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Sample records for acusticas em pupas

  1. Effects of acoustic waves on pupas of Ceratitis capitata. (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae); Efeitos das ondas acusticas em pupas de Ceratitis capitata. (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

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    Barros, Adilson Camilo de

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this research has been to investigate the hypothesis that acoustic waves would provoke a measurable effect on a population of fruit flies, a treatment denominated sonication. Ionizing radiation, the causative agent for the treatment designated by irradiation has been used as a reference, as long as its effects on living beings and particularly on insects are widely known. This research also enquiries into the possible effects of acoustic waves and gamma rays. The experiments of sonication were carried out in the Laboratory of Entomology of the Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo. The experiments of radiation were carried out in the Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes - IPEN, located within the campus of the University of Sao Paulo. It has been employed a Gamma cell source model 220 with average activity of 757.069 {+-} 293.484 curies (Ci) and an average doses rate of 3.106 {+-} 0.245 kilo grays per hour (kGy/h). Levels applied to the sonication treatment, in hertz and kilo Hertz were: 0 Hz (control) ; 5.0 Hz; 10.0 Hz; 20.0 Hz; 40.0 Hz; 60.0 Hz; 80.0 Hz; 1.0 k Hz; 2.0 k Hz; 10.0 k Hz; 15.0 k Hz e 20.0 k Hz. Irradiation doses applied in Grays were: 5.0 Gy; 7.5 Gy; 10.0 Gy; 12.5 Gy; 15 Gy; 50 Gy; 100 Gy; 150 Gy and 200 Gy. It has been used an acoustic tube made of glass - 40.6 cm in length and 9.1 cm in diameter - and sinusoidal waves originated from three acoustic sources, with response in decibels, which sound intensity varied from 93.60 {+-} 1.51 dB to 123.96 {+-} 0.23 dB. Final results have pointed to evidences that would justify the rejection of null hypothesis H{sub 0}, to which the average of the treatments due to acoustic waves do not differ significantly from each other.(author)

  2. Seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados em pessegueiro sobre ovos e pupas do predador Chrysoperla externa

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    Rodolfo Vargas Castilhos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a seletividade de dezenove agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro sobre ovos e pupas do predador Chrysoperla externa em condições laboratoriais (temperatura 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotofase 14 horas. Os agrotóxicos foram pulverizados diretamente sobre ovos e pupas por meio de uma torre de Potter, utilizando a máxima dosagem recomendada para a cultura do pessegueiro. Foi avaliada a viabilidade de ovos e pupas, além da fecundidade e fertilidade de adultos emergidos de pupas tratadas. Os agrotóxicos foram classificados para ovos em função da redução na eclosão e, para pupas, em função do efeito total, conforme a escala de toxicidade proposta pela IOBC. A maioria dos agrotóxicos avaliados (8 inseticidas, 8 fungicidas e 2 herbicidas se mostrou inócua (classe 1 a ovos e pupas, com redução na eclosão de larvas e efeito total em pupas inferiores a 30%. A exceção se deu para o inseticida óleo mineral, que reduziu a eclosão de larvas em 69,55% quando pulverizado em ovos e proporcionou efeito total em pupas de 36,22%, sendo classificado como levemente nocivo (classe 2 a ovos e pupas de C. externa

  3. Ação de produtos fitossanitários utilizados em cafeeiros sobre pupas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

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    Silva Rogério Antônio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ação de produtos fitossanitários usados em cafeeiros sobre pupas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos no Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brasil. Os tratamentos avaliados, em g i.a.L-1 de água, foram: 1- endosulfan (Thiodan 350 CE - 1,75, 2- chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 480 CE -1,2, 3- betacyfluthrin (Turbo 50 CE - 0,013, 4- enxofre (Kumulus 800 PM - 4,0, 5- azocyclotin (Peropal 250 PM - 0,31, 6- oxicloreto de cobre (Cuprogarb 500 PM - 5,0 e 7- Testemunha (água. As pulverizações foram realizadas diretamente sobre pupas e adultos do crisopídeo por meio de torre de Potter. As pupas foram colocadas em tubos de vidro e os adultos em gaiolas de PVC, e mantidos em sala climatizada a 25 ? 2degreesC, UR de 70 ? 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e dez repetições, sendo cada parcela formada por quatro pupas ou um casal de C. externa. Os produtos foram distribuídos nas quatro classes de toxicidade conforme escala estabelecida pela IOBC. O chlorpyrifos mostrou-se levemente nocivo para pupas (classe 2, 30?E?79%, e os demais produtos foram inócuos (classe 1, E99%. Os produtos testados à base de endosulfan, enxofre, azocyclotin e oxicloreto de cobre podem ser recomendados em programas de manejo de pragas do cafeeiro em associação com C. externa, em função da baixa toxidade apresentada por esses compostos ao predador.

  4. Desempenho reprodutivo de Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas crioconservadas de Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae: avaliação preliminar Reproductive performance of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae on Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae cryopreserved pupae: preliminary evaluation

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    Eliane Maria Vieira Milward-de-Azevedo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho reprodutivo de Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas de Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae previamente armazenadas a - 20ºC de temperatura, durante 77 dias, com e sem passagem prévia em nitrogênio líquido (NL por um, três e 15 minutos. O grupo controle foi caracterizado por pupas hospedeiras frescas. Os muscóides foram expostos aos parasitóides durante 72 horas. Utilizou-se a relação de uma pupa muscóide por fêmea parasitóide. A amostra de pupas frescas permitiu a emergência de 15 parasitóides/ pupa, em média, enquanto 10 parasitóides / pupa emergiram dos espécimens prévia e diretamente armazenados em freezer (-20ºC. Observou-se um acentuado decréscimo do desempenho reprodutivo dos microhimenópteros que exploraram os substratos previamente submetidos ao NL durante um, três e 15 minutos (: 6,1; 5,5 e 5,7, respectivamente. A dissecação das pupas hospedeiras revelou um expressivo número de pteromalídeos imaturos, nas amostras que foram expostas ao NL, e de adultos faratos, em todos os tratamentosThe reproductive performance of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae was evaluated on pupae of Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae kept at -20ºC, during 77 days, with and no previous passage for liquid nitrogen (NL by one, three and 15 minutes. Control groups were characterized for fresh pupae hosts. There was one pupa for each parasitoid. The sample of fresh pupae exhibited average of 15 emergent parasitoids / pupa while pupae stored directly at freezer (-20ºC presented an average of 10 emergent parasitoids / pupa. In the samples exposed at one, three and 15 minutes in NL, accentuated decrease was observed on emergent hymenopterans reproductive performance (: 6.1; 5.5 and 5.7 respectively. The dissection of pupae revealed a large number of immature pteromalid in the groups with liquid nitrogen passage and farate adults in

  5. Ciclo biológico, exigências térmicas e parasitismo de Muscidifurax uniraptor em pupas de mosca doméstica Life cycle, thermal requirements and parasitism of Muscidifurax uniraptor on house fly pupae

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    Marcílio José Thomazini

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Os parasitóides pupais estão entre os principais responsáveis pela redução populacional de mosca doméstica em aviários, e Muscidifurax uniraptor Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae é um dos principais parasitóides presentes nestes ambientes no Estado de São Paulo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a duração do ciclo biológico, as exigências térmicas e o parasitismo de M. uniraptor em pupas de Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae em temperaturas constantes. Os testes foram realizados em câmaras climatizadas nas temperaturas de 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 e 32 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% U.R. e 14 h de fotofase. Em cada câmara 200 pupas de mosca doméstica, com 24 a 48 h de idade, foram expostas a 40 parasitóides fêmeas partenogenéticas, com 0 a 24 h de idade, por 24 h. A temperatura influenciou o desenvolvimento e a reprodução de M. uniraptor. O menor valor do período de ovo a adulto foi a 30°C (17 dias e as porcentagens de parasitismo e de emergência de descendentes foram maiores a 28°C, com 87 e 63,5%, respectivamente. A temperatura base encontrada para fêmeas do parasitóide foi de 9,43°C, com uma constante térmica de 366,62 graus-dia (GD. A elevação da temperatura diminui a duração do período de ovo a adulto (entre 18 e 30°C e aumenta o parasitismo (entre 18 e 28°C de M. uniraptor. A faixa de temperatura entre 28 e 30°C é considerada a mais adequada para criação de M. uniraptor em pupas de mosca doméstica.The pupal parasitoids are among the most important organisms responsible for house fly population reduction in poultry farms. Muscidifurax uniraptor Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae is one of the main parasitoids that occur in poultry farms at São Paulo State, Brazil. The objective of this study was to determine the life cycle duration, the thermal requirements and the parasitism of M. uniraptor on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae pupae under constant temperatures. The experiment was

  6. Freqüência de larvas e pupas de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus em armadilhas, Brasil Frequency of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae and pupae in traps, Brazil

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    Nildimar Alves Honório

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência mensal de larvas e pupas de Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti e de outras espécies de mosquitos e verificar a influência de fatores ambientais dessas espécies em pneus. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no município de Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Efetuaram-se coletas mensais de formas imaturas, em quatro pneus, no período de novembro de 1997 a outubro de 1998. Os pneus foram numerados e dispostos em forma de pirâmide, um na base (pneu 1 e os três restantes (2, 3 e 4 inclinados sobre o primeiro. Os pneus 1 e 4 eram mais sombreados, e 2 e 3 eram expostos ao sol, já que não eram alcançados, como os demais, pela sombra de árvores e de um galinheiro próximos a esses pneus. Foram estudadas as variáveis: pluviosidade; temperatura ambiente; volume; pH da água; e condições de isolamento de água em pneus. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se 10.310 larvas e 612 pupas. Ae. albopictus foi a espécie predominante tanto na fase larvar quanto na de pupa; Ae. aegypti e Ae. albopictus foram coletados em todos os meses, sendo mais freqüentes naqueles de maior pluviosidade. A temperatura, a pluviosidade e o volume de água apresentaram diferenças significativas, quando correlacionados ao número de larvas de Ae. aegypti. Não houve diferença significativa na freqüência de larvas quanto ao pH da água. Registrou-se maior número de larvas de Ae. albopictus em pneus mais sombreados. CONCLUSÕES: Ae. albopictus instala-se muito mais freqüentemente em pneus do que Ae. aegypti. Pneus descartados parecem representar importantes focos de manutenção de ambos os Aedes, durante todo o ano. Mesmo próximo uns ao outros, os pneus podem oferecer diferentes condições para a colonização desses mosquitos, de acordo com o volume d'água e a exposição ao sol.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the monthly frequency of larvae and pupae of Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and other mosquitoe species in tires, and the influence

  7. Influência do aumento do número de pupas hospedeiras de Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera, Calliphoridae no desenvolvimento do parasitóide Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em laboratório Influence of the increase of the number of the host pupae of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera, Calliphoridae in the development of the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in laboratory

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    Leandro S. Barbosa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento pós-embrionário, a produtividade, a taxa de parasitismo e a razão sexual de Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836 criada em pupa de Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775 foram estudados. Densidades diferentes de hospedeiro foram usadas (proporções 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 e 1:5 com tempo de exposição de 72 horas, em cada uma delas. Fêmeas nulíparas originárias da colônia estoque foram individualizadas em tubos de teste cobertos com algodão hidrófobo e contendo as pupas hospedeiras. Cada tratamento constituiu-se de 10 repetições. Depois da exposição, as vespas foram descartadas e as pupas hospedeiras foram individualizadas em tubos de teste até a emergência dos adultos de C. macellaria ou N. vitripennis. Amostras das pupas hospedeiras não expostas ao parasitismo e recebendo o mesmo tratamento experimental foram usadas como controle. Os parasitóides mostraram um desenvolvimento mais lento em relação ao aumento da densidade de hospedeiros. Houve uma diminuição na produção de parasitóides por hospedeiro em densidades elevadas. A razão sexual tendeu para um desvio para nascimento de fêmeas com o aumento da densidade do hospedeiro. Os índices de parasitismo mostraram uma diminuição quando o parasitóide foi exposto a mais de duas pupas hospedeiras.The post-embryonic development, productivity, rate of parasitism and sexual ratio of Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836 reared in pupae of Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775 were studied. Different densities of the host were used (proportion 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5 and the exposition in each one lasted 72 hours. Nulliparous females originating from the stock colony were individualized in test tubes covered with hydrophobic cotton and containing the host pupae. Each treatment was constituted by 10 repetitions. After the exposition, the wasps were discarded and the host pupae were individualized in test tubes until the emergence of the adults of C. macellaria

  8. Acustica e tipologia in architettura - Acoustics and typology in architecture

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    Giovanni La Porta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo pone in relazione l’acustica e la matrice tipologica dell’architettura. Nonostante spesso si sostenga che la forma degli ambienti dedicati all’ascolto nasca come risposta a determinati requisiti acustici, la riflessione porta a concludere che l’architettura dei luoghi si leghi fondamentalmente ad un tipo architettonico, quella matrice formale che ne orienta i riferimenti compositivi, funzionali e costruttivi. A ciò si deve la lenta trasformazione della forma degli ambienti teatrali o musicali, un’evoluzione durante la quale le conoscenze in materia di acustica risultarono scarse, verosimilmente poco significative per essere di ausilio al progetto architettonico. ------ The article relates the acoustics and the typological matrix of architecture. Although it often argues that the form of listening environments arises as a response to certain acoustic requirements, reflection leads to the conclusion that the architecture of the sites is fundamentally linked to an architectural type, that formal matrix that directs the compositional, functional, and constructive references. This is due to the slow transformation of the form of theatres and musical halls, an evolution during which the acoustics knowledge was scarce, probably not significant to be of assistance to the architectural planning.

  9. Ocorrência de Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em pupas de Musca domestica L. e Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera, Muscidae no sul do Rio Grande do Sul

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    R.K Brandão

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It was reported the occurrence of Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae as a parasitoid of pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae and Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae in the extreme Southern of Brazil. The collection of pupae was performed in January and February, 2008. The pupae of M. domestica and S. calcitrans were collected from bovine feces using the flotation method. The pupae were individualized in glass tubes and maintained in acclimatized chamber at 27±2ºC with relative air humidity > 70% until the emergence of the flies or the parasitoids. The referred occurrence consists in the first report to Rio Grande do Sul.

  10. Crista acustica in insect ears modeled by an inhomogenous granular chain

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    Delevoye, Elisabeth; Tournat, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Insect ears are found on the thorax (in some Hemiptera), the abdomen (in grasshoppers, cicadas, some moths), or the front tibia (in crickets, katydids). Crista acustica -also named Siebold's organs- is the sensory organ linked to tympanum when located in forelegs. It is a collection of individually-tuned scolopidia -the most fundamental unit of mechanoreceptor organs in insects- that can discriminate frequencies. A remarkable geometrical property of the arrangement of ...

  11. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

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    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  12. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

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    Christopher Exley

    Full Text Available The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD value of 51.0 (33.0 μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  13. The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae

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    Rodrigo Ferreira Krüger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Species of Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are found in decomposing bodies, usually in fresh, bloated and decay stages. Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, for example, can be found in animal carcasses. The influence of environmental factors has not been evaluated in puparia of O. albuquerquei. Thus, the focus of this work was motivated by the need for models to predict the development of a necrophagous insect as a function of abiotic factors. Colonies of O. albuquerquei were maintained in the laboratory to obtain pupae. On the tenth day of each month 200 pupae, divided equally into 10 glass jars, were exposed to the environment and checked daily for adult emergence of each sample. We concluded that the high survival rate observed suggested that the diets used for rearing the larvae and maintaining the adults were appropriate. Also, the data adjusted to robust generalized linear models and there were no interruptions of O. albuquerquei pupae development within the limits of temperatures studied in southern Rio Grande do Sul, given the high survival presented.Efeito de fatores ambientais sobre o desenvolvimento e sobrevivência de pupas de Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Espécies de Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 são encontradas em corpos em decomposição, usualmente nas fases fresca, inchamento e murcha. Entre estas espécies, Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, 1985 pode ser encontrada em carcaças de ratos e coelhos. A influência de fatores ambientais sobre pupas de O. albuquerquei não tinha sido avaliada até o momento. Desta maneira, o foco deste trabalho foi motivado pela necessidade por modelos de previsão do desenvolvimento de insetos necrófagos em função de fatores abióticos. Colônias de O. albuquerquei foram mantidas em laboratório para a obtenção de pupas. Até o décimo dia de cada mês, 200

  14. BLACK FLY (DIPTERA: SIMULIIDAE PUPAE MICROHABITAT CHARACTERIZATION IN THE ITATIAIA NATIONAL PARK, BRAZIL

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    Isabella Cristina Campos-de-Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi conduzido no Parque Nacional do Itatiaia localizado no estado do Rio de Janeiro e teve como objetivo determinar os padrões de preferência de habitat e micro-habitat de pupas de Simuliidae. As coletas foram realizadas em quatro sítios no Parque, sendo medidos pH, luminosidade, condutividade e temperatura da água. As pupas foram identificadas e quantificadas em laboratório e seus padrões de preferência de microhabitat foram determinados por meio de análise de correspondência canônica (CCA, enquanto suas comunidades comparadas quanto às similaridades entre si por meio de um escalonamento métrico não dimensional (NMDS.

  15. Proteomic analysis of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. pupae head development.

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    Aijuan Zheng

    Full Text Available The honeybee pupae development influences its future adult condition as well as honey and royal jelly productions. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates honeybee pupae head metamorphosis is still poorly understood. To further our understand of the associated molecular mechanism, we investigated the protein change of the honeybee pupae head at 5 time-points using 2-D electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Accordingly, 58 protein spots altered their expression across the 5 time points (13-20 days, of which 36 proteins involved in the head organogenesis were upregulated during early stages (13-17 days. However, 22 proteins involved in regulating the pupae head neuron and gland development were upregulated at later developmental stages (19-20 days. Also, the functional enrichment analysis further suggests that proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, development, cytoskeleton and protein folding were highly involved in the generation of organs and development of honeybee pupal head. Furthermore, the constructed protein interaction network predicted 33 proteins acting as key nodes of honeybee pupae head growth of which 9 and 4 proteins were validated at gene and protein levels, respectively. In this study, we uncovered potential protein species involved in the formation of honeybee pupae head development along with their specific temporal requirements. This first proteomic result allows deeper understanding of the proteome profile changes during honeybee pupae head development and provides important potential candidate proteins for future reverse genetic research on honeybee pupae head development to improve the performance of related organs.

  16. Transcriptomic Response of Drosophila Melanogaster Pupae Developed in Hypergravity

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    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Hateley, Shannon; Bhardwaj, Shilpa R.; Pachter, Lior; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The metamorphosis of Drosophila is evolutionarily adapted to Earth's gravity, and is a tightly regulated process. Deviation from 1g to microgravity or hypergravity can influence metamorphosis, and alter associated gene expression. Understanding the relationship between an altered gravity environment and developmental processes is important for NASA's space travel goals. In the present study, 20 female and 20 male synchronized (Canton S, 2 to 3day old) flies were allowed to lay eggs while being maintained in a hypergravity environment (3g). Centrifugation was briefly stopped to discard the parent flies after 24hrs of egg laying, and then immediately continued until the eggs developed into P6-staged pupae (25 - 43 hours after pupation initiation). Post hypergravity exposure, P6-staged pupae were collected, total RNA was extracted using Qiagen RNeasy mini kits. We used RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR techniques to profile global transcriptomic changes in early pupae exposed to chronic hypergravity. During the pupal stage, Drosophila relies upon gravitational cues for proper development. Assessing gene expression changes in the pupa under altered gravity conditions helps highlight gravity dependent genetic pathways. A robust transcriptional response was observed in hypergravity-exposed pupae compared to controls, with 1,513 genes showing a significant (q Drosophila pupae in response to hypergravity.

  17. File list: His.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae dm3 Histone Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013036,SRX013035,SRX013...037,SRX013011,SRX013095 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae dm3 All antigens Pupae Pupae SRX013069,SRX013059,SRX013036,S...RX013085,SRX013037,SRX013095,SRX013035,SRX013083,SRX013060,SRX013011 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae dm3 All antigens Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013037,SRX013036,S...RX013011,SRX013035,SRX013069,SRX013059,SRX013083,SRX013060,SRX013095 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae dm3 Histone Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013037,SRX013036,SRX013...011,SRX013035,SRX013095 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Pup.05.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  1. File list: His.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae dm3 Histone Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013036,SRX013035,SRX013...011,SRX013037,SRX013095 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae dm3 All antigens Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013069,SRX013036,S...RX013035,SRX013059,SRX013011,SRX013037,SRX013095,SRX013083,SRX013060 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  3. File list: His.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae dm3 Histone Pupae Pupae SRX013036,SRX013085,SRX013037,SRX013...095,SRX013035,SRX013011 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Pup.50.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae dm3 All antigens Pupae Pupae SRX013085,SRX013069,SRX013036,S...RX013035,SRX013037,SRX013011,SRX013059,SRX013060,SRX013095,SRX013083 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Pup.10.AllAg.Pupae.bed ...

  5. Cold hardiness of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.C. Morey; W.D. Hutchison; R.C. Venette; E.C. Burkness

    2012-01-01

    An insect's cold hardiness affects its potential to overwinter and outbreak in different geographic regions. In this study, we characterized the response of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) pupae to low temperatures by using controlled laboratory measurements of supercooling point (SCP), lower lethal temperature (LT50), and lower...

  6. How <em>Varroa> Parasitism Affects the Immunological and Nutritional Status of the Honey Bee, <em>Apis melliferaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Aronstein

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite <em>Varroa destructorem> on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, <em>Apis melliferaem>, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from honey bee colonies at one site in S. Texas, USA. <em>Varroa>‑infested bees displayed elevated titer of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV, suggestive of depressed capacity to limit viral replication. Expression of genes coding three anti-microbial peptides (<em>defensin1, abaecin, hymenoptaecinem> was either not significantly different between <em>Varroa>-infested and uninfested bees or was significantly elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested bees, varying with sampling date and bee developmental age. The effect of <em>Varroa> on nutritional indices of the bees was complex, with protein, triglyceride, glycogen and sugar levels strongly influenced by life-stage of the bee and individual colony. Protein content was depressed and free amino acid content elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested pupae, suggesting that protein synthesis, and consequently growth, may be limited in these insects. No simple relationship between the values of nutritional and immune-related indices was observed, and colony-scale effects were indicated by the reduced weight of pupae in colonies with high <em>Varroa> abundance, irrespective of whether the individual pupa bore <em>Varroa>.

  7. Cold hardiness and deacclimation of overwintering Papilio zelicaon pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline M; Nicolai, Annegret; Ferguson, Laura V; Bernards, Mark A; Hellmann, Jessica J; Sinclair, Brent J

    2014-12-01

    Seasonally-acquired cold tolerance can be reversed at warm temperatures, leaving temperate ectotherms vulnerable to cold snaps. However, deacclimation, and its underlying mechanisms, has not been well-explored in insects. Swallowtail butterflies are widely distributed but in some cases their range is limited by low temperature and their cold tolerance is seasonally acquired, implying that they experience mortality resulting from deacclimation. We investigated cold tolerance and hemolymph composition of Anise swallowtail (Papilio zelicaon) pupae during overwintering in the laboratory, and after four days exposure to warm temperatures in spring. Overwintering pupae had supercooling points around -20.5°C and survived brief exposures to -30°C, suggesting partial freeze tolerance. Overwintering pupae had hemolymph osmolality of approximately 920 mOsm, imparted by high concentrations of glycerol, K⁺ and Na⁺. After exposure to spring warming, supercooling points increased to approximately -17°C, and survival of a 1h exposure to -20°C decreased from 100% to 0%. This deacclimation was associated with decreased hemolymph osmolality and reduced glycerol, trehalose, Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ concentrations. We compared cold tolerance of pupae to weather conditions at and beyond the species' northern range boundary. Minimum temperatures at the range boundary approached the lower lethal temperature of pupae, and were colder north of the range, suggesting that cold hardiness may set northern range limits. Minimum temperatures following warm snaps were likely to cause mortality in at least one of the past three years. Cold snaps in the spring are increasing in frequency as a result of global climate change, so are likely to be a significant source of mortality for this species, and other temperate ectotherms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. On the concepts of "pre-pupa", with special reference to the Coleoptera

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    Cleide Costa

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Three main concepts of "pre-pupa" are recognized here in the Holometabola: i pre-pupa without a distinct moult but with a short quiescent period followed or not by slight modifications of the last larval instar form of body - this type corresponds to the pharate pupa; ii pre-pupa with a distinct moult, and a quiescent resting period followed by slight form modifications (mainly in the mandibles and color pattern with a variable period of diapause (ex. Hymenoptera-Symphyta; iii pre-pupa with a distinct moult, a quiescent period not related to the diapause phenomenon, and distinct morphological modifications (Coleoptera-Mycteridae.

  9. Defensive abdominal rotation patterns of tenebrionid beetle, Zophobas atratus, pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Toshio; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi

    2012-01-01

    Exarate pupae of the beetle Zophobas atratus Fab. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have free appendages (antenna, palp, leg, and elytron) that are highly sensitive to mechanical stimulation. A weak tactile stimulus applied to any appendage initiated a rapid rotation of abdominal segments. High-speed photography revealed that one cycle of defensive abdominal rotation was induced in an all-or-none fashion by bending single or multiple mechanosensory hairs on a leg or prodding the cuticular surface of appendages containing campaniform sensilla. The direction of the abdominal rotation completely depended on the side of stimulation; stimulation of a right appendage induced a right-handed rotation about the anterior-posterior axis of the pupal body and vice versa. The trajectories of the abdominal rotations had an ellipsoidal or pear-shaped pattern. Among the trajectory patterns of the rotations induced by stimulating different appendages, there were occasional significant differences in the horizontal (right-left) component of abdominal rotational movements. Simultaneous stimulation of right and left appendages often induced variable and complex patterns of abdominal movements, suggesting an interaction between sensory signals from different sides. When an abdominal rotation was induced in a freely lying pupa, the rotation usually made the pupa move away from or turn its dorsum toward the source of stimulation with the aid of the caudal processes (urogomphi), which served as a fulcrum for transmitting the power of the abdominal rotation to the movement or turning of the whole body. Pattern generation mechanisms for the abdominal rotation were discussed.

  10. Acoustic modelling by using block and polynomial trigonometric parametrization; Modelagem acustica usando parametrizacoes em bloco e polinomial trigonometrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Roberto Hugo Melo dos; Figueiro, Wilson Mouzer [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: rms@cpgg.ufba.br; fgueiro@cpgg.ufba.br

    2003-07-01

    The developed algorithm in this work was based on the finite difference method applied to the wave equation, assuming that the Earth has an acoustic behavior. The seismic modeling was implemented numerically by means of the finite differences method (MDF), employing regular nets, and applied to the derivatives of time and fourth order to derivatives of the space. Two-dimensional geological models was represented by two distinct kind of parametrizations: in blocs (P B) and using trigonometric polynomials (PPT). With the objective of jumping the advantages of using the PPT front P B, mainly in what it tells respect the economy of space of memory in program of finite difference and simplification of the equation in the inversion strategies, simulations of the propagation of waves ware presented in several models acted by different parametrizations (P B and PPT) using applied MDF the equation of the wave and generating synthetic seismograms that they are compared amongst themselves. As a result of this work we can detach the great economy of space of memory in the use of PPT, in whole PPT the model is defined for the coefficients of the polynomial that start to be the parameters of the model, and PPT simplifies the representation of more complicated models. (author)

  11. Pupae transplantation to boost early colony growth in the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouagoussounon, Issa; Sinzogan, Antonio; Offenberg, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    artificially placed in the same nest, all perished due to queen fighting, suggesting that pleomtrosis is not used by O. longinoda in Benin. In contrast, pupae transplantation resulted in highly increased growth rates, as pupae were readily adopted by the queens and showed high survival rates (mean = 92...... may be artificially boosted via the use of multiple queens (plemetrosis) and/or by adoption of foreign pupae in developing colonies. In the present experiments, we tested if multiple queens and transplantation of pupae could boost growth in young Oecophylla longinoda colonies. Colonies with two queens...

  12. La mappa acustica dinamica di Milano da un numero limitato di punti di monitoraggio. Primi risultati - Milan dynamic noise mapping from few monitoring stations. First results

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    Giovanni Zambon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Il questa memoria sono riportati i primi risultati del progetto Dynamap relativi all’area pilota di Milano. Il progetto sviluppa un approccio alla rappresentazione del rumore derivante da traffico stradale che consenta una mappatura acustica dinamica attraverso la scalatura di mappe precalcolate mediante un collegamento diretto con un numero limitato di stazioni di monitoraggio. La possibilità di controllare la mappa acustica di una rete stradale estesa mediante pochi punti di controllo si attua mediante una necessaria aggregazione degli archi stradali in gruppi omogenei. ------ This memory reports the first results of Dynamap project related to the Milan pilot area. The project develops an approach to represent road traffic noise with the outcome of a dynamic noise mapping achieved through the scaling of precalculated maps; scaling is based upon a direct connection to a limited number of noise monitoring stations. The possibility of controlling the acoustic map of an extended road network by means of a few monitoring sites is implemented through a preliminary aggregation of road stretches into homogeneous groups.

  13. Preliminary study on the acoustic communication of captive otters (<em>Lutra lutraem>

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    Claudio Gnoli

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was conducted on captive otters (<em>Lutra lutraem> in a large enclosure (1.64 ha in area. Data on different kind of sounds related to specific behaviours were recorded by videocamera. Furthermore, sounds were collected by tape recorder, analysed by spectrograph and represented by spectrograms. A general pattern of the vocalizations of otter has been obtained, in order to understand the acoustic communication system of the species. The main sound categories were blows, mewings and cries in an aggressive context, murmurs and two kinds of whistles in a social context. Riassunto Studio preliminare sulla comunicazione acustica della lontra (<em>Lutra lutraem> in cattività - Lo studio è stato condotto su lontre (<em>Lutra lutraem> tenute in cattività in un ampio recinto (1,64 ha. Attraverso riprese effettuate tramite videocamera, sono stati raccolti dati sull'emissione delle diverse tipologie di suoni in determinati contesti comportamentali. Inoltre, per mezzo di un magnetofono sono state registrate alcune manifestazioni sonore, successivamente analizzate mediante sonografo e rappresentate in forma di spettrogrammi. In questo modo è stato ottenuto un quadro della gamma di vocalizzazioni della lontra che può contribuire alla comprensione del suo sistema di comunicazione acustica. Le principali categorie di suoni individuate consistono in sbuffi, miagolii e grida nell'ambito aggressivo, mormorii e due tipi di fischi nell'ambito del contatto sociale.

  14. Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract in the conversion of larvae to pupa and pupa to mature of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster M.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fani Yazdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativusL., a native plant from Iran and especially of Khorasan region, has a specific place for people's diet. According to several studies about effects of saffron and because there are no specific studies on the effects of saffron aqueos extract on the development of Drosophila melanogaster as an animal model, this subject evaluated in conversion of larvae to pupa and pupa to mature of fruit flies. 5 pairs of 3-day-old wild D. melanogaster were transferred to every culture plate containing different concentrations of saffron aqueos extract in order to intercross and oviposition and were brought out after 8 hrs. The percent of larvae to pupa transitionand pupa to mature conversion, were evaluated in all concentrations. The obtained data were evaluated statistically using SAS software and the mean of data were compared using Tukey test with minimum significance level of pD. elanogaster depends on dose proportionately. It means that saffron has some effects on the percentage of conversion of larvae to pupa, pupa to mature in low volumes and increased consuming concentrations of saffron may have inverse effects on that.

  15. A rotary drum screen with internal screw flights for Eri silkworm pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjanawanishkul Kiattisin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eri silkworm pupae (Samia ricini are very interesting creatures since they can be developed as a sustainable high protein food source for human beings and animals, and their cocoons can be used for silk production. At present, Thai silk is very famous for its special qualities, whereas the requirement of pupae as food grows increasingly, in particular, canned pupae with seasoning favors. Like other food products, size uniformity is required. Therefore, in this paper, a rotary drum screen with internal screw flights was designed and constructed for separating Eri silkworm pupae into two groups with different sizes. The experiments were conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. The results show that the optimal angular speed of the screen was 20 rpm and the screw pitch value was 10 cm. These parameters resulted in the accuracy percentage of pupa screening of 94.3% and the working capacity of 8.6 kg/h.

  16. Pupation Behavior and Predation on Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Pupae in Maine Wild Blueberry Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballman, Elissa S; Collins, Judith A; Drummond, Francis A

    2017-09-27

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive vinegar fly and pest of soft fruits in North America, including wild blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) in Maine. Despite its presence in the continental United States for 9 yr, little is known about its natural enemy complex. Here we report the results of a 3-yr study designed to identify naturally-occurring predators in Maine's wild blueberry fields. Experiments were conducted to determine pupation site and pupation depth to understand D. suzukii's predation vulnerability. Predation rates in the field of fully-exposed, caged, and buried pupae were measured. Pitfall traps were deployed to identify the potential predator assemblage, and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how many pupae were consumed by commonly occurring ground beetle species (Carabidae) and field crickets (Gryllus pennsylvanicus Burmeister). The most commonly collected predators were ants, ground beetles, harvestmen, and field crickets. Significantly more pupae were found to occur in the soil compared to blueberry fruit, with most pupae in the top 0.5 cm layer of soil. Pupal predation rates in the field were high, with higher rates of predation on exposed pupae compared to buried pupae. Laboratory studies revealed that ground beetles and field crickets are likely predators of D. suzukii pupae. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Online monitoring of accessories for underground electrical installations through acoustics emissions; Monitoreo en linea de accesorios de instalaciones electricas subterraneas mediante emisiones acusticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casals-Torrens, P. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Espana)]. E-mail: p.casals@upc.edu; Gonzalez-Parada, A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mail: gonzaleza@salamanca.ugto.mx; Bosch-Tous, R. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Espana)

    2012-04-15

    The acoustic waves caused by Partial Discharges inside the dielectric materials, can be detected by acoustic emission (AE) sensors and analyzed in the time domain. The experimental results presented, show the online detection capability of these sensors in the environment near a cable accessory, such as a splice or terminal. The AE sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference and constitute a detection method non-intrusive and non-destructive, which ensures a galvanic decoupling with respect to electric networks, this technique of partial discharge detection can be applied as a test method for preventive or predictive maintenance (condition-based maintenance) to equipment or facilities of medium and high voltage in service and represents an alternative method to electrical detection systems, conventional or not, that continue to rely on the detection of current pulses. This paper presents characterization tests of the sensors AE through comparative tests of partial discharge on accessories for underground power cables. [Spanish] Las ondas acusticas provocadas por las descargas parciales en el interior de un dielectrico pueden ser detectadas por sensores de Emisiones Acusticas (EA) y analizadas en el dominio del tiempo. Los resultados experimentales que se presentan, evidencian la capacidad de deteccion en linea de estos sensores, en el entorno proximo a un accesorio de cable, empalme o terminal. Los sensores EA son inmunes a las interferencias electromagneticas, son un metodo de deteccion no destructivo y garantizan desacople galvanico respecto a la red electrica; esta tecnica de deteccion de descargas parciales puede ser aplicada como metodo de prueba para mantenimiento preventivo o predictivo (mantenimiento basado en la condicion), en equipos o instalaciones de media y alta tension en servicio, y representa una alternativa a los sistemas electricos de deteccion, convencionales o no, que continuan basandose en la deteccion del impulsos de corriente. En el

  18. Insights into the transcriptome of oenocytes from Aedes aegypti pupae

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    Gustavo Ferreira Martins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Oenocytes are ectodermic cells present in the fat body of several insect species and these cells are considered to be analogous to the mammalian liver, based on their role in lipid storage, metabolism and secretion. Although oenocytes were identified over a century ago, little is known about their messenger RNA expression profiles. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome of Aedes aegypti oenocytes. We constructed a cDNA library from Ae. aegypti MOYO-R strain oenocytes collected from pupae and randomly sequenced 687 clones. After sequences editing and assembly, 326 high-quality contigs were generated. The most abundant transcripts identified corresponded to the cytochrome P450 superfamily, whose members have roles primarily related to detoxification and lipid metabolism. In addition, we identified 18 other transcripts with putative functions associated with lipid metabolism. One such transcript, a fatty acid synthase, is highly represented in the cDNA library of oenocytes. Moreover, oenocytes expressed several immunity-related genes and the majority of these genes were lysozymes. The transcriptional profile suggests that oenocytes play diverse roles, such as detoxification and lipid metabolism, and increase our understanding of the importance of oenocytes in Ae. aegypti homeostasis and immune competence.

  19. Constant-dose microwave irradiation of insect pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Richard G.

    Pupae of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor L. were subjected to microwave irradiation for 1.5-24 hours at power density levels adjusted to produce a total dosage of approximately 1123 J/g in each insect for every experiment. Insects without visible blemishes were exposed in a standing wave irradiation system such that half of them were exposed in the plane of maximum electric field (E field) and the other half were exposed in the plane of maximum magnetic field (H field). Both E field and H field insects exhibited nearly the same specific absorption rate (SAR) for pupal orientation parallel to the magnetic field vector at 5.95 GHz. Irradiations were conducted both with and without the use of a ventilating fan to control the temperature rise in the irradiation chamber. Abnormal development as a result of the microwave exposure was seen only in the high-power, short-duration experiment without chamber ventilation. This result suggests a thermal interaction mechanism for explanation of observed microwave-induced abnormalities. A study of the time course of the average temperature rise in the irradiated insects indicates that teratological effects for this configuration have a temperature threshold of approximately 40°C.

  20. Efeitos da aplicação de agrotóxicos utilizados na produção integrada de maçã sobre pupas de Chrysoperla externa Effects of pesticides application used in integrated apple production on Chrysoperla externa pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pinho de Moura

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Devido à grande importância de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae como agente de controle biológico de artrópodes-praga na cultura da macieira no Brasil, avaliaram-se os efeitos dos agrotóxicos (g i.a. L-1 abamectina (0,02, carbaril (1,73, enxofre (4,80, fenitrotiona (0,75, metidationa (0,40 e triclorfom (1,50 em pupas desse predador, oriundas de Bento Gonçalves e Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, bem como sobre o desenvolvimento dos adultos obtidos e sua reprodução. A aplicação dos compostos e de água destilada (testemunha foi realizada sobre as pupas utilizando-se torre de Potter. Carbaril e triclorfom causaram mortalidade significativa de pupas tratadas de ambas as populações. Abamectina somente causou mortalidade de pupas oriundas de Vacaria; enxofre, fenitrotiona e metidationa mostraram-se inócuos ao predador. Não foram constatadas reduções no número de ovos depositados por C. externa de Bento Gonçalves; entretanto, fenitrotiona causou reduções nessa característica biológica de fêmeas provenientes de Vacaria. Apenas carbaril e abamectina não afetaram negativamente a viabilidade dos ovos depositados por C. externa oriundas de pupas tratadas, provenientes de Bento Gonçalves e Vacaria, respectivamente. Baseando-se no efeito total (E, enxofre, fenitrotiona e metidationa são inócuos, enquanto abamectina, carbaril e triclorfom são levemente prejudiciais a insetos oriundos de Bento Gonçalves. Abamectina e enxofre são inócuos a indivíduos de Vacaria, enquanto carbaril, fenitrotiona, metidationa e triclorfom são levemente prejudiciais, conforme classificação da IOBC.Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae is an important biological control agent of artropod-pests in apple crop. In this research the effects of the pesticides (g a.i. L-1 abamectin (0.02, carbaryl (1.73, fenitrothion (0.75, methidathion (0.40, sulphur (4.80 and trichlorfon (1.50, on C. externa pupae from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria regions

  1. Redescripción de la Larva y la Pupa de Toxorhynchites ( Lynchiella guadeloupensis (Diptera: Culicidae Redescription of the larva and pupa of Toxorhynchites ( Lynchiella guadeloupensis (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia M. Augier

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente contribución es redescribir, en forma completa, la quetotaxia de larva y pupa de Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar & Knab. Además se describe por primera vez el aparato bucal de la larva. El material estudiado procede de la provincia de Tucumán en el noroeste argentino.The objetive of the present contribution is to redescribe the quetotaxia of the larva and the pupa of Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar & Knab. The larval mouthpart is described for the first time. The material examined is from Tucumán province in the Argentina northwestern.

  2. Survival after submergence in the pupae of five species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D; Greenberg, B

    1994-09-01

    Survival of pupae of known ages after 1 to 5 d of submersion under water was assessed by determining the emergence of Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Phaenicia sericata (Meigen). Survival after 1 d of submergence was < 14% in the white puparial stage, 0-100% in pharate adults nearing eclosion, and approximately 100% in pupae between these two stages. This pattern inversely tracks O2 consumption during metamorphosis. Twenty-five percent of the pupae of three species (P. terraenovae, P. regina, and P. sericata) produced normal adults after 4 d of submersion, but none after 5 d. Among survivors, the pupation period was extended by the duration of submersion. Pupae of C. vicina were least able to withstand drowning. These data are potentially useful in estimating duration of submergence of a corpse in forensic investigations where the corpse becomes submerged after the larvae have developed and pupariated.

  3. The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

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    María M. Ronderos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. The pupa of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972, collected from a mat of floating fern (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae in Ilha da Marchantaria near Manaus, Brazil and the reared adult male are described, photographed and illustrated for the first time. This is the first detailed pupal description for the genus Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.

  4. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi, E-mail: lsasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 {+-}5 deg C and 70 {+-}5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  5. Founding weaver ant queens (Oecophylla longinoda) increase production and nanitic worker size when adopting non-nestmate pupae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouagoussounon, Issa; Offenberg, Joachim; Sinzogan, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda Latreille) are used commercially to control pest insects and for protein production. In this respect fast colony growth is desirable for managed colonies. Transplantation of non-nestmate pupae to incipient colonies has been shown to boost colony growth. Our...... objectives were to find the maximum number of pupae a founding queen can handle, and to measure the associated colony growth. Secondly, we tested if transplantation of pupae led to production of larger nanitic workers (defined as unusually small worker ants produced by founding queens in their first batch...... of offspring). Forty-five fertilized queens were divided into three treatments: 0 (control), 100 or 300 non-nestmate pupae transplanted to each colony. Pupae transplantation resulted in highly increased growth rates, as pupae were readily adopted by the queens and showed high proportions of surviving (mean...

  6. Ant pupae employ acoustics to communicate social status in their colony's hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casacci, Luca P; Thomas, Jeremy A; Sala, Marco; Treanor, David; Bonelli, Simona; Balletto, Emilio; Schönrogge, Karsten

    2013-02-18

    The possession of an efficient communication system and an ability to distinguish between young stages are essential attributes that enable eusocial insects to live in complex integrated societies. Although ants communicate primarily via chemicals, it is increasingly clear that acoustical signals also convey important information, including status, between adults in many species. However, all immature stages were believed to be mute. We confirm that larvae and recently formed pupae of Myrmica ants are mute, yet once they are sclerotized, the pupae possess a fully functioning stridulatory organ. The sounds generated by worker pupae were similar to those of workers but were emitted as single pulses rather than in the long sequences characteristic of adults; both induced the same range and intensity of benevolent behaviors when played back to unstressed workers. Both white and sclerotized pupae have a higher social status than larvae within Myrmica colonies, but the latter's status fell significantly after they were made mute. Our results suggest that acoustical signals supplant semiochemicals as a means of identification in sclerotized pupae, perhaps because their hardened integuments block the secretion of brood pheromones or because their developing adult secretions initially differ from overall colony odors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Parasitism and biological aspects of Tetrastichus howardi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae on Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Hidalgo Barbosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Erinnyis ello is one of the main pests of the cassava crop, and its natural enemies including egg, caterpillar, and pupal parasitoids. The aim of this study was to evaluate parasitism and biological aspects of Tetrastichus howardi on E. ello pupae. In general, parasitism and emergence of T. howardi on E. ello pupae was 64%. Cycle duration (egg to adult of T. howardi on E. ello pupae was of 20.12±0.15 days at 25±2°C, 70±10% relative humidity, and 14-h photophase. The progeny of T. howardi by E. ello pupae was of 466±0.44. Longevity of T. howardi females and males was of 15±0.57 and 12±0.93 days, respectively. The sex ratio was of 0.95±0.06, and the ratio of females per female was 44±0.45. T. howardi parasite and develops on E. ello pupae.

  8. [Effects of venom from Sclerodermus sichuanensis Xiao on pupa of Tenebrio molitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Zhi-Hang; Yang, Wei; Qin, Huan; Yang, Chun-Ping; Yang, Hua; Xu, Dan-Ping

    2013-11-01

    To explore the regulatory mechanisms of parasitism of Sclerodermus sichuanensis on Tenebrio molitor, the methods of natural parasitism and venom injection were adopted to investigate the effects of the venom from S. sichuanensis on the pupa of T. molitor in the parasitic process. Under venom injection, the paralytic degree of the pupa had a positive correlation with the concentration of injected venom, and the number of recovered pupa had a negative correlation with the injected venom concentration. The T. molitor pupa was in slight and reversible paralysis when injected with 0.01 VRE (venom reservoir equivalent) of venom, and in non-reversible and complete paralysis when 0.2 VRE was injected. The pupa died massively and appeared a wide range of melanization when injected with soil bacterial suspension alone, but the melanization delayed and the mortality declined significantly when the mixed liquor of bacterium and venom was injected. The bacteriostasis of the venom on Staphylococcus aureus was significantly stronger than that on Escherichia coli. Within a definite range of temperature, the paralytic activity decreased significantly with increasing temperature, the bacteriostasis on S. aureus increased significantly, while that on E. coli was opposite. This study showed that the venom from S. sichuanensis had the effects of paralysis, bacteriostasis, inhibiting exuviations, and delaying melanization.

  9. Misure in laboratorio di acustica edilizia a bassa frequenza: un approccio modale - Laboratory measurements of building acoustics at low frequency: a modal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Prato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nei tipici ambienti ordinari e di laboratorio (40-80 m3 e a bassa frequenza (50-100 Hz, il campo acustico risulta non diffuso a causa della presenza dei modi. In tali condizioni, le misure classiche di acustica edilizia (isolamento acustico per via aerea e da impatto, tempi di riverbera-zione sono inadeguate per caratterizzare correttamente le proprietà acustiche di partizioni, si-stemi di pavimentazioni e spazi chiusi. L’approccio modale permette di valutare tali proprietà studiando il comportamento dei modi. Sulla base di ciò, appropriate procedure di misura e nuovi descrittori sono proposti e discussi in modo da fornire possibili soluzioni per tali problematiche. ------ In typical laboratory and ordinary rooms (40-80 m3 and at low frequencies (50-100 Hz, the acoustic field is non-diffuse due to the presence of room modes. Under such conditions, standard building acoustics measurements (airborne and impact sound insulation, reverberation time and descriptors are not adequate to correctly characterize the acoustic property of partitions, flooring systems and rooms. The modal approach allows to evaluate such properties by studying the behavior of modes. On the basis of this, proper measurement procedures and new descriptors are proposed and discussed in order to provide possible solutions for such issues.

  10. First record of parasitism of water mite larva (Acari: Hydrachnidia) on the pupa of Trichoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczyńska, Edyta; Buczyński, Paweł; Zawal, Andrzej; Michoński, Grzegorz; Szlauer-Łukaszewska, Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    During the studies on ecology of Trichoptera of anthropogenic water bodies we have unexpectedly discovered the parasitic larvae of water mites of the species Tiphys torris on the pupa of Triaenodes bicolor. This is the first documented case of the parasitism of water mites on the caddisfly pupa as well as the first ever record of the species which is regarded as a dipteran parasite on caddisflies. The situation is very untypical for preimaginal stages of caddisflies are used by phoretic and not parasitic water mite larvae. Parasitism has been confirmed in this case by the formation of stylostomes and enlarged sizes of the bodies of the larvae. This is probably the case of facultative parasitism in which the pupa has served as a substitute of the adult form of a caddisfly.

  11. Hormonal control of the orange coloration of diapause pupae in the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Akira; Imai, Hiroshi; Adachi, Miwa; Komatsu, Mitsunobu; Islam, A T M Fayezul; Kodama, Ichiro; Kitazawa, Chisato; Endo, Katsuhiko

    2004-10-01

    Diapause pupae of Papilio xuthus show color polymorphism, represented by diapause-green, orange, and brownish-orange types that are each associated with specific pupation sites. We investigated the role of the site of pupation on the induction of the development of orange types (or brownish-orange types), and the endocrine mechanism underlying the control of color polymorphism in short-day pupae. All short-day larvae of the wandering stage developed into orange or brownish-orange type pupae when they were placed in rough-surfaced containers after gut-purge. Utilizing a pharate pupal ligation between the thorax and abdomen, the endocrine mechanism underlying the control of color polymorphism was shown to involve a head-thorax factor (Orange-Pupa-Inducing Factor: OPIF) that induced orange types in short-day pupae. OPIF was bioassayed using the ligated abdomens of short-day pharate pupae. OPIF was extractable with 2% NaCl solution from 5th-instar larval ganglia complexes following the mesothoracic complex (TG(2,3)-AG(1-7)), but it could not be extracted with either acetone or 80% ethanol solution. OPIF may not exist in the brains of day-0 pupae or in brain-subesophageal ganglion and prothoracic ganglion complexes of 5th-instar larvae. The short-day pharate pupae responded to OPIF in a dose-dependent manner.

  12. Utilisation of multiple queens and pupae transplantation to boost early colony growth of weaver ants Oecophylla smaragdina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Renkang; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Offenberg, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    donor colony was conducted in 2010 at Darwin, Australia. The survival rates of the imago workers from transplanted pupae ranged between 73 - 97%, suggesting that queens in incipient colonies accepted foreign pupae. Colony size was positively related to the number of founding queens. Compared...

  13. Larval x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in pupae of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Third instar larvae were exposed to X-ray treatment of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Irradiated pupae were collected daily. Biological performance parameters of pupae and adults of larvae treated with X-ray irradiation were evaluated. Standard proteomics procedures such as densitometr...

  14. Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) females are lighter feeding on Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae subjected to ventral nerve cord transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The movement observed in the Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae can be a type of defense strategy. This makes it significant to study the development and reproduction of the predatory stinkbugs Asopinae with the immobilized pupae of this prey. The aim was to evaluate the per...

  15. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Matthew D; Daniels, Jaret C; Kobziar, Leda N; Colburn, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    Butterflies such as the atala hairstreak, Eumaeus atala Poey, and the frosted elfin, Callophrys irus Godart, are restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where their larval host plants occur. Pupae of these butterflies are noted to reside at the base of host plants or in the leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape direct mortality by fire, a prominent disturbance in many areas they inhabit. The capacity of these species to cope with fire is a critical consideration for land management and conservation strategies in the locations where they are found. Survival of E. atala pupae in relation to temperature and duration of heat pulse was tested using controlled water bath experiments and a series of prescribed fire field experiments. Survival of E. atala pupae was correlated to peak temperature and heat exposure in both laboratory and field trials. In addition, E. atala survival following field trials was correlated to depth of burial; complete mortality was observed for pupae at the soil surface. Fifty percent of E. atala survived the heat generated by prescribed fire when experimentally placed at depths ≥ 1.75 cm, suggesting that pupation of butterflies in the soil at depth can protect from fatal temperatures caused by fire. For a species such as E. atala that pupates above ground, a population reduction from a burn event is a significant loss, and so decreasing the impact of prescribed fire on populations is critical.

  16. Suitability of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pupae for Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang-De; Lu, Yong-Yue; Zhao, Hai-Yan

    2015-06-01

    Spalangia endius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is found to be one of the most important natural enemies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae in China. In this study, the influence of host pupal age on the preference for and suitability of the host by the parasitoid S. endius was determined using choice and nonchoice tests. S. endius females accepted the 1-7 d-old B. dorsalis pupae for oviposition, and their offspring developed successfully. However, the S. endius preferentially parasitized the 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old host pupae. The emergence rate of the adult progeny was not affected by the host pupal age, nor was the male body weight, male longevity, and sex ratio of the parasitoid offspring. However, the shortest development time of both male and female progeny and the greatest size and adult longevity of female progeny were observed in hosts that were ≤4 d old. Females emerged later and lived longer than males, and they weighed more than the males. Host mortality decreased as the age of the host increased for 1-7-d-old hosts. Our findings suggest that 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old B. dorsalis pupae would be the best host ages at which to rear S. endius for effective control in field releases. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Does Tribolium brevicornis cuticular chemistry deter cannibalism and predation of pupae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, T; Dean, J; Michaud, J P; Verheggen, F; Lognay, G; Haubruge, E

    2011-01-01

    The cuticular hydrocarbons of insects are species-specific and often function as semiochemicals. The activity of Tribolium brevicornis cuticular hydrocarbons as feeding deterrents that ostensibly function to prevent pupal cannibalism and predation was evaluated. The cuticular hydrocarbons of T. brevicornis pupae were characterized and flour disk bioassays conducted with individual and combined extract components incorporated into artificial diets on which Tribolium adults fed for six days. Feeding by T. brevicornis and T. castaneum on flour disks containing cuticular extracts of T. brevicornis pupae resulted in reduced consumption and weight loss relative to feeding on control flour disks. In both cases, feeding deterrence indices exceeded 80% suggesting that T. brevicornis cuticular hydrocarbons could function to deter cannibalism and predation of pupae by larvae and adult beetles. Sixteen different cuticular hydrocarbons were identified in T. brevicornis pupal extracts. Eight of the commercially available linear alkanes were tested individually in feeding trials with eight Tribolium species. One compound (C28) significantly reduced the amount of food consumed by three species compared to control disks, whereas the compounds C25, C26, and C27 elicited increased feeding in some species. Four other compounds had no effect on consumption for any species. When four hydrocarbon mixtures were tested for synergistic deterrence on T. brevicornis and T. castaneum, none significantly influenced consumption. Our results indicate that the cuticular chemistry of T. brevicornis pupae could serve to deter predation by conspecific and congeneric beetles.

  18. Encontro de anofelinos do subgênero Nyssorhynchus em recipientes artificiais, Maricá, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreira-Alves João R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Registram-se o encontro de larvas e uma pupa de anofelinos em recipientes artificiais desativados. Foram encontradas larvas de Anopheles argyritarsis em uma caixa d'água abandonada, na localidade de Pedregulho, distrito de Ponta Negra, e uma pupa de Anopheles aquasalis em um recipiente experimental, a céu aberto, no distrito de Itaipuaçu, onde ocorreram três casos de malária em 1997. Ambos os encontros ocorreram no município de Maricá, RJ, Brasil.

  19. Volatile organic compounds released by blowfly larvae and pupae: new perspectives in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, C; Dekeirsschieter, J; Brostaux, Y; Wathelet, J-P; Verheggen, F J; Haubruge, E

    2012-06-10

    To evaluate postmortem intervals (PMIs), one should take into account the determined age of necrophagous flies present on the cadaver. However, PMI determination needs further improvement, and rapid and accurate approaches have therefore to be developed. While previous studies have focussed on insect cuticular hydrocarbons, here we explore the volatile profile released by larvae and pupae of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae). We monitored changes in volatile compounds daily, by headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Branched and unbranched hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters and acids were identified, and the volatile profile was shown to vary, in both composition and quantity, with the age of the larva/pupa under investigation. We concluded, based on the analysis of the released volatile organic compounds, that it is possible to increase the accuracy of the estimated PMI, through improved estimation of the age of blowflies present on the cadaver. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Redescription of the last instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. RONDEROS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe e ilustra el último estadio larval y la pupa de Bezzia roldani Spinelli & Wirth, utilizando microscopio de contraste de fase y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Los estados inmaduros se capturaron con la ayuda de embudos Berlesse a partir de hidrófitas flotantes, de los géneros Lemna, Wolfia, Wolfiella y Spirodella (Lemnaceae de las lagunas Chascomús y Los Talas, ambas en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. La larva presenta las características típicas de larvas carnívoras, se compara con la de Bezzia nobilis (Winnertz y con una especie similar del género Palpomyia Meigen, P. guarani Lane. La pupa se compara con la de Bezzia blantoni Spinelli & Wirth.

  1. Susceptibility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae pupae to entomopathogenic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrini Giulia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is one of the most serious and economically damaging insects worldwide, affecting the quality and quantity of both olive oil and table olives. Laboratory bioassays were conducted for the first time to evaluate the susceptibility of B. oleae pupae to two entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN species, Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The nematodes tested caused pupal mortality of 62.5% and 40.6%, respectively. The most noteworthy result was obtained with S. carpocapsae which was able to infect 21.9% of the emerged adults. Since this tephritid fly spent several months in the soil as pupa, the use of EPNs could be a promising method to control this pest.

  2. Description of Larva and redescription of Pupa and Adult of Palpomyia guarani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    María M Ronderos; Spinelli,Gustavo R; Florentina Díaz

    2004-01-01

    The larva of Palpomyia guarani Lane, 1946 is described and illustrated by using a phase-contrast and Scanning Electron Microscope, and pupa and adult redescribed by using a phase-contrast stereoscope. Immatures were collected breeding in a tree hole in Bella Vista, Paraguay. Larvae have character states typical of carnivorous larvae. The species is compared with its similar congener Palpomyia columbiana Kieffer, and this record constitutes the first one from Paraguay.Se describe e ilustra la ...

  3. Morphology and Ecological Notes on the Larvae and Pupae of Simulium (Simulium from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam-Kyu Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphological features of larvae and pupae of twelve species of Simulium (Simulium from Korea are investigated and redescribed. Detailed descriptions of immature stages of each species are provided with photographs. For the Korean members of subgenus Simulium, combinations of the following characteristics can be used to separate them from other Korean subgenera: larval abdomen without a pair of conical-shaped ventral tubercles; postgenal cleft variously shaped, viz., miter shaped, spearhead, bullet shaped or triangular; rectal papillae 3 simple lobe or compound lobes; pupal gill of 6-16 filaments; cocoon shoe, boot or slipper shaped; and head trichomes 3 pairs (1 facial+2 frontal. Habitat information and other ecological aspects of each species are provided. Updated keys to larvae and pupae of the Korean species of the subgenus Simulium are also provided to facilitate species identification. Taxonomic treatment based on external morphologies of larvae and pupae of Korean species of the subgenus Simulium are focused and included in this study. To understand their interspecific relationships, phylogenetic analyses using multiple data from molecule, morphology, and ecology are warranted in future research. Also continued exploration for new character systems is needed to establish more stable boundaries for subgenus and species delimitations.

  4. Production of highly immunogenic virus-like particles of bovine papillomavirus type 6 in silkworm pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoko; Iizuka, Tetsuya; Hatama, Shinichi; Kanno, Toru; Mase, Masaji; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2017-10-13

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are the causative agent of bovine teat papillomatosis, which can lead to severe economic losses in dairy cattle. Among the 14 identified BPV genotypes, BPV type 6 (BPV6) is the most frequently detected in teat papilloma lesions, and is therefore thought to play a major role in teat papillomatosis. To develop an effective vaccine against BPV6 infection, we produced virus-like particles of BPV6 (BPV6-VLP) in silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupae and purified these by heparin affinity chromatography using a single column. About 0.7mg purified BPV6-VLP was obtained from one pupa. BPV6-VLP-immunized mice produced a specific IgG to BPV6 that recognized BPV6 antigen with high sensitivity in an immunohistochemical analysis. Thus, silkworm pupae are a useful bioreactor for the production of BPV6-VLP, which can potentially be used as a vaccine for bovine teat papillomatosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexual Dimorphism of Pupae and Adults of the Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Francisco J.; Virdiana, Ike; Navies, Maisin; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Hebbar, Prakash

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the main distinguishing characteristics of female and male pupae and adults of cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Two pairs of tubercles present on the sterna of segments IX and X of the female pupae are useful in differentiating female from male pupae. The female genital opening is located anterior to the first pair of tubercles and forms a plateau in which the center has a light brown longitudinal depression that indicates the female genital opening. The male genital opening is a conspicuous, brown, longitudinal slit located between the two pairs of tubercles. The sex of the adult moth can be determined by examining the ventrocaudal segments of the abdomen. The last segment of the female abdomen is white, compressed laterally and at the tip, and the hairy anal papillae can be seen. In the male, the ventrocaudal end of the abdomen is black and robust. This information will be useful for laboratory and field diagnosis and while working on sex ratios of this important pest of cocoa. PMID:21861656

  6. Defensive gin-trap closure response of tenebrionid beetle, Zophobas atratus, pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Toshio; Kurauchi, Toshiaki; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi

    2012-01-01

    Pupae of the beetle Zophobas atratus Fab. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have jaws called gin traps on the lateral margin of their jointed abdominal segments. When a weak tactile stimulation was applied to the intersegmental region between the two jaws of a gin trap in a resting pupa, the pupa rapidly closed and reopened single or multiple gin traps adjacent to the stimulated trap for 100200 ms. In response to a strong stimulation, a small or large rotation of the abdominal segments occurred after the rapid closure of the traps. Analyses of trajectory patterns of the last abdominal segment during the rotations revealed that the rotational responses were graded and highly variable with respect to the amplitudes of their horizontal and vertical components. The high variability of these rotational responses is in contrast with the low variability (or constancy) of abdominal rotations induced by the tactile stimulation of cephalic and thoracic appendages. Since the closed state of the gin traps lasts only for a fraction of a second, the response may mainly function to deliver a "painful" stimulus to an attacker rather than to cause serious damage.

  7. Nutritional Value of Pupae Versus Larvae of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as Food for Rearing Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe; Shelby, Kent S; Coudron, Thomas A

    2016-04-01

    Life-table analysis yielded demographic parameter values that indicate that Tenebrio molitor (L.) pupae are potentially more suitable factitious prey to mass-produce the predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) and are more suitable prey than the larvae. P. maculiventris developed faster (23.2 vs. 25.5 d), weighed more (females 80.9 vs. 66.6 mg and males 64.7 vs. 53.7 mg), and had a higher survival rate (0.88 vs. 0.7), fecundity, and reproductive output (87.1 vs. 22.8 eggs/female) when reared on pupae compared with larvae of T. molitor. The total protein content and soluble protein content were significantly higher in pupae (60.2 and 23%, respectively) than larvae (53.1 and 14.4%, respectively). Lipid content was significantly lower in pupae (32.1%) than larvae (35.9%), and larvae had more polyunsaturated fatty acids (83.6 vs. 56.6 mg/g) and less oleic (0.1 mg/g) and steric (6.1 mg/g) acids than pupae (37.3 and 12.3 mg/g, respectively). The total sugar content was not significantly different between pupae and larvae. However, larvae had significantly more fructose than pupae, but pupae had more galactose, glucosamine, glucose, mannose, and trehalose than larvae. Differences in nutritional composition and its impact on predator demographic parameters are potential factors that make the pupal stage a better food source.

