WorldWideScience

Sample records for acuminata cultivars contrasting

  1. De novo transcriptome assembly of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliki Xanthopoulou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita pepo (squash, pumpkin, gourd, a worldwide-cultivated vegetable of American origin, is extremely variable in fruit characteristics. However, the information associated with genes and genetic markers for pumpkin is very limited. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers, we performed a transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars. Leaves and female flowers of cultivars, ‘Big Moose’ with large round fruits and ‘Munchkin’ with small round fruits, were harvested for total RNA extraction. We obtained a total of 6 GB (Big Moose; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056882 and 5 GB (Munchkin; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056883 sequence data (NCBI SRA database SRX1502732 and SRX1502735, respectively, which correspond to 18,055,786 and 14,824,292 150-base reads. After quality assessment, the clean sequences where 17,995,932 and 14,774,486 respectively. The numbers of total transcripts for ‘Big Moose’ and ‘Munchkin’ were 84,727 and 68,051, respectively. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. This study provides transcriptome data for two contrasting pumpkin cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses.

  2. De novo transcriptome assembly of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Aliki; Psomopoulos, Fotis; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Manioudaki, Maria; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-03-01

    Cucurbita pepo (squash, pumpkin, gourd), a worldwide-cultivated vegetable of American origin, is extremely variable in fruit characteristics. However, the information associated with genes and genetic markers for pumpkin is very limited. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers, we performed a transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq) of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars. Leaves and female flowers of cultivars, 'Big Moose' with large round fruits and 'Munchkin' with small round fruits, were harvested for total RNA extraction. We obtained a total of 6 GB (Big Moose; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056882) and 5 GB (Munchkin; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056883) sequence data (NCBI SRA database SRX1502732 and SRX1502735, respectively), which correspond to 18,055,786 and 14,824,292 150-base reads. After quality assessment, the clean sequences where 17,995,932 and 14,774,486 respectively. The numbers of total transcripts for 'Big Moose' and 'Munchkin' were 84,727 and 68,051, respectively. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. This study provides transcriptome data for two contrasting pumpkin cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses.

  3. EFEITO DO PERÍODO DE ARMAZENAMENTO SOBRE A BROTAÇÃO DE MUDAS DE BANANEIRA DO CULTIVAR NANICÃO (Musa acuminata AAA EFFECT OF STORAGE TIME IN THE BUDDING OF BANANA ROOTSTOCK CULTIVAR NANICÃO (Musa acuminata AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Veloso Naves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A grande procura atual de mudas de bananeiras do cultivar Nanicão (Musa acuminata AAA em Goiás, principalmente na região do Mato Grosso Goiano, tem forçado o transporte de mudas a grandes distâncias. A maioria destas mudas são transportadas sob a forma de pedaços de rizoma com aproximadamente 1 Kg. Tem-se observado uma falha acima do previsto quando se utiliza este tipo de muda. O presente trabalho foi realizado para determinar o efeito do período de armazenamento sobre a brotação deste cultivar. Com base nos resultados concluiu-se que no período de armazenamento estudado (45 dias praticamente não houve diferença na brotação das mudas. Somente aquelas armazenadas por 5 (cinco semanas apresentaram inexplicavelmente um índice baixo de pegamento.

    Because of the tremendous current demand for Nanicão (Musa acuminata AAA banana shoots in the state of Goiás, notably in the “Mato Grosso Goiano” area, shoots have had to be imported from far away. The greater part of these shoots are transported in rootstalk form. Each rootstalk weighs approximately 1 Kg. A larger portion of these shoots than been anticipated, are defective. The present study was made to determine the effect of storage time on the budding of this particular banana rootstalk. The results of the experiment show that during the period of storage, forty-two (42 days, that was studied, there was almost no difference in budding among the rootstalks. Only those which were stored for five (5 weeks showed, unexplainably, a low budding index.

  4. Characterization of novel microsatellite markers in Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim Edson P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Banana is a nutritionally important crop across tropical and sub-tropical countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America and Asia. Although cultivars have evolved from diploid, triploid and tetraploid wild Asian species of Musa acuminata (A genome and Musa balbisiana (B genome, many of today's commercial cultivars are sterile triploids or diploids, with fruit developing via parthenocarpy. As a result of restricted genetic variation, improvement has been limited, resulting in a crop frequently lacking resistance to pests and disease. Considering the importance of molecular tools to facilitate development of disease resistant genotypes, the objectives of this study were to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers from BAC clone sequences for M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4. This wild diploid species is used as a donor cultivar in breeding programs as a source of resistance to diverse biotic stresses. Findings Microsatellite sequences were identified from five Calcutta 4 BAC consensi datasets. Specific primers were designed for 41 loci. Isolated di-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant, followed by tri-nucleotides. From 33 tested loci, 20 displayed polymorphism when screened across 21 diploid M. acuminata accessions, contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. The number of alleles per SSR locus ranged from two to four, with a total of 56. Six repeat classes were identified, with di-nucleotides the most abundant. Expected heterozygosity values for polymorphic markers ranged from 0.31 to 0.75. Conclusions This is the first report identifying polymorphic microsatellite markers from M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 across accessions contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. These BAC-derived polymorphic microsatellite markers are a useful resource for banana, applicable for genetic map development, germplasm characterization, evolutionary studies and marker

  5. Silicon efflux transporters isolated from two pumpkin cultivars contrasting in Si uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani-Ueno, Namiki; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2011-07-01

    The accumulation of silicon (Si) differs greatly with plant species and cultivars due to different ability of the roots to take up Si. In Si accumulating plants such as rice, barley and maize, Si uptake is mediated by the influx (Lsi1) and efflux (Lsi2) transporters. Here we report isolation and functional analysis of two Si efflux transporters (CmLsi2-1 and CmLsi2-2) from two pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) cultivars contrasting in Si uptake. These cultivars are used for rootstocks of bloom and bloomless cucumber, respectively. Different from mutations in the Si influx transporter CmLsi1, there was no difference in the sequence of either CmLsi2 between two cultivars. Both CmLsi2-1 and CmLsi2-2 showed an efflux transport activity for Si and they were expressed in both the roots and shoots. These results confirm our previous finding that mutation in CmLsi1, but not in CmLsi2-1 and CmLsi2-2 are responsible for bloomless phenotype resulting from low Si uptake.

  6. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland. All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators “Emistym C” and “Agrostymulin” was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide “Strobi” and natural growth regulator “Emistym C” demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  7. Effects of external potassium (k supply on drought tolerances of two contrasting winter wheat cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguang Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drought is a common stress limiting crops growth and productivities worldwide. Water deficit may increase cellular membrane permeability, resulting in K outflow. Internal K starvation may disorder plant metabolism and limit plant growth. However, it is seldom reported about the effects of external K on drought tolerance of contrasting wheat cultivars. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydroponics experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Seedlings of drought-tolerant SN16 and intolerant JM22 were simultaneously treated by five levels of K2CO3 (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mM and two levels of PEG6000 (0, 20% for 7 days. External K2CO3 significantly increased shoot K(+ content, water potential, chlorophyll content as well as gas exchange, but decreased electrolyte leakage (EL and MDA content in both cultivars under PEG6000 stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were up-regulated by PEG6000 while external K2CO3 reduced those changes. Molecular basis was explained by measuring the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes. Shoot and root biomass were also increased by K2CO3 supply under drought stress. Although adequate K2CO3 application enhanced plant growth for both cultivars under drought stress, SN16 was better than JM22 due to its high drought tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adequate external K may effectively protect winter wheat from drought injuries. We conclude that drought-tolerant wheat combined with adequate external K supply may be a promising strategy for better growth in arid and semi-arid regions.

  8. Physiological and proteome studies of responses to heat stress during grain filling in contrasting wheat cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Vignjevic, Marija;

    2015-01-01

    Experiments to explore physiological and biochemical differences of the effects of heat stress in ten wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars have been performed. Based on the response of photosynthesis rates, cell membrane lipid peroxide concentrations and grain yield to heat, six cultivars were...... compared to sensitive cultivars under heat stress. The tolerant cv. '810' and the sensitive cv. '1039' were selected for further proteome analysis of leaves. Proteins related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, stress defence, heat shock and ATP production were differently expressed in leaves of the tolerant...... and sensitive cultivar under heat stress in relation to the corresponding control. The abundance of proteins related to signal transduction, heat shock, photosynthesis, and antioxidants increased, while the abundance of proteins related to nitrogen metabolism decreased in the tolerant cv. '810' under heat...

  9. Constraints to hydraulic acclimation under reduced light in two contrasting Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzner, Steven L; Rettedal, David D; Harmon, Derek A; Beukelman, MacKenzie R

    2014-08-01

    Two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were grown under three light levels to determine if hydraulic acclimation to light occurs in herbaceous annuals and whether intraspecific trade-offs constrain hydraulic traits. Acclimation occurred in response to reduced light and included decreased stomatal density (SD) and increased specific leaf area (SLA). Reduced light resulted in lower wood density (WD); decreased cavitation resistance, measured as the xylem pressure causing a 50 % reduction in stem conductivity (P50); and increased hydraulic capacity, measured as average leaf mass specific transpiration (E(LM)). Significant or marginally significant trade-offs between P50 and WD, WD and E(LM), and E(LM) and P50 reflected variation due to both genotype and environmental effects. A trade-off between WD and P50 within one cultivar indicated that morphological adjustment was constrained. Coordinated changes in WD, P50, and E(LM) within each cultivar in response to light were consistent with trade-offs constraining plasticity. A water-use efficiency (WUE, measured as δ(13)C) versus hydraulic capacity (E(LM)) trade-off was observed within each cultivar, further indicating that hydraulic trade-offs can constrain acclimation. Larger plants had lower hydraulic capacity (E(LM)) but greater cavitation resistance, WD, and WUE. Distinct hydraulic strategies were observed with the cultivar adapted to irrigated conditions having higher stomatal conductance and stem flow rates. The cultivar adapted to rain-fed conditions had higher leaf area and greater cavitation resistance. Hydraulic trade-offs were observed within the herbaceous P. vulgaris resulting from both genotype and environmental effects. Trade-offs within a cultivar reflected constraints to hydraulic acclimation in response to changing light.

  10. Comparing hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars for dual-purpose production under contrasting environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Kailei; Struik, P.C.; Yin, X.; Thouminot, C.; Bjelková, M.; Stramkale, V.; Amaducci, S.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in hemp as a multi-purpose crop is growing worldwide and for the first time in 2015 it was cultivated in Europe on more than 20.000 ha as a dual-purpose crop, for the seeds and for the fibre. In the present study, fibre and seed productivity of 14 commercial cultivars were tested in four

  11. Identification and Expression Analyses of miRNAs from Two Contrasting Flower Color Cultivars of Canna by Deep Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sribash; Tripathi, Abhinandan Mani; Yadav, Amrita; Mishra, Parneeta; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    miRNAs are endogenous small RNA (sRNA) that play critical roles in plant development processes. Canna is an ornamental plant belonging to family Cannaceae. Here, we report for the first time the identification and differential expression of miRNAs in two contrasting flower color cultivars of Canna, Tropical sunrise and Red president. A total of 313 known miRNAs belonging to 78 miRNA families were identified from both the cultivars. Thirty one miRNAs (17 miRNA families) were specific to Tropical sunrise and 43 miRNAs (10 miRNA families) were specific to Red president. Thirty two and 18 putative new miRNAs were identified from Tropical sunrise and Red president, respectively. One hundred and nine miRNAs were differentially expressed in the two cultivars targeting 1343 genes. Among these, 16 miRNAs families targeting 60 genes were involved in flower development related traits and five miRNA families targeting five genes were involved in phenyl propanoid and pigment metabolic processes. We further validated the expression analysis of a few miRNA and their target genes by qRT-PCR. Transcription factors were the major miRNA targets identified. Target validation of a few randomly selected miRNAs by RLM-RACE was performed but was successful with only miR162. These findings will help in understanding flower development processes, particularly the color development in Canna.

  12. Comparative analysis of phytochemicals and nutrient availability in two contrasting cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shubhendu; Mishra, Divya; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2015-04-15

    Sweet potato ranks as the world's seventh most important food crop, and has major contribution to energy and phytochemical source of nutrition. To unravel the molecular basis for differential nutrient availability, and to exploit the natural genetic variation(s) of sweet potato, a series of physiochemical and proteomics experiment was conducted using two contrasting cultivars, an orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) and a white-fleshed sweet potato (WFSP). Phytochemical screening revealed high percentage of carbohydrate, reducing sugar and phenolics in WFSP, whereas OFSP showed increased levels of total protein, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids. The rate of starch and cellulose degradation was found to be less in OFSP during storage, indicating tight regulation of gene(s) responsible for starch-degradation. Comparative proteomics displayed a cultivar-dependent expression of proteins along with evolutionarily conserved proteins. These results suggest that cultivar-specific expression of proteins and/or their interacting partners might play a crucial role for nutrient acquisition in sweet potato.

  13. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Contrasting Grain Protein Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baojian; Luan, Haiye; Lin, Shen; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein contents (GPCs) of barley seeds are significantly different between feed and malting barley cultivars. However, there is still no insight into the proteomic analysis of seed proteins between feed and malting barley cultivars. Also, the genetic control of barley GPC is still unclear. GPCs were measured between mature grains of Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. A proteome profiling of differentially expressed protein was established by using a combination of 2-DE and tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 502 reproducible protein spots in barley seed proteome were detected with a pH range of 4–7 and 6–11, among these 41 protein spots (8.17%) were detected differentially expressed between Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. Thirty-four protein spots corresponding to 23 different proteins were identified, which were grouped into eight categories, including stress, protein degradation and post-translational modification, development, cell, signaling, glycolysis, starch metabolism, and other functions. Among the identified proteins, enolase (spot 274) and small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (spot 271) are exclusively expressed in barley Yangsimai 3, which may be involved in regulating seed protein expression. In addition, malting quality is characterized by an accumulation of serpin protein, Alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CMb and Alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1. Most noticeably, globulin, an important storage protein in barley seed, undergoes post-translational processing in both cultivars, and also displays different expression patterns. PMID:27200019

  14. Analysis of non-TIR NBS-LRR resistance gene analogs in Musa acuminata Colla: Isolation, RFLP marker development, and physical mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Manoel T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many commercial banana varieties lack sources of resistance to pests and diseases, as a consequence of sterility and narrow genetic background. Fertile wild relatives, by contrast, possess greater variability and represent potential sources of disease resistance genes (R-genes. The largest known family of plant R-genes encode proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS and C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR domains. Conserved motifs in such genes in diverse plant species offer a means for isolation of candidate genes in banana which may be involved in plant defence. Results A computational strategy was developed for unbiased conserved motif discovery in NBS and LRR domains in R-genes and homologues in monocotyledonous plant species. Degenerate PCR primers targeting conserved motifs were tested on the wild cultivar Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4, which is resistant to a number of fungal pathogens and nematodes. One hundred and seventy four resistance gene analogs (RGAs were amplified and assembled into 52 contiguous sequences. Motifs present were typical of the non-TIR NBS-LRR RGA subfamily. A phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino-acid sequences for 33 RGAs with contiguous open reading frames (ORFs, together with RGAs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, grouped most Musa RGAs within monocotyledon-specific clades. RFLP-RGA markers were developed, with 12 displaying distinct polymorphisms in parentals and F1 progeny of a diploid M. acuminata mapping population. Eighty eight BAC clones were identified in M. acuminata Calcutta 4, M. acuminata Grande Naine, and M. balbisiana Pisang Klutuk Wulung BAC libraries when hybridized to two RGA probes. Multiple copy RGAs were common within BAC clones, potentially representing variation reservoirs for evolution of new R-gene specificities. Conclusion This is the first large scale analysis of NBS-LRR RGAs in M. acuminata Calcutta 4. Contig sequences were

  15. A saturated SSR/DArT linkage map of Musa acuminata addressing genome rearrangements among bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Takashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Musa is a large species complex which includes cultivars at diploid and triploid levels. These sterile and vegetatively propagated cultivars are based on the A genome from Musa acuminata, exclusively for sweet bananas such as Cavendish, or associated with the B genome (Musa balbisiana in cooking bananas such as Plantain varieties. In M. acuminata cultivars, structural heterozygosity is thought to be one of the main causes of sterility, which is essential for obtaining seedless fruits but hampers breeding. Only partial genetic maps are presently available due to chromosomal rearrangements within the parents of the mapping populations. This causes large segregation distortions inducing pseudo-linkages and difficulties in ordering markers in the linkage groups. The present study aims at producing a saturated linkage map of M. acuminata, taking into account hypotheses on the structural heterozygosity of the parents. Results An F1 progeny of 180 individuals was obtained from a cross between two genetically distant accessions of M. acuminata, 'Borneo' and 'Pisang Lilin' (P. Lilin. Based on the gametic recombination of each parent, two parental maps composed of SSR and DArT markers were established. A significant proportion of the markers (21.7% deviated (p Conclusions We propose a synthetic map with 11 linkage groups containing 489 markers (167 SSRs and 322 DArTs covering 1197 cM. This first saturated map is proposed as a "reference Musa map" for further analyses. We also propose two complete parental maps with interpretations of structural rearrangements localized on the linkage groups. The structural heterozygosity in P. Lilin is hypothesized to result from a duplication likely accompanied by an inversion on another chromosome. This paper also illustrates a methodological approach, transferable to other species, to investigate the mapping of structural rearrangements and determine their consequences on marker

  16. Differential activation of genes related to aluminium tolerance in two contrasting rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselló, Maite; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Gunsé, Benet; Barceló, Juan; Llugany, Mercè

    2015-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is a highly Al-tolerant crop. Among other mechanisms, a higher expression of STAR1/STAR2 (sensitive to Al rhizotoxicity1/2) genes and of Nrat1 (NRAMP Aluminium Transporter 1), and ALS1 (Aluminium sensitive 1) can at least in part be responsible for the inducible Al tolerance in this species. Here we analysed the responses to Al in two contrasting rice varieties. All analysed toxicity/tolerance markers (root elongation, Evans blue, morin and haematoxylin staining) indicated higher Al-tolerance in variety Nipponbare, than in variety Modan. Nipponbare accumulated much less Al in the roots than Modan. Aluminium supply caused stronger expression of STAR1 in Nipponbare than in Modan. A distinctively higher increase of Al-induced abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation was found in the roots of Nipponbare than in Modan. Highest ABA levels were observed in Nipponbare after 48 h exposure to Al. This ABA peak was coincident in time with the highest expression level of STAR1. It is proposed that ABA may be required for cell wall remodulation facilitated by the enhanced UDP-glucose transport to the walls through STAR1/STAR2. Contrastingly, in the roots of Modan the expression of both Nrat1 coding for a plasma membrane Al-transporter and of ALS1 coding for a tonoplast-localized Al transporter was considerably enhanced. Moreover, Modan had a higher Al-induced expression of ASR1 a gene that has been proposed to code for a reactive oxygen scavenging protein. In conclusion, the Al-exclusion strategy of Nipponbare, at least in part mediated by STAR1 and probably regulated by ABA, provided better protection against Al toxicity than the accumulation and internal detoxification strategy of Modan mediated by Nrat1, ALS1 and ARS1.

  17. Antioxidant response and Lea genes expression under salt stress and combined salt plus water stress in two wheat cultivars contrasting in drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagi, Priyanka; Zhawar, Vikramjit Kaur; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Two wheat cultivars, C306 and PBW343 contrasting in drought tolerance were compared for their antioxidant response and Lea genes' expression under salt stress (SS) and combined stress (CS) of salt stress plus water stress during seedlings growth. The drought susceptible cultivar (PBW343) behaved different towards SS/CS than towards WS. It accumulated more dry masses in shoots, more ascorbate, had higher ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio, lesser dehydroascorbate, lesser malondialdehyde (MDA), more proline and higher antioxidant enzymes under SS than under WS. CS increased dry masses, ascorbate, ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio, antioxidant enzymes and decreased dehydroascorbate and MDA contents from levels under WS. The drought tolerant cultivar (C306) though showed higher levels of ascorbate, ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio, lower levels of dehydroascorbate, showed lesser dry biomasses in shoots, higher MDA and lesser ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities under SS than under WS and these features were improved on combining WS with SS. All lea genes were induced under all stresses in both cultivars except Wrab17 in C306 only, was not induced under any stress. Eight Lea genes out of ten were induced higher under WS than SS in C306 but induced same in PBW343. Wdhn13 gene was higher salt-responsive than other lea genes in both cultivars.

  18. Management of a giant perineal condylomata acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemper, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A condylomata acuminata infection is caused by human papillomaviridae (HPV. This sexually transmitted condition most often affects the perineal region. Importantly, infections with types 16 and 18 are associated with an increased risk for anal and cervix cancer. In most cases topical therapy is sufficient for successfully treating condylomata acuminata. Here, we report the case of a 51-year old patient who suffered from a giant perianal located condylomata acuminata which had developed over a period of more than 10 years. Imaging by MRI revealed a possible infiltration of the musculus sphincter ani externus. Because a topical treatment or a radiotherapy was considered unfeasible, a surgical treatment was the only therapeutic option in this unusual case. First, a colostomy was performed and subsequently a resection of the tumor with circular resection of the external portion of the musculus sphincter ani externus was performed. The large skin defect was closed by two gluteus flaps. The rectum wall was reinserted in the remnant of the musculus sphincter ani externus. Postoperatively, parts of the flaps developed necrosis. Therefore, a vacuum sealing therapy was initiated. Subsequently, the remaining skin defects were closed by autologous skin transplantation. Six months later the colostomy could be reversed. To date, one year after first surgery, the patient has still a normal sphincter function and no recurrence of the condylomata acuminata. This case report demonstrates how giant condylomata acuminata can be successfully treated by extended surgical procedures including colostomy and plastic reconstruction of resulting defects upon resection.

  19. Atividade antiviral de Musa acuminata Colla, Musaceae Antiviral activity of Musa acuminata Colla, Musaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Otaviano Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avalia a atividade antiviral de extratos e frações de Musa acuminata Colla, Musaceae, coletada em duas regiões do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Petrópolis e Santo Antônio de Pádua. As inflorescências de M. acuminata apresentaram excelente atividade para os dois vírus avaliados: herpesvírus simples humano tipo 1 e herpesvírus simples humano tipo 2, ambos resistentes ao Aciclovir. Os resultados indicam que os extratos de M. acuminata testados podem constituir alvo potencial para uso em terapias antivirais.This study evaluates the antiviral activity of extracts and fractions of Musa acuminata Colla collected in two regions of Rio de Janeiro State (Petrópolis and Santo Antônio de Pádua. The inflorescences of M. acuminata showed excellent activity for the two virus evaluated: simple human herpesvirus type 1 and simple human herpesvirus type 2, both resistant to Acyclovir. The results indicate that the tested extracts of M. acuminata can be potential target for use in antiviral therapy.

  20. Photoperiodic effects on short-pulse 14C assimilation and overall carbon and nitrogen allocation patterns in contrasting quinoa cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe; Sun, Yujie; Rosenqvist, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    Further understanding of the range of environmental influence on source-sink relationships in quinoa is important to streamlining future crop improvement and efforts concerning geographic expansion of cultivation areas. In the present study a photoperiod sensitive quinoa cv. 'Achachino' and photo......Further understanding of the range of environmental influence on source-sink relationships in quinoa is important to streamlining future crop improvement and efforts concerning geographic expansion of cultivation areas. In the present study a photoperiod sensitive quinoa cv. 'Achachino......', but increasingly in 'Achachino'. Both cultivars increased biomass accumulation under extended photoperiod, but in the short day cultivar 'Achachino' the extension mostly favoured stem and lower leaf growth and resulted in deteriorated seed development. In contrast, 'Titicaca' responded to extended photoperiod...... the photoperiod neutral cultivar in comparison has a wider range in photoperiod plasticity and ability to specifically utilize additional light towards reproductive growth, resulting in an increased yield potential in regions outside of the tropical zone. © 2014 Elsevier B.V....

  1. Isolation and functional characterization of an influx silicon transporter in two pumpkin cultivars contrasting in silicon accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Namiki; Yamaji, Naoki; Ago, Yukiko; Iwasaki, Kozo; Ma, Jian Feng

    2011-04-01

    A high accumulation of silicon (Si) is required for overcoming abiotic and biotic stresses, but the molecular mechanisms of Si uptake, especially in dicotyledonous species, is poorly understood. Herein, we report the identification of an influx transporter of Si in two Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin) cultivars greatly differing in Si accumulation, which are used for the rootstocks of bloom and bloomless Cucumis sativus (cucumber), respectively. Heterogeneous expression in both Xenopus oocytes and rice mutant defective in Si uptake showed that the influx transporter from the bloom pumpkin rootstock can transport Si, whereas that from the bloomless rootstock cannot. Analysis with site-directed mutagenesis showed that, among the two amino acid residues differing between the two types of rootstocks, only changing a proline to a leucine at position 242 results in the loss of Si transport activity. Furthermore, all pumpkin cultivars for bloomless rootstocks tested have this mutation. The transporter is localized in all cells of the roots, and investigation of the subcellular localization with different approaches consistently showed that the influx Si transporter from the bloom pumpkin rootstock was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas the one from the bloomless rootstock was localized at the endoplasmic reticulum. Taken together, our results indicate that the difference in Si uptake between two pumpkin cultivars is probably the result of allelic variation in one amino acid residue of the Si influx transporter, which affects the subcellular localization and subsequent transport of Si from the external solution to the root cells.

  2. Contrasting response of biomass and grain yield to severe drought in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Paul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case study of natural variations and correlations of some photosynthetic parameters, green biomass and grain yield in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, which are classified as being drought sensitive and tolerant, respectively. We monitored biomass accumulation from secondary leaves in the vegetative phase and grain yield from flag leaves in the grain filling period. Interestingly, we observed higher biomass production, but lower grain yield stability in the sensitive Cappelle cultivar, as compared to the tolerant Plainsman cv. Higher biomass production in the sensitive variety was correlated with enhanced water-use efficiency. Increased cyclic electron flow around PSI was also observed in the Cappelle cv. under drought stress as shown by light intensity dependence of the ratio of maximal quantum yields of Photosystem I and Photosystem II, as well by the plot of the Photosystem I electron transport rate as a function of Photosystem II electron transport rate. Higher CO2 uptake rate in flag leaves of the drought-stressed Plainsman cv. during grain filling period correlates well with its higher grain yield and prolonged transpiration rate through spikes. The increase in drought factor (DFI and performance (PI indices calculated from variable chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of secondary leaves also showed correlation with higher biomass in the Cappelle cultivar during the biomass accumulation period. However, during the grain filling period, DFI and PI parameters of the flag leaves were higher in the tolerant Plainsman V cultivar and showed correlation with grain yield stability. Our results suggest that overall biomass and grain yield may respond differentially to drought stress in different wheat cultivars and therefore phenotyping for green biomass cannot be used as a general approach to predict grain yield. We also conclude that photosynthetic efficiency of flag and secondary leaves

  3. Transcriptional analysis of cell wall and cuticle related genes during fruit development of two sweet cherry cultivars with contrasting levels of cracking tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Balbontín

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rain-induced cracking before harvest is the major cause of crop loss in sweet cherry (Prunus avium [L.] L. In order to better understand the relationship between cherry fruit cracking and gene expression, the transcriptional patterns of six genes related to cell wall modification and cuticular wax biosynthesis were analyzed during fruit setting (FS, fruit color change (FC and fruit ripening (FR, employing two contrasting cultivars: the cracking resistant 'Kordia' and the cracking susceptible 'Bing'. The transcription levels of AP2/EREBP-type transcription factor (PaWINB, wax synthase (WS, ß-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (PaKCS6, and ß-galactosidase (ß-Gal showed higher levels in 'Kordia' than in 'Bing' during the FS stage, while similar values were observed in both cultivars at FR stage. In contrast to that pattern, transcription levels of expansin (PaEXPl were higher at FR stage in 'Kordia' than in 'Bing'. Transcript profile of lipid transport protein gene (PaLTPGl decreased during fruit development, with higher levels in 'Bing' than in 'Kordia' at FC and FR stages suggesting no relation with cracking tolerance. The expression profiles of PaWINB, WS, PaKCS6, and ß-Gal suggest that they are genes involved in conferring cracking tolerance, likely due to their function in cuticle deposition during early stages of fruit development. In addition, a greater expression level of expansin gene would allow for a faster growth rate in 'Kordia' at FR stage.

  4. Comparative Study of Phenolic Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Color-composition Relation of Roselle Cultivars with Contrasting Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo-Méndez, Gustavo A; Jara-Palacios, M José; Escudero-Gilete, M Luisa; Gordillo, Belén; Hernanz, Dolores; Paredes-López, Octavio; Vanegas-Espinoza, Pablo E; Del Villar-Martínez, Alma A; Heredia, Francisco J

    2016-03-01

    Roselle is a plant that accumulates anthocyanins significantly, hence its importance as food coloring and as a source of antioxidant compounds for human health. This study was aimed to determine phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extracts, and beverages obtained from native roselle cultivars in Mexico (Negra, Sudan, Rosa and Blanca) with different degrees of pigmentation, and to establish the color-composition relationship. Chromatographic methods were used to determine phenolic compounds: flavanols, flavonols, benzoic, hibiscus and phenolic acids as well as two main anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by ABTS and FRAP assays. Tristimulus colorimetry showed to be a useful technique to determine the color-composition relationship, leading to equations that allowed to predict anthocyanin content of roselle (R > 0.84). Also, a stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) was developed in order to classify roselle cultivars. The obtained mathematical model could be an important tool to be used in colorimetric characterization of functional compounds used in food processing.

