim, analisamos a tendência pósmoderna de se voltar a costumes, liturgias e doutrinas mais rígidas ou conservadoras, justa e paradoxalmente no intuito de resistir à pós-modernidade ou à racionalidade moderna. Nosso estudo tem como pano de fundo o movimento da Toca de Assis e, até certo ponto, as teorias sociológicas de Peter Berger. Assim, a metodologia deste estudo é a sociológica.Palavras-chave: Igreja Católica; Jovens; Movimentos eclesiais.ABSTRACTThis article aims to present some sociological theories that can explain the present emergence of Catholic ecclesiastical movements of a “traditional” nature, which rescue religious life styles identified with the past, that is, with the Church before Vatican Council II. The central thesis, though inconclusive, is that, in a fragmented and secularized world, people, especially the young, would search for life guidance and faith in religious forms identified with the past, as they would offer security and protection in a society and in a church rendered more and more secular, and deprived of a sacred canopy to define them. Thus, it analyzes the post-modern trend to return to more rigid or conservative habits, liturgies and doctrines, precisely – and paradoxically – as a form of resistance to post

  4. Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitóide de dípteros muscóides coletado em Itumbiara, Goiás Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitoid of muscoids dipterous collected in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Marchiori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the occurrence of parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitizing pupae of flies (Diptera in different substrata in Itumbiara, Goiás. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of flies or their parasitoids. From May 1998 through April 2002, 737 parasitoids were collected in human feces, cattle liver, chicken, fish and cattle kidney. The prevalence of parasitism was 67.8%.

  5. <em>Helicobacter pyloriem> Disrupts Host Cell Membranes, Initiating a Repair Response and Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Fen Juan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Helicobacter pyloriem> (<em>H. pyloriem>, the human stomach pathogen, lives on the inner surface of the stomach and causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Plasma membrane repair response is a matter of life and death for human cells against physical and biological damage. We here test the hypothesis that <em>H. pyloriem> also causes plasma membrane disruption injury, and that not only a membrane repair response but also a cell proliferation response are thereby activated. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA have been considered to be major <em>H. pyloriem> virulence factors. Gastric cancer cells were infected with <em>H. pyloriem> wild type (vacA+/cagA+, single mutant (ΔvacA or ΔcagA or double mutant (ΔvacA/ΔcagA strains and plasma membrane disruption events and consequent activation of membrane repair components monitored. <em>H. pyloriem> disrupts the host cell plasma membrane, allowing localized dye and extracellular Ca2+ influx. Ca2+-triggered members of the annexin family, A1 and A4, translocate, in response to injury, to the plasma membrane, and cell surface expression of an exocytotic maker of repair, LAMP-2, increases. Additional forms of plasma membrane disruption, unrelated to <em>H.> pylori em>exposure, also promote host cell proliferation. We propose that <em>H. pyloriem> activation of a plasma membrane repair is pro-proliferative. This study might therefore provide new insight into potential mechanisms of <em>H. pyloriem>-induced gastric carcinogenesis.

  6. Net Energy, CO2 Emission and Land-Based Cost-Benefit Analyses of <em>Jatropha> em>Biodiesel: A Case Study of the Panzhihua Region of Sichuan Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzheng Deng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy is currently regarded as a renewable energy source with a high growth potential. Forest-based biodiesel, with the significant advantage of not competing with grain production on cultivated land, has been considered as a promising substitute for diesel fuel by many countries, including China. Consequently, extracting biodiesel from <em>Jatropha> curcasem> has become a growing industry. However, many key issues related to the development of this industry are still not fully resolved and the prospects for this industry are complicated. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the net energy, CO2 emission, and cost efficiency of <em>Jatropha> biodiesel as a substitute fuel in China to help resolve some of the key issues by studying data from this region of China that is well suited to growing <em>Jatropha>. Our results show that: (1 <em>Jatropha> biodiesel is preferable for global warming mitigation over diesel fuel in terms of the carbon sink during <em>Jatropha> tree growth. (2 The net energy yield of <em>Jatropha> biodiesel is much lower than that of fossil fuel, induced by the high energy consumption during <em>Jatropha> plantation establishment and the conversion from seed oil to diesel fuel step. Therefore, the energy efficiencies of the production of <em>Jatropha> and its conversion to biodiesel need to be improved. (3 Due to current low profit and high risk in the study area, farmers have little incentive to continue or increase <em>Jatropha> production. (4 It is necessary to provide more subsidies and preferential policies for <em>Jatropha> plantations if this industry is to grow. It is also necessary for local government to set realistic objectives and make rational plans to choose proper sites for <em>Jatropha> biodiesel development and the work reported here should assist that effort. Future research focused on breading high-yield varieties, development of efficient field

  7. Oficinas da cidade em Fortaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordeiro Andréa Carla de Filgueiras

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata do relato de uma experiência de intervenção focal com crianças na cidade de Fortaleza, na qual se procurou, através de discussões em grupo, possibilitar a construção e a re-construção das experiências destes sujeitos na cidade. Partiu-se da premissa que viver hoje na cidade contemporânea requer do sujeito orientação crítica para que ele se situe frente às demandas do viver coletivo. Três momentos de discussão foram focalizados: a reflexão sobre a experiência vivida na cidade; a imaginação sobre as possibilidades deste viver; e a discussão sobre o vivido e o desejado, visando a uma re-construção possível da cidade. As crianças mostraram capacidade de analisar criticamente sua experiência na cidade, apontando os aspectos que, do seu ponto de vista, tornam o viver na cidade particularmente difícil para elas. Mostraram, também, capacidade de indicar caminhos coletivos que suavizariam a tarefa de viver na cidade grande, principalmente quando não se é adulto, e sim criança.

  8. Self: um conceito em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Suzana Rocha de Macedo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversas definições de self coexistem nas teorias e práticas psicológicas. Essa variedade é resultante de bases epistemológicas a partir das quais se adotam estratégias diferentes para abordar e demarcar os limites do objeto em questão e descrevê-lo. Este estudo teve como objetivo oferecer uma revisão dos conceitos de self e uma reflexão sobre como esse conceito se articula nas diferentes abordagens teóricas da psicologia. Destaca-se que dilemas centrais à psicologia do desenvolvimento atravessam o conceito de self. Por essa razão, apresenta-se a tese de que, ao analisar cada definição de self, deve-se buscar responder como cada teoria colocou-se diante das dicotomias estabilidade versus transformação, específico versus universal e mundo interno versus mundo externo.

  9. Actinomicose da Mama em Gestante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mottola Jr Juvenal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A actinomicose mamária é doença inflamatória rara, com poucos casos descritos na literatura. Pode ser primária da mama quando resultante de traumas na pele e papila mamária, e, secundária, quando de origem toracopleural. Sua apresentação clínica é variável, devendo ser diferenciada das doenças mais comuns, dentre elas as mastites e também as neoplasias, como o carcinoma inflamatório. Seu diagnóstico é realizado pela cultura da secreção, com a identificação das colônias de Actinomyces sp. Seu tratamento é a drenagem, quando indicada, a antibioticoterapia endovenosa e manutenção oral por tempo prolongado. Os autores relatam caso de abscesso retromamário por Actinomyces sp. em gestante de 12 semanas que apresentava tumoração mamária expansiva na mama esquerda.

  10. A MENINA EXTRAVIADA EM PIZARNIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Lyra (USP

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available

    em 0px; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;">Neste texto, a poeta e ensaísta argentina Tamara Kamenszain reflete sobre a poesia da também argentina Alejandra Pizarnik (1936 - 1972. A presença da morte, a escrita do poema como epitáfio, o trânsito de vozes poéticas (eu – tu – ela e a questão de como a assinatura se imbrica com o tema da identidade e com a tradição judaica, são alguns dos aspectos da poética pizarnikiana trazidos à tona pela autora. Além de constituir uma bela leitura da obra dessa escritora singular, o ensaio de Kamenszain apresenta virtudes poéticas próprias.