  8. The large-scale production of an artificial influenza virus-like particle vaccine in silkworm pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerome, Kuniaki; Sugita, Shigeo; Kuroda, Kazumichi; Hirose, Toshiharu; Matsuda, Sayaka; Majima, Kei; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Shibata, Toshikatsu; Poetri, Okti Nadia; Soejoedono, Retno D; Mayasari, Ni L P Ika; Agungpriyono, Srihadi; Nerome, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    We successfully established a mass production system for an influenza virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine using a synthetic H5 hemagglutinin (HA) gene codon-optimized for the silkworm. A recombinant baculovirus containing the synthetic gene was inoculated into silkworm pupae. Four days after inoculation, the hemagglutination titer in homogenates from infected pupae reached a mean value of 0.8 million hemagglutination units (HAU), approximately 2,000 μg HA protein per pupa, more than 50-fold higher than that produced with an embryonated chicken egg. VLPs ranging from 30 nm to 300 nm in diameter and covered with a large number of spikes were detected in the homogenates. The spikes were approximately 14 nm long, similar to an authentic influenza HA spike. Detailed electron micrographs indicated that the VLP spike density was similar to that of authentic influenza virus particles. The results clearly show that the expression of a single HA gene can efficiently produce VLPs in silkworm pupae. When chickens were immunized with the pupae homogenate, the hemagglutination inhibition titer in their sera reached values of 2,048-8,192 after approximately 1 month. This is the first report demonstrating that a large amount of VLP vaccine could be produced by single synthetic HA gene in silkworm pupae. Our system might be useful for future vaccine development against other viral diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transcriptomic immune response of Tenebrio molitor pupae to parasitization by Scleroderma guani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ying Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Host and parasitoid interaction is one of the most fascinating relationships of insects, which is currently receiving an increasing interest. Understanding the mechanisms evolved by the parasitoids to evade or suppress the host immune system is important for dissecting this interaction, while it was still poorly known. In order to gain insight into the immune response of Tenebrio molitor to parasitization by Scleroderma guani, the transcriptome of T. molitor pupae was sequenced with focus on immune-related gene, and the non-parasitized and parasitized T. molitor pupae were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE analysis with special emphasis on parasitoid-induced immune-related genes using Illumina sequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a single run, 264,698 raw reads were obtained. De novo assembly generated 71,514 unigenes with mean length of 424 bp. Of those unigenes, 37,373 (52.26% showed similarity to the known proteins in the NCBI nr database. Via analysis of the transcriptome data in depth, 430 unigenes related to immunity were identified. DGE analysis revealed that parasitization by S. guani had considerable impacts on the transcriptome profile of T. molitor pupae, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 3,431 parasitism-responsive transcripts. The expression of a total of 74 unigenes involved in immune response of T. molitor was significantly altered after parasitization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: obtained T. molitor transcriptome, in addition to establishing a fundamental resource for further research on functional genomics, has allowed the discovery of a large group of immune genes that might provide a meaningful framework to better understand the immune response in this species and other beetles. The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive T. molitor immune gene expression information at the transcriptional level following parasitization, and sheds valuable light on the molecular

  10. Transcriptomic immune response of Tenebrio molitor pupae to parasitization by Scleroderma guani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Yang, Pu; Zhang, Zhong; Wu, Guo-Xing; Yang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Host and parasitoid interaction is one of the most fascinating relationships of insects, which is currently receiving an increasing interest. Understanding the mechanisms evolved by the parasitoids to evade or suppress the host immune system is important for dissecting this interaction, while it was still poorly known. In order to gain insight into the immune response of Tenebrio molitor to parasitization by Scleroderma guani, the transcriptome of T. molitor pupae was sequenced with focus on immune-related gene, and the non-parasitized and parasitized T. molitor pupae were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE) analysis with special emphasis on parasitoid-induced immune-related genes using Illumina sequencing. In a single run, 264,698 raw reads were obtained. De novo assembly generated 71,514 unigenes with mean length of 424 bp. Of those unigenes, 37,373 (52.26%) showed similarity to the known proteins in the NCBI nr database. Via analysis of the transcriptome data in depth, 430 unigenes related to immunity were identified. DGE analysis revealed that parasitization by S. guani had considerable impacts on the transcriptome profile of T. molitor pupae, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 3,431 parasitism-responsive transcripts. The expression of a total of 74 unigenes involved in immune response of T. molitor was significantly altered after parasitization. obtained T. molitor transcriptome, in addition to establishing a fundamental resource for further research on functional genomics, has allowed the discovery of a large group of immune genes that might provide a meaningful framework to better understand the immune response in this species and other beetles. The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive T. molitor immune gene expression information at the transcriptional level following parasitization, and sheds valuable light on the molecular understanding of the host-parasitoid interaction.

  11. Hymenopterous parasitoids attacking Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae pupae in Kohgiluyeh Safflower farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Safflower capsule fly (SCF, Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae is the most destructive insect pest attacking the Safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. plant which are cultivated as an oil crop. It is mainly controlled through application of broad-spectrum insecticides, which can adversely affect safflower farms ecosystem and consequently human health. Since a first step in setting up an integrated pest management program is to assess the biological control agents within the ecosystem. Therefore, in this research work the pupal parasitoids of Safflower capsule fly a main insect pest attacking Safflower plants were identified. The impact of these parasitoids against this pest was evaluated on the varying pest generations and within different locations in Kohgiluyeh province during 2008-2009 seasons. Pupal parasitoid adults of SCF were recorded from fieldreared pupae, which had been collected from heavily infested small flower heads of the first generation as well from large flower heads of the second and third generations. Rate of parasitism on A. helianthi pupae was estimated as the number of parasitoids over the total count of parasitoids and flies. Ten hymenopterous species belonging to different families parasitizing insect pupae were screened as follows: Bracon hebetor (Spinola, 1808 and Bracon luteator (Spinola, 1808 (Braconidae; Isocolus tinctorious (Melika and Gharaei, 2006 (Cynipidae; Pronotalia carlinarum (Szelenyi and Erdos, 1951 (Eulophidae; Eurytoma acroptilae (Zerova, 1986 (Eurytomidae; Ormyrus orientalis (Walker, 1871 (Ormyridae; Colotrechnus viridis (Masi, 1921 and Pteromalus sp. (Walker, 1976 (Pteromalidae; and Antistrophoplex conthurnatus (Zerova, 2000 and Microdontomenus annulatus (Masi, 1899 (Torymidae. The average parasitization rate was 23±1 as revealed through the present study. The highest parasitization rate occurred during the first generation in all localities tested, as well as in years. Statistical

  12. Redescription of the last instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ronderos,Maria M; Spinelli,Gustavo R; Florentina DIAZ

    2007-01-01

    Se redescribe e ilustra el último estadio larval y la pupa de Bezzia roldani Spinelli & Wirth, utilizando microscopio de contraste de fase y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Los estados inmaduros se capturaron con la ayuda de embudos Berlesse a partir de hidrófitas flotantes, de los géneros Lemna, Wolfia, Wolfiella y Spirodella (Lemnaceae) de las lagunas Chascomús y Los Talas, ambas en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. La larva presenta las características típicas de larvas carnívor...

  13. Almacenaje de pupas y adultos del parasitoide Tamarixia triozae (Hyamenoptera: Eulophidae) a temperaturas bajas.

    OpenAIRE

    Cerón González, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Tamarixia triozae es un ectoparasitoide con alto potencial para su uso en programas de manejo integrado del psílido de la papa, Bactericera cockerelli. Aunque ya se produce comercialmente, no existe información de su almacenaje a bajas temperaturas, esta información puede tener importancia para optimizar la conservación de estos organismos. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la respuesta de pupas y adultos de T. triozae después de almacenarlos a 5, 8 y 10°C por 7, 14 y 21 días. Los resultados s...

  14. Epicuticular wax of large and small white butterflies, Pieris brassicae and P. rapae crucivora: qualitative and quantitative comparison between diapause and non-diapause pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Junichi; Katagiri, Chihiro

    We compared the quantity and quality of the epicuticular wax of diapause and non-diapause pupae in two closely related Pieris species, P. brassicae and P. rapae crucivora. Main components of their epicuticular wax were identified as hydrocarbons. In P. brassicae, more than 95% of hydrocarbons were saturated regardless of whether the pupae were in diapause or not. In P. rapae crucivora, 93% of hydrocarbons were saturated in non-diapause pupae whereas in diapause pupae 41% were saturated and 59% unsaturated. From measurements of body surface area by nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging, we calculated the average thickness of the wax layer. The thickness in diapause and non-diapause pupae of P. brassicae was 800 and 160 nm, respectively. In P. rapae crucivora, the thickness was 195 nm in diapause and 11 nm in non-diapause. This is the first report to clarify the compositional difference in epicuticular wax between diapause and non-diapause pupae.

  15. Survival and swimming behavior of insecticide-exposed larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Hudson Vv; Pascini, Tales V; Dângelo, Rômulo Ac; Guedes, Raul Nc; Martins, Gustavo F

    2014-04-24

    The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is essentially a container-inhabiting species that is closely associated with urban areas. This species is a vector of human pathogens, including dengue and yellow fever viruses, and its control is of paramount importance for disease prevention. Insecticide use against mosquito juvenile stages (i.e. larvae and pupae) is growing in importance, particularly due to the ever-growing problems of resistance to adult-targeted insecticides and human safety concerns regarding such use in human dwellings. However, insecticide effects on insects in general and mosquitoes in particular primarily focus on their lethal effects. Thus, sublethal effects of such compounds in mosquito juveniles may have important effects on their environmental prevalence. In this study, we assessed the survival and swimming behavior of A. aegypti 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae exposed to increasing concentrations of insecticides. We also assessed cell death in the neuromuscular system of juveniles. Third instar larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of azadirachtin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid and spinosad. Insect survival was assessed for 10 days. The distance swam, the resting time and the time spent in slow swimming were assessed in 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae. Muscular and nervous cells of L4 and pupae exposed to insecticides were marked with the TUNEL reaction. The results from the survival bioassays were subjected to survival analysis while the swimming behavioral data were subjected to analyses of covariance, complemented with a regression analysis. All insecticides exhibited concentration-dependent effects on survival of larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito. The pyrethroid deltamethrin was the most toxic insecticide followed by spinosad, imidacloprid, and azadirachtin, which exhibited low potency against the juveniles. All insecticides except azadirachtin reduced L4 swimming speed and wriggling movements. A

  16. Survival and swimming behavior of insecticide-exposed larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is essentially a container-inhabiting species that is closely associated with urban areas. This species is a vector of human pathogens, including dengue and yellow fever viruses, and its control is of paramount importance for disease prevention. Insecticide use against mosquito juvenile stages (i.e. larvae and pupae) is growing in importance, particularly due to the ever-growing problems of resistance to adult-targeted insecticides and human safety concerns regarding such use in human dwellings. However, insecticide effects on insects in general and mosquitoes in particular primarily focus on their lethal effects. Thus, sublethal effects of such compounds in mosquito juveniles may have important effects on their environmental prevalence. In this study, we assessed the survival and swimming behavior of A. aegypti 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae exposed to increasing concentrations of insecticides. We also assessed cell death in the neuromuscular system of juveniles. Methods Third instar larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of azadirachtin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid and spinosad. Insect survival was assessed for 10 days. The distance swam, the resting time and the time spent in slow swimming were assessed in 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae. Muscular and nervous cells of L4 and pupae exposed to insecticides were marked with the TUNEL reaction. The results from the survival bioassays were subjected to survival analysis while the swimming behavioral data were subjected to analyses of covariance, complemented with a regression analysis. Results All insecticides exhibited concentration-dependent effects on survival of larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito. The pyrethroid deltamethrin was the most toxic insecticide followed by spinosad, imidacloprid, and azadirachtin, which exhibited low potency against the juveniles. All insecticides except azadirachtin reduced L4 swimming speed and

  17. Feeding preferences and functional responses of Calathus granatensis and Pterostichus globosus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on pupae of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, A M; Pereira, J A; Benhadi-Marín, J; Santos, S A P

    2016-12-01

    Carabid beetles are important predators in agricultural landscapes feeding on a range of prey items. However, their role as predators of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most serious pests of olives, is unknown. In this context, the feeding preferences and the functional responses of two carabid beetle species, Calathus granatensis (Vuillefroy) and Pterostichus globosus (Fabricius), were studied under laboratory conditions. Feeding preference assays involved exposing carabid beetles to different ratios of B. oleae pupae and an alternative prey, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Both species fed on B. oleae pupae however, C. granatensis always showed a significant preference for that prey whereas P. globosus switched to C. capitata pupae when the offered ratio was below 0.5. The total prey biomass consumed was significantly higher for P. globosus than for C. granatensis. Functional response curves were estimated based on different densities of B. oleae pupae and both carabid beetle species exhibited a type II functional response using Rogers' random-predator equation. P. globosus showed shorter handling time (1.223 ± 0.118 h) on B. oleae pupae than C. granatensis (3.230 ± 0.627 h). Our results suggest that both species can be important in reducing the densities of B. oleae in olive groves, although P. globosus was more efficient than C. granatensis.

  18. Radioisotope labelling of several major insect pest. Dipping the pupae in /sup 32/P solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutrisno, S. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1981-12-01

    Radioisotope uptake by insects could take place through various parts i.e. mouth, cuticula, intersegmental, secretion and excretion organs. Usually insects are labelled internally by feeding them on an artificial diet containing radioisotope solution. Labelling of several insect pests of cabbage (Crocidolomia binotalis) Zell and Plutella maculipennis Curt and rice (Chilo suppressalis Walker) by dipping of the pupae in /sup 32/P solution showed a promising result. Pupae of Crocidolomia binotalis Zell dipped in 3 ml solution of /sup 32/P with specific activities of 1, 3, 5 and 7 ..mu..Ci/ml had developed labelled adults of sufficiently high radioactivity levels for ecological studies. Similar results were also obtained with Plutella maculipennis Curt and Chilo suppressalis Walker with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 ..mu..Ci/ml /sup 32/P solution. The best doses for radioisotope labelling by dipping of the insects Crocidolomia binotalis Zell, Plutella maculipennis Curt, and Chilo suppressalis Walker were 1, 9, and 7 ..mu..Ci/ml respectivelly.

  19. Description of Larva and redescription of Pupa and Adult of Palpomyia guarani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Ronderos

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The larva of Palpomyia guarani Lane, 1946 is described and illustrated by using a phase-contrast and Scanning Electron Microscope, and pupa and adult redescribed by using a phase-contrast stereoscope. Immatures were collected breeding in a tree hole in Bella Vista, Paraguay. Larvae have character states typical of carnivorous larvae. The species is compared with its similar congener Palpomyia columbiana Kieffer, and this record constitutes the first one from Paraguay.Se describe e ilustra la larva de Palpomyia guarani Lane, 1946 utilizando Microscopio de Contraste de Fase y Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido. Se redescriben pupa y adulto usando Microscopio de Contraste de Fase. Los estados inmaduros fueron capturados en Bella Vista, Paraguay, en hueco de árbol, donde se desarrollan. La larva presenta características típicas de larvas carnívoras. La especie se cita por primera vez para Paraguay, y es comparada con su similar cogenérica Palpomyia columbiana Kieffer.

  20. Factors Affecting Species Identifications of Blow Fly Pupae Based upon Chemical Profiles and Multivariate Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, William; Carroll, Clinton; Dixon, Darren A; Goodpaster, John V; Picard, Christine J

    2017-04-11

    Alternative methods for the identification of species of blow fly pupae have been developed over the years that consist of the analyses of chemical profiles. However, the effect of biotic and abiotic factors that could influence the predictive manner for the tests have not been evaluated. The lipids of blowfly pupae ( Cochliomyia macellaria , Lucilia cuprina , Lucilia sericata , and Phormia regina ) were extracted in pentane, derivatized, and analyzed by total-vaporization solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TV-SPME GC-MS). Peak areas for 26 compounds were analyzed. Here we evaluated one biotic factor (colonization) on four species of blow flies to determine how well a model produced from lipid profiles of colonized flies predicted the species of flies of offspring of wild-caught flies and found very good species identification following 10 generations of inbreeding. When we evaluated four abiotic factors in our fly rearing protocols (temperature, humidity, pupation substrate, and diet), we found that the ability to assign the chemical profile to the correct species was greatly reduced.

  1. Parasitization by Scleroderma guani influences protein expression in Tenebrio molitor pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wu, Guo-Xing; Ze, Sang-Zi; Stanley, David W; Yang, Bin

    2014-07-01

    Ectoparasitoid wasps deposit their eggs onto the surface and inject venom into their hosts. Venoms are chemically complex and they exert substantial impact on hosts, including permanent or temporary paralysis and developmental arrest. These visible venom effects are due to changes in expression of genes encoding physiologically relevant proteins. While the influence of parasitization on gene expression in several lepidopterans has been reported, the molecular details of parasitoid/beetle relationships remain mostly unknown. This shortcoming led us to pose the hypothesis that envenomation by the ectoparasitic ant-like bethylid wasp Scleroderma guani leads to changes in protein expression in the yellow mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor. We tested our hypothesis by comparing the proteomes of non-parasitized and parasitized host pupae using iTRAQ-based proteomics. We identified 41 proteins that were differentially expressed (32↑- and 9↓-regulated) in parasitized pupae. We assigned these proteins to functional categories, including immunity, stress and detoxification, energy metabolism, development, cytoskeleton, signaling and others. We recorded parallel changes in mRNA levels and protein abundance in 14 selected proteins following parasitization. Our findings support our hypothesis by documenting changes in protein expression in parasitized hosts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rasgos morfológicos asociados a la viabilidad de pupas en parasitoides del género Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae Morphological traits associated with pupae viability in Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. Folgarait

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Fóridos del género Pseudacteon Coquillett oviponen en forrajeras del género Solenopsis Westwood y empupan en sus cabezas. Se evaluó la relación entre la viabilidad de los parasitoides, la presencia de cuernos respiratorios y el color en los opérculos de los puparios de cuatro especies de Pseudacteon criados sobre Solenopsis invicta Buren y Solenopsis richteri Forel. La presencia de cuernos respiratorios estuvo asociada a la viabilidad de las pupas para las especies consideradas (p 0,09; excepto cuando Pseudacteon cultellatus Borgmeier se desarrolló sobre hormigas de la reserva y niñeras de S. invicta (p ABSTRACT. Pseudacteon Coquillett phorid flies oviposit on Solenopsis Westwood ants and pupate within the ant's head. We have evaluated the relationship between pupae's viability, presence of respiratory horns and the operculum color in four species of Pseudacteon reared on Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis richteri Forel ants. The presence of respiratory horns was significantly associated with pupae's viability for all species considered (p 0,09, except (p < 0,01 when Pseudacteon cultellatus Borgmeier had developed on S. invicta nanitic and reserve workers. Pupae with light-colored opercula were more frequent in P. cultellatus, whereas brown opercula were more frequent for the other species that attack bigger ants. Mimetism can be invoked to explain the similarity in opercula color with that of the head of the parasitized ant as a way to avoid recognition by members of the colony. We conclude that the presence of respiratory horns is necessary for pupae survival of most of the pupae and we suggest to use the presence of respiratory horns as an indicator of the efficiency of rearing protocols for this group of parasitoids. We also recommend using forager ants because other casts do not seem to be appropriate hosts.

  3. Search efficiency of Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor on Musca domestica pupae in dairy cattle farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Indoor releases of Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girauelt & Sanders (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were conducted in five organic dairy cattle farms to evaluate the overall effect on parasitism and efficiency at different pupal depths of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae.......9--24.4% could be attributed to Muscidifurax raptor. A naturally occurring ichneumonid, Phygadeuon fumator Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) parasitized 4.1--6.8% of the exposed fly pupae. The placement of house fly pupae at two depths of the bedding, 5--10 and 15--20 cm had no significant effect...... on overall parasitism whereas M. raptor attacked the house fly pupae significantly more when placed in the 5--10 cm stratum (10.0%) compared to the 15--20 cm stratum (3.2%). The two pupal depths had no significant effect on parasitism by S. cameroni and P. fumator. Albeit S. cameroni contributed...

  4. Parasitism, emergence, and development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in pupae of different ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host-parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3-5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6-7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2-5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6-7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  5. Redescription of the last instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Redescripción del último estadio larval y de la pupa de Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. Ronderos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The fourth instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani Spinelli & Wirth is redescribed and illustrated by using phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Immatures were collected by placing floating hydrophytes of the genera Lemna, Wolfia, Wolfiella and Spirodella (Lemnaceae in Berlesse funnels. The hydrophytes were collected in the Chascomús and Los Talas ponds, both in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The larva show features typical of carnivorous larvae, and it is compared with that of B. nobilis (Winnertz and with a similar species of the genus Palpomyia Meigen, P. guarani Lane. The pupa is compared with its similar congener B. blantoni Spinelli & Wirth.Se redescribe e ilustra el último estadio larval y la pupa de Bezzia roldani Spinelli & Wirth, utilizando microscopio de contraste de fase y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Los estados inmaduros se capturaron con la ayuda de embudos Berlesse a partir de hidrófitas flotantes, de los géneros Lemna, Wolfia, Wolfiella y Spirodella (Lemnaceae de las lagunas Chascomús y Los Talas, ambas en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. La larva presenta las características típicas de larvas carnívoras, se compara con la de Bezzia nobilis (Winnertz y con una especie similar del género Palpomyia Meigen, P. guarani Lane. La pupa se compara con la de Bezzia blantoni Spinelli & Wirth.

  6. Are the Pupae and Eggs of the Lacewing Ceraeochrysa cubana (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Tolerant to Insecticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugno, Gabriel Rodrigo; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen) pupae and eggs to 11 insecticides was evaluated under laboratory conditions, based on lethal and sublethal effects. Eggs at three ages (≤24-h-old, 48- to 72-h-old, and 96- to 120-h-old) and pupae at ≤48-h-old were used. All the insecticides were considered harmless when applied at the pupal stage. Phosmet and pyriproxyfen insecticides were considered harmless to eggs irrespective of the age. Esfenvalerate was harmless to eggs at the ages of ≤24-h-old and 48- to 72-h-old. Imidacloprid SC and azadirachtin were harmless to eggs at ages of 48- to 72-h-old and 96- to 120-h-old, and thiamethoxam was only harmless to eggs at 96- to 120-h-old of age. In contrast, chlorpyrifos and malathion were harmful to eggs at the age of 96- to 120-h-old, and imidacloprid WG was slightly harmful to the three egg ages evaluated. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole and lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam were slightly and/or moderately harmful to all egg ages evaluated. Based on the life table parameters, the insecticides thiamethoxam, imidacloprid SC, phosmet, pyriproxyfen, and azadirachtin did not affect the net rate of reproduction (Ro) of C. cubana. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole decreased the Ro and increased the population doubling time (Td) independently of the egg ages evaluated. Therefore, the insecticides pyriproxyfen and phosmet are compatible with eggs of the predator C. cubana, but other insecticides should be evaluated under field conditions to verify their effects on the predator. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Gamma radiation sensitivity of the eggs, larvae and pupae of Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Albayrak, Sevil; Karaborklu, Salih

    2008-05-01

    This study focused on determining the minimal effective gamma radiation dose that prevents commodity damage caused by the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). The study was also designed to assess the effect of releasing either partially sterilized males alone or both partially sterilized males and females on the reproductive potential of P. interpunctella populations. The dose of radiation required to prevent larval emergence from irradiated eggs was 350 Gy, and the same dose was also required to prevent adult emergence from mature larvae. A dose of 300 Gy was not able to prevent adult emergence from irradiated pupae. The dose at which 100% sterility was achieved in treated females mated to treated males was 300 Gy for the parental generation of irradiated pupae. Fertility of the parental males from irradiated pupae was 48.17% at 300 Gy in treated males crossed with untreated females, but male progeny of irradiated male parents had a residual fertility of 11.06% at the same dose. F(1) males from irradiated pupae were more sterile than parental males. To prevent larval emergence from irradiated eggs, a dose of 350 Gy is required. The same dose is required to prevent the larvae from reaching the adult stage. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Nutritional value of pupae versus larvae of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as food for rearing Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factitious prey are often more suitable for use in mass production of beneficial insects than natural prey. Life table analysis yielded demographic parameter values that indicate Tenebrio molitor (L.) pupae are promising as factitious prey to mass produce Podisus maculiventris (Say) and are more sui...

  9. A report on the pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, T K; Abu Hassan, A; Che Salmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2010-04-01

    The pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) were collected from a human corpse found indoor in active decay stage together with the larvae of Sarcophagidae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). This research note is the first report of the Desmometopa sp. recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

  10. Characteristic properties of proteins from pre-ecdysial cuticle of larvae and pupae of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2002-01-01

    Proteins extracted from the cuticle of pharate larvae and pupae of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor are more soluble at low temperatures than at higher temperatures, a behaviour characteristic of hydrophobic proteins. When the temperature of an unfractionated cuticular extract is raised from 4 to 25...

  11. The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira Krüger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Species of Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are found in decomposing bodies, usually in fresh, bloated and decay stages. Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, for example, can be found in animal carcasses. The influence of environmental factors has not been evaluated in puparia of O. albuquerquei. Thus, the focus of this work was motivated by the need for models to predict the development of a necrophagous insect as a function of abiotic factors. Colonies of O. albuquerquei were maintained in the laboratory to obtain pupae. On the tenth day of each month 200 pupae, divided equally into 10 glass jars, were exposed to the environment and checked daily for adult emergence of each sample. We concluded that the high survival rate observed suggested that the diets used for rearing the larvae and maintaining the adults were appropriate. Also, the data adjusted to robust generalized linear models and there were no interruptions of O. albuquerquei pupae development within the limits of temperatures studied in southern Rio Grande do Sul, given the high survival presented.

  12. Effects of climate change on overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Li, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Climate change significantly affects insects' behaviors. Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most serious insect pests in the world. Much is known about the survival of the overwintering population and spring emergence of H. armigera. However, little is known about the effects of climate change on overwintering and spring emergence of H. armigera. This study investigated the effects of changes of air and soil temperatures and precipitation on overwintering pupae of H. armigera by analyzing historical data from Magaiti County in northwest China using statistical methods. The results showed that during the period of 1989-2006, the climate warming advanced the first-appearance date of overwintering pupae eclosion (FD) and end date of overwintering pupae eclosion (ED) by 1.276 and 0.193 days per year, respectively; the duration between the FD and ED (DFEPE) was prolonged by 1.09 days per year, which resulted in more eclosion of overwintering pupae. For a 1 °C increase in the maximum air temperature (Tmax) in winter, the FD became earlier by 3.234 days. Precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED and produced little relative influence on DFEPE. A 1-mm increase of precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED by 0.850 and 0.494 days, respectively. Mean air temperature (Tmean) in March, with a 41.3% relative influence, precipitation in winter, with a 49.0% relative influence, and T mean in March, with a 37.5% relative influence, were the major affecting factors on FD, ED, and DFEPE, respectively. T max in February with a 53.0% relative influence was the major affecting factor on the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP). Increased soil temperatures in October and November and autumn and air temperatures in winter could decrease the MOP, though the relative influences were lower than T max in February. Increased precipitation in winter increased the MOP, but the relative influence was only 4.2% because of little precipitation. T mean

  13. Redescription of the last instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Redescripción del último estadio larval y de la pupa de Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ronderos,Maria M; Spinelli,Gustavo R; Florentina Diaz

    2007-01-01

    The fourth instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani Spinelli & Wirth is redescribed and illustrated by using phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Immatures were collected by placing floating hydrophytes of the genera Lemna, Wolfia, Wolfiella and Spirodella (Lemnaceae) in Berlesse funnels. The hydrophytes were collected in the Chascomús and Los Talas ponds, both in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The larva show features typical of carnivorous larvae, and it is co...

  14. Infection of army ant pupae by two new parasitoid mites (Mesostigmata: Uropodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Brückner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A great variety of parasites and parasitoids exploit ant societies. Among them are the Mesostigmata mites, a particularly common and diverse group of ant-associated arthropods. While parasitism is ubiquitous in Mesostigmata, parasitoidism has only been described in the genus Macrodinychus. Yet information about the basic biology of most Macrodinychus species is lacking. Out of 24 formally described species, information about basic life-history traits is only available for three species. Here we formally describe two new Macrodinychus species, i.e. Macrodinychus hilpertae and Macrodinychus derbyensis. In both species, immature stages developed as ecto-parasitoids on ant pupae of the South-East Asian army ant Leptogenys distinguenda. By piercing the developing ant with their chelicera, the mites apparently suck ant hemolymph, ultimately killing host individuals. We compare infection rates among all studied Macrodinychus species and discuss possible host countermeasures against parasitoidism. The cryptic lifestyle of living inside ant nests has certainly hampered the scientific discovery of Macrodinychus mites and we expect that many more macrodinychid species await scientific discovery and description.

  15. Effects of flour conditioning on cannibalism of T. castaneum eggs and pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Paul W; Campbell, James F

    2012-12-01

    Cannibalism is a very important factor regulating population dynamics of the red flour beetle. After several days of feeding, the flour becomes conditioned by the beetles, which can affect rates of cannibalism. Flour conditioning is caused by an accumulation of feces, pheromones, and ethylquinone, which is a repellent produced by the beetles. We determined the effect of five different levels of flour conditioning on cannibalism of red flour beetle eggs and pupae by adult and larval stages. Larvae had the highest rates of egg cannibalism (12 eggs eaten over the 4-d period) followed by female adults (seven eggs consumed). Adult males had the lowest rates of cannibalism with only two eggs consumed. Cannibalism of eggs by females was correlated negatively with the level of flour conditioning. There was no effect of flour conditioning on egg or pupal cannibalism by larvae or adult males. Cannibalism by adult females may decrease as the level of flour conditioning increases because females may spend less time tunneling in highly conditioned flour and more time trying to disperse to other areas that are better for oviposition.

  16. A Wolbachia-Sensitive Communication between Male and Female Pupae Controls Gamete Compatibility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier, Stéphanie M; Schweisguth, François

    2015-09-21

    Gamete compatibility is fundamental to sexual reproduction. Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that manipulate gamete compatibility in many arthropod species. In Drosophila, the fertilization of uninfected eggs by sperm from Wolbachia-infected males often results in early developmental arrest. This gamete incompatibility is called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI is highest in young males, suggesting that Wolbachia affect sperm properties during male development. Here, we show that Wolbachia modulate testis development. Unexpectedly, this effect was associated with Wolbachia infection in females, not males. This raised the possibility that females influenced testis development by communicating with males prior to adulthood. Using a combinatorial rearing protocol, we provide evidence for such a female-to-male communication during metamorphosis. This communication involves the perception of female pheromones by male olfactory receptors. We found that this communication determines the compatibility range of sperm. Wolbachia interfere with this female-to-male communication through changes in female pheromone production. Strikingly, restoring this communication partially suppressed CI in Wolbachia-infected males. We further identified a reciprocal male-to-female communication at metamorphosis that restricts the compatibility range of female gametes. Wolbachia also perturb this communication by feminizing male pheromone production. Thus, Wolbachia broaden the compatibility range of eggs, promoting thereby the reproductive success of Wolbachia-infected females. We conclude that pheromone communication between pupae regulates gamete compatibility and is sensitive to Wolbachia in Drosophila. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Scanning electron microscopic (Sem studies on fourth instar larva and pupa of Anopheles (Cellia stephensi Liston (Anophelinae: Culicidae

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    Jagbir Singh Kirti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Cellia stephensi Liston is a major vector species of malaria in Indian subcontinent. Taxonomists have worked on its various morphological aspects and immature stages to explore additional and new taxonomic attributes. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM studies have been conducted on the fourth instar larva and pupa of An. stephensi to find additional taxonomic features for the first time from Punjab state.

  18. Allergenic Characterization of 27-kDa Glycoprotein, a Novel Heat Stable Allergen, from the Pupa of Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Son, Mina; Lee, June Yong; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Boiled silkworm pupa is a traditional food in Asia, and patients with silkworm pupa food allergy are common in these regions. Still now only one allergen from silkworm, arginine kinase, has been identified. The purpose of this study was to identify novel food allergens in silkworm pupa by analyzing a protein extract after heat treatment. Heat treated extracts were examined by proteomic analysis. A 27-kDa glycoprotein was identified, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. IgE reactivity of the recombinant protein was investigated by ELISA. High molecular weight proteins (above 100 kDa) elicited increased IgE binding after heat treatment compared to that before heat treatment. The molecular identities of these proteins, however, could not be determined. IgE reactivity toward a 27-kDa glycoprotein was also increased after heating the protein extract. The recombinant protein was recognized by IgE antibodies from allergic subjects (33.3%). Glycation or aggregation of protein by heating may create new IgE binding epitopes. Heat stable allergens are shown to be important in silkworm allergy. Sensitization to the 27-kDa glycoprotein from silkworm may contribute to elevation of IgE to silkworm.

  19. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions

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    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of <70%, and 12 hours photophase. Fifteen hymenopteran specimens were dissected daily to evaluate their stage and development time. The phenology concluded that S. endius had a development cycle of 19 days with an incubation period of 24 hours. The development of the larvae of S. endius occurred in the subsequent eight days, during which a series of morphological alterations were observed. The pre-pupal stage occurred on the tenth day, where the movement ceased and elimination of the meconium started. The pupal stage occurred from the 11th to the 19th day, with emergence of males first, followed by female emergence approximately 24 hours later. These results allowed the evaluation of aspects of the detailed bionomics of the development of S. endius in order to record and program production of this parasitoid, thus optimizing its utilization as a biological control agent.

  20. Communal use of integumental wounds in honey bee (Apis mellifera) pupae multiply infested by the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbar, Ghazwan; Engels, Wolf

    2005-09-30

    The ectoparasitic bee mite, Varroa destructor, is highly adapted to its natural and adopted honey bee hosts, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera. Adult females perforate the integument of bee pupae in such a way that they and their progeny can feed. We examined the wounds that founder females made, and usually found one, and rarely up to three, integumental wounds on pupae of A. mellifera multiply infested by V. destructor. The punctures were mainly on the 2nd abdominal sternite of the host. These perforations are used repeatedly as feeding sites by these hemolymph-sucking mites and by their progeny. The diameter of the wounds increased during pupal development. In brood cells containing 4-5 invading female mites and their progeny, healing of the wound is delayed, normally occurring just before the imaginal moult of the bee pupa. These wounds are subject to microbial infections, and they are relevant to the evolution of behavioral traits in these parasitic mites and their relations to host bees.

  1. Effect of mutual interference on the ability of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to attack and parasitize pupae of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of mutual interference on the attack efficiency and the rate of successful parasitism on the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) attacking pupae of the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Female parasitoids (2, 4, 8, 16, or 32) were exposed to 100 fly pupae during 24......% at the highest. Mutual interference was incorporated into a functional response model to predict the attack rate and the rate of successful parasitism at different temperatures, host densities and parasitoid densities. The model explained 93.5% of the variation in the observed number of attacked pupae and 91.......5% of the variation in the number of successfully parasitized pupae. The model predicts that increasing parasitoid densities will increase the percentage of killed hosts, but only up to a certain density. Above this density, a further increase in parasitoid abundance will actually lead to a decline in the percentage...

  2. Immune related gene expression in worker honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica) pupae exposed to neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and Varroa mites (Varroa destructor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesovnik, Tanja; Zorc, Minja; Čitar, Manuela; Božič, Janko; Glavan, Gordana; Narat, Mojca

    2017-01-01

    Varroa destructor is one of the most common parasites of honey bee colonies and is considered as a possible co-factor for honey bee decline. At the same time, the use of pesticides in intensive agriculture is still the most effective method of pest control. There is limited information about the effects of pesticide exposure on parasitized honey bees. Larval ingestion of certain pesticides could have effects on honey bee immune defense mechanisms, development and metabolic pathways. Europe and America face the disturbing phenomenon of the disappearance of honey bee colonies, termed Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). One reason discussed is the possible suppression of honey bee immune system as a consequence of prolonged exposure to chemicals. In this study, the effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica, pupae infested with Varroa destructor mites were analyzed at the molecular level. Varroa-infested and non-infested honey bee colonies received protein cakes with or without thiamethoxam. Nurse bees used these cakes as a feed for developing larvae. Samples of white-eyed and brown-eyed pupae were collected. Expression of 17 immune-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR. Relative gene expression in samples exposed only to Varroa or to thiamethoxam or simultaneously to both Varroa and thiamethoxam was compared. The impact from the consumption of thiamethoxam during the larval stage on honey bee immune related gene expression in Varroa-infested white-eyed pupae was reflected as down-regulation of spaetzle, AMPs abaecin and defensin-1 and up-regulation of lysozyme-2. In brown-eyed pupae up-regulation of PPOact, spaetzle, hopscotch and basket genes was detected. Moreover, we observed a major difference in immune response to Varroa infestation between white-eyed pupae and brown-eyed pupae. The majority of tested immune-related genes were upregulated only in brown-eyed pupae, while in white-eyed pupae they were downregulated. PMID

  3. Immune related gene expression in worker honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica) pupae exposed to neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and Varroa mites (Varroa destructor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesovnik, Tanja; Cizelj, Ivanka; Zorc, Minja; Čitar, Manuela; Božič, Janko; Glavan, Gordana; Narat, Mojca

    2017-01-01

    Varroa destructor is one of the most common parasites of honey bee colonies and is considered as a possible co-factor for honey bee decline. At the same time, the use of pesticides in intensive agriculture is still the most effective method of pest control. There is limited information about the effects of pesticide exposure on parasitized honey bees. Larval ingestion of certain pesticides could have effects on honey bee immune defense mechanisms, development and metabolic pathways. Europe and America face the disturbing phenomenon of the disappearance of honey bee colonies, termed Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). One reason discussed is the possible suppression of honey bee immune system as a consequence of prolonged exposure to chemicals. In this study, the effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica, pupae infested with Varroa destructor mites were analyzed at the molecular level. Varroa-infested and non-infested honey bee colonies received protein cakes with or without thiamethoxam. Nurse bees used these cakes as a feed for developing larvae. Samples of white-eyed and brown-eyed pupae were collected. Expression of 17 immune-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR. Relative gene expression in samples exposed only to Varroa or to thiamethoxam or simultaneously to both Varroa and thiamethoxam was compared. The impact from the consumption of thiamethoxam during the larval stage on honey bee immune related gene expression in Varroa-infested white-eyed pupae was reflected as down-regulation of spaetzle, AMPs abaecin and defensin-1 and up-regulation of lysozyme-2. In brown-eyed pupae up-regulation of PPOact, spaetzle, hopscotch and basket genes was detected. Moreover, we observed a major difference in immune response to Varroa infestation between white-eyed pupae and brown-eyed pupae. The majority of tested immune-related genes were upregulated only in brown-eyed pupae, while in white-eyed pupae they were downregulated.

  4. Immune related gene expression in worker honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica pupae exposed to neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and Varroa mites (Varroa destructor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Tesovnik

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is one of the most common parasites of honey bee colonies and is considered as a possible co-factor for honey bee decline. At the same time, the use of pesticides in intensive agriculture is still the most effective method of pest control. There is limited information about the effects of pesticide exposure on parasitized honey bees. Larval ingestion of certain pesticides could have effects on honey bee immune defense mechanisms, development and metabolic pathways. Europe and America face the disturbing phenomenon of the disappearance of honey bee colonies, termed Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD. One reason discussed is the possible suppression of honey bee immune system as a consequence of prolonged exposure to chemicals. In this study, the effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica, pupae infested with Varroa destructor mites were analyzed at the molecular level. Varroa-infested and non-infested honey bee colonies received protein cakes with or without thiamethoxam. Nurse bees used these cakes as a feed for developing larvae. Samples of white-eyed and brown-eyed pupae were collected. Expression of 17 immune-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR. Relative gene expression in samples exposed only to Varroa or to thiamethoxam or simultaneously to both Varroa and thiamethoxam was compared. The impact from the consumption of thiamethoxam during the larval stage on honey bee immune related gene expression in Varroa-infested white-eyed pupae was reflected as down-regulation of spaetzle, AMPs abaecin and defensin-1 and up-regulation of lysozyme-2. In brown-eyed pupae up-regulation of PPOact, spaetzle, hopscotch and basket genes was detected. Moreover, we observed a major difference in immune response to Varroa infestation between white-eyed pupae and brown-eyed pupae. The majority of tested immune-related genes were upregulated only in brown-eyed pupae, while in white-eyed pupae they were

  5. Increase of acceptability period of Musca domestic l., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae, irradiated by gamma radiation as host of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia endius, Walker, 1839 (hymenoptera: pteromalidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael M., E-mail: nmitepan@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Sara E.D.Z., E-mail: sarazenitepan@ig.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source used was a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10{sup 13} Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestic L., 1758 and the parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity. This experiment was designed to investigate if the non-viabilization M. domestic pupae, using gamma radiation, could build up the acceptability period as host of the pupal parasitoid S. endius. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy respectively. The 1, 2, 3 and 4 days old pupae were irradiated (dose rate: 1,510 Gy/hr) and exposed to the parasitoid S. endius at a proportion of one female parasitoid to five housefly pupae, during different periods after the irradiation. The results allow us to conclude that irradiation increase the acceptability period of the housefly pupae by the parasitoid. The best age to irradiate the housefly pupae was one day. (author)

  6. Purification and functional characterization of a protein: Bombyx mori human growth hormone like protein in silkworm pupa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqing; Shu, Tejun; Lv, Zhengbing; Nie, Zuoming; Chen, Jian; Chen, Hao; Yu, Wei; Gai, Qijing; Zhang, Yaozhou

    2014-01-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is a peptide hormone secreted by eosinophils of the human anterior pituitary, and a regulatory factor for a variety of metabolic pathways. A 30-kD protein from the pupa stage of silkworm was detected by Western blotting and confirmed by immunoprecipitation based on its ability to bind to anti-hGH antibody. This protein, named BmhGH-like protein, was purified from fresh silkworm pupas through low-temperature homogenization, filtration, and centrifugation to remove large impurity particles. The supernatants were precipitated, resuspended, and passed through a molecular sieve. Further purification by affinity chromatography and two-dimensional electrophoresis resulted in pure protein for analysis by MS MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. An alignment with predicted proteins indicated that BmhGH-like protein consisted of two lipoproteins, which we named hGH-L1 and hGH-L2. These proteins belong to the β-trefoil superfamily, with β domains similar to the spatial structure of hGH. Assays with K562 cells demonstrated that these proteins could promote cell division in vitro. To further validate the growth-promoting effects, hGH-L2 was cloned from pupa cDNA to create recombinant silkworm baculovirus vBmNPV-hGH-L2, which was used to infect silkworm BmN cells at low titer. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the protein shortened the G0/G1 phase of the cells, and enabled the cells to rapidly traverse the G1/S phase transition point to enter S phase and promote cell division. Discovery of hGH-like protein in silkworm will once again arouse people's interest in the potential medicinal value of silkworm and establish the basis for the development of new hormone drugs.

  7. Purification and functional characterization of a protein: Bombyx mori human growth hormone like protein in silkworm pupa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqing Chen

    Full Text Available Human growth hormone (hGH is a peptide hormone secreted by eosinophils of the human anterior pituitary, and a regulatory factor for a variety of metabolic pathways. A 30-kD protein from the pupa stage of silkworm was detected by Western blotting and confirmed by immunoprecipitation based on its ability to bind to anti-hGH antibody. This protein, named BmhGH-like protein, was purified from fresh silkworm pupas through low-temperature homogenization, filtration, and centrifugation to remove large impurity particles. The supernatants were precipitated, resuspended, and passed through a molecular sieve. Further purification by affinity chromatography and two-dimensional electrophoresis resulted in pure protein for analysis by MS MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. An alignment with predicted proteins indicated that BmhGH-like protein consisted of two lipoproteins, which we named hGH-L1 and hGH-L2. These proteins belong to the β-trefoil superfamily, with β domains similar to the spatial structure of hGH. Assays with K562 cells demonstrated that these proteins could promote cell division in vitro. To further validate the growth-promoting effects, hGH-L2 was cloned from pupa cDNA to create recombinant silkworm baculovirus vBmNPV-hGH-L2, which was used to infect silkworm BmN cells at low titer. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the protein shortened the G0/G1 phase of the cells, and enabled the cells to rapidly traverse the G1/S phase transition point to enter S phase and promote cell division. Discovery of hGH-like protein in silkworm will once again arouse people's interest in the potential medicinal value of silkworm and establish the basis for the development of new hormone drugs.

  8. Quantitative proteomics reveals divergent responses in Apis mellifera worker and drone pupae to parasitization by Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlis, Carla; Carolan, James C; Coffey, Mary; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2017-12-19

    Varroa destructor is a haemophagous ectoparasite of honeybees and is considered a major causal agent of colony losses in Europe and North America. Although originating in Eastern Asia where it parasitizes Apis cerana, it has shifted hosts to the western honeybee Apis mellifera on which it has a greater deleterious effect on the individual and colony level. To investigate this important host-parasite interaction and to determine whether Varroa causes different effects on different castes we conducted a label free quantitative proteomic analysis of Varroa-parasitized and non-parasitized drone and worker Apis mellifera pupae. 1195 proteins were identified in total, of which 202 and 250 were differentially abundant in parasitized drone and worker pupae, respectively. Both parasitized drone and worker pupae displayed reduced abundance in proteins associated with the cuticle, lipid transport and innate immunity. Proteins involved in metabolic processes were more abundant in both parasitized castes although the response in workers was more pronounced. A number of caste specific responses were observed including differential abundance of numerous cytoskeletal and muscle proteins, which were of higher abundance in parasitized drones in comparison to parasitized workers. Proteins involved in fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism were more abundant in parasitized workers as were a large number of ribosomal proteins highlighting either potentially divergent responses to Varroa or a different strategy by the mite when parasitizing the different castes. This data improves our understanding of this interaction and may provide a basis for future studies into improvements to therapy and control of Varroasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of the Copy Number and Variants of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV in the Pairs of Honey Bee Pupa and Infesting Varroa destructor or Tropilaelaps mercedesae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent honey bee colony losses, particularly during the winter, have been shown to be associated with the presence of both ectoparasitic mites and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV. Whilst the role of Varroa destructor mites as a viral vector is well established, the role of Tropilaelaps mercedesae mites in viral transmission has not been fully investigated. In this study, we tested the effects that V. destructor and T. mercedesae infestation have on fluctuation of the DWV copy number and alteration of the virus variants in honey bees by characterizing individual pupae and their infesting mites. We observed that both mite species were associated with increased viral copy number in honey bee pupae. We found a positive correlation between DWV copy number in pupae and copy number in infesting mites, and the same DWV type A variant was present in either low or high copy number in both honey bee pupae and infesting V. destructor. These data also suggest that variant diversity is similar between honey bee pupae and the mites that infest them. These results support a previously proposed hypothesis that DWV suppresses the honey bee immune system when virus copy number reaches a specific threshold, promoting greater replication.

  10. The effect of a static magnetic field on the morphometric characteristics of neurosecretory neurons and corpora allata in the pupae of yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peric-Mataruga, Vesna; Prolic, Zlatko; Nenadovic, Vera; Vlahovic, Milena; Mrdakovic, Marija

    2008-02-01

    The morphometric characteristics of A1 and A2 protocerebral neurosecretory neurons (cell and nuclei size, number of nucleoli in the nuclei); corpora allata size, nuclei size, cell number, were investigated in the pupae of yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor (L.), exposed to a strong static magnetic field of 320 mT maximum induction (10,000 times higher than the Earth's). The experimental groups of Tenebrio molitor pupae were: A control group exposed only to natural magnetic field and sacrificed at the eighth day of pupal development (C); and pupae kept in a strong static magnetic field for eight days and then sacrificed (MF). Serial brain cross-sections were stained using the Alcian Blue Floxin technique. All the parameters were analyzed and measurements were performed using an image processing and analysis system (Leica, Cambridge, UK) linked to a Leica DMLB light microscope (program is QWin - Leica's Quantimet Windows-based image analysis tool kit). The values of morphometric parameters of neurosecretory neurons and corpora allata were significantly increased after exposure of the pupae to the strong magnetic field. The strong magnetic field influence characteristics of protocerebral neurosecretory neurons and corpora allata in the late Tenebrio molitor pupae.

  11. In Vitro Infection of Pupae with Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Suggests Disturbance of Transcriptional Homeostasis in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncristiani, Humberto F.; Evans, Jay D.; Chen, Yanping; Pettis, Jeff; Murphy, Charles; Lopez, Dawn L.; Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Strand, Micheline; Tarpy, David R.; Rueppell, Olav

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing decline of honey bee health worldwide is a serious economic and ecological concern. One major contributor to the decline are pathogens, including several honey bee viruses. However, information is limited on the biology of bee viruses and molecular interactions with their hosts. An experimental protocol to test these systems was developed, using injections of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV) into honey bee pupae reared ex-situ under laboratory conditions. The infected pupae developed pronounced but variable patterns of disease. Symptoms varied from complete cessation of development with no visual evidence of disease to rapid darkening of a part or the entire body. Considerable differences in IAPV titer dynamics were observed, suggesting significant variation in resistance to IAPV among and possibly within honey bee colonies. Thus, selective breeding for virus resistance should be possible. Gene expression analyses of three separate experiments suggest IAPV disruption of transcriptional homeostasis of several fundamental cellular functions, including an up-regulation of the ribosomal biogenesis pathway. These results provide first insights into the mechanisms of IAPV pathogenicity. They mirror a transcriptional survey of honey bees afflicted with Colony Collapse Disorder and thus support the hypothesis that viruses play a critical role in declining honey bee health. PMID:24039938

  12. Case Report of Human Urinary Myiasis Caused by Clogmia albipunctata (Diptera: Psychodidae with Morphological Description of Larva and Pupa

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    Nadia Ali El-Dib

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary myiasis is a form of myiasis caused mainly by larvae of Fannia scalaris, Musca, Sarcophaga, Lucilia, Wohlfahrtia, Calliphora, and rarely by Eristalis and Clogmia albipunctata.Methods: This report presents a case of female patient complaining of dysuria and frequency of micturition associ­ated with intermittent passage of small, motile, dark-colored worm-like organisms in urine. She was a married housewife aged 24 years old referred from the Tropical Outpatient Clinic of Beni-Suef University Hospital, Egypt. The patient was subjected to a full questionnaire sheet and investigations such as CBC, stool and urine analysis and uri­nary ul­traso­nography. Collected larvae and pupae from urine samples were examined macroscopically and micro­scopically.Results: The examined larvae and pupae belonged to C. albipunctata. Ivermectin was prescribed to the patient with complaint withdrawal and complete disappearance of the larvae from urine.Conclusion: This study reports the first case of urinary myiasis caused by C. albipunctata in Beni-Suef Governorate, the second in Egypt and third case worldwide. The study throws some light on the medical importance and manage­ment of urinary myiasis.

  13. In vitro infection of pupae with Israeli acute paralysis virus suggests disturbance of transcriptional homeostasis in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto F Boncristiani

    Full Text Available The ongoing decline of honey bee health worldwide is a serious economic and ecological concern. One major contributor to the decline are pathogens, including several honey bee viruses. However, information is limited on the biology of bee viruses and molecular interactions with their hosts. An experimental protocol to test these systems was developed, using injections of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV into honey bee pupae reared ex-situ under laboratory conditions. The infected pupae developed pronounced but variable patterns of disease. Symptoms varied from complete cessation of development with no visual evidence of disease to rapid darkening of a part or the entire body. Considerable differences in IAPV titer dynamics were observed, suggesting significant variation in resistance to IAPV among and possibly within honey bee colonies. Thus, selective breeding for virus resistance should be possible. Gene expression analyses of three separate experiments suggest IAPV disruption of transcriptional homeostasis of several fundamental cellular functions, including an up-regulation of the ribosomal biogenesis pathway. These results provide first insights into the mechanisms of IAPV pathogenicity. They mirror a transcriptional survey of honey bees afflicted with Colony Collapse Disorder and thus support the hypothesis that viruses play a critical role in declining honey bee health.

  14. LD50 and inviably dose of gamma radiation for Musca domestica L., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae aged 1, 2, 3 and 4 days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael M., E-mail: nmitepan@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Sara E.D.Z., E-mail: sarazenitepan@ig.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source that was used is a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10{sup 13} Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestica had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity, until reaching the desired ages. Lots of pupae of M. domestica that had been used, gotten by the flotation process. They had been irradiated with the ages of 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. The used doses for 1 day pupae was 0 (control) 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30 Gy; for 2 days pupae: 0 (control), 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300 Gy; for 3 days pupae: 0 (control), 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, 280, 320 and 360 Gy; and for 4 days pupae: 0 (control), 40; 80; 120; 160, 200, 240, 280, 320, 360, 400 480 and 520 Gy. The dose rate was about 1,500Gy/hr. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy and the LD50 was 14.28, 128.04, 243.09 e 353.57 Gy, respectively. (author)

  15. Emergence of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & Lasalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from pupae of Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner, [1809]) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Poderoso, Júlio César Melo; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2013-01-01

    Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner, [1809]) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is an abundant insect pest on crops of Citrus spp. (Rutaceae) in Brazil and pupae of this defoliator could be used for the mass rearing of parasitoids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitism of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on H. anchisiades capys pupae in the laboratory. Twenty 1-day-old H. anchisiades capys pupae were individualized in test tubes (14 cm length x 2.2 cm diameter) with a drop of honey as food and with ten mated P. elaeisis females for ten days. The duration of the life cycle (egg to adult), emergence rate, total individuals emerged per pupa, sex ratio, size of the body and longevity of P. elaeisis males and females emerged from H. anchisiades capys pupae were evaluated. The duration of the life cycle of P. elaeisis was 21.15 +/- 0.15 days. Forty percent of H. anchisiades capys pupae showed emergence of parasitoids, with an average of 323 +/- 38 individuals from each one and a sex ratio of 0.95 +/- 0.02. The total number of parasitoids emerged was 2,584 individuals. The size of the body and the head capsule (mm) of female and male P. elaeisis progeny were 1.92 +/- 0.04; 0.52 +/- 0.02 and 1.28 +/- 0.04; 0.40 +/- 0.02, respectively. The average longevity was 23.72 +/- 1.15 days for females and 30.1 +/- 2.42 days for males of P. elaeisis. Heraclides anchisiades capys, abundant on crops of Citrus spp. in Brazil, has potential to be used as a host for mass rearing of P. elaeisis in the laboratory for biological control programs.

  16. RNAi KNOCKDOWN OF BmRab3 LED TO LARVA AND PUPA LETHALITY IN SILKWORM Bombyx mori L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chabungbam Orville; Xin, Hu-hu; Chen, Rui-ting; Wang, Mei-xian; Liang, Shuang; Lu, Yan; Cai, Zi-zheng; Zhang, Deng-pan; Miao, Yun-gen

    2015-06-01

    Rab3 GTPases are known to play key a role in vesicular trafficking, and express highest in brain and endocrine tissues. In mammals, Rab3 GTPases are paralogs unlike in insect. In this study, we cloned Rab3 from the silk gland tissue of silkworm Bombyx mori, and identified it as BmRab3. Our in silico analysis indicated that BmRab3 is an isoform with a theoretical isoelectric point and molecular weight of 5.52 and 24.3 kDa, respectively. Further, BmRab3 showed the C-terminal hypervariability for GGT2 site but having two other putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor/GDP dissociation inhibitor interaction sites. Multiple alignment sequence indicated high similarities of BmRab3 with Rab3 isoforms of other species. The phylogeny tree showed BmRab3 clustered between the species of Tribolium castaneum and Aedes aegypti. Meanwhile, the expression analysis of BmRab3 showed the highest expression in middle silk glands (MSGs) than all other tissues in the third day of fifth-instar larva. Simultaneously, we showed the differential expression of BmRab3 in the early instar larva development, followed by higher expression in male than female pupae. In vivo dsRNA interference of BmRab3 reduced the expression of BmRab3 by 75% compared to the control in the MSGs in the first day. But as the worm grew to the third day, the difference of BmRab3 between knockdown and control was only about 10%. The knockdown later witnessed underdevelopment of the larvae and pharate pupae lethality in the overall development of silkworm B. mori L. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. APA-style human milk fat analogue from silkworm pupae oil: Enzymatic production and improving storage stability using alkyl caffeates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Wang, Xudong; Pang, Na; Zhu, Weijie; Zhao, Xingyu; Wang, Fangqin; Wu, Fuan; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-08

    Silkworm pupae oil derived from reeling waste is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA), which has multipal applications. ALAs were added in sn-1, 3 positions in a triacylglycerol (TAG) to produce an APA-human milk fat analogues (APA-HMFAs, A: α-linolenic acid, P: palmitic acid). The optimum condition is that tripalmitin to free fatty acids of 1:12 (mole ratio) at 65 °C for 48 h using lipase Lipozyme RM IM. Results show that, the major TAG species that comprised APA-HMFAs were rich in ALA and palmitic acid, which contained 64.52% total unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and 97.05% PA at the sn-2 position. The melting point of APA was -27.5 °C which is much lower than tripalmitin (40.5 °C) indicating more plastic character. In addition, the practical application of alkyl caffeates as liposoluble antioxidants in APA was developed. Alkyl caffeate showed a superior IC50 (1.25-1.66 μg/mL) compared to butyl hydroxy anisd (1.67 μg/mL) and L-ascorbic acid-6-palmitate (L-AP) (1.87 μg/mL) in DPPH analysis. The addition of ethyl caffeate to oil achieved a higher UFAs content (73.58%) at high temperatures. Overall, APA was obtained from silkworm pupae oil successfully, and the addition of caffeates extended storage ranges for APA-HMFAs.

  18. The role of Broad in the development of Tribolium castaneum: implications for the evolution of the holometabolous insect pupa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuichiro; Truman, James W; Riddiford, Lynn M

    2008-02-01

    The evolution of complete metamorphosis in insects is a key innovation that has led to the successful diversification of holometabolous insects, yet the origin of the pupa remains an enigma. Here, we analyzed the expression of the pupal specifier gene broad (br), and the effect on br of isoform-specific, double-stranded RNA-mediated silencing, in a basal holometabolous insect, the beetle Tribolium castaneum. All five isoforms are weakly expressed during the penultimate instar and highly expressed during the prepupal period of the final instar. Application of hydroprene, a juvenile hormone analog, during the penultimate instar caused a repeat of the penultimate br expression patterns, and the formation of supernumerary larvae. Use of dsRNA against the br core region, or against a pair of either the br-Z2 or br-Z3 isoform with the br-Z1 or br-Z4 isoform, produced mobile animals with well-differentiated adult-like appendages, but which retained larval-like urogomphi and epidermis. Disruption of either the br-Z2 or the br-Z3 isoform caused the formation of shorter wings. Disruption of both br-Z1 and br-Z4 caused the appearance of pupal traits in the adults, but disruption of br-Z5 had no morphological effect. Our findings show that the br isoform functions are broadly conserved within the Holometabola and suggest that evolution of br isoform expression may have played an important role in the evolution of the pupa in holometabolous insects.

  19. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  20. Immuno-suppressive effects of aqueous extract of soapnut Sapindus emarginatus on the larvae and pupae of vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Mullainadhan, Periasamy; Arumugam, Munusamy

    2013-06-01

    We recently reported the presence of potent anti-mosquito activity in aqueous kernel extract of the soapnut, Sapindus emarginatus, and demonstrated its impact on marker enzymes in larvae and pupae of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. As a sequel to these findings, the present study elucidates immunotoxicity of this extract with respect to hemocyte-mediated cellular immune responses in fourth instar larvae and pupae as well as cuticular melanization reaction in the larvae of A. aegypti. The exposure of these two developmental stages of the mosquito to the soapnut extract at a lethal threshold concentration neither affected hemocyte viability tested up to 3h in vitro nor did it influence the hemocyte count. By contrast, exposure of the mosquito larvae and pupae to this extract significantly reduced the ability of their hemocytes to bind yeast cells, an important early event in the process of non-self recognition by immune cells. Consequently, the phagocytic activity of these hemocytes against yeast cells was also found to be adversely affected upon exposure of larvae and pupae to the extract. Besides, a perceptible initial delay in melanization reaction at the injured site of the cuticle in the extract-exposed larvae was observed. All these findings demonstrate, for the first time, the immuno-suppressive potential of a botanical biocide in the vector mosquito. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larva ve pupasının yağ asidi bileşimi

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞKIN, Deniz; AKSOYLAR, M. Yaşar

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of last instar larvae and pupae of Tenebrio molitor were analysed by gas chromatographic methods. It was determined that total fatty acid compositions of both stages were contituted C12:0-C18:2 fatty acids. Oleic acid was found as the major fatty acid. Palmitic and linoleic acids also were high pencentage fatty acids.

  2. Toxicity assessment of four insecticides with different modes of action on pupae and adults of Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a relevant predator of the Neotropical Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Marilina Noelia; Schneider, Marcela Inés; Rimoldi, Federico; Ladux, Lorena Sabrina; Desneux, Nicolas; Ronco, Alicia Estela

    2016-08-01

    Pesticides can be toxic to nontarget organisms including the natural enemies of agricultural pests, thus reducing the biodiversity of agroecosystems. The lethal and sublethal effects of four insecticides with different modes of action-pyriproxyfen, teflubenzuron, acetamiprid, and cypermethrin-were evaluated on pupae and adults of Eriopis connexa, an effective predator in horticultural crops. Pupal survival was reduced by pyriproxyfen (26 %) and cypermethrin (41 %). Malformations in adults emerged from treated pupae were observed after acetamiprid (82.7 and 100 % for 100 and 200 mg a.i./l, respectively), pyriproxyfen (48.6 %), and cypermethrin (13.3 %) treatments. A longer mean oviposition time was also observed in adults emerged from pupae treated with cypermethrin. Moreover, the latter insecticide as well as teflubenzuron did not reduce reproductive parameters, whereas females emerged from pyriproxyfen-treated pupae were not be able to lay eggs even when females showed large abdomens. Upon exposure of adults, survival was reduced to approximately 90 % by acetamiprid, but no reduction occurred with pyriproxyfen, teflubenzuron, or cypermethrin though the fecundity at fifth oviposition time of the female survivors was reduced. Pyriproxyfen decreased the hatching at all the oviposition times tested, whereas fertility was reduced in the fourth and fifth ovipositions by teflubenzuron and in the first and third ovipositions by cypermethrin. In conclusion, all four insecticides tested exhibited lethal or sublethal effects, or both, on E. connexa. The neurotoxic insecticides were more harmful than the insect-growth regulators, and pupae were more susceptible than adults. The toxicity of insecticides on the conservation of predators in agroecosystems of the Neotropical Region is discussed.

  3. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Hypercompe indecisa em dieta artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Nava,Dori Edson; Diez-Rodríguez,Gabriela Inés; Melo,Mirtes; Afonso,Ana Paula Schneid

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia de Hypercompe indecisa e construir a tabela de vida de fertilidade em dieta artificial, para criação em laboratório. Foram determinados: duração e sobrevivência das fases de ovo, larva e pupa; número de estádios larvais; razão sexual; peso de pupas; longevidade; fecundidade; e períodos de pré-oviposição e oviposição. Os períodos embrionário, larval e pupal foram de 6, 25,4 e 64,3 dias, com sobrevivência de 92,7, 92 e 71,9%, respectivamente. For...

  4. Efecto tóxico de Argemone subfusiformis Ownb. y Tagetes patula Link sobre larvas del IV estadio y pupas de Aedes aegypti L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Vidal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto tóxico de los extractos etanólicos foliares de Argemone subfusiformis “cardo santo” y Tagetes patula “marigold” sobre larvas IV y pupas de Aedes aegypti. El procesamiento de los extractos y los bioensayos se realizaron en el Laboratorio de Entomología de la Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Perú, de abril a diciembre de 2007, basados en los lineamientos metodológicos de la World Health Organization (2005. En larvas, se registró 100% de mortalidad con 76,8 y 153,6 mg/L del extracto de A. subfusiformis a las 12 horas de exposición, mientras que en pupas el mismo porcentaje de mortalidad se alcanzó con 153,6 mg/L a las 24 horas. De otro lado, el 92% y 77% de mortalidad en larvas y pupas respectivamente se registró con el extracto de T. patula al emplear 153,6 mg/L del extracto a las 48 horas. En A. subfusiformis las concentraciones letales al 50% (CL50 y al 90% (CL90 a las 48 horas se registraron con 6,24 y 9,91 mg/L sobre larvas y con 9,45 mg/L. y 16,92 mg/L sobre pupas. En T. patula la CL50 y CL90 a las 48 horas se registraron con 72,21 mg/L. y 137,37 mg/L sobre larvas y con 89,1 mg/L. y 167,38 mg/L sobre para pupas. Según el ANAVA existen diferencias significativas entre los tiempos de exposición y los tratamientos. La susceptibilidad de larvas y pupas de A. aegypti se evidenciaron mediante las rectas probit-logarítmicas que indican efecto tóxico de sus hojas, siendo A. subfusiformis la especie con mayor índice de mortalidad.

  5. Larvae and pupae of two North American darkling beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Stenochiinae, Glyptotus cribratus LeConte and Cibdelis blaschkei Mannerheim, with notes on ecological and behavioural similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Steiner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes and illustrates the larvae and pupae of two North American darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae in the subfamily Stenochiinae, Glyptotus cribratus LeConte from the southeastern United States, and Cibdelis blaschkei Mannerheim from California. Both species inhabit forested regions where adults and larvae occur in soft rotten dry wood of dead branches on living trees or in sections recently fallen from them. Species identity was confirmed by rearing of adults and pupae and the discovery of both in pupal cells with associated exuvia. Specimen label data and notes on habitats are provided. Antipredator defense structures and behaviour are noted for larvae and pupae of both species.

  6. Canine parvovirus VP2 protein expressed in silkworm pupae self-assembles into virus-like particles with high immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hao; Hu, Gui-qiu; Wang, Hua-lei; Liang, Meng; Liang, Hongru; Guo, He; Zhao, Pingsen; Yang, Yu-jiao; Zheng, Xue-xing; Zhang, Zhi-fang; Zhao, Yong-kun; Gao, Yu-wei; Yang, Song-tao; Xia, Xian-zhu

    2014-01-01

    The VP2 structural protein of parvovirus can produce virus-like particles (VLPs) by a self-assembly process in vitro, making VLPs attractive vaccine candidates. In this study, the VP2 protein of canine parvovirus (CPV) was expressed using a baculovirus expression system and assembled into parvovirus-like particles in insect cells and pupae. Electron micrographs of VLPs showed that they were very similar in size and morphology when compared to the wild-type parvovirus. The immunogenicity of the VLPs was investigated in mice and dogs. Mice immunized intramuscularly with purified VLPs, in the absence of an adjuvant, elicited CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses and were able to elicit a neutralizing antibody response against CPV, while the oral administration of raw homogenates containing VLPs to the dogs resulted in a systemic immune response and long-lasting immunity. These results demonstrate that the CPV-VLPs stimulate both cellular and humoral immune responses, and so CPV-VLPs may be a promising candidate vaccine for the prevention of CPV-associated disease.