  5. The natural impact of banana inflorescences (Musa acuminata on human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina E. Fingolo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana inflorescences are popularly known as 'navels,' and they are used in Brazil as nutritional complements. However, the nutritional value of banana inflorescences (male flowers and bracts has never been studied. Therefore, plant material of Musa acuminata, cultivar "ouro", was collected in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and then submitted to chemical procedures to determine its nutritional composition. The experiment was arranged a completely randomized design and performed in triplicate. The sample composition analysis showed percentual average value for moisture, protein, fat and ash as 8.21, 14.50, 4.04 and 14.43, respectively. The dehydrated inflorescences were found to contain a significant nutritive complement based on their high content of potassium (5008.26 mg / 100 g and fiber 49.83% (lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses revealing important functional and nutritional properties. In a parallel evaluation, the anatomical study revealed key elements for the recognition of Musa acuminata when reduced to fragments.Inflorescências de bananeira são popularmente conhecidas como "umbigos", e esses são usados no Brasil como complementos nutricionais. No entanto, o valor nutricional das inflorescências (flores masculinas e brácteas de bananeira nunca foi estudado. Portanto, o material vegetal de Musa acuminata cultivar "ouro" foi coletado no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil e, em seguida, submetido aos procedimentos químicos para determinar a sua composição nutricional. As análises foram realizadas em triplicata. A análise da composição da amostra apresentou teor percentual médio de umidade, proteína, lipídeos e cinza de 8,21, 14,50, 4,04 e 14,43, respectivamente. As inflorescências secas mostraram significativo complemento nutritivo baseado no alto conteúdo de potássio (5.008,26 mg / 100 g e de fibra 49,83% (lignina, celulose e hemiceluloses revelando importantes propriedades funcional e nutritiva. Em uma avaliação paralela, o estudo

  6. CONTRAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Krogsgaard

    2007-01-01

    Dette er en afrapportering fra den årlige CONTRAST workshop, der i 2007 blev afholdt i Yaoundé, Cameroon.......Dette er en afrapportering fra den årlige CONTRAST workshop, der i 2007 blev afholdt i Yaoundé, Cameroon....

  7. Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Mild Steel in Acid Medium Using Musa Acuminata Fruit Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gunavathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition effect of unripe fruit peel extract of Musa acuminata (Cultivar variety – Nendran (MNP on corrosion of mild steel in 1 N HCl has been investigated by weight loss and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS with various concentrations of the extract. The effect of temperature on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in the temperature range of 30°C – 80°C was carried out. The results indicate that MNP extract act as an effective inhibitor in the acid environment and is of mixed type inhibitor having efficiency as high as 96% at 2% inhibitor concentration. The inhibition efficiency of MNP extract increases with the increase of concentration but decreases with the increase in temperature. The inhibitor achieves its inhibition by physical adsorption of nutrients of the peel extract on the surface of the mild steel. The experimental data revealed that the adsorption occurred according to the Langmuir and Temkin adsorption isotherm.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Genes in Inferior and Superior Spikelets of Rice Cultivars with Contrasting Panicle-Compactness and Grain-Filling Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Sekhar

    Full Text Available Breeding programs for increasing spikelet number in rice have resulted in compactness of the panicle, accompanied by poor grain filling in inferior spikelets. Although the inefficient utilization of assimilate has been indicated as responsible for this poor grain filling, the underlying cause remains elusive. The current study utilized the suppression subtractive hybridization technique to identify 57 and 79 genes that overexpressed in the superior and inferior spikelets (with respect to each other, respectively, of the compact-panicle rice cultivar Mahalaxmi. Functional categorization of these differentially expressed genes revealed a marked metabolic difference between the spikelets according to their spatial location on the panicle. The expression of genes encoding seed storage proteins was dominant in inferior spikelets, whereas genes encoding regulatory proteins, such as serine-threonine kinase, zinc finger protein and E3 ligase, were highly expressed in superior spikelets. The expression patterns of these genes in the inferior and superior spikelets of Mahalaxmi were similar to those observed in another compact-panicle cultivar, OR-1918, but differed from those obtained in two lax-panicle cultivars, Upahar and Lalat. The results first suggest that the regulatory proteins abundantly expressed in the superior spikelets of compact-panicle cultivars and in both the superior and inferior spikelets of lax-panicle cultivars but poorly expressed in the inferior spikelets of compact-panicle cultivars promote grain filling. Second, the high expression of seed-storage proteins observed in the inferior spikelets of compact-panicle cultivars appears to inhibit the grain filling process. Third, the low expression of enzymes of the Krebs cycle in inferior spikelets compared with superior spikelets of compact-panicle cultivars is bound to lead to poor ATP generation in the former and consequently limit starch biosynthesis, an ATP-consuming process

  9. Isolation and characterization of endophytic fungi from Camptotheca acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaowei; Liu, Kaihui; Deng, Baiwan; Chen, Wenqiang; Li, Wenjun; Liu, Feihu

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a total of 161 endophytic fungal isolates from Camptotheca acuminata were obtained and classified to 16 taxa according to morphological and molecular analysis. These taxa were composed of 2 frequent genera (Botryosphaeria and Fusarium) and 14 infrequent groups such as Xylaria, Diaporthe, Rhizopus, Epicoccum, and Preussia, demonstrating that fungal endophytes in C. acuminata were highly abundant and diverse. Antimicrobial activity screening using filter-paper diffusion method showed that 47.6 % of the tested isolates had antimicrobial activity against at least one of the test microorganisms. Screening of fungal endophyte-derived camptothecin analogues by TLC and LC-MS/MS³ demonstrated that a strain Botryosphaeria dothidea, X-4 could produce 9-methoxycamptothecin (9-MCPT) when cultured in Sabouraud's dextrose broth for 12 days under shake flask and bench-scale fermention conditions. This work showed that the fungal endophytes from C. acuminata could be an alternative source for the production of 9-MCPT and other natural antimicrobial compounds.

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Camptotheca acuminata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-mei; ZU Yuan-gang

    2007-01-01

    UGPase gene related with wood cellulose synthesis was transferred into C. Acuminata using the method of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, and an efficient transformation system was developed for C. Acuminata on the basis of evaluations of several factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer rate. The highest transformation rate was achieved when pre-cultured leaf explants were infected with an Agrobacterium culture corresponding to OD600 (0.5) for 10 min, and cultured on explant regeneration medium for three days. The results of Southern hybridization showed that genomic DNA of the kanamycin-resistant shoots to an UGPase gene probe substantiated the integration of the transgene. Transformation efficiency (6%) was achieved under the optimized transformation procedure. This system should facilitate the introduction of important useful genes into C. Acuminata.

  11. Effects of Aqueous Stem Extract of Massularia Acuminata on Some Liver Function Indices of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Massularia acuminata has been claimed to be used in managingseveral ailments in folk medicine and in some instances substantiated withscientific data. This however has been without recourse to its safety. Therefore,aqueous stem extract of M. acuminata was evaluated for its effects on somefunction indices of the liver of male rats.Methods: Sixty, male rats were grouped into 4 (A, B, C and D such that Group A(control was orally administered 1cm3 of distilled water while those in groups B, Cand D received orally 1 cm3 of extract corresponding to 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kgbody weight respectively. Some biochemical parameters of liver function wereevaluated in the animals after 1, 7 and 21 daily doses.Results: The extract significantly decreased (P<0.05 the activity of alkalinephosphatase in the liver of rats throughout the experimental period. This decreasewas accompanied by corresponding increase in the serum enzyme. In contrast, allthe doses of the extract increased the activities of both the AST and ALT in the liverand serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase as well asthe concentrations of serum total bilirubin, protein and albumin.Conclusion: This study has revealed that the aqueous stem extract of Massulariaacuminata at the doses of 250-1000 mg/kg body weight hampered the normalfunctioning of the liver of male rats and is therefore not safe for oral consumption atthe doses investigated.

  12. Correlation between differential drought tolerability of two contrasting drought-responsive chickpea cultivars and differential expression of a subset of CaNAC genes under normal and dehydration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kien Huu; Ha, Chien Van; Watanabe, Yasuko; Tran, Uyen Thi; Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Nguyen, Dong Van; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Drought causes detrimental effect to growth and productivity of many plants, including crops. NAC transcription factors have been reported to play important role in drought tolerance. In this study, we assessed the expression profiles of 19 dehydration-responsive CaNAC genes in roots and leaves of two contrasting drought-responsive chickpea varieties treated with water (control) and dehydration to examine the correlation between the differential expression levels of the CaNAC genes and the differential drought tolerability of these two cultivars. Results of real-time quantitative PCR indicated a positive relationship between the number of dehydration-inducible and -repressible CaNAC genes and drought tolerability. The higher drought-tolerant capacity of ILC482 cultivar vs. Hashem cultivar might be, at least partly, attributed to the higher number of dehydration-inducible and lower number of dehydration-repressible CaNAC genes identified in both root and leaf tissues of ILC482 than in those of Hashem. In addition, our comparative expression analysis of the selected CaNAC genes in roots and leaves of ILC482 and Hashem cultivars revealed different dehydration-responsive expression patterns, indicating that CaNAC gene expression is tissue- and genotype-specific. Furthermore, the analysis suggested that the enhanced drought tolerance of ILC482 vs. Hashem might be associated with five genes, namely CaNAC02, 04, 05, 16, and 24. CaNAC16 could be a potential candidate gene, contributing to the better drought tolerance of ILC482 vs. Hashem as a positive regulator. Conversely, CaNAC02 could be a potential negative regulator, contributing to the differential drought tolerability of these two cultivars. Thus, our results have also provided a solid foundation for selection of promising tissue-specific and/or dehydration-responsive CaNAC candidates for detailed in planta functional analyses, leading to development of transgenic chickpea varieties with improved productivity under

  13. Correlation between differential drought tolerability of two contrasting drought-responsive chickpea cultivars and differential expression of a subset of CaNAC genes under normal and dehydration conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kien Huu Nguyen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought causes detrimental effect to growth and productivity of many plants, including crops. NAC transcription factors (TFs have been reported to play important role in drought tolerance. In this study, we assessed the expression profiles of 19 dehydration-responsive CaNAC genes in roots and leaves of two contrasting drought-responsive chickpea varieties treated with water (control and dehydration to examine the correlation between the differential expression levels of the CaNACs and the differential drought tolerability of these two cultivars. Results of real-time quantitative PCR indicated a positive relationship between the number of dehydration-inducible and -repressible CaNAC genes and drought tolerability. The higher drought-tolerant capacity of ICL482 cultivar vs. Hashem cultivar might be, at least partly, attributed to the higher number of dehydration-inducible and lower number of dehydration-repressible CaNAC genes identified in both root and leaf tissues of ICL482 than in those of Hashem. In addition, our comparative expression analysis of the selected CaNACs in roots and leaves of ICL482 and Hashem cultivars revealed different dehydration-responsive expression patterns, indicating that CaNAC gene expression is tissue- and genotype-specific. Furthermore, the analysis suggested that the enhanced drought tolerance of ICL482 vs. Hashem might be associated with 5 genes, namely CaNAC02, 04, 05, 16 and 24. CaNAC16 could be a potential candidate contributing to the better drought tolerance of ICL482 vs. Hashem as a positive regulator. Conversely, CaNAC02 could be a potential negative regulator, contributing to the differential drought tolerability of these two cultivars. Thus, our results have also provided a solid foundation for selection of promising tissue-specific and/or dehydration-responsive CaNAC candidates for detailed in planta functional analyses, leading to development of transgenic chickpea varieties with improved productivity

  14. Diversity of nifH gene pools in the rhizosphere of two cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) treated with contrasting levels of nitrogen fertilizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, M.R.R.; Vos, de M.; Carneiro, N.P.; Marriel, I.E.; Paiva, E.; Seldin, L.

    2008-01-01

    The diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was assessed in the rhizospheres of two cultivars of sorghum (IS 5322-C and IPA 1011) sown in Cerrado soil amended with two levels of nitrogen fertilizer (12 and 120 kg ha(-1)). The nifH gene was amplified directly from DNA extracted from the rhizospheres, a

  15. External potassium (K(+)) application improves salinity tolerance by promoting Na(+)-exclusion, K(+)-accumulation and osmotic adjustment in contrasting peanut cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bhaduri, Debarati; Meena, Har Narayan; Kalariya, Kuldeepsingh

    2016-06-01

    Achieving salt-tolerance is highly desirable in today's agricultural context. Apart from developing salt-tolerant cultivars, possibility lies with management options, which can improve crop yield and have significant impact on crop physiology as well. Thus present study was aimed to evaluate the ameliorative role of potassium (K(+)) in salinity tolerance of peanut. A field experiment was conducted using two differentially salt-responsive cultivars and three levels of salinity treatment (control, 2.0 dS m(-1), 4.0 dS m(-1)) along with two levels (with and without) of potassium fertilizer (0 and 30 kg K2O ha(-1)). Salinity treatment incurred significant changes in overall physiology in two peanut cultivars, though the responses varied between the tolerant and the susceptible one. External K(+) application resulted in improved salinity tolerance in terms of plant water status, biomass produced under stress, osmotic adjustment and better ionic balance. Tolerant cv. GG 2 showed better salt tolerance by excluding Na(+) from uptake and lesser accumulation in leaf tissue and relied more on organic osmolyte for osmotic adjustment. On the contrary, susceptible cv. TG 37A allowed more Na(+) to accumulate in the leaf tissue and relied more on inorganic solute for osmotic adjustment under saline condition, hence showed more susceptibility to salinity stress. Application of K(+) resulted in nullifying the negative effect of salinity stress with slightly better response in the susceptible cultivar (TG 37A). The present study identified Na(+)-exclusion as a key strategy for salt-tolerance in tolerant cv. GG 2 and also showed the ameliorating role of K(+) in salt-tolerance with varying degree of response amongst tolerant and susceptible cultivars.

  16. Development of expressed sequence tag and expressed sequence tag–simple sequence repeat marker resources for Musa acuminata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Marco A. N.; de Oliveira Cruz, Viviane; Emediato, Flavia L.; de Camargo Teixeira, Cristiane; Souza, Manoel T.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Rennó Azevedo, Vânia C.; Ferreira, Claudia F.; Amorim, Edson P.; de Alencar Figueiredo, Lucio Flavio; Martins, Natalia F.; de Jesus Barbosa Cavalcante, Maria; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; da Silva, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas, Georgios J.; Pignolet, Luc; Abadie, Catherine; Ciampi, Ana Y.; Piffanelli, Pietro; Miller, Robert N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Banana (Musa acuminata) is a crop contributing to global food security. Many varieties lack resistance to biotic stresses, due to sterility and narrow genetic background. The objective of this study was to develop an expressed sequence tag (EST) database of transcripts expressed during compatible and incompatible banana–Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Mf) interactions. Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), caused by Mf, is a destructive disease of banana. Microsatellite markers were developed as a resource for crop improvement. Methodology cDNA libraries were constructed from in vitro-infected leaves from BLSD-resistant M. acuminata ssp. burmaniccoides Calcutta 4 (MAC4) and susceptible M. acuminata cv. Cavendish Grande Naine (MACV). Clones were 5′-end Sanger sequenced, ESTs assembled with TGICL and unigenes annotated using BLAST, Blast2GO and InterProScan. Mreps was used to screen for simple sequence repeats (SSRs), with markers evaluated for polymorphism using 20 diploid (AA) M. acuminata accessions contrasting in resistance to Mycosphaerella leaf spot diseases. Principal results A total of 9333 high-quality ESTs were obtained for MAC4 and 3964 for MACV, which assembled into 3995 unigenes. Of these, 2592 displayed homology to genes encoding proteins with known or putative function, and 266 to genes encoding proteins with unknown function. Gene ontology (GO) classification identified 543 GO terms, 2300 unigenes were assigned to EuKaryotic orthologous group categories and 312 mapped to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. A total of 624 SSR loci were identified, with trinucleotide repeat motifs the most abundant in MAC4 (54.1 %) and MACV (57.6 %). Polymorphism across M. acuminata accessions was observed with 75 markers. Alleles per polymorphic locus ranged from 2 to 8, totalling 289. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.08 to 0.81. Conclusions This EST collection offers a resource for studying functional genes, including

  17. Rendimento de grãos e margem bruta de cultivares de milho com variabilidade genética contrastante em diferentes sistemas de manejo Grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2006-06-01

    investir em práticas culturais que otimizem a performance agronômica e o potencial produtivo da cultivar.The optimization of maize production systems in southern Brazil depends on the adequate combination between genotype traits and the type of management system. This work was carried out aiming at evaluating the grain yield and gross income of maize cultivars with contrasting genetic variability at different management levels. The experiment was conducted in Lages, SC, using randomized block design with split-plots. Four production systems, equivalent to low (S1, medium (S2, high (S3 and very high (S4 management levels were tested in the main plots. The single-cross hybrid Pioneer 32R21, the double cross hybrid Traktor, and the open-pollinated variety BRS Planalto were assessed in the split-plots. The management systems differed in relation to the quantity and timing of fertilizer application, plant density, row spacing, and water irrigation. The trials were sown in 11/20/2002 and 10/22/2003, under the no-till soil tillage system. Regardless cultivar, maize grain yield and gross income increased with the enhancement in management level, ranging from 1,781 (S1 to 13,848 (S4kg ha-1 and from 206,00 (S1 to 2,937,00 (S4R$ ha-1, depending on the cultivar and growing season. The larger genetic variability of the cultivar BRS Planalto did not improve its grain yield when compared to the hybrids in S1. The hybrids were more productive and profitable than the open pollinated variety in S2. The use of a single-cross hybrid promoted the greatest grain yield and gross income in S3 and S4, showing that it is possible to match maximum technical and economic efficiency with a high yield plateau, as long as there is financial condition to invest in cultural practices that optimize maize agronomic performance and genetic potential to explore them.

  18. N-partitioning, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activities in two contrasting varieties of maize Partição de nitrogênio e atividade das enzimas nitrato redutase e glutamina sintetase em duas cultivares contrastantes de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altair Toledo Machado

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify useful parameters for maize genetic breeding programs aiming at a more efficient use of N, two maize varieties of contrasting N efficiency, Sol da Manhã NF (efficient and Catetão (inefficient were compared. Experiments were carried out under field and greenhouse conditions, at low and high N levels. The parameters analysed included total and relative plant and grain N content, biomass and the activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in different parts of the plant. It was found that the translocation efficiency of N and photoassimilates to the developing seeds and the source-sink relations were significantly different for the two varieties. N content of the whole plant and grain, cob weight and the relative ear dry weight were useful parameters for characterizing the variety Sol da Manhã NF as to its efficient use of N. Enzymes activity of glutamine synthetase (transferase reaction and nitrate reductase did not differ among the varieties.Com o objetivo de identificar parâmetros que possam ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento genético em milho para uso eficiente de N, duas cultivares de milho contrastantes quanto ao uso deste nutriente, Sol da Manhã NF (eficiente e Catetão (não-eficiente, foram avaliadas em dois experimentos conduzidos no campo e em casa de vegetação, respectivamente, sob nível baixo e alto de N. Os caracteres avaliados foram: teor e conteúdo de N em diferentes partes da planta; massa seca; peso dos grãos e de diferentes partes da planta; biomassa, e atividade das enzimas nitrato redutase e glutamina sintetase. O mecanismo de translocação de N e de fotoassimilados para os grãos e a relação fonte/dreno foram importantes para diferenciar a cultivar eficiente da não-eficiente. Conteúdo de N nos grãos e total das plantas, peso do sabugo e relação peso de espiga/matéria seca foram importantes para caracterizar a cultivar Sol da Manhã NF eficiente no uso do N. A

  19. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  20. In vitro propagation and assessment of the genetic fidelity of Musa acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla derived from immature male flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrahsel, Lalremsiami; Basu, Adreeja; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Thangjam, Robert

    2014-02-01

    An efficient in vitro propagation method has been developed for the first time for Musa acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla, an economically important banana cultivar of Mizoram, India. Immature male flowers were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used for the regeneration process. Out of different PGR combinations, MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.5 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was optimal for production of white bud-like structures (WBLS). On this medium, explants produced the highest number of buds per explant (4.30). The highest percentage (77.77) and number (3.51) of shoot formation from each explants was observed in MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA. While MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2 mg L(-1) BAP + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA showed the maximum shoot length (14.44 cm). Rooting efficiency of the shoots was highest in the MS basal medium without any PGRs. The plantlets were hardened successfully in the greenhouse with 96% survival rate. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to assess the genetic stability of in vitro regenerated plantlets of M. acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla. Eight RAPD and 8 ISSR primers were successfully used for the analysis from the 40 RAPD and 30 ISSR primers screened initially. The amplified products were monomorphic across all the regenerated plants and were similar to the mother plant. The present standardised protocol will find application in mass production, conservation and genetic transformation studies of this commercially important banana.

  1. Characterization of 10 microsatellite markers for the understorey Amazonian herb Heliconia acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, M C; Gowda, V; Kress, W J; Bruna, E M; Uriarte, M

    2009-07-01

    We characterized 10 microsatellite loci for the plant Heliconia acuminata from the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (Manaus, Brazil). Markers were screened in 61 individuals from one population and were found to be polymorphic with an average of eight alleles per locus. We found moderate to high levels of polymorphic information content, and observed and expected heterozygosities. All 10 markers are suitable for spatial genetic structure and parentage analyses and will be used for understanding H. acuminata dynamics across a fragmented landscape.

  2. Nitrogenous nutrients promote the growth and toxicity of Dinophysis acuminata during estuarine bloom events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K; Marcoval, Maria A; Mittlesdorf, Heidi; Goleski, Jennifer A; Wang, Zhihong; Haynes, Bennie; Morton, Steve L; Gobler, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) is a globally significant human health syndrome most commonly caused by dinoflagellates within the genus Dinophysis. While blooms of harmful algae have frequently been linked to excessive nutrient loading, Dinophysis is a mixotrophic alga whose growth is typically associated with prey availability. Consequently, field studies of Dinophysis and nutrients have been rare. Here, the temporal dynamics of Dinophysis acuminata blooms, DSP toxins, and nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, silicate, organic compounds) were examined over four years within two New York estuaries (Meetinghouse Creek and Northport Bay). Further, changes in the abundance and toxicity of D. acuminata were assessed during a series of nutrient amendment experiments performed over a three year period. During the study, Dinophysis acuminata blooms exceeding one million cells L-1 were observed in both estuaries. Highly significant (pnutrients significantly enhanced D. acuminata densities in nearly all (13 of 14) experiments performed. Ammonium significantly increased cell densities in 10 of 11 experiments, while glutamine significantly enhanced cellular DSP content in 4 of 5 experiments examining this compound. Nutrients may have directly or indirectly enhanced D. acuminata abundances as densities of this mixotroph during experiments were significantly correlated with multiple members of the planktonic community (phytoflagellates and Mesodinium). Collectively, this study demonstrates that nutrient loading and more specifically N-loading promotes the growth and toxicity of D. acuminata populations in coastal zones.

  3. Structural and Function Prediction of Musa acuminata subsp. Malaccensis Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Munir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypothetical proteins (HPs are the proteins whose presence has been anticipated, yet in vivo function has not been built up. Illustrating the structural and functional privileged insights of these HPs might likewise prompt a superior comprehension of the protein-protein associations or networks in diverse types of life. Bananas (Musa acuminata spp., including sweet and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister grouped to the all-around considered Poales, which incorporate oats. Bananas are crucial for nourishment security in numerous tropical and subtropical nations and the most prominent organic product in industrialized nations. In the present study, the hypothetical protein of M. acuminata (Banana was chosen for analysis and modeling by distinctive bioinformatics apparatuses and databases. As indicated by primary and secondary structure analysis, XP_009393594.1 is a stable hydrophobic protein containing a noteworthy extent of α-helices; Homology modeling was done utilizing SWISS-MODEL server where the templates identity with XP_009393594.1 protein was less which demonstrated novelty of our protein. Ab initio strategy was conducted to produce its 3D structure. A few evaluations of quality assessment and validation parameters determined the generated protein model as stable with genuinely great quality. Functional analysis was completed by ProtFun 2.2, and KEGG (KAAS, recommended that the hypothetical protein is a transcription factor with cytoplasmic domain as zinc finger. The protein was observed to be vital for translation process, involved in metabolism, signaling and cellular processes, genetic information processing and Zinc ion binding. It is suggested that further test approval would help to anticipate the structures and functions of other uncharacterized proteins of different plants and living being.

  4. Nitrogenous nutrients promote the growth and toxicity of Dinophysis acuminata during estuarine bloom events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann

    Full Text Available Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP is a globally significant human health syndrome most commonly caused by dinoflagellates within the genus Dinophysis. While blooms of harmful algae have frequently been linked to excessive nutrient loading, Dinophysis is a mixotrophic alga whose growth is typically associated with prey availability. Consequently, field studies of Dinophysis and nutrients have been rare. Here, the temporal dynamics of Dinophysis acuminata blooms, DSP toxins, and nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, silicate, organic compounds were examined over four years within two New York estuaries (Meetinghouse Creek and Northport Bay. Further, changes in the abundance and toxicity of D. acuminata were assessed during a series of nutrient amendment experiments performed over a three year period. During the study, Dinophysis acuminata blooms exceeding one million cells L-1 were observed in both estuaries. Highly significant (p<0.001 forward stepwise multivariate regression models of ecosystem observations demonstrated that D. acuminata abundances were positively dependent on multiple environmental parameters including ammonium (p = 0.007 while cellular toxin content was positively dependent on ammonium (p = 0.002 but negatively dependent on nitrate (p<0.001. Nitrogen- (N and phosphorus- (P containing inorganic and organic nutrients significantly enhanced D. acuminata densities in nearly all (13 of 14 experiments performed. Ammonium significantly increased cell densities in 10 of 11 experiments, while glutamine significantly enhanced cellular DSP content in 4 of 5 experiments examining this compound. Nutrients may have directly or indirectly enhanced D. acuminata abundances as densities of this mixotroph during experiments were significantly correlated with multiple members of the planktonic community (phytoflagellates and Mesodinium. Collectively, this study demonstrates that nutrient loading and more specifically N-loading promotes the

  5. Modelling bloom formation of the toxic dinoflagellates Dinophysis acuminata and Dinophysis caudata in a highly modified estuary, south eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajani, Penelope; Larsson, Michaela E.; Rubio, Ana; Bush, Stephen; Brett, Steve; Farrell, Hazel

    2016-12-01

    Dinoflagellates belonging to the toxigenic genus Dinophysis are increasing in abundance in the Hawkesbury River, south-eastern Australia. This study investigates a twelve year time series of abundance and physico-chemical data to model these blooms. Four species were reported over the sampling campaign - Dinophysis acuminata, Dinophysis caudata, Dinophysis fortii and Dinophysis tripos-with D. acuminata and D. caudata being most abundant. Highest abundance of D. acuminata occurred in the austral spring (max. abundance 4500 cells l-1), whilst highest D. caudata occurred in the summer to autumn (max. 12,000 cells l-1). Generalised additive models revealed abundance of D. acuminata was significantly linked to season, thermal stratification and nutrients, whilst D. caudata was associated with nutrients, salinity and dissolved oxygen. The models' predictive capability was up to 60% for D. acuminata and 53% for D. caudata. Altering sampling strategies during blooms accompanied with in situ high resolution monitoring will further improve Dinophysis bloom prediction capability.

  6. Photodynamic therapy of condyloma acuminata in pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-guang; ZOU Xian-biao; ZHAO Hua; ZHANG Yun-jie; LI Heng-jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is an emerging technique for the treatment of genital human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced benign and premalignant lesions.We report here in a case series of condyloma acuminata (CA) in pregnancy successfully treated with ALA-PDT.Methods Five pregnant patients with CA received three to four times treatment respectively.Patients were followed up for 6-23 months after treatment.Results The clearance rate of genital warts was 100%.No recurrence was found during the follow-up period.Major adverse events reported were mild erosion,pain,and local edema.All pregnancies resulted in healthy live births without delivery complications.Conclusions PDT with topical ALA seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of CA in pregnancy.It demonstrated high clearance rate of warts,was well-tolerated by patients,and showed no adverse effects on mothers or fetuses.ALA-PDT may be an ideal strategy of treatment for pregnant women with CA.

  7. Homogenate extraction technology of camptothecine and hydroxycamptothecin from Camptotheca acuminata leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei-guo; ZU Yuan-gang; ZHAO Chun-jian; YANG Lei

    2009-01-01

    Camptothecine (CPT) and hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), two kinds of anti-cancer alkaloids, were extracted from Camptotheca acuminata leaves using homogenate extraction technology under different conditions such as the ratio of material to liquid, ethanol concentration, and homogenate time. The optimum technology parameters for homogenate extraction of CPT and HCPT from C. acuminata leaves were determined as homogenate time at 8 min, ethanol concentration at 55% and the ratio of material to liquid at 1:15 (g:mL). By using the optimized parameters, we obtained 0.639‰ extraction rate for CPT and 0.437‰ for HCPT. The extraction yields of CPT and HCPT extracted by homogenating technology were higher than those by other extractive methods, such as ultrasonic, reflux, shaking in water bath. It is concluded that the homogenate extraction technology was an efficient method for extracting CPT and HCPT from C. acuminata leaves, with characteristics of less extraction time and high yield.

  8. The ectomycorrhizas of Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae associated with Alnus acuminata in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay-Serrano, Edith

    2015-08-01

    Two pure Alnus acuminata stands established in a montane forest in central Mexico (Puebla State) were monitored between 2010 and 2013 to confirm and recognize the ectomycorrhizal (EcM) systems of A. acuminata with Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae, two recently described species. Through comparison of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from basidiomes and ectomycorrhizas sampled in the forest stands, we confirmed their ectomycorrhizal association. The phytobiont was corroborated by comparing ITS sequences obtained from EcM root tips and leaves collected in the study site and from other sequences of A. acuminata available in Genbank. Detailed morphological and anatomical descriptions of the ectomycorrhizal systems are presented and complemented with photographs.