  11. Literatura e(m hipertexto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellei, Sérgio Luiz Prado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A crescente hegemonia do modo de produção digital de textos literários a serem disponibilizados em rede torna urgente o questionamento a respeito das possíveis mudanças que ocorrem na produção de hipertextos eletrônicos a partir de textos literários. O presente ensaio desenvolve uma reflexão crítica sobre o problema a partir de uma distinção do duplo significado de tecnologia enquanto, de um lado, instrumental para a produção de objetos e, de outro, ambiente estruturante que não só produz objetos mas, principalmente, molda os sujeitos que deles fazem uso, reconstituindo no processo hábitos e procedimentos. Se levarmos a sério o conceito de tecnologia enquanto ambiente estruturante, então é bem possível que a literatura traduzida ou produzida diretamente no formato hipertextual sofra modificações profundas quando comparadas à produção literária no meio impresso

  12. Mastites em ruminantes no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atzel Candido Acosta

    Full Text Available Resumo: A mastite é uma doença complexa e considerada uma das principais causas de perdas à indústria leiteira mundial. Objetivou-se com esta revisão compilar informações dos últimos dez anos sobre a mastite em ruminantes no Brasil. A prevalência da mastite subclínica chega a 48,64% na espécie bovina, 30,7% na espécie caprina, 31,45% na espécie ovina e 42,2% na espécie bubalina, destacando-se a etiologia por Staphylococcus spp. Os fatores de risco associados à ocorrência de mastite estão relacionados a problemas no saneamento ambiental e ao manejo dos animais. As bactérias isoladas do leite mastítico apresentam maior percentual de resistência a penicilina, ampicilina, amoxicilina e neomicina e a utilização de técnicas moleculares no diagnóstico dos agentes causadores de mastites no país, ainda é escassa o que dificulta a obtenção de um diagnóstico mais rápido, sensível e específico.

  13. Dermatite multifatorial em um canino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B. Matos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatou-se um caso clínico de dermatite multifatorial em cão, envolvendo Demodex canis, Sporothrix schenckii e bactérias dos gêneros Staphylococcus e Streptococcus. O animal, macho, da raça Pit Bull, com um ano e três meses de idade, apresentou lesões úmidas, hiperêmicas, descamativas e ulcerativas nas regiões do pescoço e do tórax. Exames laboratoriais confirmaram o diagnóstico de infecção concomitante por fungo, bactéria e parasito. A terapia antimicrobiana com moxidectina, itraconazol e amoxicilina foi efetiva, com remissão dos sinais clínicos após 30 dias de tratamento. Este relato salienta a importância do diagnóstico de certeza, que foi determinante para estabelecimento da terapêutica adequada e recuperação do animal.

  14. Revivendo experiências: em foco a leitura em comunidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Edite Pereira Rezende

    Full Text Available Este artigo teve como objetivo recuperar, de forma destacada, duas experiências de trabalho de extensão na UFMG: o carro-biblioteca da ECI\\UFMG e a implantação das Bibliotecas Públicas e Biblioteca Móvel do COLTEC\\UFMG. A estas experiências somaram-se ainda as informações sobre as atividades de extensão, através de Carros-Biblioteca, realizadas no âmbito da Biblioteca Pública Estadual Luiz de Bessa e pelo SESC. Revendo estas experiências torna-se patente a importância destas ações para as comunidades, mas, revelam-se também as dificuldades/limitações para a continuidade e ampliação destes serviços que são de caráter significativo para a população. Destaca-se também que os projetos visam permitir o acesso à leitura em comunidades com carências socioculturais, mas, demostram, de forma crítica, a realidade e os desafios dos municípios de Caparaó e Alto Caparaó na administração e manutenção das bibliotecas lá instaladas. Argumenta-se ainda, como aspecto significativo, a necessidade de articulação das comunidades, de forma a reivindicarem junto aos gestores públicos o atendimento aos direitos da população.

  15. Teores proteicos em dietas para vacas Holandesas leiteiras em confinamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Paiva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de dietas com níveis de proteína bruta ‒ PB (10, 12, 14 e 16% na matéria seca ‒ MS em vacas Holandesas mestiças com produção de leite médio (PL de 13kg/dia. Utilizou-se silagem de milho como volumoso, e a relação volumoso:concentrado foi de 75:25. Houve aumento linear para o consumo de todos os componentes da dieta, exceto para o consumo de carboidratos totais e carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF, que reduziram linearmente. O consumo dos nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT apresentou comportamento quadrático, com valor máximo estimado de 10,13kg/dia, na dose de 15,62% de PB na dieta. As digestibilidades de PB, EE, FDN e FDNcp aumentaram linearmente. Já os valores de digestibilidade de MS, MO, CNF e NDT apresentaram efeito quadrático, estimando-se ponto de máximo de 65,09; 67,23; 78,35 e 67,92 nas doses de 15,39; 15,22; 15,62 e 15,68% de PB, respectivamente. A PL, sem e com correção para 3,5% de gordura, a variação de peso corporal e a composição do leite aumentaram linearmente, exceto para lactose, que não apresentou efeito. O nível de 14% de PB na dieta é o mais indicado para alimentação de vacas com produção média de 13kg/dia de leite.

  16. Enzymatic Properties and Mutational Studies of Chalcone Synthase from <em>Physcomitrella patensem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahiran Basri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Pp>CHS is a member of the type III polyketide synthase family and catalyses the synthesis of the flavonoid precursor naringenin chalcone from <em>p>-coumaroyl-CoA. Recent research reports the production of pyrone derivatives using either hexanoyl-CoA or butyryl-CoA as starter molecule. The Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad found in other plant chalcone synthase predicted polypeptides is conserved in <em>Pp>CHS. Site directed mutagenesis involving these amino acids residing in the active-site cavity revealed that the cavity volume of the active-site plays a significant role in the selection of starter molecules as well as product formation. Substitutions of Cys 170 with Arg and Ser amino acids decreased the ability of the <em>Pp>CHS to utilize hexanoyl-CoA as a starter molecule, which directly effected the production of pyrone derivatives (products. These substitutions are believed to have a restricted number of elongations of the growing polypeptide chain due to the smaller cavity volume of the mutant’s active site.

  17. Preussianone, a New Flavanone-Chromone Biflavonoid from <em>Garcinia preussiiem> Engl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Bringmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new flavanone-chromone biflavonoid, preussianone (1, has been isolated from the leaves of <em>Garcinia preussiiem>, along with four known biflavonoids. The absolute stereostructures were elucidated by chemical, spectroscopic, and chiroptical methods. The biological properties of the new biflavonoid against several bacterial strains were evaluated.

  18. Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from the Cave Sponge <em>Xestospongia em>sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridevi Ankisetty

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the cave sponge <em>Xestospongia em>sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the new metabolites was also evaluated.

  19. Refração por retinoscopia com luz em faixa em cães

    OpenAIRE

    Ranzani,J.J.T.; Mobricci,L.A.L.; Carvalho,L.R.; Brandão,C.V.S.

    2008-01-01

    A refração ocular por retinoscopia com luz em faixa em 10 cães normais, sem raça definida, demonstrou que a maioria dos animais, independentemente do porte, apresentou tendência à hipermetropia, além de anisometropia e astigmatismo.