  7. Canine parvovirus VP2 protein expressed in silkworm pupae self-assembles into virus-like particles with high immunogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Feng

    Full Text Available The VP2 structural protein of parvovirus can produce virus-like particles (VLPs by a self-assembly process in vitro, making VLPs attractive vaccine candidates. In this study, the VP2 protein of canine parvovirus (CPV was expressed using a baculovirus expression system and assembled into parvovirus-like particles in insect cells and pupae. Electron micrographs of VLPs showed that they were very similar in size and morphology when compared to the wild-type parvovirus. The immunogenicity of the VLPs was investigated in mice and dogs. Mice immunized intramuscularly with purified VLPs, in the absence of an adjuvant, elicited CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell responses and were able to elicit a neutralizing antibody response against CPV, while the oral administration of raw homogenates containing VLPs to the dogs resulted in a systemic immune response and long-lasting immunity. These results demonstrate that the CPV-VLPs stimulate both cellular and humoral immune responses, and so CPV-VLPs may be a promising candidate vaccine for the prevention of CPV-associated disease.

  8. A novel angiotensin-І converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide from gastrointestinal protease hydrolysate of silkworm pupa (Bombyx mori) protein: Biochemical characterization and molecular docking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiongying; Jia, Junqiang; Yan, Hui; Du, Jinjuan; Gui, Zhongzheng

    2015-06-01

    Silkworm pupa (Bombyx mori) protein was hydrolyzed using gastrointestinal endopeptidases (pepsin, trypsin and α-chymotrypsin). Then, the hydrolysate was purified sequentially by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. A novel ACE inhibitory peptide, Ala-Ser-Leu, with the IC50 value of 102.15μM, was identified by IT-MS/MS. This is the first report of Ala-Ser-Leu from natural protein. Lineweaver-Burk plots suggest that the peptide is a competitive inhibitor against ACE. The molecular docking studies revealed that the ACE inhibition of Ala-Ser-Leu is mainly attributed to forming very strong hydrogen bonds with the S1 pocket (Ala354) and the S2 pocket (Gln281 and His353). The results indicate that silkworm pupa (B. mori) protein or its gastrointestinal protease hydrolysate could be used as a functional ingredient in auxiliary therapeutic foods against hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. First record of the insect pathogenic alga Helicosporidium sp. (Chlorophyta: Trebouxiophyceae) infection in larvae and pupae of Rhizophagusgrandis Gyll. (Coleoptera, Rhizophaginae) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa; Radek, Renate; Aydin, Ciçek; Tosun, Onur; Ertürk, Omer

    2009-10-01

    The predator beetle Rhizophagus grandis Gyll. (Coleoptera, Rhizophaginae) is one of the most important biological control agents, mass-bred and used to suppress populations of an important pest: the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans. The achlorophyllous alga Helicosporidium sp. was first discovered in the pest. Later it was also found in the predator, but only in the adults. In this study, the pathogenic alga Helicosporidium sp. was discovered in larvae and early pupae of R. grandis for the first time. The morphological characteristics of the pathogenic alga were revealed by light and electron microscopy. Infection rates of Helicosporidium sp. in the larvae and pupae of R. grandis were 23.5% and 6.25%, respectively.

  10. Diapause termination of Rhagoletis cerasi pupae is regulated by local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity: escape in time through bet-hedging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraiti, C A; Nakas, C T; Papadopoulos, N T

    2014-01-01

    Persistence and thriving of univoltine, herbivore insect species of the temperate zone rely on obligate diapause response that ensures winter survival and synchronization with host phenology. We used a stenophagous fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi) with obligate pupae diapause to determine genetic and environmental effects on diapause intensity of geographically isolated populations with habitat heterogeneity. Pupae from two Greek and one German populations with various gene flow rates were exposed at five constant chilling temperatures (0-12 °C) for different durations and then incubated at a high temperature until all adults have emerged. Pupae diapause intensity differs among Greek and German populations, suggesting an adaptive response to habitat heterogeneity (mostly differences in phenology patterns of local host cultivars). Moderately warm winter temperatures, such as 8 °C, promote diapause termination in all three populations. Insufficient chilling (short duration or warmer temperatures) regulates the expression of prolonged dormancy. Interestingly, extended chilling (longer than required for terminating diapause) 'return' pupae to another (facultative) cycle of dormancy enabling adults to emerge during the next appropriate 'window of time'; a strategy first time reported for univoltine insects. Consequently, diapause duration of R. cerasi is determined both by i) the adaptive response to local climatic conditions (annual dormancy) and ii) the plastic responses to interannual climatic variability resulting in two types of long life cycles within populations, prolonged and facultative dormancy as response to insufficient chilling and extended exposure to chilling, respectively. Long life cycles are expressed as a part of dormancy bet-hedging strategies of R. cerasi populations. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Description and comparison of the pupae of a further two Culicoides (Avaritia species from the dung of large herbivores in South Africa (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Nevill

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 Nevill, Venter, Meiswinkel & Nevill demonstrated that the pupae of five Culicoides species belonging to the Imicola complex of the subgenus Avaritia could readily be differentiated from one another using various morphological characters. Three of the described species, Culicoides bolitinos Meiswinkel 1989; Culicoides loxodontis Meiswinkel 1992 and Culicoides sp. # 107 (= C. kwagga, Meiswinkel, unpublished thesis 1995, were reared from the dung of large herbivores, which included buffaloes, elephants, white and black rhinoceroses and zebras. However, during that study a further two Avaritia species, neither of which belonged to the Imicola complex, were reared from dung and these are the subject of the present study. For the past 20 years the adults of these two new closely related species have been known as Culicoides sp. # 54 pale form (p.f. Meiswinkel and Culicoides sp. # 54 dark form (d.f. Meiswinkel. The taxonomic description and formal naming of the adults of these two species has yet to be done. The present description and comparison of their pupae show that they are two clearly distinct species; that there is no group of morphological characters that can be used to differentiate these two species from the previously described five species of the Imicola complex; and finally that there was no difference between the pupae of C. sp. # 54 d.f. nor C. sp. # 54 p.f. reared from the dung of different host animals.

  12. OCORRÊNCIA DE FIGITIDAE (HYMENOPTERA: CYNIPOIDEA EM ITUMBIARA, GOIÁS, BRASIL OCCURRENCE OF FIGITIDAE (HYMENOPTERA: CYNIPOIDEA IN ITUMBIARA, GOIÁS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Maria Penteado-Dias

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de espécies de <em>Figitidae> em fezes bovinas e em área de mata nativa. O experimento foi desenvolvido em Itumbiara, GO. Cinco amostras de estrume bovino, de aproximadamente oito dias de idade, foram coletadas a cada duas semanas e acondicionadas em embalagem plástica. Em laboratório, as pupas foram extraídas de fezes bovinas utilizando-se o método de flutuação de Spiller (1966 e, individualmente, depositadas em cápsulas de gelatina até o surgimento de moscas adultas ou seus parasitóides. Além disso, coletas semanais foram feitas utilizando-se 10 bacias amarelas, medindo cerca de 30 cm de diâmetro, 12 cm de altura e preenchidas com 2 litros de água, 2 ml de detergente e 2 ml de formol. Cinco bacias foram colocadas em pastos e cinco em vegetação nativa. De janeiro a dezembro de 1998, quatro espécimes de <em>Acanthaegilipis> <em>brasiliensis> e um de <em>Neralsia> <em>splendens> foram coletados nas bacias amarelas, enquanto, nas fezes, 14 espécimes de <em>N. splendensem> foram coletados de 4.521 pupas de <em>Sarcophagula> <em>occidua>. A porcentagem de parasitismo foi 0,30%.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: <em>Insecta>; fezes bovinas; armadilhas amarelas; vegetação nativa; parasitóides.

    The objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of the species of <em>Figitidae> in cattle dung, and in the area of native vegetation. The experiment was undertaken in Itumbiara, GO. Five samples of bovine dung, approximately 8 days old, were collected at two weeks intervals and placed in plastic container. In the laboratory the pupae were extracted from the bovine dung by method of flotation of Spiller (1966 and individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the adult flies

  13. Modelizacion, simulacion y caracterizacion acustica de materiales para su uso en acustica arquitectonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia Sanchis, Ernesto

    The global objective of this thesis consists on evaluating the viability of applying new sound absorbent materials that attempt, on one hand, to be an alternative to those materials classically used (as mineral wools) and, on the other hand, to offer a solution to one of the most important problems: the use of waste products of the textile industries by means of the recycled. For carrying out this study, some of the parameters that allow to characterize the acoustic behaviour of sound absorbent materials (such as the acoustic impedance, the acoustic absorption coefficient and the flow resistivity, among other) have been studied. Different experimental methods used to obtain these acoustic parameters have also been described. Among the methods presented in this work, the attention has been focused in those based on the acoustic impedance tube (Kundt tube). This technique presents advantages, for example, that only a small space in the laboratory is required as well as the samples of the testing materials are of small dimensions. The study has settled on three fundamental pillars: mathematical modelization, acoustic characterization of materials and numerical simulation. In the first place, after reviewing the main models and theories used in the acoustic evaluation of the porous and fibrous sound absorbent materials, a new mathematical model has been proposed and its validity is demonstrated for the type of studied materials. With regard to the acoustic characterization, diverse campaigns of measurements have been carried out with the purpose of obtaining the acoustic absorption coefficient and the flow resistivity of different type of materials. Finally, by means of a computer program based on the finite element method, the technique of the numerical simulation has been applied with the purpose of contrasting the obtained results experimentally, as well as for the evaluation of one of the most significant industrial applications from the acoustic point of view: the acoustic filters, that are devices designed to reduce the acoustic emission in a tube (as the expansion chambers in the exhaust pipes of the combustion engines). In a first phase of the study, it is observed that the obtained results agree with the experience and, in a second phase, a parametric study to evaluate the efficiency of this type of components is carried out. The numerical simulation presents the advantage of carrying out these studies without necessity of building the real models, with the saving in cost and time that this supposes. In this work, it has been sought to contribute to the knowledge of the acoustic behaviour of different type of materials and devices that are used to improve the acoustic isolation and acoustic conditioning.

  14. A key to larvae of Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae, well known as adult males and pupae from Alps (Europe

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    B. Rossaro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A key to species belonging to the genus Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae well known as adult males and pupal exuviae from European Alps, is presented; the characters useful in species identification are pictured. The key considers both qualitative and quantitative characters. Thirteen morpho-species are distinguished, probably more species have a very similar larva and can be separated only in the adult or pupal stage. The most discriminant quantitative characters are the length and thickness of anal setae, among qualitative characters the most discriminant ones are the head capsule colour and the split of setae anteriores of labrum. The shape of mental and mandibular teeth are good taxonomic characters, but can be rarely used because teeth are often worn out in samples collected in the field. Quantitative characters show variability within each species, differing according to the sampled site and season, and must be used with caution. The following species groups can be easily separated in the larval stage: i dampfi, including D. dampfi and D. permacra; ii latitarsis including D. modesta and D. latitarsis; iii zernyi including D. zernyi and D. vaillanti. D. starmachi, D. steinboecki, D. goetghebueri, D. bertrami, D. aberrata, D. incallida, D. cinerella, D. tonsa and D. insignipes can be separated from all the other known species in larval stage, but some of them, D. cinerella and D. insignipes for example, have a very similar larva, so are better separated on the basis of their distribution and collection of adults and pupae are strongly recommended to support identifications. A new character bound to head capsule colour is proposed to separate D. insignipes, D. cinerella, D. tonsa and D. zernyi.

  15. A Chromosome-Scale Assembly of the Bactrocera cucurbitae Genome Provides Insight to the Genetic Basis of white pupae

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    Sheina B. Sim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic sexing strains (GSS used in sterile insect technique (SIT programs are textbook examples of how classical Mendelian genetics can be directly implemented in the management of agricultural insect pests. Although the foundation of traditionally developed GSS are single locus, autosomal recessive traits, their genetic basis are largely unknown. With the advent of modern genomic techniques, the genetic basis of sexing traits in GSS can now be further investigated. This study is the first of its kind to integrate traditional genetic techniques with emerging genomics to characterize a GSS using the tephritid fruit fly pest Bactrocera cucurbitae as a model. These techniques include whole-genome sequencing, the development of a mapping population and linkage map, and quantitative trait analysis. The experiment designed to map the genetic sexing trait in B. cucurbitae, white pupae (wp, also enabled the generation of a chromosome-scale genome assembly by integrating the linkage map with the assembly. Quantitative trait loci analysis revealed SNP loci near position 42 MB on chromosome 3 to be tightly linked to wp. Gene annotation and synteny analysis show a near perfect relationship between chromosomes in B. cucurbitae and Muller elements A–E in Drosophila melanogaster. This chromosome-scale genome assembly is complete, has high contiguity, was generated using a minimal input DNA, and will be used to further characterize the genetic mechanisms underlying wp. Knowledge of the genetic basis of genetic sexing traits can be used to improve SIT in this species and expand it to other economically important Diptera.

  16. Uncovering the Molecular Mechanism of Anti-Allergic Activity of Silkworm Pupa-Grown Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Feng; Chan, Yu-Yi; Shi, Wan-Yin; Jhong, Meng-Ting

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris has been widely used as an herbal drug and tonic food in East Asia and has also been recently studied in the West because of its various pharmacological activities such as antitumoral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-allergic activity of ethanol extract prepared from silkworm pupa-cultivated Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies in activated mast cells. Our results showed that ethanol extract treatment significantly inhibited the release of [Formula: see text]-hexosaminidase (a degranulation marker) and mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text] as well as interleukin-4 in RBL-2H3 cells. The cells were sensitized with 2,4-dinitrophenol specific IgE and then stimulated with human serum albumin conjugated with 2,4-dinitrophenol. Oral administration of 300[Formula: see text]mg/kg ethanol extract significantly ameliorated IgE-induced allergic reaction in mice with passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Western immunoblotting results demonstrated that ethanol extract incubation significantly inhibited Syk/PI3K/MEKK4/JNK/c-jun biochemical cascade in activated RBL-2H3 cells, which activated the expression of various allergic cytokines. In addition, it suppressed Erk activation and PLC[Formula: see text] evocation, which would respectively evoke the synthesis of lipid mediators and Ca[Formula: see text] mobilization to induce degranulation in stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. A compound, identified as [Formula: see text]-sitostenone, was shown to inhibit [Formula: see text]-hexosaminidase secretion from activated mast cells. Our study demonstrated that ethanol extract contained the ingredients, which could inhibit immediate degranulation and de novo synthesis of allergic lipid mediators and cytokines in activated mast cells.

  17. Efeitos de extratos de plantas na biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae mantida em dieta artificial Effects of plant extracts on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae maintained under artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Pedreira Santiago

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos a 10% de folhas e ramos de arruda (Ruta graveolens L., folhas e ramos de melão-de-são-caetano (Momordica charantia L., folhas do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e fruto verde de mamona (Ricinus communis L., sobre a biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda, mantida em dieta artificial. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupa, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de adultos. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram colocadas em tubos de ensaio com dieta artificial, contendo os extratos de cada material testado. O extrato aquoso do fruto verde de R. communis apresentou bioatividade, nos parâmetros duração larval e pupal e peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens reduziu o peso de pupa. A dieta contendo extrato de folhas e ramos de M. charantia reduziu a viabilidade larval e o peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de folhas de L. sidoides não afetou as fases larval e pupal, reduziu a postura e a viabilidade de ovos e aumentou a longevidade de adultos de S. frugiperda. A viabilidade de pupa não foi afetada pelos extratos testados.The effects of aqueous extracts, at 10% concentration of leaves and branches of Ruta graveolens L., leaves and branches of Momordica charantia L., leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. and green fruits of Ricinus communis L. were evaluated on the biology of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda maintained under artificial diet. The evaluated parameters were: duration and viability of the larval and pupal phases, pupa weight, fecundity, fertility and longevity of adults. Just-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda was placed in test tube with artificial diet containing extracts of each tested material. The aqueous extract of the green fruits of R. communis presented bioactivity upon duration and weight of larval and pupal phases. The aqueous extract of R. graveolens reduced weight of pupa. The diet

  18. ASPECTOS BIOLÓGICOS DE Anticarsia gemmatalis HÜEBNER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE EM CULTIVARES DE SOJA (Glycine max MERRIL BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF Anticarsia gemmatalis HÜEBNER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE ON SOYBEAN CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Baldin Pinheiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Entomologia da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em condições controladas de temperatura (25+2ºC, umidade relativa (40+10% e fotofase de 13h, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito das cultivares Emgopa 316, FT-Estrela, IAC 100 e IAC 17, no desenvolvimento de <em>Anticarsia> <em>gemmatalis>. Foram observadas a duração do período larval, o tamanho e o peso de lagartas e peso de pupas. Na cultivar Emgopa 316, as larvas apresentaram uma diminuição no período larval e um aumento nos pesos larval e pupal, enquanto IAC 100 mostrou alguma evidência de antibiose, aumentando o período larval e diminuindo o peso de lagartas e de pupas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; antibiose; <em>insecta>.

    A laboratory work was conducted at Universidade Federal de Goiás, under controlled conditions of temperature (25+2º, relative humidity (40+10% and photophase (13h. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the soybean cultivars Emgopa 316, FT-Estrela, IAC 100 and IAC 17 on the development of <em>Anticarsia> <em>gemmatalis> Hüebner, 1818. Duration of the development phases, length of larvae and weight of pupae were observed. Emgopa 316 showed a decreasing duration of larval stage and an increase in larvae and pupae weight; IAC 100 showed some evidence of antibiosis, increasing the larval stage and decreasing larvae and pupae weight.

    KEY-WORDS: <em>Insecta>; resistance; antibiosis.

  19. Phytophagy on eucalyptus plants increases the development and reproduction of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae = Fitofagia em plantas de eucaliptos aumenta o desenvolvimento e a reprodução do predador Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae.

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    Anderson Mathias Holtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant feeding on biological aspects of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae was evaluated. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae on Eucalyptus urophylla plants inthe field or only with pupae of this prey in the laboratory. The development and nymphal survival, as well as the pre-oviposition period, number of egg masses, number, fertility and viability of eggs and the longevity of females of this predator were evaluated. The eucalyptus plants improved the development of P. nigrispinus. This demonstrates that this predator can present higher population growth with eucalyptus plants and T. molitor pupae than in the laboratory (controlled conditions only with this prey. These plants can supply nutrients that can the population growth and efficiency of P. nigrispinus for biological control in eucalyptus plantations.O efeito da alimentação em plantas sobre os aspectos biológicos de Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae foi avaliado. Ninfas e adultos desse predador foram alimentados com pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleotpera: Tenebrionidae em plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla no campo ou, apenas, em laboratório. O desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência ninfal desse predador, além do período de pré-oviposição, número de posturas, viabilidade dos ovos e afertilidade e longevidade de fêmeas foram avaliados. A planta de eucalipto proporcionou um incremento no desenvolvimento de P. nigrispinus. Isto demonstra que esse predador pode apresentar maior crescimento populacional com plantas de eucalipto e pupas de T. molitor alimentado com apenas a presa (condições controladas. A planta pode fornecer nutrientes que aumentam o crescimento populacional e a eficiência de P. nigrispinus para o controle biológico em plantios de eucalipto.

  20. Properties of a recombinant bovine tissue factor expressed by Silkworm pupae and its performance as an Owren-type prothrombin time reagent for warfarin monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Masahiro; Taniguchi, Tomokuni; Takamiya, Osamu

    2012-09-01

    Tissue factor (TF), or thromboplastin, is a glycoprotein that triggers the extrinsic coagulation pathway. In blood coagulation testing, TF has been used as a natural source for determining Quick prothrombin time (PT) or the Owren PT (OBT). Currently, natural sources are being replaced with recombinant proteins because of their uniform characteristics and the possibility of stable mass production of PT reagents. Because bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected cows are widespread in Japan, we prepared a recombinant bovine TF (rbTF) with a baculovirus expression system using silkworms. To overcome the limitations of natural TF, especially in bovine brain, we expressed a full-length rbTF protein in Silkworm pupae with a baculovirus expression system. Baculovirus inactivation and the presence of DNA fragments in the rbTF fraction were confirmed using Reed-Muench and polymerase chain reaction methods after inactivation with a detergent. The rbTF fraction prepared by an immobilized anti-Silkworm pupae fluid protein Sepharose 4B column was identified as a visible band on western blots with a polyclonal antibody against human TF with cross-reactivity with TFs. The inhibition of the polyclonal antibody against human TF by the clotting assay for PT was identified, and amidolytic biological activity through activated factor VII on S-2288 substrate was observed. In conclusion, the rbTF expressed by the baculovirus system using Silkworm pupae was uniformly specific for bovine TF. The OBT reagent incorporated by this rbTF was similar to those of commercial reagents. It also showed a suitable International Sensitivity Index and reproducibility precision, thereby allowing for diagnostic use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Presence of snow coverage and its thickness affected the mortality of overwintering pupae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Helicoverpa armigera causes serious damage to most crops around the world. However, the impacts of snow thickness on the H. armigera overwintering pupae are little known. A field experiment was employed in 2012-2015 at Urumqi, China. At soil depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm, overwintering pupae were embedded with four treatments: no snow cover (NSC), snow cover (SC), increasing snow thickness to 1.5 times the thickness of SC (ISSC-1), and to two times the thickness of SC (ISSC-2). Results suggested that snow cover and increasing snow thickness both significantly increased soil temperatures, which helped to decrease the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) of H. armigera. However, the MOP did not always decrease with increases in snow thickness. The MOPs in NSC and ISSC-1 were the highest and the lowest, respectively, though ISSC-2 had much thicker snow thickness than ISSC-1. A maximum snow thickness of 60 cm might lead to the lowest MOP. The longer the snow cover duration (SCD) at a soil depth of 10 cm in March and April was, the higher the MOP was. A thicker snow cover layer led to a higher soil moisture content (SMC) and a lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR). The highest and the lowest MOP were at a depth of 15 and 10 cm, respectively. The SMC at the depths of 10 and 15 cm had significant effects on MOP. A lower accumulated temperature (≤0 °C) led to a higher MOP. The DSTR in March of approximately 4.5 °C might cause the lowest MOP. The largest influence factor for the MOPs at depths of 5 and 10 cm and the combined data were the SCDs during the whole experimental period, and for the MOPs at a depth of 15 cm was the soil temperature in November.

  2. Desenvolvimento e reprodução da mosca-do-mediterrâneo em caquizeiro, macieira, pessegueiro e videira

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    Odimar Zanuzo Zanardi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o desenvolvimento e reprodução de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae em frutos de caqui 'Fuyu', maçã 'Gala', pêssego 'Maciel' e uva 'Itália'. Foram feitas avaliações quanto a: duração e viabilidade do ovo, duração do estágio larval, peso de pupa, duração e viabilidade da pupa, duração do período ovo-adulto, razão sexual, período de pré-oviposição e oviposição, fecundidade diária e total e longevidade de machos e fêmeas. A maior duração do período ovo-adulto ocorreu em maçã, em consequência do aumento do estágio larval, seguido por uva, caqui e pêssego. Larvas que se alimentaram de pêssego apresentaram maior peso médio de pupa. A maior viabilidade pupal foi registrada em pêssego, equivalente à de uva e caqui. O período de pré-oviposição foi maior para fêmeas provenientes de maçã e uva. Fêmeas provenientes de pêssego apresentaram período de oviposição mais longo, além de maior fecundidade média diária e fecundidade total. A longevidade de adultos foi superior em insetos criados em pêssego. Frutos de pessegueiro são mais adequados para o desenvolvimento de C. capitata, em comparação aos de caqui, maçã e uva.

  3. Nutrigenomics in Arma chinensis: transcriptome analysis of Arma chinensis fed on artificial diet and Chinese oak silk moth Antheraea pernyi pupae.

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    Deyu Zou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The insect predator, Arma chinensis, is capable of effectively controlling many pests, such as Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Our previous study demonstrated several life history parameters were diminished for A. chinensis reared on an artificial diet compared to a natural food source like the Chinese oak silk moth pupae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis health are unclear. So we utilized transcriptome information to better understand the impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis at the molecular level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina HiSeq2000 was used to sequence 4.79 and 4.70 Gb of the transcriptome from pupae-fed and artificial diet-fed A. chinensis libraries, respectively, and a de novo transcriptome assembly was performed (Trinity short read assembler. This resulted in 112,029 and 98,724 contigs, clustered into 54,083 and 54,169 unigenes for pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis, respectively. Unigenes from each sample's assembly underwent sequence splicing and redundancy removal to acquire non-redundant unigenes. We obtained 55,189 unigenes of A. chinensis, including 12,046 distinct clusters and 43,143 distinct singletons. Unigene sequences were aligned by BLASTx to nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG (E-value <10(-5, and further aligned by BLASTn to nt (E-value <10(-5, retrieving proteins of highest sequence similarity with the given unigenes along with their protein functional annotations. Totally, 22,964, 7,898, 18,069, 15,416, 8,066 and 5,341 unigenes were annotated in nr, nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG and GO, respectively. We compared gene expression variations and found thousands of genes were differentially expressed between pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides abundant genomic data and offers comprehensive sequence information for studying A. chinensis. Additionally, the physiological

  4. Progeny of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitising pupae of Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) of different ages; Progenie de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare e LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) parasitando pupas de Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera:Bombycidae) de diferentes idades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabricio F.; Favero, Kellen; Grance, Elizangela L.V. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Biologicas e Ambientais], e-mail: fabriciofagundes@ufgd.edu.br, e-mail: kellenfavero@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: eli_vargasgrance@yahoo.com.br; Zanuncio, Jose C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal], e-mail: zanuncio@ufv.br; Serrao, Jose E. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil), Dept. de Biologia Geral], e-mail: jeserrao@ufv.br; Oliveira, Harley N. [Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, MS (Brazil)], e-mail: harley@cpao.embrapa.br

    2009-09-15

    Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle is a natural pupal parasitoid of eucalyptus defoliator lepidopterans and is considered a promising biocontrol agent. However, the development of efficient rearing techniques for this natural enemy are fi rst required before it can be used in biocontrol programs. Bombyx mori L. pupae are potential alternative hosts for this parasitoid mass rearing, and they are easy to rear. Therefore, we investigated the most suitable host age and the effects of parasitoid age on progeny production of P. elaeisis. B. mori pupae, 24 h-, 48 h-, 72 h- or 96 h-old were exposed to P. elaeisis females of similar age. The duration of the life cycle (egg-adult) of P. elaeisis was not affected by the age of the parasitizing female; however, the host age affected parasitoid development. The best parasitization was obtained for 72h- to 96h-old parasitoid females when offered to 48h- to 72h-old host pupae, allowing the synchronized rearing of a large number of P. elaeisis offspring. (author)

  5. Preferência alimentar e biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em arroz e capim-arroz

    OpenAIRE

    Botton, Marcos; Carbonari, Jairo J.; Garcia, Mauro S.; Martins, José F. S.

    1998-01-01

    Lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) foram criadas em laboratório, alimentadas com folhas de arroz (Oryza sativa) e capim-arroz (Echinocloa sp.) a 25±2 ºC; 70±10% RH e fotofase de 14 h. Maiores diferenças foram observadas quanto à duração da fase larval (22,0 dias em arroz e 18,6 dias em capim-arroz), viabilidade de lagartas (78% em arroz e 83,0% em capim-arroz) e pupas (71,4% em arroz e 87,8% em capim-arroz) bem como na fecundidade (773 e 1017 ovos/fêmea pr...

  6. Correlating Remote Sensing Data with the Abundance of Pupae of the Dengue Virus Mosquito Vector, Aedes aegypti, in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max J. Moreno-Madriñán

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using a geographic transect in Central Mexico, with an elevation/climate gradient, but uniformity in socio-economic conditions among study sites, this study evaluates the applicability of three widely-used remote sensing (RS products to link weather conditions with the local abundance of the dengue virus mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti. Field-derived entomological measures included estimates for the percentage of premises with the presence of Ae. aegypti pupae and the abundance of Ae. aegypti pupae per premises. Data on mosquito abundance from field surveys were matched with RS data and analyzed for correlation. Daily daytime and nighttime land surface temperature (LST values were obtained from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS/Aqua cloud-free images within the four weeks preceding the field survey. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM-estimated rainfall accumulation was calculated for the four weeks preceding the field survey. Elevation was estimated through a digital elevation model (DEM. Strong correlations were found between mosquito abundance and RS-derived night LST, elevation and rainfall along the elevation/climate gradient. These findings show that RS data can be used to predict Ae. aegypti abundance, but further studies are needed to define the climatic and socio-economic conditions under which the correlations observed herein can be assumed to apply.

  7. Rasgos morfológicos asociados a la viabilidad de pupas en parasitoides del género Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae

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    Patricia J. FOLGARAIT

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fóridos del género Pseudacteon Coquillett oviponen en forrajeras del género Solenopsis Westwood y empupan en sus cabezas. Se evaluó la rela- ción entre la viabilidad de los parasitoides, la presencia de cuernos respiratorios y el color en los opérculos de los puparios de cuatro especies de Pseudacteon criados sobre Solenopsis invicta Buren y Solenopsis richteri Forel. La presencia de cuernos respiratorios estuvo asociada a la viabilidad de las pupas para las especies consideradas (p 0,09; excepto cuando Pseudacteon cultellatus Borgmeier se desarrolló sobre hormi- gas de la reserva y niñeras de S. invicta (p < 0,01. Los opérculos claros predomi- naron en P. cultellatus; mientras que en las demás especies, que atacan a hormi- gas más grandes, predominaron los opérculos castaños. Debido a que los opérculos presentaron un color similar al de la hormiga parasitada, esto repre- sentaría un mimetismo por parte del parasitoide para evitar ser detectado por el huésped. Dado que los cuernos respiratorios son necesarios para la superviven- cia de la mayoría de las pupas, sugerimos que sean usados como indicadores de eficiencia en los protocolos de cría. Recomendamos usar solo forrajeras dado que las otras castas no parecen ser huéspedes apropiados.

  8. Cuticular and internal n-alkane composition of Lucilia sericata larvae, pupae, male and female imagines: application of HPLC-LLSD and GC/MS-SIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołębiowski, M; Paszkiewicz, M; Grubba, A; Gąsiewska, D; Boguś, M I; Włóka, E; Wieloch, W; Stepnowski, P

    2012-08-01

    The composition of cuticular and internal n-alkanes in Lucilia sericata larvae, pupae, and male and female imagines were studied. The cuticular and internal lipid extracts were separated by HPLC-LLSD, after which the hydrocarbon fraction was identified by GC/MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) and total ion current (TIC) modes. The cuticular lipids of the larvae contained seven n-alkanes from C23 to C31. The major n-alkane in L. sericata larvae was C29 (42.1%). The total cuticular n-alkane content in the cuticular lipids was 31.46 μg g-1 of the insect body. The internal lipids of L. sericata larvae contained five n-alkanes ranged from C25 to C31. The most abundant compound was C27 (61.71 μg g-1 of the insect body). Eighteen n-alkanes from C14 to C31 were identified in the cuticular lipids of the pupae. The most abundant n-alkanes ranged from C25 to C31; those with odd-numbered carbon chains were particularly abundant, the major one being C29:0 (59.5%). Traces of eight cuticular n-alkanes were present. The internal lipids of L. sericata pupae contained five n-alkanes, ranging from C25 to C31. The cuticular lipids of female imagines contained 17 n-alkanes from C12 to C30. Among the cuticular n-alkanes of females, C27 (47.5%) was the most abundant compound. Four n-alkanes, with only odd-numbered carbon chains, were identified in the internal lipids of females. The lipids from both sexes of L. sericata had similar n-alkane profiles. The cuticular lipids of adult males contained 16 n-alkanes ranging from C13 to C31. C27 (47.9%) was the most abundant cuticular n-alkanes in males. The same n-alkanes only with odd-numbered carbon chains and in smaller quantities of C27 (0.1%) were also identified in the internal lipids of males. The highest amounts of total cuticular n-alkanes were detected in males and females of L. sericata (330.4 and 158.93 μg g-1 of the insect body, respectively). The quantities of total cuticular alcohols in larvae and pupae were smaller (31.46

  9. A simple, fast, and inexpensive CTAB-PVP-silica based method for genomic DNA isolation from single, small insect larvae and pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanca-Mamani, W; Rivera-Cabello, D; Maita-Maita, J

    2015-07-17

    In this study, we report a modified CTAB-PVP method combined with silicon dioxide (silica) treatment for the extraction of high quality genomic DNA from a single larva or pupa. This method efficiently obtains DNA from small specimens, which is difficult and challenging because of the small amount of starting tissue. Maceration with liquid nitrogen, phenol treatment, and the ethanol precipitation step are eliminated using this methodology. The A260/A280 absorbance ratios of the isolated DNA were approximately 1.8, suggesting that the DNA is pure and can be used for further molecular analysis. The quality of the isolated DNA permits molecular applications and represents a fast, cheap, and effective alternative method for laboratories with low budgets.

  10. Leafcutter bee nests and pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: implications for understanding the paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene.

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    Anna R Holden

    Full Text Available The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ∼23,000-40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower

  11. Leafcutter bee nests and pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: implications for understanding the paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Anna R; Koch, Jonathan B; Griswold, Terry; Erwin, Diane M; Hall, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ∼23,000-40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile) gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E) document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower elevation during

  12. Actividades enzimáticas en aislamientos bacterianos de tractos digestivos de larvas y del contenido de pupas de Automeris zugana y Rothschildia lebeau (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae

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    Adrián Pinto-Tomás

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El tracto digestivo de orugas constituye un microambiente extremo, debido a su elevado pH y presencia de sustancias antimicrobianas secretadas por el insecto o derivadas del tejido vegetal ingerido. Al mismo tiempo, el intestino alberga gran cantidad de alimento, por el cual los microorganismos presentes podrían competir entre sí y con su hospedero. Existe poca información sobre la microbiota asociada con el intestino de orugas tropicales, aunque se ha demostrado la presencia de bacterias de diversos géneros tanto en el intestino como en el interior de pupas. El estudio de las actividades enzimáticas de estos microorganismos constituye un punto de partida en la comprensión de la posible relación metabólica y fisiológica que establecen con sus hospederos, a la vez que permite investigar enzimas con potenciales aplicaciones biotecnológicas. En este trabajo se evaluó la presencia de actividades gelatinolítica, caseinolítica, esterásica, lipolítica, quitinolítica, amilásica, celulolítica y xilanolítica en dos colecciones de aislamientos bacterianos provenientes de tractos digestivos de orugas y de pupas de los lepidópteros Automeris zugana y Rothschildia lebeau. Se utilizaron ensayos bioquímicos tradicionales para detectar enzimas secretadas en condiciones aerobias, en las que ambas colecciones exhibieron un comportamiento enzimático similar. Ningún aislamiento produjo un resultado positivo en todas las pruebas, pero como conjunto ambas colecciones fueron capaces de utilizar todos los sustratos evaluados. Los aislamientos obtenidos de pupas presentaron prácticamente las mismas actividades que sus homólogos provenientes de intestinos. En ambas colecciones fue posible agrupar los aislamientos de acuerdo con su patrón de producción de enzimas. Además de un conjunto heterogéneo de aislamientos poco activos (dos o menos actividades, se destacan dos grupos muy activos (al menos cinco actividades, que manifiestan una aparente

  13. Quantitative determination of juvenile hormone III and 20-hydroxyecdysone in queen larvae and drone pupae of Apis mellifera by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinhui; Qi, Yitao; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yi; Xue, Xiaofeng; Wu, Liming; Zhang, Jinzhen; Chen, Fang

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a method for the rapid and sensitive analysis of juvenile hormone III (JH III) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in queen larvae and drone pupae samples was presented. Ultrasound-assisted extraction provided a significant shortening of the leaching time for the extraction of JH III and 20E and satisfactory sensitivity as compared to the conventional shake extraction procedure. After extraction, determination was carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operating in electrospray ionization positive ion mode via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) without any clean-up step prior to analysis. A linear gradient consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid, and a ZORBAX SB-Aq column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) were employed to obtain the best resolution of the target analytes. The method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification, recovery, matrix effects, precision and stability. Drone pupae samples were found to contain 20E at concentrations of 18.0 ± 0.1 ng/g (mean ± SD) and JH III was detected at concentrations of 0.20 ± 0.06 ng/g (mean ± SD) in queen larvae samples. This validated method provided some practical information for the actual content of JH III and 20E in queen larvae and drone pupae samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Parasitoid larva-pupa Tetrastichus howardi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae pada Pluttella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae di pertanaman kubis kecamatan batu dan poncokusumo, kabupaten malang

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    Sri Karindah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The surveys of larval parasitiod Plutella xylostella, which have been done in cabbage plantations area in Batu and Poncokusumo, Malang east Java, found other larval parasitoid biside the commonly larval parasitiod Diagdema semiclausum. The parasitoid was Teratichus howardi (Hyminoptera: Eulophidae. The percentage of parasitism was dependent of the altitude of cabbage plantation and developmental stage of crop. The percent of parasitism could reach 82% when parasitized larvae sampled in cabbage plant and the crop stage. Parasitism was also higher at the medium lowland rather than it was that the upland. T. howardi is a gregrarious larval-pupa endoparasitoid. The life cycle of T. howardi was 14-16 days. The longevity of male and female was influenced by the availability of hosts or the change of mating. The longevity of mated female which was offered some host is 14-21 days, but the longevity of mated female without hosts was 38-56 days. The mated male parasitoid lived from 1 to 4 days, but they lived 12-16 days when they were not mated. One female could lay some cluster of egg varied from 35-60 eggs cluster or from 142 to 235 eggs during the lifespan. One eggs cluster consist of ±4 eggs. The parasitoid laid one or two clusters of egg per host. Parasitoid laid eggs soon after mating at day one from eclosion until day 19th. Four to 28 Parasitoids could emerge from one host. One parasitoid was able to parasitize 17-30 larvae of P. xylostella.

  15. KPNA3-knockdown eliminates the second heat shock protein peak associated with the heat shock response of male silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) by reducing heat shock factor transport into the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Wei, Guoqing; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Li, Kedong; Zhang, Congfen; Dai, Lishang; Sun, Yu; Liu, Dongran; Zhu, Baojian; Liu, Chaoliang

    2016-01-10

    In this study, we investigated the role of karyopherin alpha 3 in the heat shock response in male silkworm pupae. Karyopherin alpha recognizes the classical nuclear location sequence on proteins and transports them into the nucleus by forming a trimetric complex with karyopherin beta. Three predicted karyopherin alphas (KPNA1, KPNA2 and KPNA3) have been identified from the silkworm Bombyx mori. Pull-down assay result showed that KPNA3 can pull down heat shock transcription factor (HSF) from proteins extracted from tissues using non-denature lysis buffer. After 45 °C heat shock on male B. mori pupae for 30 min, we identified two heat shock protein (HSP) mRNA expression peaks correlating with HSP19.9, HSP20.4 and HSP25.4 at 4 h (peak 1) and 24 h (peak 2). The second peak was eliminated after knockdown of KPNA3. Similar results were obtained following knockdown of HSF, which is the trans-activating factor of heat shock. However, KPNA3 knockdown was not accompanied by the decreased HSF protein levels at 24 h after heat shock which were observed following HSF knockdown. We also expressed recombinant protein GST-KPNA3 and His-HSF in Escherichia coli to perform GST pull-down assay and the result confirmed the interaction between KPNA3 and HSF. We concluded that KPNA3 knockdown eliminates the second heat shock protein peak in the heat shock response of male silkworm pupae by reducing HSF transport into the nucleus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phytochemical and Biological Studies of <em>Agave em>attenuata>

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    Vincenzo de Feo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to examine various biological activities of a methanol extract of <em>Agave attenuataem> leaves. GC-MS analysis of the <em>n>-hexane fraction from the extract revealed the presence of 31 compounds, with mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (11.37%, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (6.33%, <em>n>-docosane (6.30% and eicosane (6.02% as the major components. The leaves contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (10.541–39.35 GAE, mg/100 g and total flavonoid contents (43.35–304.8 CE, mg/100 g. The extract and some of its fractions showed moderate antimicrobial effects. Leaves extract and fractions also exhibited a good antioxidant potential when measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation assays. The hemolytic effect of the plant was found to be in a range of 1.01%–2.64%. From the present study it is concluded that this plant could be used as a source of natural antioxidants and functional food nutraceutical applications.

  17. Isolation and Expression of Glucosinolate Synthesis Genes <em>CYP83A1em> and <em>CYP83B1em> in Pak Choi (<em>Brassica em>rapa> L. ssp. <em>chinensis> var. <em>communis> (N. Tsen & S.H. Lee Hanelt

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    Huasen Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available <em>CYP83A1em> and <em>CYP83B1em> are two key synthesis genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway. <em>CYP83A1em> mainly metabolizes the aliphatic oximes to form aliphatic glucosinolate and <em>CYP83B1em> mostly catalyzes aromatic oximes to synthesis corresponding substrates for aromatic and indolic glucosinolates. In this study, two <em>CYP83A1em> genes named <em>BcCYP83A1-1em> (JQ289997, <em>BcCYP83A1-2em> (JQ289996 respectively and one <em>CYP83B1em> (<em>BcCYP83B1em>, HM347235 gene were cloned from the leaves of pak choi (<em>Brassica rapaem> L. ssp. <em>chinensis em>var. <em>communis em>(N. Tsen & S.H. Lee Hanelt “Hangzhou You Dong Er” cultivar. Their ORFs were 1506, 1509 and 1500 bp in length, encoding 501, 502 and 499 amino acids, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequences of <em>CYP83A1-1em>, <em>CYP83A1-2 em>and <em>CYP83B1em> shared high sequence identity of 87.65, 86.48 and 95.59% to the corresponding ones in <em>Arabidopsis>, and 98.80, 98.61 and 98.80% to the corresponding ones in <em>Brassica pekinensis em>(Chinese cabbage, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that both <em>CYP83A1em> and <em>CYP83B1em> expressed in roots, leaves and petioles of pak choi, while the transcript abundances of <em>CYP83A1 em>were higher in leaves than in petioles and roots, whereas <em>CYP83B1 em>showed higher abundances in roots. The expression levels of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes were consistent with the glucosinolate profile accumulation in shoots of seven cultivars and three organs. The isolation and characterization of the glucosinolate synthesis genes in pak choi would promote the way for further development of agronomic traits via genetic engineering.

  18. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

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    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv. Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem> is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various <em>E. songoricumem> plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions.<em> EsEFem> and <em>Esα-TUB> were sufficient for various stress conditions, <em>EsEF> and <em>EsACT> were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and <em>EsGAPDH>and <em>Es>UBQ em>were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The <em>Es18Sem> gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor <em>EsDREB2em>> em>verified the utility of<em> E. songoricumem> reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in <em>E. songoricumem>, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  19. Microhimenópteros Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera: Figitidae parasitando espécies de dípteros que se desenvolvem em fezes de gado bovino em Panamá, Estado de Goiás, Brasil Microhymenopterous Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera: Figitidae parasitizing dipterous species developing in cattle dung, in Panamá, Goiás State, Brazil

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    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com este estudo, objetivou-se verificar a freqüência de parasitismo de microhimenópteros Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera: Figitidae, parasitando espécies de dípteros, que se desenvolvem em fezes de bovinos, em Panamá, Estado de Goiás, de maio a dezembro de 2003. As pupas dos hospedeiros foram isoladas pelo método de flutuação e individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas e/ou dos seus parasitóides. A freqüência de parasitismo apresentada por Kleidotoma nigra (HARTIG, 1840, Paraganaspis egeria (DÍAZ, GALLARDO e WALSH, 1996, Triplasta atrocoxalis (ASHMEAD, 1895 e Triplasta coxalis (ASHMEAD, 1895 foi de 6,45%, 3,33%, 3,33% e 13,33%, respectivamente.This study had the objective of verifying the frequency of microhymenopterous Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera: Figitidae parasitizing dipterous species developing in cattle dung, in Panamá, Goiás State, from May to December 2003. The hosts pupae were obtained by the flotation method and individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. The frequencies of parasitism by Kleidotoma nigra (HARTIG, 1840, Paraganaspis egeria (DÍAZ, GALLARDO and WALSH, 1996, Triplasta atrocoxalis (ASHMEAD, 1895 and Triplasta coxalis (ASHMEAD, 1895 were 6.45%, 3.33%, 3.33% and 13.33%, respectively.

  20. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Three <em>FLOWERING LOCUS T (FTem> Homologous Genes from Chinese <em>Cymbidium>

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    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The <em>FLOWERING LOCUS Tem> (<em>FT> gene plays crucial roles in regulating the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase. To understand the molecular mechanism of reproduction, three homologous <em>FT> genes were isolated and characterized from <em>Cymbidium sinenseem> “Qi Jian Bai Mo”, <em>Cymbidium goeringiiem> and <em>Cymbidium ensifoliumem> “Jin Si Ma Wei”. The three genes<em> em>contained 618-bp nucleotides with a 531-bp open reading frame (ORF of encoding 176 amino acids (AAs. Alignment of the AA sequences revealed that CsFT, CgFT and CeFT contain a conserved domain, which is characteristic of the<em> em>PEBP-RKIP superfamily, and which share high identity with FT of other plants in GenBank: 94% with OnFT<em> em>from <em>Oncidium em>Gower Ramsey, 79% with Hd3a from <em>Oryza sativaem>, and 74% with FT from <em>Arabidopsis thalianaem>. qRT-PCR analysis showed a diurnal expression pattern of <em>CsFT>, <em>CgFT> and <em>CeFT> following both long day (LD, 16-h light/8-h dark and short day (SD, 8-h light/16-h dark treatment. While the transcripts of both <em>CsFT em>and <em>CeFT em>under LD were significantly higher than under SD, those of <em>CgFT em>were> em>higher under SD. Ectopic expression of <em>CgFT> in transgenic <em>Arabidopsis> plants resulted in early flowering compared to wild-type plants and significant up-regulation of <em>APETALA1em> (<em>AP1em> expression. Our data indicates that CgFT is a putative phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene in <em>Cymbidium> that may regulate the vegetative to reproductive transition in flowers, similar to its <em>Arabidopsis> ortholog.

  1. Persistência e eficácia do regulador de crescimento pyriproxyfen em condições de laboratório para Aedes aegypti Persistence and efficacy of growth regulator pyriproxyfen in laboratory conditions for Aedes aegypti

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    Marcelo Carvalho de Resende

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A persistência e a eficácia do regulador de crescimento pyriproxyfen foram testadas em concentrações de 0,01 e 0,05ppm, contra larvas de Aedes aegypti, utilizando os recipientes caixas d'água (45 litros, frascos de vidro (5 litros e baldes de plástico (20 litros. As avaliações foram nos dias 1, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 e 120 após o tratamento usando larvas de 3º e 4º estádio de Aedes aegypti. Foi calculado o percentual de mortalidade de larvas, pupas e adultos, percentual de inibição de emergência de adulto e duração dos bioensaios. Observou-se que a persistência foi de 45 dias e 90 dias para concentração final de 0,01 e 0,05ppm de pyriproxyfen, respectivamente. Observamos que a mortalidade de pupas foi significativamente maior que a de larvas e de adultos para todos os recipientes e concentrações.The persistence and efficacy of growth regulator pyriproxyfen were evaluated in two final concentrations 0.01 and 0.05ppm against Aedes aegypti larvae in laboratory conditions using three types of containers: cement box (45 liters, glass bottle (5 litersand plastic bucket (20 liters. The tests were carried after 1, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 days of treatment against Aedes aegypti larvae 3rd and 4th instar. The percentages of larvae, pupae and adult mortality, the percentage of adult emergence inhibition and time duration of bioassays were calculated. A was observed a persistence of 45 and 90 days by using 0.01 and 0.05ppm final concentrations of pyriproxyfen, respectively, was observed. We observed that mortality in the pupa stage was significantly higher than larvae and adults mortality for all containers and concentrations.

  2. <em>α>-Glucosidase Inhibitory Constituents from <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harm Leaves

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    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new triterpene glycoside, 3-<em>O-[(α>-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2]-[<em>β>-D-glucuronopyranosyl-6-<em>O>-methyl ester]-olean-12-ene-28-olic acid (1 and a new indole alkaloid, 5-methoxy-2-oxoindolin-3-acetic acid methyl ester (5 were isolated from the leaves of <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harms along with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of 2D-NMR experiments and chemical methods. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their glycosidase inhibition activities and compound 6 showed significant <em>α>-glucosidase inhibition activity.

  3. Parâmetros biológicos da lagarta falsa-medideira em cultivares de algodoeiro com as proteínas Cry1Ac e Cry1F

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    Daniela de Lima Viana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de cultivares transgênicas de algodoeiro que expressam as proteínas Cry1Ac e Cry1F, nos parâmetros biológicos da lagarta falsa-medideira (Chrysodeixis includens. Lagartas neonatas foram alimentadas durante toda a fase larval com folhas de cultivares transgênicas e de suas isolinhas convencionais. Na cultivar Nuopal (Bollgard I (Cry1Ac, 62% das lagartas sobreviveram e se transformaram em pupas normais. A cultivar FM 975 (WideStrike (Cry1Ac e Cry1F é letal para lagartas de primeiro instar, com 100% de mortalidade.

  4. Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters <em>in em>Vivo> and <em>in em>Vitro> Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs

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    Chad H. Stahl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4 deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P, supra-adequate (1.2% total P in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured <em>in vitroem> for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (<em>P> < 0.05 feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. <em>In vivoem> satellite cell proliferation was reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered <em>in vitroem> expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted.

  5. Tipos de resistência a Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae envolvidos em genótipos de algodoeiro: II. Antibiose Evaluation of cotton genotypes resistance to Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: II. Antibiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALVEMAR FERREIRA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar a ocorrência do tipo de resistência antibiose em genótipos de algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. em relação a Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818, em experimentos de laboratório (27 ± 2oC, 70 ± 10% de U.R. e fotofase de 14 horas. Folhas dos genótipos T 1122-13-1, STO 285 N, JPM 157, T 953-13-4-2, CNPA 9211-21 e CNPA 9211-31 foram fornecidas às larvas, diariamente, verificando-se a duração de cada fase do inseto, avaliando-se a massa de larvas aos 3 e aos 8 dias de idade, a massa de pupas e as porcentagens de mortalidade larval, pré-pupal e pupal. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições, cada uma com dez larvas/genótipo. Em comparação com STO 285 N, todos os genótipos provocaram períodos mais longos de larva a adulto em A. argillacea; entretanto, os menores valores de massa de larvas com 3 dias e de massa média de pupas, e os maiores valores de duração do período larval e de mortalidade de larva a adulto foram verificados em CNPA 9211-31 e CNPA 9211-21, evidenciando que antibiose é um dos tipos de resistência presentes em ambos os genótipos.Cotton genotypes resistance to Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818 due to antibiosis has been evaluated in laboratory trials (at 27 ± 2oC, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 14 hours photoperiod. Six different genetic materials (T 1122-13-1, STO 285 N, JPM 157, T 953-13-4-2, CNPA 9211-21, and CNPA 9211-31 have been tested in a completely randomized experimental design, with ten replications, each one with ten larvae/genotype. Larvae have been supplied with leaves daily. The following variables have been scored: time length of several insect stages (from larvae to adult, average mass of larvae and pupae as well as average larval, pre-pupal and pupal mortality rates. All genotypes have revealed longer overall average time length of stage duration from larvae to adult, as compared to STO 285 N; however, CNPA 9211-31 and CNPA 9211-21 have

  6. Constituents from <em>Vigna em>vexillata> and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of <em>Vigna em>genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of<em> V. vexillata em>demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of <em>V. vexillataem>. One new sterol (1 and two new isoflavones (2,3 were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23, abscisic acid (25, and quercetin (40 displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release.

  7. Trealose e trealase em tenebrio molitor L Trehalose and Trehalase in Tenebrio molitor L

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    Cristina Piedras Lopes

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a concentração em trealose e a atividade em trealase do Tenebrio molitor L. durante as tres fases da metamorfose (larva, ninfa, imago. Verificou-se que na larva e no adulto os valores são mais elevados conforme a curva da fig. 3. A trealose foi expressa em mg/g de Tenebrio e a trealose por µg de glicose/mg proteina.Trehalose and trehalase were determined in the Tenebrio molitor L., using larva, pupa and imago. A total number of 895 animals was analyzed. A growth curve up to the end of the larval stage was established (Fig. 1 and compared with the normal one obtained by Fraenkel. It was shown that trehalose and trehalase are more concentrated in the larva and imago presenting a curve with two arms as depicted in the Fig. 3. Trehalase was expressed in mg/g of Tenebrio and trehalase in µg of glucose /mg proteín.

  8. Seletividade de acaricidas utilizados em cafeeiro para larvas de crisopídeos

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    Michelle Vilela

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Os crisopídeos são encontrados em agroecossistema cafeeiro alimentando-se de várias pragas. Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade de acaricidas utilizados na cafeeiculta sobre a biologia de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861. Os tratamentos foram: testemunha (água, espirodiclofeno (0,12 g i.a./L, fenpropatrina (0,15 e 0,30 g i.a./L, enxofre (4,0 e 8,0 g i.a./L e abamectina (0,0067 e 0,0225 g i.a./L. Pulverizaram-se os produtos sobre larvas de primeiro, segundo e terceiro instares de C. externa por meio da torre de Potter. Avaliaram-se a duração do instar, sobrevivência das larvas e pupas e viabilidade dos ovos produzidos pelos adultos provenientes das larvas tratadas. Os produtos foram classificados em classes de toxicidade. Fenpropatrina foi nocivo e espirodiclofeno e abamectina foram moderadamente nocivos, necessitando de novos estudos em condições de casa de vegetação e campo para confirmação ou não de suas toxicidades. Em função da baixa toxicidade apresentada pelo enxofre ao predador C. externa, pode ser recomendado em programas de manejo de pragas do cafeeiro visando compatibilizar os métodos químico e biológico por meio dessa espécie de crisopídeo.

  9. em arquitetura e urbanismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Sala Minucci Martins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Está sendo desenvolvido projeto de pesquisa denominado Geometria Fractal e suas Aplicações em Arquitetura e Urbanismo, com o fito de estudar e desenvolver ferramentas analíticas e propositivas para serem aplicadas em arquitetura e urbanismo, com base em conceitos provenientes da geometria fractal.

  10. Autistic-Like Behaviors, Oxidative Stress Status, and Histopathological Changes in Cerebellum of Valproic Acid Rat Model of Autism Are Improved by the Combined Extract of Purple Rice and Silkworm Pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakotsriwan, Nartnutda; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Kirisattayakul, Woranan; Chaisiwamongkol, Kowit

    2016-01-01

    Due to the crucial role of oxidative stress on the pathophysiology of autism and the concept of synergistic effect, the benefit of the combined extract of purple rice and silkworm pupae (AP1) for autism disorder was the focus. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of AP1 on autistic-like behaviors, oxidative stress status, and histopathological change of cerebellum in valproic acid (VPA) rat model of autism. VPA was injected on postnatal day (PND) 14 and the animals were orally given AP1 at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg·kg(-1) BW between PND 14 and PND 40. The autism-like behaviors were analyzed via hot-plate, rotarod, elevated plus-maze, learning, memory, and social behavior tests. Oxidative stress and the histological change in the cerebellum were assessed at the end of study. AP1 treated rats improved behaviors in all tests except that in hot-plate test. The improvement of oxidative stress and Purkinje cell loss was also observed in the cerebellum of VPA-treated rats. Our data suggest that AP1 partially reduced autism-like behaviors by improving oxidative stress and Purkinje cell loss. Further research is required to identify the active ingredients in AP1 and gender difference effect.

  11. Ação do fungo Beauveria bassiana, isolado 986, sobre o ciclo biológico do cascudinho Alphitobius diaperinus em laboratório Action of the fungus Beauveria bassiana, strain 986, over the biologic cycle of the Alphitobius diaperinus beetle in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado para verificar a eficácia do fungo Beauveria bassiana em todas as etapas de desenvolvimento de Alphitobius diaperinus e assim saber em que fase ele é mais susceptível ao controle biológico. O fungo B. bassiana, isolado 986, foi testado em duas concentrações (3,4 X 10(6 e 3,4 X 10(8 conídios ml-1 mais um grupo controle. Foram realizadas duas leituras, uma sete e outra quatorze dias após a aplicação dos fungos. Na concentração 3,4 X 10(6, 54% dos ovos tratados estavam inférteis, ocorrendo 54% de mortalidade de larvas tratadas nos estádios I, II e III, 22,5% nos estádios IV, V e VI, 9,5% nos estádios VII e VIII e 24,5% de mortalidade das pupas. Na concentração 3,4 X 10(8, 66,8% dos ovos tratados estavam inviáveis, ocorrendo mortalidade de 56% das larvas tratadas nos estádios I, II e III, 34% nos estádios IV, V e VI, 24,5% nos estádios VII e VIII e 49,5% das pupas. Já no grupo controle, 13,3% dos ovos estavam inviáveis, ocorrendo mortalidade de 10% das larvas nos estádios I, II e III, 4% nos estádios IV, V e VI e 0% de mortalidade nos estádios VII, VIII e em pupas. Sobre o cascudinho adulto, o fungo não teve efeito nocivo em nenhum grupo analisado. Com base nesses resultados, observou-se que o fungo nas concentrações testadas apresentou efeito nocivo às fases do ciclo biológico do cascudinho, com exceção do inseto adulto.The present research was carried out to verify the Beauveria bassiana fungus efficacy in all development phases of Alphitobius diaperinus and to know in which phase it is more susceptible for biologic control. The B. bassiana, 986-isolated fungus, was tested in two different concentrations (3.4 x 10(6 and 3.4 x 10(8 conidium ml-1 and a control group. Two readings were realized, one after 7 days of fungus application and the other after 14 days. At concentration of 3.4 x 10(6 conidium ml-1, 54% of treated eggs were infertile, with larva death of 54% at I, II and III

  12. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-01-01

    is the only country that has emergency medicine (EM) as a recognised speciality but there is a need for more fully trained specialists in EM; (4) Norway: the ordinary ground ambulance is pointed out as the weakest link in the EM chain and a health reform demands extensive co-operation between the new health...... enterprises to re-establish a nation-wide air ambulance service; (5) Sweden: to create evidence based medicine standards for treatment in emergency medicine, a better integration of all part of the chain of survival, a formalised education in EM and a nation wide physician staffed helicopter EMS (HEMS) cover....

  13. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  14. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles through Reduction with <em>Solanum> <em>xanthocarpum> L. Berry Extract: Characterization, Antimicrobial and Urease Inhibitory Activities against <em>Helicobacter> <em>pylori>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais Iqbal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A green synthesis route for the production of silver nanoparticles using methanol extract from <em>Solanum> <em>xanthocarpum> berry (SXE is reported in the present investigation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNps, having a surface plasmon resonance (SPR band centered at 406 nm, were synthesized by reacting SXE (as capping as well as reducing agent with AgNO3 during a 25 min process at 45 °C. The synthesized AgNps were characterized using UV–Visible spectrophotometry, powdered X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results showed that the time of reaction, temperature and volume ratio of SXE to AgNO3 could accelerate the reduction rate of Ag+ and affect the AgNps size and shape. The nanoparticles were found to be about 10 nm in size, mono-dispersed in nature, and spherical in shape. <em>In> <em>vitro> anti-<em>Helicobacter> <em>pylori> activity of synthesized AgNps was tested against 34 clinical isolates and two reference strains of <em>Helicobacter> <em>pylori> by the agar dilution method and compared with AgNO3 and four standard drugs, namely amoxicillin (AMX, clarithromycin (CLA, metronidazole (MNZ and tetracycline (TET, being used in anti-<em>H.> <em>pylori> therapy. Typical AgNps sample (S1 effectively inhibited the growth of <em>H.> <em>pylori>, indicating a stronger anti-<em>H.> <em>pylori> activity than that of AgNO3 or MNZ, being almost equally potent to TET and less potent than AMX and CLA. AgNps under study were found to be equally efficient against the antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible strains of <em>H.> <em>pylori>. Besides, in the <em>H.> <em>pylori> urease inhibitory assay, S1 also exhibited a significant inhibition. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed that the mechanism of inhibition was noncompetitive.

  15. Bioatividade de formulações de NIM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, 1797 e de Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai em lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, 1797 and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai formulations in larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de inseticidas botânicos e bioinseticidas constitui uma alternativa promissora para o manejo de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797, na cultura do milho. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de formulações comerciais de nim e de Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai - Bta sobre esta praga em laboratório. Lagartas de S. frugiperda com 10 dias de idade foram alimentadas com folhas de milho submersas na calda dos inseticidas Neemseto®, Natuneem® e Xentari® (B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai Bta nas concentrações 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10 mL ou g/L e testemunha (água. Os efeitos dos inseticidas dependeram da concentração utilizada, pois provocaram mortalidade crescente das lagartas, alongaram o período larval e reduziram o peso larval. Em alguns casos, também, reduziram o peso das pupas, a viabilidade pupal e a longevidade de adultos. Lagartas com 0-24 h de idade foram mais susceptíveis às concentrações de Neemseto® e Xentari® a 5 e 10 mL ou g/L, em relação às com 10 dias de idade. Com o aumento da concentração, os efeitos sobre o peso das pupas e viabilidade pupal foram, também, maiores em lagartas com 0-24 h de idade.The use of botanical and biological insecticides constitutes a promising alternative to control Spodoptera frugiperda on corn crop. Thus, the present work evaluated the effect of commercial formulations of neem (Natuneem® and Neemseto® and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai - Bta (Xentari® on this pest under laboratory conditions. Newly hatched and 10 days old fall armyworm larvae were fed with corn leaves treated with the insecticides at concentration of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mL or g/mL and control (water. An increased effect of the insecticides was found as function of increasing concentration, causing higher larval mortality, longer larval period and lower larval weight. In some cases, reduction of pupa weight, pupa viability and longevity of adults were also verified. Newly

  16. Atividade predatória de Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae sobre formas imaturas de Aedes fluviatilis e Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae em laboratório Predatory activity of Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae on immature forms of Aedes ftuviatilis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotraut Anna Gertrud Bohlmann Cônsoli

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a atividade predatória, em laboratório, de Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae sobre ovos, larvas e pupas de Aedes fluviatilis e Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae, bem como a influência da presença desses hirudíneos sobre o comportamento de oviposição das fêmeas das duas espécies de mosquitos. Experimentos adicionais foram feitos testando a influência da profundidade da água e da sua salinidade sobre a capacidade predatória dos hirudíneos. Nas condições do experimento, foi observada predação de larvas e pupas, porém não de ovos das duas espécies de dípteros. Número estatisticamente menor de desovas foi depositado por fêmeas de Cx. quinquefasciatus em recipientes que continham hirudíneos, não ocorrendo o mesmo com fêmeas de Ae. fluviatilis. As diferentes profundidades de água testadas não interferiram na atividade predatória de H. t. lineata e somente em concentrações acima de 3% de NaCl essa atividade mostrou-se bastante diminuída.Experiments were conducted to determine the predatory activity of Helobdella triserialis lineata (Hirudinea: Glossiphonidae on eggs, larvae and pupae of Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory, The influence of the leeches on selection, of ovipositing sites by the females of both species of mosquitoes, as well as the role of salinity and water depth in relation to predation were investigated. Larvae and pupae of both species of mosquitoes were efficiently predated, but eggs were not touched. A significantly lower number of eggmasses of Cx. quinquefasciatus were deposited on water containing leeches, but the same did not occur with Ae. fluviatilis. The different depths of water investigated did not interfere with predation and only at concentrations above 3% NaCl was predation considerably diminished.