  9. PINZOTE de Musa balbisiana y Musa acuminata como Fuente de Fibras para Papel RACHIS of Muse balbisiana and Muse acuminata as Source of Fibers for Paper Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Turrado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una alternativa de uso industrial del pinzote (centro leñoso del racimo de banano como fuente de fibra para la estructuración de papel. El pinzote se considera residuo agroindustrial en los países productores de banano, material que representa el 2.8 % del racimo en la variedad de Musa balbisiana y el 4.4 % en la de Musa acuminata. Por sus características similares a la del bagazo caña de azúcar, se utilizó un proceso químico similar al empleado para obtener fibras a partir de este material. El proceso de obtención de fibras se llevó a cabo de acuerdo a un diseño experimental factorial, diseño que permite relacionar variables las independientes (tiempo de cocción, concentración de reactivo en cuatro niveles con variables independientes (rendimiento, consumo de reactivos, rechazo y lignina residual. El pinzote de Musa acuminata requiere menor temperatura y reactivo para liberar las fibras con respecto al pinzote de Musa balbisiana. Por lo tanto, el rendimiento en fibra para Musa acuminata es mayor al de Musa balbisiana.This work presents an alternative of industrial use of the banana rachis (the woody center of the cluster of bananas, as source of fibers for the structure of paper. Banana rachis is considered to be an agroindustrial residue in producing countries of banana it represents 2.8 % of the cluster of Muse balbisiana and 4.4 % of the cluster of Muse acuminata. The physical and chemical structure of the rachis is almost simliar to that of the sugar cane so a chemical process similar to that employed to obtain fibers from the sugar bagasse cane was used. An experimental factorial design that allows the correlation of independent variables (cooking time, reagent concentration in four levels with response parameters (yield, reagents consumption, rejects and residual lignin was adopted. The rachis of Muse acuminata needs lower temperature and less reagent consumption to liberate fibers in comparison with

  10. Determination of contents of 10-Hydroxycamptothecin in Camptotheca acuminata by high-performance liquid chromatogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The determination method of 10-hydroxycamptothecin in Camptotheca acuminata fruits by high-performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) was studied. The HPLC analysis was performed on a HIQ sil C18(4.6×250 mm) column with mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (3:7, V:V), flow rate 1 mL@(min-1 and UV detective wavelength 266 nm. Extracting 10-hydroxycamptothecin by ultrasonic method from fruits of C. acuminata to prepare samples for analysis was systematically discussed. The optimal extraction condition was carried out by 60% alcohol solution at 60℃ for 50 minutes.

  11. Pyrosequencing of the Camptotheca acuminata transcriptome reveals putative genes involved in camptothecin biosynthesis and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yongzhen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camptotheca acuminata is a Nyssaceae plant, often called the "happy tree", which is indigenous in Southern China. C. acuminata produces the terpenoid indole alkaloid, camptothecin (CPT, which exhibits clinical effects in various cancer treatments. Despite its importance, little is known about the transcriptome of C. acuminata and the mechanism of CPT biosynthesis, as only few nucleotide sequences are included in the GenBank database. Results From a constructed cDNA library of young C. acuminata leaves, a total of 30,358 unigenes, with an average length of 403 bp, were obtained after assembly of 74,858 high quality reads using GS De Novo assembler software. Through functional annotation, a total of 21,213 unigenes were annotated at least once against the NCBI nucleotide (Nt, non-redundant protein (Nr, Uniprot/SwissProt, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, and Arabidopsis thaliana proteome (TAIR databases. Further analysis identified 521 ESTs representing 20 enzyme genes that are involved in the backbone of the CPT biosynthetic pathway in the library. Three putative genes in the upstream pathway, including genes for geraniol-10-hydroxylase (CaPG10H, secologanin synthase (CaPSCS, and strictosidine synthase (CaPSTR were cloned and analyzed. The expression level of the three genes was also detected using qRT-PCR in C. acuminata. With respect to the branch pathway of CPT synthesis, six cytochrome P450s transcripts were selected as candidate transcripts by detection of transcript expression in different tissues using qRT-PCR. In addition, one glucosidase gene was identified that might participate in CPT biosynthesis. For CPT transport, three of 21 transcripts for multidrug resistance protein (MDR transporters were also screened from the dataset by their annotation result and gene expression analysis. Conclusion This study produced a large amount of transcriptome data from C. acuminata by 454 pyrosequencing. According to

  12. Fluorescence of the 'fire-chaser' beetle Melanophila acuminata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israelowitz, Meir [Biomimetics Technologies, 191 Ellis Avenue, Toronto, Ont., M6S 2X4 (Canada); Rizvi, Syed H.W. [Biomimetics Technologies, 191 Ellis Avenue, Toronto, Ont., M6S 2X4 (Canada); Schroeder, Herbert P. von [Biomimetics Technologies, 191 Ellis Avenue, Toronto, Ont., M6S 2X4 (Canada)]. E-mail: herb.vonschroeder@uhn.on.ca

    2007-09-15

    Melanophila acuminata beetles are attracted to forest fires over long distances by a pair of specialized infrared sensory organs. To date, there is no knowledge of their ability to detect or emit fluorescent radiation. We studied the Melanophila acuminata infrared sensory organs histologically and by using fluorescent microscopy, acoustic-optic tunable filter microscopy, and two-photon microscopy to identify fluorescence. We found fluorescent absorption at radiation wavelengths of 480 nm and emission at 570 nm. The functional role of this novel fluorescence is, as of yet, unknown but may be applied to species classification, identification and behavioral studies.

  13. Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSIREP SUMARDI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sumardi I, Wulandari M (2011 Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level. Biodiversitas 12: 167-175. In Indonesia there are many cultivars of banana, and some of them produce edible fruits. Beside their morphology, the character which necessary as a tool for classification is anatomical character. The aim of this research were to describe the anatomical character and morphology of fives Indonesian banana cultivars based on their level of ploidy. The cultivars were collected from Banana Germplasm Plantation, Yogyakarta District, Indonesia. The samples of roots, rhizome, and leaf were collected from five banana cultivars i.e.: Musa acuminata cv Penjalin, M.balbisiana cv Kluthuk warangan, M.acuminata cv Ambon warangan, M.paradisiaca cv Raja nangka , and M. paradisiaca cv Kluthuk susu. For anatomy observation samples were prepared using paraffin method, stained with 1% safranin in 70% ethanol. To observe the structure of stomata and epidermis surface, slide were prepared using modification of whole mount method. Slides were observed using Olympus BHB microscope completed with Olympus camera BM-10A. Stem and leaf morphology character of diploid level (AA and BB genome is different with triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome. Anatomy and morphology character of root and rhizome of banana in diploid level (AA and BB genome and triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome is quite similar. Distribution of stomata is found in leaf and pseudostem. Stomata is found in adaxial and abaxial epidermis layer. The size of guard cells in triploid cultivars was longer than that diploid cultivars. The root composse of epidermis layer, cortex and cylinder vascular of five cultivar’s root show anomalous structure. Rhizome consist of peripheric and centre zone. Anatomically, this was no differences in the rizome structur among five banana cultivars. The row of vascular bundles act as demarcation area

  14. Synergistic effect of Croton caudatus (fruits) and Tiliacora acuminata (flowers) extracts against filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Someshwar Singha; Siddharthasankar Banerjee; Goutam Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the synergistic effect of crude and solvent extract of Croton caudatus (C. caudatus ) (fruits) and Tiliacora acuminata (T. acuminata) (flowers) against the larval form of Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Crude and solvent [chloroform:methanol (1:1 v/v), benzene and ethyl acetate] extracts of two plants, C. caudatus (fruits) and T. acuminata (flowers) were examined separately against filarial vector Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae with gradually increasing concentration i.e. from 0.1%to 0.5%of crude extract and 25 ppm to 75 ppm of solvent extracts. To observe the synergistic effect, if any, extracts of these two plant parts were mixed at different concentrations and treated against mosquito larvae. Phytochemical analyses of extracts of both the plant parts were carried out. Results: In a 72-h bioassay experiment with plant extracts, highest mortalities were recorded at 0.5% (crude) and 75 ppm (solvent) concentration for fruits of C. caudatus and flowers of T. acuminata individually. For synergistic effect, only 0.2%of the mixture of these two crude extracts and 75 ppm concentration of chloroform:methanol (1:1 v/v) and ethyl acetate extracts showed 100%mortality after 24 h and 48 h of exposure respectively. Conclusions:In the field of mosquito control, insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative to the toxic chemicals. Some secondary metabolites in combination may be responsible for better larvicidal activity.

  15. Diploid Musa acuminata genetic diversity assayed with sequence-tagged microsatellite sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapin, A; Noyer, J L; Carreel, F; Dambier, D; Baurens, F C; Lanaud, C; Lagoda, P J

    1998-06-01

    The sequence-tagged microsatellite site (STMS) discrimination potential was explored using nine microsatellite primer pairs. STMS polymorphism was assayed by nonradioactive urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Genetic relationships were examined among 59 genotypes of wild or cultivated accessions of diploid Musa acuminata. The organization of the subspecies was confirmed and some clone relationships were clarified.

  16. Progression of Intravesical Condyloma Acuminata to Locally Advanced Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khambati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Condyloma acuminata (CA is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV infection. CA of the bladder, however, is an exceedingly rare lesion. We present a rare case of poorly differentiated locally invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC arising from recurrent CA of the bladder in an immunocompetent patient and discuss pathophysiology and management of this unusual condition.

  17. Anticholinesterase and Antioxidative Properties of Aqueous Extract of Cola acuminata Seed In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Oboh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cola acuminata seed, a commonly used stimulant in Nigeria, has been reportedly used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases in folklore without scientific basis. This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from C. acuminata seed in vitro. Methodology. The aqueous extract of C. acuminata seed was prepared (w/v and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase activities, as well as some prooxidant (FeSO4, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, and quinolinic acid (QA induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro, was investigated. Results. The results revealed that C. acuminata seed extract inhibited AChE (IC50 = 14.6 μg/mL and BChE (IC50 = 96.2 μg/mL activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, incubation of rat’s brain homogenates with some prooxidants caused a significant increase P<0.05 in the brain malondialdehyde (MDA content and inhibited MDA production dose-dependently and also exhibited further antioxidant properties as typified by their high radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelating abilities. Conclusion. Inhibition of AChE and BChE activities has been the primary treatment method for mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Therefore, one possible mechanism through which the seed exerts its neuroprotective properties is by inhibiting cholinesterase activities as well as preventing oxidative-stress-induced neurodegeneration. However, this is a preliminary study with possible physiological implications.

  18. Effect of surface coating on ripening and early peel spotting in 'Sucrier' banana (Musa acuminata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Sucrier¿ bananas (Musa acuminata, AA Group) show peel spotting when the peel is just about as yellow as green, which coincides with optimum eating quality. As consumers might relate the spotting to overripe fruit, early spotting is considered undesirable, especially for export markets. Fruit were le

  19. DIFFERENTIATION OF PSEUDOCONDYLOMA OF VULVA AND CONDYLOMA ACUMINATA BY DOT BLOT HYBRIDIZATION AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘跃华; 王家璧; 司静懿

    1996-01-01

    This study differentiated pseudocondyloma of vulva from condyloma acunainata using dot blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 27 cases o{ pseudocondyloma of vulva and 65 cases of condyloma acuminata were selected for the sttldy. The genital lesions were examined clinically and were biopsled. Each biopsy v-as subjected to histological examination and HPV DNA analysis by dot blot hybridization and PCR. Dot blot analysis detected HPV DNA in 19(82.6%) out of 23 cases of condyloma acuminata and 2(25%) out of 8 cases pseudocondyloma of vulvae(P<0. 05). PCR detected HPV DNA in 51(92.7%) our of 55 cases of eondyloma acuminata, compared with none in 23 cases of pseudocondylorna(P<0. 001). HPV DNA was present in the majority of condyloma acuminata specimens, HPV 6 and 11 were the predominant types. Peudocondyloma is probably not associated with HPV. PCR was the most sensitive and useful techntque for HPV DNA detection.

  20. Effect of planting density on plant growth and camptothecin content of Camptotheca acuminata seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEIHuan-yong; WANGYang; WANGZhen-yue; YANXiu-feng

    2005-01-01

    C. acuminata seedlings cultivated in greenhouse were transplanted into the fields with 5 designed planting densities (11, 16, 25,44 and 100 plants·m-2) in May of 2004 and were harvested in the middle of September of 2004. The seedling growth indexes including plant height and crown width, biomass allocation, camptothecin (CPT) content and CPT yield of different organs (young leaf, old leaf, stem,and root) were studied. For the 5 selected planting densities, the plant biomass, height, crown width, and total leaf area of C. acuminata seedlings all showed highest values at the planting density of 25 plants ·m-2. CPT content in young leaves was higher than that in other organs of seedlings and presented an obvious change with the variation of planting densities and with the highest value at density of 100plants·m-2, while for other organs no significant variation in CPT content was found with change of planting density. The accumulation of CPT was enhanced significantly at the planting density of 25 plants·m-2. It is concluded that for the purpose to get raw materials with more CPT from C. acuminata, the optimal planting density of C. acuminata seedlings should be designed as 25 plants·m-2.

  1. Structures of chlorophyll catabolites in bananas (Musa acuminata) reveal a split path of chlorophyll breakdown in a ripening fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2012-08-27

    The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles.

  2. Structures of Chlorophyll Catabolites in Bananas (Musa acuminata) Reveal a Split Path of Chlorophyll Breakdown in a Ripening Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles. PMID:22807397

  3. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  4. Two new species of Lactarius associated with Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay, Edith

    2014-01-01

    In pure stands of Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta trees from Sierra Norte de Puebla (central Mexico) two undescribed ectomycorrhizal species of Lactarius were discovered. Distinction of the two new species is based on morphological characters and supported with phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region and part of the gene that encodes for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2). The phylogenies inferred recovered the two species in different clades strongly supported by posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. The new Lactarius species are recognized as part of the assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Alnus acuminata. Information about these taxa includes the morphological variation achieved along 16 monitories 2010-2013. Descriptions are provided. They are accompanied by photos including SEM photomicrographs of basidiospores and information on differences between them and other related taxa from Europe and the United States.

  5. TREATMENT OF CONDYLOMATA ACUMINATA AND BOWENOID PAPULOSIS WITH CO2 LASER AND IMIQUIMOD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Bakardzhiev

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most common manifestation of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV infection in venereology are Condylomata acuminata and Bowenoid Papulosis. These diseases are often difficult to diagnose by dermatologists, obstetricians, gynecologists and urologists. This article represents our entire clinical experience with the use of carbon dioxide (CO-2 laser in the treatment of 58 (40 male and 18 female patients with Condylomata Acuminata after other treatments had failed. Successful eradication was accomplished in 53 patients with wide distribution of condylomatous lesions, with 88% per cent responding to a single laser treatment. In our experience there are no side effects, damage to the surrounding tissue is minimal and the lesions have not reccured. In 82.3% of the patients the treatment resulted in complete disappearance of the lesions, whereas in the other two to three percent treatments were required. The advantages of the laser treatment are discussed in this article.

  6. Toxicity of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi with plant molluscicides against Lymnaea acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Lata Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molluscicidal activity of binary combination of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi with other plant molluscicides Saraca asoca and Thuja orientalis against snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that toxicity of binary combinations of plant molluscicides with other plant molluscicides were toxic against fresh water snail L. acuminata. Among all combinations of toxicity Mimusops elengi leaf + Saraca asoca bark (24h LC50: 98.25 mg/l; 96h LC50: 40.40 mg/l and Bauhinia variegata leaf powder + Saraca asoca leaf (24h LC50: 123.98 mg/l; 96h LC50: 57.91 mg/l was more toxic than other binary combinations of plant molluscicides. Mimusops elengi leaf powder + Saraca asoca leaf powder and Bauhinia variegata leaf powder + Saraca asoca leaf powder are more potent molluscicides.

  7. The toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata harbors permanent chloroplasts of cryptomomad prigin, not kleptochloroplasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Lydia; Moestrup, Øjvind; Hansen, Per Juel;

    2010-01-01

    Most species belonging to the toxigenic genus Dinophysis have chloroplasts of cryptophyte origin. Whether these chloroplasts are temporarily sequestered from the prey, or permanently established under the control of the dinoflagellate is currently disputed. To investigate this, a culture...... of Dinophysis acuminata was established by feeding it the phototrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum (= Myrionecta rubra), which again was fed the cryptophyte Teleaulax amphioxeia. Molecular analysis comprising the nucleomorph LSU and two chloroplast markers (tufA gene and a fragment from the end of 16S r......DNA to the beginning of 23S rDNA) resulted in identical sequences for the three organisms. Yet, transmission electron microscopy of the three organisms revealed that several chloroplast features separated D. acuminata from both T. amphioxeia and M. rubrum. The thylakoid arrangement, the number of membranes around...

  8. Behavioural responses of the snail Lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates in snail-attractant pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Farindra; Singh, D. K.

    Snail control is one of the most important tools in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. In order to attain this objective, the method of bait formulation in order to contain an attractant and a molluscicide is an expedient approach to lure the target snail population to the molluscicide. This study identifies certain carbohydrates, namely sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose and starch, for preparing such baits. These were tested on Lymnaea acuminata, an intermediate host of the digenean trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The behavioural responses of snails to these carbohydrates were examined. Significant variations in behavioural responses were observed in the snail even when the five carbohydrates were used in low concentrations in snail-attractant pellets. Starch emerged as the strongest attractant for Lymnaea acuminata, followed by maltose.

  9. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRS Saturno – triticale cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The triticale cultivar BRS Saturno was developed by Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation inpartnership with the Fundação Pró-Sementes de Apoio à Pesquisa. It is the result of a cross between the genotypes PFT 512 and CEP28 – Guará, adapted to the environmental conditions of cultivation in southern Brazil.

  10. Construction and characterization of a plant transformation-competent BIBAC library of the black Sigatoka-resistant banana Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Vázquez, E; Kaemmer, D; Zhang, H-B; Muth, J; Rodríguez-Mendiola, M; Arias-Castro, C; James, Andrew

    2005-02-01

    A plant transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library was constructed from Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA), a black Sigatoka-resistant diploid banana. After digestion of high-molecular-weight banana DNA by HindIII, several methods of DNA size selection were tested, followed by ligation, using a vector/insert molar ratio of 4:1. The library consists of 30,700 clones stored in 80 384-well microtiter plates. The mean insert size was estimated to be 100 kb, and the frequency of inserts with internal NotI sites was 61%. The majority of insert sizes fell into the range of 100+/-20 kb, making them suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Only 1% and 0.9% of the clones contain chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. This is the first BIBAC library for banana, estimated to represent five times its haploid genome (600 Mbp). It was demonstrated by hybridization that the library contains typical members of resistance gene and defense gene families that can be used for transformation of disease susceptible banana cultivars for banana genetic improvement.

  11. Nitrate reductase activity and its diurnal variation rhythm for Camptotheca acuminata seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNShi-qin; YANXiu-feng

    2004-01-01

    Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in different plant organs and leaves in different positions of Camptotheca acuminata seedlings was determined by an In vivo assay, the diurnal variation rhythm of NRA in leaves of different positions was observed,and the correlations between leaf NRA, leaf area and lamina mass per unit area (LMA) were also examined. The results showed that NRA in the leaf was significantly highest, compared with that in other organs such as roots, stems and leaves. In this experiment, the 10 leaves were selected from the apex to the base of the seedlings in order. The different NRA occurred obviously in leaves of different positions of C. acuminata seedlings from the apex to the base, and NRA was higher in the 4th-6th leaves.The diurnal change rhythm of leaf NRA showed a one peak curve, and maximum NRA value appeared at about midday (at 12:30 or so). No obvious correlations between NRA and leaf area or lamina mass per unit area were observed. This study offered scientific foundation for the further research on nitrogen metabolism of C. acuminata.

  12. Climate Variability and Oceanographic Settings Associated with Interannual Variability in the Initiation of Dinophysis acuminata Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrick Berger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, there were exceptional blooms of D. acuminata in early spring in what appeared to be a mesoscale event affecting Western Iberia and the Bay of Biscay. The objective of this work was to identify common climatic patterns to explain the observed anomalies in two important aquaculture sites, the Galician Rías Baixas (NW Spain and Arcachon Bay (SW France. Here, we examine climate variability through physical-biological couplings, Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies and time of initiation of the upwelling season and its intensity over several decades. In 2012, the mesoscale features common to the two sites were positive anomalies in SST and unusual wind patterns. These led to an atypical predominance of upwelling in winter in the Galician Rías, and increased haline stratification associated with a southward advection of the Gironde plume in Arcachon Bay. Both scenarios promoted an early phytoplankton growth season and increased stability that enhanced D. acuminata growth. Therefore, a common climate anomaly caused exceptional blooms of D. acuminata in two distant regions through different triggering mechanisms. These results increase our capability to predict intense diarrhetic shellfish poisoning outbreaks in the early spring from observations in the preceding winter.

  13. Role of food uptake for photosynthesis, growth and survival of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Karen; Hansen, Per Juel

    2009-01-01

    ) and subsequently allowed to deplete the prey. When the ciliate prey was added, the photosynthetic rate of D. acuminata increased from about 7 to 38 pg C cell-1 h-1 within the first 2 d. When subsequently subjected to starvation, the photosynthetic activity rapidly decreased to a pre-feeding level, and, without...... and survival of D. acuminata were studied. The observed maximum growth rate was ca. 0.45 d-1 at an irradiance of 100 µmol photons m-2 s-1 when supplied with well-fed M. rubrum at concentrations >1000 M. rubrum ml-1. The corresponding ingestion rate per D. acuminata was about 9 M. rubrum d-1, or 3200 pg C d-1....... Apart from the importance of prey concentration, data revealed that ingestion and growth of D. acuminata are, to a certain degree, dependent on the growth rate of its ciliate prey. Photosynthesis was studied in a culture of D. acuminata, initially grown at prey saturation (>1000 M. rubrum cells ml-1...

  14. Enzyme inhibition by molluscicidal agents of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi in the nervous tissue of Lymnaea acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Lata Singh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of enzymatic activity in the nervous tissue of snail Lymnaea acuminata (L. acuminata by Bauhinia variegata (B. variegata and Mimusops elengi (M. elengi and their active molluscicidal components quercetin and saponin. Methods: Treatment of sublethal concentration (40% and 80% of 96-h LC50 in vivo of column-purified fraction of B. variegata leaf and M. elengi bark and their molluscicidal agents quercetin and saponin inhibit the acetylcholinesterase (AChE, acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP and ALP activities in the nervous tissue of L. acuminata. Results: AChE activity was more inhibited than ACP and ALP in snail exposed to columnpurified fraction of M. elengi bark and saponin. Among all the treatments the highest inhibition in AChE activity (27.77% was noted in snail L. acuminata exposed to 80% of 96-h LC50 of saponin at 96-h exposure period. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the present study that inhibition of AChE, ACP and ALP by B. variegata leaf (quercetin and M. elengi bark (saponin in snail L. acuminata could be the cause of snail mortality.

  15. A combined spectroscopic and TDDFT study of natural dyes extracted from fruit peels of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prima, Eka Cahya; Hidayat, Novianto Nur; Yuliarto, Brian; Suyatman; Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the novel spectroscopic investigations and enhanced the electron transfers of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata fruit peels as the photosensitizers for the dye-sensitized solar cells. The calculated TD-DFT-UB3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p)-IEFPCM(UAKS), experiment spectra of ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate the main flavonoid (hesperidin and gallocatechin) structures of the dye extracts. The optimized flavonoid structures are calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31 + G(d,p) level. The rutinosyl group of the hesperidin pigment (Citrus reticulata) will be further investigated compared to the gallocatechin (Musa acuminata) pigment. The acidity of the dye extract is treated by adding 2% acetic acid. The energy levels of the HOMO-LUMO dyes are measured by a combined Tauc plot and cyclic voltammetry contrasted with the DFT data. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy will be performed to model the dye electron transfer. As for the rutinosyl group presence and the acidic treatment, the acidified Citrus reticulata cell under continuous light exposure of 100 mW·cm- 2 yields a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 3.23 mA/cm2, a photovoltage (Voc) of 0.48 V, and a fill factor of 0.45 corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.71% because the shifting down HOMO-LUMO edges and the broadening dye's absorbance evaluated by a combined spectroscopic and TD-DFT method. The result also leads to the longest diffusion length of 32.2 μm, the fastest electron transit of 0.22 ms, and the longest electron lifetime of 4.29 ms.

  16. Enzyme Inhibition by Molluscicidal Components of Myristica fragrans Houtt. in the Nervous Tissue of Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetee Jaiswal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of molluscicidal components of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae on certain enzymes in the nervous tissue of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata Lamarck (Lymnaeidae. In vivo and in vitro treatments of trimyristin and myristicin (active molluscicidal components of Myristica fragrans Houtt. significantly inhibited the acetylcholinesterase (AChE, acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP/ALP activities in the nervous tissue of Lymnaea acuminata. The inhibition kinetics of these enzymes indicates that both the trimyristin and myristicin caused competitive noncompetitive inhibition of AChE. Trimyristin caused uncompetitive and competitive/noncompetitive inhibitions of ACP and ALP, respectively whereas the myristicin caused competitive and uncompetitive inhibition of ACP and ALP, respectively. Thus results from the present study suggest that inhibition of AChE, ACP, and ALP by trimyristin and myristicin in the snail Lymnaea acuminata may be the cause of the molluscicidal activity of Myristica fragrans.

  17. Heliconia acuminata reproductive success is independent of local floral density O sucesso reprodutivo de Heliconia acuminata é independente da densidade floral local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio M. Bruna

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive plants in tropical forests are patchily distributed, with some in large aggregations of reproductive consepecifics while others are relatively isolated. This variation in floral density is hypothesized to have a major effect on plant reproductive success, since individuals in higher density neighborhoods can attract more or higher quality pollinators. We experimentally tested this hypothesis with populations of the understory herb Heliconia acuminata in central Amazonia. We created replicated plots in which reproductive plant density spanned the range of naturally occurring floral neighborhood size, then measured three surrogates of plant fitness in focal plants in each array. There was no significant difference between any of the three floral neighborhood treatments in total seed production, fruit set, or the number of seeds produced per fruit. Pollinator visitation rates to plants in all treatments were extremely low, with many plants not visited at all during the observation period. This could be because H. acuminata's hummingbird pollinators are unable to find the widely scattered reproductive plants, however this hypothesis appears unlikely. Instead, natural flowering plant densities may simply be below the threshold value at which neighborhood effects become important, even in "high-density" aggregations. Nutrient limitation, selective fruit abortion, and reproduction via male rather than female function may also be playing a role. We argue the absence of neighborhood effects may be a general phenomenon in central Amazonian forests, though additional experiments with other plant-pollinator systems are needed to determine the extent to which this hypothesis is supported.Plantas reprodutivas em florestas tropicas são distribuidas em manchas, com algumas em grandes agregações coespecíficas e outras relativamente isoladas. A hipótese é que esta variação na densidade de flores em um local tem um grande efeito no sucesso

  18. COMPARISON BETWEEN IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE AND PCR IN DETECTING HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS IN CONDYLOMA ACUMINATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting human papilloma virus (HPV) in condyloma acuminata (CA).Methods HPVs in CA tissues from 60 patients were detected by immunofluorescence and PCR, respectively. Different subtypes of HPVs were also identified with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).Results The positive detective rates of immunofluorescence and PCR were 56. 67 % (34/60) and 96.67 % (58/60), respectively (P<0.01). RFLP results showed HPV6 and HPVl1 were the main subtypes in the detected virus,which accounted for 98. 28 %.Conclusion The sensibility of PCR is superior to that of immunofluorescence.

  19. Maternal inheritance of chloroplast genome and paternal inheritance of mitochondrial genome in bananas (Musa acuminata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauré, S; Noyer, J L; Carreel, F; Horry, J P; Bakry, F; Lanaud, C

    1994-03-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were used as markers to determine the transmission of cytoplasmic DNA in diploid banana crosses. Progenies from two controlled crosses were studied with heterologous cytoplasmic probes. This analysis provided evidence for a strong bias towards maternal transmission of chloroplast DNA and paternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA in Musa acuminata. These results suggest the existence of two separate mechanisms of organelle transmission and selection, but no model to explain this can be proposed at the present time. Knowledge of the organelle mode of inheritance constitutes an important point for phylogeny analyses in bananas and may offer a powerful tool to confirm hybrid origins.

  20. Genetic variability among 18 cultivars of cooking bananas and plantains by RAPD and ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUYU SURYASARI POERBA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Poerba YS, Ahmad F (2010 Genetic variability among 18 cultivars of cooking bananas and plantains by RAPD and ISSR markers. Biodiversitas 11: 118-123. This study was done to assess the molecular diversity of 36 accessions (18 cultivars of the plantain and cooking bananas (Musa acuminata x M. balbisiana, AAB, ABB subgroups based on Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR markers and to determine genetic relationships in the bananas. RAPD and ISSR fingerprinting of these banana varieties was carried out by five primers of RAPDs and two primers of ISSRs. RAPD primers produced 63 amplified fragments varying from 250 to 2500 bp in size. 96.82% of the amplification bands were polymorphic. ISSR primers produced 26 amplified fragments varying from 350 bp to 2000 bp in size. The results showed that 92.86% of the amplification bands were polymorphic. The range of genetic distance of 18 cultivars was from 0.06-0.67.

  1. Phenotyping of wheat cultivars for heat tolerance using chlorophyll a fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Svend Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2012-01-01

    on a physiological trait, the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm). A chlorophyll fluorescence protocol was standardised and used for repeated screening with increased selection pressure with a view to identifying a set of cultivars extreme for the trait. An initial mass screening of 1274 wheat cultivars...... with an increased genetic component (15.43.6%), which was further increased to 27.96.8% in the third screening with 41 contrasting cultivars. This contrasting set of cultivars was then used to compare the ability of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters to detect genetic difference in heat tolerance...

  2. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.

  3. Amplifying the benefits of agroecology by using the right cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, D; Laossi, K-R; Lavelle, P; De Carvalho, M H Cruz; Asakawa, N; Botero, C; Barot, S

    2011-10-01

    Tropical soils are particularly vulnerable to fertility losses due to their low capacity to retain organic matter and mineral nutrients. This urges the development of new agricultural practices to manage mineral nutrients and organic matter in a more sustainable way while relying less on fertilizer inputs. Two methods pertaining to ecological engineering and agroecology have been tested with some success: (1) the addition of biochar to the soil, and (2) the maintenance of higher earthworm densities. However, modern crop varieties have been selected to be adapted to agricultural practices and to the soil conditions they lead to and common cultivars might not be adapted to new practices. Using rice as a model plant, we compared the responsiveness to biochar and earthworms of five rice cultivars with contrasted selection histories. These cultivars had contrasted responsivenesses to earthworms, biochar, and the combination of both. The mean relative increase in grain biomass, among all treatments and cultivars, was 94% and 32%, respectively, with and without fertilization. Choosing the best combination of cultivar and treatment led to a more than fourfold increase in this mean benefit (a 437% and a 353% relative increase in grain biomass, respectively, with and without fertilization). Besides, the more rustic cultivar, a local landrace adapted to diverse and difficult conditions, responded the best to earthworms in terms of total biomass, while a modern common cultivar responded the best in term of grain biomass. This suggests that cultivars could be selected to amplify the benefit of biochar- and earthworm-based practices. Overall, selecting new cultivars interacting more closely with soil organisms and soil heterogeneity could increase agriculture sustainability, fostering the positive feedback loop between soils and plants that has evolved in natural ecosystems.