  20. The red fox - <em>Trichinella> relationship: a review of past and recent evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Balestrieri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In central and southern Europe, the red fox <em>Vulpes vulpesem> is considered the reservoir of the parasite nematode <em>Trichinella britoviem>, whose mainly fox-to-fox transmission would involve cannibalism in mountainous areas. Reviewing available literature, we examine the main ecological features of the host-parasite relationship, pointing out those aspects which do not agree with the currently accepted epidemiological pattern and requiring further research. Riassunto Il binomio volpe –Trichinella: analisi di dati pregressi e recenti riportati in letteratura. In Europa centro-meridionale la volpe <em>Vulpes vulpesem> è considerata il principale serbatoio del nematode parassita <em>Trichinella britoviem>, la cui trasmissione da volpe a volpe sarebbe assicurata da fenomeni di cannibalismo ricorrenti in ambiente montano. Esaminando la letteratura disponibile, vengono evidenziati i principali aspetti ecologici legati alla relazione ospite-parassita che non si accordano con il modello epidemiologico corrente e che richiedono ulteriori ricerche per essere pienamente compresi.

  1. Development of New Microsatellite Markers for <em>Salvia officinalisem> L. and Its Potential Use in Conservation-Genetic Studies of Narrow Endemic <em>Salvia brachyodonem> Vandas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Liber

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine new microsatellite markers (SSR were isolated from <em>Salvia officinalisem> L. A total of 125 alleles, with 8 to 21 alleles per locus, were detected in a natural population from the east Adriatic coast. The observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.46 to 0.83, 0.73 to 0.93 and 0.70 to 0.92, respectively. New microsatellite markers, as well as previously published markers, were tested for cross-amplification in <em>Salvia brachyodon em>Vandas, a narrow endemic species known to be present in only two localities on the Balkan Peninsula. Out of 30 microsatellite markers tested on the natural <em>S. brachyodonem> population, 15 were successfully amplified. To obtain evidence of recent bottleneck events in the populations of both species, observed genetic diversity (<em>H>E was compared to the expected genetic diversity at mutation-drift equilibrium (<em>H>EQ and calculated from the observed number of alleles using a two-phased mutation model (TPM. Recent bottleneck events were detected only in the <em>S. brachyodonem> population. This result suggests the need to reconsider the current threat category of this endemic species.

  2. Local feeding specialization of the red fox (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in response to eastern cottontail (<em>Sylvilagus floridanusem> introduction (NW Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Balestrieri

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To appreciate the influence of the introduction of the Eastern cottontail (<em>Sylvilagus floridanusem> on the food habits of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, between June 1998 and February 2000 fox diet was investigated by means of scat analysis (N=115 in a 250 ha wide Natural Reserve of NW Italy, and compared with data collected in the same area prior to cottontail colonization (1988-1989. Comparison included also the diet of badgers (<em>Meles melesem>, considered as potential competitors for food resources. Alien lagomorphs (mean percent volume, Vm% = 68% represented by far the most exploited resource, only three other food items reaching values of mean percent volume barely higher than 5%. Cottontails frequency of occurrence did not vary according either to season or to their reproductive cycle (II-IX vs. X-I, whilst diet niche breadth varied inversely proportional to the use of this key-resource. Overall fox trophic niche breadth varied from 0.64 in 1988-89 to 0.31 in 1998-00 (B, Levin’s index. These findings led us to consider the feeding habits of the fox in the study area as a result of local specialization of a typical generalist carnivore, according to the predictions of optimal foraging theory. No variation occurred in the badger niche breadth since cottontail introduction, whilst niche overlap between foxes and badgers decreased from 0.59 to 0.13 (O, Pianka’s index, possibly reducing competition for food in summer. Riassunto Specializzazione alimentare a livello locale della Volpe <em>Vulpes vulpesem> in risposta all’introduzione del Silvilago <em>Sylvilagus floridanusem> (Italia nord occidentale. Per valutare gli effetti dell’introduzione del Silvilago (<em>Sylvilagus floridanusem> sul comportamento alimentare della volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem>, nel periodo giugno 1998-febbraio 2000, la dieta del carnivoro è stata definita tramite l’analisi di 115

  3. Are EM's communication tools effective? Evaluation research of two EM publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, Evelyn; Gardner, Gene; Harvey, Tony

    1992-01-01

    As a reflection of its growing culture of openness, and in response to the public's need for accurate information about its activities, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) has increased the amount of information available to the public through communication tools such as brochures, fact sheets, and a travelling exhibit with an interactive computer display. Our involvement with this effort has been to design, develop, and critique booklets, brochures, fact sheets and other communication tools for EM. This paper presents an evaluation of the effectiveness of two communication tools we developed: the EM Booklet and the EM Fact Sheets. We measured effectiveness using non-parametric testing. This paper describes DOE's culture change, EM's communication tools and their context within DOE'S new open culture, our research, test methods and results, the significance of our research, and our plans for future research. (author)

  4. Status and conservation of the red squirrel (<em>Sciurus vulgarisem> in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Luz Mathias

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The historical and recent status and distribution of the red squirrel (<em>Sciurus vulgarisem> in Portugal are analysed using published data, preserved material and unpublished information. In the past the red squirrel occupied the whole of Portugal, but died out towards the end of the 16th century. Now, however, red squirrels have moved back in from Spain and recolonised forests in the north of the country. An important factor limiting the distribution of squirrels in the past was the availability of suitable habitat which provide shelter and food, such as conifer woods. Hunting pressure may also have affected numbers. In Portugal the conservation status of <em>S. vulgarisem> is Rare.

  5. Prospettive sonore nell’analisi sensoriale-acustica e nella progettazione del cibo - Sound perspectives in the sensory-acoustic analysis and design of food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Dal Palù

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo affronta il complesso tema della progettazione del suono del cibo, ponendo l’aspetto al centro del processo progettuale e considerandolo come un reale requisito di progetto. Sono messe in luce le potenzialità del progettare il suono, ma anche le difficoltà attuali da tenere in considerazione. Si propone l’applicazione di SounBe, una metodologia ed uno strumento brevettati che traggono origine dal mondo della psicoacustica e dell’analisi sensoriale, permettendo di confrontare attraverso una procedura standardizzata suoni di campioni di materiali o di cibi. È riportata una prima applicazione sperimentale e sono discusse le prospettive future nel mondo del cibo. ------ This paper deals with the complex theme of food sound design, focusing this issue at the core of the design process and considering it as a real project requirement. Some opportunities of sound design will be proposed, as well as some criticalities to be always considered. It will propose the application of SounBe, a patented method and tool developed drawing information from psychoacoustics and sensory analysis fields, that allows to compare by a standardized procedure the sounds produced by material samples or foodstuffs. A first experimental application of the method will be presented and, in conclusion, several future perspectives in the world of food will be discussed.

  6. Depropagation and propagation simulation of the acoustic waves by using finite differences operators; Simulacao da propagacao e depropagacao de ondas acusticas usando operadores de diferencas finitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Marco A.B.; Santos, Roberto H.M. dos; Silva, Marcelo S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Geofisica e Geologia

    2004-07-01

    The numerical simulation of shot gathers over a (2D) velocity field, which corresponds to a model of Atlantic continental shelf, at the continental break area, using a typical model of the Brazilian Atlantic coast, suggested by PETROBRAS. The finite difference technique (FD) is used to solve the second derivatives in time and space of the acoustic wave equation, using fourth order operators to solve the spatial derivatives and second order operators to solve the time derivative. It is applied an explicitly scheme to calculate the pressure field values at a future instant. The use of rectangular mesh helps to generate data less noisy, since we can control better the numerical dispersion. The source functions (wavelets), as the first and the second derivatives of the gaussian function, are proper to generate synthetic seismograms with the FD method, because they allow an easy discretization. On the forward modeling, which is the simulation of wave fields, allows to control the stability limit of the method, wherever be the given velocity field, just employing compatible small values of the sample rate. The algorithm developed here, which uses only the FD technique, is able to perform the forward modeling, saving the image times, which can be used latter to perform the retropropagation of the wave field and thus migrate the source-gathers the reverse time extrapolation is able to test the used velocity model, and detect determine errors up to 5% on the used velocity model. (author)