  17. Rearing method of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L. (Coleoptera, Silvanidae on various wheat grain granulometry Método de criação de Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L. (Coleoptera, Silvanidae em trigo de diversas granulometrias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenara dos Santos Beckel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Oryzaephilus surinamensis is one of most common insect pest of grains and a variety of stored products, and has been found in high numbers in almost all storage facilities. However, laboratory mass rearing of this insect for bioassays is not a simple task, mainly because of its feeding behavior, small size, and high mobility. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop a simple and efficient laboratory rearing method for O. surinamensis, using wheat kernels milled into different granulometry to obtain large number and standardized population at different life stages for bioassays. The adults were collected from storage grain facilities in the southern region of Brazil and 100 specimens were placed inside glass jars with wheat kernels milled at different grades and kept at 25±0.5ºC and 65±5% relative humidity. The insects were allowed to copulate and lay eggs for 10 days and then removed. The number of eggs, larvae, and pupae was counted at five-day intervals; longevity of the second generation adults was evaluated. The kernels milled at grade 20 were the best medium for offspring production: 89% of eggs by the 5th day; 30.5% larvae by the 10th day; 43% pupae by the 30th day and 63.4% adults at the 46th day. The adults survived up to 450 days. Culturing O. surinamensis under the described conditions, transferring the parental adults by the 10th day after infestation and replacing the media when population builds up will produce enough insects of each stage for various laboratory bioassays.Oryzaephilus surinamensis é uma das espécies de insetos-praga mais comuns em grãos e outros produtos armazenados, e tem ocorrido em grandes populações em praticamente todas as unidades de armazenamento de grãos. Contudo, a criação massal deste inseto, em laboratório, para bioensaios diversos, não tem sido uma tarefa simples, em função de seu comportamento alimentar, tamanho reduzido e alta mobilidade. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver

  18. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  19. Produtividade de criadouro de Aedes albopictus em ambiente urbano Productivity of container-breeding Aedes albopictus in an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O encontro de Aedes albopictus na cidade de Cananéia, região Sudeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, ensejou a ocasião de realizar observações que visassem avaliar a produtividade de criadouro grande e permanente. Como objetivo, após selecionar o habitat a ser estudado, tentou-se avaliar-lhe a contribuição para a densidade local do mosquito. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Em área predeterminada procedeu-se a levantamento de criadouros potenciais. Constatada a presença da espécie, foi selecionado um dos recipientes que preenchia os requisitos desejados. O acompanhamento foi feito de maneira ininterrupta, no período de novembro de 1996 a maio de 1997. As observações obdeceram a ritmo quinzenal retirando, cada vez, amostra da água correspondente a 0,14, ou seja, um sétimo do volume total de 70 litros. Procurou-se coletar, identificar e numerar, por sexo, as pupas existentes. Concomitantemente, procedeu-se à captura de formas adultas. Foi utilizada a isca humana das 15:00 às 18:00h, instalada a cerca de 6 metros do mencionado criadouro. Finda essa coleta, foi feita aspiração com 30 min. de duração em locais de abrigo representados pela abundante vegetação circunjacente. RESULTADOS: Nas coletas de formas imaturas do criadouro, o Ae. albopictus compareceu com 44,9%. Ao longo de 15 amostras regularmente realizadas obteve-se a média de 31,13 pupas pertencentes a essa espécie. O índice de emergência(E foi de 2,1. A multiplicação desse valor por sete forneceu a média diária de 14,7 fêmeas. Nas coletas de adultos desse sexo, a média de Williams para a isca humana foi de 30,7, enquanto a densidade média horária da aspiração dos locais de abrigo foi de 9,2. O cálculo do acúmulo diário concluiu pela presença de 22,8 fêmeas, por dia, capazes de freqüentar a isca humana, nessa situação e condições. DISCUSSÃO: A contagem de pupas possibilitou estimar a produtividade de criadouro de Ae. albopictus, tipo grande

  20. <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> in red foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and badgers (<em>Meles melesem> from Central and Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, 189 foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and 6 badgers (<em>Meles melesem> were collected in different areas of Central Northern Italy (Piedmont, Liguria and Tuscany and examined for <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly different in the areas considered, with the highest values in the district of Imperia (80%, Liguria and in Montezemolo (70%, southern Piedmont; the prevalence in Tuscany was 7%. One badger collected in the area of Imperia turned out to be infected, representing the first report of the parasite in this species in Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role played by fox populations as reservoirs of infection and the probability of its spreading to domestic dogs.
    Riassunto <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> nella volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e nel tasso (<em>Meles melesem> in Italia centro-settentrionale. Nel 2004-2005 e 2007-2008, 189 volpi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e 6 tassi (<em>Meles melesem> provenienti da differenti aree dell'Italia settentrionale e centrale (Piemonte, Liguria Toscana, sono stati esaminati per la ricerca di <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem>. La prevalenza del nematode è risultata significativamente diversa nelle varie zone, con valori elevati nelle zone di Imperia (80% e di Montezemolo (70%, provincia di Cuneo; la prevalenza in Toscana è risultata del 7%. Un tasso proveniente dall'area di Imperia è risultato positivo per A. vasorum; questa è la prima segnalazione del parassita in tale specie in Italia. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per valutare il potenziale della volpe come serbatoio e la possibilità di diffusione della parassitosi ai cani domestici.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4442

  1. Is EM dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Graham; Genoud, Christel

    2013-10-15

    Since electron microscopy (EM) first appeared in the 1930s, it has held centre stage as the primary tool for the exploration of biological structure. Yet, with the recent developments of light microscopy techniques that overcome the limitations imposed by the diffraction boundary, the question arises as to whether the importance of EM in on the wane. This Commentary describes some of the pioneering studies that have shaped our understanding of cell structure. These include the development of cryo-EM techniques that have given researchers the ability to capture images of native structures and at the molecular level. It also describes how a number of recent developments significantly increase the ability of EM to visualise biological systems across a range of length scales, and in 3D, ensuring that EM will remain at the forefront of biology research for the foreseeable future.

  2. Desenvolvimento de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae em diferentes hospedeiros Development of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae in different host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crébio José Ávila

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a influência do hospedeiro, sobre o desenvolvimento de larvas, adultos e a reprodução de D. speciosa. Larvas recém-eclodidas foram criadas em "seedlings" de feijoeiro, soja, milho e batata enraizada, utilizando-se, como substrato, vermiculita esterilizada e umedecida. Determinou-se a duração e viabilidade do período larva-adulto e o peso de insetos (machos e fêmeas recém-emergidos. Em outro experimento, foi avaliada a capacidade de postura de D. speciosa. Para isso, ofereceram-se aos adultos folhas de feijoeiro, soja, milho e batata. A duração e a viabilidade do período larva-adulto, bem como o peso dos insetos (machos e fêmeas recém-emergidos, foram significativamente influenciados pela espécie hospedeira utilizada como alimento na fase larval. O maior período de desenvolvimento das fases imaturas (larva + pupa foi verificado em tubérculo de batata (36,5 dias e o menor, em "seedlings" de milho (25,1 dias. Os maiores valores de viabilidade foram observadas em batata (84,1% e milho (75,9%, enquanto que em soja (30,1% e feijoeiro (9,4% foram bastante reduzidos, mostrando serem estes dois hospedeiros inadequados para o desenvolvimento imaturo (larva + pupal de D. speciosa. Os insetos alimentados com folhas de batata e feijoeiro apresentaram capacidades de postura significativamente superiores àqueles mantidos em folhas de soja ou milho. Verificou-se que "seedlings" de milho e radicelas de batata são adequados, como alimento, para larvas de D. speciosa, enquanto folhas de batata e feijão são os mais adequados para os adultos.The aim of this work was to determine the influence of the host plant, as food, on the larval and adult phases of D. speciosa. Larvae of this insect were reared on seedlings of bean, corn, soybean, as well as on potato tubers kept in wet vermiculite. The following biological parameters were evaluated: duration and viability of the larva-adult period and the weight

  3. Influence of photoperiod on body weight and depth of burrowing in larvae of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae and implications for forensic entomology A influência do fotoperíodo no peso corpóreo e na profundidade de enterramento em larvas de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae e as implicações para entomologia forense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Blowflies use discrete, ephemeral breeding sites for larval nutrition. After exhaustion of the food supply, the larvae disperse in search of sites to pupate or to seek other sources of food in a process known as post-feeding larval dispersal. In this study, some of the most important aspects of this process were investigated in larvae of the blowflies Chrysomya megacephala exposed to a variety of light: dark (LD cycles (0:0 h, 12:12 h and 24:0 h and incubated in tubes covered with vermiculite. For each pupa, the body weight and depth of burrowing were determined. Statistical tests were used to examine the relationship of depth of burrowing and body weight to photoperiod at which burrowing occurred. The study of burial behavior in post-feeding larval dispersing can be useful for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI of human corpses in forensic medicine.Moscas-varejeiras usam substratos discretos e efêmeros para nutrição larval. Após a exaustão do suprimento de comida, as larvas dispersam na procura por locais para pupação na outros recursos de alimento em um processo conhecido como dispersão larval pós- alimentar. Nesse estudo, alguns dos aspectos mais importantes desse processo foram investigados em larvas de moscas-varejeiras Chrysomya megacephala expostas a uma variação de ciclos luz: escuro (LD (0:24h, 12:12h e 24:0h e incubadas em tubos cobertos com vermiculita. Para cada pupa, o peso corpóreo e a profundidade de enterramento foram determinados. Testes estatísticos foram usados para examinar a relação entre profundidade de enterramento e o peso corpóreo e o fotoperíodo a que esse enterramento ocorreu. O estudo do comportamento de enterramento na dispersão larval pós-alimentar pode ser útil para estimar o intervalo pós-morte (IPM em cadáveres humanos em medicina forense.

  4. Evaluación de aislamientos de <em>Trichoderma spp.em> contra <em>Rhizoctonia solani em>y <em>Sclerotium rolfsiiem> bajo condiciones<em> in vitro em>y de invernadero

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    Hoyos-Carvajal Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó la eficacia biológica de ocho aislamientos de <em>Trichoderma spp. em> provenientes de suelos de Colombia para el control de los agentes causales de volcamiento, <em> Sclerotium rolfsiiem> y <em> Rhizoctonia solaniem>, bajo condiciones <em> in vitroem> y de invernadero. Los análisis <em> in vitroem> mostraron la capacidad antagónica de todos los aislamientos evaluados. En condiciones de invernadero, cuatro aislamientos fueron altamente eficaces contra <em> S. rolfsiiem> en plantas de fríjol en semillero (>90% de reducción de la enfermedad y dos aislamientos fueron eficaces contra <em> R. solaniem> en plantas de algodón en semillero (58 y 61% de reducción de la enfermedad. El análisis UP-PCR y DS-PCR permitió determinar tres grupos de aislamientos; dentro de estas asociaciones formadas no se encontró ninguna relación evidente entre la posición en el dendrograma y la actividad antagónica, pero sí permitió separar las especies de <em> Trichodermaem> por grupos, e incluso encontrar diferencias dentro de aislamientos de una misma especie. Los resultados muestran que el comportamiento micoparasítico de los aislamientos de <em> Trichoderma spp. em> varía según el hongo fitopatógeno, evidenciando una amplia especificidad del antagonista por su sustrato, es decir por el hongo atacado; por lo tanto es necesario realizar cuidadosas selecciones del aislamiento de <em> Trichodermaem> que se utilice en programas de control de fitopatógenos.

  5. Expression of Selected <em>Ginkgo em>>biloba em>Heat Shock Protein Genes After Cold Treatment Could Be Induced by Other Abiotic Stress

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    Feng Xu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, three <em>HSP> genes were isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library of <em>Ginkgo bilobaem> leaves treated with cold stress. Based on the molecular weight, the three genes were designated <em>GbHSP16.8em>, <em>GbHSP17em> and <em>GbHSP70em>. The full length of the three genes were predicted to encode three polypeptide chains containing 149 amino acids (Aa, 152 Aa, and 657 Aa, and their corresponding molecular weights were predicted as follows: 16.67 kDa, 17.39 kDa, and 71.81 kDa respectively. The three genes exhibited distinctive expression patterns in different organs or development stages. <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70em> showed high expression levels in leaves and a low level in gynoecia, <em>GbHSP17em> showed a higher transcription in stamens and lower level in fruit. This result indicates that <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70 em>may play important roles in <em>Ginkgo> leaf development and photosynthesis, and <em>GbHSP17em> may play a positive role in pollen maturation. All three <em>GbHSPs> were up-regulated under cold stress, whereas extreme heat stress only caused up-regulation of <em>GbHSP70em>, UV-B treatment resulted in up-regulation of <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP17em>, wounding treatment resulted in up-regulation of <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70em>, and abscisic acid (ABA treatment caused up-regulation of <em>GbHSP70em> primarily.

  6. Entomopathogenic fungi recorded from the harlequin ladybird, <em>Harmonia axyridisem>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Harding, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were recorded from field samples of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis, an invasive coccinellid that has recently arrived in Denmark. Larvae, pupae and adults were found to be infected by Isaria farinosa, Beauveria bassiana and species of Lecanicillium. This is the fi...

  7. Bioecological aspects of Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on persimmon cultivars = Aspectos bioecológicos de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cultivares de caquizeiro

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    Celso Luiz Hohmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology of Hypocala andremona (Cramer on persimmon (Diospyrus kaki L. leaves of the cultivars Atago and Giombo was studied in laboratory (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% RH, 14 hours photo period and egg distribution on plants of the cultivar Giombo in a commercial orchard, during the 2001/2002 crop season, in Londrina, Paraná state. The developmental period of larvae fed on ‘Giombo’ was longer (17.8 . 0.17 days in comparison to that of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ (15.8 . 0.27 days. In contrast, the duration of the pupal stage of insects raised on ‘Giombo’ was lower (12.0 . 0.29 days than that of insects reared on ‘Atago’ (13.3 . 0.17 days. The viabilities of larvae were 60.8 and 38.8% for insects reared on ‘Giombo’ and on ‘Atago’, respectively. Pupal viability was similar (ca. 93% between treatments. The duration of the preoviposition and incubation periods of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ were 4.0 days and 2.1 days, respectively, the fecundity 524.7 eggs, egg viability 77% and adult longevity 12.9 days. No eggs were obtained when H. andremona larvae were reared on ‘Giombo’ in laboratory. Adults preferred to lay their eggs on leaveslocated at the top of the persimmon tree canopy.A biologia de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foi estudada em folhas das cultivares de caquizeiro (Diospyrus kakiL. Atago e Giombo em laboratório (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% UR, 14h fotofase e a distribuição de ovos em plantas da cultivar Giombo em pomar comercial, durante o período de 2001/2002, em Londrina, Estado do Paraná. O período de desenvolvimento das lagartas alimentadas com ‘Giombo’ foi maior (17,8 . 0,17 dias em relação às alimentadas com‘Atago’ (15,8 . 0,27 dias. Entretanto, a duração do estágio de pupa de insetos criados em ‘Giombo’ foi menor (12,0 . 0,29 dias do que as criadas em ‘Atago’ (13,3 . 0,17 dias. As viabilidades das lagartas foram 60,8 e 38,8% para insetos alimentados em ‘Giombo’ e

  8. Levantamento de moscas-das-frutas e seus parasitoides em citros, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais Survey of fruit-flies and their parasitoids in citrus in Viçosa, Minas Gerais

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    Daniel Lucas Magalhães Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são responsáveis por grandes perdas em fruteiras comerciais no Brasil, por isso é fundamental conhecer as espécies predominantes na região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae e seus parasitoides em laranjas doces (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, tangerina Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco e mexerica Rio (Citrus deliciosa Ten, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram coletados em abril de 2008. No laboratório eles foram acondicionados em caixas plásticas contendo areia umedecida e em ambiente controlado para obtenção dos pupários, que foram contados, acondicionados em frascos de vidro com areia fina e mantidos em estufa até a emergência dos adultos. Somente uma espécie de mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 e uma de parasitoide (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti foram identificadas. Dentre as variedades, a laranja doce Baianinha apresentou o maior índice de infestação, e os menores foram atribuídos à mexerica Rio e à tangerina Poncã.Fruit flies are responsible for large losses in commercial orchards in Brazil, thus, it is important to know the predominant species in the region. The objective of this study was to study the occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidae and of their parasitoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Poncã' mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco and 'Rio' tangerine (Citrus deliciosa Ten, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The fruits were collected in April 2008. In the laboratory, the fruits were stored in plastic boxes containing moist sand in a controlled environment, to obtain pupae. Then, the pupae were counted, placed in glass bottles with fine sand and kept in an oven until adult emergence. Only one species of fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 and one species of parasitoid (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti were identified. Among the varieties, the sweet

  9. Characterizing local EMS systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) systems are configured differently depending on several factors, including the size, demographics, geography, and politics of the local communities they serve. Although some information exists about the organization, ...

  10. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Emergency medicine service (EMS) systems in the five Nordic countries have more similarities than differences. One similarity is the involvement of anaesthesiologists as pre-hospital physicians and their strong participation for all critically ill and injured patients in-hospital. Discrepancies do...... exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system....... Access to on-line medical advice of a physician is not available; (2) Finland: the autonomy of the individual municipalities and their responsibility to cover for primary and specialised health care, as well as the EMS, and the lack of supporting or demanding legislation regarding the EMS; (3) Iceland...

  11. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, in laboratory, with different natural diets Desenvolvimento de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, em laboratório, com diferentes dietas naturais

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    Giani L. B. Missirian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp., fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm, the mean weight (mg or the mean body size (mm in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments.Larvas de formiga-leão são conhecidas por suas armadilhas ("funis" que constroem em solo arenoso, sob as quais esperam por suas presas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas naturais [formigas-cortadeiras (Atta spp., larvas de moscas-das-frutas (Anastrepha spp. e Ceratitis capitata e dieta mista (Atta spp. e larvas de moscas-das-frutas] sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal de M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 e estimar o número e tamanho de presas capturadas, por instar larval, em cada dieta. No segundo e terceiro instares, as larvas de M. brasiliensis alimentadas com formigas-cortadeiras consumiram um número maior de presas e a

  12. Methyl 2-Benzamido-2-(1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate

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    Alami Anouar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The heterocyclic carboxylic α-aminoester methyl 2-benzamido-2-(1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate is obtained by <em>O>-alkylation of methyl α-azido glycinate <em>N>-benzoylated with 1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethanol.

  13. Avaliação da eficácia do Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis no controle de formas imaturas do Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti ( Linnaeus, 1762 em ambiente de laboratório.

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    Cleber Barreto Espindola

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumoAedes aegypti (L., 1762 é considerado um mosquito cosmopolita, com ocorrência nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais. No Brasil, está restrito às vilas e cidades, sempre com características domiciliares e peridomicíliares e, raramente é encontrado em ambientes onde a densidade populacional é baixa. Este mosquito é o único vetor do arbovírus da dengue e da febre amarela urbana em todo território nacional, e é considerado um dos vetores mais importantes na veiculação de patógenos a humanos. A grande resistência dos mosquitos a inseticidas químicos e a freqüente preocupação social com a poluição ambiental, resultou na procura de alternativas para o controle desses insetos, tais como a utilização de bactérias entomopatogênicas. Esse trabalho foi realizado objetivando mensurar a eficácia dessa bactéria no controle das formas imaturas de Ae. aegypti. Para a realização deste, foram criadas individualmente 350 larvas de geração F2 de Ae. aegypti em copos plásticos de 200 ml, contendo 100 ml de água não clorada. Na contaminação foi usado 5mg de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis para cada estágio larval. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste de Mann-Whitney a 5%. A mortalidade das larvas contaminadas foi de 100%, 98%, 98%, 100% e 4% para o 2º, 3º, 4º estágio e pupa A média do número de dias de vida das larvas após contaminação no 1º, 2º, 3º, 4º estágio e pupa foi de 1,36; 2,46; 1,24; 1,22 e 3,46 dias respectivamente, exceto para a pupa, a duração dos estágios foi menor para os indivíduos contaminados, (P<0,05. O B. thuringiensis var. israelensis demonstrou ser um bioinseticida eficaz, causando mortalidade total de 99,5% das larvas contaminadas, embora para a fase de pupa não tenha sido eficaz. Desta forma ele representa uma boa opção para o controle de larvas de Ae. aegypti, entretanto para as pupas, outras alternativas devem ser estudadas.Evaluation of efficacy of Bacillus

  14. Glycosylation of Vanillin and 8-Nordihydrocapsaicin by Cultured <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> Cells

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    Naoji Kubota

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of vanilloids such as vanillin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin by cultured plant cells of <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> was studied. Vanillin was converted into vanillin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside, vanillyl alcohol, and 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranosylvanillyl alcohol by <em>E. perriniana em>cells. Incubation of cultured <em>E. perrinianaem> cells with 8-nor- dihydrocapsaicin gave 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside and 8-nordihydro- capsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-gentiobioside.

  15. A specimen of <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> in Barn Owl's pellets from Murge plateau (Apulia, Italy / Su di un <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> (Insectivora, Soricidae rinvenuto in borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge (Puglia, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ferrara

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a lot of Barn Owl's pellets from the Murge plateau a specimen of <em>Sorex> sp. was detected. Thank to some morphological and morphometrical features, the cranial bones can be tentatively attributed to <em>Sorex samniticusem> Altobello, 1926. The genus <em>Sorex> was not yet included in the Apulia's fauna southwards of the Gargano district; the origin and significance of the above record is briefly discussed, the actual presence of a natural population of <em>Sorex> in the Murge being not yet proved. Riassunto Viene segnalato il rinvenimento di un esemplare di <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> da borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge. Poiché il genere non era stato ancora segnalato nella Puglia a sud del Gargano, viene discusso il significato faunistico del reperto.

  16. Study of the <em>in Vitroem> Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial and Antitrypanosomal Activities of Medicinal Plants from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal M. Al-Musayeib

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the <em>in vitroem> antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened <em>in vitroem> against erythrocytic schizonts of <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>, intracellular amastigotes of <em>Leishmania infantum em>and <em>Trypanosoma cruzi em>and free trypomastigotes of<em> T. bruceiem>. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity<em>. em>The criterion for activity was an IC50 < 10 µg/mL (4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the<em> em>extracts of<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem> and <em>Punica granatumem>. Antileishmanial activity<em> em>against <em>L. infantumem> was demonstrated in <em>Caralluma sinaicaem> and <em>Periploca aphylla.em> Amastigotes of<em> T. cruzi em>were affected by the methanol extract of<em> em>>Albizia lebbeckem>> em>pericarp, <em>Caralluma sinaicaem>,> Periploca aphylla em>and <em>Prosopius julifloraem>. Activity against<em> T. brucei em>was obtained in<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem>. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 < 10 µg/mL and hence non-specific activities were observed for<em> em>>Conocarpus lancifoliusem>.>

  17. Identification of the wood-borer and the factors affecting its attack on Caryocar brasiliense trees in the Brazilian Savanna=Identificação do broqueador de tronco e os fatores que afetam o seu ataque em árvores de Caryocar brasiliense no cerrado brasileiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to identify the wood-borer of the trunk of Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Caryocaraceae and the effects of tree size, chemical and physical soil attributes, and floristic diversity in its attack. The wood-boring caterpillar of the trunck of C. brasiliense belongs to the family Cossidae (Lepidoptera. The number of pupae and the amount of sawdust produced by the wood-borer per tree was higher in the pasture 1 of Montes Claros and pasture in Ibiracatu than in the other four areas (pastures and savanna in Montes Claros and savanna in Ibiracatu. The number of pupae and the amount of sawdust was highest in the trunks of trees with diameters having a breast height (DBH more than 30 cm. This may explain the severity of attack in the areas mentioned above, which contain a higher percentage of plants with DBH> 30 cm. The soil properties also positively associate with higher attack of the wood-borer on trees when the soil is rich in potassium, calcium, magnesium, sum of bases, capacity of cationic exchange, and organic matter, while there was a negative correlation between attack and fine sand content. Systems with less floristic diversity, particularly trees of other species, may concentrate the attack of the wood-borer in the trunks of C. Brasiliense trees. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar o broqueador do tronco de Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Caryocaraceae e os efeitos de tamanho de árvore, atributos químico-físicos do solo e da diversidade florística em seu ataque. A lagarta broqueadora do tronco de C. brasiliense pertence à família Cossidae (Lepidoptera. O número de pupas e de serragem do broqueador por árvore foi maior na pastagem (1 em Montes Claros e pastagem em Ibiracatu do que nas outras quatro áreas (pastagens e cerrado em Montes Claros e cerrado em Ibiracatu. O número de pupas e da quantidade de serragem do broqueador foi maior em árvores cujo diâmetro de tronco na altura do peito (DAB foi

  18. Controle da infestação natural de ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 (Diptera, Tephritidae em pêssegos(Prunus persica através das radiações gama Control of naturally infested peaches (Prunus persica by mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata through the use of gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Arthur

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose desinfestante de radiações gama para pêssegos, Prunus persica, infestados com larvas da mosca do Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata. Utilizaram-se frutas de procedência conhecida no campo fazendo-se uma amostragem prévia, constatando-se que cada fruta continha em média nove larvas do último ínstar da mosca praga. As frutas foram irradiadas em uma fonte de Cobalto-60 com as seguintes doses de radiação gama: 0 (test., 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 e 1200 Gy, sob uma taxa de 58 Gy por minuto. Após a irradiação as frutas foram colocadas em câmaras climatizadas com a temperatura variando entre 23 e 27°C e a umidade relativa variando entre 65 e 75%. Aguardou-se que as larvas deixassem as frutas e se transformassem em pupas e adultos. A dose letal para larvas, pelos resultados obtidos no experimento, concluiu-se ser de 600 Gy. A dose letal para pupas provenientes de larvas irradiadas dentro das frutas foi de 50 Gy, impedindo totalmente a emergência de adultos.Determination of the dose of gamma radiation to disinfest peaches, Prunus pérsica infested with larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 was made. Fruits were collected in the field, each one holding about nine larvae of the last instar of the fruit-fly. The fruits were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation source at the following doses: 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gy; at a dose rate of 58 Gy per minute. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted between 23 and 27°C, and relative humidity between 65 and 75 percent, until the larvae left the fruits and were transformed into pupae and adults. It was concluded that the lethal dose of gamma radiation for larvae at the last instar, in naturally infested peaches, was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the emergency of adults.

  19. <em>In Vivoem> Histamine Optical Nanosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this communication we discuss the development of ionophore based nanosensors for the detection and monitoring of histamine levels <em>in vivoem>. This approach is based on the use of an amine-reactive, broad spectrum ionophore which is capable of recognizing and binding to histamine. We pair this ionophore with our already established nanosensor platform, and demonstrate <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivoem> monitoring of histamine levels. This approach enables capturing rapid kinetics of histamine after injection, which are more difficult to measure with standard approaches such as blood sampling, especially on small research models. The coupling together of <em>in vivoem> nanosensors with ionophores such as nonactin provide a way to generate nanosensors for novel targets without the difficult process of designing and synthesizing novel ionophores.

  20. Tecnicas avanzadas de medida en intensimetria acustica para la caracterizacion de materiales aislantes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuera Saura, Gregorio

    The measurement rate of acoustic reduction (R) in an insulating material is determined in special designed enclosures according to UNE EN ISO 140-1 standard. The construction of a testing room that complies with the standards requires a significant financial investment, that too often can not be provided by general machinery manufacturers. The outdoor machines have to be designed considering the noise emission limits established in the European Directive 2000/14, making the installment of insulating materials in enclosures of machines necessary. Suppliers of insulating materials for industrial use does not normally provide the insulating properties of their products, which are often obtained from rock wool, polyethylene, polyurethane, synthetic rubber, etc. It is difficult to test these materials that are characterized by low density surface in a room standardized test procedure that is based on the measurement of sound pressure. The main problem is getting the validation of the measurement when the rate of acoustic reduction is relatively low, as in the case of materials mentioned above. An alternative procedure is proposed in this Doctoral Thesis based on the measurement of sound intensity. The vector nature of this parameter allows just the flow of energy through a given surface to be measured. The validation of the measurement is achieved with the highest degree of accuracy by applying the criteria included in the standard UNE EN ISO 9614. A steel plate 6 mm thick incorporated with a sound source for amplification of a pink noise signal is designed for carrying out the tests. Faced with the source is placed a piece of material to test. The source is connected and the transmitted sound intensity is measured with a probe consisting of two microphones located opposite one another. Previously it has been determined the flow of acoustic energy that impinges on the piece. The difference between the two measures provides directly the rate of acoustic reduction. The main advantage of the described test procedure is that it can be done in a room with normal dimensions and without specific conditioning. The vibroacoustic behaviour of the testing box and its influence on the measures is another important aspect to be considered. A test of modal analysis has been carried out with a steel plate similar to the enclosures of the box. A mathematical model based on the Statistical Energy Analysis SEA has been developed to estimate the paths of energy transmission from the sound source to the point of measurement with the sound intensity probe. The commercial software AUTOSEA2 LT is used. General conclusions regarding the alternative method of measurement and specific ones related to the capacity of insulation of the tested materials have been obtained. As for the general conclusions, the limitations of measuring with the intensity probe at low and high frequencies have been proved, validating measurements with an accuracy of 0.5 dB according to the criteria set forth in the standard UNE EN ISO 9614 Part 3 have been obtained, and a new test procedure for easy determination of the rate of acoustic reduction of an insulating material with low density surface has been established. Finally, the devised procedure allows future developments in the field of vibroacoustics, such as the application of the principle of reciprocity and the determination of acoustic impedance of materials by application of techniques for measuring of acoustics intensity.

  1. Leak detection and localization system through acoustics; Sistema de deteccao e localizacao de vazamentos por acustica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Julio [Aselco Automacao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Acoustic Leak Detection Systems (ALDS) are used on both liquid and gas pipelines as well as multi-phase flow pipelines to detect leaks quickly and provide a means of limiting product loss. The real-time acoustic signal is continuously compared against signature leak profiles for the particular operating and geometric conditions. These profiles were developed from a database established from over 20 years of experimental and field leak tests. This technique not only drastically reduces the false alarm rate, but also significantly improves the sensitivity and leak location accuracy. This system will also detect leaks with shut-in flow (zero flow rate in the pipeline). With the use of GPS (Global Positioning System) it not only improves leak location accuracy, but also allows for continuous leak detection during the loss of communications. (author)

  2. Contaminacion acustica y derechos fundamentales. Proteccion y discrepancias en su tutela judicial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia Gestoso, Noemi

    2012-01-01

    ... espanol a lo largo del tiempo, con especial atencion a sus ultimos pronunciamientos. Asimismo se mencionara brevemente como se aborda esta problematica en otros ambitos de proteccion--el de la Union Europea y el Interamericano--, para...

  3. Contaminacion acustica de origen vehicular en la localidad de Chapinero (Bogota, Colombia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberto Ramírez González; Efraín Antonio Domínguez Calle

    2015-01-01

    ... de la presión sonora en las principales vías de la localidad de Chapinero. Los resultados muestran que en todas las estaciones y horarios estudiados se sobrepasan las normas nacionales, las cuales son excedidas...

  4. Chemical Composition<em> em>of Hexane Extract of <em>Citrus aurantifoliaem> and<em> em>Anti->Mycobacterium tuberculosisem> Activity of Some of Its Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoval-Montemayor, Nallely E.; Abraham García; Elizabeth Elizondo-Treviño; Elvira Garza-González; Laura Alvarez; María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the active compounds from the hexane extract of the fruit peels of <em>Citrus aurantiifoliaem>, which showed activity against one sensitive and three monoresistant (isoniazid, streptomycin or ethambutol) strains of <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis em>H37Rv. The active extract was fractionated by column chromatography, yielding the following major compounds: 5-geranyloxypsoralen (

  5. ASPECTOS DA BIOLOGIA DE Anthistarcha binocularis MEYRICK EM INFLORESCÊNCIA DE CAJUEIRO ASPECTS OF Anthistarcha binocularis MEYRICK BIOLOGY ON CASHEW INFLORESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia R. de Abreu Sobral

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A biologia da broca-das-pontas do cajueiro, Anthistarcha binocularis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, foi estudada em inflorescências usando-se dois métodos. No primeiro, secções de inflorescências foram usadas e trocadas a cada três dias. No segundo método, usou-se inflorescências inteiras até o início do seu secamento. A partir desse momento, seguiu-se o mesmo procedimento do primeiro método. As informações coletadas mostraram um período de 33,7; 10,7 e 6,5 dias para larva, pupa e adulto, respectivamente, no primeiro método, e 35,5; 14,0 e 6,3 dias para larva, pupa e adulto, respectivamente, no segundo método. Além disso, pode-se considerar o método que utiliza secções de inflorescências o mais adequado para a criação, pois também apresentou menor desvio padrão e coeficiente de variação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; Anacardium occidentale; brocadas.

    The biology of the cashew shoot borer, Anthistarcha inocularis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, was studied in lant inflorescences using two methods. In the first method nflorescence sections were used and changed every three days. n the second, the whole inflorescence was used up to the beginning f the drying process. Afterwards, the first method was used. or the first method, results showed periods of 33.7, 10.7, and .5 days for larva, pupa and adult stages, respectively. For the econd method, periods of 35.5, 14.0, and 6.3 days for larva, upa, and adult stages were observed, respectively. Besides, it hould be considered that the use of inflorescence sections was he most appropriated rearing method, because it also presented he lowest standard deviation and coefficient of variation.

    KEY-WORDS: Insecta; Anacardium

  6. Natural Products from Antarctic Colonial Ascidians of the Genera <em>Aplidium> and <em>Synoicum>: Variability and Defensive Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conxita Avila

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ascidians have developed multiple defensive strategies mostly related to physical, nutritional or chemical properties of the tunic. One of such is chemical defense based on secondary metabolites. We analyzed a series of colonial Antarctic ascidians from deep-water collections belonging to the genera <em>Aplidium> and <em>Synoicum> to evaluate the incidence of organic deterrents and their variability. The ether fractions from 15 samples including specimens of the species <em>A.> <em>falklandicum>, <em>A.> <em>fuegiense>, <em>A.> <em>meridianum>, <em>A.> <em>millari> and <em>S.> <em>adareanum> were subjected to feeding assays towards two relevant sympatric predators: the starfish <em>Odontaster> <em>validus>, and the amphipod <em>Cheirimedon> <em>femoratus>. All samples revealed repellency. Nonetheless, some colonies concentrated defensive chemicals in internal body-regions rather than in the tunic. Four ascidian-derived meroterpenoids, rossinones B and the three derivatives 2,3-epoxy-rossinone B, 3-epi-rossinone B, 5,6-epoxy-rossinone B, and the indole alkaloids meridianins A–G, along with other minoritary meridianin compounds were isolated from several samples. Some purified metabolites were tested in feeding assays exhibiting potent unpalatabilities, thus revealing their role in predation avoidance. Ascidian extracts and purified compound-fractions were further assessed in antibacterial tests against a marine Antarctic bacterium. Only the meridianins showed inhibition activity, demonstrating a multifunctional defensive role. According to their occurrence in nature and within our colonial specimens, the possible origin of both types of metabolites is discussed.

  7. Identification and Determination of <em>Aconitum> Alkaloids in <em>Aconitum> Herbs and <em>Xiaohuoluo Pillem> Using UPLC-ESI-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, specific, and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS method to examine the chemical differences between <em>Aconitum> herbs and processed products has been developed and validated. Combined with chemometrics analysis of principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal projection to latent structural discriminate analysis, diester-diterpenoid and monoester-type alkaloids, especially the five alkaloids which contributed to the chemical distinction between <em>Aconitum> herbs and processed products, namely mesaconitine (MA, aconitine (AC, hypaconitine (HA, benzoylmesaconitine (BMA, and benzoylhypaconitine (BHA, were picked out. Further, the five alkaloids and benzoylaconitine (BAC have been simultaneously determined in the <em>Xiaohuoluo pillem>. Chromatographic separations were achieved on a C18 column and peaks were detected by mass spectrometry in positive ion mode and selected ion recording (SIR mode. In quantitative analysis, the six alkaloids showed good regression, (<em>r> > 0.9984, within the test ranges. The lower limit quantifications (LLOQs for MA, AC, HA, BMA, BAC, and BHA were 1.41, 1.20, 1.92, 4.28, 1.99 and 2.02 ng·mL−1, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 99.7% to 101.7%. The validated method was applied successfully in the analysis of the six alkaloids from different samples, in which significant variations were revealed. Results indicated that the developed assay can be used as an appropriate quality control assay for <em>Xiaohuoluo pillem> and other herbal preparations containing <em>Aconitum> roots.

  8. Cyberbullying em adolescentes brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Wendt, Guilherme Welter

    2012-01-01

    O cyberbullying é entendido como uma forma de comportamento agressivo que ocorre através dos meios eletrônicos de interação (computadores, celulares, sites de relacionamento virtual), sendo realizado de maneira intencional por uma pessoa ou grupo contra alguém em situação desigual de poder e, ainda, com dificuldade em se defender. Os estudos disponíveis até o presente momento destacam que o cyberbullying é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de sintomas de ansiedade, depressão, ideação s...

  9. Ulisses em Kafka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Mosès

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEm sua introdução para Exegese de uma lenda, Stéphane Mosès afirma que a obra de Kafka não necessita de novas interpretações, mas sim de uma “análise rigorosa de sua lógica subjacente”. Assim, em “Ulisses em Kafka”, investigandoa dialética formal de “O silêncio das sereias”, Mosès procura expor a estrutura narrativa que comandaria esse breve texto em que o escritor tcheco acrescenta à astucia de Ulisses a ingenuidade como elemento de salvação.Palavras-chave: Kafka; dialética; salvação.AbstractIn his introduction to Exegèse d’une légende, Stéphane Mosès affirms that Kafka’s works are not in need of new interpretations, but rather, of a “rigorous analysis of their underlying logic”. Thus, in “Ulisses chez Kafka”, by investigating the formal dialectic of “Das Schweigen der Sirenen”, Mosès seeks to exhibit the narrative structure that would supposedly guide this short text in which the Czech author adds naïveté to Ulisses’s cunning intelligence as an element of salvation.Keywords: Kafka; dialectic; salvation.Stéphane Mosès foi professor emérito da Universidade Hebraica de Jerusalém, onde ensinou Literatura Alemã e Comparada, entre os seus principais interesses estavam o pensamento de Franz Rosenzweig e de Walter Benjamin e as literaturas de Franz Kafka e de Paul Célan. Autor de diversos livros, entre eles: L'ange de l'histoire. Rosenzweig, Benjamin, Scholem, Exégèse d'une légende, lectures de Kafka, e Rêves de Freud. Six lectures.Rodrigo Ielpo é doutor em literatura francesa pela UFRJ e em História e Semiologia do texto e da imagem pela Université Paris VII, com pós-doutorado em Teoria Literária pela UNICAMP. Professor Adjunto do Departamento de Letras Neolatinas da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, possui publicações e traduções nos seguintes temas: teoria e literatura francesa contemporâneas, escrita e processos de subjetivação.rodrigoielpo@gmail.com 

  10. Acidose ruminal em caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, José Diogo de Oliveira e silva Ribeiro da

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Com este trabalho pretendeu-se fazer uma revisão acerca da acidose ruminal em caprinos, visto haver pouca bibliografia sobre o tema. Este trabalho foi baseado na revisão bibliográfica de artigos científicos e completado através da observação de casos clínicos ocorridos durante o estágio curricular. O objectivo deste estudo foi realizar uma breve revisão da anatomia e fisiologia do tracto gastrointestinal dos caprinos assim com...

  11. Espondiloptose em atleta

    OpenAIRE

    Assad, Ana Paula Luppino; Abreu,Andressa Silva; Seguro, Luciana Parente Costa; Guedes, Lissiane Karine Noronha; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pinto, Ana Lucia de Sá

    2014-01-01

    Os atletas adolescentes estão sob maior risco de lombalgia e lesões estruturais da coluna. A espondilólise é responsável pela maioria das lombalgias em jovens esportistas e raramente ocorre em adultos. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 13 anos, atleta de judô, que chegou a nosso serviço com quadro de cinco meses de lombalgia progressiva durante os treinos, sendo inicialmente atribuída a causas mecânicas, sem que houvesse uma investigação mais detalhada por métodos de imagem. Na admissão já ...

  12. Parasitóides associados às moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea em café orgânico com e sem arborização em Valença, RJ, Brasil Parasitoids associated with fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea in organic coffee plantation under shaded and unshaded management in Valença, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen de Lima Aguiar-Menezes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com esse trabalho, determinar as espécies de parasitóides associados às moscas-das-frutas infestando seis cultivares de café arábica (Coffea arabica L., em sistema de cultivo com e sem arborização, sob manejo orgânico. Uma amostra de 1 kg de frutos maduros por cultivar foi colhida em maio de 2005. Os frutos foram depositados em bandejas plásticas, contendo uma camada de areia, a qual serviu como substrato para a fase de pupa. Os pupários foram quantificados e mantidos em copos plásticos transparentes com areia até a emergência dos insetos. Sete espécies de parasitóides da ordem Hymenoptera foram identificadas, das quais cinco da família Braconidae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, Opius bellus Gahan e Opius sp., e duas da Figitidae: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes e Lopheucoila anastrephae Weld. Larvas de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae infestando frutos dos seis cultivares foram parasitadas por Braconidae e Figitidae, com média de 14,2% e 7,7% nos sistemas sem e com arborização, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to determine the parasitoid species associated with fruit flies infesting six cultivars of arabic coffee under shaded and unshaded organic management. A 1kg-sample of maturing fruits per cultivar was harvested in May 2005. The fruits were placed in plastic trays containing a layer of thin sand, as a substrate for pupa phase. The puparia were quantified and kept in transparent plastic cups with sand until the emergence of the insects. Seven parasitoid species of the order Hymenoptera were identified, from which five belong to the family Braconidae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, Opius bellus Gahan and Opius sp., and two of the Figitidae: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes and Lopheucoila anastrephae Weld. Larvae of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae infesting fruits of the six

  13. Fumigant Antifungal Activity of Myrtaceae Essential Oils and Constituents from <em>Leptospermum petersoniiem> against Three <em>Aspergillus> Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Kwon Park

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercial plant essential oils obtained from 11 Myrtaceae plant species were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against <em>Aspergillus ochraceusem>, <em>A. flavusem>, and <em>A. nigerem>. Essential oils extracted from<em> em>Leptospermum> <em>petersonii> at air concentrations of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL and 28 × 10−3 mg/mL completely inhibited the growth of the three <em>Aspergillus> species. However, at an air concentration of 14 × 10−3 mg/mL, inhibition rates of <em>L. petersoniiem> essential oils were reduced to 20.2% and 18.8% in the case of <em>A. flavusem> and <em>A. nigerem>, respectively. The other Myrtaceae essential oils (56 × 10−3 mg/mL only weakly inhibited the fungi or had no detectable affect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 16 compounds in <em>L. petersoniiem>> em>essential> em>oil.> em>The antifungal activity of the identified compounds was tested individually by using standard or synthesized compounds. Of these, neral and geranial inhibited growth by 100%, at an air concentration of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL, whereas the activity of citronellol was somewhat lover (80%. The other compounds exhibited only moderate or weak antifungal activity. The antifungal activities of blends of constituents identified in <em>L. petersoniiem> oil indicated that neral and geranial were the major contributors to the fumigant and antifungal activities.

  14. Espondiloptose em atleta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Luppino Assad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Os atletas adolescentes estão sob maior risco de lombalgia e lesões estruturais da coluna. A espondilólise é responsável pela maioria das lombalgias em jovens esportistas e raramente ocorre em adultos. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 13 anos, atleta de judô, que chegou a nosso serviço com quadro de cinco meses de lombalgia progressiva durante os treinos, sendo inicialmente atribuída a causas mecânicas, sem que houvesse uma investigação mais detalhada por métodos de imagem. Na admissão já apresentava deformidade lombar, postura antálgica e manobra de hiperextensão lombar em unipodálico positiva bilateralmente. Realizou-se investigação, que evidenciou espondiloptose, sendo, então, submetida a tratamento cirúrgico. Com base neste relato de caso, discutimos a abordagem diagnóstica de lombalgia em atletas jovens, uma vez que a queixa de lombalgia crônica pode ser marcador de uma lesão estrutural, a qual pode ser definitiva e trazer perda funcional irreversível.

  15. Controle de Rhyzopertha dominica pela atmosfera controlada com CO2, em trigo Control of Rhyzopertha dominica using a controlled atmosphere with CO2, in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Amaro Gonçalves

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de gases inertes como fumigantes no controle de pragas é uma alternativa ao uso de fosfina. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de uma atmosfera com CO2 no controle de Rhyzoperta dominica (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae em grãos de trigo armazenado. O trabalho constou de cinco concentrações de CO2 (0, 30 , 40, 50 e 60%, completadas com N2, três períodos de exposição (5, 10, 15 dias, três populações de R. dominica (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae (Campo Mourão, PR, Sete Lagoas, MG e Santa Rosa, RS e sete fases de desenvolvimento do inseto (ovo, larva de 1º, 2º, 3º e 4º ínstar, pupa e adulto com três repetições. As diferentes fases da R. dominica foram acondicionadas em tecido organza e levadas para câmaras de expurgo de 200 litros com 75% deste volume repletos de grãos. As câmaras foram vedadas com borracha de silicone para garantir a hermeticidade. Após a vedação das câmaras injetavam-se os gases contendo diferentes teores de CO2. Os resultados mostraram que todos os teores de CO2 causaram 100% de mortalidade de adultos das três populações nos três períodos de exposição utilizados. Em pupas a mortalidade atingiu 100% no teor de 60% de CO2 para as três populações no período de 15 dias de exposição; porém, todos os teores de CO2 utilizados no período de 15 dias de exposição causaram 100% de mortalidade das pupas da população de Santa Rosa. Para o adequado controle de larvas de diferentes ínstares são necessários teores de CO2 iguais ou acima de 50%. Nos períodos de 10 e 15 dias de exposição, todos os teores de CO2 causaram 100% de mortalidade dos ovos das três populações avaliadas.Controlled atmosphere with inert gases offers an alternative to phosphine use to control stored grain pests. The objective of this research was to test a controlled atmosphere with CO2 to control Rhyzoperta dominica, (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae, an important pest of stored wheat

  16. Himenópteros parasitóides de larvas de Anastrepha spp. em frutos de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. na região de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brasil Himenopterous parasitoids of Anastrepha spp. larvae, in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. In divinópolis region, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de conhecer os parasitóides de moscas-da-fruta na região de Divinópolis-MG. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação, sendo individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas adultas ou de seus parasitóides. A prevalência total de parasitismo foi de 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha foi a espécie mais comum, com 44,5%.The objective of this work was to identify the parasitoids of fruit flies in Divinópolis-MG region. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha was the most common specie with a frequency of 44,5%.

  17. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Syringin from the Bark of <em>Ilex em>rotunda> Thumb Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a rapid extraction method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of syringin from the bark of <em>Ilex rotunda em>Thumb using response surface methodology (RSM is described. The syringin was analyzed and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection (HPLC-UV. The extraction solvent, extraction temperature and extraction time, the three main factors for UAE, were optimized with Box-Behnken design (BBD to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. The optimal conditions were the use of a sonication frequency of 40 kHz, 65% methanol as the solvent, an extraction time of 30 min and an extraction temperature of 40 °C. Using these optimal conditions, the experimental values agreed closely with the predicted values. The analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated a high goodness of model fit and the success of the RSM method for optimizing syringin extraction from the bark of <em>I>. em>rotunda>.

  18. Biological and behavior aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 on cotton plantsAspectos biológicos e comportamentais de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 em algodoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pacelli Medeiros Macedo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study biological and behavior aspects of larvae and adults of Chrysoperla externa in greenhouse, on cotton plants. Recently hatched larvae were released on the upper third of cotton plants, which were previously infested with Aphis gossypii,. After emergence, adults were separated by sex and packed in cylindrical PVC recipients with cotton plant. We evaluated the duration of each larval, pre-pupal and pupal periods, pre-oviposition, oviposition, effective oviposition and post-oviposition periods, male and female logevity, daily and total oviposition capacity. The behavior of pupal stage was also evaluated, which released three larvae of the 3rd instar per cotton plant and they were put on the lower, medium and upper sections. As treatments, it was used naked soil, dried leaves from cotton plant, crushed rock nº 1; and crushed rock nº 1 + dried leaves. Larvae from different instars were released on the upper section of the cotton plants infested with A. gossypii to verify the search timing that marked the period the prey was exposed to the predator. C. externa larvae passed through all the phases of their biological cycle and there was no significant influence on the type of the soil covering used on pupal stage, since all of them were significantly higher on naked soil. There was no significative difference on the prey search by C. externa larvae.Objetivou-se estudar aspectos biológicos e comportamentais de larvas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa em casa-de-vegetação, em plantas de algodão. Larvas recém eclodidas foram liberadas no terço superior de plantas de algodão previamente infestadas com Aphis gossypii, onde permaneceram até a pupação. Após a emergência, adultos foram separados por sexo, acondicionados em recipientes cilíndricos de PVC contendo uma planta de algodoeiro. Avaliaram-se a duração de cada ínstar, dos períodos larval, pré-pupal e pupal, dos períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposi

  19. Assessment of Genetic Fidelity in <em>Rauvolfia em>s>erpentina em>Plantlets Grown from Synthetic (Encapsulated Seeds Following <em>in Vitroem> Storage at 4 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Anis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method was developed for plant regeneration and establishment from alginate encapsulated synthetic seeds of <em>Rauvolfia serpentinaem>. Synthetic seeds were produced using <em>in vitroem> proliferated microshoots upon complexation of 3% sodium alginate prepared in Llyod and McCown woody plant medium (WPM and 100 mM calcium chloride. Re-growth ability of encapsulated nodal segments was evaluated after storage at 4 °C for 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks and compared with non-encapsulated buds. Effects of different media <em>viz>; Murashige and Skoog medium; Lloyd and McCown woody Plant medium, Gamborg’s B5 medium and Schenk and Hildebrandt medium was also investigated for conversion into plantlets. The maximum frequency of conversion into plantlets from encapsulated nodal segments stored at 4 °C for 4 weeks was achieved on woody plant medium supplement with 5.0 μM BA and 1.0 μM NAA. Rooting in plantlets was achieved in half-strength Murashige and Skoog liquid medium containing 0.5 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA on filter paper bridges. Plantlets obtained from stored synseeds were hardened, established successfully <em>ex vitroem> and were morphologically similar to each other as well as their mother plant. The genetic fidelity of <em>Rauvolfia em>clones raised from synthetic seeds following four weeks of storage at 4 °C were assessed by using random amplified polymorphic<em> em>DNA (RAPD and inter-simple sequence repeat<em> em>(ISSR markers. All the RAPD and ISSR profiles from generated plantlets were monomorphic and comparable<em> em>to the mother plant, which confirms the genetic<em> em>stability among the clones. This synseed protocol could be useful for establishing a particular system for conservation, short-term storage and production of genetically identical and stable plants before it is released for commercial purposes.

  20. Efecto de extractos vegetales de <em>Polygonum hydropiperoidesem>, <em>Solanum nigrumem> y <em>Calliandra pittieriem> sobre el gusano cogollero (<em>Spodoptera frugiperdaem>

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    Lizarazo H. Karol

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El gusano cogollero <em>Spodoptera frugiperdaem> es una de las plagas que más afectan los cultivos en la región de Sumapaz (Cundinamarca, Colombia. En la actualidad se controla principalmente aplicando productos de síntesis química, sin embargo la aplicación de extractos vegetales surge como una alternativa de menor impacto sobre el ambiente. Este control se emplea debido a que las plantas contienen metabolitos secundarios que pueden inhibir el desarrollo de los insectos. Por tal motivo, la presente investigación evaluó el efecto insecticida y antialimentario de extractos vegetales de barbasco <em>Polygonum hydropiperoidesem> (Polygonaceae, carbonero <em>Calliandra pittieriem> (Mimosaceae y hierba mora <em>Solanum nigrumem> (Solanaceae sobre larvas de <em>S. frugiperdaem> biotipo maíz. Se estableció una cría masiva del insecto en el laboratorio utilizando una dieta natural con hojas de maíz. Posteriormente se obtuvieron extractos vegetales utilizando solventes de alta polaridad (agua y etanol y media polaridad (diclorometano los cuales se aplicaron sobre las larvas de segundo instar. Los resultados más destacados se presentaron con extractos de <em>P. hydropiperoidesem>, obtenidos con diclorometano en sus diferentes dosis, con los cuales se alcanzó una mortalidad de 100% 12 días después de la aplicación y un efecto antialimentario representado por un consumo de follaje de maíz inferior al 4%, efectos similares a los del testigo comercial (Clorpiriphos.

  1. Dispersão larval pós-alimentar de Lucilia sericata (Diptera, Calliphoridae em condições de laboratório Post-feeding larval dispersion of Lucilia sericata (Diptera, Calliphoridae in laboratory

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    Sabrina M Pires

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os dípteros califorídeos são os primeiros indivíduos a compor a sucessão faunística de cadáveres em decomposição, auxiliando assim na estimativa do intervalo pós-morte. Estudos de dispersão pós-alimentar de suas larvas possuem relevância para investigações médico-criminais. Diante disto, uma arena circular, simulando o ambiente natural, foi montada em laboratório a fim de verificar-se a dispersão larval radial pós-alimentar de Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826, tentando assim estabelecer relações entre as variáveis peso, distância e profundidade de enterramento na arena. Os resultados demonstraram que 45% das pupas foram recuperadas a uma profundidade compreendida entre 6 cm e 8 cm e a uma distância entre 33 cm e 45 cm do centro da arena. Não houve diferenças significativas quanto à propagação e profundidade de enterramento de machos, fêmeas e indivíduos inviáveis. Com relação ao peso, verificou-se que a média das fêmeas (x = 32,35 mg foi superior a dos machos (x = 30,28 mg. A análise de correlação e de regressão entre peso e distância percorrida e entre peso e profundidade foram positivas, ou seja, pupas oriundas de larvas mais pesadas propagaram e se aprofundaram mais. O experimento permitiu ainda concluir que uma arena circular possibilita o deslocamento das larvas em todas as direções.Calliphorid flies are the first organisms of the faunal succession associated with decomposing bodies, and can help in the estimation of post-mortem interval. Therefore, studies on post-feeding larval dispersion are relevant to medico-criminal investigations. A circular arena simulating the natural environment was built in the laboratory in order to examine the radial post-feeding larval dispersion of Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826 and the relationship between weight, distance, and depth of burial. Our findings indicated that most pupae were recovered at a depth between 6 cm and 8 cm and at a distance of 33 cm and 45 cm

  2. Prima segnalazione di <em>Brachylaima fulvusem> Dujardin, 1843 (Digenea, Brachylaimidae in <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>antinorii> Bonaparte, 1848 (Insectivora, Soricidae in Italia

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    Juan Carlos Casanova

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Un?indagine parassitologica è stata condotta su esemplari di <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>antinorii> Bonaparte, 1840 (Insectivora, Soricidae catturati in Sila Grande (Valle Capra; 16.29.30; 39.21.40. Uno degli esemplari è stato trovato parassitato da Trematodi digenei rinvenuti nell?esofago e nello stomaco. I parassiti isolati sono stati fissati con liquido di Bouin, colorati con carminio acetico di Semichon, fissati in una serie di alcooli, chiarificati in xilolo e montati con Balsamo del Canada. I parassiti sono stati identificati come membri della Famiglia Brachylaimidae Joyeux & Foley (1930 appartenenti al genere <em>Brachylaima> Dujardin (1843. La morfologia generale ed i caratteri metrici hanno permesso di identificarli come <em>B. fulvusem> Dujardin, 1843 (lunghezza corpo: 2.39-2.46; larghezza corpo: 0.72-0.78; diametro trasversale ventosa orale: 212.48- 238.08x240.64-266.24; ventosa ventrale: 250.88-258.56x250.88-266.24; faringe 120.32-168.96; testicoli: 151.04-189.44x168.96-189.44; ovario: 122.88x171.52; uova: 26-30x2-17. Il range dei dati morfometrici coincide con quelli riscontrati da diversi autori negli esemplari di <em>B. fulvusem> in Europa centrale e occidentale (Jourdane, 1971; Lewis, 1969; Zarnowski,1960; Mas-Coma & Gallego, 1975. Dopo la descrizione originale, la sistematica di <em>B. fulvusem> Blanchard, 1847 non è stata mai confutata, sebbene varie specie dei generi <em>Harmostomum> Braun, 1899 e <em>Panopistus Sinitzinem>, 1931 siano state proposte come sinonimi di <em>B. fulvusem> da diversi autori. Zarnowski (1960 considera aperta la questione di identità di <em>H. (H. dujardiniem> Baer, 1928 e propone la sinonimia di <em>B. oesophageiem> Shaldibin, 1953 e <em>B. fulvusem>. Lewis (1969, al contrario, ha riconvalidato <em>B. oesophageiem> come specie, utilizzando criteri che, però, Jourdane (1971 ritiene, non idonei a differenziare le due specie. Mas-Coma & Gallego (1975, considerano <em

  3. <em>Bacillus anthracisem> Factors for Phagosomal Escape

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    Irene Zornetta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of phagosome escape by intracellular pathogens is an important step in the infectious cycle. During the establishment of anthrax, <em>Bacillus anthracisem> undergoes a transient intracellular phase in which spores are engulfed by local phagocytes. Spores germinate inside phagosomes and grow to vegetative bacilli, which emerge from their resident intracellular compartments, replicate and eventually exit from the plasma membrane. During germination, <em>B. anthracisem> secretes multiple factors that can help its resistance to the phagocytes. Here the possible role of <em>B. anthracisem> toxins, phospholipases, antioxidant enzymes and capsules in the phagosomal escape and survival, is analyzed and compared with that of factors of other microbial pathogens involved in the same type of process.

  4. Desenvolvimento das fases imaturas de Chrysoperla externa alimentadas com ninfas de Bemisia tabaci criadas em três hospedeiros Development of immature stages of Chrysoperla externa fed on nymphs of Bemisia tabaci biotype B reared on three hosts

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    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Insetos da família Chrysopidae têm sido encontrados em ovos e ninfas de moscas-brancas em diferentes agroecossistemas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a duração e a viabilidade das fases imaturas de Chrysoperla externa alimentada com ninfas de Bemisia tabaci, biótipo B, criadas em folhas de pepino (Cucumis sativus, couve (Brassica oleracea e na erva adventícia leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla. Discos foliares dos hospedeiros contendo ninfas da mosca-branca foram acondicionados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água a 1% e mantidos a 25±1ºC, 70±10% UR e fotófase de 12 horas. Em cada placa foi colocada uma larva de C. externa recém-eclodida, num total de dez repetições. Avaliaram-se a duração e a viabilidade de cada ínstar, de toda fase de larva, das fases de pré-pupa e pupa e peso após 24 horas de idade em cada estádio e fase do desenvolvimento. A espécie de planta hospedeira da mosca-branca afetou a duração do primeiro e terceiro ínstares de C. externa, registrando-se redução no período larval, quando alimentadas com presas oriundas de folhas de pepino. A fase de pré-pupa foi prolongada quando utilizadas folhas de leiteiro. Os pesos foram afetados pelo tipo de hospedeiro do aleirodídeo, porém esse efeito não influencia a viabilidade das fases imaturas.Insects of the Chrysopidae family have been found on eggs and nymphs of whitefly in several ecosystems. The aim of this work was to evaluate the duration and survival of the immature stages of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861, fed on nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biotype B reared on leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus, kale (Brassica oleracea or wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla. Leaf discs from the hosts containing nymphs of whitefly were placed in Petri dishes containing 1% agar and maintained at 25±1ºC, 70±10% RH and a 12-hour photophase. One recently hatched larvae of C. externa was placed in each dish, in ten replications. The duration

  5. Poesia em Revista: Oroboro

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    Helena Alves Gouveia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784x.2008v8n12p38 A serpente que engole a si mesma é uma figura curiosa do simbolismo de um processo de contínua transformação, de um movimento circular incessante, rumo à infinitude, sem traços de fim ou começo. Oroboro é um nome de origem grega que remete a esta serpente que se morde e penetra em si mesma ao engolir o próprio rabo. Mas também é o nome da revista de cultura editada em Curitiba pelos artistas-editores Ricardo Corona e Eliana Borges.

  6. Hipercolesterolemia em jovens adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Rosa Adelaide Tavares

    2011-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências Farmacêuticas. O colesterol encontra-se em todas as células do organismo humano. Se, por um lado, é vital, por exemplo, para a construção de novas células, por outro, pode acumular-se no nosso organismo, levando à deposição de gordura na parede das artérias. Encontra-se bem fundamentada a relação entre o aumento drástico de mortes por doença cardiovascular, nos países d...

  7. Primeiras frases em Libras

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    Comissão Editorial

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available "Primeiras Frases em Libras" é um CD-ROM com interface interativa que tem por objetivo a iniciação na Língua Brasileira de Sinais - Libras. A partir de temas do cotidiano, permite à criança relacionar a imagem a uma estrutura frasal da Libras de forma lúdica, contribuindo para aquisição de conceitos e aspectos culturais. Para a utilização desse material é importante que sejam identificadas as diferenças regionais existentes em alguns sinais e que sejam adaptadas para a Libras local, tornando-se mais um exercício enriquecedor para aquisição e prática da Língua de Sinais. Maiores informações sobre o material no site da Editora Arara Azul: www.editora-arara-azul.com. br

  8. Ancylostoma duodenale em estrangeiros radicados em Botucatu, SP, Brasil

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    Florence F.S. Kerr

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se a técnica de Harada & Mori foi efetuada verificação das espécies de Ancylostomidae prevalentes entre imigrantes europeus, asiáticos e brasileiros residentes no município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Ancylostoma duodenale foi encontrado em 8,5% dos imigrantes asiáticos e Necator americanus em 3,5% dos europeus e em 18% dos brasileiros examinados.

  9. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers with 454 Pyrosequencing in a Vulnerable Fish<em>,> the Mottled Skate<em>, Raja em>pulchra>

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    Jung-Ha Kang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mottled skate, <em>Raja pulchraem>, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62% produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two <em>R. pulchra em>populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1–10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni’s correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other <em>Rajidae> family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three <em>Rajidae> family species and the <em>Dasyatidae> family. Two <em>Rajidae> polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species.

  10. O estresse em escolares

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    Marilda E. Novaes Lipp

    Full Text Available A presença de sintomas de estresse foi pesquisada em uma amostra de 255 escolares de 7 a 14 anos de idade, oriundos de três tipos diferentes de escolas (municipal, particular e particular confessional filantrópica. Os dados foram analisados em termos de diferenças entre as escolas, sexo e série do ensino fundamental em que as crianças se encontravam. Constatou-se que o tipo de escola tinha uma forte associação com o nível de estresse dos alunos e que o número de meninas com estresse era significativamente maior do que o dos meninos. Verificou-se também que o estresse diminui nas séries mais elevadas e estava mais presente na primeira série. Pode-se concluir que as escolas têm um papel relevante no estresse infantil e que é possível dentro de uma escola apresentar níveis baixos de estresse, dependendo das características da mesma.

  11. Biologia de Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae em milho Biology of Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in maize

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    Luiz Henrique da Silva Fagundes Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae é uma nova praga da espiga de milho no Brasil, sendo seu estudo importante em áreas de produção de sementes porque os grãos atacados pelas lagartas não germinam. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a sua biologia em condições de laboratório (25±2°C, UR de 65±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. O ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto foi de 35,2 dias. O período de incubação foi de 4,1 dias. A duração média da fase larval foi de 21,1 dias, sendo observados cinco ínstares larvais. A fase pupal durou 8,4 dias e o peso de pupa de machos e fêmeas foi de 12,4 e 11,3mg, respectivamente. As fêmeas colocaram, em média, 118 ovos, apresentando um período de pré-oviposição de 10,7 dias e de oviposição de 14,0 dias. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas foi de 37,02 e 44,16 dias, respectivamente, e a razão sexual de 0,48. As lagartas danificam os estilo-estigmas e os grãos em estado leitoso por meio de pequenos orifícios de entrada, prejudicando o endosperma e principalmente a região do embrião, inutilizando-os para sementes. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho fornecem subsídios para o estabelecimento de estratégias de manejo do inseto, especialmente em áreas de produção de sementes.The caterpillar Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is a new pest of corn ear in Brazil, and its study is important in seed fields. The aim of this was to study the biology of this pest under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, 65±10% of RH and 14-hours of photophase. The biological cycle (egg-adult was of 35.2 days. The incubation period was of 4.1 days. The average larval development time was of 21.1 days, and 5 instars were observed. The pupal period was of 8.4 days and the pupae weight was of 12.4 and 11.3 mg for males and females, respectively. The females laid an average of 118 eggs with a pre-oviposition period of 10.7 days and an oviposition time of 14.0 days. The

  12. Deacidification of <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis> Oil as a Promising Non-Edible Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in China

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    Yuan Meng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis> seed oil is proposed as a promising non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Different extraction methods were tested and compared to obtain crude oil from the seed of <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis>, along with various deacidification measures of refined oil. The biodiesel was produced through catalysis of sodium hydroxide (NaOH and potassium hydroxide (KOH. The results showed that the acid value of <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis> oil was successfully reduced to 0.23 mg KOH/g when it was extracted using ethanol. Consequently, the biodiesel product gave a high yield beyond 96.0%. The transesterification catalysed by KOH was also more complete. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was used to monitor the transesterification reaction. Analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID certified that the <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis> biodiesel mainly consisted of C18 fatty acid methyl esters (81.07% with a high percentage of methyl oleate. Furthermore, the measured fuel properties of the biodiesel met the required standards for fuel use. In conclusion, the <em>Pistacia> <em>chinensis> biodiesel is a qualified and feasible substitute for fossil diesel.