  4. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of camptothecin from Camptotheca acuminata seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Li-jia; LI Si-yang; CHANG Zui; WANG Yang; YAN Xiu-feng

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring camptothecin (CPT) is an important source of chemotherapeutic agents. The extraction from Camptotheca acuminata is still the main approach to obtain CPT compared with total synthesis. In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extractions (UAE) of CPT from C. acuminata seeds with alkaline solutions were investigated and CPT yield were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The conditions of alkaline species and concentrations, extraction time, extraction temperature and ultrasonic power were optimized.Results show that both Na3PO4 and Na2CO3 solutions gain good extraction yields, whereas Na3PO4 solution has stronger basicity and need higher concentration than Na2CO3 solution does, thus aqueous Na2CO3 is more beneficial for the extraction. The optimal condition was ultrasonically extracted with 0.5% aqueous Na2CO3 at 50℃ and ultrasonic power of 400 W for 60 min. Comparing with UAE with ethanol, the extraction with 0.5% Na2CO3 solution achieves higher yield. Moreover, aqueous Na2CO3 as a solvent has various advantages including non-toxicity, inflammable, non-corrosive and low cost, which ensure this UAE method is a superior method with high utilizing prospect.

  5. Giant Condyloma Acuminata in Indonesian Females with SLE under Immunosuppressant and Steroid Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andhika Rachman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Immunosuppressant and steroid therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE increases the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV infections, one of which is giant condyloma acuminata (GCA. To our knowledge, there is no report evaluating the correlation between immunosuppressive and steroid therapy in patients with SLE and the prevalence of GCA. Case Report. A 42-year-old female was diagnosed with SLE a year ago and has been treated with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. In the last few months she presented GCA involving the genital area recurring almost every two months. Type 6 and 11 HPVs were identified in vulva, vagina, and cervix. Methods. PubMed, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library literature were searched from inception to July 2015. Authors screened all titles and abstracts and read full text article, and two case-control studies were found relevant. Results. SLE patients in both studies were under immunosuppressive and steroid therapy. Condyloma acuminata was diagnosed at 108 months (latest and 1 month (earliest after SLE. Type 6, 11, 16, 42, and oncogenic group of HPV were identified. Conclusions. GCA is a type of HPV infection seldom observed in SLE patients. Therefore, their correlation is still unclear. Period of time since SLE was diagnosed and GCA varies from months to years. A more thorough physical and laboratory examination leading to HPV and other infectious disease is recommended.

  6. TLMA Expression in Condyloma Acuminata from Patients with High and Low Risk HPV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂亚庭; 陈善娟; 范超; 林能兴; 刘厚君; 刘志香

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To detect the activated expression oftelomerase in condyloma acuminata lesions in low-risk (6/11)and high-risk (16/18) human papilloma virus (HPV)infection and examine the role played by telomerase in theoccurrence, development and carcinomatous change ofcondyloma acuminata. Methods: Assaying the expression of telomerase and thetype of HPV in damaged skin of 42 CA patients and normalskin of 30 healthy control individuals through telomeraserepeat amplification protocol (TRAP) and polymerase chainreaction (PCR). Results: In all the normal skin controls, PCR for HPV wasnegative and only 16.7% of samples were positive for TLMAexpression; in CA lesions, HPV testing was positive in all (32cases were low-risk, 3 were high-risk, and 7 were of mixedtype) and all were positive for TLMA expression. Conclusion: TLMA may be activated by HPV infection,and in turn cause the hyperplasia of epidermal cells. It wasalso indicated that HPV, especially high risk types, canactivate TLMA. The activation of TLMA may play animportant role in abnormal hyperplasia and carcinomatouschanges in CA lesions.

  7. Molluscicidal activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Terminalia chebula against the freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Aparna; Singh, D K

    2011-04-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Terminalia chebula fruit powder against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. The molluscicidal activity of T. chebula fruit powder (96 h LC(50):93.59 mg L(-1)) was more pronounced than that of S. mukorossi fruit powder (96 h LC(50):119.57 mg L(-1)). Ethanolic extracts of S. mukorossi and T. chebula fruit powder were more toxic than their other organic solvent extracts. The molluscicidal activity of ethanolic extract of S. mukorossi fruit powder (24h LC(50):2.75 mg L(-1)) was more effective than the ethanolic extract of T. chebula fruit powder (24h LC(50):124.06 mg L(-1)). The 96 h LC(50) of column-purified fraction of S. mukorossi fruit powder was 5.43 mg L(-1) whereas those of T. chebula fruit powder was 7.49 mg L(-1). Column, thin layer and high performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrates that the active molluscicidal component in S. mukorossi and T. chebula is saponin (96 h LC(50):1.31 mg L(-1)) and tannic acid (96 h LC(50):1.64 mg L(-1)), respectively. These plants may be used as potent source of molluscicides against the snail L. acuminata.

  8. Giant Condyloma Acuminata in Indonesian Females with SLE under Immunosuppressant and Steroid Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Immunosuppressant and steroid therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) increases the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, one of which is giant condyloma acuminata (GCA). To our knowledge, there is no report evaluating the correlation between immunosuppressive and steroid therapy in patients with SLE and the prevalence of GCA. Case Report. A 42-year-old female was diagnosed with SLE a year ago and has been treated with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. In the last few months she presented GCA involving the genital area recurring almost every two months. Type 6 and 11 HPVs were identified in vulva, vagina, and cervix. Methods. PubMed, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library literature were searched from inception to July 2015. Authors screened all titles and abstracts and read full text article, and two case-control studies were found relevant. Results. SLE patients in both studies were under immunosuppressive and steroid therapy. Condyloma acuminata was diagnosed at 108 months (latest) and 1 month (earliest) after SLE. Type 6, 11, 16, 42, and oncogenic group of HPV were identified. Conclusions. GCA is a type of HPV infection seldom observed in SLE patients. Therefore, their correlation is still unclear. Period of time since SLE was diagnosed and GCA varies from months to years. A more thorough physical and laboratory examination leading to HPV and other infectious disease is recommended. PMID:27843658

  9. Condylomata acuminata of the urinary bladder. Natural history, viral typing, and DNA content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Mistro, A; Koss, L G; Braunstein, J; Bennett, B; Saccomano, G; Simons, K M

    1988-03-01

    Three patients with condylomata acuminata of the urinary bladder are reported. Two of the patients were immunosuppressed, and one had longstanding extensive condylomata acuminata of the external genitalia and adjacent areas. All lesions recurred at least once and were difficult to treat. The diagnosis was confirmed by in situ hybridization on archival material with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA probes under stringent conditions. In two of the patients, probes for HPV types 6 and 11 were positive; HPV 11 only was identified in one patient. Probes for HPV types 16 and 18 and pBR322 vector controls were negative. In one patient with a strong hybridization signal, the lesion was also positive for common papillomavirus antigen. DNA content measured by cytophotometry of Feulgen-stained whole nuclei isolated from lesions in two patients revealed a markedly aneuploid DNA pattern. Whether this is a factor in the behavior of the lesions is not known at this time. Although rare, HPV infection of the urinary bladder may result in widespread condylomatosis and may mimic giant condylomas of Buschke-Löwenstein or even verrucous carcinomas, sometimes necessitating radical treatment. Nevertheless, until there is proof to the contrary, the lesions must be considered benign and should not be confused with squamous cancer of the bladder.

  10. 5-aminolaevulinic Acid-photodynamic Therapy for the Treatment of Cervical Condylomata Acuminata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-xin Liu; He-yi Zheng; Xiu-rong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy(PDT)with topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid(ALA)on cervical condylomata acuminata.Methods Patients with cervical condylomata(n=30)were allocated into primary and recurrent group,and were given topical ALA under occlusive dressing for 3 hours followed by irradiation with semiconductor laser at a dose of 100 Jcm2 and a power of 100 mW.The treatment was repeated 7 days later if the lesion was not completely removed after the first treatment.Complete response rate and recurrence rate of wart lesions as well as rate of adverse reaction were analyzed.Results The total complete response rate of PDT was 100% and the total recurrence rate was 5% after 3 months of follow-up.Recurrence rate of recurrent group was significantly lower than that of prior managements(100% ,P<0.01).The side effects of PDT in patients mainly included mild burning and/or stinging restricted to the illuminated areas,and was significant lower than their own control(25% vs.100% ,P<0.05).Conclusion Compared with conventional therapies,topical application of ALA-PDT is a simple,effective,safe,well-tolerated,and low recurrence rate treatment for cervical condylomata acuminata.

  11. EXTRACTION AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF ASCORBIC ACID FROM BANANA PEEL MUSA ACUMINATA ‘KEPOK’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Anwar Mohamad Said

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extraction of an antioxidant compound, which is ascorbic acid or vitamin C, from a banana peel using an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method. The type of banana used was Musa acuminata also known as “PisangKepok” in Malaysia. The investigation includes the effect of solvent/solid ratio (4.5, 5 g and 10  ml/g, sonication time (15, 30 and 45 mins and temperature variation (30 , 45  and 60oC on the extraction of ascorbic acid compounds from the banana peel to determine the best or optimum condition of the operation. Out of all extract samples analyzed by redox titration method using iodine solution, it was found that the highest yield was 0.04939 ± 0.00080 mg that resulted from an extraction at 30oC for 15 mins with 5 ml/g solvent-to-solute ratio.KEYWORDS:  Musa acuminata; ultrasound-assisted extraction; vitamin C; redox titration

  12. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 (AA) leaves submitted to temperature stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, C.R.; Martins, N.F.; Horberg, H.M.; Almeida, E.R.P.; Coelho, M.C.F.; Togawa, R.; Silva, F.R.; Caetano, A.R.; Miller, R.N.G.; Souza, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    In order to discover genes expressed in leaves of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 (AA), from plants submitted to temperature stress, we produced and characterized two full-length enriched cDNA libraries. Total RNA from plants subjected to temperatures ranging from 5°C to 25°C and

  13. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspensions of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA) via a liquid co-cultivation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xia; Huang, Xue-Lin; Xiao, Wang; Zhao, Jie-Tang; Dai, Xue-Mei; Chen, Yun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2007-10-01

    A high efficient protocol of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a major banana variety of the South East Asia region, was developed in this study. Male-flower-derived embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) were co-cultivated in liquid medium with Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 carrying nptII and gusA gene in the T-DNA. Depending upon conditions and duration of co-cultivation in liquid medium, 0-490 transgenic plants per 0.5 ml packed cell volume (PCV) of ECS were obtained. The optimum duration of inoculation was 2 h, and the highest transformation frequency was achieved when infected ECS were co-cultivated in liquid medium first for 12 h at 40 rpm and then for 156 h at 100 rpm on a rotary shaker. Co-cultivation for a shorter duration (72 h) or shaking constantly at 100 rpm at the same duration gave 1.6 and 1.8 folds lower transformation efficiency, respectively. No transgenic plants were obtained in parallel experiments carried on semi-solid media. Histochemical GUS assay and molecular analysis in several tissues of the transgenic plants demonstrated that foreign genes were stably integrated into the banana genome. Compared to semi-solid co-cultivation transformation in other banana species, it is remarkable that liquid co-cultivation was much more efficient for transformation of the Mas cultivar, and was at least 1 month faster for regenerating transgenic plants.

  14. Relationship Between Apoptosis and PCNA Expression of Keratinocytes in Condylomata Acuminata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊翌明; 马泽粦; 冯进云; 吴志华; 李顺凡

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship betweenapoptosis and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)expression of keratinocytes in Condylomata acuminata (CA). Methods: PCNA expression was observed byimmunohistochemistry technique (ABC method) in 51 CAspecimens and 18 normal specimens of foreskin or vaginalmucosae. 55 specimens (40 in the CA group and 15 in thecontrol group) were randomly sampled for in situ labelingof apoptotic cells using the TUNEL method. Results: Positive expression of PCNA in CA and controlgroups were 90.2% and 77.8%, respectively, and theproliferation index in CA group was significantly higherthan that in the control group (P0.05). The proliferation indexshowed a significant negative correlation with theapoptosis-proliferation ratio (r=-0.62, P=0.01) in the CAgroup. Conclusion: It is suggested that the proliferativeappearance of CA could be due to the imbalance betweencell growth and cell death which is caused by moreproliferation and less apoptosis in keratinocytes.

  15. A molecular marker-based linkage map of diploid bananas (Musa acuminata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauré, S; Noyer, J L; Horry, J P; Bakry, F; Lanaud, C; Gońzalez de León, D

    1993-12-01

    A partial molecular linkage map of the Musa acuminata diploid genome is presented. This map is based on 58 RFLP, four isozyme and 28 RAPD markers segregating in an F2 population of 92 individuals. A total of 90 loci was detected, 77 of which were placed on 15 linkage groups while 13 segregated independently. Segregation distortions were shown by 36% of all loci, mostly favoring the male parent. Chromosome structural rearrangements were believed to be one of the main causes of these distortions. The use of genetic linkage data to further the genetic and evolutionary knowledge of the genus Musa, as well as to help improve the design of breeding strategies, is discussed.

  16. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet

    2015-02-01

    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  17. Mechanism of Infrared Detection and Transduction by Beetle Melanophila Acuminata In memory of Jerry Wolken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meir Israelowitz; Jeong-Ah Kwon; Syed W. H. Rizvi; Christoph Gille; Herb P. von Schroeder

    2011-01-01

    The Melanophila acuminata beetle is attracted to forest fires via a pair of infrared sensory organs composed of sensilla. Our histological work showed that each sensillum contains lipid layers surrounding a protein layer and a unique polysaccharide base that is associated with a neuron to each sensillum. Infrared microscopy showed that the protein region maximally absorbs infrared radiation at 3 μm wavelength and at 10 μm, which corresponds to the known radiation produced by forest fires at 3 μm.Mathematical calculations showed that the physical properties of the sensilla are such that the expected temperature rise is insufficient for transduction of the infrared signal through mechanical means or as a thermal receptor as previously thought;hence the protein plays the pivotal role in perception of single photons and transmission of the signal within the sensilla.

  18. Assessment of factors affecting in vitro shoot regeneration from axillary bud explant of Camptotheca acuminata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-Mei; ZU Yuan-Gang; DONG Feng-Li; ZHAO Xiao-Ju

    2005-01-01

    Axillary buds from 3-yr.-old seedlings of Camptotheca acuminata in the greenhouse were cultured on the different basal media with different concentrations of growth regulators for shoot regeneration for studying the effects of different basal media, different concentrations of growth regulators (BA or TDZ), sucrose, agar and pH value on shoot regeneration from axillary bud. The results showed that B5 and WPM media were the optimal basal media and the optimal phyotohormone was BA of 1.0 mg/L or TDZ of 0.1mg/L; The concentrations of sucrose of 30g/L and agar of 6g/L were most suitable for the shoot regeneration; pH value from 5.8 to 6.6 were broadly effective, but the best at pH 5.8.

  19. Toxicity of Chlorophyllin against Lymnaea acuminata at Different Wavelengths of Visible Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Divya; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a water and food-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This disease is widespread in different parts of the world. Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae snails are the intermediate hosts of these flukes. Snail population management is a good tool to control fasciolosis because gastropods represent the weakest link in the life-cycle of trematodes. Chlorophyll can be extracted from any green plant. Chlorophyllin was prepared from spinach in 100% ethanol by using different types of chemicals. The chlorophyll obtained from spinach was transformed into water-soluble chlorophyllin. In the present paper, toxicity of chlorophyllin against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. The toxicity of extracted and pure chlorophyllin at continuous 4 h exposure of sunlight was highest with lethal concentration (LC50) of 331.01 mg/L and 2.60 mg/L, respectively, than discontinuous exposure of sunlight up to 8 h with LC50 of 357.04 mg/L and 4.94 mg/L, respectively. Toxicity of extracted chlorophyllin was noted in the presence of different monochromatic visible lights. The highest toxicity was noted in yellow light (96 h, LC50 392.77 mg/L) and the lowest in green light (96 h, LC50 833.02 mg/L). Chlorophyllin in combination with solar radiation or different wavelength of monochromatic visible lights may become a latent remedy against the snail L. acuminata. It was demonstrated that chlorophyllin was more toxic in sunlight. Chlorophyllin is ecologically safe and more economical than synthetic molluscicides which have the potential to control the incidence of fasciolosis in developing countries. PMID:27688849

  20. Low plant density enhances gene dispersal in the Amazonian understory herb Heliconia acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, Marina C; Uriarte, María; Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogério; Kress, W John; Smouse, Peter E; Bruna, Emilio M

    2013-11-01

    In theory, conservation genetics predicts that forest fragmentation will reduce gene dispersal, but in practice, genetic and ecological processes are also dependent on other population characteristics. We used Bayesian genetic analyses to characterize parentage and propagule dispersal in Heliconia acuminata L. C. Richard (Heliconiaceae), a common Amazonian understory plant that is pollinated and dispersed by birds. We studied these processes in two continuous forest sites and three 1-ha fragments in Brazil's Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project. These sites showed variation in the density of H. acuminata. Ten microsatellite markers were used to genotype flowering adults and seedling recruits and to quantify realized pollen and seed dispersal distances, immigration of propagules from outside populations, and reproductive dominance among parents. We tested whether gene dispersal is more dependent on fragmentation or density of reproductive plants. Low plant densities were associated with elevated immigration rates and greater propagule dispersal distances. Reproductive dominance among inside-plot parents was higher for low-density than for high-density populations. Elevated local flower and fruit availability is probably leading to spatially more proximal bird foraging and propagule dispersal in areas with high density of reproductive plants. Nevertheless, genetic diversity, inbreeding coefficients and fine-scale spatial genetic structure were similar across populations, despite differences in gene dispersal. This result may indicate that the opposing processes of longer dispersal events in low-density populations vs. higher diversity of contributing parents in high-density populations balance the resulting genetic outcomes and prevent genetic erosion in small populations and fragments.

  1. Toxicity of Chlorophyllin against Lymnaea acuminata at Different Wavelengths of Visible Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Divya; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Fasciolosis is a water and food-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This disease is widespread in different parts of the world. Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae snails are the intermediate hosts of these flukes. Snail population management is a good tool to control fasciolosis because gastropods represent the weakest link in the life-cycle of trematodes. Chlorophyll can be extracted from any green plant. Chlorophyllin was prepared from spinach in 100% ethanol by using different types of chemicals. The chlorophyll obtained from spinach was transformed into water-soluble chlorophyllin. In the present paper, toxicity of chlorophyllin against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. The toxicity of extracted and pure chlorophyllin at continuous 4 h exposure of sunlight was highest with lethal concentration (LC50) of 331.01 mg/L and 2.60 mg/L, respectively, than discontinuous exposure of sunlight up to 8 h with LC50 of 357.04 mg/L and 4.94 mg/L, respectively. Toxicity of extracted chlorophyllin was noted in the presence of different monochromatic visible lights. The highest toxicity was noted in yellow light (96 h, LC50 392.77 mg/L) and the lowest in green light (96 h, LC50 833.02 mg/L). Chlorophyllin in combination with solar radiation or different wavelength of monochromatic visible lights may become a latent remedy against the snail L. acuminata. It was demonstrated that chlorophyllin was more toxic in sunlight. Chlorophyllin is ecologically safe and more economical than synthetic molluscicides which have the potential to control the incidence of fasciolosis in developing countries.

  2. Seasonal variation in abiotic factors and toxicity of thymol against the snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of thymol against Lymnaea acuminata was conducted in each month of the year 2010-2011. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values of a molluscicide thymol were determined, with the concomitant estimation of levels of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and electrical conductivity, both in control and test water. On the basis of a 24h toxicity assay, it was observed that 24h LC50 value of 6.41 mg/l in month of May, was most effective in killing the snails, while the thymol was least effective in month of April, when its 24h LC50 was 15.25 mg/l. There was a significant positive correlation between LC50 of thymol and levels of carbon dioxide/ pH of water in corresponding months. On the contrary, a negative correlation was noted between LC50 of thymol and dissolved oxygen/ temperature of test water in the same months. In order to confirm that relationship between toxicity and abiotic factors is not coincidental, activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, acid phosphatase (ACP and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in the nervous tissue of control as well as sublethal thymol (60% of 24hLC50 treated snail, were assayed during each of the 12 months of the same year. A significant positive rank correlation was noted between AChE/ACP/ALP activity and corresponding sublethal treatment of thymol. Maximum inhibition of AChE, ACP and ALP activity was observed in the month of May. This study shows conclusively that the best time to control the L. acuminata population with thymol is during the month of May to July.

  3. [Establishment of embryogenic cell suspension culture and plant regeneration of edible banana Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yue-Rong; Huang, Xue-Lin; Li, Jia; Huang, Xia; Li, Zhe; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2005-01-01

    Conventional breeding for dual resistance of disease and pest of Musa cultivars remains a difficult endeavor, as the plant is polyploidic and high in sterility. Biotechnological techniques, eg., genetic engineering, in vitro mutation breeding, or protoplast fusion, may overcome the difficulties and improve the germplasm. Establishment of a stable embryogenic cell suspension (ECS) is a prerequisite for any of the biotechnological breeding methods. In this study an embryogenic cell suspension was established from immature male flower of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a popular commercial variety of banana in the South-East Asian region. After culture for 5-6 months on callus induction media, which consisted of MS salts, different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4.1 micromol/L biotin, 5.7 micromol/L indoleacetic acid (IAA), 5.4 micromol/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), other vitamins, 87 mmol/L sucrose, and solidified with 7 g/L agarose, meristematic globules and yellow, friable embryogenic cultures were induced from the explants of 1-15th row young floral hands of immature male flowers. Of the four treatments of 2,4-D, 9 micromol/L was the most effective on the callus induction, it transformed 40.96% and 7.45% of the cultivated male floral hands into callus and embryogenic callus respectively. The explants to produce highest frequency of the embryogenic calli were floral hands of 6 to 12th rows, which generated 5.79% of the embryogenic calli. Suspension cultures were initiated from these embryogenic calli in liquid medium supplemented with 4.5 micromol/L 2, 4-D. After sieving selection of the cultures using a stainless steel metallic strainer with pore sizes of 154 microm at 15 day intervals for 3 months, homogeneous and yellow embryogenic cell suspensions, composed of single cells and small cell aggregates, were established. Based upon the growth quantity and growth rate of ECS, it was determined that the appropriate inoculum was 2.0 mL PCV

  4. Bait Formulations of Chlorophyllin against Infected/Uninfected Lymnaea acuminata in Red and Sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Navneet Kumar; Vinay Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Control of snail population is an important tool in fasciolosis control programme. In order to achive this objective the method of bait formulation containing an attractant and a molluscicide is an appropriate approach to ensure the death of host snail. Chlorophyllin bait pellets were prepared by addition of attractants starch (10 mM)/serine (20 mM) and Chlorophyllin 2% agar solution. These baits were used against host snail Lymnaea acuminata. The behavioral response of snail against attracta...

  5. EVALUATION FOR SALT STRESS TOLERANCE IN TWO STRAWBERRY CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Al-Shorafa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress conditions have been found to destroy the vital physiological process in plant where slower cell division and cell enlargement or both and limit mineral nutrient uptake with clearly nutritional imbalance. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station, Mu’tah University, Jordan to evaluate growth responses and mineral composition of two strawberry cultivars to salt stress by different NaCl levels. Six NaCl levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mM and two strawberry cultivars, Camarosa and Albino, were used. Nutrient elements were added at the 0.5-strength Hoagland nutrient concentration. Distilled water supplemented with half strength Hoagland solution was used as control. Number of leaves and runners of both strawberry cultivars were significantly reduced by increasing NaCl level. Growth parameters (shoot, root and total dry weights and root: Shoot ratios were significantly reduced with each increase in salinity level. Camarosa had higher value for all these parameters compared with Albino. Leaf chlorophyll content of both strawberry cultivars was significantly decreased when 25 mM NaCl or higher was applied. Regardless of NaCl level, Camarosa cultivar had significantly higher chlorophyll content compared with Albino. Elevated salinity level significantly increased leaf proline content of both cultivars. Albino leaves accumulated higher proline compared with Camarosa at salinized and non-salinized treatments. Both strawberry cultivars had significantly higher leaf and root Na and Cl contents under salinized conditions compared with non-salinized conditions. Each increase in NaCl level resulted in an increase in leaf and root Na and Cl contents of both cultivars. On contrast, leaf K content was decreased with salinity, root content of this mineral was significantly increased with salinity. It could be recommended to avoid growing ‘Camarosa’ and ‘Albino’ strawberry using irrigation water of 25 m

  6. Feeding of Bait to Snail Lymnaea acuminata and Their Effect on Certain Enzyme in the Nervous Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, V K; Singh, D K

    2012-01-01

    Fascioliasis, a snail-borne parasitic zoonosis, has been recognized for a long time because of its major veterinary and human impact. Different Bait formulations were fed to the snail Lymnaea acuminata in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Snail attractant containing bait formulations was prepared from different binary combination (1 : 1 ratio) of carbohydrates (glucose, starch 10 mM) and amino acid (methionine, histidine 10 mM) in 100 ml of 2% agar solution + sublethal (20% and 60% of 24 h and 96 h LC50) doses of different molluscicides (eugenol, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, and limonene). Snails fed on bait containing sub-lethal concentration of different molluscicides and the snail attractant, causing a significant inhibition in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the nervous tissue of the vector snail L. acuminata. Maximum inhibition in ALP (20% of control) and AChE (49.49% of control) activity was observed in the nervous tissue of the L. acuminata exposed to 60% of 96 h LC50 of eugenol in the bait pellets containing starch + histidine, starch + methionine, respectively.

  7. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai Peach cultivar BRS kampai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.The peach breeding program of Embrapa Clima Temperado has, among the objectives the development of fresh market cultivars that fulfill the consumer's preference. Some of the largest consumer centers, such as São Paulo and Curitiba, prefer white flesh peaches with sweet flavor. Cultivar BRS Kampai originated from a cross between 'Chimarrita' and 'Flordaprince', adds the low chilling requirement, advantageous for subtropical areas, to the good appearance and flavor superior to any of the parents. The harvest period of this cultivar begins mid November, in Pelotas, RS, a few days before Rubimel (yellow flesh and Premier (white flesh cultivars (and in the second half of October, in Atibaia, SP being a good substitute for the later.

  8. Study of Post-Harvest Ambon Banana (Musa acuminata) Preservation Using X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwijananti, P.; Handayani, L.; Marwoto, P.; Iswari, R. S.

    2016-08-01

    An exposure to Ambon banana (Musa Acuminata) samples has been done by using X-rays with current, voltage and exposure time are control parameters. This study aimed to determine storage ability of the post-harvest sample. Five samples were exposured by x-rays with the dose of (3-5) × 10-14 Gy. The samples were stored at room temperature. Their mass and physical condition (color and smell) were evaluated every 3 days. It was found that the control sample which was not exposured by X-ray was ripe in the sixth day indicated by the yellow color and good smell of the banana. Meanwhile, the samples which were exposured by (3 - 5) × 10-14 Gy doze of X-ray looked fresher and still had green color. These samples showed their ripening in the ninth day and their mass decrease was (12-13)% which is lower than the control sample. The preservation of banana can be done through low-dose X-ray exposure.

  9. Treatment of condyloma acuminata in pregnant women with cryotherapy combined with proanthocyanidins: Outcome and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Juan; Zhu, Dong-Ning; Dang, Yan-Ling; Zhao, Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Patients with condyloma acuminata (CA) during pregnancy represent a special risk group. The outcomes of many treatment methods for such cases are not satisfactory. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the treatment outcome and safety of cryotherapy combined with proanthocyanidins (PCs) for CA in pregnant women. In this study, 46 pregnant women with CA were treated with cryotherapy combined with PCs. The lesions were sprayed with liquid nitrogen until the color of the wart changed from flesh colored to purple. A PC-containing formulation was then sprayed onto a non-woven fabric or single-layer gauze and applied to the affected area. The PC treatment was applied for 20 min, 2 or 3 times per day. All patients were followed up at 1 and 3 months. No visible warts remained after the cryotherapy and PC treatment. At the 1-month follow-up, only 1 case of recurrence was identified. At 3 months, 5 cases of recurrence were identified, and the recurrence rate was 10.9%. The satisfaction rate of the patients was 94% at 1 month and 87% at 3 months after treatment. All pregnancies resulted in healthy live births without delivery complications. Cryotherapy combined with PCs is indicated to be a safe and effective procedure and may serve as a treatment option for pregnant women with CA.

  10. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hont, Angélique; Denoeud, France; Aury, Jean-Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Carreel, Françoise; Garsmeur, Olivier; Noel, Benjamin; Bocs, Stéphanie; Droc, Gaëtan; Rouard, Mathieu; Da Silva, Corinne; Jabbari, Kamel; Cardi, Céline; Poulain, Julie; Souquet, Marlène; Labadie, Karine; Jourda, Cyril; Lengellé, Juliette; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Alberti, Adriana; Bernard, Maria; Correa, Margot; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Mckain, Michael R; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Burgess, Diane; Freeling, Mike; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Chabannes, Matthieu; Wicker, Thomas; Panaud, Olivier; Barbosa, Jose; Hribova, Eva; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Habas, Rémy; Rivallan, Ronan; Francois, Philippe; Poiron, Claire; Kilian, Andrzej; Burthia, Dheema; Jenny, Christophe; Bakry, Frédéric; Brown, Spencer; Guignon, Valentin; Kema, Gert; Dita, Miguel; Waalwijk, Cees; Joseph, Steeve; Dievart, Anne; Jaillon, Olivier; Leclercq, Julie; Argout, Xavier; Lyons, Eric; Almeida, Ana; Jeridi, Mouna; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Roux, Nicolas; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Weissenbach, Jean; Ruiz, Manuel; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Quétier, Francis; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Wincker, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in industrialized countries. The Musa domestication process started some 7,000 years ago in Southeast Asia. It involved hybridizations between diverse species and subspecies, fostered by human migrations, and selection of diploid and triploid seedless, parthenocarpic hybrids thereafter widely dispersed by vegetative propagation. Half of the current production relies on somaclones derived from a single triploid genotype (Cavendish). Pests and diseases have gradually become adapted, representing an imminent danger for global banana production. Here we describe the draft sequence of the 523-megabase genome of a Musa acuminata doubled-haploid genotype, providing a crucial stepping-stone for genetic improvement of banana. We detected three rounds of whole-genome duplications in the Musa lineage, independently of those previously described in the Poales lineage and the one we detected in the Arecales lineage. This first monocotyledon high-continuity whole-genome sequence reported outside Poales represents an essential bridge for comparative genome analysis in plants. As such, it clarifies commelinid-monocotyledon phylogenetic relationships, reveals Poaceae-specific features and has led to the discovery of conserved non-coding sequences predating monocotyledon-eudicotyledon divergence.