  7. Estádio de adaptação de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em hospedeiros alternativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Gisele Brasil Boregas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A principal praga-alvo na cultura do milho é a lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, que, pela sua ampla distribuição temporal e geográfica constitui-se em uma das espécies mais nocivas nas regiões tropicais das Américas. O objetivo foi avaliar o estádio de adaptação de S. frugiperda em 17 espécies hospedeiras, cultivadas ou selvagens, mais comuns no agroecossistema brasileiro. As plantas foram cultivadas em cinco épocas, entre 2006 e 2008, utilizando o milho como padrão. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram individualizadas e confinadas em copo plástico (50 mL, onde foram alimentadas com seções de folha nova de cada hospedeiro. O alimento foi substituído a cada dois dias por folhas frescas. Quatro variáveis biológicas foram avaliadas e utilizadas para se calcular um Índice de Adaptação (IA. Os resultados indicaram que a sobrevivência inicial de S. frugiperda variou de 100%, no milho, a 46%, no arroz. O período larval variou de 12,6 dias, no milho, a 27,1 dias, na grama batatais. A biomassa de pupa variou de 173,1 mg, no carrapicho, a 294,2 mg, no milho. O índice de adaptação, calculado com base nas variáveis biológicas de S. frugiperda, nos hospedeiros avaliados, variou de 17,43, no milho cultivado na época I, a 1,46, na cana-de-açúcar na época III. Para corrigir o efeito de época sobre o índice de adaptação de S. frugiperda nos hospedeiros, foi calculado o Índice Relativo de Adaptação (IRA, com base no índice de adaptação no milho (100%. Assim, com base no índice relativo de adaptação, estimado em condições de laboratório, os hospedeiros alternativos ao milho, para S. frugiperda, podem ser assim ordenados, do maior para o menor índice: sorgo granífero, sorgo selvagem, milheto, capim-tanzânia, amendoim, capim-marandu, capim-braquiária, caruru-de-porco, trigo, soja, algodão, feijão, arroz, capim-carrapicho, grama batatais e cana-de-açúcar.

  8. The EM technology development strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, C.W.; Barainca, M.; Kubo, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Office of Technology Development (TD) supports research and development of technologies that will lower cost, reduce risk, improve safety, and accelerate cleanup of the Nuclear Weapons Complex and provide solutions to currently untractable environmental problems. The TD strategic plan outlines Applied Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT and E) that will provide needed technology products to be used by Environmental Restoration and Waste Management operations (i.e., our customers). The TD strategic plan is derived from EM Goals, Objectives, and Strategy and is incorporated into DOE'S Five-Year Plan for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The TD strategic plan is developed based on integrating customer requirements, and is complemented by a top-down, bottom-up analysis of Site Specific Technology Needs and environmental problems. The execution of TD's strategic plan is implemented largely through Integrated Programs (IP) and Integrated Demonstrations (ID). IDs have proven to be a cost-effective method of managing technology development, testing and evaluation, and implementation of successful technology systems into the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs. The Savannah River ID for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Saturated Soils resulted in a 51 percent cost savings over stand-alone demonstrations, saving over $8 million. The IPs and IDs are selected based on customer needs, technical complexity, and complex-wide regulatory and compliance agreements. New technology systems are selected for incorporation into an IP or ID from offerings of the DOE laboratories, industry, and the universities. A major TD initiative was announced in August 1991, with the release of a Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) requesting industry and universities to propose innovative new technologies to clean up the Weapons Complex. (author)

  9. EMS adaptation for climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  10. Infracommunities of intestinal helminths of the Red Fox <em>Vulpes vulpesem> (Linnaeus, 1758 from Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Di Cerbo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available <em>Vulpes vulpesem> (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most common carnivore in Italy and its spread includes almost the whole national territory. The species shows an high ecological plasticity and a variable diet composition connected in part to human sources. This high adaptability permits the red foxes to colonize different habitats like the suburbs of large cities as well as the small villages located in mountain areas. On the other hand, the tourism pressure seems to assume a great importance in the Alps, also in those areas where the foxes live. So, indirect interactions could take place between these animals and the humans. The role of <em>V. vulpesem> in the zoonoses has not to be understated since this carnivore could transmit parasitic diseases that are able to cause serious pathologies in humans. This study aims just to investigate on intestinal communities of helmiths of <em>V. vulpesem> in order to make progress in current knowledge on epidemiological situation in Italian Alps. During 1998-2003, we have examined 450 foxes from Trentino Alto Adige, Veneto, Lombardia and Valle d'Aosta. The specimens collected were found dead or have been hunted (according to national law n. 157/92 in localities situated between 170 and 2200 m a.s.l. The carcasses were carried to the provincial sections of Zooprofilattici Institutes, where the intestine was drawn by each sample and all the material was sent to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Milan. Parasitological examination of the small intestines was performed by the analysis of the whole sediment and counting technique (SCT. Parasites were preserved in alcohol 70° before to be clarified or stained and identified by microscope (Zeiss Axioscop. Mean abundance, mean intensity and prevalence were calculated for each taxon of helminth. Dates of sampling were grouped within the four seasons. Statistic tests were performed with software package SPSS rel. 11.5 and spatial analysis with the

  11. Prevalência de comportamentos alimentares disfuncionais em mulheres idosas

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Fabiana Vanessa Silva

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Psicologia Aplicada (área de especialização em Psicologia Clínica e da Saúde) Comportamentos alimentares disfuncionais são frequentes em jovens, mas pouco se sabe sobre a sua prevalência em mulheres idosas. Este estudo consiste em estudar a prevalência pontual de comportamentos alimentares disfuncionais em mulheres com 65 anos ou mais. Estudo de prevalência constituído por um momento de avaliação de duas fases com 342 mulheres entre os 65 e 94 anos...

  12. Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of 13-<em>n>-Alkyl Berberine and Palmatine Analogues as Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available By introducing long carbon-chain alkyl groups at the C-13 position of berberine and palmatine, 13-<em>n>-hexyl/13-<em>n>-octyl berberine and palmatine chloride analogues 4ad were synthesized and examined by MTT assays for cytotoxic activity in seven human cancer cell lines (7701QGY, SMMC7721, HepG2, CEM, CEM/VCR, KIII, Lewis, yielding IC50 values of 0.02 ± 0.01–13.58 ± 2.84 μM. 13-<em>n>-Octyl palmatine (compound 4d gave the most potent inhibitor activity, with an IC50 of 0.02 ± 0.01 μM for SMMC7721. In all cases, the 13-<em>n>-alkyl berberine and palmatine analogues 4ad were more cytotoxic than berberine and palmatine. In addition, compounds 4ad also exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than berberine and palmatine in mice with S180 sarcoma xenografted<em> in vivoem>. The primary screening results indicated that the 13-<em>n>-hexyl/13-<em>n>-octyl berberine and palmatine analogues might be valuable source for new potent anticancer drug candidates.