  13. Acarofauna em plantas ornamentais

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    Jania Claudia Camilo dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE O cultivo e o comercio de plantas ornamentais vem cada vez mais ganhando espaço no Brasil, pela grande variedade das espécies existentes e exuberância de suas flores, que oferecem uma maior riqueza ao local. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar o levantamento da população de ácaros associados às plantas ornamentais no município de Arapiraca-AL, em função dos diversos problemas acarretados por essa espécie. O levantamento foi realizado entre os meses de abril a março, através de amostragens mensais de folhas coletadas da parte basal, intermediária e apical de plantas existentes em praças e jardins. Foram coletados 55 ácaros pertencentes à ordem Prostigmata em 20 famílias de plantas. As plantas com as maiores riquezas de ácaros foram as Coleus blumei L. e Bxuxus sempervirens L., que apresentaram 65% dos valores amostrais. Analisando-se as coletas realizadas, pode-se observar que houve uma maior incidência populacional de ácaros na coleta do mês de maio, cuja percentagem foi de 36% de ácaros levantados, sendo que no levantamento dos dados amostrais de março a percentagem encontrada foi de 14%, nas amostragens dos meses de abril e junho, a percentagem amostrada dos dados foi de 22 e 28%, respectivamente. O estudo do levantamento de ácaros em plantas ornamentais permitiu observar a relação entre ácaros e a relação com a planta hospedeira, facilitando posteriormente um estudo mais aprofundado sobre plantas hospedeiras, e pode-se observar que em períodos chuvosos ocorre uma menor incidência populacional.

  14. Dípteros minadores e seus parasitóides em plantas de crescimento espontâneo em pomar orgânico de citros em Montenegro, RS, Brasil Diptera leafminers and their parasitoids in spontaneous vegetation in organic citrus orchard in Montenegro, RS, Brazil

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    Janaína Pereira dos Santos

    Full Text Available A análise de comunidades minadores e seus parasitóides é importante para a compreensão da regulação biótica e para a manutenção da biodiversidade em agroecossistemas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos registrar os dípteros minadores e seus parasitóides na vegetação de crescimento espontâneo de um pomar orgânico de citros, de maio de 2003 a maio de 2004. O trabalho foi conduzido no município de Montenegro, RS, em um pomar do híbrido tangor 'Murcott'. Realizaram-se amostragens quinzenais, coletando-se em cada ocasião todas as folhas contendo minas presentes na área delimitada por um aro de 0,28 m², que era jogado nas linhas e nas entrelinhas de 30 árvores sorteadas. No laboratório registrou-se o número de larvas e pupas de dípteros minadores por folha. Foram registradas 15 espécies de dípteros minadores, 15 espécies de plantas hospedeiras (distribuídas em seis famílias e 15 espécies de microimenópteros parasitóides (distribuídas em três famílias. Os dípteros minadores apresentaram grande especificidade às suas plantas hospedeiras. Portanto, o manejo adequado desta vegetação pode favorecer o estabelecimento e a multiplicação de inimigos naturais destes insetos minadores.Leafminers and their parasitoids communities analysis is necessary to supply information about the biotic regulation and to maintenance of the biodiversity in the agroecosystem. This study aimed to register Diptera leafminers and their parasitoids, present in the vegetation spontaneously growing at the citrus orchard from May 2003 to May 2004. The work was conducted in Montenegro, RS, in an organic orchard of the hybrid 'Murcott'. Samplings were taken fortnightly, collecting in each occasion all the plants with mines found in an area delimited by a 0.28 m² arc thrown in the lines and between lines of 30 randomly chosen trees. In the lab, the number of larvae and pupae per leaf of Diptera leafminers were recorded. Throughout the study, it was

  15. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Analysis of Novel 1<em>H-Benzo[d>]imidazoles Phenyl Sulfonylpiperazines

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    Amjad M. Qandil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A group of benzimidazole analogs of sildenafil, 3-benzimidazolyl-4-methoxy-phenylsulfonylpiperazines 2–4 and 3-benzimidazolyl-4-methoxy-<em>N,N>-dimethyl- benzenesulfonamide (5, were efficiently synthesized. Compounds 2–5 were characterized by NMR and MS and contrary to the reported mass spectra of sildenafil, the spectra of the piperazine-containing compounds 2–4 showed a novel fragmentation pattern leading to an <em>m/z> = 316. A mechanism for the formation of this fragment was proposed.

  16. Proximate Composition, Nutritional Attributes and Mineral Composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L. (Ketumpangan Air Grown in Malaysia

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    Maznah Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (31.22% suggests a high-value mineral composition comprising potassium, calcium and iron as the main elements. The present study inferred that <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> would serve as a good source of protein and energy as well as micronutrients in the form of a leafy vegetable for human consumption.

  17. Antioxidant Profile of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L.

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    Heidy Schwartsova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the antioxidant properties of five different extracts of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L. (Leguminosae leaves, various assays which measure free radical scavenging ability were carried out: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenger capacity tests and lipid peroxidation assay. In all of the tests, only the H2O and (to some extent the EtOAc extracts showed a potent antioxidant effect compared with BHT and BHA, well-known synthetic antioxidants. In addition, <em>in vivo em>experiments were conducted with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx in liver homogenate and blood of mice after their treatment with extracts of <em>T. pratenseem> leaves, or in combination with CCl4. Besides, in the extracts examined the total phenolic and flavonoid amounts were also determined, together with presence of the selected flavonoids: quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, naringenin and kaempferol, which were studied using a HPLC-DAD technique. HPLC-DAD analysis showed a noticeable content of natural products according to which the examined <em>Trifolium pratenseem> species could well be regarded as a promising new source of bioactive natural compounds, which can be used both as a food supplement and a remedy.

  18. Effects of <em>Citrus aurantiumem> (Bitter Orange Fruit Extracts and <em>p>-Synephrine on Metabolic Fluxes in the Rat Liver

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    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The fruit extracts of <em>Citrus aurantiumem> (bitter orange are traditionally used as weight-loss products and as appetite supressants. An important fruit component is <em>p>-synephrine, which is structurally similar to the adrenergic agents. Weight-loss and adrenergic actions are always related to metabolic changes and this work was designed to investigate a possible action of the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract on liver metabolism. The isolated perfused rat liver was used to measure catabolic and anabolic pathways, including oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure. The <em>C. aurantiumem> extract and <em>p>-synephrine increased glycogenolysis, glycolysis, oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure. These changes were partly sensitive to a- and b-adrenergic antagonists. <em>p>-Synephrine (200 mM produced an increase in glucose output that was only 15% smaller than the increment caused by the extract containing 196 mM <em>p>-synephrine. At low concentrations the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract tended to increase gluconeogenesis, but at high concentrations it was inhibitory, opposite to what happened with <em>p>-synephrine. The action of the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract on liver metabolism is similar to the well known actions of adrenergic agents and can be partly attributed to its content in <em>p>-synephrine. Many of these actions are catabolic and compatible with the weight-loss effects usually attributed to <em>C. aurantiumem>.

  19. Quedas em idosos institucionalizados

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Emiko Fleming Uchida; Sheila de Melo Borges

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a frequência de quedas em idosos institucionalizados, bem como descrever os fatores de risco para quedas dessa população. As informações foram obtidas por meio de análise de prontuários, de entrevistas e pelos testes Timed Up and Go, Short Physical Performance Battery, Mini-exame do Estado Mental, Medida de Independência Funcional e Escala de Depressão Geriátrica-15. A frequência de quedas foi de 22,2% e verificou-se que os fatores de risco são freq...

  20. Branqueamento em dentes endodonciados

    OpenAIRE

    Melício, Joianne Sandrine Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária Uma vez que a procura pela estética dentária vem aumentando significativamente, houve necessidade de procurar alternativas para a recuperação da coloração natural dos dentes quando esta é perdida por inúmeros fatores. O Branqueamento dentário, entre outras técnicas, tornou-se uma possibilidade para restaurar a perda da cor e tonalida...

  1. Gênero em revista

    OpenAIRE

    Fornazari, Luciana Rosar

    2001-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas. Programa de Pós-Graduação em História O trabalho pretende analisar durante o segundo pós-guerra - de 1946 a 1955 - a constituição de sujeitos modernos através das imagens feminina e masculina publicadas na revista O Cruzeiro. Tais imagens projetam corpos específicos de homens e mulheres dentro de determinadas relações, configurando e redimensionando hábitos e atitudes públicas. Os corpo...

  2. Flashes em Circuito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Lara Camargos Walty

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflexão sobre o papel da narrativa urbana no tratamento do tema da exclusão social, tendo como ponto de partida uma leitura do livro Passaporte, de Fernando Bonassi, que envolve a discussão do próprio gênero, a partir, sobretudo, da teoria do conto de Ricardo Piglia e de sua retomada das Seis propostas para o próximo milênio, de Ítalo Calvino, em artigo recente.

  3. CRIPTOCOCOSE EM GATOS

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Luiz Borges Corrêa

    1994-01-01

    RESUMO A criptococose é uma enfermidade micótica, causada pela levedura denominada Cryptococcus neoformans, que tem distribuição cosmopolita. O agente etiológico já foi isolado de diversos materiais, incluindo: frutas, amostras de solo, fezes de aves principalmente de pombos. Apesar de ser encontrado como saprófita na natureza, o Cryptococcus neoformans pode produzir doença no homem e várias espécies de animais domésticos ou silvestres. Em gatos, essa levedura pode ser encontrada provocando i...

  4. Aspectos biológicos e capacidade predatória de Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae alimentada com Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera: Aphididae em diferentes temperaturas Biological aspects and predatory capacity of Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera: Aphididae under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Alcantra

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se alguns aspectos biológicos e a capacidade predatória em três temperaturas de larvas de Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen alimentadas com ninfas de terceiro e quarto ínstares de Aphis gossypii Glover. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em câmaras climáticas a 22; 25 e 28±1ºC, 70±10% de UR e fotofase de 12 horas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (temperaturas, com 40 repetições. Verificou-se redução no tempo de vida das larvas nos três ínstares, das fases de pré-pupa e pupa em função do aumento da temperatura. As maiores viabilidades foram obtidas a 22ºC. Para larvas de primeiro ínstar não houve diferença significativa no consumo médio diário nas três temperaturas. Para larvas de segundo e terceiro ínstares houve maior consumo diário de pulgões na maior temperatura. O número médio total de afídeos consumido por larvas de primeiro e segundo ínstares não diferiu em função do aumento da temperatura. Para larvas de terceiro ínstar o maior consumo total foi observado a 22ºC, e o menor a 25ºC. Na menor temperatura observou-se maior consumo médio total na fase larval.Some biological aspects and the predatory capacity at three temperatures of larvae of Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen fed third and fourth instar nymphs of Aphis gossypii Glover were evaluated. The experiments were conducted in climatic chambers at 22; 25 and 28±1ºC, 70±10% of RH and 12-hour photophase. The experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments (temperatures and 40 replicates. A reduction in the median life time of the larvae in the three instars of the stages of pre-pupa and pupa was found as related with the increase of temperature. The highest survivals were obtained at 22ºC. For larvae of first instar, there were no significant differences in the daily average consumption of aphids at the three temperatures. For second and third instar larvae, there was higher consumption

  5. Aspectos biológicos e morfológicos de Mimallo amilia (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae em folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla Biological and morphological aspects of Mimallo amilia (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae in Eucalyptus urophylla leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha Vinha Zanuncio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Mimallo amilia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae foi estudada em folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla em laboratório a 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% de umidade relativa e fotoperíodo de 12 horas de luz e 12 horas de escuro. Essa espécie teve duração da fase larval de 34,88 dias e cinco estádios larvais. Houve mortalidade de lagartas no primeiro, terceiro e quarto estádios com 5,00; 7,89; e 14,28%, respectivamente. Os períodos de pré-pupa e de pupa foram de 4,33 ± 0,33 e 3,90 ± 0,23 e de 18,78 ± 0,69 e 18,82 ± 0,41 dias para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente. Cada fêmea de M. amilia depositou 4,86 ± 0,48 posturas com 19,84 ± 1,76 ovos por postura. O período de incubação dos ovos foi de 8,60 ± 0,24 dias, com viabilidade de 88,63%. A longevidade de adultos foi de 5,66 ± 0,61 e 9,22 ± 0,79 dias, com envergadura das asas de 42,70 ± 0,32 e 49,70 ± 0,17 mm para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente, e razão sexual de 0,56. As lagartas dessa espécie apresentaram tamanho de 0,90 ± 0,01 mm no primeiro estádio a 4,40 ± 1,42 mm no último.The biology of Mimallo amilia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae was studied on Eucalyptus urophylla leaves in laboratory conditions (25 ± 2ºC, 60 ± 10% relative humidity and 12L:12D photoperiod. This species showed 33.88 day for the larval stage with five larval instars. Larval mortality occurred during first, third and fourth instars with 5.00, 7.89 and 14.28%, respectively. Pre-pupa and pupa stages lasted 4.33 ± 0.33 and 3.90 ± 0.23, and 18.78 ± 0.69 and 18.82 ± 0.41 days for males and females, respectively. Each female laid 4.86 ± 0.48 egg masses with 19.84 ± 1.76 eggs per egg mass. Incubation period lasted 8.60 ± 0.24 days with 88.63%. egg viability. Adult longevity was 5.66 ± 0.61 and 9.22 ± 0.79 days with adult wingspan of 42.70 ± 0.32 and 49.70 ± 0.17 mm for males and females, respectively, with 0.56 sex ratio. Length of this species' caterpillars was 0.90 ± 0.01 mm at the

  6. TEMAS ATUAIS EM PSICOLOGIA SOCIAL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pedrinho Arcides Guareschi

    2012-01-01

    ... atuais da Psicologia Social. Escolho quatro pontos que julgo relevantes e urgentes: 1. A psicologia numa sociedade midiada e numa cultura midiada: como lidar com a subjetividade em tal ambiente? 2. A psicologia e o resgate do humano: o que permanece de especificamente psquico diante do avano das cincias neurolgicas, genticas e biolgicas em g...

  7. Estresse ocupacional em mulheres policiais

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Magalhaes Bezerra, Claudia; de Souza Minayo, Maria Cecilia; Constantino, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    ... da propria logica dessas profissionais, como e o quanto esse problema traz consequencias para sua vida laboral e familiar. Segundo documento da Organizacao Mundial de Saude (10), o trabalho em determinadas atividades policiais esta vinculado a fatores causadores de estresse como o trabalho monotono que exige concentracao constante, em turno...

  8. Occurrence and biology of Tolype innocens (Burmeister on blueberry Ocorrência e biologia de Tolype innocens (Burmeister em mirtilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Salvador Louzada

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 is reported for the first time damaging blueberry (Vaccinium ashei plants in Brazil having the caterpillars feeding on leaves and new shoots. T. innocens biology was studied on blueberry leaves in laboratory conditions and then a fertility life table was elaborated. Developmental time and viability of egg, larval and pupal stages and egg-adult period were 15.0 and 35.3, 33.3 and 84.5, 20.6 and 100, and 69.2 days and 45%, respectively. Average pupal weight was 0.840g for the females and 0.580g for the males. The sex ratio was 0.5. Pre-oviposition and oviposition time lasted 6.34 and 12.1 days, respectively. Mean fecundity was 251 eggs per female. Eggs were laid either individually or in masses. Longevity was 19.0 and 20.0 days for males and females, respectively. T. innocens population increased 47 times per generation, with a mean generation time of 77 days, and a finite rate of increase of 1.02. This data on biological parameters will be useful for establishing control strategies.A ocorrência de Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878 (Lasiocampidae é relatada pela primeira vez danificando o mirtileiro (Vaccinium ashei no Brasil, sendo que as lagartas se alimentam das folhas e ramos novos. Em laboratório, foi estudada a biologia em folhas de mirtilo em condições controladas de temperatura (25±1ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotofase (12h e elaborada a tabela de vida de fertilidade. A duração e a viabilidade dos estágios de ovo, lagarta e pupa, e período ovo-adulto foram de 15,0 e 35,3; 33,3 e 84,5; 20,6 e 100; e 69,2 dias e 45%, respectivamente. O peso médio de pupas foi de 0,840g para as fêmeas e 0,580g para os machos. A razão sexual foi de 0,5. Os períodos de pré-oviposição e oviposição foram de 6,34 e 12,1 dias, respectivamente. A fecundidade média foi de 251 ovos por fêmea, colocados de forma isolada ou em massas. A longevidade dos machos foi de 19,0 dias e das fêmeas de 20,0 dias. T

  9. Espécies de Spalangia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae: Spalanginae em fezes bovinas como parasitóides pupais de dípteros muscóides em Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchiori C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of parasitoids of dung-breeding Diptera were collected at a range pasture in Itumbiara, GO, Brazil. The samples of bovine dung, approximately seven and eight day-old, were collected and carried to the laboratory and the pupae were extracted by water flotation. The pupae were individually placed in transparent gelatin capsules until the emergence of the adult flies or their parasitoids. Spalangia drosophilae (40.8% Ashmead and Spalangia nigroaenea (35.6% were the predominant species that parasitized pupae of dipterous muscoids. The rate of parasitism was 3.8%.

  10. O insight em psiquiatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida P. Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O sinal de que algo está a acontecer contribui para que o paciente reconheça que alguma coisa de estranho se está a passar consigo. Este reconhecimento faz com que o sujeito possa desempenhar uma função activa e seja um elemento colaborante do seu processo de recuperação. Cada doença apresenta, contudo, diferentes sintomas, uma vez que cada doença psiquiátrica consiste em diferentes perturbações com diversos efeitos sobre o funcionamento mental. Desta maneira, o fenómeno do insight que é registado em cada doença é diferente e expressa-se sob diferentes formas, não somente devido às manifestações clínicas da doença mas também devido às características individuais do sujeito.

  11. Antibioticos profilaticos em neurocirurgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo A. Brandt

    1979-03-01

    Full Text Available O índice de infecções pós-operatórias em pacientes neuro-cirúrgicos que receberam antibióticos profiláticos neste período foi comparado com o de pacientes que não receberam antibióticos. Infecções ocorreram em proporções significativamente maiores nos pacientes que receberam antibióticos, particularmente naqueles com afecções intracranianas graves; estas infecções foram graves e fatais na maioria dos casos. A administração de antibióticos profiláticos nestes pacientes não só foi incapaz de prevenir o aparecimento de infecções pós-operatórias, como aparentemente favoreceu o seu desenvolvimento. Tal se deveu, provavelmente, à destruição do equilíbrio microbiano no organismo, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de germes patogênicos e resistentes aos antibióticos usuais

  12. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  13. A democracia em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Guanche Zaldívar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O triunfo revolucionário de 1959 consagrou em Cuba um novo conceito de democracia, com o intuito de garantir o acesso à vida política ativa de grandes setores da população, antes excluídos. Para isso, foi desenvolvida uma política de inclusão social com caráter universal. A prática política popular deixou as riquezas do país em mãos da população carente e gerou uma grande mobilidade social, fato que foi central para o aumento da participação popular. O contexto de agressão imperialista e o próprio desenvolvimento do processo produziram a consolidação de noções que limitaram a participação popular: o apogeu da burocracia, a compreensão da unidade como unanimidade e o seguimento, em certa medida, de correntes do marxismo soviético. Os desafios atuais para aprofundar a democracia em Cuba se apresentam em três planos: socializar o poder, promover a sociodiversidade e desenvolver a ideologia revolucionária.El triunfo revolucionario de 1959 consagró en Cuba un nuevo concepto de democracia, basado en garantizar acceso a la vida política activa a grandes sectores poblacionales, antes excluidos de ella. Para ello desarrolló una política de inclusión social con carácter universal. La práctica política popular puso las riquezas del país en manos de los desposeídos y generó gran movilidad social, hecho que resultó clave para el aumento de la participación popular. El contexto de agresión imperialista y el propio desarrollo del proceso produjo el afianzamiento de nociones que limitaron la participación popular: el auge de la burocracia, la comprensión de la unidad como unanimidad y el seguimiento, en parte, de corrientes del marxismo soviético. Los desafíos actuales se presentan en tres planos para profundizar la democracia en Cuba: socializar el poder, promover la sociodiversidad y desarrollar la ideología revolucionaria.The revolutionary triumph of 1959 established in Cuba a new concept of democracy, one that

  14. Combined efficacy assessment of soil solarization and bio-fungicides for management of <em>Sclerotinia> spp. in lettuce (<em>Lactuca sativaem> L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Rodrigo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    White mould:<em>Sclerotinia> spp., is the lettuce main disease in the Colombian high Andes. It causes yield losses of up to 70% and is primarily managed with chemical fungicides, while alternative control strategies are poorly used. Soil solarization and a set of chemical and bio-fungicides for <em>Sclerotinia> management efficacy in lettuce, were determined. Biofungicides included different doses of <em>Allium sativumem> and <em>Matricaria recutitaem> extracts and <em>Trichoderma koningiopsisem> suspensions. The fungicide procymidone was also evaluated. Field trials included single or combined treatments application. Non-linear modelling and AUDPC were employed to determine the efficacy of management strategies. Both S. <em>sclerotiorum> and S. em>minor> caused white mould, being S. <em> minorem> the dominant species. Solarization significantly lowered Sclerotia population in the upper soil layers and consequently lowered disease incidence. Highest levels of <em>Sclerotinia> control were achieved with solarization, particularly in combination with procymidone or <em>T. Konin giopsisem> (79.08% and 41.50% disease reduction, respectively. Non-linear modeling of disease epidemic progress curve proved a valuable alternative to AUDPC, which allowed multiple disease development parameters estimation and indirectly the efficacy of management strategies. This work should help the advance of environmentally-sound management of <em>Sclerotina> spp. in lettuce, under the highly specific growing conditions of the high Andes.

  15. Ancylostoma duodenale em estrangeiros radicados em Botucatu, SP, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr,Florence F.S.; Corrêa,Fernando M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizando-se a técnica de Harada & Mori foi efetuada verificação das espécies de Ancylostomidae prevalentes entre imigrantes europeus, asiáticos e brasileiros residentes no município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Ancylostoma duodenale foi encontrado em 8,5% dos imigrantes asiáticos e Necator americanus em 3,5% dos europeus e em 18% dos brasileiros examinados.A survey of the species of Ancylostomidae causing infection among European inmigrants and Brazilian residents in Botucatu, ...

  16. Osteoporose em caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio B. Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de casos de osteoporose em caprinos provenientes de uma propriedade na área de abrangência do LPV-UFSM, determinando a epidemiologia, o quadro clínico-patológico e discutindo os prováveis mecanismos patogenéticos. Cinco cabras, fêmeas, SRD, de seis meses a seis anos de idade foram afetadas. As cabras eram mantidas em campo nativo, sem suplementação com ração e sob superlotação. Os principais sinais clínicos foram emagrecimento, dificuldade de locomoção e permanência em decúbito por longos períodos. As principais alterações macroscópicas nos ossos examinados foram vistas nas superfícies de corte e caracterizavam-se por depleção do osso esponjoso (porosidade e redução acentuada da espessura do osso cortical. Havia também marcada atrofia serosa da gordura da medula óssea. Microscopicamente, nas regiões avaliadas (úmero proximal, rádio distal, fêmur distal, tíbia proximal e corpos das vértebras lombares foi observada redução moderada a acentuada do número e da espessura das trabéculas ósseas nas epífises e metáfises dos ossos longos e nos corpos vertebrais. Os achados clínico-patológicos indicaram que a osteoporose observada provavelmente foi causada pela desnutrição. As alterações ósseas (diminuição no número e na espessura das trabéculas do osso esponjoso sugerem que ambos os mecanismos, má formação óssea e reabsorção óssea aumentada, contribuíram para a ocorrência de osteoporose nos caprinos deste estudo.

  17. Quedas em idosos institucionalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Emiko Fleming Uchida

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a frequência de quedas em idosos institucionalizados, bem como descrever os fatores de risco para quedas dessa população. As informações foram obtidas por meio de análise de prontuários, de entrevistas e pelos testes Timed Up and Go, Short Physical Performance Battery, Mini-exame do Estado Mental, Medida de Independência Funcional e Escala de Depressão Geriátrica-15. A frequência de quedas foi de 22,2% e verificou-se que os fatores de risco são frequentes nessa população, mostrando, assim, um risco importante para quedas futuras. Palavras-chave: Saúde do Idoso Institucionalizado; Acidentes por quedas; Fatores de risco.

  18. Imagem digital em movimento

    OpenAIRE

    Travisani, Tatiana Giovannone [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho reúne análises sobre as imagens digitais com questões estruturais e poéticas do movimento, fazendo um levantamento histórico e artístico desde os primeiros experimentos em cronofotografia, até as manifestações atuais, do universo digital, que incorporam o movimento como temática. A imagem digital tratada não é de cunho sintético, mas sim que passou por algum processo de captura analógica, por meio de câmeras, e após isso, foi digitalizada. A partir daí, a pesquisa reflete as tra...

  19. Iatrogenia em cardiologia

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso Celso Pereira; Roberto Alexandre Franken; Sandra Regina Schwarzwalder Sprovieri; Valdir Golin

    2000-01-01

    O termo iatrogenia vem do grego e refere-se a qualquer alteração patológica provocada no paciente pela má prática médica. Infelizmente, o risco de sua ocorrência convive constantemente no manuseio das doenças cardíacas. Podem ser considerados dois tipos de iatrogenia: iatrogenia de ação, ou decorrente da ação médica, e iatrogenia de omissão, relacionada à falta de ação do médico. As iatrogenias ocorrem em todas as fases do ato médico, desde a relação com o paciente, passando pelo diagnóstico,...

  20. Em favor da talassografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Boudou

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A Talassografia (“descrição do mar” interessa-sepelos impactos físicos, biológicos, ecológicos... culturais da violenta antropização dos ambientes costeiros (oceânicos e continentais, caracterizados pelaexigüidade, vulnerabilidade, fragilidade e plasticidade. Como o Brasil é um “país marítimo”, os geó-grafos (os talassógrafos brasileiros são convidadosa intensificar suas pesquisas nas áreas costeiras e acriar novas estruturas para divulgá-las: Revista, Encontros, Associação, Pós-Graduação... tudo em prolda talassografia.

  1. Preferencia alimenticia del ácaro depredador <em>Balaustium> sp. en condiciones controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Karen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó la preferencia de presas de <em>Balaustium> sp., enemigo natural de diferentes artrópodos plaga, y el cual es nativo de la Sabana de Bogotá. En unidades experimentales construidas con foliolos de plantas de rosa se colocaron independientemente individuos de <em>Balaustium> sp. y se registró el número de presas consumidas. De esta manera se determinó la preferencia de los tres estados móviles del ácaro depredador <em>Balaustium> sp. por diferentes edades de tres presas. Las especies y edades de las presas estudiadas fueron: huevos, ninfas y adultos de <em>Trialeurodes vaporariorumem>, huevos, ninfas y adultos de <em>Tetranychus urticaeem>, y larvas de primer y segundo instar y adultos de <em>Frankliniella occidentalisem>. Los estados menos desarrollados fueron preferidos, aunque se observó que los adultos del depredador tienen gran habilidad para consumir adultos de <em>T. vaporariorumem>. La presa preferida por las larvas de <em>Balaustium> sp. fue los huevos de <em>T. urticaeem> con una proporción de consumo de 0,54 de los huevos que se ofrecieron de esta presa; las deutoninfas del depredador eligieron huevos de <em>T. vaporariorumem> (0,537 o de <em>T. urticaeem> (0,497 y los adultos de <em>Balaustium> sp. prefrieron los huevos de <em>T. vaporariorumem> (0,588.

  2. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera of dipterous collected in manure chicken in south of Goias/ Parasitóides (Hymenoptera de dípteros coletados em fezes de galinha no sul de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study had as objective to verify the parasitoids associated with synanthropic dipterous in manure chicken, in Itumbiara, State of Goiás, from April 2006 to March 2007. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. The species of parasitoids collected were: one specimen of Aphaereta sp. (Braconidae: Alysiinae, two specimens of Eurytoma sp. (Eurytomidae, 26 specimens of Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836 (Pteromalidae, 65 specimens of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875 (Pteromalidae, 38 specimens of Spalangia cameroni Perkins, 1910, (Pteromalidae, um specimen of Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead, 1887, 147 specimes de Spalangia endius Walker, 1839, three specimens of Spalangia nigra Latrielle, 1805, 10 specimens of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839, 21 specimens of Spalangia sp. And 54 specimens of Tachinaephagus zealandicus (Ashmead, 1904 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae. The specie more frequent was S. endius with 47.7%.Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar os parasitóides associados com dípteros sinantrópicos em fezes de galinha, em Itumbiara, Estado de Goiás, de abril de 2006 a março de 2007. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação. Elas foram individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas domésticas e/ou dos seus parasitóides. As espécies de parasitóides coletados foram: um espécime de Aphaereta sp. (Braconidae: Alysiinae, dois espécimes de Eurytoma sp. (Eurytomidae, 26 espécimes de Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836 (Pteromalidae, 65 espécimes de Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875 (Pteromalidae, 38 espécimes de Spalangia cameroni Perkins, 1910 (Pteromalidae, um espécime de Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead, 1887, 147 espécimes de Spalangia endius Walker, 1839, três espécimes de Spalangia nigra Latrielle, 1805, 10 espécimes de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839, 21 esp

  3. Flutuação populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton em Citrus deliciosa e no híbrido Murcott Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton population fluctuation in Citrus deliciosa and Murcott hybrid Citrus sinensis x Citrus reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ramos de Jesus

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a dinâmica populacional de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae, o minador-dos-citros, em pomares de tangerineira Citrus deliciosa Tenore variedade Montenegrina e de tangoreiro híbrido "Murcott" Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck X Citrus reticulata Blanco, com manejo orgânico, em Montenegro (29° 68'S e 51° 46'O, Rio Grande do Sul. Foram realizadas amostragens quinzenais de julho de 2001 a junho de 2003. Os brotos coletados foram examinados em laboratório e submetidos à análise do número de folhas por broto, a da presença ou ausência de minas, do número de minas, dos ovos, das larvas e das pupas de P. citrella. Em ambos os pomares não houve registro de minas de P. citrella no primeiro fluxo de brotação, de agosto a outubro. No ano I, as maiores densidades de minas foram registradas em meados de novembro, início de janeiro e início de abril, em ambos os pomares. No ano II, constataram-se as maiores densidades de minas e larvas em janeiro e em abril, em C. deliciosa, e de dezembro a março em "Murcott". Embora o número médio de brotos registrado tenha sido sempre maior em C. deliciosa, a colonização e o estabelecimento do minador-dos-citros seguiram o mesmo padrão em ambos os pomares. A temperatura mínima e média e a umidade relativa do ar foram os fatores abióticos que apresentaram maior influência no número de minas e de larvas de P. citrella.To evaluate the population dynamics of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae, the citrus leafminer, in tangerine Citrus deliciosa Tenore var. Montenegrina and tangor 'Murcott' Citrus sinensis L Osbeck X Citrus reticulata Blanco in organically managed orchards, in Montenegro (29° 68'S e 51° 46'W, RS, fortnightly samples were carried out from July 2001 to June 2003. Sampled shoots were examined in the lab and the number of leaves, presence or absence of mines and the number of mines, eggs, larvae and

  4. Synthesis of 1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives and <em>in Vitroem> Antifungal Evaluation on <em>Candida> Strains

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    Almir G. Wanderley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available 1,2,3-Triazoles have been extensively studied as compounds possessing important biological activities. In this work, we describe the synthesis of ten 2-(1-aryl-1<em>H>-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylpropan-2-ols via copper catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAc or <em>click chemistryem>. Next the<em> in vitroem> antifungal activity of these ten compounds was evaluated using the microdilution broth method against 42 isolates of four different <em>Candida> species. Among all tested compounds, the halogen substituted triazole 2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl-1<em>H>-(1,2,3triazol-4-yl]propan-2-ol, revealed the best antifungal profile, showing that further modifications could be done in the structure to obtain a better drug candidate in the future.

  5. Extraction of Dihydroquercetin<em> em>from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> em>with Ultrasound-Assisted and Microwave-Assisted Alternant Digestion

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    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasound and microwave assisted alternant extraction method (UMAE was applied for extracting dihydroquercetin (DHQ from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> wood. This investigation was conducted using 60% ethanol as solvent, 1:12 solid to liquid ratio, and 3 h soaking time. The optimum treatment time was ultrasound 40 min, microwave 20 min, respectively, and the extraction was performed once. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the target analyte was obtained. Relative to ultrasound-assisted or microwave-assisted method, the proposed approach provides higher extraction yield. The effect of DHQ of different concentrations and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability in soy bean oil stored for 20 days at different temperatures (25 °C and 60 °C was compared. DHQ was more effective in restraining soy bean oil oxidation, and a dose-response relationship was observed. The antioxidant activity of DHQ was a little stronger than that of BHA and BHT. Soy bean oil supplemented with 0.08 mg/g DHQ exhibited favorable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation. The <em>L. gmeliniiem> wood samples before and after extraction were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the UMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation.

  6. Molluscicidal Activity of Methomyl and Cardenolide Extracts from <em>Calotropis proceraem> and <em>Adenium> <em>arabicum> Against the Land Snail <em>Monacha cantianaem>

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    Alaa Bayoumi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have evaluated the molluscicidal activity of two cardenolide extracts from <em>Adenium arabicumem> Balf f. [the benzene (B and methanol (M extracts], one cardenolide extract from <em>Calotropis proceraem> (Aiton W.T. Aiton (extract C, and methomyl against the harmful land snail <em>Monacha cantianaem> (Montagu. The contact LD50 values for the above mentioned plant extracts were 12.62, 34.63, and 34.35 mg·kg−1 of body weight, respectively, while the LD50 for methomyl was 116.62 mg·kg−1, that is, the plant extracts were 9.24, 3.37, and 3.4 times more toxic than methomyl. In addition, a simple colorimetric method, based on Kedde reagent, was modified to determine cardenolide concentrations in plant extracts. Thin layer chromatography analysis (TLC showed several cardiac glycosidal compounds in each plant extract. The results proved that cardiac glycosides are promising candidate compounds that could be used to control land snails, or exploited to develop new, effective, and environmentally friendly molluscicides.

  7. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  8. Conjuntivite em animais de companhia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Mariana Inês Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária, Ciências Veterinárias A conjuntivite é a doença ocular mais frequentemente diagnosticada em Medicina Veterinária, tanto em cães como em gatos. O facto de a conjuntiva ser uma membrana mucosa tão exposta a agentes externos faz com que esteja bastante suscetível a sofrer lesões, com consequente inflamação. Nesta dissertação abordam-se os diferentes tipos de conjuntivite, que são classificados de acordo com a sua etiologia. No Hospita...

  9. Triagem nutricional em adultos hospitalizados

    OpenAIRE

    Mariur Gomes Beghetto; Bibiana Manna; Andréia Candal; Elza Daniel de Mello; Carisi Anne Polanczyk

    2008-01-01

    Em hospitais, o objetivo de um procedimento de triagem nutricional é identificar indivíduos desnutridos ou em risco de desnutrição, possibilitando intervenção nutricional precoce e melhor alocação de recursos. Diferentes métodos são apresentados na literatura para esta finalidade: Malnutrition Screening Tool, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Nutritional Risk Index, Nutrition Risk Score, Nutritional Risk Screening, Mini Nutritional Assessment, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, ...

  10. Chemical Composition<em> em>of Hexane Extract of <em>Citrus aurantifoliaem> and<em> em>Anti->Mycobacterium tuberculosisem> Activity of Some of Its Constituents

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    María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the active compounds from the hexane extract of the fruit peels of <em>Citrus aurantiifoliaem>, which showed activity against one sensitive and three monoresistant (isoniazid, streptomycin or ethambutol strains of <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis em>H37Rv. The active extract was fractionated by column chromatography, yielding the following major compounds: 5-geranyloxypsoralen (1; 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (2; 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (3; 5-methoxypsoralen (4; and 5,8-dimethoxypsoralen (5. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. In addition, GC-MS analysis of the hexane extract allowed the identification of 44 volatile compounds, being 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (15.79%, 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione (8.27%, 1-methoxy-ciclohexene (8.0%, corylone (6.93%, palmitic acid (6.89%, 5,8-dimethoxypsoralen (6.08%, a-terpineol (5.97%, and umbelliferone (4.36%, the major constituents. Four isolated coumarins and 16 commercial compounds identified by GC-MS were tested against <em>M. tuberculosisem> H37Rv and three multidrug-resistant <em>M. tuberculosisem> strains using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay. The constituents that showed activity against all strains were 5 (MICs = 25–50 mg/mL, 1 (MICs = 50–100 mg/mL, palmitic acid (MICs = 25–50 mg/mL, linoleic acid (MICs = 50–100 mg/mL, oleic acid (MICs = 100 mg/mL, 4-hexen-3-one (MICs = 50–100 mg/mL, and citral (MICs = 50–100 mg/mL. Compound 5 and palmitic acid were the most active ones. The antimycobacterial activity of the hexane extract of <em>C. aurantifoliaem> could be attributed to these compounds.

  11. Occurrence, biology and behavior of Liogenys fuscus Blanchard (Insecta, Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Ocorrência, biologia e comportamento de Liogenys fuscus Blanchard (Insecta, Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae em Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Sérgio Roberto Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    , Brasil. Na fazenda experimental da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS, campus de Aquidauana, foi instalada diariamente, armadilha luminosa, de fevereiro de 2005 a janeiro de 2007 para coleta dos adultos. Os adultos coletados foram encaminhados para laboratório e acondicionados em caixas de plástico, contendo solo e mudas de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf (Poaceae. Foi possível obter ovos e realizar os estudos de biologia, em câmara climatizada a 26 ± 1º C e fotofase de 12 horas. Os adultos revoaram entre agosto e setembro a dezembro nos dois anos de estudos, nos horários das 18h00 às 6h00, em maior quantidade das 19h00 às 22h00. Os ovos, de 1,5 x 1,0 mm, foram depositados no solo individualmente ou agrupados em câmaras; possuem coloração branca e quando estão próximos da eclosão adquirem cor amarela. O período embrionário durou 14,3 dias, o primeiro, segundo e terceiro instares duraram 28,5, 48,8 e 68,2 dias respectivamente. O período de prépupa, que permaneceu inativa no solo, durou 120,2 dias. A fase de pupa durou em média de 27,5 dias e os adultos apresentaram longevidade média de 23,6 dias. Em laboratório foi observado comportamento de chamamento entre machos e fêmeas e a cópula durou em média 25 minutos.

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Various Parts of <em>Cinnamomum> cassiaem> Extracted with Different Extraction Methods

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    Li-Yeh Chuang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities of various parts (barks, buds, and leaves of <em>Cinnamomum cassia em>extracted with ethanol and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. For the antioxidant activity comparison, IC50 values of the SFE and ethanol extracts in the DPPH scavenging assay were 0.562–10.090 mg/mL and 0.072–0.208 mg/mL, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values were 6.789–58.335 mmole Trolox/g and 133.039–335.779 mmole Trolox/g, respectively. In addition, the total flavonoid contents were 0.031–1.916 g/ 100 g dry weight of materials (DW and 2.030–3.348 g/ 100 g DW, and the total phenolic contents were 0.151–2.018 g/ 100 g DW and 6.313–9.534 g/ 100 g DW in the SFE and ethanol extracts, respectively. Based on the results, the ethanol extracts of <em>Cinnamon> barks have potential value as an antioxidant substitute and this study also provide a better technique to extract the natural antioxidant substances from <em>C. cassiaem>.

  13. Regional Suppression of <em>Bactrocera> Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

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    Roger I. Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Bactrocera> fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of <em>Bactrocera> spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of <em>Bactrocera> <em>cucurbitae> (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, <em>Psyttalia> <em>fletcheri> (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of <em>Bactrocera> <em>dorsalis> (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which <em>Fopius> <em>arisanus> (Sonan, <em>Diachasmimorpha> <em>longicaudata> (Ashmead and <em>Fopius> <em>vandenboschi> (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for <em>Bactrocera> spp. but also for <em>Ceratitis> and <em>Anastrepha> spp. Most recently, in 2002, <em>F.> <em>arisanus> was introduced into French Polynesia where <em>B.> <em>dorsalis> had invaded in 1996. Establishment of <em>D.> <em>longicaudata> into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against <em>Anastrepha> spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of <em>Bactrocera> spp. into new areas of the world (<em>i.e.>, South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where <em>B.> <em>carambolae> and <em>B.> <em>invadens>, respectively, have become established. In addition, <em>P.> <em>fletcheri> is a candidate for biological control of <em>B.> <em>cucurbitae> in Africa. We review past and more

  14. Hemoptises em jovens adultos

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    Herbert Peter Know

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A hemoptise é uma queixa médica frequente que pode requerer broncoscopia para o seu diagnóstico e tratamento. Não está completamente esclarecido quais são os doentes que beneficiam da broncoscopia como abordagem precoce. Está estabelecido que os jovens adultos com hemoptises são doentes de baixo risco, quando comparados com velhos; contudo, não há muitos trabalhos sobre o interesse da broncoscopia na abordagem deste grupo etário.Os autores resolveram avaliar, retrospectivamente, todos os doentes submetidos a broncoscopia por hemoptises, caracterizando a apresentação clínica e a avaliação diagnóstica dos jovens adultos (18 aos 40 anos, incluindo a utilidade diagnóstica da broncoscopia.Satisfizeram os critérios de inclusão 18 doentes. Na broncoscopia realizada nos doentes com hemoptises que apresentavam radiografia do tórax e T AC do tórax normal não foram identificadas quaisquer alterações endobrônquicas.Os autores, perante estes resultados preconizam que os doentes jovens adultos com hemoptises, com radiografias do tórax e TAC do tórax normais, não necessitam da avaliação broncoscópica inicial, devendo ser seguidos em follow-up clínico apertado.

  15. Hemoptises em jovens adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Peter Know

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A hemoptise é uma queixa médica frequente que pode requerer broncoscopia para o seu diagnóstico e tratamento. Não está completamente esclarecido quais são os doentes que beneficiam da broncoscopia como abordagem precoce. Está estabelecido que os jovens adultos com hemoptises são doentes de baixo risco, quando comparados com velhos; contudo, não há muitos trabalhos sobre o interesse da broncoscopia na abordagem deste grupo etário.Os autores resolveram avaliar, retrospectivamente, todos os doentes submetidos a broncoscopia por hemoptises, caracterizando a apresentação clínica e a avaliação diagnóstica dos jovens adultos (18 aos 40 anos, incluindo a utilidade diagnóstica da broncoscopia.Satisfizeram os critérios de inclusão 18 doentes. Na broncoscopia realizada nos doentes com hemoptises que apresentavam radiografia do tórax e T AC do tórax normal não foram identificadas quaisquer alterações endobrônquicas.Os autores, perante estes resultados preconizam que os doentes jovens adultos com hemoptises, com radiografias do tórax e TAC do tórax normais, não necessitam da avaliação broncoscópica inicial, devendo ser seguidos em follow up clínico apertado.

  16. Activity-Guided Isolation of Antioxidant Compounds from <em>Rhizophora apiculataem>

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    Hongbin Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available <em>Rhizophora apiculataem> (<em>R. apiculataem> contains an abundance of biologically active compounds due its special salt-tolerant living surroundings. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of various extract and fractions of stem of <em>R. apiculataem> were investigated. Results indicated that butanol fraction possesses the highest total phenolic content (181.84 mg/g GAE/g dry extract with strongest antioxidant abilities. Following <em>in vitroem> antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, lyoniresinol-3α-<em>O>-β-arabinopyranoside (1, lyoniresinol-3α-<em>O>-β-rhamnoside (2, and afzelechin-3-<em>O>-L-rhamno-pyranoside (3 were separated from the butanol fraction. These compounds showed more noticeable antioxidant activity than a BHT standard in the DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. HPLC analysis results showed that among different plant parts, the highest content of 13 was located in the bark (0.068%, 0.066% and 0.011%, respectively. The results imply that the <em>R. apiculataem> might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 13 are antioxidant ingredients in <em>R. apiculataem>.

  17. Ancylostoma duodenale em estrangeiros radicados em Botucatu, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence F.S. Kerr

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se a técnica de Harada & Mori foi efetuada verificação das espécies de Ancylostomidae prevalentes entre imigrantes europeus, asiáticos e brasileiros residentes no município de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Ancylostoma duodenale foi encontrado em 8,5% dos imigrantes asiáticos e Necator americanus em 3,5% dos europeus e em 18% dos brasileiros examinados.A survey of the species of Ancylostomidae causing infection among European inmigrants and Brazilian residents in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil was performed using Harada & Mori's technique. Ancylostoma duodenale was found in 8.5% of the asiatic inmigrants and Necator americanus in 3.5% of the European and 18.0% of the Brazilians examined.

  18. Risposte comportamentali di <em>Crocidura leucodonem> (Hermann, 1780 (Insectivora, Soricidae ai meccanismi antipredatori di alcuni Artropodi

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    Teresa Bonacci

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavioural responses of <em>Crocidura leucodonem> (Insectivora, Soricidae to Arthropod preys with various antipredatory defenses Two wild specimens of <em>Crocidura leucodonem> have been tested in laboratory to study the predatory behaviour towards different types of preys: Arthropods with chemical defenses and aposematic colours (<em>Brachinus sclopetaem>, <em>B. crepitansem>, <em>B. peregrinusem>, <em>Chlaenius chrysocephalusem>, <em>Anchomenus dorsalisem> and less protected species (es. <em>Scybalicus oblongiusculusem>, <em>Parophonus hispanusem>, <em>Steropus melasem>, <em>Calathus montivagusem>. In the first part of the experiment satiated <em>Crocidura> specimens preyed only on non protected species. In the second part satiated and food deprived <em>Crocidura> began to prey, although with less intensity, also on highly protected species. The shrews adopted "new" attack modes to avoid chemical injuries.

  19. Tratamento da dor em queimados

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    Rodrigo José Alencar de Castro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Apesar dos avanços, ainda é observado manejo analgésico inadequado dos pacientes com queimaduras. O objetivo desta revisão foi coletar dados sobre tratamento da dor em queimados. CONTEÚDO: Foi feita revisão sobre os mecanismos de dor, avaliação do paciente com queimadura e o tratamento farmacológico e não farmacológico. CONCLUSÕES: O manejo da dor em pacientes vítimas de queimaduras ainda é um desafio por parte da equipe multiprofissional. A avaliação frequente e contínua da resposta apresentada pelo paciente é muito importante, tendo em vista os vários momentos por que passa o paciente internado em decorrência de uma queimadura, além de uma terapêutica combinada com medicações analgésicas e medidas não farmacológicas. Entender a complexidade de alterações fisiopatológicas, psicológicas e bioquímicas apresentadas por um paciente em tratamento de queimadura é o primeiro passo para alcançar o sucesso no seu manejo analgésico.

  20. Imagens de um Sujeito em Devir: Autorretrato em Rede

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    Camila Leite Araujo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se prope a discutir o fenmeno da circulao das fotografias pessoais em plataformas virtuais e o surgimento de uma possvel nova esttica do cotidiano e do efmero. Assim, iniciamos com um quadro conceitual sobre as possibilidades da fotografia digital referentes s imagens do cotidiano e apresentamos uma anlise sobre as particularidades estticas do autorretrato contemporneo, um processo de criao que envolve conceitos como fabulao, performance e o efmero, em um espao de interao com as ferramentas de comunicao na comunidade do Flickr.

  1. Objetos mediadores em museus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Um museu participativo incentiva a que a experiência da visita seja criativa e pessoal. Facilita a participação biográfica do visitante - com a sua experiência, conhecimento e interesses. Muitas exposições, porém, não promovem esse envolvimento pessoal. Neste artigo apresentamos uma revisão da literatura que indicia que a mediação com objetos mediadores facilita o envolvimento pessoal, a construção de conhecimento e a criatividade. O problema teórico que colocamos é se os museus mais tradicionais se podem abrir à participação e, neste contexto, o nosso objetivo é perceber que papel podem ter os objetos mediadores nesse processo. Discutimos o recurso a objetos mediadores como forma de adicionar múltiplos níveis de relação e modos de ver, potencial que consideramos subaproveitado em muitos museus. Começamos por apresentar o museu como espaço potencialmente participativo, que convida a um envolvimento ativo e crítico – ativo, porque o visitante é desafiado a fazer coisas; crítico, porque é estimulado a pensar, optar, discutir e refletir. Discutimos depois diferentes formas de usar objetos mediadores para incentivar o visitante a um envolvimento com os artefactos, recorrendo à memória, experiência, conhecimento e sentimentos. A participação biográfica potencia o cruzamento entre o mundo interior do visitante e os artefactos e conteúdos do museu. Esse espaço de cruzamento - inbetween - é o espaço da construção de conhecimento. Apresentamos diversas formas de um museu, mesmo não sendo interativo, se tornar mais criativo e participativo, o que pode contribuir para uma mudança nas práticas dos museus, nomeadamente na montagem e remodelação de exposições permanentes.

  2. Formamido-Diterpenes from the South China Sea Sponge <em>Acanthella cavernosaem>

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    Bao-Hua Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Seven new formamido-diterpenes, cavernenes A–D (14, kalihinenes E and F (56, and kalihipyran C (7, together with five known compounds (812, were isolated from the South China Sea sponge <em>Acanthella cavernosaem>. Structures were established using IR, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and single X-ray diffraction techniques. The isolated compounds were assessed for their cytotoxicity against a small panel of human cancer cell lines (HCT-116, A549, HeLa, QGY-7701, and MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values in the range of 6–18 μM. In addition, compound 9 showed weak antifungal activity against <em>Trichophyton rubrumem> and <em>Microsporum gypseumem> with MIC values of 8 and 32 μg/mL, respectively, compound 10 displayed weak antifungal activity against fungi <em>Candida albicansem>, <em>C>ryptococcus neoformansem>, <em>T. rubrumem>, and<em> M. gypseum em>with MIC values of 8, 8, 4, and 8 μg/mL, respectively.

  3. Factores de risco em implantologia

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Inês Silveira e Luz Nunes de

    2015-01-01

    A Implantologia tem ganho popularidade na medicina dentária pelos resultados previsíveis em reabilitações de áreas edêntulas, permitindo minimizar as consequências funcionais, fonéticas e estéticas que advém da perda de dentes através de uma solução fixa que satizfaz os pacientes. Esta é uma revisão da literatura existente sobre factores de risco, fracassos e complicações inerentes ao tratamento com implantes dentários. Categorizam-se os factores de risco em implantologia co...

  4. Trombo flutuante em veia femoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Bertanha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O trombo venoso flutuante em veia femoral é um tipo de trombo com alto potencial de embolização pulmonar. Entretanto, ainda é controversa a conduta mais apropriada nesses casos. Tratamentos clínicos com anticoagulantes ou fibrinolíticos e trombectomias abertas ou por meio de dispositivos endovasculares vêm sendo empregados ainda sem um critério de indicação bem definido. Apresentamos três casos clínicos de trombos flutuantes em veia femoral, de etiologias distintas, cujos tratamentos e respectivas evoluções serão discutidos.

  5. Procedimentos substantivos em auditoria financeira

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Sofia Pires dos

    2014-01-01

    O presente relatório visa a conclusão do mestrado em Auditoria e Análise Financeira, cujo tema é Auditoria Financeira e procura apresentar as tarefas desenvolvidas por mim, durante o estágio curricular, enquanto assistente de auditoria na empresa Rosa Lopes Gonçalves Mendes & Associados, SROC, Lda., no Entroncamento durante 22 semanas. O relatório é composto por quatro capítulos em que nos primeiros três capítulos faço uma abordagem teórica geral à auditoria financeira, cujo objetivo é a i...

  6. Chirotteri carnivori in Europa? Il caso della Nottola gigante (<em>Nyctalus lasiopterusem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vergari

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Nel maggio 1994, iniziò uno studio sulla chirotterofauna forestale nella Riserva Biogenetica di Pian di Novello (Toscana, Pistoia, 44°07?N-10°42?E. La vegetazione della riserva è dominata essenzialmente dal faggio ed è governata ad alto fusto con una età media degli esemplari di 80-100 anni. Un totale di 90 bat-boxes furono distribuite all?interno della riserva. In questi anni sono state evidenziate le seguenti specie all?interno della foresta: <em>Nyctalus leisleriem>, <em>N. noctulaem>, <em>N. lasiopterusem>, <em>Myotis bechsteiniiem>, <em>M. mystacinusem>, <em>M. nattereriem>, <em>Pipistrellus pipistrellusem>, <em>P. kuhliiem>, <em>Hypsugo saviiem> e <em>Tadarida teniotisem>. Nel contesto della ricerca sono stati avviati approfondimenti per valutare la dieta delle varie specie e valutare l?eventuale sovrapposizione di nicchia trofica. L?analisi degli escrementi della nottola gigante (<em>N. lasiopterusem> ha sorpreso non poco per la presenza di una cospicua presenza di residui appartenenti a piccoli passeriformi. La carnivoria nei pipistrelli è definita come una specializzazione a catturare e consumare altri vertebrati ad esclusione dei pesci. Ad oggi è stata documentata in circa 12 specie su circa 1000 descritte. In particolare: 1 specie di Nycteridae, 4 specie di Megadermatidae, 5 specie di Phyllostomidae, 1 specie di Vespertilionidae e 1 specie di Hipposideridae. La nottola gigante è presente nella riserva solo nel periodo tardo estivo-autunnale. Una approfondita indagine su di un certo numero di escrementi ha permesso di valutare che la dieta è basata principalmente su passeriformi come pettirosso (<em>Erithacus rubeculaem> e cinciarella (<em>Parus caeruleusem>. Successivi rilievi hanno permesso di esaminare il comportamento predatorio da parte della nottola gigante, soprattutto le strategie alimentari in relazione alla termoregolazione. Viene inoltre confrontato la morfologia alare con le altre specie

  7. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade em aveia em ambientes estratificados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertan Ivandro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L. foram avaliados para rendimento de grãos nas safras agrícolas de 2001 e 2002 em nove locais dos estados do Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar as estimativas dos componentes de adaptabilidade e estabilidade do rendimento de grãos em ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis em presença e ausência de aplicação de fungicida. Foi empregada a metodologia de EBERHART & RUSSELL (1966. A presença de significância para anos, genótipos, fungicidas e locais, indicou comportamento diferencial de genótipos frente às variações de ambiente e a aplicação de fungicida, nas condições de ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis. A aplicação de fungicida e o favorecimento do ambiente de cultivo afetaram intensamente os parâmetros de adaptabilidade (b1 e estabilidade (s²d i, indicando que estas estimativas devam ser realizadas em ambientes estratificados, apesar de nenhuma constituição genética ter evidenciado o biótipo ideal, conforme preconizado pelo modelo adotado.

  8. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Deuterollyta majuscula (Lep.: Pyralidae em abacateiro (Persea americana MILL. Biology, damage and fertility life table of Deuterollyta majuscula (Lep.: Pyralidae in avocado (Persea americana MILL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dori Edson Nava

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available As lagartas de Deuterollyta majuscula (Herrich-Schaffer podem, ao se alimentar, causar danos às folhas e frutos do abacateiro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia em condições de laboratório, mantido a 25±2ºC, UR de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas e descrever os danos provocados pela praga. O ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto foi de 39,6 dias e a viabilidade total de 55%. Foram determinados 5 instares. O peso de pupas foi de 0,0966 mg para fêmeas e 0,0901 mg para os machos. As fêmeas colocaram, em média, 201 ovos durante aproximadamente 7,6 dias. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas foi de 15,3 e 13,9 dias, respectivamente, e a razão sexual de 0,56. Através da tabela de vida de fertilidade determinou-se uma capacidade de aumento de 64 vezes a cada geração, sendo a duração média de uma geração de 46 dias e a razão finita de aumento (ll de 1,095. Estes resultados fornecem subsídios que podem ser utilizados para o estabelecimento de estratégias de manejo do inseto.Deuterollyta majuscula (Herrich-Schaffer causes injuries to leaves and fruits of avocado. The aim of this work was study the biology under laboratory conditions, at 25±2ºC, 70±10% of RH, and 14-hour of photophase and to describe the damage caused by this pest. The biological cycle (egg-adult was 39.6 days and the total viability was 55%. Five instars were observed. The pupae weight was 0.0966 mg for females and 0.0901 mg for males. The females laid an average of 201 eggs in approximately 7.6 days. The mean longevity of males and females was 15.3 and 13.9 days, respectively, and sex ratio of 0.56. The fertility life table showed a 64-fold increase capacity in each generation, with one generation lasting an average of 46 days, with finite rate of increase (lambdal of 1.095. These results can provide background information to the establishment of strategies to manage this new avocado pest.

  9. Effects of Two Varieties of <em>Bacillus thuringiensisem> Maize on the Biology of <em>Plodia interpunctellaem>

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    Jean-Claude Grégoire

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available On the market since 1996, genetically modified plants expressing an insecticidal toxin (Cry toxin stemmed from <em>Bacillus thuringiensisem> target several lepidopteran and coleopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the impact of two varieties of <em>Bt em>maize producing different toxins (Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa, respectively on the biology of a storage pest: <em>Plodia interpunctella em>(Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. The Indianmeal moths were susceptible to both toxins but showed an escape behavior only from Cry1Fa. The weight of females issued from larvae reared on Cry1Ab increased with increasing toxin concentration, but adults of both sexes reared on Cry1Fa had decreased weight. Both toxins increased development time from egg to adult regardless of sex and had no impact on the male adult lifespan. Finally, we recorded a time lag between metamorphosis from the non-<em>Bt em>and the <em>Bt em>diets, which increased proportionally to Cry concentration in the <em>Bt em>diet.

  10. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, <em>Bactrocera dorsalisem> Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Hongyu Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, <em>Bactrocera dorsalisem> (Hendel, and evaluate the chemotaxis of <em>B>. <em>dorsalis> to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE, 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were assigned to the five bacterial classes <em>Betaproteobacteria>, <em>Alphaproteobacteria>, <em>Gammaproteobacteria>, <em>Bacilli> and <em>Actinobacteria>. Nine OTUs were assigned to <em>Gammaproteobacteria>, which was the most highly represented class. <em>Enterobacteriaceae> constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including <em>Enterobacter sakazakiiem>, <em>Klebsiella> <em>oxytoca>, <em>Klebsiella> <em>pneumoniae,> Raoultellaem> <em>terrigena em>and <em>Enterobacter> <em>amnigenus>. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by <em>R.> terrigenaem>, <em>K. oxytocaem> and <em>K.> pneumoniae em>were attractive to the <em>B.> dorsalisem> adults, and in field studies, <em>B.> dorsalisem> adults were most attracted to <em>K.> oxytocaem>. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly.

  11. A Novel Apoptosis Correlated Molecule: Expression and Characterization of Protein Latcripin-1 from <em>Lentinula em>edodes> C91–3

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    Min Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An apoptosis correlated molecule—protein Latcripin-1 of <em>Lentinula> edodesem> C91-3—was expressed and characterized in <em>Pichia pastorisem> GS115. The total RNA was obtained from <em>Lentinula edodesem> C91–3. According to the transcriptome, the full-length gene of Latcripin-1 was isolated with 3'-Full Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE and 5'-Full RACE methods. The full-length gene was inserted into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K. The protein Latcripin-1 was expressed in <em>Pichia pastorisem> GS115 and analyzed by Sodium Dodecylsulfonate Polyacrylate Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The Western blot showed that the protein was expressed successfully. The biological function of protein Latcripin-1 on A549 cells was studied with flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide (MTT method. The toxic effect of protein Latcripin-1 was detected with the MTT method by co-culturing the characterized protein with chick embryo fibroblasts. The MTT assay results showed that there was a great difference between protein Latcripin-1 groups and the control group (<em>p em>< 0.05. There was no toxic effect of the characterized protein on chick embryo fibroblasts. The flow cytometry showed that there was a significant difference between the protein groups of interest and the control group according to apoptosis function (<em>p em>< 0.05. At the same time, cell ultrastructure observed by transmission electron microscopy supported the results of flow cytometry. The work demonstrates that protein Latcripin-1 can induce apoptosis of human lung cancer cells A549 and brings new insights into and advantages to finding anti-tumor proteins.

  12. Antifungal Activity, Toxicity and Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of <em>Coriandrum sativumem> L. Fruits

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    Erika H. S. Brito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to test the antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil from <em>C. sativumem> L. fruits. The essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Linalool was the main constituent (58.22%. The oil was considered bioactive, showing an LC50 value of 23 µg/mL in the <em>Artemia salinaem> lethality test. The antifungal activity was evaluated against <em>Microsporum canisem> and <em>Candida> spp. by the agar-well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC were established by the broth microdilution method. The essential oil induced growth inhibition zones of 28 ± 5.42 and 9.25 ± 0.5 for <em>M. canisem> and <em>Candida> spp. respectively. The MICs and MFCs for <em>M. canisem> strains ranged from 78 to 620 and 150 to 1,250 µg/mL, and the MICs and MFCs for <em>Candida> spp strains ranged from 310 to 620 and 620 to 1,250 µg/mL, respectively. <em>C. sativumem> essential oil is active<em> in vitroem> against <em>M. canis em>and> Candidaem> spp. demonstrating good antifungal activity.

  13. Rodent hosts of <em>Maritrema> sp. (Digenea, Microphallidae in Sardinia Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Casanova

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Prospections on helminth fauna of rodents were carried out in the Cedrino river (Eastern of Sardinia island. Twelve <em>Rattus rattusem> (L., 1758 and eight <em>Mus domesticusem> (Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943 were captured by Sherman traps. Parasitological study revealed in <em>R. rattusem> the presence of an intestinal helminth belonging to the genus <em>Maritrema> (family Microphallidae. The transmission of this Digenetic Trematode among vertebrates involves the participation of aquatic invertebrate organisms, molluscs and crustacea, acting as intermediate hosts. Dissection of 117 individuals of the Amphipod Crustacea <em>Gammarus italicusem>, collected in the same biotope, allowed the detection of encysted metacercariae. These larvae constitute the infesting stage of the parasite for vertebrates, acting these as definitive hosts ingesting parasitized crustacea as preys. Adults of <em>Maritrema> sp. were also obtained experimentally in the laboratory mice (<em>Mus domesticusem> CD1 strain. These were infested by inoculating them, using gastric probe, metacercarial cysts isolated from <em>G. italicusem>. Post-infection mice dissection was performed at different intervals of time getting adults in various maturity stages. Experimental facts confirm that <em>Maritrema> sp., as it occurs in other trematodes, do not present strict specificity to the definitive host, being able to develop as well in <em>Mus>. In nature, the presence or absence of this digenean in mammals species will be dependent of host ethological factors, mainly related to feeding habitats. This study was partially supported by the ?Comissionat per Recerca i Universitats de la Generalitat de Catalunya? 2001SGR00088.

  14. Allometric and Isometric variations in the Italian <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> and <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> with respect to the conditions of allopatry and sympatry / Variazioni allometriche e isometriche in <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> e <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> italiani, rispetto alle condizioni di allopatria e simpatria

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    Giovanni Amori

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy there are two species of <em>Apodemus> (<em>Sylvaemus>: <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> on the mainland and the main island, and <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> only on the mainland. The trend of some morphometric characters of the skull (incisive foramen length - FI; interorbital breadth = IO; length of palatal bridge = PP; upper alveolar length = $M^1M^3$ was analized and some theoretical models verified for <em>A. sylvaticusem>. If one considers the sympatric population of <em>A. sylvaticusem> and <em>A. flavicollisem> simultaneously the characters PP, IO and $M^1M^3$ appear significantly isometric being directly correlated ($P leq O.O1$, while FI character results allometric with respect to the previous ones, as expected. If one considers the sympatric populations of each of the species separately, the scenario is different. For <em>A. sylvaticusem> only PP and $M^1M^3$ are isometric ($P leq 0.05$. For <em>A. flavicollisem> only $M^1M^3$ and FI appear to be correlated, although not as significantly as for <em>A. sylvaticusem> ($P le 0.05$; one tail. The insular populations of <em>A. sylvaticusem> do not show significant correlations, except for FI and $M^1M^3$ ($P le 0.05$. On the contrary, considering all populations, sympatric and allopatric, of <em>A. sylvaticusem> at the same time are significant correlations ($P le 0.05$ in all combinations of characters, except for those involving the IO. We suggest that the isometric relations in sympatric assemblages are confined within a morphological range available to the genus <em>Apodemus>. In such a space, the two species are split in two different and innerly homogeneous distributions. We found no evidence to confirm the niche variation hypothesis. On the contrary, the variability expressed as SO or CV's appears higher in the sympatric populations than in the allopatric ones, for three of the four characters, confirming previous results

  15. Development of an EMS curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Jane H; Perina, Debra G; Liu, J Marc; Braude, Darren A; Rinnert, Kathy J; MacDonald, Russell D

    2014-01-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) became an American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) approved subspecialty of emergency medicine in September 2010. Achieving specialty or subspecialty recognition in an area of medical practice requires a unique body of knowledge, a scientific basis for the practice, a significant number of physicians who dedicate a portion of their practice to the area, and a sufficient number of fellowship programs. To prepare EMS fellows for successful completion of fellowship training, a lifetime of subspecialty practice, and certification examination, a formalized structured fellowship curriculum is necessary. A functional curriculum is one that takes the entire body of knowledge necessary to appropriately practice in the identified area and codifies it into a training blueprint to ensure that all of the items are covered over the prescribed training period. A curriculum can be as detailed as desired but typically all major headings and subheadings of the core content are identified and addressed. Common curricular components, specific to each area of the core content, include goals and objectives, implementation methods, evaluation, and outcomes assessment methods. Implementation methods can include simulation, observations, didactics, and experiential elements. Evaluation and outcomes assessment methods can include direct observation of patient assessment and treatment skills, structured patient simulations, 360° feedback, written and oral testing, and retrospective chart reviews. This paper describes a curriculum that is congruent with the current EMS core content, as well as providing a 12-month format to deploy the curriculum in an EMS fellowship program. Key words: curriculum; education; emergency medical services; fellowships and scholarships.