  11. Formulation and evaluation of semisolid jelly produced by Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) peels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noor Azwani Mohd Rasidek; Mariam Firdhaus Mad Nordin; Kamyar Shameli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the jelly formulation produced by Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) peels and evaluate its antioxidant properties which are related to the product quality. Methods: The formulations of peel jelly were established under two-level full factorial designs within two blocks and one center point. Regarding response optimizer, the amount of sugar and citric acid was obtained; hence, the peel jellies were produced. The evaluation of antioxidant properties was conducted by using total phenolic content (TPC) assay and 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. Results: The TPC of peel powder varied from 91.8 to 602.26 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dry weight, and 5%–7% peel jellies had phenolic content ranging from 29.38 to 48.31 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dry weight. The results of DPPH test indicated that at 10 mg/mL, the peel powder showed 89% DPPH inhibition, while 7% peel jelly prominently exhibited 84% DPPH inhibition. The correlation between DPPH IC50 value and TPC of peel powder as well as peel jelly was quite reasonably high with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.843 7 to 0.995. Conclusions: TPC can be used as an indicator in assessing the antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables. The present investigation reveals that TPC is mainly responsible for DPPH free radical scavenging capacity.

  12. Formulation and evaluation of semisolid jelly produced by Musa acuminata Colla(AAA Group) peels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noor Azwani Mohd Rasidek; Mariam Firdhaus Mad Nordin; Kamyar Shameli

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the jelly formulation produced by Musa acuminata Colla(AAA Group) peels and evaluate its antioxidant properties which are related to the product quality.Methods:The formulations of peel jelly were established under two-level full factorial designs within two blocks and one center point.Regarding response optimizer,the amount of sugar and citric acid was obtained;hence,the peel jellies were produced.The evaluation of antioxidant properties was conducted by using total phenolic content(TPC)assay and 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) free radical assay.Results:The TPC of peel powder varied from 91.8 to 602.26 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dry weight,and 5%-7% peel jellies had phenolic content ranging from 29.38 to 48.31 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dry weight.The results of DPPH test indicated that at 10 mg/mL,the peel powder showed 89% DPPH inhibition,while 7% peel jelly prominently exhibited 84% DPPH inhibition.The correlation between DPPH IC50 value and TPC of peel powder as well as peel jelly was quite reasonably high with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.843 7 to 0.995.Conclusions:TPC can be used as an indicator in assessing the antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables.The present investigation reveals that TPC is mainly responsible for DPPH free radical scavenging capacity.

  13. Bait Formulations of Chlorophyllin against Infected/Uninfected Lymnaea acuminata in Red and Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of snail population is an important tool in fasciolosis control programme. In order to achive this objective the method of bait formulation containing an attractant and a molluscicide is an appropriate approach to ensure the death of host snail. Chlorophyllin bait pellets were prepared by addition of attractants starch (10 mM/serine (20 mM and Chlorophyllin 2% agar solution. These baits were used against host snail Lymnaea acuminata. The behavioral response of snail against attractant (starch/serine and chlorophyllin was examined in red and sunlight. The fraction of snail that was in contact with chlorophyllin bait in zone-3 was used as measure of attraction process. Infected snails were more attracted with red light+starch (57.7%. Uninfected snails were more attracted by red light+serine (58.0%. The molluscicidal activity of chlorophyllin against infected snails in red light (96h LC50-1.88% chlorophyllin in bait and sunlight (96h LC50-2.40% chlorophyllin in bait was more pronounced than uninfected snail in red light (96h LC50-1.76% Chlorophyllin in bait and sunlight (96h LC50-3.62% chlorophyllin in bait.

  14. A randomized, controlled, molecular study of condylomata acuminata clearance during treatment with imiquimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyring, S K; Arany, I; Stanley, M A; Tomai, M A; Miller, R L; Smith, M H; McDermott, D J; Slade, H B

    1998-08-01

    Imiquimod, an immune response modifier, has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in the treatment of external genital and perianal warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). To identify the molecular mechanism(s) by which condylomata acuminata clear during topical treatment with imiquimod, wart skin biopsies were taken from patients before treatment, at treatment week 6, and at the end of treatment. Tissues were analyzed for HPV DNA and for mRNA of several cytokines and HPV gene products. Wart clearance was associated with evidence of tissue production of interferon-alpha, -beta, and -gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Regression of warts was strongly associated with a decrease in HPV DNA and in mRNA expression for both early and late viral proteins. Thus, topical imiquimod treatment of anogenital warts led to significant increases in local production of multiple interferon mRNAs and a significant reduction in virus load as measured by decreases in HPV DNA and mRNA for early HPV proteins.

  15. SOURCES OF MYCORRHIZAL INFECTION OF SHOREA ACUMINATA SEEDLINGS UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE Su SEE

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Uninoculated dipterocarp seedlings raised in normal field soil in nurseries were always found to have mycorrhizas after a few months. This study set out to determine whether dipterocarp seedlings could continue to grow and develop in the absence of mycorrhizas and also to determine possible sources of mycorrhizal infection of dipterocarp seedlings raised under laboratory conditions using Shorea acuminata as a typical example. Seedlings were planted in capped or uncapped perspex boxes containing sterile or non-sterile field soil and watered daily with sterile water or tap water. Seedling growth and development of mycorrhizas were monitored at monthly intervals for up to seven months. Seedlings grown in sterile soil remained uninfected after seven months while infection was found in some of the seedlings grown in normal soil regardless of whether they had been watered with tap water or sterile water. This showed that field soil (i.e. under grass far from the forest contained suitable inoculum for forest tree seedlings. Tap water and the air were not important sources of infection. However, mycorrhizal infection was very uneven indicating that the inoculum was probably very unevenly distributed in the soil or that the inoculum density was rather low. Seedlings grown in sterile soil showed better growth than those grown in normal soil and infection of roots by parasitic fungi in the latter was also observed.

  16. Methods to classify maize cultivars in use efficiency and response to nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Lacerda Godoy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available n plant breeding programs that aim to obtain cultivars with nitrogen (N use efficiency, the focus is on methods of selection and experimental procedures that present low cost, fast response, high repeatability, and can be applied to a large number of cultivars. Thus, the objectives of this study were to classify maize cultivars regarding their use efficiency and response to N in a breeding program, and to validate the methodology with contrasting doses of the nutrient. The experimental design was a randomized block with the treatments arranged in a split-plot scheme with three replicates and five N doses (0, 30, 60, 120 and 200 kg ha-1 in the plots, and six cultivars in subplots. We compared a method examining the efficiency and response (ER with two contrasting doses of N. After that, the analysis of variance, mean comparison and regression analysis were performed. In conclusion, the method of the use efficiency and response based on two N levels classifies the cultivars in the same way as the regression analysis, and it is appropriate in plant breeding routine. Thus, it is necessary to identify the levels of N required to discriminate maize cultivars in conditions of low and high N availability in plant breeding programs that aim to obtain efficient and responsive cultivars. Moreover, the analysis of the interaction genotype x environment at experiments with contrasting doses is always required, even when the interaction is not significant.

  17. Content of free phenolic compounds in cultivars of potatoes harvested in Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde Méndez, Candelaria del Mar; Rodríguez Delgado, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena María; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2004-03-10

    Determination of free phenolic compounds in potato samples was optimized using a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with on-line diode array detection. This method was applied to samples of four cultivars of potatoes harvested in Tenerife (Canary Islands). The free phenolic compounds found in the potato samples were (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid. Potato samples belonging to Colorada cultivar, ssp. andigena, had mean concentrations of total phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid higher than those found for Kerr's Pink and Cara cultivars, ssp. tuberosum, and for Negra cultivar, S. x chaucha. In contrast, p-coumaric acid was not detected in any potato samples of the Colorada cultivar. Traditional potatoes presented a higher mean concentration of ferulic acid than recently imported potatoes. A significant and negative correlation was established between (+)-catechin and p-coumaric acid. A considerable contribution to the daily intake of flavonoids was observed with the actual consumption of potatoes.

  18. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Nd: YAG Laser under Urethroscope in the Treatment of Intraurethral Condyloma Acuminata (CA) in Males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冬; 曾伟宏; 翟胜

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Nd:YAG laser under urethroscope for the treatment of intraurethral Candyloma Acuminata (CA) in males.Method: Nd:YAG laser under urethroscope was employed to remove the warts.Result: Seventeen patients out of eighteen cases with CA were cured after the first procedure. The ure rate was 94.4%.For second treatment, the cure rate was 100% and no relapse occurred after observation for 12 - 4 months.Conclusion: Nd:YAG laser by urethroscope is a very good method for the treatment of intraurethral CA.

  19. Ripening of fruits of 'Dwarf Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB group)irradiated and treated with calcium carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineli, Maristella [Instituto de Quimica. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Coneglian, Regina C.C.; Vasconcellos, Marco A.S.; Silva, Eduardo, E-mail: rccconeg@ufrrj.br, E-mail: masv@ufrrj.br [Departamento de Fitotecnia. Instituto de Agronomia. Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Secao de Defesa Nuclear. Divisao de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear. Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The competing effects resulting from the exposure of fruits of 'warf prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB group) to gamma radiation and to calcium carbide have been investigated in this work. The fruits were harvested in a pre-climateric stage (green colored though physiologically developed) in the city of Jaiba, state of Minas Gerais, and gamma irradiated with doses of 0.25 or 0.50 kGy in a research irradiating facility at the Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx) in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Some samples were also exposed to calcium carbide for 32 hours in order to accelerate ripening. Quantitative estimates of peel color, disease index and fresh mass loss were performed for 9 days while the fruits were kept at an average temperature of 23 deg C. The analyses were performed in the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, located in the city of Seropedica. The following treatments or combination of processes have been tested: untreated (control); treated only with irradiation with doses of 0.25 kGy or 0.50 kGy; treated with irradiation with doses of 0.25 kGy or 0.50 kGy and then exposed to calcium carbide. The fruits treated solely with irradiation with 0.25 kGy exhibited a better response during the first days of storage, although their initial green coloration vanished with time. In addition, the fungi Colletotrichum musae and Lasidioplodia theobroma were detected in samples submitted to the combination of both processes. In contrast, such fungi were not observed in fruits that had only been exposed to 0.25 kGy and exhibited low disease indices. Also, 1-2 cm lesions were detected on fruits.(author)

  20. Micropropagation of Malaxis acuminata D. Don: A Rare Orchid of High Therapeutic Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranjeet Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration potential of pseudobulb segments of Malaxis acuminata, procured from in vitro grown cultures, was analysed in Mitra et al., 1976 medium and its combinations with growth adjuncts. Juvenility of the tissues and chemical stimulus emerged as important factors in eliciting response in the explants. The explants from relatively older pseudobulbs (greater than 0.5cm in length remained recalcitrant to regeneration whereas those representing younger ones (less than 0.5cm in length responded positively. The response frequency, pathway of regeneration, and time taken for their development into complete plantlets was directly related to the growth stimulus in the nutrient regime. Shoot buds were induced in an individual treatment with growth regulators (BAP/NAA; 1mg L-1 each whereas their combination [BAP (1.0 mg L-1 + NAA (1.0 mg L-1] promoted protocorm-like body formation in the explants. Additional activated charcoal invariably proved beneficial in accelerating the morphogenetic processes leading to plantlet development. NAA (1 mg L-1 impaired the response frequency and delayed subsequent morphogenetic processes leading to plantlet development. BAP+NAA (1.0 mg L-leach+AC (2 g L-1 was used best for early initiation, highest regeneration frequency, proliferation of protocorm-like bodies (PLB, and plantlet development. Plantlets were transferred to clay pots containing potting mixture (sand, soil, leaf compost in the ratio of 1:1:1. Nearly 70-80% of plantlets survival was recorded. Histological investigation confirmed that neoformations were dermal and multicellular in origin.

  1. The infrared sensilla in the beetle Melanophila acuminata as model for new infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Helmut; Norkus, Volkmar; Hess, Norbert; Bousack, Herbert

    2009-05-01

    For the detection of forest fires the "fire-loving" (pyrophilous) jewel beetle Melanophila acuminata uses a pair of sensor arrays each consisting of about 90 infrared (IR) receptors which are located on either sides of the body. The IR receptors most likely have evolved from common contact hair mechanoreceptors. Compared to a mechanoreceptor, an IR receptor shows the following special features: (i) the formation of a complex cuticular sphere instead of the bristle; the sphere consists of a hard outer exocuticular shell as well as of an inner softer and spongy mesocuticular core. (ii) The enclosure of the dendritic tip of the mechanosensitive neuron inside the sphere in a fluid-filled inner pressure chamber which is connected with the system of microcavities and nanocanals in the mesocuticular core. Hence we propose that an IR sensillum most probably acts as a microfluidic converter of infrared radiation into an increase in internal pressure inside the sphere which is measured by the mechanosensitive neuron. Because the miniaturized receptors respond within a few milliseconds to a brief pulse of IR radiation an approach is made to develop technical IR sensors based on the Melanophila IR receptors. Numerical simulations of sensor performance suggest that the sensitivity of a single IR receptor is in the range of 15 mW/cm2. Theoretical calculations which are based on a hypothetical fire of defined temperature and size demonstrate that a beetle should be able to detect a forest fire from a distance of 10 km. A fluidfilled Golay cell was taken as a basis for the design of a first sensor prototype.

  2. Contrastive Lexicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, R. R. K.

    This paper deals with the relation between etymologically related words in different languages. A survey is made of seven stages in the development of contrastive lexicology. These are: prelinguistic word studies, semantics, lexicography, translation, foreign language learning, bilingualism, and finally contrastive analysis. Concerning contrastive…

  3. Genomic analysis of NAC transcription factors in banana (Musa acuminata) and definition of NAC orthologous groups for monocots and dicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, Albero; Guignon, Valentin; Roux, Nicolas; Rouard, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to abiotic stresses is important in crop breeding. A comprehensive understanding of the gene families associated with drought tolerance is therefore highly relevant. NAC transcription factors form a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of tissue development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The main goal of this study was to set up a framework of orthologous groups determined by an expert sequence comparison of NAC genes from both monocots and dicots. In order to clarify the orthologous relationships among NAC genes of different species, we performed an in-depth comparative study of four divergent taxa, in dicots and monocots, whose genomes have already been completely sequenced: Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Musa acuminata and Oryza sativa. Due to independent evolution, NAC copy number is highly variable in these plant genomes. Based on an expert NAC sequence comparison, we propose forty orthologous groups of NAC sequences that were probably derived from an ancestor gene present in the most recent common ancestor of dicots and monocots. These orthologous groups provide a curated resource for large-scale protein sequence annotation of NAC transcription factors. The established orthology relationships also provide a useful reference for NAC function studies in newly sequenced genomes such as M. acuminata and other plant species.

  4. Antitumor Effects and Biological Mechanism of Action of the Aqueous Extract of the Camptotheca acuminata Fruit in Human Endometrial Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Shian Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extracts of the leaves and fruit of Camptotheca acuminata have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for treating cancer patients. The chemotherapeutic drug, camptothecin (CPT, and related analogs were first isolated from C. acuminata in the 1970s. Although the antitumor effects of CPT have been characterized in recent years, the antitumor effects of aqueous extracts of C. acuminata have not been clarified. The aims of our current study were to determine the tumor-suppression efficiency of an aqueous extract of the fruit of C. acuminata (AE-CA in the human endometrial carcinoma cell lines, HEC-1A, HEC-1B, and KLE, and compare its antitumor effects with those of CPT. Cell viability assays indicated that a dosage of AE-CA containing 0.28 mg/mL of CPT demonstrated enhanced cytotoxicity, compared with CPT treatment. The effects of AE-CA on the induction of cell cycle arrest, the accumulation of cyclin-A2 and -B1, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7 were similar to those of CPT. Furthermore, AE-CA exhibited a synergistic effect on the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in HEC-1A and HEC-1B cells. These results indicated that AE-CA is a potent antitumor agent and can be combined with cisplatin for the treatment of human endometrial cancer.

  5. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions.

  6. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  7. EIN3-like gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Grande naine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Hubert, Olivier; Fils-Lycaon, Bernard; Chillet, Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Ethylene signal transduction initiates with ethylene binding at receptor proteins and terminates in a transcription cascade involving the EIN3/EIL transcription factors. Here, we have isolated four cDNAs homologs of the Arabidopsis EIN3/EIN3-like gene, MA-EILs (Musa acuminata ethylene insensitive 3-like) from banana fruit. Sequence comparison with other banana EIL gene already registered in the database led us to conclude that, at this day, at least five different genes namely MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL3/AB266319, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 exist in banana. Phylogenetic analyses included all banana EIL genes within a same cluster consisting of rice OsEILs, a monocotyledonous plant as banana. However, MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 on one side, and MA-EIL3/AB266319 on the other side, belong to two distant subclusters. MA-EIL mRNAs were detected in all examined banana tissues but at lower level in peel than in pulp. According to tissues, MA-EIL genes were differentially regulated by ripening and ethylene in mature green fruit and wounding in old and young leaves. MA-EIL2/AB266318 was the unique ripening- and ethylene-induced gene; MA-EIL1, MA-EIL4/Ab266320 and AB266321 genes were downregulated, while MA-EIL3/AB266319 presented an unusual pattern of expression. Interestingly, a marked change was observed mainly in MA-EIL1 and MA-EIL3/Ab266319 mRNA accumulation concomitantly with changes in ethylene responsiveness of fruit. Upon wounding, the main effect was observed in MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 mRNA levels, which presented a markedly increase in both young and old leaves, respectively. Data presented in this study suggest the importance of a transcriptionally step control in the regulation of EIL genes during banana fruit ripening.

  8. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  9. Effect of Fe Deficiency on Antioxidant System in Leaves of Three Flax Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Abd El-Rahman SALAMA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of antioxidant enzymes as well as antioxidant compounds in protecting plant from the deleterious effect of iron deficiency was examined in different flax Linum usitassimum L. cultivars. Three flax cultivars (Sakha 1, Sakha 2 and Giza 8 were grown in water culture with (Fe-sufficient plants, +Fe or without (Fe-deficient plants,-Fe iron supply for 40 days. The obtained results showed that, iron deficiency severely decreased dry weight and concentration of iron in all cultivars leaf tissue. Besides this, to verify whether iron deficiency could induce alteration in reactive oxygen species, high concentration of lipid peroxidation (TBARS and H2O2 content in leaves of flax cultivars were detected under (-Fe compared to (+Fe treatments. Iron deficiency can also modulate the content of glutathione (GSH level, which were significantly increased in Fe deficient treatment compared to Fe-sufficient treatment among cultivars. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD was increased under deficient treatment. In contrast, significant differences were observed between cultivars in the activity of Fe containing enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX, peroxidase (POD and catalase (CAT that was greater under Fe sufficient treatment, suggesting higher amounts of physiological iron in leaf tissue of all cultivars. In addition, some changes in POD isoenzyme profile was detected under iron stress.These results suggested that, these antioxidant compounds are the key compounds to protect cell from oxidative injury.

  10. 'Gloriosa': cultivar de alface americana tropicalizada 'Gloriosa': crisphead tropicalized cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Sala

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available 'Gloriosa' é uma cultivar de alface (Lactuca sativa L. americana tropicalizada e resistente a Thielaviopsis basicola. Foi selecionada a partir de variantes da cultivar Lucy Brown, pelo método genealógico. Progênies S1 a S6 foram selecionadas para resistência a T. basicola, características hortícolas, tolerância ao pendoamento precoce e adaptação ao cultivo de verão. Apresenta ciclo precoce de 40 a 50 dias pós-transplante, pendoamento lento, cabeças grandes e três camadas de folhas externas. Possui tolerância a Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians e suporta o cultivo nos períodos de elevadas temperaturas e pluviosidade. Trata-se da primeira cultivar de alface americana tropicalizada no Brasil.'Gloriosa' is a tropicalized crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. resistant to Thielaviopsis basicola. It was derived by selection from cv. Lucy Brown variants by pedigree method. Progenies S1 to S6 were selected for T. basicola resistance, desirable horticulture traits, slowbolting and adaptation for Brazilian summer crop. It presents a precocious cycle within 40 to 50 days of being planted, slowbolting, large head and three layers of frame levels. It is tolerant to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians and is able to be grown under high temperature and rainy summer in southern of Brazil. It is the first crisphead lettuce type developed for tropical regions of Brazil.

  11. Cultivar de soja BRS 205

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonato Emídio Rizzo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A BRS 205, cultivar de soja de ciclo semiprecoce, obtida do cruzamento [BR-16(2 x Ocepar 8] x Tracy-M, é indicada para o Rio Grande do Sul, em semeaduras de novembro. Possui crescimento determinado, plantas de flor branca, pubescência marrom, porte baixo e grãos de hilo preto. Tem resistência ao cancro-da-haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis, à podridão-parda-da-haste (Phialophora gregata, à mancha-olho-de-rã (Cercospora sojina e à pústula bacteriana (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines. É moderadamente resistente ao oídio (Microsphaera diffusa. O rendimento médio de grãos foi 6% e 11% superior ao das cultivares RS 7-Jacuí e BR-16, respectivamente.

  12. Effects of medium nutrition on cell growth and isocamptothecin A and B production by suspension cell culture of Camptotheca acuminata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dongyan; Yu Fang; Bai Fengwu; An Lijia

    2006-01-01

    The effects of initial sucrose concentration, nitrate to ammonium ratio, total N concentration and phosphate concentration in medium on cell growth and isocamptothecin A and B synthesis by suspension cell culture of Camptotheca acuminata were investigated in 250 mL shake flasks. 30 g L-1 sucrose concentration was beneficial to secondary metabolites synthesis. The cell growth and metabolites synthesis were also affected by the ratio of NO-3/NH+4, and nitrate was favourable for cell growth. The maximum dry weight was achieved when nitrate was used as the sole N source. The effect of total initial N on the cell cultures was also investigated with NO-3/NH+4 ratio of 1∶2. The final dry cell weight was similar throughout culture period and 50 mM initial N was favourable for secondary metabolite synthesis. 50 mM initial phosphate concentration facilitated both cell growth and secondary metabolites synthesis.

  13. Microsporogenesis of Apricot Cultivars in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika HAJNAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like all phenological processes, microsporogenesis is mainly determined genetically, but its phenotypical expression is greatly influenced by environmental factors, particularly the temperature. During the 3-year experimental period, the process of microsporogenesis was examined in eight apricot cultivars originated in North America and in Romania. The Hungarian cultivar ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ was used as the control. Based on the results it was possible to rank the cultivars in terms of their microsporogenesis schedule. The same order was found in all three years. This order also indicates the yield reliability of the cultivars. Endodormancy ended between January 10th and 25th in the buds of the earliest cultivar ‘Pinkcot’, but not until February 5-10th in the latest cultivar ‘Harlayne’. Three of the cultivars had faster flower bud development than the control, in the order ‘Pinkcot’, ‘Orange Red’ and ‘Harcot’. Growing these cultivars thus involves greater risk than for ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ in Hungary, due to their rapid winter flower bud development. Some cultivars found to have slower flower bud development than ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’; ‘Litoral’, ‘Harogem’, ‘Comandor’, ‘Sirena’ and ‘Harlayne’ – thus these cultivars can be grown more reliably.

  14. Distinct cell surface appendages produced by Sinorhizobium fredii USDA257 and S. fredii USDA191, cultivar-specific and nonspecific symbionts of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinorhizobium fredii USDA257 and S. fredii USDA191 are fast-growing rhizobia that form nitrogen-fixing nodules on soybean roots. In contrast to USDA191, USDA257 exhibits cultivar specificity and can form nodules only on primitive soybean cultivars. In response to flavonoids released from soybean ro...

  15. Relation between the concentration of Dinophysis acuminata and diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxins in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) during a toxic episode in the Limfjord (Denmark), 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Andersen, Per

    2008-01-01

    were observed. The maximum concentration level of approximately 600-700 mu g OA equivalents kg(-1) was reached at approximately 5,000 cells1(-1) of D. acuminata. A further increase in the concentration of D. acuminata did not lead to any further increase in the concentration of OA in the blue mussels...... equivalents in the raw blue mussels was 706 mu g/kg. Single cell toxicity measurements showed a mean content of 31 pg OA cell(-1) (min 19; max 72 pg OA cell(-1)). The impact of the concentration procedure was investigated using a range of volumes filtered from 0,21-101 filter(-1). Toxins were lost during...

  16. Evaluación in vitro de compuestos presentes en Critoniella acuminata y Salvia rubescens frente a enzimas de desgranulación leucocitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimes Galvis, Diana Carolina

    2010-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se implementaron técnicas in vitro con el fin de contribuir al estudio farmacológico de principios activos de plantas medicinales colombianas con potencial antiinflamatorio como: ayapina, aislada de Critoniella acuminata, amarisolide y arbutina aisladas de Salvia rubescens previamente en el Grupo de Investigación de Principios Bioactivos de Plantas. Se evaluaron enzimas relacionadas con el proceso de desgranulación leucocitaria: Mieloperoxidasa, Elastasa, Lisozima y Bet...

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF MOLLUSCICIDAL COMPONENT OF Moringa oleifera LEAF AND Momordica charantia FRUITS AND THEIR MODES OF ACTION IN SNAIL Lymnaea acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Upadhyay

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The molluscicidal activity of the leaf powder of Moringa oleifera and lyophilized fruit powder of Momordica charantia against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. M. oleifera leaf powder (96 h LC50: 197.59 ppm was more toxic than M. charantia lyophilized fruit powder (96 h LC50: 318.29 ppm. The ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaf powder and Momordica charantia lyophilized fruit powder were more toxic than other organic solvent extracts. The 96 h LC50 of the column purified fraction of M. oleifera leaf powder was 22.52 ppm, while that of M. charantia lyophilized fruit powder was 6.21 ppm. Column, thin layer and high performance liquid chromatography analysis show that the active molluscicidal components in M. oleifera leaf powder and lyophilized fruit of M. charantia are benzylamine (96 h LC50: 2.3 ppm and momordicine (96 h LC50: 1.2 ppm, respectively. Benzylamine and momordicine significantly inhibited, in vivo and in vitro, the acetylcholinesterase (AChE, acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP/ALP activities in the nervous tissues of L. acuminata. Inhibition of AChE, ACP and ALP activity in the nervous tissues of L. acuminata by benzylamine and momordicine may be responsible for the molluscicidal activity of M. oleifera and M. charantia fruits, respectively.

  18. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol and Carum carvi (limonene on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and alanine 10 mM in 100 mL of 2% agar solution + sub-lethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50 doses of different molluscicides (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene. These baits caused maximum significant reduction in free amino acid, protein, DNA, RNA levels i.e. 41.37, 23.56, 48.36 and 14.29% of control in the ovotestis of the snail, respectively. Discontinuation of feeding after treatment of 60% of 96h LC50 of molluscicide containing bait for next 72h caused a significant recovery in free amino acid, protein, DNA and RNA levels in the ovotestis of L. acuminata.

  19. Use of multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, C C

    2002-01-01

    The usefulness of mixtures (multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures) for disease management has been well demonstrated for rusts and powdery mildews of small grain crops. Such mixtures are more useful under some epidemiological conditions than under others, and experimental methodology, especially problems of scale, may be crucial in evaluating the potential efficacy of mixtures on disease. There are now examples of mixtures providing both low and high degrees of disease control for a wide range of pathosystems, including crops with large plants, and pathogens that demonstrate low host specificity, or are splash dispersed, soilborne, or insect vectored. Though most analyses of pathogen evolution in mixtures consider static costs of virulence to be the main mechanism countering selection for pathogen complexity, many other potential mechanisms need to be investigated. Agronomic and marketing considerations must be carefully evaluated when implementing mixture approaches to crop management. Practical difficulties associated with mixtures have often been overestimated, however, and mixtures will likely play an increasingly important role as we develop more sustainable agricultural systems.

  20. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar Saruman was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. Saruman was released by hybridization between Cluj III-VI-5-26 selection (Parmain dOr, open pollinated and NJ 46. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  1. CULTIVAR IMPACT ON THE CHEMICAL CONTENT AND GRAIN TECHNOLOGICAL QUALITIES OF SOME DURUM WHEAT CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanko Kolev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative experiment was carried out with five Bulgarian and five foreign durum wheat cultivars. The aim of the experiment was to determine the chemical content and grain technological quality of some Bulgarian and foreign durum wheat cultivars grown under the agriecological conditions of Southern Bulgaria. The Vazhod cultivar proved to give the highest durum wheat grain yield, followed by Beloslava cultivar. Out of the foreign durum wheat cultivars the Durumko was notable for its higher productivity. The crude protein content in the grain was highest in Zagorka, Yavor and Yukon. The highest yield of gluten was reported in Beloslava, Vazhod and Zagorka.

  2. Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, A; Fischedick, J T

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties.

  3. Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziadekey, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk was prepared from twelve soybean cultivars grown under the same environmental conditions to evaluate their effects on soymilk characteristics. Significant correlations were observed between the Chemical composition of the seeds and the resultant soymilk. Soymilk solids were significantly affected by seed size and seed phosphorus contents. Cultivars with dark hilum produced soymilk with less attractive colour.