  13. Patient Perspectives on EMS Alternate Destination Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjal, Kevin G; Shastry, Siri; Loo, George T; Reid, Daniel; Grudzen, Corita; Shah, Manish N; Chapin, Hugh H; First, Brandon; Sirirungruang, Sasilada; Alpert, Erin; Chason, Kevin; Richardson, Lynne D

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that a large number of ambulance transports to emergency departments (ED) could have been safely treated in an alternative environment, prompting interest in the development of more patient-centered models for prehospital care. We examined patient attitudes, perspectives, and agreement/comfort with alternate destinations and other proposed innovations in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) care delivery and determined whether demographic, socioeconomic, acuity, and EMS utilization history factors impact levels of agreement. We conducted a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of patients and caregivers presenting to an urban academic ED between July 2012 and May 2013. Respondents were surveyed on levels of agreement with 13 statements corresponding to various aspects of a proposed patient-centered emergency response system including increased EMS access to healthcare records, shared decision making with the patient and/or primary care physician, transport to alternative destinations, and relative importance of EMS assessment versus transportation. Information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, level of acuity, and EMS utilization history were also determined via survey and chart review. Responses were analyzed descriptively and compared across patient characteristics using chi-square and regression analyses. A total of 621 patients were enrolled. The percentage of patients who agreed or strongly agreed with each of the 13 statements ranged from 48.2 to 93.8%. About 86% agreed with increased EMS access to healthcare records; approximately 72% agreed with coordinating disposition decisions with a primary physician; and about 58% supported transport to alternative destinations for low acuity conditions. No association was found between levels of agreement and the patient's level of acuity or EMS utilization history. Only Black or Hispanic race showed isolated associations with lower rates of agreement with some aspects of an innovative

  14. EMS certification requirements for flight nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakes, Michael A; Lord, Wendy R

    2004-01-01

    Emergency medical technician (EMT) or paramedic (EMTP) certification requirements for flight nurses (FNs) providing on-scene patient care vary. We surveyed those requirements and evaluated the relationships between flight team composition or program location and FN EMS certification. Telephone survey of all 184 rotor-wing programs responding with a nurse to scenes The overall EMS training requirement for FNs was: none-57.6%, EMT-21.7%, EMTP-14.7%, local credential (not EMT or EMTP)-6.0%. Second team members were EMTP, RN, physician, or respiratory therapist (RRT). Overall, team configuration related significantly to FN EMS certification (P =.01). FN/EMTP and FN/RRT teams were individually significant (P EMTP teams tending not to require certification and all FN/RRT teams tending toward a certification requirement. Neither FN/FN nor FN/physician pairings related significantly with FN EMS certification requirements. Regional patterns emerged to both crew configuration and FN EMS certification requirements. Most flight programs do not require FN EMT/EMTP certification. Team configuration and geography are related to those requirements.

  15. Triagem em saúde mental infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Vieira Gauy

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido para comparar os resultados de um procedimento grupal aberto e um procedimento individual estruturado para avaliação do comportamento da criança conforme o relato materno. Participaram deste estudo 29 mães que buscavam atendimento para seus filhos em uma unidade de saúde mental infanto-juvenil. As primeiras 15 mães que procuraram o serviço foram entrevistadas individualmente conforme um roteiro estruturado desenvolvido a partir do CBCL e depois foram entrevistadas em grupo, em formato aberto. As outras 14 mães participaram da entrevista grupal aberta e em seguida participaram da entrevista individual estruturada. Os resultados das entrevistas foram comparados tomando como referência as 67 categorias comportamentais identificadas a partir do roteiro individual e quatro variáveis contextuais relatadas nos dois procedimentos. Os resultados mostram que um número substancialmente maior de comportamentos-problema foi identificado através de entrevista individual estruturada do que através de entrevista grupal aberta realizada com os mesmos informantes. É possível que o uso de um roteiro estruturado em entrevistas grupais possa oferecer mais informações com otimização do tempo de avaliação.

  16. NECESSIDADE E LIBERDADE EM HANNAH ARENDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odílio Alves Aguiar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo visa refletir sobre o pensamento de Hannah Arendt à luz do par conceitual necessidade-liberdade. Esse caminho é produtivo, pois dá conta tanto da obra mais conhecida e reconhecida da autora quanto das suas reflexões anteriores à Origens do Totalitarismo, que se dirigiam, na sua maioria, à comunidade dos Judeus e tinham a questão judaica como ponto central. As meditações arendtianas sobre o judaísmo, consideradas no presente artigo, foram publicadas em duas coletâneas na França: La tradition Cachée (1987 e Auschwitz et Jérusalem (1991. O artigo gravita em torno da defesa arendtiana sobre a inerência entre política e liberdade e sua substituição pela compreensão da política como submetida à esfera da necessidade. Essa perspectiva, segundo a autora, fez-se presente na tradição assimilacionista entre os judeus, mas já tinha obtido a hegemonia na cultura ocidental. Isso sucedeu em razão da primazia da vita contemplativa sobre a vita activa, do trabalho e da questão social em detrimento da ação e, por fim, da supremacia da filosofia da história em prejuízo da Filosofia Política.

  17. Institutos de pesquisa em saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camargo Erney Plessmann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao fim do século 19, em seguida aos avanços na assepsia cirúrgica e no esclarecimento do papel de microorganismos como causadores de moléstias infecciosas, foram criados em escala mundial "institutos de pesquisa com os objetivos de conduzir pesquisa sobre as causas, prevenção e tratamento de homens e animais e de desenvolver produtos preventivos e curativos como vacinas e antitoxinas". Para atingir esses objetivos os institutos recrutaram os melhores cientistas disponíveis em todos os lugares. Este foi um período fulgurante para a pesquisa sublinhado por inúmeras descobertas sobre as doenças infecciosas. Passada essa fase, os institutos entraram em depressão e até mesmo insolvência. Muitos se recuperaram, alguns não. Muitos ainda sofrem de uma "crise de identidade". Neste ensaio analisamos o destino dos institutos de pesquisa em saúde no Brasil, as causas de seu sucesso e eventuais fracassos e as medidas possíveis de ajudá-los a contornar suas presentes dificuldades.

  18. Institutos de pesquisa em saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erney Plessmann Camargo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Ao fim do século 19, em seguida aos avanços na assepsia cirúrgica e no esclarecimento do papel de microorganismos como causadores de moléstias infecciosas, foram criados em escala mundial "institutos de pesquisa com os objetivos de conduzir pesquisa sobre as causas, prevenção e tratamento de homens e animais e de desenvolver produtos preventivos e curativos como vacinas e antitoxinas". Para atingir esses objetivos os institutos recrutaram os melhores cientistas disponíveis em todos os lugares. Este foi um período fulgurante para a pesquisa sublinhado por inúmeras descobertas sobre as doenças infecciosas. Passada essa fase, os institutos entraram em depressão e até mesmo insolvência. Muitos se recuperaram, alguns não. Muitos ainda sofrem de uma "crise de identidade". Neste ensaio analisamos o destino dos institutos de pesquisa em saúde no Brasil, as causas de seu sucesso e eventuais fracassos e as medidas possíveis de ajudá-los a contornar suas presentes dificuldades.

  19. EM International, July 1994, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM's mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department's nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM's objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities

  20. Desempenho em leitura/escrita e em cálculos aritméticos em crianças de 2ª série

    OpenAIRE

    Golbert, Clarissa Seligman; Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli de

    2010-01-01

    Esta pesquisa investiga os desempenhos em leitura e escrita e em aritmética básica. Dois grupos de crianças - 15 competentes em leitura/escrita e 12 com dificuldades - foram comparados quanto ao desempenho em cálculos aritméticos com o intuito de identificar em que aspectos do desempenho numérico se assemelham ou se diferenciam. Investigou-se também a relação entre desempenho aritmético, tarefas neuropsicológicas (leitura, escrita, habilidades perceptivo-motoras, linguagem oral, velocidade de...

  1. Comunicação em grupo em um ambiente paralelo/distribuído baseado em multicomputador

    OpenAIRE

    Bortoluzzi, Dayna Maria; Giraldi, Márcia; Friedrich, Luis Fernando; Silveira, Cláudia Heusi

    1998-01-01

    O grande objetivo do processamento paralelo/distribuído é aumentar o desempenho de aplicações que necessitam de grande poder computacional e que são pouco eficientes quando executadas seqüencialmente. Para tanto, o aumento de desempenho é obtido particionando-se uma tarefa em tarefas menores e executando-as em diferentes processadores, paralelamente. Um conjunto de processadores interconectados é a definição mais simples de um ambiente paralelo/distribuído. Os multicomputadores são ambientes ...