  16. The Niger Delta Prob em

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edlyne E Anugwom: Ethnicity, Federalism and Revenue Allocation in a Democratic Nigeria: The Niger Delta Problem. Ethnicity, Federalism and_Revenue. Allocation in a Democratic Ni eria. The Niger Delta Prob em. By Edlyne E. Anugwom. Department of Sociology/Anthropology,. University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Nigeria.

  17. First sign of <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> in the Po valley plain / Prima segnalazione in Pianura Padana di <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem>

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    Luis Nieder

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> (Schreber, 1790 populations is reported in the Po valley, formerly considered outside the distribution area of the species. An initial series of captures was made in the high-water area of the Po near S. Nazzaro (Monticelli d'Ongina - PC following with research was extended along the river's banks in Emilia both upstream and downstream. The search for this species was carried out by analysing food pellets relating to <em>Strix alucoem>, <em>Tyto albaem> e <em>Athene noctuaem>, thought to be among the most common predators of these intensive herbaceous and arboreal agricultural biocoenosis. The information we gathered was integrated with other Authors' unpublished and bibliographical data. The presence of <em>C. glareolusem> was noted in habitats quite different from the expected ones. Many of the problems raised by the presence of this species in "islands" along the main body of the Po river and its tributaries, and by its presumed absence from particulary suitable environments such as the Carrega woods, the Ticino park and Mesola wood must still be resolved. Riassunto Viene segnalata la presenza di popolazioni di <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> (Schreber 1790 nella pianura Padana precedentemente considerata al di fuori dell'areale della specie. A partire da una prima serie di catture nell'area golenale del Po presso S. Nazzaro (Monticelli d'Ongina - PC, si è successivamente proceduto ad allargare l'area di ricerca lungo l'argine emiliano del Po, sia a monte sia a valle. La ricerca di questa specie è avvenuta tramite l'analisi di boli alimentari relativi a <em>Strix alucoem>, <em>Tyto albaem> e <em>Athene noctuaem>, ritenuti tra i più comuni predatori di queste biocenosi agricole intensive erbacee ed arboree. I dati da noi raccolti sono stati integrati con quelli bibliografici e inediti di altri Autori. È stata riscontrata la presenza

  18. Parasitic zoonoses: survey in foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in the northern Apennines / Zoonosi parassitarie: indagini in volpi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> dell'Appennino settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Guberti

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A parasitological survey on 153 foxes was carried out in the northern Apennines, during the period 1984-1987. The following parasites were identified: <em>Toxocara canisem> (46.4%, <em>Taenia> sp. (17%, <em>Uncinaria stenocephalaem> (11.8%, <em>Mesocestoides lineatusem> (11.1%, <em>Ancylostoma caninumem> (3.9%, <em>Taenia hydatigenaem> (3.3%, <em>Trichuris vulpisem> (3.3%, <em>Dipylidium caninumem> (2.6%, <em>Taenia crassicepsem> (2%. All foxes were negative for <em>Trichinella> sp. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate differences in the parasitic fauna according to the sex and age classes of the hosts. The role that the fox could have as a reservoir of helminthic zoonoses is discussed. The results are compared with those of similar studies carried out in Italy. Riassunto Nel periodo 1984-1987 è stata condotta un'indagine parassitologica su 153 volpi abbattute nell'Appennino romagnolo. Sono stati reperiti i seguenti parassiti: <em>Toxocara canisem> (46,4%, <em>Taenia> sp. (17%, <em>Uncinaria stenocephalaem> (11,8%, <em>Mesocestoides lineatusem> (11,1%, <em>Ancylostoma caninumem> (3,9%, <em>Taenia hydatigenaem> (3,3%, <em>Trichuris vulpisem> (3,3%, <em>Dipylidium caninumem> (2,6%, <em>Taenia crassicepsem> (2%. Tutte le volpi esaminate sono risultate negative per <em>Trichinella> sp. È stata effettuata l'analisi statistica dei dati per evidenziare eventuali differenze della fauna parassitaria in relazione al sesso e all'età delle volpi. Sulla base dei dati ottenuti viene discussa l'importanza che la Volpe può assumere come serbatoio di zoonosi elmintiche. I risultati acquisiti sono inoltre comparati con quelli ottenuti in analoghe ricerche condotte in Italia.

  19. Architectural acoustics and the heritage of theater architecture in Andalusia (Acustica arquitectonica y patrimonio teatral en Andalucia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Angel Luis

    2003-11-01

    This thesis reports on the study of the acoustic properties of 18 theaters belonging to the Andalusian historical and architectural heritage. These theaters have undergone recent renovations to modernize and equip them appropriately. Coincident with this work, evaluations and qualification assessments with regard to their acoustic properties have been carried out for the individual theaters and for the group as a whole. Data measurements for this purpose consisted of acoustic measurements in situ, both before the renovation and after the renovation. These results have been compared with computer simulations of sound fields. Variables and parameters considered include the following: reverberation time, rapid speech transition index, back-ground noise, definition, clarity, strength, lateral efficiency, interaural cross-correlation coefficient, volume/seat ratio, volume/audience-area ratio. Based on the measurements and analysis, general conclusions are given in regard to the acoustic performance of theaters whose typology and size are comparable to those that were used in this study (between 800 and 8000 cubic meters). It is noted that these properties are comparable to those of the majority of European theaters. The results and conclusions are presented so that they should be of interest to architectural acoustics practitioners and to architects who are involved in the planning of renovation projects for theaters Thesis advisors: Juan J. Sendra and Jaime Navarro Copies of this thesis written in Spanish may be obtained by contacting the author, Angel L. Leon, E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Sevilla, Dpto. de Construcciones Arquitectonicas I, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail address: leonr@us.es

  20. Acoustics of native-American ceremonial sites in prehispanic America (Acustica en los espacios escenios rituales prehispanicos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Isabel

    2003-11-01

    This thesis establishes a methodology that incorporates the latest procedures used in architectural acoustics for the study of open spaces of this general type, and definitions are given for the acoustic variables of interest. The ``Juego de Pelota'' (ball game) sites are the only ceremonial sites built specifically for the performance of a fertility ritual, and are ideal for the study of prehispanic architectural topographies. Analysis of the acoustic properties of such sites revealed that the topographical characteristics of the elevation profiles of these architectural structures determine the acoustic behavior of these spaces. Such profiles are classified into three basic types: (i) inclined profile, (ii) terraced profile, and (iii) mixed profile. The terraced profiles are the most efficient, and the mixed profiles are the least efficient, in regard to acoustics. The consideration of the acoustic behavior of architectural structures intended for the ``Ball Game,'' as the designs evolved over time, leads to the conclusion that acoustical sensations that contributed effectively to the characteristic mystical atmosphere of the ceremonial rituals were characteristic only of those sites constructed in the ``classical'' period. Thesis advisors: Jaime Navarro and Juan J. Sendra Copies of this thesis written in Spanish may be obtained by contacting the advisor, Jaime Navarro, E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Sevilla, Dpto. de Construcciones Arquitectonicas I, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail address: jnavarro@us.es

  1. Comportamento de Apis mellifera L. africanizada em flor de girassol (Helianthus annuus L. e avaliação do desenvolvimento de uma colônia de Apis mellifera em área de girassol coberta Behavior of Apis mellifera L. Africanized honeybees in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and evaluation of Apis mellifera L. colony inside covered area of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento objetivou avaliar o comportamento polinizador da Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae africanizada e o desenvolvimento da colônia em área coberta de girassol, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae. Foi utilizada uma área somente demarcada de 8 m x 3 m, e o desenvolvimento da colônia dentro de uma gaiola telada com 8 m x 3 m com dois metros de altura na sua porção mais alta. A abelha mais constante visitando o girassol durante todo o dia foi a Apis mellifera, embora os halictídeos tenham sido os mais freqüentes coletores de pólen, sendo estes vistos somente nas manhãs até às 11h. Na área coberta, houve uma redução de 34,74% no peso do enxame, 38,08% de mel, 100% no número de pupas de operárias e uma redução de 99,37% no número de ovos/larvas. As abelhas coletaram mais néctar do que pólen uniformemente ao longo do dia. No girassol, as abelhas coletoras de néctar têm influência na polinização da cultura maior do que as coletoras de pólen e néctar/pólenThis research was carried out to evaluate the behavior of africanized honeybees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae and the development of a colony inside a covered area of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae crop. It was used an area marked with 8 m x 3 m, and a second area in which a honeybee colony was installed inside a covered area with wire screen of 8m x 3m, two meters high in the highest part. The honeybees were constantly on sunflower during all day, however the Halictidae bees had been the most frequent in pollen harvesting, but these bees were seen until 11 a.m. In covered area, it occurred a reduction of 34.74% in swarm weight, 38.08% in honey, 100% in worker pupae, and 99.37% in egg-larvae. The honeybees gathered more nectar than pollen during the day. The nectar forager has more effect upon crop pollination than pollen foragers and pollen/nectar foragers, in sunflower.

  2. Moscas frugívoras (Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae: ocorrência em pomares comerciais de tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco do município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba = Frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae: occurrence in commercials tangerine orchards (Citrus reticulata Blanco in Matinhas, state of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Batista Lopes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O município de Matinhas, Estado da Paraíba com aproximadamente 1,3 milhões de plantas de tangerina, é responsável por 90% da produção do Estado. A pesquisa foi conduzida em cinco regiões geográficas do município de Matinhas, onde foram coletados 20 frutos na copa e 20 sob a copa da planta, objetivando pesquisar a ocorrência de moscasfrugívoras e seus níveis de infestação em tangerina. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a tangerina é infestada por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann,1824, Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal e Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann,1830. O índice médio de infestação de C. capitata nas cinco regiões não ultrapassou 0,5 pupa fruto-1. A percentagem de emergência (P.E. de C. capitata em frutos coletados na planta e solo variou entre 14,0 a 54,0% de adultos fruto-1. Osíndices de infestação de N. zadolicha, em frutos coletados na planta e solo, variaram entre 0,4 a 4,3 pupários fruto-1. Os dados da percentagem de emergência (P.E. de N. zadolicha variaram entre 49,9 a 65,9% de adultos fruto-1, sendo considerada a espécie mais abundante, dominante e com uma alta taxa de sobrevivência. N. zadolicha foi considerada praga primária da tangerina nas condições de Matinhas. Este é, também, o primeiro relato das espécies N. zadolicha e N. glaberrima infestando tangerina na Paraíba.The municipality of Matinhas, with approximately 1.3 million tangerinetrees, is responsible for 90% of the tangerine production in the state of Paraíba. This research was carried out in five geographic regions of Matinhas, where 20 fruits on plant and 20 fruits in soil were collected, with the aim of searching for the frugivorous flies and their levels of infestation in tangerine. The results showed that tangerine is infested by frugivorous flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann, 1824, Neosilba zadolicha (McAlpine e Steyskal and Neosilba glaberrima (Wiedmann, 1830. The mean infestation index of C. capitata in five regions did

  3. Effects of sodium chloride concentrations on larvae and pupae of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aedes aegypti is one of the commonest mosquitoes in the tropics and sub topics, feeding on human blood when exposed and is responsible for the transmission of urban yellow fever in Africa and out side Africa, it transmits dengue fever. Aedes aegypti are basically freshwater mosquito. The effect of different concentrations ...

  4. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti pupae to neem seed kernal extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts (NSKE) on Aedes aegypti. The neem seed kernel powder was sequentially extracted with hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone, DMSO, 2-propanol, ethanol, methanol and dstiledwater.

  5. Negative-Pressure Cavitation Extraction of Four Main Vinca Alkaloids from <em>Catharanthus em>roseus> Leaves

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    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an improved method termed negative-pressure cavitation extraction (NPCE followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC was developed for the extraction and quantification of vindoline (VDL, catharanthine (CTR, vincristine (VCR and vinblastine (VLB from <em>Catharanthus roseus em>leaves. The optimized method employed 60-mesh particles, 80% ethanol, a negative pressure of −0.075 MPa, a solid to liquid ratio of 1:20, 30 min of extraction and three extraction cycles. Under these optimized conditions, the extraction yields of VDL, CTR, VCR and VLB are 0.5783, 0.2843, 0.018 and 0.126 mg/g DW, respectively. These extraction yields are equivalent to those from the well-known ultrasonic extraction method and higher than the yields from maceration extraction and heating reflux extraction. Our results suggest that NPCE-RP-HPLC represents an excellent alternative for the extraction and quantification of vinca alkaloids for pilot- and industrial-scale applications.

  6. Conservazione e gestione della Lepre italica (<em>Lepus corsicanusem>

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    Francesco Riga

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Il recente riconoscimento dello <em>status> specifico della Lepre italica (<em>Lepus corsicanusem> e l?accertamento dell?areale distributivo rappresentano le azioni più importanti per la conservazione di un <em>taxon endemicoem> che si era creduto estinto. Nella penisola la specie presenta un areale discontinuo, il cui limite settentrionale è dato dal comune di Manciano (GR, sul versante tirrenico e da una linea che dalla provincia de L'Aquila arriva al Gargano. In Sicilia la distribuzione è relativamente continua anche in aree non protette. Dati genetici hanno permesso di confermare la presenza in Corsica. Al contrario, nell?Isola d'Elba, a seguito di estese ricerche, sono stati identificati solo esemplari di <em>L. europaeusem>. Nell?Italia peninsulare <em>L. corsicanusem> è spesso presente in simpatria con popolazioni di <em>L. europaeusem>, mentre in Sicilia la lepre europea non ha originato popolazioni stabili, nonostante l?immissione di molte migliaia di individui. La distribuzione ecologica di <em>L. corsicanusem> ed analisi ambientali specifiche, suggeriscono l?adattamento prevalente agli ambienti a clima mediterraneo, benché essa sia presente anche a quote elevate (> 1.500 m s.l.m.. Dati preliminari di abbondanza relativa hanno evidenziato una situazione diversificata tra la penisola e la Sicilia e tra aree a diverso regime di gestione; un confronto tra le aree protette ha evidenziato rispettivamente valori di 5,54 e 11,73 ind./km². La riduzione quali-quantitativa e la frammentazione dell?<em>habitat> delle lepri è un fenomeno potenzialmente pericoloso per la sopravvivenza delle popolazioni, determinando fenomeni di estinzione locale dovuti alle basse densità di popolazione, inducendo fenomeni di erosione della variabilità genetica e di riduzione della <em>fitness> degli individui. L?introduzione di <em>L. europaeusem> può costituire un importante fattore limitante sia per la possibile competizione

  7. A Comparison of Invasive <em>Acer platanoidesem> and Native <em>A. saccharumem> First-Year Seedlings:<em> em>Growth, Biomass Distribution and the Influence of Ecological Factors<em> em>in a Forest Understory

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    Jacques Brisson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Invasive shade tolerant species can have profound and long-lasting detrimental effects even on previously undisturbed forests. In North American forests, the invasive <em>Acer platanoidesem> is capable of dominating the understory where it could displace the native <em>Acer saccharumem>. To understand the relative importance of various ecological factors in a forest understory on their establishment, we transplanted <em>A. platanoides em>and <em>A. saccharumem> seedlings in an urban sugar maple forest understory and their growth and survival were compared over a growing season. Seedlings did not differ in height, but biomass growth and assimilation rates were twice as high for the invasive species. Ecological variables accounted for only 23–24% of variation in growth. Seedlings of <em>A. platanoidesem> appeared to capture light more efficiently, with over 150% greater foliage biomass and surface area. <em>A. saccharumem> seedlings were more negatively affected by herbivory. The more robust <em>A. platanoides em>seedlings presented characteristics that could allow them to better grow and survive in shaded understories than their native congeners.

  8. Acompanhamento do crescimento dental em Puma concolor mantido em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi Junior,João L.; Gioso,Marco A.; Teles,Marcelo Q.; Domingues-Falqueiro,Léslie M.

    2007-01-01

    Objetivou-se neste trabalho fazer levantamento sobre a troca de dentição decídua por permanente, notadamente dos dentes caninos e a prevalência de maloclusão em pumas (Puma concolor) manejados nas instituições visitadas no Estado de São Paulo. Para os estudos utilizou-se amostra constituída de 36 pumas, provenientes de 18 instituições mantenedoras de tais espécies em cativeiro no Estado de São Paulo, sendo que três animais com idade de oito meses, irmãos de ninhada, apresentaram retenção dos ...

  9. Cefaleia em salvas: aspectos clinicos e terapeuticos em 26 casos

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    Wilson Luiz Sanvito

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e seis casos de cefaléia-em-salvas são estudados do ponto de vista clínico e terapêutico. Nos aspectos clínicos são ressaltados a dramaticidade deste tipo de cefaléia, o nítido predomínio no sexo masculino, a média de idade dos pacientes, a presença de manifestações associadas e os fatores desencadeantes das crises nos períodos suscetíveis. Do ponto de vista terapêutico três esquemas medicamentosos foram utilizados: maleato de metisergida, prednisona e associação de ambas as drogas. Em 88,3% dos casos um resultado significativo foi alcançado, traduzido por melhora ou abolição das crises.

  10. Fatores de risco cardiovascular em alcoolistas em tratamento

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    Mayla Cardoso Fernandes Toffolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de fatores de risco cardiovascular, com ênfase na hipertensão e na adiposidade corporal, em alcoolistas abstinentes ou não abstinentes em tratamento. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com 65 pacientes alcoolistas em tratamento no CAP-Sad. O grau de dependência do álcool foi avaliado pelo SADD (Short Alcohol Dependence Data e o uso de outras drogas, pelo ASSIST (Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Foram avaliados o perfil bioquímico e o antropométrico dos usuários. RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo 42 homens e 23 mulheres. A maioria dos participantes (67,74% apresentou dependência alcoólica grave, com uso de álcool associado principalmente a cigarro (66,15%. A média da circunferência da cintura (CC foi significativamente maior entre os abstinentes, em comparação aos não abstinentes (AB: 88,15 ± 15,95 x NA: 81,04 ± 9,86; p = 0,03. Pacientes abstinentes há mais tempo tiveram maior sobrepeso/obesidade e adiposidade abdominal (CC do que os não abstinentes e abstinentes recentes, com razão de chances de 5,25. Os abstinentes apresentaram razão de chances de 3,38 para %GC acima da média, independente do tempo de abstinência. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes alcoolistas abstinentes apresentam mais sobrepeso/ obesidade, adiposidade corporal (%GC e abdominal (CC do que os não abstinentes. É importante o acompanhamento multiprofissional no tratamento de alcoolistas com abordagem para fatores de risco cardiovasculares, principalmente evitando o ganho de peso.

  11. <em>Ipomoea aquaticaem> Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

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    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda it is recommended to consume <em>Ipomoea em>aquatica> to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of <em>I. aquaticaem> against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were orally fed with <em>I. aquaticaem> (250 and 500 mg/kg for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months. The results showed that the treatment of <em>I. aquaticaem> significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time. The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by <em>I. aquaticaem> treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that <em>I. aquaticaem> has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of <em>I. aquaticaem> in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of <em>I. aquaticaem> for the treatment of liver disorders.

  12. Correlation of the NBME advanced clinical examination in EM and the national EM M4 exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Katherine; Miller, Emily S; Lawson, Luan; Wald, David; Beeson, Michael; Heitz, Corey; Morrissey, Thomas; House, Joseph; Poznanski, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Since 2011 two online, validated exams for fourth-year emergency medicine (EM) students have been available (National EM M4 Exams). In 2013 the National Board of Medical Examiners offered the Advanced Clinical Examination in Emergency Medicine (EM-ACE). All of these exams are now in widespread use; however, there are no data on how they correlate. This study evaluated the correlation between the EM-ACE exam and the National EM M4 Exams. From May 2013 to April 2014 the EM-ACE and one version of the EM M4 exam were administered sequentially to fourth-year EM students at five U.S. medical schools. Data collected included institution, gross and scaled scores and version of the EM M4 exam. We performed Pearson's correlation and random effects linear regression. 305 students took the EM-ACE and versions 1 (V1) or 2 (V2) of the EM M4 exams (281 and 24, respectively) [corrected].The mean percent correct for the exams were as follows: EM-ACE 74.9 (SD-9.82), V1 83.0 (SD-6.39), V2 78.5 (SD-7.70) [corrected]. Pearson's correlation coefficient for the V1/EM-ACE was 0.53 (0.43 scaled) and for the V2/EM-ACE was 0.58 (0.41 scaled) [corrected]. The coefficient of determination for V1/ EM-ACE was 0.73 and for V2/EM-ACE 0.71 (0.65 and .49 for scaled scores) [ERRATUM]. The R-squared values were 0.28 and 0.30 (0.18 and 0.13 scaled), respectively [corrected]. There was significant cluster effect by institution. There was moderate positive correlation of student scores on the EM-ACE exam and the National EM M4 Exams.

  13. Fadiga em idosos em tratamento quimioterápico

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    Thalyta Cristina Mansano-Schlosser

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa com delineamento transversal, realizada de agosto a dezembro de 2010, que objetivou identificar a presença e intensidade da fadiga em 140 idosos (média de idade 69,8 anos, 52,1% do sexo feminino com diagnóstico de câncer, em tratamento quimioterápico ambulatorial. Utilizou-se um questionário para caracterização sociodemográfica e clínica e a Escala de Fadiga de Piper-revisada. Identificou-se a presença de fadiga em 60 idosos (42,9% e a causa atribuída foi o câncer (64,1%, a quimioterapia (32,8% e o tratamento (3,1%. Como fator de alívio, os idosos entrevistados relataram "dormir", "rezar" e "morrer", enquanto 45% deles disseram "não ter o que fazer", pois a fadiga não poderia ser aliviada. Espera-se que este estudo alerte os profissionais de enfermagem para a relevância da fadiga e os estimule a identificar e realizar intervenções de enfermagem que visem o adequado manejo desse sintoma no paciente idoso oncológico.

  14. Enfermagem em cardiologia baseada em evidência

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    Eneida Rejane Rabelo da Silva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresentamos, dentro do cenário cardiovascular, estudos recentes do nosso grupo. Buscando melhores evidências de enfermagem investigamos por meio de ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR estratégias de educação e acompanhamento destes pacientes (pctes. O primeiro ECR avaliou o impacto da educação individual e da orientação em grupo no conhecimento sobre doença e autocuidado em pctes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC. No grupo intervenção, houve uma melhora do conhecimento dos cuidados essenciais (controle de sal e da ingesta hídrica, peso diário, realização de atividade física P=0,008, demonstrando que o atendimento em grupo é semelhante ao individual. No ambiente hospitalar, segundo ECR, comparamos o efeito da educação de enfermagem e seguimento telefônico após alta versus educação sem a monitorização por telefone. Demonstramos que intervenção educativa durante a internação melhora o conhecimento da doença, autocuidado e qualidade de vida (P

  15. Fadiga em idosos em tratamento quimioterápico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalyta Cristina Mansano-Schlosser

    Full Text Available Pesquisa com delineamento transversal, realizada de agosto a dezembro de 2010, que objetivou identificar a presença e intensidade da fadiga em 140 idosos (média de idade 69,8 anos, 52,1% do sexo feminino com diagnóstico de câncer, em tratamento quimioterápico ambulatorial. Utilizou-se um questionário para caracterização sociodemográfica e clínica e a Escala de Fadiga de Piper-revisada. Identificou-se a presença de fadiga em 60 idosos (42,9% e a causa atribuída foi o câncer (64,1%, a quimioterapia (32,8% e o tratamento (3,1%. Como fator de alívio, os idosos entrevistados relataram "dormir", "rezar" e "morrer", enquanto 45% deles disseram "não ter o que fazer", pois a fadiga não poderia ser aliviada. Espera-se que este estudo alerte os profissionais de enfermagem para a relevância da fadiga e os estimule a identificar e realizar intervenções de enfermagem que visem o adequado manejo desse sintoma no paciente idoso oncológico.

  16. Tipos polínicos encontrados em colônias de abelhas africanizadas sujeitas à doença cria ensacada brasileira Pollen types found in africanized honeybees colonies submitted to brazilian sac brood disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodrigues Pacheco

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O pólen de algumas espécies de Stryphnodendron (Mimosoidea, conhecidas popularmente por barbatimão, tem sido apontado como agente causador da mortandade de larvas pré-pupas observada na cria ensacada brasileira (CEB. Neste estudo, objetivou-se identificar os tipos polínicos encontrados em amostras de pólen coletadas em colméias de Apis mellifera L., no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, a fim de elucidar as fontes florais utilizadas por essa espécie de abelhas em períodos sujeitos a CEB, com especial atenção para a presença do pólen de Stryphnodendron spp. Foram coletadas amostras de pólen apícola e pão de abelhas em sete apiários, em três municípios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. A amostragem foi tomada um mês antes e durante a ocorrência da CEB. As famílias botânicas mais representativas foram: Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae e Myrtaceae. O pólen de Stryphnodendron não esteve presente nas amostras analisadas. A ausência de Stryphnodendron no menu floral das colônias africanizadas acometidas pela CEB em condições naturais sugere outro fator causal para a CEB no Estado do Rio de Janeiro.The pollen of some Stryphnodendron species (Mimosoidea, commonly known as barbatimão, has been identified as a causative agent of pre-pulps larvae mortality, observed in Brazilian sac brood disease (BSB. The goal of this study is to identify the pollen types found in samples of pollen collected by Apis mellifera L. to elucidate the floral diet used by this honeybee specie in Rio de Janeiro state during the periods where BSB usually occurs. Particular attention was given to the pollen of Stryphnodendron spp presence. Samples of pollen and bee bread were collected from seven apiaries located in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Sampling procedures were done a month before BSB usual occurrence and also during its occurrence. Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae and Myrtaceae were most representative botanical families on

  17. Predazione di Chirotteri da parte del Barbagianni (<em>Tyto albaem> in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Vernier

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Predation of Bats by the Barn Owl (<em>Tyto albaem> in Italy - The examination of Barn Owl (<em>Tyto albaem> pellets collected in northern Italy (Lombardia region, PO valley has revealed the presence of a number much higher than usual (0.03-0.26% of bat remains (2.37%. Enclosed is a tentative explanation of the relatively high frequence of the presence of bats of the genus <em>Pipistrellus> in Barn Owl pellets.

  18. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of <em>Amaranthus cruentusem> L. and <em>Amaranthus hybridusem> L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne F. Millogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of <em>Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentusem> and <em>Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridusem>, two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE, methanolic (ME, and aqueous extracts (AE from the aerial parts were screened for <em>in vitroem> antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight in <em>A. cruentusem> and <em>A. hybridusem>, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method and iron reducing power (FRAP method ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of <em>A. cruentus em>and <em>A. hybridusem> were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively.<em> em>The> A. hybridusem> extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants.

  19. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Bulb Extracts of Six <em>Lilium> Species Native to China

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    Lixin Niu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lily (<em>Lilium> is used as an important edible and medical plant species with a vague taxonomic classification and a long history in China. Bulbs of six <em>Lilium> species (<em>L. regaleem>,> L. concolorem>,> L. pumilumem>,> L. leucanthumem>,> L. davidii var. unicolorem> and <em>L. lancifoliumem> native to China were investigated with a view to their exploitation as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their phenolic composition and dietary antioxidant potential. The results showed that all bulb extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activities, which generally correlated positively with the total phenolic contents (r = 0.68 to 0.94, total flavonoid contents (r = 0.51 to 0.89 and total flavanol contents (r = 0.54 to 0.95. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis revealed that rutin and kaempferol were the major phenolic components in the extracts. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that <em>L. regaleem> belonged to the group with high phenolic content and strong antioxidant power. <em>L. concolorem> and <em>L. pumilumem> were arranged in one group characterized by moderate phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, while <em>L. leucanthumem>, <em>L. davidii var. unicolorem> and <em>L. lancifoliumem> were clustered in the third group with low phenolic content and weak antioxidant activity. These strongly suggest that lily bulbs may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant for food and pharmaceutical applications.

  20. <em>In Vitroem> Antioxidant Activity Potential of Lantadene A, a Pentacyclic Triterpenoid of <em>Lantana> Plants

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    Subramanion L. Jothy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lantadenes are pentacyclic triterpenoids present in the leaves of the plant <em>Lantana camara.em> In the present study, <em>in vitroem> antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of lantadene A was evaluated using established <em>in vitroem> models such as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH•, hydroxyl radical (OH•, nitric oxide radical (NO•, superoxide anion<em> em>scavenging activities and ferrous ion chelating assay. Interestingly, lantadene A showed considerable <em>in vitroem> antioxidant, free radical scavenging capacity activities in a dose dependant manner when compared with the standard antioxidant in nitric oxide scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and ferrous ion chelating assay. These findings show that the lantadene A possesses antioxidant activity with different mechanism of actions towards the different free radicals tested. Since lantadene A is a very popular drug in modern medicine, it is a promising candidate for use as an antioxidant and hepatoprotective agent.

  1. <em>Hedyotis diffusaem> Willd Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Growth <em>in Vivoem> via Inhibition of STAT3 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Peng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3, a common oncogenic mediator, is constitutively activated in many types of human cancers; therefore it is a major focus in the development of novel anti-cancer agents. <em>Hedyotis diffusaem> Willd has been used as a major component in several Chinese medicine formulas for the clinical treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC. However, the precise mechanism of its anti-tumor activity remains largely unclear. Using a CRC mouse xenograft model, in the present study we evaluated the effect of the ethanol extract of<em> Hedyotis diffusaem> Willd (EEHDW on tumor growth <em>in vivoem> and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that EEHDW reduced tumor volume and tumor weight, but had no effect on body weight gain in CRC mice, demonstrating that EEHDW can inhibit CRC growth <em>in vivoem> without apparent adverse effect. In addition, EEHDW treatment suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation in tumor tissues, which in turn resulted in the promotion of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. Moreover, EEHDW treatment altered the expression pattern of several important target genes of the STAT3 signaling pathway, <em>i.e.>, decreased expression of Cyclin D1, CDK4 and Bcl-2 as well as up-regulated p21 and Bax. These results suggest that suppression of the STAT3 pathway might be one of the mechanisms by which EEHDW treats colorectal cancer.

  2. Governo e Poder em Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Loyola Stival

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O presente artigo mostra que o conceito de "governo" de Michel Foucault ocupa o espaço aberto por sua crítica ao poder moderno. Foucault passa aos poucos do conceito de poder à noção de governo em suas análises. Porém, não se trata de substituição de conceitos equivalentes, mas de um refinamento conceitual que ilumina a dimensão da atividade dos sujeitos como base das relações sociais e políticas modernas. Assim, este texto tem dois momentos distintos e complementares: mostra a possibilidade de passar do conceito de poder ao conceito de governo, pelo menos como elemento central da análise social e política, e discute o alcance do conceito de governo, que se instala em uma dimensão diferente daquela do poder.

  3. Culturas orais em sociedades letradas

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    Geraldi João Wanderley

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Na relação entre linguagem e cultura, um aspecto essencial diz respeito às diferentes funções da escrita e às formas de sua apropriação social em sociedades letradas. Tomando como inspiração a forma de um uso específico da escrita pelo povo indígena Jarawara e narrativas de ribeirinhos do rio Madeira do mito amazônico Cobra Norato, são discutidas as diferentes relações entre oralidade e escrita que, atravessadas pelas relações de poder, transformam o alfabeto, de artefato histórico construído para o registro da oralidade, em espaço social de construção de distinções, clivagens e exclusões.

  4. Grupo Focal em Pesquisas Sociais

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lúcia Silva Servo; Pricila Oliveira Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a técnica de grupo focal em pesquisas sociais. Apresenta-se as concepções sobre grupo focal. Traz-se os postulados de Pichon-Rivière sobre grupo operativo, os instrumentos de planificação, os vetores do campo grupal para nortear a dinâmica e a observação do campo grupal, bem como a organização, a operacionalização e a análise dos dados das sessões de grupo focal. Através desta técnica de coleta de dados em pesquisas sociais, é possível a construção do EC...

  5. Iatrogenia em pacientes idosos hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho-Filho Eurico T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisar as complicações iatrogênicas apresentadas por idosos hospitalizados. Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários de 96 pacientes, 48 do sexo masculino e 48 do feminino, com idades variando de 60 a 93 anos (média: 75,7 anos, hospitalizados durante o ano de 1995 em enfermaria geriátrica. A análise da evolução dos pacientes durante o período de hospitalização permitiu evidenciar: 1 em 42 (43,7% pacientes ocorreram uma ou mais complicações iatrogênicas, num total de 56 episódios; 2 manifestações relacionadas aos procedimentos diagnósticos corresponderam a 17,9% das iatrogenias; 3 alterações relacionadas às medidas terapêuticas corresponderam a 58,9%, sendo 32,1% referentes à terapêutica farmacológica e 26,8% a outros procedimentos terapêuticos; 4 manifestações iatrogênicas não relacionadas diretamente às afecções (úlceras de decúbito, quedas e fraturas corresponderam a 23,2%; 5 a presença de manifestações iatrogênicas correlacionou-se com período mais prolongado de internação; 6 cinco pacientes faleceram em conseqüência direta de complicações iatrogênicas. A iatrogenia é freqüente em pacientes idosos hospitalizados, podendo determinar manifestações graves e mesmo fatais. Como uma significativa proporção dessas complicações pode ser evitada através de medidas adequadas, deve-se procurar identificar suas causas e desenvolver métodos para previni-la ou reduzir seus efeitos.

  6. Iatrogenia em pacientes idosos hospitalizados

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    Eurico T. Carvalho-Filho

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Analisar as complicações iatrogênicas apresentadas por idosos hospitalizados. Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários de 96 pacientes, 48 do sexo masculino e 48 do feminino, com idades variando de 60 a 93 anos (média: 75,7 anos, hospitalizados durante o ano de 1995 em enfermaria geriátrica. A análise da evolução dos pacientes durante o período de hospitalização permitiu evidenciar: 1 em 42 (43,7% pacientes ocorreram uma ou mais complicações iatrogênicas, num total de 56 episódios; 2 manifestações relacionadas aos procedimentos diagnósticos corresponderam a 17,9% das iatrogenias; 3 alterações relacionadas às medidas terapêuticas corresponderam a 58,9%, sendo 32,1% referentes à terapêutica farmacológica e 26,8% a outros procedimentos terapêuticos; 4 manifestações iatrogênicas não relacionadas diretamente às afecções (úlceras de decúbito, quedas e fraturas corresponderam a 23,2%; 5 a presença de manifestações iatrogênicas correlacionou-se com período mais prolongado de internação; 6 cinco pacientes faleceram em conseqüência direta de complicações iatrogênicas. A iatrogenia é freqüente em pacientes idosos hospitalizados, podendo determinar manifestações graves e mesmo fatais. Como uma significativa proporção dessas complicações pode ser evitada através de medidas adequadas, deve-se procurar identificar suas causas e desenvolver métodos para previni-la ou reduzir seus efeitos.

  7. Bacharelado em psicopedagogia = Psycopedagogy Course

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    Ramos, Maria Beatriz Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto mostra a história da implantação do Curso de Bacharelado em Psicopedagogia na FACED, PUCRS. Neste texto são apresentados os referenciais teóricos e dados sobre a atuação do psicopedagogo nos campos preventivo e terapêutico explicitando a relevância da formação de profissionais nesta área

  8. COMPETÊNCIA EM MEDICINA

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    Hélio Teixeira MD.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Competência no exercício da medicina depende de um processo evolutivo ao longo da vida do profissional, processo este fundamentado em eficiência, experiência e em princípios éticos. A eficiência depende da cultura médica, de habilidades técnicas e relacionamento interpessoal com o paciente. A experiência ao longo da vida vai refinando o médico, favorecendo o evolver do conhecimento e da sabedoria vivencial. Finalmente, a ética médica se fundamenta na justiça, compaixão e amor ao próximo. Didaticamente, distinguimos 3 fases da evolução profissional do médico: a infância profissional ou visão linear: o médico se restringe em geral ao atendimento da doença, negligenciando o doente. É quase exclusivamente técnico e tem percepção acanhada da medicina-arte. b Maturidade profissional ou visão humanística: resultado de evolução da personalidade, da cultura e da experiência do médico, agora voltado para o doente com sua doença. c Excelência profissional ou visão holística: estágio máximo que se pode alcançar, quando o médico vislumbra a si e ao seu cliente em todas suas dimensões integradas e atua como mestre, procurando despertar no paciente condições próprias de cura, oriundas de sua essência. Conclui-se que exercer medicina com competência significa desempenhar adequadamente a ciência e a arte médica.

  9. Adding large EM stack support

    KAUST Repository

    Holst, Glendon

    2016-12-01

    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  10. Trabalho em grupo com enlutados

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    Melissa Pascoal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A cada dia temos mais famílias vivenciando o luto gerado por homicídios, acidentes e violência, e isso tem causado alguns problemas psicológicos para as pessoas que estão nesta situação. Este artigo é um relato da experiência profissional vivida no Hospital e Maternidade Mauá com um grupo de autoajuda para pacientes em processo de luto, e seu objetivo é compartilhar a experiência e difundir este trabalho. Em 15 encontros pré-estruturados de acordo com a demanda apresentada pelo próprio grupo, foi possível trabalhar diversos temas relacionados à perda que influenciaram as participantes e ao mesmo tempo proporcionaram, além de conforto, uma possibilidade de identificação e troca, e consequentemente o ressurgimento da autoconfiança. Por meio da articulação da teoria com a prática, é evidenciado que o atendimento em grupo para enlutados é uma alternativa viável que trouxe resultados positivos e inspiradores e sua divulgação é importante para ampliar horizontes e criar novas possibilidades.

  11. Burnout em residentes de enfermagem

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    Gianfábio Pimentel Franco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Enfermeiros Residentes podem experimentar desgaste físico e emocional decorrentes do cotidiano da Residência de Enfermagem. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a incidência do Burnout em Residentes de Enfermagem. Realizou-se um estudo exploratório, descritivo, analítico e longitudinal-prospectivo com 16 Residentes, no período de dois anos. Utilizou-se o Maslach Burnout Inventory traduzido e validado para o Brasil e um instrumento de dados sociodemográficos/ocupacionais. Dos Residentes, 17.2% mostraram valores elevados em Exaustão Emocional e Despersonalização; 18.8% comprometimento em Incompetência/falta de Realização Profissional, dos quais 75% pertenciam às especialidades de Pronto Socorro, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Adulto e Pediátrica. Idade e especialidade correlacionaram-se positivamente com a Incompetência/falta de Realização Profissional. Identificou-se um Residente de Enfermagem com alteração nas três subescalas do Maslach Burnout Inventory, sendo caracterizado como portador da Síndrome de Burnout. Os Residentes de enfermagem possuem perfis de adoecimento. Conhecer esses fatores pode minimizar os agravos à saúde desse trabalhador.

  12. Paratuberculose em ruminantes no Brasil

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    Elise M. Yamasaki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map e comumente afeta ruminantes domésticos, no entanto, pode infectar várias espécies de mamíferos. Está presente nos cinco continentes e é considerada endêmica em algumas regiões pela Organização Internacional de Epizootias (OIE. Pertence à lista de enfermidades notificáveis, que compreende as doenças transmissíveis de importância sócio-econômica e/ou em saúde-pública, cujo controle é necessário para o comércio internacional de animais e alimentos de origem animal. A importância da doença de Johne não se restringe somente aos prejuízos econômicos causados à indústria animal, mas também na possível participação do Map na íleocolite granulomatosa que afeta seres humanos, conhecida como doença de Crohn. No Brasil, a paratuberculose já foi descrita em diversas espécies de ruminantes e em vários estados. Embora os relatos naturais da enfermidade sejam pontuais, acredita-se na possibilidade da transmissão interespecífica e na disseminação do agente através da compra e venda de animais infectados. O objetivo deste artigo foi reunir as informações disponíveis referentes aos aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais da paratuberculose em bovinos, bubalinos, caprinos e ovinos no Brasil, e salientar a necessidade de implementação de medidas de controle sanitário da enfermidade no país, o que possibilitaria a melhoria da qualidade e valorização dos produtos de origem animal no mercado internacional.

  13. Auto-incompatibilidade em plantas

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    Schifino-Wittmann Maria Teresa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A auto-incompatibilidade (AI é a incapacidade de uma planta fértil formar sementes quando fertilizada por seu próprio pólen. É um mecanismo fisiólogico, com base genética, que promove a alogamia, e tem despertado a atenção de geneticistas e melhoristas de plantas. Atualmente, a ênfase nas pesquisas está na identificação e entendimento dos processos moleculares e celulares que levam ao reconhecimento e à rejeição do pólen auto-incompatível, incluindo a identificação, localização e seqüenciamento das proteínas, enzimas e genes envolvidos. Existem dois tipos principais de AI, a gametofítica (AIG, em que a especificidade do pólén é gerada pelo alelo S do genoma haplóide do grão do pólen (gametófito, e a esporofítica (AIE, em que a especificidade é gerada pelo genótipo diplóide da planta adulta (esporófito que deu origem ao grão de pólen. A AIE pode ser homomórfica, quando não existem modificações florais que acompanham o processo, ou heteromórfica, quando, com o processo de AI, ocorrem modificações florais. A reação da AI engloba desde o impedimento da germinação do pólen até o rompimento do tubo polínico. A ocorrência de AI em espécies de interesse econômico pode ter uma importância muito grande, sendo muito positiva em alguns casos e um empecilho em outros, dependendo da parte da planta (vegetativa ou reprodutiva que é colhida e do tipo de reprodução, sexual ou vegetativa. A utilização da AI no melhoramento de plantas é feita há bastante tempo, mas existe uma lacuna entre o grau de detalhamento do conhecimento teórico, como as bases genética e molecular, e a aplicação deste conhecimento no melhoramento.

  14. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from <em>Rosmarinus officinalisem>>

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    Chunjian Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from <em>Rosmarinus officinalisem>. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from <em>R. officinalisem>> em>compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

  15. Trophic systems and chorology: data from shrews, moles and voles of Italy preyed by the barn owl / Sistemi trofici e corologia: dati su <em>Soricidae>, <em>Talpidae> ed <em>Arvicolidae> d'Italia predati da <em>Tyto albaem> (Scopoli 1769

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    Longino Contoli

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In small Mammals biogeography, available data are up to now by far too scanty for elucidate the distribution of a lot of taxa, especially with regard to the absence from a given area. In this respect, standardized quantitative sampling techniques, like Owl pellets analysis can enable not only to enhance faunistic knowledges, but also to estimate the actual absence probability of a given taxon "m", lacking from the diet of an individual raptor. For the last purpose, the relevant frequencies of "m" in the other ecologically similar sites of the same raptor species diets are averaged ($f_m$ : the relevant standard error (multiplicated by a coefficient, according to the desired degree of accuracy, in relation of the integral of probabilities subtracted ($overline{F}_m - a E$: then, the probability that a single specimen is not pertaining to "m" is obtained ($P_0 = 1 - F_m + a E$; lastly, the desiderate accuracy probability ($P_d$ is chosen. Now, "$N_d$" (the number of individuals of all prey species in a single site needed for obtain, with the desired probability, a specimen at least of "m" is obtained through $$N = frac{ln P_d}{ln P_0}$$ Obviously, every site-diet with more than "N" preyed individuals and without any "i" specimen is considered to be lacking of such taxon. A "usefulness index" for the above purposes is outlined and checked about three raptors. Some exanples about usefulness of the Owl pellet analysis method in biogeography are given, concerning <em>Tyto albaem> diets in peninsular Italy about: - <em>Sorex minutusem>, lacking in some quite insulated areas; - <em>Sorex araneusem> (sensu stricto, after GRAF et al., 1979, present also in lowland areas in Emilia-Romagna; - <em>Crocidura suaveolensem> and - <em>Suncus etruscusem>, present also in the southermost part of Calabria (Reggio province; - <em>Talpa caecaem>, present also in the Antiapennines of Latium (Cimini mounts; - <em>Talpa romanaem

  16. Bioactive Compounds from a Gorgonian Coral <em>Echinomuricea> sp. (Plexauridae

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    Jih-Jung Chen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new labdane-type diterpenoid, echinolabdane A (1, and a new sterol, 6-<em>epi>-yonarasterol B (2, were isolated from a gorgonian coral identified as <em>Echinomuricea> sp. The structures of metabolites 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Echinolabdane A (1 possesses a novel tetracyclic skeleton with an oxepane ring jointed to an α,β-unsaturated-γ-lactone ring by a hemiketal moiety, and this compound is the first labdane-type diterpenoid to be obtained from marine organisms belonging to the phylum Cnidaria. 6-<em>epi>-Yonarasterol B (2 is the first steroid derivative to be isolated from gorgonian coral belonging to the genus <em>Echinomuricea>, and this compound displayed significant inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anions and the release of elastase by human neutrophils.

  17. Variabilità morfologica ed ecologica in <em>Neomys fodiensem> e <em>Neomys anomalusem> nell'Appennino settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Scaravelli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available I due <em>Neomys> italiani sono ancora da chiarire dal punto di vista della loro caratterizzazione morfologica e ecologica. Il lavoro prende in considerazione un campione di entrambe le specie proveniente da habitat forestali dell?Appennino settentrionale per i quali sono stati identificati i principali parametri ambientali. Vengono quindi descritte la variabilità dei tratti morfologici delle due specie in aree localizzate nel Parco Nazionale Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona e Campigna nell?Appennino tosco-romagnolo. Risultano di sicuro effetto discriminatorio la maschera facciale, il rapporto piede posteriore/coda e i caratteri cranici. Sulla base dei criteri identificativi si sono realizzate rilevazioni di misure corporee per le due specie e una comparazione degli habitat utilizzati. <em>N. fodiensem> appare unica specie nelle faggete-abetine e dominante nei castagneti, mentre nell?Ontaneta e nelle zone aperte e termofile si registra la sola presenza di <em>N. anomalusem>. Mancano entrambi nei prati cespugliati, nella pecceta e nella cerreta. I gradienti presenti sono quindi illustrati. Non appare una differenza altitudinale nel campione esaminato, posto in stazioni tra i 400 e i 1300 m, ma per entrambe vi sono maggiori riscontri nella fascia tra 700 e 850 m. Nell?analisi multivariata rispetto alle altre specie e alle variabili ambientali si riscontra sempre una discreta correlazione con la presenza di acqua di una certa ampiezza, che comunque è significativa solo per <em>N. fodiensem>, mentre risulta di interesse la positiva correlazione di <em>N. anomalusem> con <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem>.

  18. Crecimiento foliar y radical en plantas de fique (<em>Furcraea castillaem> y <em>F. macrophyllaem> bajo estrés por encharcamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casierra-Posada Fánor

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En regiones tropicales y subtropicales se producen pérdidas en las plantas cultivadas como consecuencia de lluvias estacionales prolongadas. El exceso de agua produce condiciones de anoxia en el suelo en pocas horas. Las raíces sufren hipoxia o anoxia, lo cual tiene como resultado una crisis energética que afecta el crecimiento de la planta. El presente estudio se orientó hacia la determinación de crecimiento foliar y radical en dos especies de fique (<em>Furcraea castillaem> y <em>F. macrophyllaem> cultivadas en encharcamiento en campo abierto en Tunja, Colombia. Las plantas se desarrollaron a partir de bulbilos, en bolsas plásticas con 3 kg de suelo. Las plantas control se regaron cada 4 días. Las bolsas de las plantas encharcadas se cubrieron con una bolsa plástica adicional para limitar el drenaje y se regaron hasta mantener el agua 1 cm por encima de la superficie del suelo. En ambas especies la materia seca total de la planta, el peso específico de las hojas y el área foliar se redujeron con el encharcamiento, mientras que la longitud total radical se incrementó. La relación raíz:vástago se redujo en <em>F. macrophyllaem> pero se incrementó en <em>Furcraea castillaem>. A pesar de que ambas especies fueron fuertemente afectadas por el encharcamiento, <em>F. macrophyllaem> mostró mejor adaptación a este factor de estrés que <em> F. castillaem>.

  19. Lectin from <em>Canavalia brasiliensisem> Seeds (ConBr Is a Valuable Biotechnological Tool to Stimulate the Growth of <em>Rhizobium tropiciem> <em>in Vitroem>

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    Ricardo Pires dos Santos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the interactions between a <em>Rhizobium tropiciem> strain and lectins isolated from the seeds of <em>Canavalia ensiformisem> (ConA and <em>Canavalia brasiliensisem> (ConBr, a lectin fluorescence assay was performed. In addition, an experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of the two lectins on bacterial growth. Both lectins were found to bind to <em>R. tropiciem> cells, but the interactions were inhibited by D-mannose. Interestingly, only ConBr stimulated bacterial growth in proportion to the concentrations used (15.6–500 µg/mL, and the bacterial growth stimulation was inhibited by D-mannose as well. Structure/Function analyses by bioinformatics were carried out to evaluate the volume and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD configuration of ConA and ConBr. The difference of spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may indicate the variation between biological activities of both lectins. The results suggest that ConBr could be a promising tool for studies focusing on the interactions between rhizobia and host plants.

  20. Burnout em psicólogos

    OpenAIRE

    Biehl, Kátia Andrade

    2009-01-01

    Esta pesquisa visou analisar burnout em psicólogos. Participaram da pesquisa 915 sujeitos, escolhidos por conveniência, prospectados no esquema bola de neve em adesão por internet, através de um site contendo os instrumentos IBP (Inventário de Burnout em psicólogos) e um formulário de dados sociodemográficos. As características predominantes na amostra foram de indivíduos do sexo feminino, na faixa etária de 23 a 36 anos, casados e sem filhos, e entre os que tinham, com um ou dois filhos em m...

  1. Efeitos da sinvastatina em modelo de osteoartrite em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Gláucio Ricardo Werner de

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pos-Graduação em Farmacologia, Florianópolis, 2009. A osteoartrite é uma doença articular degenerativa, progressiva e irreversível para a qual não há, atualmente, alternativas terapêuticas eficazes. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar se o tratamento com sinvastatina poderia exercer efeitos sobre a evolução e os sintomas da osteoartrite. Para tanto, foi utilizado o modelo de...

  2. Encapsulation-Induced Stress Helps <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae em>Resist Convertible Lignocellulose Derived Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan O. Westman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of macroencapsulated <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae em>CBS8066<em> em>to withstand readily and not readily <em>in situem> convertible lignocellulose-derived inhibitors was investigated in anaerobic batch cultivations. It was shown that encapsulation increased the tolerance against readily convertible furan aldehyde inhibitors and to dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, but not to organic acid inhibitors that cannot be metabolized anaerobically. Gene expression analysis showed that the protective effect arising from the encapsulation is evident also on the transcriptome level, as the expression of the stress-related genes <em>YAP1em>, <em>ATR1em> and <em>FLR1em> was induced upon encapsulation. The transcript levels were increased due to encapsulation already in the medium without added inhibitors, indicating that the cells sensed low stress level arising from the encapsulation itself. We present a model, where the stress response is induced by nutrient limitation, that this helps the cells to cope with the increased stress added by a toxic medium, and that superficial cells in the capsules degrade convertible inhibitors, alleviating the inhibition for the cells deeper in the capsule.

  3. <em>Plecotus alpinusem>: primi dati sull'utilizzo dell'habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Martinoli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni il numero delle specie di Chirotteri note per l?Europa si è accresciuto, grazie all?uso di tecniche di genetica molecolare, ed in particolare il genere <em>Plecotus> è quello che ha registrato maggiori cambiamenti con la descrizione di tre nuove specie: <em>Plecotus kolombatoviciem>, <em>P. alpinusem> e <em>P. sardusem> (Kiefer & Veith, 2001; Mucedda <em>et al.em>, 2002. Alla luce di queste nuove scoperte, la distribuzione geografica e le preferenze dell?habitat delle due specie ?storiche? di Orecchione in Europa, <em>Plecotus auritusem> e <em>P. austriacusem>, dovrebbero essere riviste: in questo contesto si inserisce l?indagine svolta nel Parco Regionale Campo dei Fiori (in provincia di Varese sulla prima colonia riproduttiva di <em>Plecotus alpinusem> segnalata per la regione Lombardia. Al fine di valutare le preferenze nell?uso dell?habitat e le direttrici di spostamento preferenziali di tale specie, nonché per l?identificazione di siti di rilevanza per l?allevamento della prole, si è fatto ricorso a tecniche di radiolocalizzazione, subordinate alla cattura a vivo degli animali. Le catture si sono svolte nel periodo 15 giugno ? 15 agosto del 2002 e del 2003. Per ogni individuo catturato, oltre alla determinazione di specie, sesso e classe d?età, sono stati rilevati i dati biometrici e prelevati campioni di tessuto destinati all?analisi genetica. Sono state inoltre registrate le emissioni ultrasonore. Durante il primo anno di indagine sono state seguite mediante radiolocalizzazione 5 femmine adulte (4 allattanti ed una non allattante e due femmine subadulte, mentre durante il secondo anno sono state munite di radiocollare 6 femmine adulte (5 allattanti ed una non allattante ed una femmina subadulta. Ai pipistrelli è stato applicato un emettitore radio (<em>tag> modello LB-2, Holohil Systems Ltd, Ontario, Canada. Il segnale emesso è stato ricevuto in campo mediante l?utilizzo di radio (Wildlife

  4. Altitudinal distribution of the common longeared bat <em>Plecotus auritusem> (Linnaeus, 1758 and grey long-eared bat <em>Plecotus austriacusem> (J. B. Fischer, 1829 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae in the Tatra mountains (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Piksa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Distribuzione altitudinale di Orecchione bruno (<em>Plecotus auritusem> e Orecchione meridionale (<em>Plecotus austriacusem> nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale. Vengono riportati nuovi dati relativi alla distribuzione altitudinale nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale di <em>Plecotus auritusem> e <em>P. austriacusem>. Tali segnalazioni incrementano le conoscenze relative alla presenza di questi chirotteri a quote elevate, in particolare per la Polonia. In inverno <em>P. auritusem> è stato rinvenuto a 1921 m s.l.m. mentre in estate è stato rinvenuto a 2250 m s.l.m.; in aggiunta, sono stati ritrovati resti ossei a 1929 m s.l.m. <em>P. austriacusem> è stato segnalato in ibernazione a 1294 m s.l.m.

  5. Acontecimento, beleza e conhecimento em A Morte em Veneza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pasquarelli Perez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as diferentes possibilidades de configuração de acontecimentos na ficção, destaca-se, na literatura de língua alemã, um gênero específico, a Novelle (novela, que tem servido a diversos escritores, desde o século XVIII até os dias de hoje, para discutir a questão do acontecimento como algo que ultrapassa a compreensão humana. Goethe define a ‘novela’ como um ‘acontecimento inaudito’ (unerhörte Begebenheit. Na famosa ‘novela’ de Thomas Mann (1875-1955, A Morte em Veneza, o acontecimento surge na figura do jovem Tadzio. Sua beleza incomum, relacionada por Gustav von  Aschenbach a motivos míticos, não apenas desperta a paixão do escritor pelo rapaz, mas o leva a reconhecer em si mesmo a tensão entre o desejo do caos e o desejo da forma. O acontecimento, na forma da beleza ambígua de Tadzio, o conduz assim tanto ao conhecimento de si quanto à ruína, e permite uma reflexão sobre as relações entre beleza e conhecimentoem Thomas Mann.

  6. Funcionalidade familiar em longevos residentes em domicílio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivania Vera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar os fatores associados à funcionalidade familiar de longevos não institucionalizados residentes em Goiânia (GO, Brasil. Método: tratou-se de um estudo epidemiológico, de base populacional, com delineamento transversal. Foram aplicadas escalas de avaliação da capacidade funcional e cognitiva. A dinâmica familiar foi mensurada utilizando o Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection and Resolve (APGAR por meio de entrevista domiciliar com 131 longevos. Resultados: houve prevalência do sexo feminino, média de idade de 83,87 anos, condição de viuvez, residindo em família extensa, escolaridade primária e autopercepção de saúde regular. Grande parcela despontou independência para autocuidado e dependência parcial para Atividades Instrumentais de Vida Diária. A funcionalidade familiar prevaleceu com média do escore de 9,06 pontos. Conclusão: concluiu-se que a funcionalidade familiar nos longevos está associada à autopercepção de saúde ruim/péssima, osteoporose e queda. Os resultados permitiram caracterizar a funcionalidade familiar de longevos, com vistas à valorização e à priorização da família como cuidadora.

  7. Brasil em obras, peões em luta, sindicatos surpreendidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Véras

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda as revoltas e greves ocorridas em março de 2011 em canteiros de obras do Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento (PAC, do Governo Federal, que alcançou grande repercussão nacional. Tem como foco os conflitos e as negociações, envolvendo trabalhadores, sindicatos, empresários, Governo, Justiça, Ministério Público do Trabalho, entre outros atores, estabelecidos durante a construção das Usinas Hidroelétricas de Jirau e Santo Antônio, situadas no Norte do país. Visou identificar as posições dos referidos atores e, sob uma perspectiva sociológica, propor reflexões sobre as potencialidades e os limites da atividade sindical. Que questões trouxeram tais acontecimentos ao sindicalismo, quanto às relações deste, de um lado, com suas próprias bases e, de outro, com o atual projeto governamental?

  8. B-norsteroids from <em>Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidusem>

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    Pierre F. Andersson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two viridin-related B-norsteroids, B-norviridiol lactone (1 and B-norviridin enol (2, both possessing distinct unprecedented carbon skeletons, were isolated from a liquid culture of the ash dieback-causing fungus <em>Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidusem>. Compound 2 was found to degrade to a third B-norsteroidal compound, 1β-hydroxy-2α-hydro-asterogynin A (3, which was later detected in the original culture. The proposed structure of 1 is, regarding connectivity, identical to the original erroneous structure for TAEMC161, which was later reassigned as viridiol. Compound 2 showed an unprecedented 1H-13C HMBC correlation through an intramolecular hydrogen bond. The five-membered B-ring of compounds 1–3 was proposed to be formed by a benzilic acid rearrangement. The known compound asterogynin A was found to be formed from 3 by a β-elimination of water. All compounds were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, LC-HRMS and polarimetry.

  9. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, Robert Michael [ORNL; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  10. Charge, from EM fields only

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    Consider the electric field E about an electron. Its source has been thought a substance called charge, enclosed within a small volume that defines the size of the electron. Scattering experiments find no size at all. Charge is useful, but mysterious. This study concludes that charge is not real. Useful, but not real. Absent real charge, the electric field must look to a different source. We know another electric field, vxB, not sourced by charge. A simple model of the electron, using EM fiel...

  11. Barotraumatismo do ouvido em mergulhadores

    OpenAIRE

    Ponte, Sara Carreiro Bicudo da

    2012-01-01

    Trabalho final de mestrado integrado em Medicina área cientifica de otorrinolaringologia, apresentado á Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra O mergulho recreativo tem vindo a crescer de popularidade, surgindo acompanhado por patologias relacionadas com variações de pressão, que na sua maioria ocorrem na área da otorrinolaringologia, especialmente, os barotraumatismos do ouvido. A prática saudável do mergulho recomenda uma vigilância periódica no otorrinolaringolo...

  12. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from <em>Duguetia lanceolataem> St. Hil. Barks

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    Maria A. C. Kaplan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of <em>Duguetia lanceolataem> barks, obtained at 2 (T2 and 4 h (T4, were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. β-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7% and β-selinene (8.4 and 10.4% were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of <em>Staphylococcus aureusem>,> Streptococcus pyogenesem>, <em>Escherichia coliem> and <em>Candida albicansem>. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine shrimp. The extraction time influenced the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from the barks of <em>D. lanceolataem>.

  13. Diversidade de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apina) em fragmentos de Mata Estacional Semidecidual em Uberlândia-MG.

    OpenAIRE

    Aidar, Isabel; Oliveira, Alexandre; Bartelli, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Banner apresentado no X Congresso Brasileiro de Ecologia em 2011.  O estudo envolveu o levantamento da diversidade de abelhas em dois fragmentos de floresta estacional semidecidual em Uberlândia-MG.

  14. Deterrência alimentar em Ascia monuste orseis Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae induzida por soluções homeopáticas

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    Nilbe Carla Mapeli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A couve, Brassica oleracea var. acephala, destaca-se entre as plantas hortícolas como sendo frequentemente atacada por pragas, dentre as quais o curuquerê da couve, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Pieridae. O controle desse inseto tem sido feito com inseticidas. Na agricultura orgânica, o uso dos referidos produtos é proibido e já existem alguns casos em que agricultores estão substituindo-o, por outras alternativas menos danosas ao meio ambiente, como as soluções homeopáticas, substâncias apontadas como ferramentas para Agroecologia. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar se soluções homeopáticas proporcionam mecanismos de antibiose, como deterrência alimentar, em Ascia monuste orseis, em couve 'manteiga cv. Santo Antônio' e se podem ser utilizadas no controle de pragas. As soluções testadas foram: - Sulphur 12CH; Phosphorus 5CH; Magnesia carbonica 30CH; Ruta 5CH. A testemunha foi água destilada + álcool de cereais 70% 5CH. Para o preparo de cada solução, foram retirados 0,2 ml de cada preparado homeopático, adicionados a 200 ml de água destilada pulverizados nas folhas e nos solo dos vasos. As características analisadas foram peso de lagartas no início e no final do 4° instar; peso seco de pupa (biomassa incorporada, comprimento de lagarta no 4° instar, duração do ciclo ovo-adulto, percentagem de emergência de adultos, comprimento alar, fecundidade das fêmeas e valor nutritivo das couves tratadas. Sulphur 12CH pode ser recomendado como método alternativo eficiente no controle de A. monuste orseis. Todas as soluções homeopáticas, com exceção do Phosphorus 5CH, promoveram deterrência alimentar, mecanismo de antibiose, interferindo no ciclo biológico de A. monuste orseis.

  15. EM international activities. February 1997 highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.

  16. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  17. OCCURENCE OF Salmonella IN CHICKEN CARCASSES AND CUTS COMMERCIALIZED IN GOIÂNIA-GO OCORRÊNCIA DE Salmonella EM CARCAÇAS E CORTES DE FRANGOS COMERCIALIZADOS EM GOIÂNIA-GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Aparecida Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Its was analised 53 chicken carcasses and commercial cuts acquired in supermarkets of Goiânia-GO aiming to isolate <em>Salmonella>. The contamination rate was 13.2% and serotypes <em>S. brandenburgem>, <em>S. typhimuriumem>, <em>S. agonaem>, <em>S. derbyem> and <em>S. hadorem> were identified.

    KEY-WORDS: <em>Salmonella>; chicken; chicken carcasses; commercial cuts.

    No presente estudo foram analisadas, com vistas ao isolamento de <em>Salmonella>, 53 amostras de carcaças e cortes comerciais de frangos colhidas em supermercados e casas de carnes de Goiânia - GO. Observou-se freqüência média do patógeno de 13,2%, sendo identificados os sorotipos <em>E. brandenburgem>, <em>S. typhimuriumem>, <em>S.> <em>agona>, <em>S. derbyem> e <em>S. Hadarem>.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: <em>Salmonella>; frango de corte; carcaça; cortes comerciais.