  4. EFEITO DO PESO DE MUDA TIPO PEDAÇO DE RIZOMA NO ENRAIZAMENTO INICIAL DA BANANEIRA DO CULTIVAR NANICÃO (Musa acuminata AAA EFFECT OF THE WEIGHT OF RHIZOME TYPE SEEDLING IN THE INITIAL ROOTING OF BANANA CULTIVAR NANICÃO (Musa acuminata AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln F. Zica

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O uso de mudas do tipo pedaço de rizoma, vem, a cada dia, sendo procurado intensivamente como material de propagação de bananeiras. Porém, ao se trabalhar com esse tipo de mudas há necessidades de se conhecer o efeito do peso do rizoma em relação ao seu enraizamento inicial, pois quanto maior o peso das raízes, melhores serão as mudas. De acordo com a análise estatística concluiu-se que há um maior enraizamento em pedaços de rizomas de maior peso.

    Pieces of rootstalk are being used more and more intensively as a means of reproducing banana plants. However, in order to work effectively with this means of reproduction, it is necessary to know the effect of the rootstalk’s weight when it is first planted, because the greater the weight of the rootstalk, the better the shoots will be. On the basis of statistical analysis, it was concluded that the heavier pieces of rootstalk root better.

  5. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar �Saruman� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Saruman� was released by hybridization between �Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated and �NJ 46�. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  6. �Sauron� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new apple cultivar Sauron was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. Sauron was identified in open pollinated population of Cluj 3/83 selection [Cluj III-VI-5-26 selection (Parmain dOr, open pollinated x NJ 46]. The trees have moderate vigour, upright then spread, with moderate productivity. Fruits are medium to large, usually red, with a portion being greenish or yellow-green and purple red vertically striped. The fruit has good quality, being soft eating apple due to their lack of crispness. Quality indices include firmness, crispness and excellent flavour. Fruits become ripe between 15 August and 5 September and the fruits are good quality, being proper for dessert and industrialization (juice, applesauce, pies, and cider.

  7. Cultivar de soja BRS 66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertagnolli Paulo Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 66, oriunda do cruzamento BR 83-147 x FT-Abyara, é indicada para cultivo no Rio Grande do Sul. Na média de 21 ambientes no RS, no período de 1993/94 a 1995/96, essa cultivar apresentou rendimento médio de grãos de 2.883 kg/ha. Apresenta resistência ao cancro-da-haste, à podridão-parda-da-haste, à mancha-olho-de-rã, à raça 1 de Phytophthora sojae, à pústula-bacteriana e ao oídio. Tem flor branca, pubescência marrom, tegumento da semente amarelo-fosco, hilo marrom e tipo de crescimento determinado. É de ciclo médio e apresenta estatura da planta de média a alta, com boa resistência ao acamamento.

  8. Carbohydrate binding properties of banana (Musa acuminata) lectin I. Novel recognition of internal alpha1,3-linked glucosyl residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, H; Winter, H C; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Misaki, A; Goldstein, I J

    2001-05-01

    Examination of lectins of banana (Musa acuminata) and the closely related plantain (Musa spp.) by the techniques of quantitative precipitation, hapten inhibition of precipitation, and isothermal titration calorimetry showed that they are mannose/glucose binding proteins with a preference for the alpha-anomeric form of these sugars. Both generate precipitin curves with branched chain alpha-mannans (yeast mannans) and alpha-glucans (glycogens, dextrans, and starches), but not with linear alpha-glucans containing only alpha1,4- and alpha1,6-glucosidic bonds (isolichenan and pullulan). The novel observation was made that banana and plantain lectins recognize internal alpha1,3-linked glucosyl residues, which occur in the linear polysaccharides elsinan and nigeran. Concanavalin A and lectins from pea and lentil, also mannose/glucose binding lectins, did not precipitate with any of these linear alpha-glucans. This is, the authors believe, the first report of the recognition of internal alpha1,3-glucosidic bonds by a plant lectin. It is possible that these lectins are present in the pulp of their respective fruit, complexed with starch.

  9. Three hydroxylated lupeol-based triterpenoid esters isolated from the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe parasitic on Kola acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeje, Edwin Ogechukwu; Osadebe, Patience Ogoamaka; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu; Nworu, Chukwuemeka Sylvester; Kawamura, Akira; Proksch, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Column fractionation and purification of an n-hexane fraction led to the isolation of three lupeol-based triterpenoid esters from the leaves of the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe, Loranthus micranthus Linn parasitic on a local kola nut tree, Kola acuminata. These three compounds were adequately characterised using a combination of UV/visible, IR, NMR (¹³C-NMR and ¹H-NMR), DEPT, MS and two-dimensional correlation (H-H COSY, Hetero-nuclear Single Quantum Correlation (HSQC), HMBC, NOE and NOESY) studies as 7β,15α-dihydroxyl-lup-20(29)-ene-3β-esters of palmitic (I), stearic (II) and eicosanoic acids (III). The characterisation of other isolated compounds is ongoing. Remarkably, this is the first report of the existence of fatty acid esters of an unusual 7β,15α-dihydroxylated lupeol in the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe. These isolated compounds might contribute in part to the numerous established bio-activities of the Eastern Nigeria mistletoes.

  10. Characterization of the molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi plant extracts against the fasciola vector Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanchan Lata; Singh, D K; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata leaf and Mimusops elengi bark was studied against vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. The toxicity of both plants was time and concentration-dependent. Among organic extracts, ethanol extracts of both plants were more toxic. Toxicity of B. variegata leaf ethanolic extract (96h LC50- 14.4 mg/L) was more pronounced than M. elengi bark ethanolic extract (96h LC50-15.0 mg/L). The 24h LC50 of column purified fraction of B. variegata and M. elengi bark were 20.3 mg/L and 18.3 mg/L, respectively. Saponin and quercetin were characterized and identified as active molluscicidal component. Co-migration of saponin (Rf 0.48) and quercetin (Rf 0.52) with column purified bark of M. elengi and leaf of B. variegata on thin layer chromatography demonstrate same Rf value i.e. 0.48 and 0.52, respectively. The present study clearly indicates the possibility of using M. elengi and/or B. variegata as potent molluscicide.

  11. Characterization of the molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi plant extracts against the fasciola vector lymnaea acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Lata Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata leaf and Mimusops elengi bark was studied against vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. The toxicity of both plants was time and concentration-dependent. Among organic extracts, ethanol extracts of both plants were more toxic. Toxicity of B. variegata leaf ethanolic extract (96h LC50- 14.4 mg/L was more pronounced than M. elengi bark ethanolic extract (96h LC50-15.0 mg/L. The 24h LC50 of column purified fraction of B. variegata and M. elengi bark were 20.3 mg/L and 18.3 mg/L, respectively. Saponin and quercetin were characterized and identified as active molluscicidal component. Co-migration of saponin (Rf 0.48 and quercetin (Rf 0.52 with column purified bark of M. elengi and leaf of B. variegata on thin layer chromatography demonstrate same Rf value i.e. 0.48 and 0.52, respectively. The present study clearly indicates the possibility of using M. elengi and/or B. variegata as potent molluscicide.

  12. CO2, H2O exchange and stomatal regulation of regenerated Camptotheca acuminata plantlets during ex vitro acclimatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-mei; LI Yan-hua; GAO Yin-xiang; ZU Yuan-gang

    2006-01-01

    For finding the changes in CO2, H2O exchange and their stomatal regulation during ex vitro acclimatization of regenerated Camptotheca acuminata plantlets, the net photosynthesis rate (Pn), respiration rate (Rd), light compensation point (Lc) and light saturation point (Ls), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (gs) and water use efficiency(WUE) were measured during 37 days of ex vitro acclimatization. The results showed that Pn sharply increased until 29 days, then slightly decreased. A substantial decrease in Lc and a substantial increase of Ls in the former two weeks were observed, indicating the light regime enlargement for effective leaf photosynthesis. Tr and gs abruptly decreased during the first week then linearly increased until 29days ex vitro acclimatization, reflecting the strong regulation effect of stomata on water changes of ex vitro acclimating plantlets. Stomatal regulation effect on CO2 exchange was different from that on water exchange, i.e. Pn was almost independent of gs during the first week, while Pn was significantly correlated with gs thereafter (i.e. dual patterns). Different from dual patterns of gs-Pn relation, the Tr monotonously linearly increased with gs. Furthermore, WUE was almost independent on gs during the first week, while a marked decreasing tendency with gs was found thereafter. At the beginning of the acclimatization, WUE was mainly determined by photosynthetic capacity, while transpiration becomes a main determinant factor for WUE from 7 to 37 days' acclimatization.

  13. A model for μ-biomimetic thermal infrared sensors based on the infrared receptors of Melanophila acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebke, Georg; Holik, Peter; Schmitz, Sam; Schmitz, Helmut; Lacher, Manfred; Steltenkamp, Siegfried

    2014-09-01

    Beetles of the genus Melanophila acuminata detect forest fires from distances as far as 130 km with infrared-sensing organs. Inspired by this extremely sensitive biological device, we are developing an IR sensor that operates at ambient temperature using MEMS technology. The sensor consists of two liquid-filled chambers that are connected by a micro-fluidic system. Absorption of IR radiation by one of these chambers leads to heating and expansion of a liquid. The increasing pressure deflects a membrane covered by one electrode of a plate capacitor. The micro-fluidic system and the second chamber represent a fluidic low-pass filter, preventing slow, but large pressure changes. However, the strong frequency dependence of the filter demands a precise characterization of its properties. Here, we present a theoretical model that describes the frequency-dependent response of the sensor based on material properties and geometrical dimensions. Our model is divided into four distinct parts that address different aspects of the sensor. The model describes the frequency-dependent behaviour of the fluidic filter and a thermal low-pass filter as well as saturation effects at low frequencies. This model allows the calculation of optimal design parameters, and thereby provides the foundation for the development of such a sensor.

  14. Molluscicidal activity of Ferula asafoetida, Syzygium aromaticum and Carum carvi and their active components against the snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, D K

    2006-06-01

    The molluscicidal activity of dried root latex powder of Ferula asafoetida, flower-bud powder of Syzygium aromaticum and seed powder of Carum carvi against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of all the three plant products was found to be both time and concentration dependent. The toxicity of S. aromaticum flower-bud powder (96 h LC(50):51.98 mg/l) was more pronounced than that of root latex powder of F. asafoetida (96 h LC(50):82.71 mg/l) and seed powder of C. carvi (96 h LC(50):140.58 mg/l). Ethanol extract was more toxic than other organic extracts. The ethanol extract of S. aromaticum (24h LC(50):83.53 mg/l) was more effective than that of F. asafoetida (24h LC(50):132.31 mg/l) and C. carvi (24h LC(50):130.61 mg/l) in killing the test animals. The 96 h LC(50) of column purified fraction of seed powder of C. carvi was 5.40 mg/l whereas those of flower-bud powder of S. aromaticum and dried root latex powder of F. asafoetida were 7.87 and 9.67 mg/l, respectively. The product of F. asafoetida, S. aromaticum and C. carvi may be used as potent molluscicides.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Banana streak virus Isolate from Musa Acuminata in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhuang; Jian-hua Wang; Xin Zhang; Zhi-xinLiu

    2011-01-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV),a member of genus Badnavirus,is a causal agent of banana streak disease throughout the world.The genetic diversity of BSVs from different regions of banana plantations has previously been investigated,but there are relatively few reports of the genetic characteristic of episomal (non-integrated)BSV genomes isolated from China.Here,the complete genome,a total of 7722bp (GenBank accession number DQ092436),of an isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV) on cultivar Cavendish (BSAcYNV) in Yunnan,China was determined.The genome organises in the typical manner of badnaviruses.The intergenic region of genomic DNA contains a large stem-loop,which may contribute to the ribosome shift into the following open reading frames (ORFs).The coding region of BSAcYNV consists of three overlapping ORFs,ORF 1 with a non-AUG start eodon and ORF2 encoding two small proteins are individually involved in viral movement and ORF3 encodes a polyprotein.Besides the complete genome,a defective genome lacking the whole RNA leader region and a majority of ORF1 and which encompasses 6525bp was also isolated and sequenced from this BSV DNA reservoir in infected banana plants.Sequence analyses showed that BSAcYNV has closest similarity in terms of genome organization and the coding assignments with an BSV isolate from Vientam (BSAcVNV).The corresponding coding regions shared identities of 88% and ~95% at nucleotide and amino acid levels,respectively.Phylogenetic analysis also indicated BSAcYNV shared the closest geographical evolutionary relationship to BSAcVNV among sequenced banana streak badnaviruses.

  16. Exploring the genetic variability in water use efficiency: Evaluation of inter and intra cultivar genetic diversity in grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa, Ignacio; Escalona, José Mariano; Bota, Josefina; Tomás, Magdalena; Hernández, Esther; Escudero, Enrique García; Medrano, Hipólito

    2016-10-01

    Genetic improvement of crop Water Use Efficiency (WUE) is a general goal because the increasing water scarcity and the trend to a more sustainable agriculture. For grapevines, this subject is relevant and need an urgent response because their wide distribution in semi-arid areas. New cultivars are difficult to introduce in viticulture due to the narrow dependency of consumer appreciation often linked to a certain particular wine taste. Clones of reputed cultivars would presumably be more accepted but little is known on the intra-cultivar genetic variability of the WUE. The present work compares, on the basis of two field assays, the variability of intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) in a large collection of cultivars in contrast with a collection of clones of Tempranillo cultivar. The results show that clonal variability of WUEi was around 80% of the inter-cultivar, thus providing a first assessment on the opportunity for clonal selection by WUE. Plotting the WUEi data against stem water potential or stomatal conductance it was possible to identify cultivars and clones out of the confidence intervals of this linear regression thus with significantly higher and lower WUEi values. The present results contribute to open the expectative for a genetic improvement of grapevine WUE.

  17. Physiological and biochemical parameters for evaluation and clustering of rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance at seedling stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitahnun Chunthaburee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity tolerance levels and physiological changes were evaluated for twelve rice cultivars, including four white rice and eight black glutinous rice cultivars, during their seedling stage in response to salinity stress at 100 mM NaCl. All the rice cultivars evaluated showed an apparent decrease in growth characteristics and chlorophyll accumulation under salinity stress. By contrast an increase in proline, hydrogen peroxide, peroxidase (POX activity and anthocyanins were observed for all cultivars. The K+/Na+ ratios evaluated for all rice cultivars were noted to be highly correlated with the salinity scores thus indicating that the K+/Na+ ratio serves as a reliable indicator of salt stress tolerance in rice. Principal component analysis (PCA based on physiological salt tolerance indexes could clearly distinguish rice cultivars into 4 salt tolerance clusters. Noteworthy, in comparison to the salt-sensitive ones, rice cultivars that possessed higher degrees of salt tolerance displayed more enhanced activity of catalase (CAT, a smaller increase in anthocyanin, hydrogen peroxide and proline content but a smaller drop in the K+/Na+ ratio and chlorophyll accumulation.

  18. Flower colours and pigments in tulip cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, van J.P.; Keulen, van H.A.; Dijk, van A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Aanvullend op eerder onderzoek, waarbij bijna 500 oude en nieuwe tulpencultivars op bloempigmenten werden geanalyseerd, worden in tabelvorm van diezelfde cultivars nu de bloemkleur en de relatieve hoeveelheden carotenoiden, delfinidine, cyanidine, pelargonidine en flavonolen aangegeven

  19. Parental Selection in Rice Cultivar Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanley Omar P B.SAMONTE; Rodante E.TABIEN; Lloyd T.WILSON

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars assists breeders in identifying useful trait relationships and in selecting parents as donors of specific traits.This study was conducted to compare long-grain rice cultivars using genotype x trait (GT) biplot analysis and determine potential donors of traits related to grain yield and quality.Seventeen cultivars in the 2005 and 2006 Uniform Regional Rice Nursery in Beaumont,Texas,USA were analyzed for 20 traits using GT biplot analysis.The GT biplots showed the diversity among cultivars with regards to yield-related traits.Cultivars recommended as donor parents were:Trenasse,Spring,Presidio,and Cocodrie for high grain yield and head rice rate;Trenasse and Presidio for semi-dwarfness; Banks for tall plant height; Wells for high flag leaf area,panicle weight,and number and mass of filled grains per panicle; Hidalgo for high tiller density; Francis for high number of spikelets per panicle; Spring and Trenasse for short flowering duration; Cheniere for more days to heading and maturity and Spring for less days; and Spring and Hidalgo for high grain weight.Breeders can use these cultivars with specific traits to increase grain yield and quality.

  20. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level.

  1. Productivity and drought tolerance of cassava cultivars in the Coastal Tablelands of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques de Carvalho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ten cassava cultivars were grown in the field and evaluated to identify the most adapted to the Coastal Tablelands of northeast Brazil. The cultivars showed differences in proline and chlorophyll contents, plant height, number of leaves and branches, canopy area and root production, however they did not differ on photosynthetic rates. Cultivars 'Tianguá' and '9783-13' presented lower root yield, whereas 'BRS Tapioqueira' and 'Irará' had the highest root yield. Few leaves coupled with the highest water use efficiency for CO2 assimilation was found in 'BRS Kiriris' in contrast to 'BRS Jarina' and '9783-13'. 'BRS Caipira' had high proline content in both Umbaúba and Frei Paulo areas, traits usually associated to drought tolerance, that contribute to the adaptation. It is also important to consider that cultivar 'BRS Caipira' was the first to present increase in chlorophyll content after extended period of drought, that indicates a faster recovery after dry season. Furthermore, the results indicated that the most adapted cultivars for cultivation in this area are 'Irará', 'BRS Tapioqueira', 'BRS Kiriris' and 'BRS Caipira'.

  2. Characteristics of the microbial community in rhizosphere of Camptotheca acuminata cultured with exotic invasive plant Eupatorium adenophorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZU YuanGang; GAO ChongYang; WANG WenJie; YANG FengJian; LIU Ying; WANG Min; ZHAO YangGuo

    2007-01-01

    The traditional culture-dependent plate counting and culture-independent small-subunit-ribosomal RNA gene-targeted molecular techniques, Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) and terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (tRFLP) combined with 16S rDNA clone library were adopted to investigate the impacts of secretion from Camptotheca acuminata (abbreviated to Ca) roots on the quantities and structure of eukaryotic microbes and bacteria in the rhizosphere, and the possibility that Ca controls exotic invasive plant Eupatorium adenophorum (Ea). The counting results indicated that the number of bacteria increased in turn in rhizospheres of Ea, Ca-Ea mixed culture and Ca, while that of eukaryotic microbes decreased. PCR-SSCP profiles showed eukaryotic microbial bands (corresponding to biodiversity) in rhizosphere of Ea were more complex than those of Ca and CE. Meristolohmannia sp., Termitomyces sp. And Rhodophyllus sp. Were the dominant populations in the rhizosphere of Ca. Bacterial terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) profiles showed no difference among three kinds of rhizospheres, and the sequences of the 16S rDNA clone library from Ca rhizospheres were distributed in 10 known phyla, in which phylum Proteobacteria were the absolute dominant group and accounted for 24.71% of the cloned sequences (δ-Proteobacteria accounted for up to 17.65%), and phyla Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes accounted for 16.47% and 10.59% of the cloned sequences, respectively. In addition, high performance liquid chromatography detected a trace amount of camptothecin and hydroxycamptothecin in the rhizospheric soil of Ca and CE, but examined neither camptothecin nor hydroxycamptothecin in rhizospheric soil of Ea. Therefore, invasion and diffusion of Ea evidently depended on distinguishing the eukaryotic community structure, but not on that of the bacterial pattern. Ca was able to alter the eukaryotic community structure of invasive Ea by secreting camptothecin and

  3. Cultivar identification and genetic relationship of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cultivars using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y S; Kuan, C S; Weng, I S; Tsai, C C

    2015-11-25

    The genetic relationships among 27 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] cultivars and lines were examined using 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The number of alleles per locus of the SSR markers ranged from 2 to 6 (average 3.19), for a total of 51 alleles. Similarity coefficients were calculated on the basis of 51 amplified bands. A dendrogram was created according to the 16 SSR markers by the unweighted pair-group method. The banding patterns obtained from the SSR primers allowed most of the cultivars and lines to be distinguished, with the exception of vegetative clones. According to the dendrogram, the 27 pineapple cultivars and lines were clustered into three main clusters and four individual clusters. As expected, the dendrogram showed that derived cultivars and lines are closely related to their parental cultivars; the genetic relationships between pineapple cultivars agree with the genealogy of their breeding history. In addition, the analysis showed that there is no obvious correlation between SSR markers and morphological characters. In conclusion, SSR analysis is an efficient method for pineapple cultivar identification and can offer valuable informative characters to identify pineapple cultivars in Taiwan.

  4. CULTIVAR RELEASE-IPR 98: Rust-resistant dwarf arabica coffee cultivar for dense spacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumoru Sera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The IPR 98 coffee cultivar is a dwarf plant smaller than the Catuaí Vermelho IAC-81 cultivar, completelyresistant to Hemileia vastatrix Berk. et Br. with medium precocity in ripening and superior quality and high yields with semidense,dense and super dense spacing in lower temperature coffee regions of the state of Paraná.

  5. Pollen limitation and Allee effect related to population size and sex ratio in the endangered Ottelia acuminata (Hydrocharitaceae): implications for conservation and reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J; Lu, J; Wang, Z X; Hao, B B; Wang, H B; Liu, G H

    2013-03-01

    Small populations may suffer more severe pollen limitation and result in Allee effects. Sex ratio may also affect pollination and reproduction success in dioecious species, which is always overlooked when performing conservation and reintroduction tasks. In this study, we investigated whether and how population size and sex ratio affected pollen limitation and reproduction in the endangered Ottelia acuminata, a dioecious submerged species. We established experimental plots with increasing population size and male sex ratio. We observed insect visitation, estimated pollen limitation by hand-pollinations and counted fruit set and seed production per fruit. Fruit set and seed production decreased significantly in small populations due to pollinator scarcity and thus suffered more severe pollen limitation. Although frequently visited, female-biased larger populations also suffered severe pollen limitation due to few effective visits and insufficient pollen availability. Rising male ratio enhanced pollination service and hence reproduction. Unexpectedly, pollinator preferences did not cause reduced reproduction in male-biased populations because of high pollen availability. However, reproductive outputs showed more variability in severe male-biased populations. Our results revealed two component Allee effects in fruit set and seed production, mediated by pollen limitation in O. acuminata. Moreover, reproduction decreased significantly in larger female-biased populations, increasing the risk of an Allee effect.

  6. Microclimatic variation in UV perception and related disparity in tropane and quinolizidine alkaloid composition of Atropa acuminata, Lupinus polyphyllus and Hyoscyamus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Sumira; Kamili, Azra N; Parray, Javid A; Bedi, Yashbir S; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2016-08-01

    The aim of current research was to evaluate the physiological adjustment in three medicinal herbs viz., Atropa acuminata, Lupinus polyphyllus and Hyoscyamus niger to the winter period characterised by intense UV flux in Kashmir valley across the North Western Himalaya. Quinolizidine (QA) and tropane alkaloid (TA) concentrations were analysed in these herbs thriving at two different altitudes via GC-MS and correlated by PCA analysis. This study investigated the hypothesis that UV reflectance and absorbance at low temperatures are directly related to disparity in alkaloid accumulation. Among QAs in L. polyphyllus, ammodendrine and lupanine accumulated at higher concentration and exhibited significant variation of 186.36% and 95.91% in ammodendrine and lupanine respectively in both sites. Tetrahydrohombifoline displayed non-significant variation of about 9.60% irrespective of sites. Among tropane alkaloid (TA), hyoscyamine was recorded as the most abundant constituent irrespective of the plant and site while apotropine accumulated in lesser quantity in A. acuminata than H. niger. However, apotropine demonstrated significant variation of 175% among both sites. The final concentration of quinolizidine (QA) and tropane alkaloid (TA) reflects the interplay between reflectance and absorbance of UV radiation response field. These findings suggest that spectral response of UV light contributes directly to alkaloid biosynthesis.

  7. Composición química y actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Peperomia acuminata de los Andes venezolanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor D. Mora-Vivas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El género Peperomia (Piperaceae, es bien conocido por sus especies ornamentales y usos etnomedicinales. En el presente trabajo se describe la caracterización química y la actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Peperomia acuminata Ruiz & Pav. proveniente del Estado Mérida Venezuela. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por hidrodestilación de las hojas y la separación de los componentes se realizó por Cromatografía de gases-Espectrometría de Masas (CG/EM. Se logró la elucidación de ocho compuestos (96,7%, siendo el 2E-dodecenal el componente mayoritario (65% seguido de dodecanal (14,8% y tetradecanal (9,2%. Esta investigación muestra el potencial del aceite esencial de P. acuminata frente a bacterias Gram positivas (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 y Enterococcus faecalis 29212, con un valor de Concentración inhibitoria mínima de 1μL/mL. Este es el primer reporte sobre la composición química del aceite esencial de esta especie, por lo tanto una contribución importante al estudio del género Peperomia.

  8. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks of Different Hawaiian Sugarcane Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been widely used as a biofuel crop due to its high biological productivity, ease of conversion to ethanol, and its relatively high potential for greenhouse gas reduction and lower environmental impacts relative to other derived biofuels from traditional agronomic crops. In this investigation, we studied four sugarcane cultivars (H-65-7052, H-78-3567, H-86-3792 and H-87-4319 grown on a Hawaiian commercial sugarcane plantation to determine their ability to store and accumulate soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N across a 24-month growth cycle on contrasting soil types. The main study objective establish baseline parameters for biofuel production life cycle analyses; sub-objectives included (1 determining which of four main sugarcane cultivars sequestered the most soil C and (2 assessing how soil C sequestration varies among two common Hawaiian soil series (Pulehu-sandy clay loam and Molokai-clay. Soil samples were collected at 20 cm increments to depths of up to 120 cm using hand augers at the three main growth stages (tillering, grand growth, and maturity from two experimental plots at to observe total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrates (NO−3 using laboratory flash combustion for TC and TN and solution filtering and analysis for DOC and NO−3. Aboveground plant biomass was collected and subsampled to determine lignin and C and N content. This study determined that there was an increase of TC with the advancement of growing stages in the studied four sugarcane cultivars at both soil types (increase in TC of 15–35 kg·m2. Nitrogen accumulation was more variable, and NO−3 (<5 ppm were insignificant. The C and N accumulation varies in the whole profile based on the ability of the sugarcane cultivar’s roots to explore and grow in the different soil types. For the purpose of storing C in the soil, cultivar H-65-7052 (TC accumulation of ~30 kg·m−2 and H-86-3792 (25 kg·m−2 rather H-78

  9. Cadmium accumulation in different pakchoi cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying CHEN; Ting-qiang LI; Xuan HAN; Zhe-li DING; Xiao-e YANG; Ye-fei JIN

    2012-01-01

    The selection and breeding of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) is a practicable and cost-effective approach to minimize the influx of heavy metal to the human food chain.In this study,both pot-culture and field experiments were conducted to identify and screen out cadmium pollution-safe cultivars (Cd-PSCs) from 50 pakchoi (Brassica rapa L.ssp.chinensis) cultivars for food safety.When treated with 1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg Cd,most of the pakchoi cultlvars (>70%)showed greater or similar shoot biomass when compared with the control.This result indicates that pakchoi has a considerable tolerance to soil Cd stress.Cd concentrations in the shoot varied significantly (P<0.05) between cultivars:in two Cd treatments (1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg),the average values were 0.074 and 0.175 mg/kg fresh weight (FW),respectively.Cd concentrations in the shoots of 14 pakchoi cultivars were lower than 0.05 mg/kg FW.In pot-culture experiments,both enrichment factors (EFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of six pakchoi cultivars were lower than 1.0.The field studies further confirmed that the Hangzhouyoudonger,Aijiaoheiye 333,and Zaoshenghuajing cultivars are Cd-PSCs,and are therefore suitable for growth in low Cd-contaminated soils (≤1.2 mg/kg) without any risk to food safety.

  10. Capacidade produtiva de cultivares de berinjela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Antonio C. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a capacidade produtiva de diferentes híbridos e cultivares de berinjela. Sete híbridos (Nápoli, Diamante Negro, Ciça, F-100, Super F-100, Kiko e F-2000 e duas cultivares de polinização aberta (Suzuki e Florida Market foram avaliados. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, constituído de nove tratamentos e três repetições. Cada repetição foi composta de oito plantas. As mudas foram plantadas no espaçamento 1,5m x 1,0m. A cultivar Suzuki produziu a maior quantidade de frutos por planta (27 frutos embora tenha apenas diferido significativamente da cultivar Flórida Market (13 frutos. Os híbridos testados apresentaram número de frutos variando de 20 a 25. Não foi verificada diferença significativa para o número de frutos de 1ª e 2ª categoria entre os materiais testados. Flórida Market e Kiko apresentaram a maior massa média do fruto (362,5 e 358,7 g, respectivamente, diferindo significativamente da cultivar Suzuki, que produziu frutos com a menor massa (178,9 g. As maiores produções por planta foram obtidas com o híbrido Kiko que diferiu significativamente da cultivar Suzuki. Foi verificado que os híbridos Kiko, Diamante Negro, Ciça e F-2000 apresentam potencial de produção semelhante ao Nápoli, atual padrão de mercado.

  11. CULTIVAR RELEASE-IAC-Alvorada and IAC-Diplomata: new common bean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Augusto Morais Carbonell

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of common bean breeding programs is the development of high-yielding cultivars, with multipledisease resistance and high technological and nutritional grain quality. Two cultivars, IAC-Alvorada with carioca grain, andIAC-Diplomata with black grain, meet these standards, according to the results of trials of Value for Cultivation and Use(VCU 2005/2006/2007 in São Paulo. The cultivars, developed by the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, were registered bythe MAPA/RNC.