  2. Roost selection by barbastelle bats (<em>Barbastella barbastellusem>, Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in beech woodlands of central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Russo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The barbastelle bat, <em>Barbastella barbastellusem> (Schreber, 1774 is a medium-sized, tree-dwelling vespertilionid classified as ?Endangered? in Italy; in western Europe it may be one of the rarest bat species. <em>B. barbastellusem> shows roosting preferences that should be regarded as a key point in conservation protocols. We examined roost selection in a breeding population of <em>B. barbastellusem> from the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park (central Italy at three levels: woodland structure and management type; tree characteristics; and cavity characteristics. In 2001-2002, we fitted 31 adult <em>B. barbastellusem> (29 lactating females, one pregnant female and one male with 0.48g radio-tags and tracked them to their roost-trees. The bats were tracked for 4.5 ± 3.7 days (range: 0-12 days. We located 33 roosts used by 25 subjects (1.8±1.2 roosts/bat, range 1-5. The bats switched roosts frequently: 13 bats used more than one tree over the study period. A chi-square analysis showed that the roosts were not distributed at random across woodland categories: unmanaged woodland was positively selected, whereas shelterwood-harvested woodland was used in proportion to its availability, and ?pastures+scattered trees? was avoided. Twenty out of 33 roost trees were dead <em>Fagus sylvaticaem> trees; conversely, living <em>F. sylvaticaem> dominated in a tree sample obtained at random; dead trees were used more than expected (Χ² test, <em>P> <0.001. Overall, roost trees were significantly taller and had a larger diameter at breast?s height and more cavities than random trees; they also had a lower percent canopy closure than random trees. To highlight which variables were actually associated with selection, we devised a logistic regression model. The full model was significant (<em>P> <0.001; removal of tree type and tree height affected the model significantly, but the other variables did not produce detectable effects. The

  3. O antinaturalismo em Confiança

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza, Fabiano de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde a sua estréia com Uma relação perigosa (The unbelievable truth, 1989, Hal Hartley vem se destacando no cenário internacional, não só por sua contínua produção – oito títulos em doze anos –, mas também por algumas características presentes em seus filmes: em termos de temática, pode-se dizer que, na maioria deles, a história de jovens não adaptados à sociedade serve de base para uma reflexão sobre os sentimentos humanos e para uma crítica severa ao american way of life

  4. A metamorfose das formas em Tatiana Blass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Baschirotto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma pequena parte da dissertação de mestrado defendida em 2015 que se ocupou de pensar o gesto artístico da artista visual brasileira Tatiana Blass. Cada artista possui um gesto que carrega consigo, que se encontra como uma persistência e recorrência em sua produção e sempre retorna. Um dos gestos da artista se encontra na metamorfose das formas com os usos distintos de meios e materiais. Utilizando principalmente os conceitos de arquidesenho de Yves Alain Bois e acontecimento de Gilles Deleuze, o artigo se propõe a refletir sobre a plausibilidade do gesto da metamorfose em suas obras tridimensionais que se encontram entre escultura, performance e instalação.

  5. Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiang-Lin [Department of Physics, Jinggangshan University, Ji' an, Jiangxi 343009 (China); Chen, Zhong-Ping [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Mahajan, Swadesh M., E-mail: mahajan@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh 201314 (India)

    2017-03-03

    Highlights: • Breaking up of an intense EM pulse into filaments is a spectacular demonstration of the nonlinear wave-plasma interaction. • Filaments are spectacularly sharper, highly extended and longer lived at relativistic temperatures. • EM energy concentration can trigger new nonlinear phenomena with absolute consequences for high energy density matter. - Abstract: Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The “relativistic” filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.

  6. O homem e a liberdade em Plotino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullmann, Reinholdo Aloysio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo versa sobre o problema do homem e da liberdade em Plotino, baseado nas Enéadas. O filósofo licopolitano defende, como Platão, a preexistência da alma e, ao mesmo tempo, a liberdade de escolha entre o bem e o mal. O grau máximo de liberdade está na hênosis, isto é, na união mística, pelo êxtase, com o Uno. O autor também mostra que Plotino é panenteísta. Deus é chamado de "causa sui", o que significa que o Uno é o que quer ser e não pode ser diferente. Nas considerações finais, destaca-se Plotino como homem que serve de exemplo em busca da transcendência, em nosso mundo antimetafísico

  7. Preditores do Comportamento Antissocial em Adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Lüdke Nardi

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este estudo investigou preditores do comportamento antissocial em 142 adolescentes em medida socioeducativa de internação (G1 e 691 estudantes de escolas públicas (G2, que responderam a um questionário. Foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os grupos quanto ao comportamento antissocial, violência intra e extrafamiliar, uso de drogas e eventos estressores, com médias mais altas em G1. Dentre as variáveis investigadas, grupo, uso de drogas e eventos estressores, juntamente com a covariável sexo, explicaram 66,5% da variável dependente. Um modelo de path analysis demonstrou que as variáveis sexo e ambiente estressor, computado pelos eventos estressores, qualidade do relacionamento familiar e violência intra e extrafamiliar predizem o uso de drogas e comportamentos antissociais.

  8. Tricolemoma em coelho Tricholemmoma in a rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Duro de Oliveira

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Tricolemoma é um raro tumor benigno, composto por células epiteliais claras derivadas da bainha externa da raiz do folículo piloso. Esses tumores têm sido descritos no homem e raramente em cães. No presente relato, descreve-se a ocorrência de um tricolemoma, de 1cm de diâmetro em um coelho adulto, cujas características histológicas são muito semelhantes às descritas para esses tumores em cães.Tricholemmoma is a rare benign tumor composed of clear epithelial cells derived from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. The tumor has been described in man and rarely in dogs. This report deals with the occurrence of a tricholemmoma , with a diemeter of 1cm, in an adult rabbit. The histologic features are similar to those described in such tumors in dogs.

  9. Comportamento do fomesafen em solos brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Gustavo Rodrigues da

    2013-01-01

    A sorção e a lixiviação do fomesafen foram avaliadas em solos com diferentes características físico-químicas, e a persistência, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo cultivado com feijão nos sistemas de plantio direto e convencional. No primeiro experimento, avaliou-se o processo de sorção do fomesafen em Argissolo Vermelho- Amarelo, Cambissolo e Organossolo. Utilizou-se areia lavada, como material inerte, para determinação das razões de sorção do fomesafen. Para isso, o Sorghum vulgare, híbrido B...

  10. INOVAÇÃO EM PAÍSES EM DESENVOLVIMENTO: AVANÇOS E POSSIBILIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata-se das experiências e tentativas de inovação em países em desenvolvimento, o que tem ocorrido com bastante frequência, já que a economia contemporânea tem se movido em função da incorporação e geração de inovações. Serão abordados os fatores e motivos que impulsionam esses países a buscarem inovações, além de ressaltar as consequências e mudanças ocorridas em sua economia. Sabe-se que a detenção do conhecimento tecnológico tem sido a principal arma para a dominação econômica e política, partindo desse pressuposto, as experiências de inovação tem sido a principal esperança dos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste artigo é aprofundar os estudos e, assim, auxiliar pesquisadores e gestores envolvidos com essas experiências de inovação. A metodologia utilizada trata-se de um estudo teórico e exploratório, buscando através de bibliografias analisar o que vem sendo discutido referente a inovação em países em desenvolvimento.