  18. Laddering em pesquisa de marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Modesto Veludo-de-Oliveira

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a técnica de pesquisa laddering em marketing, considerando a proposta de renovação de conhecimentos sobre metodologia na área. Para isso investiga diversos estudos, artigos e pesquisas que tratam do assunto em nível nacional e internacional. O conceito de cadeias meios-fins é abordado pela estrutura teórica que fundamenta a técnica, ligando atributos, conseqüências percebidas do consumo e valores pessoais relativos a um produto. O artigo segue com a explicação dos procedimentos de campo, como a entrevista e a análise dos dados. A laddering é um instrumento de pesquisa qualitativa bastante útil e poderoso, mas ainda pouco utilizado tanto por acadêmicos como por profissionais de mercado, no Brasil, provavelmente por desconhecimento e pouca divulgação. Cabe, portanto, uma maior disseminação de seu uso.

  19. Analgesia regional em cuidados intensivos

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    Luísa Guedes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVAS E OBJETIVOS: A analgesia regional desempenha um papel importante na abordagem multimodal da dor no doente crítico e permite amenizar o desconforto do doente e reduzir os estresses fisiológico e psicológico associados. Ao diminuir as doses de opioides sistêmicos, reduz alguns dos seus efeitos colaterais, como a síndrome de abstinência, possíveis alterações psicológicas e disfunção gastrintestinal. Apesar desses benefícios, seu uso é controverso, uma vez que os doentes em unidades de cuidados intensivos apresentam frequentemente contraindicações, como coagulopatia, instabilidade hemodinâmica e dificuldade na avaliação neurológica e na execução da técnica regional. CONTEÚDO: Os autores apresentam uma revisão sobre analgesia regional em cuidados intensivos, com foco nas principais vantagens e limitações de seu uso no doente crítico, e descrevem as técnicas regionais mais usadas e a sua aplicabilidade nesse contexto.

  20. Ser marrano em Minas Colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Novinsky

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Baseado em 57 Processos inéditos de marranos (cristãos-novos, conversos presos em Minas Gerais no século XVIII, este artigo procura mostrar seu papel na Idade de Ouro do Brasil. 64% deles eram mercadores e 23% eram mineiros. Pertenciam à classe média e raros eram os magnatas. Nenhum dele esteve envolvido no tráfico negreiro. Acusados do crime de judaísmo e de pertencerem a sociedades secretas, representaram 42% dos brasileiros condenados à morte. Ser marrano entre os portugueses no Brasil mais um sentimento e uma visão de mundo do que uma prática religiosa.Based on 57 unknown trials of marranos (new christians, conversos arrested by the Inquisition in Minas Gerais in the XVIII the century, this article shows their role in shapping the history of Minas Gerais. 64% of them were merchants na 23% were miners. Most of them belonged to a middle class and rare were those whit great fortunes. No one of them were engaged in slave trade. Acused of judaism and of participating in secret society the marranos of Minas represented 42% of the Brazilian burned at the stake. Being a marrano in Minas Gerais was not always being a crypto-new. Marranism in Brasil was a feeling and a approach to life.

  1. Dois funcionalistas franceses em confronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Eugenio Hoyos-Andrade

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Comparamos, neste artigo, de modo aproximativo e provisório, dois modelos de análise sintática e dois métodos de representação gráfica dessas análises: trata-se dos modelos e métodos de André Martinet e Lucien Tesnière. Depois de algumas considerações introdutórias relativas ao funcionalismo dos autores em causa, arrolamos um conjunto de características que aproximam ou opõem os seus respectivos modelos. Apresentamos, em seguida, no intuito de beneficiar os estudantes universitários de sintaxe, as representações gráficas de um mesmo enunciado segundo o método estemático de Tesnière e segundo o método de visualização das relações sintáticas de Martinet, para concluir que os dois modelos/métodos, embora diferentes, poderiam eventualmente ser integrados num único sistema de análise e representação.

  2. Dualismos em duelo Dueling dualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Fausto-Sterling

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Os modos europeus e norte-americanos de entender como funciona o mundo dependem em grande parte do uso de dualismos - pares de conceitos, objetos ou sistemas de crenças opostos. Este ensaio enquadra especialmente três deles: sexo/gênero, natureza/criação e real/construído. Embora este texto verse sobre gênero, discuto regularmente o modo como as idéias de raça e gênero surgem a partir de supostos subjacentes sobre a natureza física do corpo. Entender como operam raça e gênero - em conjunto e independentemente - nos ajuda a compreender melhor como o social se torna corporificado.Euro-American ways of understanding how the world works depend heavily on the use of dualisms - pairs of opposing concepts, objects, or belief sytems. This text focuses especially on three of these: sex/gender, nature/nurture, and real/constructed. And although this text focuses on gender, I regularly discuss the ways in which the ideas of both race and gender emerge from underlying assumptions about the body's physical nature. Understanding how race and gender work - together and independently - help us learn more about how the social becomes embodied.

  3. Bioassay-Guided Antidiabetic Study of <em>Phaleria macrocarpaem> Fruit Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Z. Asmawi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An earlier anti-hyperglycemic study with serial crude extracts of <em>Phaleria macrocarpaem> (PM fruit indicated methanol extract (ME as the most effective. In the present investigation, the methanol extract was further fractionated to obtain chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF, <em>n>-butanol (NBF and aqueous (AF fractions, which were tested for antidiabetic activity. The NBF reduced blood glucose (<em>p> < 0.05 15 min after administration, in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT similar to metformin. Moreover, it lowered blood glucose in diabetic rats by 66.67% (<em>p> em>< 0.05, similar to metformin (51.11%, glibenclamide (66.67% and insulin (71.43% after a 12-day treatment, hence considered to be the most active fraction. Further fractionation of NBF yielded sub-fractions I (SFI and II (SFII, and only SFI lowered blood glucose (<em>p em>< 0.05, in IPGTT similar to glibenclamide. The ME, NBF, and SFI correspondingly lowered plasma insulin (<em>p em>< 0.05 and dose-dependently inhibited glucose transport across isolated rat jejunum implying an extra-pancreatic mechanism. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenes and tannins, in ME, NBF and SFI, and LC-MS analyses revealed 9.52%, 33.30% and 22.50% mangiferin respectively. PM fruit possesses anti-hyperglycemic effect, exerted probably through extra-pancreatic action. Magniferin, contained therein may be responsible for this reported activity.

  4. PESQUISAR EM PSICOLOGIA: ALGUMAS REFLEXÕES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idonézia Collodel Benetti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, de cunho bibliográfico, tem a pretensão de tecer algumas considerações sobre o pesquisar em Psicologia, abordando questões que envolvem as análises quantitativa e qualitativa em pesquisa, uma vez que em ciências sociais, incluindo a Psicologia, há um movimento em favor do uso concomitante destes dois tipos de análise, em detrimento de paradigmas isolados e a favor de uma maior amplitude de informações, que a utilização de técnicas multimodais pode oferecer. A intenção é ilustrar o assunto de maneira didática, a fim de favorecer, principalmente, aqueles que estão iniciando na área da pesquisa.

  5. Violetas-africanas micropropagadas: cultivo em em diversos substratos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islaine Tavares Ferreira

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este trabalho no Laboratório de Biologia Celular do Departamento de Zoologia e Genética do Instituto de Biologia da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (RS. Objetivou-se analisar a influência de diferentes substratos no crescimento de genótipos de violeta-africana (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl., visando, principalmente, à substituição do pó ou da fibra de xaxim, obtidos de Dicksonia sellowiana, planta nativa que se encontra em vias de extinção. Utilizaram-se quatro genótipos (V2, V3, V5 e P4 e dez substratos, sendo o solo (S e a vermiculita (V usados isoladamente, juntos (S+V, na proporção de 1: 1, ou em combinação com outros sete substratos, nas proporções, 1: 1: 1 (S+V+areia, S+V+casca de arroz carbonizada, S+V+esfagno, S+V+turfa, S+V+serragem, S+V+pinha (fruto do pinheiro e S+V+xaxim. As violetas micropropagadas foram transplantadas em vermiculita umedecida com solução nutritiva e, após sete dias, para os diferentes substratos. Realizaram-se avaliações quantitativas semanais (número de folhas e diâmetro médio das plantas durante 77 dias. O experimento fatorial A x B x C (A = substratos; B = genótipos e C = leituras foi conduzido no esquema de blocos casualizados. Analisaram-se as médias pelo teste de Duncan ((x = 0,05, sendo a unidade experimental composta por um vaso com uma planta. O melhor crescimento, avaliado pelo número de folhas e diâmetro médio, foi apresentado pelo genótipo P4 e propiciado pelo substrato composto S+V+casca de arroz carbonizada. Esse substrato se mostrou superior, inclusive, àquele com xaxim. Ressalta-se que, para violetas-africanas, a fibra de xaxim pode ser substituída, perfeitamente, por casca de arroz carbonizada, esfagno ou areia associados com solo + vermiculita, na proporção 1: 1: 1.

  6. Terapia breve em hospital fechado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Sandler

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo cuida de pacientes "difíceis" da clínica psiquiátrica e psicoterápica: os pacientes que apresentam o fenômeno da atuação, cuja aproximação terapêutica tem se demonstrado problemática, mesmo com o advento das modernas técnicas de psicoterapia e das comunidades terapêuticas. Os diagnósticos psiquiátricos destes pacientes variam: são neuróticos, apresentam transtornos de pesonalidade, são psicóticos e quase sempre com graves doenças secundárias: alcoolismo e toxicomania (Códigos Classificação Internacional de Doenças 295 a 299, 300. 301, 303 e 304. Propõe-se, à luz da compreensão psicanalítica destas pessoas, um tratamento psicoterápico breve, focal, com o auxílio de uma hospitalização em regime fechado. Para a avaliação dos resultados do método psicoterápico diádico, criaram-se critérios de cura coerentes com a proposta terapêutica, e equiparam-se estes critérios clínicos a valores numéricos. Utilizando 36 pacientes internados, verificou-se até que ponto eles alcançavam estes critérios. Cada paciente recebeu um escore - valor numérico - que expressou o seu desempenho durante o tratamento em regime de internação, e sua conduta pós-alta hospitalar, durante um seguimento médio de 21 meses. Estes 36 pacientes puderam ser divididos em dois grupos: os de evolução favorável (obtivemos 36,1% e os de evolução desfavorável. Por meio de uma amostra sistemática composta por 41 pacientes que não foram submetidos ao método, internados no mesmo período de tempo, no mesmo hospital, e pareados com nossa casuística, fêz-se uma comparação estatística entre os percentis obtidos nas evoluções dos dois grupos. O valor do teste estatístico, o chi quadrado, não foi significante. O exame das proporções correspondentes a cada patologia em separado sugeriu fortemente que o tratamento estaria indicado nas neuroses e nas psicoses, mas que seria realmente ineficaz nos transtornos de

  7. Species Differentiation of Chinese <em>Mollitrichosiphum> (Aphididae: Greenideinae Driven by Geographical Isolation and Host Plant Acquirement

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    Gexia Qiao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of both the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP and the separation of the Taiwan and Hainan Islands on the evolution of the fauna and flora in adjacent regions has been a topic of considerable interest. <em>Mollitrichosiphum> is a polyphagous insect group with a wide range of host plants (14 families and distributions restricted to Southeast Asia. Based on the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI and Cytochrome b (Cytb genes, the nuclear elongation factor-1α (EF-1α gene, and the detailed distribution and host plant data, we investigated the species differentiation modes of the Chinese <em>Mollitrichosiphum> species. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of <em>Mollitrichosiphum>. The divergence time of <em>Mollitrichosiphum tenuicorpus em>(c>. 11.0 mya (million years ago, <em>Mollitrichosiphum nandiiem> and<em> Mollitrichosiphum montanumem> (<em>c>. 10.6 mya was within the time frame of the uplift of the QTP. Additionally, basal species mainly fed on Fagaceae, while species that fed on multiple plants diverged considerably later. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests that Fagaceae may be the first acquired host, and the acquisition of new hosts and the expansion of host range may have promoted species differentiation within this genus. Overall, it can be concluded that geographical isolation and the expansion of the host plant range may be the main factors driving species differentiation of <em>Mollitrichosiphum>.

  8. Biologia comparada de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cebola, mamona, soja e feijão Compared biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in onion, castor oil plant, soybean and bean

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    Alvimar Bavaresco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. sobre quatro hospedeiros naturais (folhas de cebola, mamona, soja cv. Embrapa 48 e feijão cv. Carioca. Foram avaliados a duração e viabilidade das fases imaturas e do ciclo total, número de ínstares, peso de pupas, razão sexual, porcentagem de deformação de adultos e de adultos não liberados dos invólucros pupais, longevidade de adultos, fecundidade e viabilidade de ovos. Observou-se menor duração e maior viabilidade do período ovo-adulto para mamona e cebola (39,7 dias e 21,7% e 40,5 dias e 21,8%, respectivamente, do que para soja (46,0 dias e 3,9%. O peso pupal foi de 444,6 mg em cebola, 420,0 em feijão, 396,6 em mamona e 298,7 em soja. Constatou-se um predomínio de seis ínstares larvais em folhas de cebola e mamona, ocorrendo também sete para alguns indivíduos, enquanto que em soja predominou a ocorrência de sete, também verificando oito ínstares, indicando uma menor adequação nutricional deste hospedeiro. As fêmeas apresentaram duração da fase pupal significativamente menor do que os machos em todos hospedeiros, fazendo com que a emergência do adulto ocorresse antes dos machos. Em cebola, a longevidade de adultos foi significativamente superior aos demais hospedeiros. A fecundidade foi maior em cebola e mamona (3224 e 3206 ovos/fêmea, respectivamente, enquanto que para soja observou-se 1353 ovos/fêmea. Em folhas de feijão, o desenvolvimento do inseto foi prejudicado por caracteres morfológicos - pilosidade, que promoveram elevada mortalidade na fase larval.The biology of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walk. was studied on four natural hosts (onion leaves, castor oil plant, soy cv. Embrapa 48 and bean cv. Carioca. The duration and viability of immature phases and total cycle, instar number, pupals weight, sexual ratio, percentage of deformed adults and adults not released of pupal beg, adults' longevity, fecundity and eggs viability were evaluated. It was observed in

  9. Il ruolo dell'Arvicola delle nevi <em>Chionomys nivalisem> come specie-preda: un'analisi della situazione italiana

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    Armando Nappi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available L?Arvicola delle nevi <em>Chionomys nivalisem>, a causa della sua particolare nicchia ecologica costituita, nella sua componente spaziale, dai suoli pietrosi nei cui interstizi vive, viene di norma considerata una preda poco rappresentata nelle catene trofiche. In Italia, eccettuato un dato incerto di cattura da <em>Buteo buteoem>, è risultata predata da cinque specie di serpenti (<em>Coronella austriacaem>, <em>Elaphe longissimaem>, <em>Vipera aspisem>, <em>V. berusem>, <em>V. ursiniiem>, sei di uccelli (<em>Aquila chrysaetosem>, <em>Strix alucoem>, <em>Bubo buboem>, <em>Aegolius funereusem>, <em>Asio otusem> e cinque di mammiferi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem>, <em>Mustela nivalisem>, <em>M. ermineaem>, <em>Martes> sp., <em>Felis catusem>. In alcuni casi, come in <em>Vipera berusem> a Passo Fedaia (BL, <em>Asio otusem> a S. Valentino alla Muta (BZ, <em>Mustela ermineaem> nel Parco Naturale Adamello-Brenta (TN con percentuali piuttosto consistenti, rispettivamente del 69.6%, 60.71% e 35.89%. In uno studio su <em>Vulpes vulpesem> nel Parco Nazionale Gran Paradiso (TO-AO è risultata essere la preda dominante tra i roditori. Sempre nella stessa area, è interessante la predazione da <em>Aegolius funereusem> per la quale risulta, dopo <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem>, la preda più rappresentata (27.97% malgrado, da uno studio di trappolamento di micromammiferi effettuato intorno all?area di nidificazione, risulti assente rivelando così un comportamento esplorativo del rapace diretto proprio alla ricerca dell?arvicola delle nevi. Da una prima analisi sembrerebbe dunque da rivalutare il ruolo di questo roditore come preda, anche considerando il contributo in biomassa che può rappresentare. Su un totale di 184 dati reperiti sulla presenza della specie in Italia, 28 (15.2% derivano da residui di predazione. Benché non risulti un quantitativo alto comparato ad altri micromammiferi è comunque significativo

  10. Aspectos biológicos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861(Neuroptera: Chrysopidae em casa-de-vegetação Biological aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in greenhouse

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    Katia Gisele Brasil Boregas

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar em casa-de-vegetação alguns aspectos biológicos das fases imaturas e adulta de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, alimentando suas larvas com ovos do piralídeo Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller e os adultos com dietas artificiais. O período embrionário foi determinado utilizando-se tubos de vidro de 2,5 x 8,5 cm, gaiola plástica transparente de 2,5 x 1,0 cm e tubo de pvc de 10,0 x 10,0 cm (com e sem umidificador. Os aspectos biológicos das fases de larva e pupa foram determinados confinando-as em tubos de vidro e gaiolas plásticas e os adultos em gaiolas de pvc de 10,0 x 10,0 cm, alimentando-os com lêvedo de cerveja + mel, extrato de soja + mel e pólen + mel, nas consistências semilíquida e pastosa. O período embrionário não foi influenciado pelo tipo de recipiente, variando de 6,3 ± 0,2 a 7,6 ± 0,7 dias. Quando os ovos foram mantidos nas gaiolas plásticas, a viabilidade foi de 71,0%; contudo, naquelas de pvc e sem umidificador, obtiveram-se 88,0 ± 5,0%. A duração do primeiro e segundo ínstares não foi influenciada pelo tipo de recipiente; larvas de terceiro ínstar confinadas em tubos de vidro apresentaram uma duração de 2,3 ± 0,1 dias e aquelas criadas em gaiolas plásticas de 1,6 ± 0,1 dias. A maior capacidade predatória (2.630,0 ± 224,8 ovos foi obtida para larvas de terceiro ínstar mantidas em tubos de vidro, constatando-se um consumo de 1.919,9 ± 151,6 ovos quando mantidas em gaiolas plásticas fixadas em folhas do algodoeiro. A duração e a viabilidade dessa fase também não foram influenciadas pelo tipo de recipiente de criação, com uma variação de 5,5 ± 0,4 a 6,1 ± 0,4 dias e 67,9 ± 3,9 a 74,4 ± 3,9%, respectivamente. A duração e a viabilidade da fase de pupa não foram afetadas pelo tipo de gaiola, constatando-se uma média de 13,5 ± 0,3 dias e 60% de pupas viáveis. Com relação à fase adulta, verificou-se que a dieta constituída por lêvedo de cerveja + mel, na forma semil

  11. A Favela posta em Cena

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    Fabiana Valdoski Ribeiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Em uma realidade de urbanização calcada no aprofundamento dos processos de expropriação e espoliações se consolida o fenômeno da produção de uma morfologia intitulada Favela, que continua a representar um desafio teórico e prático para pesquisadores. Este desafio é enfrentado de várias formas sendo uma delas desenhada no âmbito de duas publicações do Observatório das Favelas (Rio de Janeiro assentadas na busca conceitual do termo favela e objetivando a efetivação de políticas públicas. Esta meta remonta a trajetória deste Observatório que criado em 2001 pensa a inserção da Favela no âmbito das políticas de Estado. A primeira publicação intitulada “Favela: alegria e dor na cidade” (2005 se compõem de quatro capítulos que expõem um movimento da história de formação das favelas na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, as formas de intervenção do Estado, a prática cotidiana dos moradores como manifestação das transgressões diante as opressões e finaliza com as propostas de caminhos possíveis de superação das desigualdades e ampliação da democracia. O argumento central dos autores se direciona para o questionamento das visões de homogeneidade, ausência, carência e apartamento das favelas diante da cidade apontando a urgência de construção de um projeto de cidade democrático e fraterno.Ao longo do texto os autores vão descrevendo os exemplos destas visões e analisa o resultado delas por meio de como a população residente vive, pois são ora invisíveis, ora criminalizados, ora caracterizados enquanto um problema social estabelecendo, portanto, uma lógica autoritária que legitimará no decorrer da história das favelas, as intervenções estatais. Este movimento molda uma linha argumentativa que tenta explicitar o negativo diante a produção possível para o “morar’, que calcado na impossibilidade do acesso à terra pelo imperativo da propriedade privada empurra grandes contingentes populacionais

  12. Alimentazione di <em>Marmota marmotaem> in praterie altimontane delle dolomiti bellunesi

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    Alessandro Rudatis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of <em>Marmota marmotaem> in the mountain prairie of south-eastern Italian Alps. Diet composition of two family groups of alpine marmots was investigated in two areas of the Agordino’s Dolomites (Italian Alps in June-September 2001, by means of microscopic analysis of faeces and of direct observation of feeding activity. During the whole period of activity, a high consume of Angiosperms was confirmed, especially plants in flower; among them the “graminoids” seemed to play an important role only during the initial part of the active period. Generally vegetative parts predominated over flowers. The ingestion of animal preys was not confirmed by the analysis of droppings. Comparing diet composition of the two groups, Graminaceae (<em>Poa>, <em>Phleum>, Compositae (<em>Achillea>, Cyperaceae/Juncaceae, Leguminosae (<em>Anthyllis>, Rosaceae, and Labiatae (<em>Prunella>, <em>Stachys> formed the bulk of marmot diet in the study areas. Diet showed low diversity considering the abundance of plant species in the surrounding environment. Food resources were probably used in relation to their easy digestibility, with a high content in proteins, sugar and water. The knowledge of vegetation features in relation to marmot trophic habits can represent a useful tool for the management of this species. Riassunto Il regime alimentare di due gruppi di Marmotta alpina è stato studiato in giugno-settembre 2001 in due aree delle Dolomiti agordine (SE Italia, attraverso l’analisi microscopica delle feci e l’osservazione diretta dell’attività alimentare. Durante tutto il periodo di attività si è notato un forte consumo di Angiosperme, specialmente piante a fiore, mentre le ”graminoidi” sembra giochino un ruolo importante all’inizio della stagione. In generale le parti vegetali predominano sui fiori. L’ingestione di prede animali non è stata

  13. Feeding tests on captive otters <em>Lutra lutraem>

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    Elena Ferrario

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was carried out during 1990-91 in "La Torbiera" Faunistic Park (Piemonte region, northern Italy. Feeding experiments were conducted on 4 pairs of otters (<em>Lutra lutraem> of 2-7 year old, housed in enclosures of 210-360 m² in size with ponds of 20-33 m² and about 1 m in depth. Three foraging tests were done on a pair using eels <em>Anguilla anguillaem>, rainbow trout <em>Salmo gairdneriem> and roach <em>Rutilus erythrophthalmusem>, in order to collect data on dive duration and foraging success. Both parameters varied widely and were influenced by the behaviour of fish prey. For eels, slow moving fishes, the dive duration and the foraging success were lower than those of other fish species. Feeding correction factors, calculated as ratio between the weight of ingested fish and the dry weight of remains in spraints, were determined from a total of 21 experiments carried out on eels, rudd <em>Scardinius erythrophthalmusem> and bleak <em>Alburnus alburnus alborellaem>. The factors differed widely between the fish species and the highest value was found for eels. Riassunto Test alimentari sulla lontra <em>Lutra lutraem> in cattività - Lo studio è stato effettuato nel 1990-91 presso il Parco Faunistico "La Torbiera" di Agrate Conturbia (Novara, Piemonte. I test alimentari sono stati condotti su 4 coppie di lontra (<em>Lutra lutraem> di età compresa tra 2 e 7 anni, tenute in recinti di 210-360 m² provvisti di vasche di 20-33 m² profonde 1 m circa. Tre test sono stati effettuati su una coppia somministrando quantità note di Anguilla <em>Anguilla anguillaem>, Trota iridea <em>Salmo gairdneriem> e Triotto <em>Rutilus erythrophthalmusem>, al fine di valutare la durata delle immersioni e il successo di predazione. Entrambi i parametri variavano ampiamente tra le specie ittiche considerate ed erano influenzati dal comportamento delle stesse. Per l

  14. Do Surrealismo em David Lynch

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    Mirian Tavares

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O surrealismo, como a arte do seu tempo, propõe uma nova estética, capaz de extrair o belo do absurdo e de instaurar o desvio para que daí surja, de fato, o real. Através da análise de algumas obras de David Lynch e dos livros Les champs magnétiques de Breton e Philippe Soupault e Poisson soluble, de Breton, irei mostrar a pertinência da designação surrealista para a obra do cineasta norte-americano. Lynch, como os surrealistas, constrói uma operação dialética entre o racional/irracional. Ao mesmo tempo em que opera no campo artístico em direção à irracionalidade absoluta, Lynch não nega a sua inserção na sociedade. Acredito que o realizador, como os surrealistas, tenha conseguido encontrar um equilíbrio entre as duas formas de se estar no mundo, racional/irracional, jogando com suas antíteses. O prazer do jogo surrealista consiste em ir até as profundezas do inconsciente e retornar com matéria suficiente para fazer uma obra de arte.Surrealism, as the art of its time, proposes a new aesthetics, one that is able to extract the beautiful from the absurd and to establish the swerve from the standard, from which, in fact, the real comes through. Through the analysis of some works by David Lynch, of Breton and Soupault's Les champs magnétiques, and of Breton's Poisson soluble, I will attempt to show the relevance of the surrealist designation for the work of the American filmmaker. Lynch, like the surrealists, builds a dialectic operation between the rational and the irrational. While operating in the artistic field towards absolute irrationality, Lynch does not deny its role in society. It is my belief that the director, as the surrealists, has managed to find a balance between the two ways of being in the world: rational and irrational; by playing with their antitheses. The pleasure of the surrealist game is to go to the depths of the unconscious and return with sufficient material to make a work of art out of it.

  15. Uso de dexmedetomidina em anestesiologia

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    Villela Nivaldo Ribeiro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A dexmedetomidina é um novo agonista alfa2-adrenérgico que apresenta relação de seletividade entre os receptores alfa2:alfa1 de 1600:1, com importante ação sedativa e analgésica, bom controle hemodinâmico frente ao estresse e que pode produzir, por si só, anestesia. Este agente tem sido empregado para promover analgesia e sedação no período pós-operatório e nas unidades de tratamento intensivo. Devido à suas propriedades, recentemente, a dexmedetomidina passou a ser utilizada também na sala de operações, como fármaco coadjuvante em anestesia. Assim, este artigo faz uma revisão da literatura com relação ao uso da dexmedetomidina na prática anestésica. CONTEÚDO: São apresentados os principais trabalhos com o emprego da dexmedetomidina em Anestesiologia, seja como medicação pré-anestésica, ou durante o ato anestésico-cirúrgico. O mecanismo de ação dos fármacos alfa2-agonistas e as propriedades farmacocinéticas e farmacodinâmicas da dexmedetomidina também são revistos neste artigo. CONCLUSÕES: O uso da dexmedetomidina como medicação pré-anestésica, durante anestesia, ou no período pós-operatório, promove boa estabilidade hemodinâmica. Há redução do consumo de anestésicos durante a anestesia. Os pacientes sedados com a dexmedetomidina podem ser despertados, quando solicitados, e tornarem-se cooperativos. Mesmo doses elevadas do fármaco não provocam depressão respiratória. Bradicardia é um efeito adverso observado com freqüência, problema amenizado pela administração lenta da droga. Assim, a dexmedetomidina torna-se importante recurso adicional para a prática clínica da Anestesiologia, com possibilidade de uso em diversos tipos de pacientes e procedimentos cirúrgicos.

  16. <em>luxS> Mutant Regulation: Quorum Sensing Impairment or Methylation Disorder?

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    Zhengwei Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AI-2–mediated quorum sensing has been identified in various bacteria, including both Gram-negative and Gram-positive species, and numerous phenotypes have been reported to be regulated by this mechanism, using the <em>luxS>-mutant strain. But the AI-2 production process confused this regulatory function; some considered this regulation as the result of a metabolic change, which refers to an important metabolic cycle named activated methyl cycle (AMC, caused by<em> luxSem>-mutant simultaneously with the defect of AI-2. Herein we hypothesized that the quorum sensing system—not the metabolic aspect—is responsible for such a regulatory function. In this study, we constructed plasmids infused with<em> sahHem> and induced protein expression in the <em>luxS>-mutant strain to make the quorum-sensing system and metabolic system independent. The biofilm-related genes were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and the results demonstrated that the quorum-sensing completed strain restored the gene expression of the defective strain, but the metabolically completed one did not. This evidence supported our hypothesis that the autoinducer-2-mediated, quorum-sensing system, not the AMC, was responsible for <em>luxS> mutant regulation.

  17. Elongation Factor 1β' Gene from <em>Spodoptera exiguaem>: Characterization and Function Identification through RNA Interference

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    Li-Na Zhao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Elongation factor (EF is a key regulation factor for translation in many organisms, including plants, bacteria, fungi, animals and insects. To investigate the nature and function of elongation factor 1β' from <em>Spodoptera> exiguaem> (SeEF-1β', its cDNA was cloned. This contained an open reading frame of 672 nucleotides encoding a protein of 223 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 24.04 kDa and pI of 4.53. Northern blotting revealed that <em>SeEF-1β'em> mRNA is expressed in brain, epidermis, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, ovary and tracheae. RT-PCR revealed that <em>SeEF-1β'em> mRNA is expressed at different levels in fat body and whole body during different developmental stages. In RNAi experiments, the survival rate of insects injected with<em> SeEF-1β'em>> em>dsRNA was 58.7% at 36 h after injection, which was significantly lower than three control groups. Other elongation factors and transcription factors were also influenced when EF-1β' was suppressed. The results demonstrate that <em>SeEF-1β' em>is a key gene in transcription in <em>S. exiguaem>.

  18. Echolocation calls and morphology in the Mehelyi’s (<em>Rhinolophus mehelyiem> and mediterranean (<em>R. euryaleem> horseshoe bats: implications for resource partitioning

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    Egoitz Salsamendi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract <em>Rhinolophus euryaleem> and <em>R. mehelyiem> are morphologically very similar species and their distributions overlap extensively in the Mediterranean basin. We modelled their foraging behaviour using echolocation calls and wing morphology and, assuming niche segregation occurs between the two species, we explored how it is shaped by these factors. Resting frequency of echolocation calls was recorded and weight, forearm length, wing loading, aspect ratio and wing tip shape index were measured. <em>R. mehelyiem> showed a significantly higher resting frequency than <em>R. euryaleem>, but differences are deemed insufficient for dietary niche segregation. Weight and forearm length were significantly larger in <em>R. mehelyiem>. The higher values of aspect ratio and wing loading and a lower value of wing tip shape index in <em>R. melehyiem> restrict its flight manoeuvrability and agility. Therefore, the flight ability of <em>R. mehelyiem> may decrease as habitat complexity increases. Thus, the principal mechanism for resource partitioning seems to be based on differing habitat use arising from differences in wing morphology. Riassunto Ecolocalizzazione e morfologia nei rinolofi di Mehely (<em>Rhinolophus mehelyiem> e euriale (<em>R. euryaleem>: implicazioni nella segregazione delle risorse trofiche. <em>Rhinolophus euryaleem> e <em>R. mehelyiem> sono specie morfologicamente molto simili, la cui distribuzione risulta largamente coincidente in area mediterranea. Il comportamento di foraggiamento delle due specie è stato analizzato in funzione delle caratteristiche dei segnali di ecolocalizzazione e della morfologia alare, ed è stata valutata l’incidenza di questi fattori nell’ipotesi di una segregazione delle nicchie. È stata rilevata la frequenza a riposo dei segnali ultrasonori, così come il peso, la lunghezza dell’avambraccio, il carico alare, e due

  19. La reintroduzione dell'orso bruno (<em>Ursus arctosem> sulle Alpi Centrali: definizione e valutazione delle <em>core areaem> degli individui immessi

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    Andrea Mustoni

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Per riuscire a salvare il relitto nucleo di orso bruno (<em>Ursus arctosem> presente nell'area delle Dolomiti di Brenta da un'estinzione ormai inevitabile, nel 1996 il Parco Naturale Adamello Brenta (Trentino, Italia ha avviato un progetto che, nell'arco di tempo di quattro anni (1999-2002, ha permesso la liberazione nel territorio trentino di 10 esemplari di orso bruno appartenenti alla popolazione slovena. L'intera operazione ha coinvolto, oltre al Parco (PNAB, la Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT e l'Istituto Nazionale per la Fauna Selvatica (INFS; il progetto è finanziato dall'Unione Europea, attraverso lo strumento finanziario "<em>Life> Natura". Gli individui "fondatori" (3 maschi e 7 femmine, secondo quanto stabilito nello Studio di Fattibilità realizzato dall'INFS, rappresentano il numero minimo di esemplari in grado di rendere possibile, nel lungo periodo (>100 anni, la ricostituzione sulle Alpi centrali di una popolazione di orsi vitale ed in grado di autosostenersi. Al momento della cattura ogni soggetto è stato munito di un radiocollare e di due marche auricolari trasmittenti in modo da poterne seguire gli spostamenti nel nuovo ambiente di vita e studiarne il comportamento spaziale. Il presente lavoro mostra i risultati ottenuti dall'elaborazione dei dati derivanti dall'attività di monitoraggio (<em>radio-tracking> svoltasi tra maggio 1999 (prima campagna di catture e rilasci e giugno 2002 su un campione di 7 esemplari radiocollarati. La prima fase dell'elaborazione dati ha previsto la creazione di un <em>database> personalizzato per ogni orso, in cui tutti i dati relativi alle localizzazioni effettuate sono stati ripartiti nelle 4 stagioni - letargo, post-letargo, stagione degli amori, ricerca della tana di svernamento - che caratterizzano il ciclo annuale del plantigrado. Grazie ad un GIS, per ogni orso sono stati calcolati gli <em>home rangeem> compresi tra il 100% ed il 20% delle localizzazioni (fix a

  20. Training for Defense? From Stochastic Traits to Synchrony in Giant Honey Bees (<em>Apis dorsataem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Kastberger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Giant Honey Bees, abdomen flipping happens in a variety of contexts. It can be either synchronous or cascaded, such as in the collective defense traits of shimmering and rearing-up, or it can happen as single-agent behavior. Abdomen flipping is also involved in flickering behavior, which occurs regularly under quiescent colony state displaying singular or collective traits, with stochastic, and (semi- synchronized properties. It presumably acts via visual, mechanoceptive, and pheromonal pathways and its goals are still unknown. This study questions whether flickering is preliminary to shimmering which is subject of the <em>fs em>(flickering-shimmering-transition> hypothesis? We tested the respective prediction that trigger sites (<em>ts> at the nest surface (where shimmering waves had been generated show higher flickering activity than the alternative non-trigger sites (<em>nts>. We measured the flickering activity of <em>ts>- and <em>nts>-surface bees from two experimental nests, before and after the colony had been aroused by a dummy wasp. Arousal increased rate and intensity of the flickering activity of both <em>ts>- and <em>nts> cohorts (P < 0.05, whereby the flickering intensity of <em>ts>-bees were higher than that of <em>nts>-bees (P < 0.05. Under arousal, the colonies also increased the number of flickering-active <em>ts>- and <em>nts>-cohorts (P < 0.05. This provides evidence that cohorts which are specialist at launching shimmering waves are found across the quiescent nest zone. It also proves that arousal may reinforce the responsiveness of quiescent curtain bees for participating in shimmering, practically by recruiting additional trigger site bees for expanding repetition of rate and intensity of shimmering waves. This finding confirms the <em>fs-transition> hypothesis and constitutes evidence that flickering is part of a basal colony-intrinsic information system

  1. EM vs MM: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Zhang, Yiwen

    2012-12-01

    The celebrated expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is one of the most widely used optimization methods in statistics. In recent years it has been realized that EM algorithm is a special case of the more general minorization-maximization (MM) principle. Both algorithms creates a surrogate function in the first (E or M) step that is maximized in the second M step. This two step process always drives the objective function uphill and is iterated until the parameters converge. The two algorithms differ in the way the surrogate function is constructed. The expectation step of the EM algorithm relies on calculating conditional expectations, while the minorization step of the MM algorithm builds on crafty use of inequalities. For many problems, EM and MM derivations yield the same algorithm. This expository note walks through the construction of both algorithms for estimating the parameters of the Dirichlet-Multinomial distribution. This particular case is of interest because EM and MM derivations lead to two different algorithms with completely distinct operating characteristics. The EM algorithm converges fast but involves solving a nontrivial maximization problem in the M step. In contrast the MM updates are extremely simple but converge slowly. An EM-MM hybrid algorithm is derived which shows faster convergence than the MM algorithm in certain parameter regimes. The local convergence rates of the three algorithms are studied theoretically from the unifying MM point of view and also compared on numerical examples.

  2. Effect of Dieckol, a Component of <em>Ecklonia cavaem>, on the Promotion of Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Cheol Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of <em>Ecklonia cavaem>, a marine alga native to Jeju Island in Korea, on the promotion of hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract (which contains more than 35% of dieckol for 21 days, <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract increased hair-fiber length. In addition, after topical application of the 0.5% <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair-shaft was induced. The treatment with <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract resulted in the proliferation of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPC. Especially, dieckol, among the isolated compounds from the <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract, showed activity that increased the proliferation of DPC. When NIH3T3 fibroblasts were treated with the <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract and the isolated compounds from the <em>E. cava> enzymatic extract, the <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract increased the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, but the isolated compounds such as eckol, dieckol, phloroglucinol and triphlorethol-A did not affect the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts. On the other hand, the <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract and dieckol significantly inhibited 5α-reductase activity. These results suggest that dieckol from <em>E. cavaem> can stimulate hair growth by the proliferation of DPC and/or the inhibition of 5α-reductase activity.

  3. HAICAIS EM MANOEL DE BARROS

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    Profª Drª Nery Reiner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo, voltado para a criação poética de Manoel de Barros, é focalizar o conceito da obra de arte como jogo. Escolhemos Manoel de Barros, porque o lúdico, a brincadeira e o humor estão sempre presentes em sua obra. A escolha dos dados, o encaixe de palavras escolhidas a dedo, no eixo paradigmático, formam um caleidoscópio, mostrando novas estruturas, deixando explícito o desejo de brincar com os elementos linguísticos e da natureza. Para este trabalho, escolhemos, para análise, pequenos poemas semelhantes aos haicais japoneses e outros menores ainda, com dois ou até um verso apenas. Contaremos, nesta pesquisa, com a ajuda de teóricos como Johan Huizinga, Ezra Pound, Octavio Paz, Lévi-Strauss, Olga Savary e Alfredo Bosi.

  4. Cuidados paliativos em cuidados intensivos

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Sandrina Fernandes de Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Relatório de prática clínica apresentado à Escola Superior de Saúde Dr. Lopes Dias do Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco para cumprimento dos requisitos necessários à obtenção do grau de mestre em Cuidados Paliativos Os cuidados paliativos constituem uma modalidade decorrente da necessidade emergente de melhorar a assistência no fim da vida do doente com doença avançada e incurável e aos seus familiares. Dadas as características complexas das intervenções e às suas articulações conjun...

  5. Fasciolose em bovinos de engorda

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Catarina Adriano Vaz de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária. A produção animal representa um papel crucial na economia de um país e é, por isso, muito importante garantir a sua rentabilização. Por vezes é descurada a importância de afeções como as parasitoses que têm grande influência na saúde e bem-estar animal. Neste estudo foi avaliada a importância do tremátode Fasciola hepatica na engorda bovina, parasita hepático com ciclo heteroxeno, participando como hospedeiro intermediário o car...

  6. Poderes locais em perspectiva comparada

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    Fernando Ruivo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available “Os romances não começam como queremos, mas como eles querem”, afirmou Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Similarmente, as nossas vidas nunca decorrem como individualmente as tínhamos pensado, desejado e planeado. Ora, tal como as nossas vidas, também as reformas político-administrativas e as políticas públicas territorializadas não começam, deve dizer-se, como queremos, isto é, como pensámos, desejámos e planeámos, mas em boa parte como elas querem, como se tivessem, afinal, alguma vida própria, a qual...

  7. AFLATOXICOSE EM SUÍNOS

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    Luciana Silveira Flôres Schoenau

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO É descrito um surto de aflatoxicose em suínos Duroc de 2 a 6 meses, que consumiam ração contaminada por 519 ppb de aflatoxinas. A morbidade foi de 97%. A mortalidade foi alta, mas não determinada com exatidão. Os sinais clínicos incluíam recusa do alimento, pouco ganho ou perda de peso, diarreia e icterícia. Lesões subagudas e crônicas foram observadas em 4 porcos necropsiados. Nas lesões subagudas o fígado era escuro, com áreas centrolobulares hemorrágicas deprimidas, havia edema da parede da vesícula biliar e bile viscosa. Nos casos crônicos o fígado apresentava-se firme e amarelo-alaranjado. Havia líquido citrino nas cavidades e edema no cólon espiral. Havia avermelhamento da mucosa gástrica da região fúndica. Alterações subagudas eram necrose e hemorragias centrolobulares, hepatomegalocitose, fibrose e hiperplasia ductal. Nos casos crônicos havia fibrose, hiperplasia ductal, megalocitose e degeneração gordurosa hepatocelular. O diagnóstico de aflatoxicose foi feito baseado nos sinais clínicos, nos achados morfológicos e na presença de níveis significativos de aflatoxina na ração dos porcos (B1 = 484,3ppb, B2 = 110,8ppb, G1 = 343,7ppb e G2 = 99,2ppb. Frangos submetidos à mesma alimentação também desenvolveram lesões da toxicose.

  8. PODER DA VOZ EM MEDEIA

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    Tércia Montenegro Lemos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se debruça sobre a peça teatral Medeia, de Eurípides, vista em diálogo com algumas de suas retextualizações forjadas ao longo dos tempos, incluindo-se em nosso corpus de análise a obra Medée, do dramaturgo francês Jean Anouilh, e Gota d’água, peça brasileira criada por Chico Buarque e Paulo Pontes. Partindo do trabalho de Romilly (1975, buscamos demonstrar como tragédia e retórica são interdependentes na composição das citadas obras, sobretudo pela carga dramática das falas das personagens. Para tanto, estabelecemos um diálogo entre a retórica antiga e o moderno conceito de etos, tal como a Análise do discurso de linha francesa o entende. A categoria do etos contribui de modo importante para estabelecer fronteiras entre as variantes literárias do mito e possibilita reflexões sobre os procedimentos de intertextualidade adotados. Após as análises, observamos como o investimento da enunciação se expõe através do poder da voz nas versões de Medeia, criando um poderoso efeito psicológico para compor o perfil da protagonista.Palavras-chave: Tragédia; Retórica; Análise do discurso.

  9. Poder da voz em MEDEIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tércia Montenegro Lemos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se debruça sobre a peça teatral Medeia, de Eurípides, vista em diálogo com algumas de suas retextualizações forjadas ao longo dos tempos, incluindo-se em nosso corpus de análise a obra Medée, do dramaturgo francês Jean Anouilh, e Gota d’água, peça brasileira criada por Chico Buarque e Paulo Pontes. Partindo do trabalho de Romilly (1975, buscamos demonstrar como tragédia e retórica são interdependentes na composição das citadas obras, sobretudo pela carga dramática das falas das personagens. Para tanto, estabelecemos um diálogo entre a retórica antiga e o moderno conceito de etos, tal como a Análise do discurso de linha francesa o entende. A categoria do etos contribui de modo importante para estabelecer fronteiras entre as variantes literárias do mito e possibilita reflexões sobre os procedimentos de intertextualidade adotados. Após as análises, observamos como o investimento da enunciação se expõe através do poder da voz nas versões de Medeia, criando um poderoso efeito psicológico para compor o perfil da protagonista.Palavras-chave: Tragédia; Retórica; Análise do discurso.

  10. Cytotoxicity and Glycan-Binding Properties of an 18 kDa Lectin Isolated from the Marine Sponge <em>Halichondria em>okadai>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ozeki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A divalent cation-independent lectin—HOL-18, with cytotoxic activity against leukemia cells, was purified from a demosponge, <em>Halichondria okadaiem>. HOL-18 is a 72 kDa tetrameric lectin that consists of four non-covalently bonded 18 kDa subunits. Hemagglutination activity of the lectin was strongly inhibited by chitotriose (GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAc, fetuin and mucins from porcine stomach and bovine submaxillary gland. Lectin activity was stable at pH 4–12 and temperatures lower than 60 °C. Frontal affinity chromatography with 16 types of pyridylaminated oligosaccharides indicated that the lectin had an affinity for <em>N>-linked complex-type and sphingolipid-type oligosaccharides with <em>N>-acetylated hexosamines and neuramic acid at the non-reducing termini. The lectin killed Jurkat leukemia T cells and K562 erythroleukemia cells in a dose- and carbohydrate-dependent manner.

  11. A VULNERABILIDADE SOCIOAMBIENTAL EM TERESINA, PIAUÍ, BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira Chaves, Sammya Vanessa; Gomes Reis Lopes, Wilza

    2012-01-01

    O presente artigo trata da definição das áreas de vulnerabilidade socioambiental em Teresina, Piauí, demonstrando as zonas da cidade em que se encontra a coexistência entre baixos índices de renda e escolaridade e o risco a inundações. A metodologia utilizada foi baseada na construção de um conjunto de mapas, onde foram apontadas as zonas da cidade classificadas em alta, média e baixa vulnerabilidade social, analisadas a partir dos setores censitários de Teresina. A vulnerabilidade a inundaçõ...

  12. Religiosidade em alunos e professores portugueses

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Ana Maria Mendes dos Santos Veríssimo

    2005-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências da Educação na especialidade de Educação Intercultural apresentada à Universidade Aberta Esta tese pretende analisar a religiosidade em alunos e professores, sendo a religiosidade entendida como o grau de ligação ou aceitação que cada indivíduo tem face à instituição religiosa (Alston, 1875) e à forma como põe em prática as crenças e os rituais (Shafranske e Malony, 1990). Para medir a religiosidade foram utilizados diversos instrumentos – a escala de Atitu...

  13. Técnicas em psicoterapia existencial

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Vítor André Diaz y Pais Sartóris de

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário Problema: Poucas investigações têm sido feitas ao nível das técnicas em psicoterapia existencial baseada em dados empíricos. A este nível destacam-se apenas os trabalhos de Norcross (1987) e de Alegria et al. (in press). Objetivo: Este estudo procurou perceber quais as práticas existentes em psicoterapia existencial a partir das quais os próprios psicoterapeutas existenciais consideraram ser as mais características do se...

  14. O conceito de paranoia em Freud

    OpenAIRE

    Calazans, Roberto; Reis,Leandro Nogueira dos

    2014-01-01

    Neste artigo, refazemos o percurso freudiano a propósito do conceito de paranoia em sua obra. Esse percurso se fará a partir dos textos considerados pré-psicanalíticos, passando por aquele que é considerado o texto maior de Freud sobre as psicoses (o Caso Schereber), culminando com suas análises que levam em consideração sua segunda teoria sobre o funcionamento psíquico e sobre o conflito pulsional. Nosso objetivo é demonstrar como Freud, em sua elaboração das questões relativas à psicose, e ...

  15. O Trabalho Plurativo em Presidente Prudente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Mauro Guirro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, vêm ocorrendo mudanças no campo brasileiro, principalmente nas  propriedades localizadas próximas a malha urbana da cidade. Esse processo se verifica com mais intensidade em cidades como Campinas, Sorocaba, Jundiaí entre outras cidades próximas aos grandes centros urbanos. Em Presidente Prudente, esse processo dá sinais de existência em resposta à crise pela qual vem passando, sobretudo a pequena agricultura. Está-se diante da intensificação das mudanças de funções do trabalho inserido na lavra agrária.

  16. Trauma e utopia em Sigalit Landau

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    Leila Danzinger

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir do vídeo Barbed Hula, de Sigalit Landau, em que a artista israelense faz girar um bambolê de arame farpado em torno de seu corpo nu, o texto apresenta reflexões sobre a sociedade israelense contemporânea face a seu trabalho de memória. Discute ainda um projeto da artista em construir uma ponte de sal sobre o Mar Morto, reativando assim certas energias utópicas próprias da modernidade.

  17. Otter (<em>Lutra lutraem> presence in Lattari mountains (Campania Region, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fasano

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new area of presence of the otter (<em>Lutra lutraem> was found in Campania region (Southern Italy. It included the "Valle delle Ferriere" and "Vècite" canyons close to Amalfi town (Salerno province. A total of 24 sprainting sites was recorded. Riassunto Presenza della lontra (<em>Lutra lutraem> nei monti Lattari (Campania - Si descrive un'area di presenza della lontra (<em>Lutra lutraem> in Campania mai segnalata prima, comprendente la "Valle delle Ferriere" attraversata dal torrente Ceraso e la valle denominata "Vècite" (Amalfi, Provincia di Salerno. In totale sono stati trovati 24 siti di marcamento.

  18. Metabolic Profiling of <em>Lactococcus lactisem> Under Different Culture Conditions

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    Normah Mohd Noor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS and headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS were used to study metabolites produced by <em>Lactococcus lactisem> subsp. <em>cremoris> MG1363 grown at a temperature of 30 °C with and without agitation at 150 rpm, and at 37 °C without agitation. It was observed that <em>L. lactisem> produced more organic acids under agitation. Primary alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and polyols were identified as the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS derivatives, whereas amino acids and organic acids, including fatty acids, were detected through methyl chloroformate derivatization. HS analysis indicated that branched-chain methyl aldehydes, including 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 2-methylpropanal are degdradation products of isoleucine, leucine or valine. Multivariate analysis (MVA using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA revealed the major differences between treatments were due to changes of amino acids and fermentation products.

  19. Rendimento de cultivares de tomate para processamento em Goias

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto,Nei; Mendonça,José L; Silva,João Bosco C da; Barbedo,Adeliana S. C.

    1999-01-01

    Seis ensaios de competição de cultivares de tomate para processamento industrial foram conduzidos nos municípios goianos de Anápolis, Jataí, Porangatú e Santa Isabel, em 1990, e Anápolis e Porangatu, em 1991. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, tendo as parcelas 80 plantas em 1990 e 70 em 1991. Em Porangatu, em 1990, as plantas foram mais precoces, florescendo 35 e 41 dias após a semeadura e iniciando-se a colheita 38 dias após a antese. Em ...

  20. Comparação de custos entre os processos construtivos em concreto armado e em alvenaria estrutural em blocos cerâmico e de concreto

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Alisson Hoffmann da

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Civil. Questiona-se a viabilidade econômica do processo construtivo em alvenaria estrutural em relação ao processo construtivo em concreto armado. Entre as obras em alvenaria estrutural, a indagação ocorre sobre qual tipo de unidade, de cerâmica ou de concreto, produz resultados mais efetivos em termos de custos. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de comparar o custo de ...

  1. Feeding habits of the genet <em>Genetta genettaem> in an Iberian continental wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Sánchez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study quantified the diet of the genet <em>Genetta genettaem> in an Iberian continental wetland, the Galachos Nature Reserve, northern Spain, based on the frequency with which items appeared in five monthly-surveyed latrines during 2004-2005. Prey types were identified <em>de visuem> using identification keys and expert advice. the genet was confirmed as an opportunistic and generalist predator, its diet including mammals (95.0%, plants (68.3% and arthropods (60.0% as main prey. With the exception of a newly available prey species, the alien crayfish <em>Procambarus clarkiiem>, the genet probably consumed arthropods because of chance encounters rather than active search. The consumption of fruits and small mammals varied seasonally. Riassunto Alimentazione della genetta <em>Genetta genettaem> in un'area umida continentale della penisola iberica La dieta della genetta è stata investigata in un'area umida interna della Spagna settentrionale, la riserva Naturale dei Galachos. La frequenza di ciascuna categoria alimentare è stata espressa come numero di occorrenze mansili in cinque latrine monitorate per il periodo 2004-2005. Le categorie sono state identificate <em>de visuem> tramite chiavi per il riconoscimento o l'intervento di singoli esperti. I risultati confermano il comportamento alimentare generalista e opportunista della genetta. La dieta ha incluso principalmente mammiferi (95%, vegetali (68.3% e artropodi (60%. Questi ultimi, con l'eccezione del gambero <em>Procambarus clarkiiem>, introdotto e di recente presenza, sono probabilmente utilizzati in modo opportunistico, piuttosto che in seguito a ricerca attiva. L'uso dei frutti e dei micromammiferi varia stagionalmente.

  2. Uma pesquisa quase experimental em enfermagem sobre dor em pacientes em coma

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnar Glauco De Cunto Taets; Nébia Maria Almeida de Figueiredo

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO Objetivo: verificar se pacientes em coma sentem dor durante a intervenção de enfermagem banho no leito. Método: 19 pacientes com 61 ± 17,39 anos de idade participaram do estudo. Realizou-se, pelo método ELISA, a análise quantitativa de substância P (SP) na saliva coletada antes e durante o banho no leito. Utilizou-se o programa Graph Pad Prisma 6 para análise dos dados. A verificação da normalidade foi feita pelo teste de Shapiro Wilk que determinou a escolha do teste não paramétrico...

  3. 3-(1<em>H>-Indol-3-yl-4-(morpholin-4-ylcyclobut-3-ene-1,2-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Grünefeld

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 3-(1<em>H>-Indol-3-yl-4-(morpholin-4-ylcyclobut-3-ene-1,2-dione was obtained in good yields (72–82% by nucleophilic substitution of 3-chloro-4-(1<em>H>-indol-3-ylcyclobut-3-ene-1,2-dione with morpholine.

  4. Synthesis and Sensory Evaluation of <em>ent>-Kaurane Diterpene Glycosides

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    Venkata Sai Prakash Chaturvedula

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenation of the three <em>ent>-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from <em>Stevia rebaudianaem>, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH2 and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and chemical studies. Also, we report herewith the sensory evaluation of all the reduced compounds against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose for the sweetness property of these molecules.

  5. Aprendizagem em Vygotsky e em freire: aproximações e especificidades.

    OpenAIRE

    Trentin, Patrícia Fortunato Fileraz

    2012-01-01

    Esta pesquisa investigou o sentido da aprendizagem em Paulo Freire e em Lev Vygotsky, com o objetivo de verificar aproximações e especificidades entre esses dois educadores. Embora os autores mencionados tenham trabalhado esta categoria em diversos contextos e também em suas práticas sociais, este trabalho limitou-se a analisá-la a partir de algumas obras consideradas centrais para os propósitos desta dissertação. De Paulo Freire, foram examinados os livros: Pedagogia do oprimido, A importânc...

  6. Probióticos em avicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil de los Santos João Rodrigo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante os últimos anos, o incremento de toxinfecções alimentares em humanos pela ingestão de produtos avícolas contaminados com bactérias, sugeriu que produtos oriundos de aves portadoras dessas bactérias podem veiculá-las ao consumidor, provocando doenças entéricas em humanos. Essas observações e a restrição, por parte do mercado consumidor, ao uso de antimicrobianos na produção animal, aumentaram o interesse mundial pelos probióticos e, conseqüentemente, o número de pesquisas realizadas. Esta revisão mostra os avanços e a situação em que se encontram os probióticos em relação à indústria avícola.

  7. Design, Synthesis and Antiviral Potential of 14-Aryl/Heteroaryl-14<em>H-dibenzo[a,j]>xanthenes Using an Efficient Polymer-Supported Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Lasekan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyethyleneglycol bound sulfonic acid (PEG-OSO3H, a chlorosulphonic acid-modified polyethylene glycol was successfully used as an efficient and eco-friendly polymeric catalyst in the synthesis of 14-aryl/heteroaryl-14<em>H-dibenzo[a,j>]xanthenes obtained from the reaction of 2-naphthol and carbonyl compounds under solvent-free conditions with short reaction times and excellent yields. The biological properties of these synthesized title compounds revealed that compounds 3b, 3c, 3f and 3i showed highly significant anti-viral activity against tobacco mosaic virus.

  8. CONHECIMENTO SIMBÓLICO EM JOHN VENN

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Ramos Mendonça

    2013-01-01

    Esta dissertação apresenta uma reconstrução da teoria lógica de John Venn (1834- 1923) em Symbolic Logic (1881; 1894). Em sua obra, Venn apresenta uma álgebra da lógica, e enfrenta uma série de problemas filosóficos subjacentes a essa lógica simbólica. Em primeiro lugar, Venn precisa considerar a relação entre a lógica simbólica e a lógica tradicional, i.e., a silogística. Em segundo lugar, Venn precisa considerar a relação entre a lógica simbólica e a matemática. No tratamento...

  9. Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma Emergency medical services ( ... related deaths and nonfatal injuries treated in rural emergency departments? According to a Centers for Disease Control ...

  10. Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF Antagonistic Activity of a New Biflavonoid from <em>Garcinia nervosaem> var. <em>pubescens> King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azura Abdul Ghani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the leaves of <em>Garcinia nervosaem> var. <em>pubescens> King, which showed strong inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF receptor binding, was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation to obtain a new biflavonoid, II-3,I-5, II-5,II-7,I-4',II-4'-hexahydroxy-(I-3,II-8-flavonylflavanonol together with two known flavonoids, 6-methyl-4'-methoxyflavone and acacetin. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit PAF receptor binding to rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. The biflavonoid and acacetin showed strong inhibition with IC50 values of 28.0 and 20.4 µM, respectively. The results suggest that these compounds could be responsible for the strong PAF antagonistic activity of the plant.

  11. Osteocondromatose em gato: relato de caso

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    S. Winter

    Full Text Available RESUMO A osteocondromatose é caracterizada por nódulos únicos ou múltiplos decorrentes de um crescimento ósseo excessivo benigno. É encontrada em cães, gatos, equinos e humanos. Em felinos, tem maior incidência dos dois aos quatro anos de idade. A etiologia em gatos está relacionada ao vírus da leucemia felina, e também já foi encontrada relação com o fibrossarcoma. A manifestação clínica depende do local acometido e do tamanho da lesão. O diagnóstico definitivo é por meio de histopatologia e o prognóstico é desfavorável, pois ocorrem muitas recidivas. Este relato de caso objetiva descrever a apresentação dessa enfermidade em um felino jovem.

  12. Cryo-EM: beyond the microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Lesley A; Falconieri, Veronica; Milne, Jacqueline Ls; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2017-10-01

    The pace at which cryo-EM is being adopted as a mainstream tool in structural biology has continued unabated over the past year. Initial successes in obtaining near-atomic resolution structures with cryo-EM were enabled to a large extent by advances in microscope and detector technology. Here, we review some of the complementary technical improvements that are helping sustain the cryo-EM revolution. We highlight advances in image processing that permit high resolution structure determination even in the presence of structural and conformational heterogeneity. We also review selected examples where biochemical strategies for membrane protein stabilization facilitate cryo-EM structure determination, and discuss emerging approaches for further improving the preparation of reliable plunge-frozen specimens. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Spatial Hearing in Echoic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-29

    target from masker and thereby support selective attention. (Published in 2005 in Acta Acustica united with Acustica [J3]) A paper was published...localization. (Published in 2008 in Acta Acustica united with Acustica [J10]) Interest in the perceptual consequences of reverberation on perception...E Larson and Satyavarta (2005). “Top-down and bottom-up influences on spatial unmasking,” Acta Acustica united with Acustica . [J4] Naka, Y, A

  14. Outdoor Sound Propagation Modelling in Complex Environments: Recent Developments in the Parabolic Equation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    equation for sound waves in inhomogeneous moving media”, Acustica united with Acta Acustica , Vol 83(3), pp 455-460,1997. [3] L. Dallois, Ph. Blanc...propagation in a turbulent atmosphere within the parabolic approximation”, Acustica united with Acta Acustica , Vol 87(1), pp 659-669, 2001 [6] M. Karweit...approaches", Acta Acustica united with Acustica , 89 (6), 980-991, (2003). [40] Ph. Voisin, Ph. Blanc-Benon, "The influence of meteorological

  15. Interactive Acoustic Simulation in Urban and Complex Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-21

    P., Noe, N., and Gaudaire, F. Calculation of tyre noise radiation with a mixed approach. Acta Acustica united with Acustica 94, 1 (2008), 91–103. [73...radiation and scattering problems. Acta Acustica united with Acustica 81, 6 (1995), 528–543. [85] Kuttruff, H. Room acoustics. CRC Press, 2009. [86...10-12 (2010), 1296–1318. [104] Ochmann, M. The source simulation technique for acoustic radiation problems. Acta Acustica united with Acustica 81, 6

  16. Performance: a mobilidade posta em cena

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    Olga Valeska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2014v10n1p174 Neste artigo, analisaremos a obra Korso, do escritor português Luis Serguilha, que foi publicada pela editora brasileira Dulcinéia Catadora, em volumes impressos em papel reciclado e editados por filhos de catadores de papel. Para essa análise, usaremos o conceito de performance como operador de leitura.

  17. Isolamento de Corynebacterium aquaticum em leite bubalino

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    Andréa Alice da Fonseca Oliveira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se 548 quartos mamários de búfalas, realizando-se exame clínico, CMT para detecção de mastite e coleta de amostras para isolamento bacteriano. Houve crescimento em duas amostras de Corynebacterium aquaticum caracterizadas bioquimicamente. Relata-se a participação do agente como colonizador do úbere e possível causador de mastites em bubalinos.

  18. How good can cryo-EM become?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaeser, RM

    2015-12-30

    The suddenness with which single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has emerged as a method for determining high-resolution structures of biological macromolecules invites the questions, how much better can this technology get, and how fast is that likely to happen? While we can rightly celebrate the maturation of cryo-EM as a high-resolution structure-determination tool, I believe there still are many developments to look forward to.

  19. O sevofluorano em cadelas gestantes

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    Matsubara Lídia Mitsuko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Com este experimento, objetivou-se avaliar como a anestesia geral inalatória, com o sevofluorano, interfere nos parâmetros fisiológicos de cadelas gestantes. Nove cadelas sem raça definida, adultas, com idade média de três anos, foram submetidas ao mesmo procedimento anestésico em dois períodos distintos, sendo o primeiro na condição não gestante e o segundo aos 45 dias de gestação. Todas receberam acepromazina (0,05mg kg-1 pela via intravenosa como medicação pré-anestésica, propofol (5mg kg-1 pela mesma via e sevofluorano diluído em oxigênio. As variáveis estudadas foram freqüência cardíaca e respiratória, pressão arterial sistólica, média e diastólica, temperatura retal, pressão parcial de CO2 ao final da expiração, saturação de oxigênio nas hemoglobinas, pH sangüíneo, pressão parcial arterial de oxigênio, pressão parcial arterial de CO2, bicarbonato e excesso de base. Os parâmetros foram avaliados antes da medicação pré-anestésica (M0 e 15 minutos após (M1, 15 minutos após a estabilização da anestesia inalatória (M2 e, depois, a cada 15 minutos durante 60 minutos (M3, M4, M5 e M6, com exceção das variáveis hemogasométricas que foram avaliadas em M0, M2 e M6. A análise estatística foi realizada com Análise de Variância e teste de Tukey, sendo considerado o nível de significância de 5%. A freqüência cardíaca elevou-se na paciente gestante no momento basal e 15 minutos após a medicação pré-anestésica, sendo observado ainda diminuição da pressão arterial e da temperatura retal nas gestantes. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que o protocolo anestésico não alterou as variáveis mensuradas neste experimento, podendo ser utilizado com segurança para as cadelas, se houver a necessidade de intervenção cirúrgica e/ou anestésica aos 45 dias de sua gestação.

  20. Characterization of the Antibacterial Activity and the Chemical Components of the Volatile Oil of the Leaves of <em>Rubus parvifoliusem> L.

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    Yongqing Cai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Rubus parvifoliusem> L. (Rp is a medicinal herb that possesses antibacterial activity. In this study, we extracted the volatile oil from the leaves of Rp to assess its antibacterial activity and analyze its chemical composition. A uniform distribution design was used to optimize the extraction procedure, which yielded 0.36% (<em>w/w> of light yellowish oil from the water extract of Rp leaves. We found that the extracted oil effectively inhibited the growth of a wide range of Gram positive and negative bacteria, including <em>Staphylococcus aureusem>, <em>Staphylococcus epidermidisem>, <em>Enterococcus faecalisem>, <em>Escherichia coliem>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosaem>, <em>Acinetobacter baumaniiem>, <em>Bacillus cloacaeem>, and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniaeem>. We further analyzed the components contained in the hydro-distillated Rp volatile oil by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Twenty nine compounds were identified, including 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (66%, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (10% and 4-<em>tert>-butylbenzoic acid (2%. Our results suggest that one or multiple constituents contained in Rp volatile oil may account for its antibacterial activity.