  12. Characteristics of the microbial community in rhizosphere of Camptotheca acuminata cultured with exotic invasive plant Eupatorium adenophorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The traditional culture-dependent plate counting and culture-independent small-subunit-ribosomal RNA gene-targeted molecular techniques, Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) and ter-minal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (tRFLP) combined with 16S rDNA clone library were adopted to investigate the impacts of secretion from Camptotheca acuminata (abbreviated to Ca) roots on the quantities and structure of eukaryotic microbes and bacteria in the rhizosphere, and the possi-bility that Ca controls exotic invasive plant Eupatorium adenophorum (Ea). The counting results indi-cated that the number of bacteria increased in turn in rhizospheres of Ea, Ca-Ea mixed culture and Ca, while that of eukaryotic microbes decreased. PCR-SSCP profiles showed eukaryotic microbial bands (corresponding to biodiversity) in rhizosphere of Ea were more complex than those of Ca and CE. Meristolohmannia sp., Termitomyces sp. and Rhodophyllus sp. were the dominant populations in the rhizosphere of Ca. Bacterial terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) profiles showed no difference among three kinds of rhizospheres, and the sequences of the 16S rDNA clone library from Ca rhizospheres were distributed in 10 known phyla, in which phylum Proteobacteria were the absolute dominant group and accounted for 24.71% of the cloned sequences (δ-Proteobacteria accounted for up to 17.65%), and phyla Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes accounted for 16.47% and 10.59% of the cloned sequences, respectively. In addition, high performance liquid chromatography detected a trace amount of camp-tothecin and hydroxycamptothecin in the rhizospheric soil of Ca and CE, but examined neither camp-tothecin nor hydroxycamptothecin in rhizospheric soil of Ea. Therefore, invasion and diffusion of Ea evidently depended on distinguishing the eukaryotic community structure, but not on that of the bac-terial pattern. Ca was able to alter the eukaryotic community structure of invasive Ea by secreting camptothecin and

  13. Caracterización de harina y almidón de frutos de banano Gros Michel (Musa acuminata AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Montoya-López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se determinaron las características fisicoquímicas, térmicas y reológicas de la harina y el almidón de frutos de banano Gros Michel (Musa acuminata cosechado en fincas del departamento del Quindío, Colombia. En el análisis proximal, la harina presentó un contenido de fibra de 18.82% y el almidón presentó contenidos de proteína de 1.92%, grasa de 5.3% y fibra de 2.76%. La harina presentó la temperatura más alta de absorción de calor (68.88 °C y su entalpía de gelatinización fue de 2.17 J/g; mientras que para el almidón estos valores fueron de 48.36 °C y 44.62 J/g, respectivamente. El análisis termogravimétrico (TGA de la harina o temperaturas en las cuales se registra la descomposición de carbohidratos (componentes de bajo peso molecular y polisacáridos (componentes de alto peso molecular fueron, respectivamente, de 284.51 °C y 470.42 °C; y para el almidón fueron de 307.51 °C y 500.46 °C. Los gránulos de almidón de banano tienen forma elipsoidal con un tamaño longitudinal promedio de 39.39 µm y tamaño transversal promedio de 29.47 µm. Los difractogramas de rayos X mostraron patrones de difracción tipo B. Los viscoamilogramas mostraron que para la harina la temperatura de inicio de gelatinización (Tg es de 76.3 °C, la viscosidad máxima de 1120 cP, y para el almidón la Tg fue de 70.75 °C y la viscosidad máxima de 2087 cP.

  14. The effect of abiotic factors on the toxicity of cypermethrin against the snail Lymnaea acuminata in the control of fascioliasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V; Singh, D K

    2009-03-01

    Every month during the year 2006-2007, the 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values of a molluscicide, cypermethrin, were determined for a snail Lymnaea acuminata, with concomitant estimation of levels of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide and electrical conductivity, both in control and test water. On the basis of a 24 h toxicity assay, it was noted that LC50 values of 10.39, 10.90 and 11.19 mg l- 1 during the months of May, June and July, respectively, were most effective in killing the snails, while the molluscicide was least effective in the month of January, when its 24 h LC50 was 65.84 mg l- 1.There was a significant positive correlation between LC50 of cypermethrin and levels of dissolved O2/pH of water in corresponding months. On the contrary, a negative correlation was observed between LC50 and dissolved CO2/temperature of test water in the same months. In order to ascertain that such a relationship between toxicity and abiotic factors is not coincidental, the nervous tissue of the snail was assayed for the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to sublethal concentrations (40% and 80%) of 24 h LC50 during each of the 12 months of the same year. The findings confirmed that abiotic factors indeed influence toxicity of cypermethrin in the snail. A significant positive rank correlation between AChE, ACP and ALP activity did exist following exposure to the corresponding sublethal concentrations. Moreover, there was a maximum inhibition of 61.29 and 76.16% of AChE and ACP, respectively, in snails exposed to 80% of the 24 h LC50 in the month of May. A similar treatment caused a maximum inhibition of 70.53% of ALP activity in the month of June. This work shows conclusively that the best time to control the snail population with cypermethrin is during the months of May and June.

  15. Response of broccoli and cabbage hybrid cultivars to clomazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide (Command 3ME) is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Cabbage cultivars vary in clomazone tolerance, and recommended use rates can cause severe foliar chlorosis and yield reduction to susceptible cultivars. The objectiv...

  16. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups.

  17. Yield potential of pigeon pea cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield potential of twelve vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajun) cultivars was evaluated at two locations in eastern Kenya during 2012 and 2013 cropping years. Pigeon pea pod numbers, seeds per pod, seed mass, grain yield and shelling percentage were quantified in three replicated plots, arranged in a...

  18. Growth and development in Achimenes cultivars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahos, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Achimenes is a herbaceous perennial of the Gesneriaceae family. Its origin is Central and South America. It has been cultivated as a pot plant since the Victorian era. Extensive hybridization has produced many attractive cultivars which have been Introduced in commercial floriculture both In the Uni

  19. Micropropagation of peach rootstocks and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Ildikó; Mansvelt, Lucienne

    2013-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most popular stone fruits, commercially produced largely in Mediterranean and, to a lesser extent, in continental climatic conditions. Several breeding programs with different aims release annually large numbers of new cultivars. Micropropagation offers a suitable method to provide the growers of sufficient quantities of rootstocks, as well as of pathogen-free planting material of old and new cultivars.An effective four-step micropropagation procedure for cultivar and rootstock production is described here, based on the use of modified MS and WPM media. The health status of the initial shoot tips is very important, also because the growth and proliferation rate of shoot cultures from virus-infected clones are generally very poor. Proliferation and elongation phases depend on the major macro-elements, as well as the content and ratio of plant growth regulators. It is important to grow the cultures at 22°C, as hyperhydricity may develop at higher temperatures. Although sucrose is the most common carbon source used during proliferation and rooting, for some peach cultivars and rootstocks the replacement of sucrose (10 g/L) with glucose (20 g/L) in the rooting medium improves the rooting and survival rates of plants in the acclimatization phase. The rooting rate of the rootstock "Cadaman" is improved with the chelated form of iron FeEDDHA at 150 mg/L. Rooted plants are acclimatized in greenhouse under high humidity conditions.

  20. CULTIVAR RELEASE-CD 115: Soft Wheat Cultivar for colder regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Sergio Marchioro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 115 was developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC and isrecommended for cultivation in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná. The cultivar is tolerant todiseases and pre-harvest sprouting. The mean grain yield in four years of evaluation was 3,420 kg ha-1, exceeding thecontrols by 7%.

  1. Exploration of methods used to describe bacterial communities in silage of maize (Zea mays) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusetti, Lorenzo; Borin, Sara; Rizzi, Aurora; Mora, Diego; Sorlini, Claudia; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    Different techniques to assess bacterial community structure and diversity were evaluated in silages prepared with four different maize cultivars, three conventional and one transgenic (cv. Tundra, event Bt-176). Plants were cultivated in the greenhouse and harvested after 30 days of growth. Silage samples were collected at successive times during fermentation and analyzed for bacterial counts and by various DNA-based fingerprinting techniques. Bacterial counts were similar between cultivars for the total culturable bacteria, sporeforming, and mesophilic and thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Further analysis of the species composition of 388 LAB strains by intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR followed by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene did not reveal differences between cultivars. In contrast, molecular fingerprinting methods targeting whole bacterial communities, such as automated ribosomal intergenic spacers analysis (ARISA) and 16S rRNA gene length heterogeneity-PCR (LH-PCR), indicated that different maize silage batches or cultivars hosted different bacterial communities. Thus, ARISA and LH-PCR fingerprinting techniques offer a fast and sensitive method to compare bacterial communities, and to detect differences in silage bacterial communities.

  2. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRSMG União: common bean cultivar with jalo grain for the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The bean cultivar BRSMG União as a new option of a bean cultivar with jalo grains for the state of Minas Gerais. The cultivar BRSMG União had an average grain yield of 9.8% above the mean of the controls (Jalo EEP 558 and BRS Radiante and was resistant to powdery-mildew.

  3. Anatomía de la lámina de hoja en ocho cultivares de aguacate Leaf lamina anatomy of eight avocado cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel González-Calderón

    2011-10-01

    increased CO2 assimilation rate and persea mite resistance. These features can be directly related to the leaf anatomy. It is important to know these features in current and new cultivars: 'Hass', 'Reed', 'Gwen', 'GEM', 'Lamb Hass', 'Harvest', BL667 ('Nobel' and BL516 ('Marvel'. During 2007 in Chapingo, Mexico, transverse sections of leaf blades were performed, evaluating anatomical features. There were found variables with no differences between cultivars, which may be because all genotypes used in this study except 'Reed', come from a common ancestor 'Hass'. The cultivars groupings are possible according to the anatomical characteristics of its leaf blade, where, there is a variation that can be interpreted from the physiological aspect and its likenesses by their ancestry. 'Gwen', 'Hass', 'Marvel' and 'GEM' had a wider cuticle and less wide palisade parenchyma cells, while 'Reed', 'Nobel' and 'Lamb Hass', had contrasting features, 'Harvest' had intermediate values. The 'Lamb Hass' cultivar presented a leaf blade anatomy with features that allow it to carry out photosynthesis more efficiently, due to the higher values of its palisade parenchyma I.

  4. Screening of Carnation Cultivars for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M R; Kim, J Y; Song, C; Ko, J Y; Na, S Y; Yiem, M S

    1996-12-01

    A total of 33 carnation cultivars cultured in Korea were screened for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Carnations were tested by either inoculating with 5,000 eggs or by transplanting into a mixture of bedding medium and soil infested with an average of 435 second-stage juveniles/300 cm(3) soil. Cultivars, Desio, Castelaro, Kappa, Rara, Izu Pink, Target, and Antalia were highly resistant to M. incognita. Twelve cultivars were moderately resistant, and the remaining 14 cultivars were susceptible. These results were similar to those obtained when the cultivars were subjected to field populations of the condition on a carnation farm.

  5. Histology of Callogenesis in Diploid Bananas (Musa acuminata, AA Group �Kluai Sa� and �Kluai Leb Mu Nang�

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamnoon KANCHANAPOOM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Yellow compact calluses were induced from in vitro-grown shoot tips of diploid bananas (Musa acuminata, AA group �Kluai Sa� and �Kluai Leb Mu Nang� on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing 100 mg/L malt extract, 50 mg/L proline, 50 mg/L cysteine, 100 mg/L glutamine, 1 mg/L biotin, 7 mg/L Dicamba and 2 mg/L TDZ. Green shoot buds were induced after transfer of the yellow compact calluses to the same MS medium but supplemented with 1 mg/L NAA and 3 mg/L BA and plant regeneration was achieved through organogenesis in callus cultures. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.2% activated charcoal but without plant growth regulators. Histological analysis revealed that calluses originated from small dense cells with well stained cytoplasm and nucleus typical of meristematic cells.

  6. Cell-specific expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, key genes involved in camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Nyssaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaria Anna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camptotheca acuminata is a major natural source of the terpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin (CPT. At present, little is known about the cellular distribution of the biosynthesis of CPT, which would be useful knowledge for developing new strategies and technologies for improving alkaloid production. Results The pattern of CPT accumulation was compared with the expression pattern of some genes involved in CPT biosynthesis in C. acuminata [i.e., Ca-TDC1 and Ca-TDC2 (encoding for tryptophan decarboxylase and Ca-HGO (encoding for 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase]. Both CPT accumulation and gene expression were investigated in plants at different degrees of development and in plantlets subjected to drought-stress. In all organs, CPT accumulation was detected in epidermal idioblasts, in some glandular trichomes, and in groups of idioblast cells localized in parenchyma tissues. Drought-stress caused an increase in CPT accumulation and in the number of glandular trichomes containing CPT, whereas no increase in epidermal or parenchymatous idioblasts was observed. In the leaf, Ca-TDC1 expression was detected in some epidermal cells and in groups of mesophyll cells but not in glandular trichomes; in the stem, it was observed in parenchyma cells of the vascular tissue; in the root, no expression was detected. Ca-TDC2 expression was observed exclusively in leaves of plantlets subjected to drought-stress, in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1. In the leaf, Ca-HGO was detected in all chlorenchyma cells; in the stem, it was observed in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1; in the root, no expression was detected. Conclusions The finding that the sites of CPT accumulation are not consistently the same as those in which the studied genes are expressed demonstrates an organ-to-organ and cell-to-cell translocation of CPT or its precursors.

  7. Condiloma acuminado anal com ovos de Schistosoma mansoni em paciente HIV-positivo Condilomata acuminata with Schistosoma eggs in HIV-positive patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Pirani Carneiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Condiloma acuminado e ovos de Schistosoma são freqüentemente encontrados na região anal, mas não há nenhum caso descrito de associação dessas doenças nessa região. No colo uterino a associação de infecção por HPV (vírus do papiloma humano e ovos de Schistosoma em paciente HIV (vírus da imunodeficiência humana-positivo já foi relatada e há evidências de que essa associação possa alterar a história natural dessas doenças. Assim como no colo uterino, é possível que essa interação também ocorra na região anal. Nosso objetivo, portanto, é relatar um caso de condiloma anal em paciente HIV-positivo, que foi submetido a ressecção cirúrgica e que apresentou no exame histopatológico numerosos ovos de Schistosoma mansoni.Condilomata acuminata and Schistosoma eggs are frequently found in the anal region, but there is no report about the association of these diseases in this region. The association of HPV infection and Schistosoma eggs in an HIV-positive patient was found in uterine cervix and there is evidence suggesting that this association can alters the natural history of these diseases. Like in the cervix, it is possible that this interaction also occurs in the anal region. So, we report a case of anal Condilomata acuminata, in an HIV-positive patient, that was ressected and contained on histopathologic examination, multiple Schistosoma eggs.

  8. Contributions of apoplasmic cadmium accumulation, antioxidative enzymes and induction of phytochelatins in cadmium tolerance of the cadmium-accumulating cultivar of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraguchi, Shimpei; Kiyono, Masako; Sakamoto, Takuya; Watanabe, Izumi; Kuno, Katsuji

    2009-07-01

    The contributions of cadmium (Cd) accumulation in cell walls, antioxidative enzymes and induction of phytochelatins (PCs) to Cd tolerance were investigated in two distinctive genotypes of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.). One cultivar of black oat 'New oat' accumulated Cd in the leaves at the highest concentration compared to another black oat cultivar 'Soil saver' and other major graminaceous crops. The shoot:root Cd ratio also demonstrated that 'New oat' was the high Cd-accumulating cultivar, whereas 'Soil saver' was the low Cd-accumulating cultivar. Varied levels of Cd exposure demonstrated the strong Cd tolerance of 'New oat'. By contrast, low Cd-accumulating cultivar 'Soil saver' suffered Cd toxicity such as growth defects and increased lipid peroxidation, even though it accumulated less Cd in shoots than 'New oat'. Higher activities of ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1. 15. 1. 1) were observed in the leaves of 'New oat' than in 'Soil saver'. No advantage of 'New oat' in PCs induction was observed in comparison to Cd-sensitive cultivar 'Soil saver', although Cd exposure increased the concentration of total PCs in both cultivars. Higher and increased Cd accumulation in cell wall fraction was observed in shoots of 'New oat'. On the other hand, in 'Soil saver', apoplasmic Cd accumulation showed saturation under higher Cd exposure. Overall, the present results suggest that cell wall Cd accumulation and antioxidative activities function in the tolerance against Cd stress possibly in combination with vacuolar Cd compartmentation.

  9. Textural properties of mango cultivars during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shyam Narayan; Jaiswal, Pranita; Narsaiah, Kairam; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Ramesh

    2013-12-01

    Firmness and toughness of fruit, peel and pulp of seven different mango cultivars were studied over a ripening period of ten days to investigate the effects of harvesting stages (early, mid and late) on fruit quality. Parameters were measured at equatorial region of fruits using TA-Hdi Texture Analyzer. The textural characteristics showed a rapid decline in their behaviour until mangoes got ripened and thereafter, the decline became almost constant indicating the completion of ripening. However, the rate of decline in textural properties was found to be cultivar specific. In general, the changes in textural attributes were found to be significantly influenced by ripening period and stage of harvesting, but firmness attributes (peel, fruit and pulp) of early harvested mangoes did not differ significantly from mid harvested mangoes, while peel, fruit and pulp firmness of late harvested mangoes were found to be significantly lower than early and mid harvested mangoes.

  10. RB975952 – Early maturing sugarcane cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Sampaio Carneiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RB975952 is an early maturing sugarcane cultivar released for the South-Central region of Brazil. It should be harvested between April and May, and it is recommended for planting in environments with medium to high production potential. RB975952 has high resistance levels to the main diseases of the crop, it also has a good shoot development after mechanical harvesting, and high sucrose yields.

  11. Relative competitiveness of soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ouriques Bastiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness between soybean cultivars and barnyardgrass, based on morphological and physiological characteristics of species. The experiments were conducted in completely randomized experimental design, with 4 replications. In the first study, for both soybean and barnyardgrass, it was determined the population of plants in which shoot dry matter became constant and independent of the population (16 plants∙pot−1 or 400 plants∙m−2. In the second study, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the competitiveness of BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass plants, both carried out in replacement series under different proportions of plants∙pot−1 (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100 between the crop and the weed. The analysis of the species competitiveness was determined through diagrams applied to replacement series experiments and use of relative competitiveness indexes. At 44 days after the emergence of species, the physiological and morphological parameters of the crop and the weed were evaluated. The BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars show similar competitiveness when competing with the barnyardgrass; therefore, the ability of one species to interfere on another is equivalent. For plant height, barnyardgrass displays higher competitiveness compared to BMX Apolo RR, with early cycle and short height. The intraspecific competition is more important to barnyardgrass than interspecific competition with soybean cultivars, resulting in negative effects on the morphological and physiological characteristics of species.

  12. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuxia; Shen, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar '74-x' had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar 'Hanzhong purple'; the bulbs of cultivar 'Gailiang' had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of 'Hanzhong purple' also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar '74-x' had highest protection capability, following by cultivar 'Hanzhong purple', and the bulbs of cultivar 'No. 105 from Korea' had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.

  13. Eating quality and health-promoting properties of two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars stored in passive modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Isabel; Camats, Josep A; Comabella, Eva; Ortiz, Abel

    2015-03-01

    Two sweet cherry cultivars ('New Star' and 'Sweet Heart') were chosen to explore the impact of passive modified atmosphere packaging on the eating quality and health-promoting properties of fruit. Packaged and unpackaged fruits were stored at 0 ℃ for 15 or 30 days, followed by zero or three days at 20 ℃, after which the analyses were undertaken. In most cases, modified atmosphere packaging helped preserving higher firmness values and reducing the incidence of alterations and decay in both cultivars, but the effects on other physicochemical attributes were different for each cultivar. Partial least squares regression procedures were used to reveal relationships among the different variables assessed. Generally, fruits displaying higher antioxidant capacity were also characterised by higher values for firmness and titratable acidity, in turn related to better acceptability scores in both cultivars. However, the attributes contributing most to acceptability were different in each case. In 'New Star' fruit, acceptability was closely related to the perception of cherry flavour. In this cultivar, acetaldehyde content was related to the perception of off-flavours, while ethanol content was found to associate to soluble solids and to the perception of sweetness. In contrast, acceptability of 'Sweet Heart' fruit was related mainly to the perception of firmness and, to a lower extent, of sweetness.

  14. Micronucleus technology of microspore mother cells of Ottelia acuminata for monitoring water pollution of Dianchi Lake%海菜花花粉母细胞微核技术监测滇池水质污染状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟书华; 樊传章; 侯思名; 郭丽红; 王全坤

    2011-01-01

    以海菜花生长环境水(路南长湖水)处理作阴性对照,以滇池5个样点的水样处理作阳性对照,利用海菜花花粉母细胞微核技术监测评价滇池水质污染物致突变的情况,测定各采样点水样的海菜花花粉母细胞微核千分率及污染指数.结果表明:滇池5个样点的水样均使海菜花花粉母细胞微核千分率急剧增加,用海莱花水生植物建立的水体环境污染检验系统,可避免用陆生植物监测水体时因改变生长环境而造成的误差.%The micronucleus techniques of microspore mother cells of Ottelia acuminata was used to monitor the water pollution of Dianchi Lake when Ottelia acuminata was grown in the water samples of five sampling sites in the Dianchi lake. The micronucleus permillage and pollution index of the microspore mother cells of Ottelia acuminata in the water samples were determined. The results show that the water samples of the five sampling sites in the Dianchi Lake cause a sharp increase in the micronucleus of microspore mother cells of 0ttelia acuminate. The monitoring system of water environmental pollution established by Ottelia acuminata can avoid the error caused by the change of growth environment of land plants.

  15. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group cv. Berangan Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Sin Lee

    Full Text Available Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana.

  16. Contrast-induced nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. García Hernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced nephropathy is an important complication associated with the use of contrast media. Favoring factors for the development of contrast-induced nephronpathy have been widely described, being diabetes mellitus and previous renal disease the greatest risk. The pathophysiology is a complex process where the medullary hypoxia represents the trigger element. Previous hydration and the use of low osmolality contrast are the most recommended measures to prevent its development.

  17. Cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars of rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hui [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Junli [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Fang Wei [Biology Department, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Yuan Jiangang [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yang Zhongyi [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: adsyzy@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2006-11-01

    Large areas of contaminated land are being used for agricultural production in some countries due to the high demand for food. To minimize the influx of pollutants to the human food chain through consumption of agricultural products, we propose the concept of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs), i.e. cultivars whose edible parts accumulate a specific pollutant at a level low enough for safe consumption, even when grown in contaminated soil. We tested the feasibility of the PSC concept by growing 43 cultivars of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L., including 20 normal and 23 hybrid cultivars) under a high (75.69-77.55 mg kg{sup -1}) and a low (1.75-1.85 mg kg{sup -1}) cadmium (Cd) exposure. These pot experiments took place in the spring and summer of 2004. At the low level of Cd exposure, 30 out of the 43 tested cultivars were found to be Cd-PSCs. Grain Cd concentrations were highly correlated (p < 0.01) between the two experiments, suggesting that Cd accumulation in rice grain is genotype-dependent and that the selection of PSCs is possible, at least at a certain level of soil contamination. No Cd-PSCs were found under the high level of Cd exposure. Yield was enhanced in some cultivars and depressed in others in response to elevated soil Cd, indicating that farmers cannot rely on yield depression as an indicator of toxicity of the grains. It is therefore important and feasible to screen for PSCs and to establish PSC breeding programs to effectively and efficiently reduce the risk of human exposure to soil pollutants, such as Cd, through crop consumption.

  18. Characterization of oats (Avena sativa L.) cultivars using machine vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, S; Balamurugan, P

    2013-10-15

    Machine vision or image analysis is an important tool in the study of morphology of any materials. This technique has been used successfully to differentiate the eleven oats cultivars based on morphological characters. The geometry of seeds was measured through image analyzer and the variation was observed and recorded. From the recorded data, the cluster analysis was carried out and it revealed that the cultivars could be grouped into two main clusters based on similarity in the measured parameters. Cultivar Sabzar, UPO 212, OL 9 and OL 88 formed one main cluster. The another main cluster includes cv. Kent, OS 6, UPO 94, HFO 114, OS 7, HJ 8 and JHO 822 with many sub clusters. Among the cultivars HJ 8 and JHO 822 has more similarity in all measured parameters than other cultivars. Thus morphological characterization through seed image analysis was found useful to discriminate the cultivars.

  19. Don't camp beside the river: structure and dynamics of Andean alder (Alnus acuminata forests affected by river floods, northwestern Argentina No acampe junto al río: estructura y dinámica de bosques de aliso (Alnus acuminata del noroeste argentino afectados por crecientes de río

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMÁS A EASDALE

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae is a pioneer tree that dominates mountain riparian forests throughout the eastern Andes. Early studies associated these forests with particular microclimatic conditions along river beds, but they were later linked to the periodical disturbance regime of mountain rivers. To understand the dynamics of these forests, we analysed tree age and spatial arrangement in two plots along Potrero river and another plot along La Horqueta river, Tucumán Province, north west Argentina. Through intensive tree coring and age reconstruction we identified similar-aged tree cohorts with maximum age ranges of eight years. Tree mapping and Moran's I spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that tree cohorts were spatially clumped, and provided further evidence that coetaneous patches of A. acuminata arise from massive regeneration following catastrophic flooding events. We tested the association between cohort initiation dates and regional maximum river discharge records by means of a randomization procedure and found weak evidence that establishment occurs after devastating floods, which eliminate previous vegetation and create bare sites suitable for A. acuminata regeneration. Dates of tree floodscars sampled along Potrero river precede by one year the most recent cohort initiation date and provide further support of this association. Although previous studies found a positive correlation between El Niño events and mean annual precipitation in northwestern Argentina, we did not detect an association between El Niño and annual maximum stream flow for rivers in Tucumán Province. Therefore, factors driving devastating floods and A. acuminata stand initiation require further studyEl aliso (Alnus acuminata, Betulaceae es un árbol pionero que domina bosques riparios de montaña en los Andes orientales. Estudios iniciales atribuyeron la presencia de estos bosques a las típicas condiciones microclimáticas de cauces de ríos, pero luego

  20. Screening of Carnation Cultivars for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, M. R.; Kim, J. Y.; Song, C.; Ko, J.Y.; Na, S. Y.; Yiem, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 33 carnation cultivars cultured in Korea were screened for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Carnations were tested by either inoculating with 5,000 eggs or by transplanting into a mixture of bedding medium and soil infested with an average of 435 second-stage juveniles/300 cm³ soil. Cultivars, Desio, Castelaro, Kappa, Rara, Izu Pink, Target, and Antalia were highly resistant to M. incognita. Twelve cultivars were moderately resistant, and the re...

  1. Photosynthetic Diurnal Variation of Soybean Cultivars with High Photosynthetic Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAN Wei-qun; DU Wei-guang; ZHANG Gui-ru; LUAN Xiao-yan; GE Qiao-ying; HAO Nai-bin; CHEN Yi

    2002-01-01

    The photosynthetic characters were investigated among soybean cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency and high yield. The results indicated that: 1) There were significant differences in photosynthetic rate (Ph) and dark respiration rate (DR) under saturation light intensity and appropriate temperature.2) There were a little difference in light compensation point among them. Photo flux density (PFD) were mong the cultivars. Diurnal variation of Pn was shown a curve with two peaks. 4) The cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency were subjected less to photoinhibition than that with high yield. Critical temperatures of photoinhibition in high photosynthetic efficiency cultivars were higher than that of high yield.

  2. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-10-26

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the control cultivar ROC22. From the perspective of cane yield, cultivars FN 40 and YZ 06-407 were well adapted to a wider range of conditions and produced relatively high cane yields in several pilot sites. From the perspective of sucrose yield, cultivars LC 03-1137, FN 38, FN 41, MT 01-77 and LC 05-136 were well adapted to a wide range of conditions and produced relatively high sucrose yields. Based on these results, three high yielding and widely adapted cultivars, namely, FN 39, LC 05-136, and YZ 05-51 were recommended for production in three major Chinese sugarcane planting areas. The results will provide a theoretical basis for recommending the effective use and rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

  3. Differentially Expressed Genes between Two Barley Cultivars Contrasting in Drought Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.G. Guo; M. Baum; R.H. Li; S. Grando; R.K. Varshney; J. Valkoun; S. Ceccarelli; A. Grane

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drought tolerance is a key trait for increasing and stabilizing barley productivity in dry areas. A number of genes have been described that respond to drought at the transcriptional level (Seki et al., 2002; Cheong et al.,2003).

  4. Cut-rose production in response to planting density in two contrasting cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burema, B.S.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Damen, T.; Vos, J.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Growing in lower planting density, rose plants produce more assimilates, which can be used to produce more and/or heavier flowering shoots. The effect of planting density was investigated during a period including the first five flowering flushes of a young crop. In a heated greenhouse two cut-rose

  5. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  6. CULTIVAR RELEASE-BRS 217 Flora: Early-maturing soybean cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio Itamar de Mello de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cultivar BRS 217 Flora was developed by Embrapa and released forproduction in the states of Goiás, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Mato Grosso and the Distrito Federal, Brazil. It is resistant to stemcanker, frog-eye leaf spot, bacterial pustule, and partially resistant to powdery mildew.

  7. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C.; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then...