  11. Ceratomicose em equinos Equine keratomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Diniz Galera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O cavalo, dado o seu meio ambiente, está sujeito a afecções frequentes da córnea e da conjuntiva, tecidos oculares bastante expostos a bactérias e fungos, principalmente Aspergillus spp. e Fusarium spp. As ceratites ulcerativas bacterianas e fúngicas, bem como as ceratites fúngicas não ulcerativas, caracterizadas principalmente pelo abscesso estromal, são frequentes nessa espécie. Ocorrida a lesão inicial, perpetua-se um ciclo vicioso, com liberação de citocinas inflamatórias, que desencadeiam uma rápida e severa infiltração corneal por células polimorfonucleares. A córnea torna-se sujeita à destruição por enzimas proteolíticas liberadas pelos micro-organismos e por células inflamatórias, capazes de desencadear a dissolução estromal e a perfuração do bulbo ocular. O tratamento clínico para a resolução da doença corneal e o controle da uveíte reflexa deve ser agressivo e associado, muitas das vezes, à terapia cirúrgica. Este artigo discorre sobre a fisiopatologia e o tratamento da ceratomicose em equinos.Environmental and behavioral factors make horses susceptible to corneal and conjunctival lesions, since these structures are constantly exposed to bacteria and fungi specially Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. Bacterial and fungal ulcerative keratitis, as well as non-ulcerative fungal keratitis such as stromal abscess, are frequent in horses. A "cascade" effect follows the initial lesion which triggers the release of inflammatory cytokines followed by an acute and severe infiltrate of polymorphonuclear cells in the cornea. The cornea becomes susceptible to the activity of proteolytic enzymes released by microorganisms and polymorphonuclear cells, resulting in stromal degradation and ocular perforation. The medical treatment targeting the corneal disease and the controlling of reflexive uveitis should be aggressive and surgical therapy should be associated in most of the cases. This paper reviews the

  12. AMIDO RESISTENTE EM FARINHAS DE BANANA VERDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Portes RAMOS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o teor de amido resistente (AR em farinhas de banana verde produzidas a partir de treze genótipos de bananeira. Para a produção da farinha foram separadas a 1ª, 3ª e 5ª pencas de cada genótipo, na qual cada penca correspondeu a uma repetição. Os frutos de cada penca no estádio 1 (casca completamente verde de maturação foram descascados manualmente, cortados em fatias circulares de 0,5 cm e desidratados em estufa com circulação de ar a 40ºC por 48 horas, sendo em seguida moídos. A análise de AR consistiu em um processo enzimático, calculando-se o conteúdo final pela concentração de glicose liberada. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística e mostraram diferenças significativas para o teor de AR nas farinhas obtidas dos genótipos de bananeira, sendo que a farinha com maior teor de AR foi a produzida a partir do cultivar ‘Nam’ (40,25% e a menor pelo híbrido ‘Fhia 01’ (10,01%. Pode-se concluir que o conteúdo de AR varia em relação ao genótipo utilizado para a confecção da farinha e que a banana pode ser uma boa opção de estudo de alimento funcional.

  13. Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb <em>Hypericum japonicumem>: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureusem> (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen-Chun Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb <em>Hypericum japonicumem> Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant S<em>taphylococcus aureusem> (MRSA. The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 μg/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC50/MBC50 at 8/16 μg/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ, Levofloxacin (LEV and Ampicillin (AMP, with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI50 at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log10CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity, 0.92 (CAZ, indifference and 0.82 (AMP, indifference, respectively. These <em>in vitroem> anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA.

  14. Problems with EM Algorithms for ML Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentler, P. M.; Tanaka, Jeffrey S.

    1983-01-01

    Rubin and Thayer recently presented equations to implement maximum likelihood estimation in factor analysis via the EM algorithm. It is argued here that the advantages of using the EM algorithm remain to be demonstrated. (Author/JKS)

  15. Integrating Green Purchasing Into Your Environmental Management System (EMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this report is to help Federal facilities integrate green purchasing into their EMS. The intended audience includes those tasked with implementing an EMS, reducing environmental impacts, meeting green purchasing requirements.

  16. Incumprimento do contrato de trabalho em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Bruno Miguel Simões

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Direito das Empresas Esta tese tem, como objectivo principal, analisar e caracterizar o conceito de contrato de trabalho e as suas tipologias de incumprimento em Portugal. A metodologia consiste na pesquisa bibliográfica nacionalmente aceite, webgrafia, e recurso a dados do INE, DGSI e DGPJ, de modo a elaborar uma análise quantitativa dos tipos de incumprimento do contrato de trabalho e consequentes litígios jurídico/laborais. As hipóteses são: Existe alguma r...

  17. A singularidade do totalitarismo em Hannah Arendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José João Neves Barbosa Vicente

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A partir da análise da obra <em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">Origens do totalitarismoem> (1990, este artigo apresenta de um modo introdutório, alguns motivos que levaram Hannah Arendt a denominar o totalitarismo de acontecimento singular na história da humanidade.

  18. A singularidade do totalitarismo em Hannah Arendt

    OpenAIRE

    José João Neves Barbosa Vicente

    2011-01-01

    A partir da análise da obra <em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">Origens do totalitarismoem> (1990), este artigo apresenta de um modo introdutório, alguns motivos que levaram Hannah Arendt a denominar o totalitarism...

  19. Modernidade em exposição

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Adilson de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Urbanismo, História e Arquitetura da Cidade, Florianópolis, 2013. Fixamos nossa atenção à cognição da cidade moderna, a partir de Paris, fruto da Revolução Industrial. Discorremos sobre a evolução dos equipamentos urbanos, em particular a avenida, o saneamento, redes de água, esgoto, eletricidade, vias urbanas, transportes, caracterizando o contexto histórico e social, a formaç...

  20. Fatores associados à obesidade em escolares

    OpenAIRE

    Giugliano,Rodolfo; Carneiro,Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar a relação entre obesidade em escolares e atividade física e horas de sono da criança, escolaridade e obesidade dos pais. MÉTODOS: Avaliação de peso, estatura, índice de massa corporal e adiposidade (estimada pelas dobras cutâneas tricipital e subescapular) de escolares seguida da classificação das crianças em normais, baixo peso, sobrepeso ou obesidade pelo índice de massa corporal por idade. Foram avaliados 452 escolares e selecionadas 68 crianças com sobrepeso e obesidade...

  1. Flexibilidade e mercado de trabalho em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Centeno, Mário; Novo, Álvaro

    2008-01-01

    A era de rápida evolução tecnológica em que vivemos, associada em particular ao desenvolvimento de tecnologias de informação, coloca às economias novos desafios, mas também novas oportunidades, abrindo à concorrência mercados anteriormente fechados. Neste ambiente mais competitivo, não é estranho que o apelo a uma maior flexibilidade do emprego tenha ganho proeminência na discussão político-económica da organização do mercado de trabalho.

  2. Mobilidade do ametryn em latossolos brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,L.O.C.; Silva,A.A.; Queiroz,Maria E.L.R.; Lima,C.F.; Silva,L.L.; D'Antonino,L.

    2012-01-01

    O conhecimento dos fatores que influenciam a lixiviação dos herbicidas no solo possibilita o uso seguro do produto do ponto de vista ambiental, além de ser fundamental para que se façam recomendações tecnicamente corretas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a lixiviação do ametryn em quatro solos brasileiros, com diferentes características físico-químicas, e comparar o método cromatográfico com o biológico em estudos de mobilidade desse herbicida. Os substratos avaliados foram: Latossolo ...

  3. Arenas de conflito em torno do cuidado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guita Grin Deber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O texto explora as arenas de conflito em torno do cuidado em asilos. Equipe técnica, cuidadoras e idosos dependentes constituem uma configuração específica da vida nessas instituições. Trata-se de analisar o modo pelo qual a questão é abordada por Pascal Molinier no artigo "Interseccionalidade, cuidado e feminismo", tendo como contraponto minha pesquisa sobre mulheres imigrantes cuidadoras de idosos na Itália e o emprego doméstico no Brasil.