  1. Historicidade da filosofia em Hegel e Heidegger

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    Christian Iber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gostaria de discutir, em forma de teses, a temática da historicidade da filosofia em contraste e na sua divergência em Hegel e Heidegger. Diferente do historicismo, que não soluciona o problema da historicidade da filosofia, porque ele dissolve tendencialmente a filosofia na história da filosofia e não coloca em especial a questão da verdade, Hegel e Heidegger desenvolvem uma teoria genuinamente filosófica da história da filosofia do interesse filosófico pela verdade. Esse interesse genuinamente filosófico pela verdade segue do seu conceito respectivo de filosofia, que inclui em ambos uma posição crítica à Modernidade. Ambos os pensadores não são apenas pensadores modernos, mas também pensadores críticos da Modernidade, de uma Modernidade que entrou no estado de uma autorreflexão. Em Hegel e Heidegger, a filosofia da história da filosofia é ao mesmo tempo a chave para uma filosofia crítica de Modernidade da história.

  2. Net Energy, CO2 Emission and Land-Based Cost-Benefit Analyses of <em>Jatropha> em>Biodiesel: A Case Study of the Panzhihua Region of Sichuan Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzheng Deng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy is currently regarded as a renewable energy source with a high growth potential. Forest-based biodiesel, with the significant advantage of not competing with grain production on cultivated land, has been considered as a promising substitute for diesel fuel by many countries, including China. Consequently, extracting biodiesel from <em>Jatropha> curcasem> has become a growing industry. However, many key issues related to the development of this industry are still not fully resolved and the prospects for this industry are complicated. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the net energy, CO2 emission, and cost efficiency of <em>Jatropha> biodiesel as a substitute fuel in China to help resolve some of the key issues by studying data from this region of China that is well suited to growing <em>Jatropha>. Our results show that: (1 <em>Jatropha> biodiesel is preferable for global warming mitigation over diesel fuel in terms of the carbon sink during <em>Jatropha> tree growth. (2 The net energy yield of <em>Jatropha> biodiesel is much lower than that of fossil fuel, induced by the high energy consumption during <em>Jatropha> plantation establishment and the conversion from seed oil to diesel fuel step. Therefore, the energy efficiencies of the production of <em>Jatropha> and its conversion to biodiesel need to be improved. (3 Due to current low profit and high risk in the study area, farmers have little incentive to continue or increase <em>Jatropha> production. (4 It is necessary to provide more subsidies and preferential policies for <em>Jatropha> plantations if this industry is to grow. It is also necessary for local government to set realistic objectives and make rational plans to choose proper sites for <em>Jatropha> biodiesel development and the work reported here should assist that effort. Future research focused on breading high-yield varieties, development of efficient field

  3. Desenvolvimento pré-imaginal de Eueides isabella dianasa (Hübner (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae em folhas de Passiflora edulis L. (Passifloraceae Preimaginal development of Eueides isabella dianasa (Hübner (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae on leaves of Passiflora edulis L. (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Ricardo Santos Barros

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Lagartas de Eueides isabella dianasa (Hübner, 1806 estão entre os insetos fitófagos que ocorrem em P. edulis. Para esse estudo, foram coletados ovos logo após a oviposição, sendo feitas observações diárias para o registro de eclosão, ecdises (confirmadas pelas cápsulas cefálicas, pupação e emergência de adultos. A viabilidade de ovos foi de 94,9%. O período embrionário observado (em dias ± erro padrão da média foi de 4,25 ± 0,18. O período larval de 16,9 ± 0.34 dias apresentou cinco ínstares: 2,75 ± 0,2; 2,8 ± 0,2; 3,0 ± 0,1; 3,6 ± 0,2 e 4,6 ± 0,15. O período larval ativo foi de 15,83 ± 0,34 dias, seguido por um período prepupal e pupal de, respectivamente, de 7,42 ± 0,15 (período inativo dentro do desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de 8,4 ± 0,15. O desenvolvimento pós-embrionário foi de 24,25 ± 0,37. A duração do desenvolvimento pré-imaginal de 28,5 ± 0,4 pode ser considerada curta entre os lepidópteros. A duração relativa foi de 14,9% para o período embrionário e de 85,9% para o pós-embironário. O uso do tempo durante o período pós-embrionário foi de 11,3%; 11,7%; 12,4%; 14,8%; 18,9% e 30,6% respectivamente como L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 e pupa. O período larval representou 65,3% enquanto o período inativo (prepupa + pupa 34,7%. A sobrevivência no final do desenvolvimento, considerando o período de ovo, foi de 27,5% e, considerando o período pós-embrionário, 30,0%, tendo sido mais evidente no quinto ínstar e no período pupal com 63,0% e 64,7%, respectivamente. Este é o primeiro registro de Eueides isabella dianasa no Estado de Alagoas, Brasil.The preimaginal development of Eueides isabella dianasa (Hübner, 1806 feeding on leaves of P.edulis was studied under laboratory conditions. The eggs were collected soon after oviposition. Eclosion, and ecdisys (confirmed by the cephalic capsules, pupation and adult emergence were registered daily. The egg viability was 94.9%. The embryonic period (in

  4. Morphometry and morphology of <em>Crocidura> Wagler 1832 (Mammalia, Soricidae in Italy, Sardinia and Sicily, with Fourier descriptors approach: first results / Morfometria e morfologia di <em>Crocidura> Wagler 1832 (Mammalia, Soricidae in Italia, Sardegna e Sicilia, con il metodo dei descrittori di Fourier: primi dati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A shape analysis through Fourier descriptors was performed on left mandibles of <em>Crocidura> obtained by Barn Owl pellets from peninsular Italy (Emilia and Liguria districts, Sardinia and Sicily. Thanks to some classical analysis (morphometrical mono- and bidimensional diagrams, morphological analysis and to biogeographical and genetical evidences, the samples of Sardinia, the smaller specimens of Liguria and Emilia and the bigger ones of Emilia were respectively classified, as a working hypothesis, as <em>C. russulaem>, <em>C. suaveolensem> and <em>C. leucodonem>. The "misclassification rate" essay was very low, confirming the reliability of the discrimination rule employed. The sicilian samples, showing an unimodal pattern with respect to all the classical morphometrical characters examined, were then tested against the descriptors of <em>C. russulaem>, <em>C. suaveolensem> and <em>C. leucodonem>. The specimens were assigned to all the above species, with a quite even distribution. On the other hand, the hypothesis of equality of two mean vectors for sicilian samples with <em>C. russulaem> or <em>C. suaveolensem> or <em>C. leucodonem>, tested by Hotelling's T² test, was rejected at 1% significance level. Owing to the fact that the above results seemed quite unexpected in the light of overall bio- geographical knowledges on <em>Crocidura>, the "shape analysis" procedure was repeated, by adding a new "species" for the sicilian samples. The "misclassification rate" essay was very encouraging in the sense of the presence, in Sicily, of a morphological "species", differing from <em>C. russulaem>, <em>C. suaveolensem> and <em>C. leucodonem>, possibly to be referred to <em>C. siculaem> Miller 1901. The euristic value of such up to now first results is discussed. Riassunto L'analisi della forma e l'analisi morfometrica di esemplari di <em>Crocidura> sp. pl. conducono a

  5. Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitóide de dípteros muscóides coletado em Itumbiara, Goiás Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitoid of muscoids dipterous collected in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Marchiori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the occurrence of parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitizing pupae of flies (Diptera in different substrata in Itumbiara, Goiás. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of flies or their parasitoids. From May 1998 through April 2002, 737 parasitoids were collected in human feces, cattle liver, chicken, fish and cattle kidney. The prevalence of parasitism was 67.8%.

  6. Oficinas da cidade em Fortaleza

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    Cordeiro Andréa Carla de Filgueiras

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata do relato de uma experiência de intervenção focal com crianças na cidade de Fortaleza, na qual se procurou, através de discussões em grupo, possibilitar a construção e a re-construção das experiências destes sujeitos na cidade. Partiu-se da premissa que viver hoje na cidade contemporânea requer do sujeito orientação crítica para que ele se situe frente às demandas do viver coletivo. Três momentos de discussão foram focalizados: a reflexão sobre a experiência vivida na cidade; a imaginação sobre as possibilidades deste viver; e a discussão sobre o vivido e o desejado, visando a uma re-construção possível da cidade. As crianças mostraram capacidade de analisar criticamente sua experiência na cidade, apontando os aspectos que, do seu ponto de vista, tornam o viver na cidade particularmente difícil para elas. Mostraram, também, capacidade de indicar caminhos coletivos que suavizariam a tarefa de viver na cidade grande, principalmente quando não se é adulto, e sim criança.

  7. Mastites em ruminantes no Brasil

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    Atzel Candido Acosta

    Full Text Available Resumo: A mastite é uma doença complexa e considerada uma das principais causas de perdas à indústria leiteira mundial. Objetivou-se com esta revisão compilar informações dos últimos dez anos sobre a mastite em ruminantes no Brasil. A prevalência da mastite subclínica chega a 48,64% na espécie bovina, 30,7% na espécie caprina, 31,45% na espécie ovina e 42,2% na espécie bubalina, destacando-se a etiologia por Staphylococcus spp. Os fatores de risco associados à ocorrência de mastite estão relacionados a problemas no saneamento ambiental e ao manejo dos animais. As bactérias isoladas do leite mastítico apresentam maior percentual de resistência a penicilina, ampicilina, amoxicilina e neomicina e a utilização de técnicas moleculares no diagnóstico dos agentes causadores de mastites no país, ainda é escassa o que dificulta a obtenção de um diagnóstico mais rápido, sensível e específico.

  8. Self: um conceito em desenvolvimento

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    Lídia Suzana Rocha de Macedo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversas definições de self coexistem nas teorias e práticas psicológicas. Essa variedade é resultante de bases epistemológicas a partir das quais se adotam estratégias diferentes para abordar e demarcar os limites do objeto em questão e descrevê-lo. Este estudo teve como objetivo oferecer uma revisão dos conceitos de self e uma reflexão sobre como esse conceito se articula nas diferentes abordagens teóricas da psicologia. Destaca-se que dilemas centrais à psicologia do desenvolvimento atravessam o conceito de self. Por essa razão, apresenta-se a tese de que, ao analisar cada definição de self, deve-se buscar responder como cada teoria colocou-se diante das dicotomias estabilidade versus transformação, específico versus universal e mundo interno versus mundo externo.

  9. Dermatite multifatorial em um canino

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    C.B. Matos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatou-se um caso clínico de dermatite multifatorial em cão, envolvendo Demodex canis, Sporothrix schenckii e bactérias dos gêneros Staphylococcus e Streptococcus. O animal, macho, da raça Pit Bull, com um ano e três meses de idade, apresentou lesões úmidas, hiperêmicas, descamativas e ulcerativas nas regiões do pescoço e do tórax. Exames laboratoriais confirmaram o diagnóstico de infecção concomitante por fungo, bactéria e parasito. A terapia antimicrobiana com moxidectina, itraconazol e amoxicilina foi efetiva, com remissão dos sinais clínicos após 30 dias de tratamento. Este relato salienta a importância do diagnóstico de certeza, que foi determinante para estabelecimento da terapêutica adequada e recuperação do animal.

  10. Literatura e(m hipertexto

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    Bellei, Sérgio Luiz Prado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A crescente hegemonia do modo de produção digital de textos literários a serem disponibilizados em rede torna urgente o questionamento a respeito das possíveis mudanças que ocorrem na produção de hipertextos eletrônicos a partir de textos literários. O presente ensaio desenvolve uma reflexão crítica sobre o problema a partir de uma distinção do duplo significado de tecnologia enquanto, de um lado, instrumental para a produção de objetos e, de outro, ambiente estruturante que não só produz objetos mas, principalmente, molda os sujeitos que deles fazem uso, reconstituindo no processo hábitos e procedimentos. Se levarmos a sério o conceito de tecnologia enquanto ambiente estruturante, então é bem possível que a literatura traduzida ou produzida diretamente no formato hipertextual sofra modificações profundas quando comparadas à produção literária no meio impresso

  11. Actinomicose da Mama em Gestante

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    Mottola Jr Juvenal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A actinomicose mamária é doença inflamatória rara, com poucos casos descritos na literatura. Pode ser primária da mama quando resultante de traumas na pele e papila mamária, e, secundária, quando de origem toracopleural. Sua apresentação clínica é variável, devendo ser diferenciada das doenças mais comuns, dentre elas as mastites e também as neoplasias, como o carcinoma inflamatório. Seu diagnóstico é realizado pela cultura da secreção, com a identificação das colônias de Actinomyces sp. Seu tratamento é a drenagem, quando indicada, a antibioticoterapia endovenosa e manutenção oral por tempo prolongado. Os autores relatam caso de abscesso retromamário por Actinomyces sp. em gestante de 12 semanas que apresentava tumoração mamária expansiva na mama esquerda.

  12. Flavonoids and Other Compounds from <em>Ouratea ferruginea em>(Ochnaceae as Anticancer and Chemopreventive Agents

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    Queli C. Fidelis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical study of the extracts from leaves and stems of <em>Ouratea ferrugineaem> allowed the identification of a new isoflavone, 5-hydroxy-7,3′4′5′-tetramethoxyisoflavone, and twenty two known compounds, including friedelin, 3β-friedelinol, lupeone, a mixture of sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, sitosteryl- and stigmasteryl-3-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranosides, 5,4′-dihydroxy-7,5′,3′-trimethoxyisoflavone, 5,4′-dihydroxy-7,3′-di-methoxyisoflavone (7,3′-di-<em>O>-methylorobol, 5,7,4′-trihydroxy-3′,5′-dimethoxyisoflavone (piscigenin, 2<em>R>,3<em>R>-epicatechin, syringic acid, 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, 2,6-dimethoxyhydroquinone, syringic and ferulic aldehyde, a mixture of vanillic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-(1<em>E>-3-hydroxy-1-propenyl-benzene and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-dihydrocinamaldehyde, besides amenthoflavone and 7-<em>O>-methylamenthoflavone (sequoiaflavone which are considered as chemotaxonomic markers of <em>Ouratea>. The structures were identified by IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and GC-MS, HPLC-MS, besides comparison with literature data. The inhibitory effects of 5,4′-dihydroxy-7,5′,3′-trimethoxyisoflavone, 7,3′-di-<em>O>-methylorobol, piscigenin and 7-<em>O>-methylamenthoflavone on cytochrome P450-dependent 7-ethoxycoumarin <em>O>-deethylase (ECOD and glutathione <em>S>-transferase (GST were evaluated <em>in vitroem>. The 5,4′-dihydroxy-7,5′,3′-trimethoxy-isoflavone was the best inhibitor, inhibiting almost 75% of GST activity. Sequoiaflavone was the most potent inhibitor, inhibiting ECOD assay in 75%. These activities allow us to consider both these flavonoids as potential anticancer and chemopreventive agents.

  13. Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from the Cave Sponge <em>Xestospongia em>sp.

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    Sridevi Ankisetty

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the cave sponge <em>Xestospongia em>sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the new metabolites was also evaluated.

  14. <em>In Vitro em>Phytotoxicity and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Flavonoids

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    Rita Patrizia Aquino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of flavonoids involved in plant-plant interactions and their mechanisms of action are poor and, moreover, the structural characteristics required for these biological activities are scarcely known. The objective of this work was to study the possible <em>in vitro em>phytotoxic effects of 27 flavonoids on the germination and early radical growth of <em>Raphanus sativus em>L.> and <em>Lepidium sativumem> L., with the aim to evaluate the possible structure/activity relationship. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the same compounds was also evaluated. Generally, in response to various tested flavonoids, germination was only slightly affected, whereas significant differences were observed in the activity of the various tested flavonoids against radical elongation. DPPH test confirms the antioxidant activity of luteolin, quercetin, catechol, morin, and catechin. The biological activity recorded is discussed in relation to the structure of compounds and their capability to interact with cell structures and physiology. No correlation was found between phytotoxic and antioxidant activities.

  15. Enzymatic Properties and Mutational Studies of Chalcone Synthase from <em>Physcomitrella patensem>

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    Mahiran Basri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Pp>CHS is a member of the type III polyketide synthase family and catalyses the synthesis of the flavonoid precursor naringenin chalcone from <em>p>-coumaroyl-CoA. Recent research reports the production of pyrone derivatives using either hexanoyl-CoA or butyryl-CoA as starter molecule. The Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad found in other plant chalcone synthase predicted polypeptides is conserved in <em>Pp>CHS. Site directed mutagenesis involving these amino acids residing in the active-site cavity revealed that the cavity volume of the active-site plays a significant role in the selection of starter molecules as well as product formation. Substitutions of Cys 170 with Arg and Ser amino acids decreased the ability of the <em>Pp>CHS to utilize hexanoyl-CoA as a starter molecule, which directly effected the production of pyrone derivatives (products. These substitutions are believed to have a restricted number of elongations of the growing polypeptide chain due to the smaller cavity volume of the mutant’s active site.

  16. The red fox - <em>Trichinella> relationship: a review of past and recent evidence

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    Alessandro Balestrieri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In central and southern Europe, the red fox <em>Vulpes vulpesem> is considered the reservoir of the parasite nematode <em>Trichinella britoviem>, whose mainly fox-to-fox transmission would involve cannibalism in mountainous areas. Reviewing available literature, we examine the main ecological features of the host-parasite relationship, pointing out those aspects which do not agree with the currently accepted epidemiological pattern and requiring further research. Riassunto Il binomio volpe –Trichinella: analisi di dati pregressi e recenti riportati in letteratura. In Europa centro-meridionale la volpe <em>Vulpes vulpesem> è considerata il principale serbatoio del nematode parassita <em>Trichinella britoviem>, la cui trasmissione da volpe a volpe sarebbe assicurata da fenomeni di cannibalismo ricorrenti in ambiente montano. Esaminando la letteratura disponibile, vengono evidenziati i principali aspetti ecologici legati alla relazione ospite-parassita che non si accordano con il modello epidemiologico corrente e che richiedono ulteriori ricerche per essere pienamente compresi.

  17. The <em>Chlamydiales> Pangenome Revisited: Structural Stability and Functional Coherence

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    Fotis E. Psomopoulos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The entire publicly available set of 37 genome sequences from the bacterial order <em>Chlamydiales> has been subjected to comparative analysis in order to reveal the salient features of this pangenome and its evolutionary history. Over 2,000 protein families are detected across multiple species, with a distribution consistent to other studied pangenomes. Of these, there are 180 protein families with multiple members, 312 families with exactly 37 members corresponding to core genes, 428 families with peripheral genes with varying taxonomic distribution and finally 1,125 smaller families. The fact that, even for smaller genomes of <em>Chlamydiales>, core genes represent over a quarter of the average protein complement, signifies a certain degree of structural stability, given the wide range of phylogenetic relationships within the group. In addition, the propagation of a corpus of manually curated annotations within the discovered core families reveals key functional properties, reflecting a coherent repertoire of cellular capabilities for <em>Chlamydiales>. We further investigate over 2,000 genes without homologs in the pangenome and discover two new protein sequence domains. Our results, supported by the genome-based phylogeny for this group, are fully consistent with previous analyses and current knowledge, and point to future research directions towards a better understanding of the structural and functional properties of <em>Chlamydiales>.

  18. Improving Production of Bioethanol from Duckweed (<em>Landoltia punctataem> by Pectinase Pretreatment

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    Qian Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Landoltia punctataem>, a widely distributed duckweed strain with the ability to accumulate starch, was used as a novel feedstock for bioethanol production by <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiaeem>. To improve ethanol production, pectinase pretreatment was used to release much more glucose from <em>L. punctataem> mash and the pretreatment conditions (enzyme loading, temperature and pretreatment time for the duckweed were optimized by using a surface response design. The results showed that maximum glucose yield was 218.64 ± 3.10 mg/g dry matter, which is a 142% increase compared to the untreated mash, with a pectinase dose of 26.54 pectin transeliminase unit/g mash at 45 °C for 300 min. Pectinase pretreatment apparently changed the ultrastructure of <em>L. punctataem>, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Further fermentation experiments were performed and 30.8 ± 0.8 g/L of ethanol concentration, 90.04% of fermentation efficiency and 2.20 g/L/h of productivity rate were achieved. This is the highest ethanol concentration reported to date using duckweed as the feedstock.

  19. Antimycobacterial Activity of Constituents from <em>Foeniculum vulgareem> Var. Dulce Grown in Mexico

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    María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay guided fractionation of an antimycobacterial extract of <em>Foeniculum vulgareem> var dulce (Apiaceae led to the isolation and characterization of 5-hydroxyfurano-coumarin. The chemical structure of this compound was elucidated by 1H and 13C (1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the active fractions were analyzed by GC-MS and seventy eight compounds were identified; the major compounds were 1,3-benzenediol, 1-methoxycyclohexene, <em>o>-cymene, sorbic acid, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, estragole, limonene-10-ol and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. Twenty compounds identified in the active fractions were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis em>using the Alamar Blue microassay. Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL, oleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL, 1,3-benzenediol (MIC 100–200 µg/mL, undecanal (MIC 50–200 µg/mL, and 2,4-undecadienal (MIC 25–50 µg/mL, the last being the most active compound. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of 5-hydroxy-furanocoumarin in <em>F. vulgareem>.

  20. Development of New Microsatellite Markers for <em>Salvia officinalisem> L. and Its Potential Use in Conservation-Genetic Studies of Narrow Endemic <em>Salvia brachyodonem> Vandas

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    Zlatko Liber

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine new microsatellite markers (SSR were isolated from <em>Salvia officinalisem> L. A total of 125 alleles, with 8 to 21 alleles per locus, were detected in a natural population from the east Adriatic coast. The observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.46 to 0.83, 0.73 to 0.93 and 0.70 to 0.92, respectively. New microsatellite markers, as well as previously published markers, were tested for cross-amplification in <em>Salvia brachyodon em>Vandas, a narrow endemic species known to be present in only two localities on the Balkan Peninsula. Out of 30 microsatellite markers tested on the natural <em>S. brachyodonem> population, 15 were successfully amplified. To obtain evidence of recent bottleneck events in the populations of both species, observed genetic diversity (<em>H>E was compared to the expected genetic diversity at mutation-drift equilibrium (<em>H>EQ and calculated from the observed number of alleles using a two-phased mutation model (TPM. Recent bottleneck events were detected only in the <em>S. brachyodonem> population. This result suggests the need to reconsider the current threat category of this endemic species.

  1. Local feeding specialization of the red fox (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in response to eastern cottontail (<em>Sylvilagus floridanusem> introduction (NW Italy

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    Alessandro Balestrieri

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To appreciate the influence of the introduction of the Eastern cottontail (<em>Sylvilagus floridanusem> on the food habits of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, between June 1998 and February 2000 fox diet was investigated by means of scat analysis (N=115 in a 250 ha wide Natural Reserve of NW Italy, and compared with data collected in the same area prior to cottontail colonization (1988-1989. Comparison included also the diet of badgers (<em>Meles melesem>, considered as potential competitors for food resources. Alien lagomorphs (mean percent volume, Vm% = 68% represented by far the most exploited resource, only three other food items reaching values of mean percent volume barely higher than 5%. Cottontails frequency of occurrence did not vary according either to season or to their reproductive cycle (II-IX vs. X-I, whilst diet niche breadth varied inversely proportional to the use of this key-resource. Overall fox trophic niche breadth varied from 0.64 in 1988-89 to 0.31 in 1998-00 (B, Levin’s index. These findings led us to consider the feeding habits of the fox in the study area as a result of local specialization of a typical generalist carnivore, according to the predictions of optimal foraging theory. No variation occurred in the badger niche breadth since cottontail introduction, whilst niche overlap between foxes and badgers decreased from 0.59 to 0.13 (O, Pianka’s index, possibly reducing competition for food in summer. Riassunto Specializzazione alimentare a livello locale della Volpe <em>Vulpes vulpesem> in risposta all’introduzione del Silvilago <em>Sylvilagus floridanusem> (Italia nord occidentale. Per valutare gli effetti dell’introduzione del Silvilago (<em>Sylvilagus floridanusem> sul comportamento alimentare della volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem>, nel periodo giugno 1998-febbraio 2000, la dieta del carnivoro è stata definita tramite l’analisi di 115

  2. Home range dynamics of mountain hare (<em>Lepus timidusem> in the Swiss Alps

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    Anne-Sophie Genini-Gamboni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known on the ecology and behaviour of alpine mountain hare (<em>Lepus timidusem>. Between 1996 and 1997 we analysed by radiotracking the pattern of space use of 8 mountain hares from the Swiss Alps. We estimated home range size using both the kernel density estimator and the minimum convex polygon. We found smaller ranges (38 ha compared to those reported for the species in boreal or arctic habitats, but similar to ranges in Scotland. Hares did not use a centre of major activity (core area and showed high home range overlap, confirming their non-territorial behaviour. Smaller ranges were used during winter compared to the other seasons, whilst no difference in size was found between sexes. Riassunto Dinamica dell'uso dello spazio della lepre bianca (<em>Lepus timidusem> nelle Alpi Svizzere Le informazioni relative all'ecologia e al comportamento della lepre alpina (<em>Lepus timidusem> sono ad oggi scarse. In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l'utilizzo dello spazio di una popolazione di lepre bianca sulle Alpi Svizzere. Tra il 1996 e il 1997 sono stati marcati con redio collare 8 individui di lepre alpina. L'<em>home rangeem> è stato calcolato utilizzando lo stimatore di densità kernel (KDE ed il metodo del minimo poligono convesso (MCP. L'ampiezza degli <em>home rangeem> (38 ha è risultata inferiore a quella riportata per la specie in habitat boreali ed artici. ma simile a quella riscontrata in Scozia. All'interno dell <em>home rangeem> non è stato rilevato alcun centro di maggiore attività (<em>core areaem> ed è stata evidenziata una notevole sovrapposizione tra gli stessi, confermando la non territorialità della specie. Le aree frequentate in inverno sono risultate più piccole rispetto alle altre stagioni e non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i sessi.

  3. Status and conservation of the red squirrel (<em>Sciurus vulgarisem> in Portugal

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    Maria da Luz Mathias

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The historical and recent status and distribution of the red squirrel (<em>Sciurus vulgarisem> in Portugal are analysed using published data, preserved material and unpublished information. In the past the red squirrel occupied the whole of Portugal, but died out towards the end of the 16th century. Now, however, red squirrels have moved back in from Spain and recolonised forests in the north of the country. An important factor limiting the distribution of squirrels in the past was the availability of suitable habitat which provide shelter and food, such as conifer woods. Hunting pressure may also have affected numbers. In Portugal the conservation status of <em>S. vulgarisem> is Rare.

  4. Commensal <em>Pseudomonas> Species Isolated from Wastewater and Freshwater Milieus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, as Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistant Determinants

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    Anthony I. Okoh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available <em>Pseudomonas> species are opportunistic pathogens with implications in a wide range of diseases including cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anaemia. Because of their status as multidrug resistant (MDR and extremely drug resistant (XDR bacteria <em>Pseudomonas> species represent a threat to public health. Prevalence, antibiogram and associated antibiotic resistant genes of <em>Pseudomonas> species isolated from freshwater and mixed liquor environments in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR based technique was used to identify the isolates and screen for antibiotic resistant genes. The result shows occurrence of <em>Pseudomonas> spp. in freshwater and mixed liquor as follows: 71.42% and 37.5% (<em>P. putidaem>, 14.28% and 31.25% (<em>P. flourescensem>, 7.14% and 6.25% (<em>P. aeruginosaem> and 7.14% and 25% for other <em>Pseudomonas> species respectively. Disk diffusion antibiogram of the <em>Pseudomonas> isolates from the two locations showed 100% resistance to penicillin, oxacillin, clindamycin, rifampicin and 100% susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin with varied percentage resistances to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and ampicillin. The <em>blaTEM> antibiotic resistant gene was detected in 12.5% of <em>P. putidaem>, 57.14% of <em>P. fluorescensem>, 100% <em>P. aeruginosaem> and 40% in other <em>Pseudomonas> species. Similarly, Integrons conserved segment were detected in 12.5% of <em>P. putidaem>, 57.14% of <em>P. fluorescensem>, 100% of <em>P. aeruginosaem> and 40% of other <em>Pseudomonas> species. The presence of <em>blaTEM> gene and integrons conserved segment in some of the isolates is worrisome and suggest <em>Pseudomona>s species as important reservoirs of multidrug resistance genes in the Eastern Cape Province environment.

  5. Estádio de adaptação de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em hospedeiros alternativos

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    Katia Gisele Brasil Boregas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A principal praga-alvo na cultura do milho é a lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, que, pela sua ampla distribuição temporal e geográfica constitui-se em uma das espécies mais nocivas nas regiões tropicais das Américas. O objetivo foi avaliar o estádio de adaptação de S. frugiperda em 17 espécies hospedeiras, cultivadas ou selvagens, mais comuns no agroecossistema brasileiro. As plantas foram cultivadas em cinco épocas, entre 2006 e 2008, utilizando o milho como padrão. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram individualizadas e confinadas em copo plástico (50 mL, onde foram alimentadas com seções de folha nova de cada hospedeiro. O alimento foi substituído a cada dois dias por folhas frescas. Quatro variáveis biológicas foram avaliadas e utilizadas para se calcular um Índice de Adaptação (IA. Os resultados indicaram que a sobrevivência inicial de S. frugiperda variou de 100%, no milho, a 46%, no arroz. O período larval variou de 12,6 dias, no milho, a 27,1 dias, na grama batatais. A biomassa de pupa variou de 173,1 mg, no carrapicho, a 294,2 mg, no milho. O índice de adaptação, calculado com base nas variáveis biológicas de S. frugiperda, nos hospedeiros avaliados, variou de 17,43, no milho cultivado na época I, a 1,46, na cana-de-açúcar na época III. Para corrigir o efeito de época sobre o índice de adaptação de S. frugiperda nos hospedeiros, foi calculado o Índice Relativo de Adaptação (IRA, com base no índice de adaptação no milho (100%. Assim, com base no índice relativo de adaptação, estimado em condições de laboratório, os hospedeiros alternativos ao milho, para S. frugiperda, podem ser assim ordenados, do maior para o menor índice: sorgo granífero, sorgo selvagem, milheto, capim-tanzânia, amendoim, capim-marandu, capim-braquiária, caruru-de-porco, trigo, soja, algodão, feijão, arroz, capim-carrapicho, grama batatais e cana-de-açúcar.

  6. Emergency medical services (EMS) versus non-EMS transport among injured children in the United States.

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    Corrado, Michelle M; Shi, Junxin; Wheeler, Krista K; Peng, Jin; Kenney, Brian; Johnson, Sarah; Xiang, Huiyun

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the proportions of injured children transported to trauma centers by different transportation modes and evaluate the effect of transportation mode on inter-facility transfer rates using the US national trauma registry. We analyzed data from the 2007-2012 National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) to study trends of EMS versus non-EMS transport. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between transport mode and inter-facility transfer. There were 286,871 pediatric trauma patients in the 2007-2012 NTDB; 45.8% arrived by ground ambulance, 8.6% arrived by air ambulance, and 37.5% arrived by non-EMS. From 2007 to 2012, there was no significant change in transportation mode. Moderate to severely injured patients (ISS>15) comprised 13.3% of arrivals by ground ambulance, 26.7% of arrivals by air ambulance, and 8.3% of arrivals by non-EMS; those who used EMS were significantly less likely to be transferred to another facility than patients who used non-EMS transport. Moderate and severe pediatric patients arriving by non-EMS to adult trauma centers were more often transferred than those arriving at mixed trauma centers (45.8% and 6.8%, respectively). Over one third of US pediatric trauma patients used non-EMS transport to arrive at trauma centers. Moderate to severely injured children benefit from EMS transport and professional field triage to reach the appropriate trauma facility. Our study suggests that national efforts are needed to increase awareness among parents and the general public of the benefits of EMS transportation and care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of 13-<em>n>-Alkyl Berberine and Palmatine Analogues as Anticancer Agents

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    Lei Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available By introducing long carbon-chain alkyl groups at the C-13 position of berberine and palmatine, 13-<em>n>-hexyl/13-<em>n>-octyl berberine and palmatine chloride analogues 4ad were synthesized and examined by MTT assays for cytotoxic activity in seven human cancer cell lines (7701QGY, SMMC7721, HepG2, CEM, CEM/VCR, KIII, Lewis, yielding IC50 values of 0.02 ± 0.01–13.58 ± 2.84 μM. 13-<em>n>-Octyl palmatine (compound 4d gave the most potent inhibitor activity, with an IC50 of 0.02 ± 0.01 μM for SMMC7721. In all cases, the 13-<em>n>-alkyl berberine and palmatine analogues 4ad were more cytotoxic than berberine and palmatine. In addition, compounds 4ad also exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than berberine and palmatine in mice with S180 sarcoma xenografted<em> in vivoem>. The primary screening results indicated that the 13-<em>n>-hexyl/13-<em>n>-octyl berberine and palmatine analogues might be valuable source for new potent anticancer drug candidates.

  8. Mammal prey of the Barn Owl (<em>Tyto albaem> in Parque Luro Reserve, La Pampa, Argentina

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    Sergio Tiranti

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the barn owl was studied through the analysis of pellets obtained in various sites within the Parque Luro reserve, located in an area of xerophyte Caldén forests. The study of 1241 prey items revealed a high dominance of the cricetid rodents <em>Calomys> sp., <em>Akodon molinaeem> and <em>Eligmodontia typusem>, followed by other 8 species of rodents, one species of marsupial and undetermined birds and anuran amphibians. For comparing the diets from a relatively undisturbed forested area (Parque Luro and a deforested site, two subcollections of pellets were analyzed. Differences in FNB values and in the prevalence and composition of prey assemblages were observed between these areas. Riassunto Mammiferi predati dal Barbagianni (<em>Tyto albaem> nella Riserva Parque Luro, La Pampa, Argentina - La dieta del Barbagianni (<em>Tyto albaem> è stata studiata attraverso l'analisi delle borre ottenute in varie località all'interno della riserva Parque Luro, situata in un'area con boschi xerofili a <em>Prosopis caldeniaem>. Lo studio di 1241 campioni ha rivelato un'elevata prevalenza di roditori cricetidi <em>Calomys> sp., <em>Akodon molinaeem> and <em>Eligmodontia typusem>, seguiti da altre 8 specie di roditori, una specie di marsupiali e uccelli e anfibi anuri indeterminati. Per il confronto delle diete sono state analizzate due sub-raccolte di borre di rapaci provenienti da un'area boscata relativamente indisturbata e da un sito disboscato. In queste aree sono state osservate differenze nei valori della FNB e nella prevalenza e composizione delle prede.

  9. Empreendedorismo intensivo em conhecimento no Brasil

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    Sonia K. Guimarães

    Full Text Available Uma das surpresas da "nova economia" é o número crescente de micro, pequenas e médias empresas intensivas em conhecimento, assim como, de "cientistas-empreendedores" em economias periféricas, que, até recentemente, careciam de capacidade inovativa como, China e India (Saxenian, 2008. O Brasil enfrenta grandes desafios para integrar-se ao novo paradigma de desenvolvimento, se comparado a seus pares. Apesar disso, empresas intensivas em conhecimento despontam aqui de forma crescente. O artigo analisa resultados de uma pesquisa realizada entre micro, pequenas e médias empresas intensivas em conhecimento, localizadas em parques tecnológicos, nos estados do Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina. Os dados evidenciam que, mesmo restritas, observam-se algumas mudanças positivas na configuração do modelo empresarial no segmento investigado. Conclui-se, portanto, que as barreiras existentes não são intransponíveis, e o aprendizado já adquirido parece indicar que há possibilidades promissoras para as pequenas e médias empresas inovadoras, no Brasil.

  10. O conceito de paranoia em Freud

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    Roberto Calazans

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, refazemos o percurso freudiano a propósito do conceito de paranoia em sua obra. Esse percurso se fará a partir dos textos considerados pré-psicanalíticos, passando por aquele que é considerado o texto maior de Freud sobre as psicoses (o Caso Schereber, culminando com suas análises que levam em consideração sua segunda teoria sobre o funcionamento psíquico e sobre o conflito pulsional. Nosso objetivo é demonstrar como Freud, em sua elaboração das questões relativas à psicose, e à paranoia, mais especificamente, jamais se furtava a encarar os desafios que a clínica impunha. E por não recuar frente a esses desafios é que a sua própria teoria vai se formulando, em uma relação dialética entre os impasses da prática e a necessidade de estabelecer um rigor teórico. O artigo trata, também, da forma como o rigor teórico permite o estabelecimento de um diagnóstico diferencial entre neurose e psicose, além de assentar as bases para que os psicanalistas pós-freudianos pudessem pensar em um direcionamento para tratar a psicose.

  11. NECESSIDADE E LIBERDADE EM HANNAH ARENDT

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    Odílio Alves Aguiar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo visa refletir sobre o pensamento de Hannah Arendt à luz do par conceitual necessidade-liberdade. Esse caminho é produtivo, pois dá conta tanto da obra mais conhecida e reconhecida da autora quanto das suas reflexões anteriores à Origens do Totalitarismo, que se dirigiam, na sua maioria, à comunidade dos Judeus e tinham a questão judaica como ponto central. As meditações arendtianas sobre o judaísmo, consideradas no presente artigo, foram publicadas em duas coletâneas na França: La tradition Cachée (1987 e Auschwitz et Jérusalem (1991. O artigo gravita em torno da defesa arendtiana sobre a inerência entre política e liberdade e sua substituição pela compreensão da política como submetida à esfera da necessidade. Essa perspectiva, segundo a autora, fez-se presente na tradição assimilacionista entre os judeus, mas já tinha obtido a hegemonia na cultura ocidental. Isso sucedeu em razão da primazia da vita contemplativa sobre a vita activa, do trabalho e da questão social em detrimento da ação e, por fim, da supremacia da filosofia da história em prejuízo da Filosofia Política.

  12. Triagem em saúde mental infantil

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    Fabiana Vieira Gauy

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido para comparar os resultados de um procedimento grupal aberto e um procedimento individual estruturado para avaliação do comportamento da criança conforme o relato materno. Participaram deste estudo 29 mães que buscavam atendimento para seus filhos em uma unidade de saúde mental infanto-juvenil. As primeiras 15 mães que procuraram o serviço foram entrevistadas individualmente conforme um roteiro estruturado desenvolvido a partir do CBCL e depois foram entrevistadas em grupo, em formato aberto. As outras 14 mães participaram da entrevista grupal aberta e em seguida participaram da entrevista individual estruturada. Os resultados das entrevistas foram comparados tomando como referência as 67 categorias comportamentais identificadas a partir do roteiro individual e quatro variáveis contextuais relatadas nos dois procedimentos. Os resultados mostram que um número substancialmente maior de comportamentos-problema foi identificado através de entrevista individual estruturada do que através de entrevista grupal aberta realizada com os mesmos informantes. É possível que o uso de um roteiro estruturado em entrevistas grupais possa oferecer mais informações com otimização do tempo de avaliação.

  13. Roost selection by barbastelle bats (<em>Barbastella barbastellusem>, Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in beech woodlands of central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Russo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The barbastelle bat, <em>Barbastella barbastellusem> (Schreber, 1774 is a medium-sized, tree-dwelling vespertilionid classified as ?Endangered? in Italy; in western Europe it may be one of the rarest bat species. <em>B. barbastellusem> shows roosting preferences that should be regarded as a key point in conservation protocols. We examined roost selection in a breeding population of <em>B. barbastellusem> from the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park (central Italy at three levels: woodland structure and management type; tree characteristics; and cavity characteristics. In 2001-2002, we fitted 31 adult <em>B. barbastellusem> (29 lactating females, one pregnant female and one male with 0.48g radio-tags and tracked them to their roost-trees. The bats were tracked for 4.5 ± 3.7 days (range: 0-12 days. We located 33 roosts used by 25 subjects (1.8±1.2 roosts/bat, range 1-5. The bats switched roosts frequently: 13 bats used more than one tree over the study period. A chi-square analysis showed that the roosts were not distributed at random across woodland categories: unmanaged woodland was positively selected, whereas shelterwood-harvested woodland was used in proportion to its availability, and ?pastures+scattered trees? was avoided. Twenty out of 33 roost trees were dead <em>Fagus sylvaticaem> trees; conversely, living <em>F. sylvaticaem> dominated in a tree sample obtained at random; dead trees were used more than expected (Χ² test, <em>P> <0.001. Overall, roost trees were significantly taller and had a larger diameter at breast?s height and more cavities than random trees; they also had a lower percent canopy closure than random trees. To highlight which variables were actually associated with selection, we devised a logistic regression model. The full model was significant (<em>P> <0.001; removal of tree type and tree height affected the model significantly, but the other variables did not produce detectable effects. The

  14. INOVAÇÃO EM PAÍSES EM DESENVOLVIMENTO: AVANÇOS E POSSIBILIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata-se das experiências e tentativas de inovação em países em desenvolvimento, o que tem ocorrido com bastante frequência, já que a economia contemporânea tem se movido em função da incorporação e geração de inovações. Serão abordados os fatores e motivos que impulsionam esses países a buscarem inovações, além de ressaltar as consequências e mudanças ocorridas em sua economia. Sabe-se que a detenção do conhecimento tecnológico tem sido a principal arma para a dominação econômica e política, partindo desse pressuposto, as experiências de inovação tem sido a principal esperança dos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste artigo é aprofundar os estudos e, assim, auxiliar pesquisadores e gestores envolvidos com essas experiências de inovação. A metodologia utilizada trata-se de um estudo teórico e exploratório, buscando através de bibliografias analisar o que vem sendo discutido referente a inovação em países em desenvolvimento.

  15. Preditores do Comportamento Antissocial em Adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Lüdke Nardi

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este estudo investigou preditores do comportamento antissocial em 142 adolescentes em medida socioeducativa de internação (G1 e 691 estudantes de escolas públicas (G2, que responderam a um questionário. Foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os grupos quanto ao comportamento antissocial, violência intra e extrafamiliar, uso de drogas e eventos estressores, com médias mais altas em G1. Dentre as variáveis investigadas, grupo, uso de drogas e eventos estressores, juntamente com a covariável sexo, explicaram 66,5% da variável dependente. Um modelo de path analysis demonstrou que as variáveis sexo e ambiente estressor, computado pelos eventos estressores, qualidade do relacionamento familiar e violência intra e extrafamiliar predizem o uso de drogas e comportamentos antissociais.

  16. Prevalência de asma em escolares

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio J. Amorim; Júlio C. Daneluzzi

    2001-01-01

    OBJETIVO: avaliar a prevalência dos sintomas e da doença de asma em crianças, em razão da alta freqüência de pacientes pediátricos com sintomas sugestivos da doença e da falta de dados de prevalência nesta população. MÉTODOS: Num estudo transversal, foram avaliados 2.735 escolares na faixa etária de 6-7 anos (crianças) e 3.509 na de 13-14 anos (adolescentes), escolhidos por amostragem aleatória. Os dados foram coletados em 1998-99 utilizando-se o questionário escrito traduzido do Internationa...

  17. O antinaturalismo em Confiança

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza, Fabiano de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde a sua estréia com Uma relação perigosa (The unbelievable truth, 1989, Hal Hartley vem se destacando no cenário internacional, não só por sua contínua produção – oito títulos em doze anos –, mas também por algumas características presentes em seus filmes: em termos de temática, pode-se dizer que, na maioria deles, a história de jovens não adaptados à sociedade serve de base para uma reflexão sobre os sentimentos humanos e para uma crítica severa ao american way of life

  18. A metamorfose das formas em Tatiana Blass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Baschirotto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma pequena parte da dissertação de mestrado defendida em 2015 que se ocupou de pensar o gesto artístico da artista visual brasileira Tatiana Blass. Cada artista possui um gesto que carrega consigo, que se encontra como uma persistência e recorrência em sua produção e sempre retorna. Um dos gestos da artista se encontra na metamorfose das formas com os usos distintos de meios e materiais. Utilizando principalmente os conceitos de arquidesenho de Yves Alain Bois e acontecimento de Gilles Deleuze, o artigo se propõe a refletir sobre a plausibilidade do gesto da metamorfose em suas obras tridimensionais que se encontram entre escultura, performance e instalação.

  19. Tricolemoma em coelho Tricholemmoma in a rabbit

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    Krishna Duro de Oliveira

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Tricolemoma é um raro tumor benigno, composto por células epiteliais claras derivadas da bainha externa da raiz do folículo piloso. Esses tumores têm sido descritos no homem e raramente em cães. No presente relato, descreve-se a ocorrência de um tricolemoma, de 1cm de diâmetro em um coelho adulto, cujas características histológicas são muito semelhantes às descritas para esses tumores em cães.Tricholemmoma is a rare benign tumor composed of clear epithelial cells derived from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. The tumor has been described in man and rarely in dogs. This report deals with the occurrence of a tricholemmoma , with a diemeter of 1cm, in an adult rabbit. The histologic features are similar to those described in such tumors in dogs.

  20. <em>Scutellaria baicalensisem> Alleviates Cantharidin-Induced Rat Hemorrhagic Cystitis through Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 Overexpression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Lin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cantharidin, an active component in mylabris, is used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM to treat scabies and hepatoma, but accompanied by hemorrhagic cystitis. Evidence shows that cantharidin induces human bladder carcinoma cell death through COX-2 overexpression<em> in vitroem>. In TCM, <em>Scutellaria baicalensisem> is usually used to cure mylabris-induced hematuria. This work was undertaken to determine the mechanisms of cantharidin-induced rat hemorrhagic cystitis and explore the uroprotective effect of <em>S. baicalensis.em> <em>In vitroem> results showed cantharidin could induce cytotoxicity through prostaglandin (PGE2 overproduction of T24 cells. Boiling-water extract of <em>S. baicalensis em>(SB-WE could significantly inhibit PGE2 production and COX-2 expression in lipo-polysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells, indicating obvious anti-inflammatory abilities. <em>In vivoem> results indicated that cantharidin caused rat hemorrhagic cystitis with hematuria via c-Fos and COX-2 overexpression. SB-WE was given orally to cantharidin-treated rats, whereby hematuria level, elevated PGE2 and COX-2 protein overexpression were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by SB-WE. The anti-inflammatory components of SB-WE are baicalin and wogonin, whose contents were 200.95 ± 2.00 and 31.93 ± 0.26 μg/mg, respectively. In conclusion, cantharidin induces rat cystitis through c-Fos and COX-2 over-expression and <em>S. baicalensisem> can prevent the resulting hematuria because of its anti-inflammatory effects.

  1. Integrating Green Purchasing Into Your Environmental Management System (EMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this report is to help Federal facilities integrate green purchasing into their EMS. The intended audience includes those tasked with implementing an EMS, reducing environmental impacts, meeting green purchasing requirements.

  2. Cytotoxic Podophyllotoxin Type-Lignans from the Steam Bark of <em>Bursera fagaroides em>var. <em>fagaroides>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alvarez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The hydroalcoholic extract of the steam bark of <em>B. fagaroidesem> var. <em>fagaroides> displayed potent cytotoxic activity against four cancer cell lines, namely KB (ED50 = 9.6 × 10−2 μg/mL, PC-3 (ED50 = 2.5 × 10−1 μg/mL, MCF-7 (ED50 = 6.6 μg/mL, and HF-6 (ED50 = 7.1 × 10−3 μg/mL. This extract also showed anti-tumour activity when assayed on mice inoculated with L5178Y lymphoma cells. Bioactivity-directed isolation of this extract, afforded seven podophyllotoxin-type lignans identified as podophyllotoxin (1, β-peltatin-A-methylether (2, 5′-desmethoxy-β-peltatin-A-methylether (3, desmethoxy-yatein (4, desoxypodophyllotoxin (5, burseranin (6, and acetyl podophyllotoxin (7 by 1D and 2DNMR and FAB-MS analyses, and comparison with reported values. All the isolated compounds showed potent cytotoxic activity in the cell lines tested, especially compound 3, which exhibited greater activity than camptothecin and podophyllotoxin against PC-3 (ED50 = 1.0 × 10−5 μg/mL, and KB (ED50 = 1.0 × 10−5 μg/mL. This is the first report of the isolation of podophyllotoxin and its acetate in a <em>Bursera> species.

  3. Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb <em>Hypericum japonicumem>: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureusem> (MRSA

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    Gen-Chun Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb <em>Hypericum japonicumem> Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant S<em>taphylococcus aureusem> (MRSA. The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 μg/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC50/MBC50 at 8/16 μg/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ, Levofloxacin (LEV and Ampicillin (AMP, with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI50 at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log10CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity, 0.92 (CAZ, indifference and 0.82 (AMP, indifference, respectively. These <em>in vitroem> anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA.

  4. Arthur Ramos: intelectual em perspectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adir da Luz Almeida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho constituise em resultado de pesquisa sobre o intelectual Arthur Ramos, suas reflexões teóricas e os efeitos no campo social e educativo. Arthur Ramos, intelectual complexo, multifacetado, refletiu sobre várias temáticas, pensando o Brasil como "nação" moderna, como outros intelectuais na passagem do século XIX para o século XX. Através redes de sociabilidade das quais participou e dos cargos públicos que ocupou, incluindo a chefia do Serviço de Ortofrenia e Higiene Mental do Instituto de Pesquisas Educacionais, na administração de Anísio Teixeira como Diretor de Instrução Pública, Rio de Janeiro, na década de 1930. Implanta o Serviço que tem como base a proximidade entre família, escola e comunidade, tendo como perspectiva alcançar as famílias e população pela escola. O foco é a discussão conceitual de "higiene" e "miscigenação", com atenção ao intelectual nesse debate, suas concepções, inflexões e contradições. São utilizadas como fontes algumas obras produzidas por Ramos, e arquivos sobre o SHOM, sob aguarda da Biblioteca Nacional.Palavras chave: intelectual, educação, historiografia, antropologia__________________Abstract: The work is the result of research on the intellectual Arthur Ramos, their theoretical reflections and the effects on social and educational field. Arthur Ramos, complex, multifaceted intellectual, reflected on several themes, thinking the Brazil as modern "nation", like other intellectuals in the passage from the XIX century to the XX century. Through social networks of which participated and the public office he held, including the leadership of the Ortofrenia Service and Mental Hygiene, of the Educational Research Institute, administration of Anísio Teixeira, as Director of Public Instruction, Rio de Janeiro, in the decade of 1930. Deploys the service that is based on the close the proximity between family, school and community, with the prospect to reach the families and

  5. Ceratomicose em equinos Equine keratomycosis

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    Paula Diniz Galera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O cavalo, dado o seu meio ambiente, está sujeito a afecções frequentes da córnea e da conjuntiva, tecidos oculares bastante expostos a bactérias e fungos, principalmente Aspergillus spp. e Fusarium spp. As ceratites ulcerativas bacterianas e fúngicas, bem como as ceratites fúngicas não ulcerativas, caracterizadas principalmente pelo abscesso estromal, são frequentes nessa espécie. Ocorrida a lesão inicial, perpetua-se um ciclo vicioso, com liberação de citocinas inflamatórias, que desencadeiam uma rápida e severa infiltração corneal por células polimorfonucleares. A córnea torna-se sujeita à destruição por enzimas proteolíticas liberadas pelos micro-organismos e por células inflamatórias, capazes de desencadear a dissolução estromal e a perfuração do bulbo ocular. O tratamento clínico para a resolução da doença corneal e o controle da uveíte reflexa deve ser agressivo e associado, muitas das vezes, à terapia cirúrgica. Este artigo discorre sobre a fisiopatologia e o tratamento da ceratomicose em equinos.Environmental and behavioral factors make horses susceptible to corneal and conjunctival lesions, since these structures are constantly exposed to bacteria and fungi specially Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. Bacterial and fungal ulcerative keratitis, as well as non-ulcerative fungal keratitis such as stromal abscess, are frequent in horses. A "cascade" effect follows the initial lesion which triggers the release of inflammatory cytokines followed by an acute and severe infiltrate of polymorphonuclear cells in the cornea. The cornea becomes susceptible to the activity of proteolytic enzymes released by microorganisms and polymorphonuclear cells, resulting in stromal degradation and ocular perforation. The medical treatment targeting the corneal disease and the controlling of reflexive uveitis should be aggressive and surgical therapy should be associated in most of the cases. This paper reviews the

  6. The diet of the fox (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in woodlands of Orobie Alps (Lombardy region, Northern Italy / Alimentazione della Volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in aree boscate delle Alpi Orobie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cantini

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the fox was investigated by analysis of 273 scats, collected along standard trails from April to November 1987 and 1988. Food habits of foxes were described for three altitudinal ranges. Mammals, mainly <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> and <em>Microtus multiplexem>, were the staple food (percentage of frequency 42.8%, followed by fruits and other vegetables (26.7% and 37.3% respectively. Birds, Invertebrates (mainly Insects and garbage were little eaten. The game species (ungulates, hares, pheasants occurred with a low frequency (8.4% in the diet. The trophic niche breadth varied little through the altitudinal ranges and the seasons. The trophic niche overlap between the fox and the genus <em>Martes> (190 scats of <em>M. martesem> and <em>M. foinaem> were examined is relatively wide (O=0.868. Riassunto La dieta della Volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in aree boscate delle Alpi Orobie (Val Lesina è stata indagata nel periodo aprile-novembre 1987 e 1988 mediante l'analisi di 273 feci, raccolte lungo percorsi-campione ricadenti in tre piani vegetazionali. I Mammiferi, in particolare <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> e <em>Microtus multiplexem>, sono la componente principale della dieta (frequenza percentuale 42,8%. Rilevante è anche il consumo di frutti (soprattutto in estate e autunno e di altri vegetali (26,7% e 37,3% rispettivamente, mentre poco frequente è quello di Uccelli, Invertebrati e rifiuti. Complessivamente ridotta è l'azione predatoria della Volpe nei confronti delle specie di interesse venatorio (Ungulati, lepri, Galliformi. L'ampiezza della nicchia trofica mostra modeste variazioni stagionali e altitudinali. I1 grado di sovrapposizione tra la nicchia trofica della Volpe e quella del genere <em>Martes>, quest'ultima ricavata dall'analisi di 190 feci di Martora (<em>M. martesem> e Faina (<em>M. foinaem>, è elevato (O=0,868. Tuttavia, poiché in condizioni di

  7. Ergonomia ambiental em veículos

    OpenAIRE

    Alcobia, Carlos José de Oliveira Pereira e Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Ciências de Engenharia Mecânica (Aerodinâmica) apresentada à Fac. de Ciências e Tecnologia de Coimbra As condições ambientais no interior dos veículos representam, hoje em dia, uma área de investigação e desenvolvimento preferencial por parte de muitos fabricantes. Face ao incremento da análise entre o ser humano e os diversos estímulos ambientais que influenciam o conforto no interior dos veículos, surge a necessidade de desenvolver metodologias que permitam mod...

  8. Habitaçao social em madeira

    OpenAIRE

    Laroca, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Segundo o dados do governo federal e do SINDUSCON-PR, existe um déficit habitacional de mais de 6,5 milhões de fanulias sem teto, constituindo este um grave problema social. O objetivo deste trabalho é criar uma nova alternativa para a construção de moradias de interesse social. O Brasil possui uma forte tradição construtiva em alvenaria de tijolos, técnica utilizada pelos portugueses, no início do século passado utilizando mão de obra escrava. Em contrapartida o Brasil é um país de evidente ...

  9. Fatores associados à obesidade em escolares

    OpenAIRE

    Giugliano,Rodolfo; Carneiro,Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar a relação entre obesidade em escolares e atividade física e horas de sono da criança, escolaridade e obesidade dos pais. MÉTODOS: Avaliação de peso, estatura, índice de massa corporal e adiposidade (estimada pelas dobras cutâneas tricipital e subescapular) de escolares seguida da classificação das crianças em normais, baixo peso, sobrepeso ou obesidade pelo índice de massa corporal por idade. Foram avaliados 452 escolares e selecionadas 68 crianças com sobrepeso e obesidade...

  10. Morfologia dos tumores de hipofise em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Mennel

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados histologicamente 81 casos de adenomas de hipófise em ratos. Esses tumores foram observados em experimentos com carcinógenos de absorção. Essas substâncias produziram também outros tumores intracranianos. Um dos adenomas de hipófise assim obtido foi transplantado subcutaneamente, obtendo-se muitas passagens que foram seguidas histologicamente e ao microscópio eletrônico. Esses tumores foram também explantados "in vitro".

  11. Microbiota conjuntival em pacientes com alergia ocular

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Mattoso Libório; Maria Cristina Nishiwaki-Dantas; Lycia Mara Jenne Mimica; Paulo Elias Correa Dantas; Ana Luísa Höfling de Lima

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de microbiota aeróbia da conjuntiva de portadores de alergia ocular e comparar a um grupo controle. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 133 pacientes no período de abril a junho de 2001 divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo A foi composto de 63 portadores de conjuntivite alérgica (sem uso de medicação) e o grupo B de 70 pacientes do ambulatório geral (controle). Foram coletadas amostras do fundo de saco conjuntival do olho direito de todos os pacientes e o material foi semeado em ...

  12. Incumprimento do contrato de trabalho em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Bruno Miguel Simões

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Direito das Empresas Esta tese tem, como objectivo principal, analisar e caracterizar o conceito de contrato de trabalho e as suas tipologias de incumprimento em Portugal. A metodologia consiste na pesquisa bibliográfica nacionalmente aceite, webgrafia, e recurso a dados do INE, DGSI e DGPJ, de modo a elaborar uma análise quantitativa dos tipos de incumprimento do contrato de trabalho e consequentes litígios jurídico/laborais. As hipóteses são: Existe alguma r...

  13. Configuring systems from components: the EMS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogiec, J. M.; Desavouret, E.; Kotelnikov, S.; Trombly-Freytag, K.; Walbridge, D.

    2004-11-01

    EMS is an exercise in component technology. It offers rapid development of specialized data acquisition, visualization and analysis systems via assembly from vertical and horizontal components. The EMS architecture allows for agile development of systems and promotes reuse of software. The framework supports a visual builder that shows connections between components and lists component properties. The system offers both off-line setup of properties and run-time modifications. Multi-bus architecture allows for independent routing of data, controls, debugs, and exceptions. The architecture, configuration process, and control of applications through scripting are presented.

  14. A vitivinicultura de altitude em Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Losso, Flavia Baratieri

    2016-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia, Florianópolis, 2016. O presente estudo analisou as relações entre a formação sócio-espacial, a produção e o consumo de vinhos finos de altitude em Santa Catarina como indutores do desenvolvimento do Enoturismo no Estado mediante o entendimento de que este tipo de turismo poderá intervir na economia do vinho, agregando valor e influenciando o consumo des...

  15. Ensinar e aprender em ambientes virtuais tridimensionais

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Vitor

    2012-01-01

    Os mundos virtuais constituem ambientes simulados, normalmente tridimensionais, mediados através de tecnologias de informação e comunicação e que se destinam a ser frequentados por utilizadores que interagem com outros através de avatares. Estes ambientes virtuais tridimensionais (3D) podem ser desenvolvidos recorrendo a software de desenho 3D em versões comerciais e open source ou criados em servidores de mundos virtuais tridimensionais já existentes, tais como o Second Life ou similares. No...

  16. Defeitos em nanofitas de Grafeno zigzag

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Torres Riera Junior

    2008-01-01

    Grafeno e nanofitas de grafeno vêm, cada vez mais, atraindo o interesse da comunidade científica devido as suas notáveis propriedades. Neste trabalho realizou-se um estudo sistemático da estabilidade de defeitos do tipo divacância, vacância e Stone-Wales em grafeno e nanofitas de grafeno com bordas zigzag. Para tal, fizeram-se cálculos de primeiros princípios, baseados em teoria do funcional da densidade (DFT) na aproximação GGA com o uso de pseudopotenciais ultrasoft e uma base de ondas pl...

  17. A singularidade do totalitarismo em Hannah Arendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José João Neves Barbosa Vicente

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A partir da análise da obra <em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">Origens do totalitarismoem> (1990, este artigo apresenta de um modo introdutório, alguns motivos que levaram Hannah Arendt a denominar o totalitarismo de acontecimento singular na história da humanidade.

  18. O lugar do borderline em Winnicott

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    O paciente borderline é considerado exemplar da clínica contemporânea. Entretanto, a falta de consenso em torno desta patologia e do tratamento desses indivíduos são prejudiciais ao desenvolvimento científico. Esta pesquisa, de natureza teórica, teve como ponto de partida a tese de André Green de que Winnicott é o psicanalista do borderline. No entanto, suas contribuições encontram-se esparsas em sua obra e apresentadas de forma nebulosa e ambígua. Este trabalho objetivou, então, compreender ...

  19. Prolapso vaginal e uterino em ovelhas

    OpenAIRE

    Maíra Bianchi R. Alves; Benesi,Fernando J.; Lilian Gregory; Della Libera, Alice M.M.P.; Sucupira,Maria Cláudia A.; Fábio C. Pogliani; Viviani Gomes

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou realizar um estudo retrospectivo sobre os prolapsos vaginal e uterino em ovelhas atendidas no Serviço de Clínica de Bovinos e Pequenos Ruminantes (CBPR) da FMVZ/USP no período compreendido entre 2000 a 2010, no qual, foram atendidas 56 ovinos com problemas inerentes ao sistema reprodutivo, dessas, 25 apresentaram prolapso vaginal ou uterino (44,6%). O prolapso vaginal total foi o de maior frequência (72%). As ovelhas acometidas, em sua maioria, possuíam idade sup...

  20. Energia eólica em mercado

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Ana Patrícia Correia de

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Economia Portuguesa e Integração Internacional. / JEL Classificação: M21, Q42 No plano das energias renováveis, a energia eólica em Portugal tem registado um forte crescimento nos últimos anos, constituindo uma referência incontornável no atual panorama europeu e mundial. A dependência externa de fontes energéticas fósseis, o crescimento da procura interna e a atual política de proteção ambiental, tornaram cada vez mais atrativa a exploração de energias renováveis, plano ond...

  1. NATURE AND LAW IN THE <em>INSTITUTAS> OF GAIO NATUREZA E DIREITO NAS <em>INSTITUTAS> DE GAIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Carlos Storck

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In a very famous passage of his <em>Institutes>, the ancient jurist Gaius had divided the Roman Private Law in two parts: the Civil Law and the Law of People. The former is the Law created by the Roman people, whereas the latter is the Law followed by every nation.

    Despite its classical origin, there is some disagreement among specialists about the right way to interpret this distinction. By the beginning of the 20th century, historians like Michel Villey had seen in this distinction the influence of Greek philosophy (Stoic but even Aristotelian among the Roman jurists. But Levy and more recently Kelly have challenged this view and proposed that, in the roman period, philosophers and jurists had completely distinct notions of nature and natural law. The aim of this paper is not to prove the exact influence of Greek philosophy among jurists, but only to suggest that it is not possible to give an interpretation of the classical texts without ascribing to them a theoretical notion of the natural law.

    Em uma famosa passagem de suas <em>Institutas>, o jurista romano Gaio dividiu o direito privado em duas partes: o direito civil e o direito dos povos. O primeiro é o direito criado pelo povo romano enquanto o segundo é o direito seguido por todas as nações. A despeito de sua origem clássica, os especialistas discordam acerca do modo de interpretar essa tese. No início do século XX, historiadores como Michel Villey viram na distinção sinais da influência da filosofia grega (estóica e mesmo aristotélica entre os juristas romanos. Posteriormente Levy e mais recentemente Kelly contestaram essa afirmação e defenderam que filósofos e juristas possuíam, no período clássico, noções de natureza e direito natural completamente distintas. O objetivo desse artigo não está em provar a exata influência da filosofia grega entre os juristas, mas apenas em sugerir que não é possível fornecer uma interpretação dos

  2. Trabalho fonoaudiologico em oficina de cozinha em um caso de Prader-Willi

    OpenAIRE

    Zambotti, Nathalia; Souza,Luiz Augusto de Paula

    2013-01-01

    TEMA: o objetivo deste estudo é descrever e analisar os efeitos do trabalho fonoaudiológico em Oficina de Cozinha, em processo terapêutico de um paciente portador da síndrome de Prader-Willi. PROCEDIMENTOS: a pesquisa é um estudo de caso de uma criança de 5 anos portadora da Síndrome de Prader-Willi, que apresentava atraso de linguagem e transtornos alimentares. A criança participou durante sete meses do processo terapêutico em Oficina de Cozinha, associado à terapia fonoaudiológica individua...

  3. A Novel Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase from Alkaliphilic <em>Amphibacillus> sp. NPST-10: Purification and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garabed Antranikian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Screening for cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase-producing alkaliphilic bacteria from samples collected from hyper saline soda lakes (Wadi Natrun Valley, Egypt, resulted in isolation of potent CGTase producing alkaliphilic bacterium, termed NPST-10. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified the isolate as <em>Amphibacillus> em>sp. CGTase was purified to homogeneity up to 22.1 fold by starch adsorption and anion exchange chromatography with a yield of 44.7%. The purified enzyme was a monomeric protein with an estimated molecular weight of 92 kDa using SDS-PAGE. Catalytic activities of the enzyme were found to be 88.8 U mg−1 protein, 20.0 U mg−1 protein and