  4. A vitivinicultura de altitude em Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Losso, Flavia Baratieri

    2016-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia, Florianópolis, 2016. O presente estudo analisou as relações entre a formação sócio-espacial, a produção e o consumo de vinhos finos de altitude em Santa Catarina como indutores do desenvolvimento do Enoturismo no Estado mediante o entendimento de que este tipo de turismo poderá intervir na economia do vinho, agregando valor e influenciando o consumo des...

  5. NATURE AND LAW IN THE <em>INSTITUTAS> OF GAIO NATUREZA E DIREITO NAS <em>INSTITUTAS> DE GAIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Carlos Storck

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In a very famous passage of his <em>Institutes>, the ancient jurist Gaius had divided the Roman Private Law in two parts: the Civil Law and the Law of People. The former is the Law created by the Roman people, whereas the latter is the Law followed by every nation.

    Despite its classical origin, there is some disagreement among specialists about the right way to interpret this distinction. By the beginning of the 20th century, historians like Michel Villey had seen in this distinction the influence of Greek philosophy (Stoic but even Aristotelian among the Roman jurists. But Levy and more recently Kelly have challenged this view and proposed that, in the roman period, philosophers and jurists had completely distinct notions of nature and natural law. The aim of this paper is not to prove the exact influence of Greek philosophy among jurists, but only to suggest that it is not possible to give an interpretation of the classical texts without ascribing to them a theoretical notion of the natural law.

    Em uma famosa passagem de suas <em>Institutas>, o jurista romano Gaio dividiu o direito privado em duas partes: o direito civil e o direito dos povos. O primeiro é o direito criado pelo povo romano enquanto o segundo é o direito seguido por todas as nações. A despeito de sua origem clássica, os especialistas discordam acerca do modo de interpretar essa tese. No início do século XX, historiadores como Michel Villey viram na distinção sinais da influência da filosofia grega (estóica e mesmo aristotélica entre os juristas romanos. Posteriormente Levy e mais recentemente Kelly contestaram essa afirmação e defenderam que filósofos e juristas possuíam, no período clássico, noções de natureza e direito natural completamente distintas. O objetivo desse artigo não está em provar a exata influência da filosofia grega entre os juristas, mas apenas em sugerir que não é possível fornecer uma interpretação dos

  6. Alergia alimentar em cães

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Eduardo Fernandes

    2005-01-01

    As alergias alimentares em cães representam cerca de 1% das dermatoses dos cães, é uma doença pouco conhecida com relação a sua etiopatogenia, diagnóstico e tratamento. O objetivo geral é analisar a bibliografia de 1990 até 2003 e levantar o estado atual da arte sobre “Alergia Alimentar em cães”. Foi realizada revisão bibliográfica consultando o sistema de base de dados CAB Abstracts (Commonwealth Agriculture Bureau) e AGRIS. Utilizamos os unitermos: “Dog”, “sensitivity”, “ hipersensitivity”,...

  7. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a

  8. Desventuras em série

    OpenAIRE

    Tertuliano, Arthur Victor Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho versa sobre direito e literatura, mais especificamente em sua vertente do direito na literatura. Utilizou-se como obra literária, embasadora do estudo, a coleção de livros infanto-juvenis denominada Desventuras em série, de Lemony Snicket. Primeiramente, abordou-se o estilo literário peculiar do autor nos treze livros, apresentando-se um amplo panorama das características neles presentes, para uma melhor ideia de seu imaginário construído. Apontou-se sua metalinguagem, seu...

  9. Épocas de poda em mandioca

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Juliano Silva de; Viana,Anselmo Eloy Silveira; Cardoso,Adriana Dias; Matsumoto,Sylvana Naomi; Novaes,Quelmo Silva de

    2011-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de épocas de poda sobre características agronômicas da mandioca foi conduzido este experimento na área experimental da Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, em Vitória da Conquista - BA, usando delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com 13 tratamentos, sendo 1 tratamento sem poda e 12 épocas de poda, realizadas a partir de junho de 2008 (213 dias após o plantio) até junho de 2009 (543 dias após o plantio), com intervalo de 30 dias entre as p...

  10. Ensinar e aprender em ambientes virtuais tridimensionais

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Vitor

    2012-01-01

    Os mundos virtuais constituem ambientes simulados, normalmente tridimensionais, mediados através de tecnologias de informação e comunicação e que se destinam a ser frequentados por utilizadores que interagem com outros através de avatares. Estes ambientes virtuais tridimensionais (3D) podem ser desenvolvidos recorrendo a software de desenho 3D em versões comerciais e open source ou criados em servidores de mundos virtuais tridimensionais já existentes, tais como o Second Life ou similares. No...

  11. Escabiose em recém-nascido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izilda das Eiras Tâmega

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A escabiose consiste em uma doença contagiosa causada pelo ácaro Sarcoptes scabie, parasita exclusivo da pele humana, transmitida pelo contato direto com pessoa infectada. Pode ocorrer em qualquer faixa etária, independente do sexo, etnia ou hábitos de higiene, sendo diagnosticada com base na história de coceira noturna, associada a lesões cutâneas. Em geral, há mais de um caso na mesma residência. Apresenta diversos diagnósticos diferenciais por ser essencialmente uma dermatite. Objetivo: Alertar para possibilidade de escabiose na comunidade. Metodologia: As informações contidas nesse relato foram obtidas por meio de consultas médicas, registros fotográficos, evolução, hipóteses diagnósticas e revisão de literatura. Relato de Caso: E.T.L.T, sexo feminino. Aos 21 dias de vida, mãe relata vermelhidão nas costas da paciente e ao exame físico observa-se eritema máculo papular na região de transição parieto-occipital do crânio. A conduta baseia-se em orientação quanto à lavagem de roupa de cama com sabão de coco, remoção de xampu e talco e observação do rash cutâneo. Treze dias depois, mãe refere piora das manchas vermelhas e aparecimento de lesões em tórax anterior e posterior, pescoço e face. Relata ainda, ter cachorro em casa e lesões semelhantes em seu próprio tórax e mamas antes mesmo de a criança nascer. A orientação foi mantida, além de ser receitado enxofre precipitado a 10% para a mãe e a 5% para a criança. Após cinco dias de tratamento, as manchas regrediram e a paciente voltou a ser amamentada. Conclusão: A escabiose continua a ser uma dermatose frequente, cujo tratamento em idade pediátrica se restringe aos “steps” para o diagnóstico correto, desinfecção dos fômites e uso de um bom escabicida, tanto para a criança quanto para seus cuidadores.

  12. Defeitos em nanofitas de Grafeno zigzag

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Torres Riera Junior

    2008-01-01

    Grafeno e nanofitas de grafeno vêm, cada vez mais, atraindo o interesse da comunidade científica devido as suas notáveis propriedades. Neste trabalho realizou-se um estudo sistemático da estabilidade de defeitos do tipo divacância, vacância e Stone-Wales em grafeno e nanofitas de grafeno com bordas zigzag. Para tal, fizeram-se cálculos de primeiros princípios, baseados em teoria do funcional da densidade (DFT) na aproximação GGA com o uso de pseudopotenciais ultrasoft e uma base de ondas pl...

  13. NITROSAMINAS VOLÁTEIS EM ALIMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. DUTRA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Nitrosaminas são compostos potencialmente carcinogênicos para o homem, as quais podem ocorrer em alimentos como produto da reação entre aminas secundárias e agentes nitrosantes. Neste artigo de revisão são fornecidas informações sobre os aspectos toxicológicos, epidemiológicos, presença em alimentos e legislação sobre estes compostos.

  14. Quantificação da biomassa em uma Floresta Estacional Decidual em Itaara, RS, Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton Luiz Munari Vogel; Mauro Valdir Schumacher; Peter Trüby

    2010-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi realizado no município de Itaara, RS, Brasil, em uma Floresta Estacional Decidual secundária com 70 anos aproximadamente. O estudo teve como principal objetivo