  8. Phase contrast image synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  9. Yield and quality of strawberry cultivars Produtividade e qualidade de cultivares de morangueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo C Antunes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry cultivation is an important economic activity in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, however the number of offered cultivars to the growers is reduced. The yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cultivars Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre and Sabrosa was evaluated under the climatic conditions of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State. We determined the number, mass, total soluble solids (TSS ºBrix, total titratable acidity (TTA, antocianin level and fresh fruits produced in an experimental unit. We also determined the production of fruits per hectare and per plant. The statistical design used in the experiment was of completely randomized blocks with 6 treatments (cultivars and 4 replicates where the experimental unit was composed of 8 plants. The harvest began in the first half of August, extending to the second half of December, totalling 20 weeks. Plarionfre, Earlibrite and Festival cultivars showed higher production from the first half of October until the end of the first half of November. Camarosa reached higher productivity, mass of plants and fruit weight. There were no differences between the evaluated cultivars in the levels of TSS, antocianin, ATT and pH during the period of evaluation.No estado do Rio Grande do Sul o cultivo do morangueiro é uma atividade econômica importante, entretanto o número de cultivares disponíveis no mercado é bastante reduzido. Assim buscou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos de cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre e Sabrosa, cultivados nas condições climáticas e de solo do município de Pelotas, RS. Determinaram-se, o número, massa fresca e teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST (expresso em ºBrix, acidez total titulável (ATT (expresso em % de ácido cítrico e teor de antocianinas, dos frutos produzidos por unidade experimental. Determinou

  10. Sensibilidade de cultivares de algodoeiro ao cloreto de mepiquat Sensibility of cotton cultivars to mepiquat chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Bogiani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de cultivares de algodoeiro ao cloreto de mepiquat e verificar se ela está relacionada ao ciclo ou à arquitetura da planta. Foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação com seis cultivares de algodoeiro - FiberMax 966, FiberMax 977, Delta Penta, Delta Opal, FMT 501 e FMT 701 - e quatro doses do regulador vegetal à base de cloreto de mepiquat - 0, 7,5, 15 e 22,5 g ha-1 de i.a. -, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com arranjo fatorial 6x4 e quatro repetições. As parcelas experimentais foram constituídas por vasos de 12 L com duas plantas em cada um. As doses do regulador vegetal foram aplicadas sem adjuvante, no estádio de aparecimento dos botões florais, aos 34 dias após a emergência das plântulas. Paralelamente ao experimento com doses, a retenção do regulador pelas folhas das cultivares foi quantificada. O crescimento em altura das plantas de algodoeiro é diminuído com a aplicação do regulador vegetal, e esse efeito se intensifica com o aumento da dosagem aplicada. Existe diferença entre as cultivares estudadas quanto à sensibilidade ao cloreto de mepiquat, sendo que as mais precoces são mais sensíveis. Além da sensibilidade diferenciada, a arquitetura das plantas pode possibilitar maior ou menor deposição do regulador sobre as folhas.The objective of this work was to assess the sensibility of cotton cultivars to mepiquat chloride and to verify if it is related to plant cycle or architecture. A green-house experiment was carried out with six cotton cultivars - FiberMax 966, FiberMax 977, Delta Penta, Delta Opal, FMT 501 e FMT 701 -, and four concentrations of mepiquat chloride plant growth regulator - 0, 7,5, 15 and 22,5 g ha-1 of the active ingredient - in complete block design with a 6x4 factorial arrangement and four replicates. The plots consisted of 12 L pots with two plants per pot. Regulator doses were applied without adjuvants at the beginning of

  11. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  12. Contrast induced nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart J; Reimer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    measures used to reduce the incidence of CIN, and the management of patients receiving metformin. Key Points • Definition, risk factors and prevention of contrast medium induced nephropathy are reviewed. • CIN risk is lower with intravenous than intra-arterial iodinated contrast medium. • eGFR of 45 ml....../min/1.73 m (2) is CIN risk threshold for intravenous contrast medium. • Hydration with either saline or sodium bicarbonate reduces CIN incidence. • Patients with eGFR = 60 ml/min/1.73 m (2) receiving contrast medium can continue metformin normally....

  13. Effect of cultivar and year on phyllochron in winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and growth of leaves in cereals significantly affects grain yield since dry matter accumulation depends on the leaf area that intercepts light. Phyllochron (PHY is defined as time interval between the emergences of successive leaves on the main stem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of year and cultivar on phyllochron in winter barley. Twelve cultivars of winter barley differing in origin and time of anthesis were tested during six growing seasons (GS, from 2002/03 to 2007/08. The highest PHY across GSs was determined in the two-rowed cultivar Cordoba (81.6°Cd and the lowest in the two-rowed cultivar Novosadski 581 (71.0°Cd. The early cultivars had fast leaf development, the medium cultivars medium and the late cultivars slow development, 72.5°Cd, 75.6°Cd and 78.9°Cd, respectively. The tested cultivars showed significant variability in the PHY, which can be used for selecting most adaptable genotypes for specific growing conditions.

  14. Cultivar and row distance interactions in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise C; Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    yield and seed weight (r=0.72***), whereas the correlation between seed yield and the number of reproductive tillers was negatively correlated (r= - 0.49***). This may reflect choice of cultivars in the experiment with the tetraploid forage cultivar 'Tivoli' having the lowest number of reproductive...

  15. Evaluation of Wheat and Barley Cultivars Tolerance to Metribuzine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi Darbandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of barely and wheat cultivars tolerance to metribuzin, a factorial experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with three replications in Greenhouse of Agricultural Research at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included wheat cultivars (Backcross roshan, Cross Arvand, Bahar, Sepahan, Gascosion, Sayonez, Bam garmsiry, Garmsiri, Ghods, Pishtaz, Chamran and Shoori 6, barely cultivars (Macouyi, Karoon and Bahman and metribuzin application rates ( 0, 175, 350, 700, 1050, 1400 and 2100 gr. ai.ha-1. Metribuzine was applied at 3-4 leaf stage and 3 weeks after herbicide spraying, plants survival and their biomass were determined. Results showed that metribuzin application had a significant effect (p≤0.01 on barley and wheat dry weight. Based on results, mertibuzin application did not affect on barley cultivars up to 30 g.a.i.ha-1 but in wheat varieties lead to significant reduction in their biomass and survival. Increasing of metribuzin rates reduced wheat and barley cultivars biomass (p≤0.01. Barely varieties were less sensitive than wheat cultivars to metribuzine. The highest and the lowest ED50 in wheat cultivars were observed in cross arvand (940 and shoori (25 varieties, respectively. In barley cultivars the highest and lowest ED50 were observed in Macouyi (614 and Karoon (396, respectively.

  16. Measurement of lipid transfer protein in 88 apple cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, A.I.; Ree, van R.; Leeuwen, van A.; Meulenbroek, E.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Puehringer, H.; Laimer, M.; Martinelli, A.; Zaccharini, M.; Vazquez-Cortes, S.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Clare Mills, E.N.; Zuidmeer, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fruits are a major cause of food allergy in adults. Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are implicated in severe allergic reactions to fruits, but little is known about LTP content in different cultivars. Objective: Determination of the levels of LTP in a wide range of apple cultivars. Methods

  17. Identifying nitrogen-efficient potato cultivars for organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    In organic farming, nitrogen efficiency of potato might vary among cultivars, even within the same maturity type. We therefore analysed in depth the response to nitrogen of a diverse set of cultivars, grown at different locations (differing in soil type and management) and in four years (differing i

  18. New Kiwifruit Cultivar Carves a Firm Niche in European Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ While enhancing the world kiwifruit production by developing new cultivars,CAS researchers are gaining a firm foothold in international kiwifruit market as they prolong their control over the propagation rights of a recently developed novel yellowfleshed cultivar, Jin Tao, in European countries.

  19. Esterase polymorphism marking cultivars of Manihot esculenta, Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gazoli Resende

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Esterase isozymes were used to detected substrate-preference polymorphism in twenty cultivars of Manihot esculenta, and to show cultivar-specific variation of this species. A relatively complex extraction solution of proteins from leaves was needed to show a larger number of esterase isozymes. Similarity between cultivars from six groups ranged from 51 to 96%. The cultivars identified by the same name seemed to be biochemically different regarding esterase isozymes. Esterase isozyme electrophoretic patterns could, therefore, be used to discriminate the cultivars identified by the same name, and to monitor the vegetative propagation of cultivars maintained in the germplasm collection. In breeding strategies, isoesterase analysis could be used to avoid intercrossing between the similar genotypes.Isoenzimas esterases foram usadas no presente estudo, para detectar polimorfismos específicos para diferentes substratos em vinte cultivares de Manihot esculenta, e para mostrar variações específicas de cultivares nesta espécie. Os diferentes cultivares de M. esculenta tem sido mantidos na coleção de germoplasma do Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (Maringá, PR, e foram provenientes de cultivares tradicionais coletados nas regiões sudoeste e noroeste do Estado. Foi necessário a utilização de uma solução de extração de proteínas relativamente mais complexa, para evidenciar um maior número de isoenzimas esterases. A similaridade entre os cultivares variou de 51 a 96%. Cultivares identificados pelo mesmo nome parecem ser bioquimicamente diferentes para as isoenzimas esterases. Os padrões eletroforéticos das isoesterases podem, portanto, serem usados para discriminar os cultivares que são identificados pelo mesmo nome, e para monitorar a propagação vegetativa dos cultivares mantidos na coleção de germoplasma. A análise das isoesterases pode também ser usada para evitar cruzamentos entre genótipos mais

  20. Compositional changes in cell wall polysaccharides from five sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars during on-tree ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, María F; Ponce, Nora M A; Salum, María L; Raffo, María D; Vicente, Ariel R; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Stortz, Carlos A

    2014-12-24

    Excessive softening is a major cause of postharvest deterioration during transportation and storage of fresh cherries. In continuing our studies to identify the factors determining the textural differences between sweet cherry fruit genotypes, we evaluated the solubilization, depolymerization, and monosaccharide composition of pectin and hemicelluloses from five sweet cherry cultivars ('Chelan', 'Sumele', 'Brooks', 'Sunburst', and 'Regina') with contrasting firmness and cracking susceptibility at two developmental stages (immature and ripe). In contrast to what is usually shown in most fruits, cherry softening could occur is some cultivars without marked increases in water-soluble pectin. Although polyuronide and hemicellulose depolymerization was observed in the water-soluble and dilute-alkali-soluble fractions, only moderate association occurs between initial polymer size and cultivar firmness. In all the genotypes the Na2CO3-soluble polysaccharides (NSF) represented the most abundant and dynamic wall fraction during ripening. Firm cultivars showed upon ripening a lower neutral sugars/uronic acid ratio in the NSF, suggesting that they have a lower proportion of highly branched polyuronides. The similar molar ratios of arabinose plus galactose to rhamnose [(Ara+Gal)/Rha] suggest that the cultivars differed in their relative proportion of homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) rather than in the size of the RG side chains; with greater proportions of HG in firmer cherries. Ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was useful to identify the depolymerization patterns of weakly bound pectins, but gave less accurate results on ionically bound pectins, and was unable to find any pattern on covalently bound pectins.

  1. Introgression Between Cultivars and Wild Populations of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chung Chiang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The landrace strains of Momordica charantia are widely cultivated vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics, but not in Taiwan, a continental island in Southeast Asia, until a few hundred years ago. In contrast, the related wild populations with smaller fruit sizes are native to Taiwan. Because of the introduction of cultivars for agricultural purposes, these two accessions currently exhibit a sympatric or parapatric distribution in Taiwan. In this study, the cultivars and wild samples from Taiwan, India, and Korea were collected for testing of their hybridization and evolutionary patterns. The cpDNA marker showed a clear distinction between accessions of cultivars and wild populations of Taiwan and a long divergence time. In contrast, an analysis of eight selectively neutral nuclear microsatellite loci did not reveal a difference between the genetic structures of these two accessions. A relatively short divergence time and frequent but asymmetric gene flows were estimated based on the isolation-with-migration model. Historical and current introgression from cultivars to wild populations of Taiwan was also inferred using MIGRATE-n and BayesAss analyses. Our results showed that these two accessions shared abundant common ancestral polymorphisms, and the timing of the divergence and colonization of the Taiwanese wild populations is consistent with the geohistory of the Taiwan Strait land bridge of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. Long-term and recurrent introgression between accessions indicated the asymmetric capacity to receive foreign genes from other accessions. The modern introduction of cultivars of M. charantia during the colonization of Taiwan by the Han Chinese ethnic group enhanced the rate of gene replacement in the native populations and resulted in the loss of native genes.

  2. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling.

  3. Micromechanical properties of consecutive layers in specialized insect cuticle: the gula of Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) and the infrared sensilla of Melanophila acuminata (Coleoptera, Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Martin; Olek, Maciej; Giersig, Michael; Schmitz, Helmut

    2008-08-01

    Insect cuticle is a highly adaptive material that fulfils a wide spectrum of different functions. Cuticle does not only build the exoskeleton with diverse moveable parts but is also an important component of a stunning variety of mechanosensory receptors. Therefore, the mechanical properties of these specialized cuticular systems are of crucial importance. We studied the different cuticular layers of the head part (gula) of the head-to-neck ball articulation of Pachnoda marginata and of the photomechanic infrared (IR) sensilla of Melanophila acuminata on the basis of cross sections. In our study, we combined histological methods (i.e. detection of the different types of cuticle by specific staining) with measurements of hardness (H) and reduced elastic modulus (E(r)) by nanoindentation technique. In the gula of Pachnoda we found an unusual aberrance from the well-known layering. Between the epi- and exocuticle, two meso- and one endocuticular layers are deposited which are softer and more elastic than the underlying exo- and mesocuticular layers. The hardest of all examined materials is the cuticle of the exocuticular shell of the internal sphere of the Melanophila IR sensillum with H=0.53GPa whereas the inner mesocuticular core of the sensillum represents the most elastic and softest layer with values of H=0.29GPa and E(r)=4.8GPa. Results are discussed with regard to the proposed functions.

  4. Chlorophyllin Bait Formulation and Exposure to Different Spectrum of Visible Light on the Reproduction of Infected/Uninfected Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a waterborne disease, caused by Fasciola species. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is an intermediate host of these flukes. Control of snail population is major tool in reducing the incidences. Variation in light intensity and wavelength caused significant changes in reproduction pattern of snails. Maximum fecundity was noted with bait containing carbohydrate (starch, 468 ± 0.10/20 snails or amino acid (serine, 319 ± 0.29/20 snails as attractant. Sublethal feeding of chlorophyllin bait with starch or serine attractant to infected and uninfected snails caused significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability, and survivability. These significant changes are observed in snails exposed to different spectral band of visible light and sunlight. Maximum fecundity of 536 ± 2.0 and minimum of 89.3 ± 0.4 were noted in snails not fed with bait and exposed to sunlight and red spectral band, respectively. There was complete arrest in the fecundity of infected and uninfected snails and no survivability of uninfected snails after 48 h feeding with bait containing chlorophyllin + attractant. Minimum hatchability (9.25 ± 0.5 was noted in red light exposed, chlorophyllin + starch fed infected snails and hatching period of bait fed snails was prolonged. Conclusively, chlorophyllin bait and red light reduce reproduction capacity in snails.

  5. Chlorophyllin Bait Formulation and Exposure to Different Spectrum of Visible Light on the Reproduction of Infected/Uninfected Snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navneet; Singh, D K; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a waterborne disease, caused by Fasciola species. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is an intermediate host of these flukes. Control of snail population is major tool in reducing the incidences. Variation in light intensity and wavelength caused significant changes in reproduction pattern of snails. Maximum fecundity was noted with bait containing carbohydrate (starch, 468 ± 0.10/20 snails) or amino acid (serine, 319 ± 0.29/20 snails) as attractant. Sublethal feeding of chlorophyllin bait with starch or serine attractant to infected and uninfected snails caused significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability, and survivability. These significant changes are observed in snails exposed to different spectral band of visible light and sunlight. Maximum fecundity of 536 ± 2.0 and minimum of 89.3 ± 0.4 were noted in snails not fed with bait and exposed to sunlight and red spectral band, respectively. There was complete arrest in the fecundity of infected and uninfected snails and no survivability of uninfected snails after 48 h feeding with bait containing chlorophyllin + attractant. Minimum hatchability (9.25 ± 0.5) was noted in red light exposed, chlorophyllin + starch fed infected snails and hatching period of bait fed snails was prolonged. Conclusively, chlorophyllin bait and red light reduce reproduction capacity in snails.

  6. Metabolomics-driven nutraceutical evaluation of diverse green tea cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Fujimura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6 and Sunrouge (SR strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA, revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive

  7. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMUTAGENIC ACTIVITIES OF TAIF GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmegid Ibrahim Fahmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extract of grape Vitis vinifera has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and the phenolic compounds play a vital role in determining these activities. Therefore; the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-mutagenic activities as well as the phenolic composition of different grape cultivar extracts collected from Taif region. The grape cultivars namely; Italian, American, Lebanese, Taifyb and Taifye were collected at maturity stage to represent Taif region cultivars. The total concentrations of phenoles were determined for the five cultivar extracts and results indicated that the concentrations ranged from 115-960 mg L-1 Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE. Also, HPLC analysis included was carried out of nine important phenolic compounds namely; Cyanidine chloride, Myricetin, Chrysin, Quercetin, Delphinidine chloride, Malvidine chloride, Naringenin, Galangin and Caffeic acid. Significant differences among cultivars were obtained for each compound. However, the highest cultivar for each compound differed from compound to another. At the same time, DPPH was used to estimate antioxidant activity and the data showed that different grape cultivar extracts were able to quench 47-60% of DPPH radical solution and to exhibited potent radical scavenging activity. Also, antimutagenic activity was measured as a decrease of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice treated with the mutagen Endoxan. Results showed that treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts resulted in a significant decrease in all types of chromosomal aberrations induced by Endoxan. Also, the anticlastogenic effect was measured using micronulei test and results indicated that all grape cultivar extracts reduced significantly the effect of Endoxan on micronulei test. Finally, treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts enhanced mitotic index of mice bone marrow cells reduced by Endoxan treatment. The relationship

  8. Compatibilidade de enxertia de cultivares de marmeleiros com pereiras Compatibility of pear cultivars on quinces rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Fonseca Pinto Tomaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência de estudos sobre compatibilidade de porta-enxertos é um dos fatores limitantes ao desenvolvimento da cultura da pereira (Pyrus sp. no Brasil. A utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga como porta-enxerto para a cultura da pereira apresenta inúmeras vantagens, entre as quais a redução do vigor e a rápida entrada em produção; todavia, sua combinação com algumas cultivares copa apresenta problemas de incompatibilidade de enxertia, podendo ocasionar a ruptura do caule das plantas no pomar. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a compatibilidade de enxertia de algumas cultivares de marmeleiros ('Quince C' e 'Adams' com pereiras ('Packham's Triumph' e 'Kieffer'. As variáveis analisadas foram: diâmetro da secção do tronco no ponto de enxertia, 5 cm abaixo e 5 cm acima do ponto de enxertia, diferença do diâmetro entre porta-enxerto e copa, altura das plantas, volume e massa seca da copa e raízes. Além disso, efetuou-se a observação da conexão vascular no ponto de enxertia através da imersão da base das plantas (abaixo do ponto de enxertia, em solução corante de Ácido Fuccínico 0,08%. Concluiu-se que a cultivar 'Packham's Triumph'apresenta compatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Adams'e 'Quince C', enquanto o híbrido 'Kieffer' apresentou sintomas morfológicos de incompatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Quince C' e 'Adams'.The lack of studies on compatibility of pear cultivars and rootstocks is one of the limiting factors on the development of the pear crop in Brazil. The use of quinces as rootstocks for pear cultivars has several advantages, among them the reduction in vigor and earlier bearing trees, however, its combination with some scions cultivars results in problems of incompatibility , such as lost of trees of the orchard due to break of the graft union. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility between pears cvs. Packham's Triumph and Kieffer

  9. Generalized phase contrast:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast...... (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than...... efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, and can even enable a Reverse Phase Contrast mode where intensity patterns are converted into a phase modulation....

  10. Identification of SNPs in RNA-seq data of two cultivars of Glycine max (soybean differing in drought resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Oliveira Vidal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The legume Glycine max (soybean plays an important economic role in the international commodities market, with a world production of almost 260 million tons for the 2009/2010 harvest. The increase in drought events in the last decade has caused production losses in recent harvests. This fact compels us to understand the drought tolerance mechanisms in soybean, taking into account its variability among commercial and developing cultivars. In order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes up-regulated during drought stress, we evaluated suppression subtractive libraries (SSH from two contrasting cultivars upon water deprivation: sensitive (BR 16 and tolerant (Embrapa 48. A total of 2,222 soybean genes were up-regulated in both cultivars. Our method identified more than 6,000 SNPs in tolerant and sensitive Brazilian cultivars in those drought stress related genes. Among these SNPs, 165 (in 127 genes are positioned at soybean chromosome ends, including transcription factors (MYB, WRKY related to tolerance to abiotic stress.

  11. Identification of SNPs in RNA-seq data of two cultivars of Glycine max (soybean) differing in drought resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Ramon Oliveira; do Nascimento, Leandro Costa; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella

    2012-06-01

    The legume Glycine max (soybean) plays an important economic role in the international commodities market, with a world production of almost 260 million tons for the 2009/2010 harvest. The increase in drought events in the last decade has caused production losses in recent harvests. This fact compels us to understand the drought tolerance mechanisms in soybean, taking into account its variability among commercial and developing cultivars. In order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes up-regulated during drought stress, we evaluated suppression subtractive libraries (SSH) from two contrasting cultivars upon water deprivation: sensitive (BR 16) and tolerant (Embrapa 48). A total of 2,222 soybean genes were up-regulated in both cultivars. Our method identified more than 6,000 SNPs in tolerant and sensitive Brazilian cultivars in those drought stress related genes. Among these SNPs, 165 (in 127 genes) are positioned at soybean chromosome ends, including transcription factors (MYB, WRKY) related to tolerance to abiotic stress.

  12. Initial growth and yield structure of selected cultivars of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. cultivated on mineral soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwonek Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of cranberry cultivation on mineral soils and to assess the influence of vegetative biomass development, generative growth and yield components on the yielding of three cranberry cultivars originating in the USA (Stevens, Pilgrim and Ben Lear at two locations in Poland. The key biometrical traits involved in yield formation were taken into account, and the soil and plant chemical conditions were evaluated. All of the measured biometrical characteristics were strongly influenced by the location and the year of cultivation, and varietal differences were also noted. The most important determinants that explained yield variation were: the number of uprights per square meter, floral induction and berry set. However, the participation of each component in yield variation was strongly affected by the location, age of plantation and to a minor extent by the cultivar. The study confirmed the possibility of cranberry cultivation on mineral soils with a low pH. The biggest average yield of the three years was collected from cv. Stevens as cultivated on sandy soil in contrast to the same cultivar grown on sandy loam soil. In the case of sandy loam soil after acidification, cv. Pilgrim appeared to be a relatively better yielding cultivar.

  13. CULTIVAR RELEASE - CD 120 – wheat cultivar, standard quality soft, for the Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 120, developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC is suitable for cultivation in the VCU wheat-producing regions 1 and 2 of the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. It is tolerant to the major wheat diseases and pre-harvest germination and has soft wheat quality and a 6.5 % higher grain yield (3.678 kg ha-1 than the control.

  14. Morphological diversity in fourteen cultivars Tiron village, Kediri, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azis Fuad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tiron village, Kediri is one of central mangoes in Indonesia. Many cultivar of mangoes encountered at this location. This study aims to look at the diversity of mango cultivars in the Tiron Village, Kediri, Indonesia. Mangoes diversity is based on qualitative and quantitative character of each cultivar. The diversity among cultivar indicated by the standard deviation and variance in the eleven quantitative characters of mango. Mango cultivars categorized by phylogeny morphological characters. The method used for phylogeny analysis is an UPGMA method (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. Phylogenic analysis is based by the qualitative character of the plant. The results showed there were fourteen cultivars of mango in the village of Tiron Kediri have high diversity. Fourteen mango cultivars were categorized four groups. Based on a qualitative character, there are four classes of mango. The first group is the Katul, Podang Urang, and Podang Lumut. The second group is the Gadung, Jaran, Madu, Endog, Pakel, Dodonilo, Ireng, Lanang and Cantek. Santok Kapur into groups to form groups of three and Kopyor fourth. The high diversity in the village mango Tiron Kediri potential for resource in situ germplasm.

  15. Studying on rooting ability of olive cultivars region of Tirana

    OpenAIRE

    KOZETA BREGU; FADIL THOMAJ; ANIDA MEMA

    2014-01-01

    The results brought in this study present the rooting ability of semi dendric olive pieces, including the five most important cultivars of the area which are used as oil cultivar ("olive white", “Kushan", "Karre" and "black olive from Ndroq Tirana") or as cultivar used for oil and salting (Boç and red olive). Anchoring (sample) material is taken from three age-old mother plants and with a good health and vegetation condition. Previously pieces are treated with IBA at 4000 ppm concentration. ...

  16. Anisotropic Contrast Optical Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Peev, D; Kananizadeh, N; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-01-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by mea...

  17. Resposta diferencial das cultivares de algodoeiro a Alternaria macrospora Differential response of cotton cultivars to Alternaria macrospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshwant Ramchandra Mehta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a resposta diferencial de 32 cultivares comerciais do algodoeiro a A. macrospora em casa de vegetação. A inoculação foi realizada em plântulas de 20-25 dias de idade com 25 repetições, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso. As cultivares foram agrupadas através de análise de Scott & Knott. Resistência completa não foi encontrada, sendo que todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis. Houve diferença entre reação de plantas da mesma cultivar. Não obstante, quando algumas plantas das cvs. BRS Antares e Fibermax 986, que mostraram resistência, foram inoculadas com mistura de nove isolados escolhidos ao acaso, as mesmas mantiveram sua resistência a esta mistura. Trabalhos futuros deverão ser realizados para encontrar fontes de resistência a este patógeno em outras espécies de Gossypium.The differential response of 32 commercial cotton cultivars to A. macrospora was studied under greenhouse conditions. Twenty to twentyfive days old plants were inoculated in 25 repetitions in a randomized block design. The cultivars were grouped using the Scott & Knott analysis. Complete resistance was not found and all cultivars were susceptible to the pathogen. Differential reaction within the plants of the same cultivar was observed. However, when some resistant plants of cultivars BRS Antares and Fibermax 986 were inoculated using a mixture of nine randomly selected isolates of A. macrospora, the plants maintained their resistance. Further research is necessary to find sources of resistance to this pathogen in other species of Gossypium.

  18. BRS 137: cultivar de soja para cultivo no Sul do Brasil BRS 137: soybean cultivar for southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emídio Rizzo Bonato

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A liberação de cultivares de elevado potencial produtivo e com resistência a doenças é fundamental para continuar agregando rendimento na produção brasileira de soja. A cultivar BRS 137 é resultado do programa de melhoramento de soja desenvolvido pela Embrapa. A cultivar apresentou rendimento médio de grãos 2% superior ao da cultivar IAS 5, em 24 ambientes, no Rio Grande do Sul. É resistente à pústula-bacteriana (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, ao cancro-da-haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis, à podridão-parda-da-haste (Phialophora gregata, à mancha-olho-de-rã (Cercospora sojina e ao oídio (Microsphaera diffusa. É indicada para cultivo no Rio Grande do Sul, em semeaduras realizadas a partir de meados de outubro até fim de novembro, com população máxima de 300.000 plantas/ha.The goals of the soybean breeding program for the release of a new cultivar include high yield potential and resistance to diseases in order to improve Brazilian production. The cultivar BRS 137 is a result of the soybean breeding program of Embrapa (Brazil. Prior to its release, the cultivar had shown a mean grain yield potential 2% higher than the cultivar IAS 5 in 24 environments in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Moreover, it is resistant to bacterial pustule (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, soybean stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis, brown stem rot (Phialophora gregata, frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora sojina, and powdery mildew (Microsphaera diffusa. The cultivar is being indicated to be cropped in the Rio Grande do Sul state for sowing from mid October to the end of November with a maximum population of 300,000 plants/ha.

  19. Response of Several Spring Barley Cultivars to UV-B Radiation and Ozone Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina DĖDELIENĖ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Experiments were conducted under controlled environmental conditions to assess the impact of UV-B radiation (8 kJ m-2 d-1 and ozone (240 μg m-3 on seven spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars. It has been established that the impact of UV-B and ozone on various spring barley cultivars differs greatly and in most cases the cultivars which are tolerant to an impact of ozone are sensitive to UV-B and vice versa. The impact of both investigated stressors resulted in a more pronounced decrease in chlorophyll a than chlorophyll b content while the chlorophyll a/b ratio in the leaves of different spring barley cultivars has also decreased. The reaction of carotenoids differs greatly depending on a stressor. UV-B radiation causes a significant increase in the content of carotenoids which is most likely a defence reaction against high energy short-wave radiation. The impact of ozone, in contrast, resulted in a decrease in carotenoids in the leaves of different spring barley cultivars.

  20. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Maia, F R N C; Marchesini, S; Padmore, H A; Parkinson, D Y; Pien, J; Schirotzek, A; Yang, C; 10.1117/12.861946

    2010-01-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. In- terference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher con- trast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineli, Maristella; Coneglian, Regina C.C.; Vasconcellos, Marco A.S.; Silva, Eduardo; Rocha, Janielio G.; Melo, Maruzanete P. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ. Inst. de Agronomia (Brazil)], e-mail: maristellamartineli@yahoo.com.br; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Defesa Nuclear], e-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2009-07-01

    Banana is a highly perishable climacteric fruit. In order to ensure fast and homogeneous ripening that will make its processing and commercialization easier, it is usually treated by climatization. On the other hand, irradiation is an interesting physical process capable of delaying ripening and extending the shelf life of fruits. This work investigated the competing effects of irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB). All fruits were harvested in the preclimacteric stage, rinsed and stored at 27 deg C after being submitted to five different treatments. After hygienization, four out of five samples were exposed to gamma-ray at doses of 0.25 and 0.50 kGy. The unirradiated fruits were left for control and half of the irradiated samples were then climatized by exposure to CaC{sub 2}. Measurements of fresh mass loss, total soluble solids, peel coloration and disease index were performed on five different dates for up to nine days in order to monitor quality and the degree of ripening. It was found that high temperatures prevailing during climatization and storage accelerated maturation in all fruits in spite of the use of irradiation, with the control becoming ripe in 3 days only. In addition, based on the consistent results from the experiments performed, it can be concluded that irradiation at the doses tested was unable to overcome the maturation effects produced by climatization. However, the sole use of irradiation with 0.25 kGy yielded the lowest figures for fresh mass loss and disease index in the samples, thus becoming the most attractive among the treatments tested. (author)

  2. Seasonal variation in abiotic factors and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrahari, P; Singh, D K

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory evaluation was made to access the seasonal variations in abiotic environmental factors temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, electrical conductivity and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets (SAP) against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata in each month of the years 2010 and 2011. On the basis of a 24-h toxicity assay, it was noted that lethal concentration values of 4.03, 3.73% and 4.45% in SAP containing starch and 4.16, 4.23% and 4.29% in SAP containing proline during the months of May, June and September, respectively, were most effective in killing the snails, while SAP containing starch/proline + ferulic acid was least effective in the month of January/February (24-h lethal concentration value was 7.67%/7.63% in SAP). There was a significant positive correlation between lethal concentration value of ferulic acid containing SAP and levels of dissolved O2 /pH of water in corresponding months. On the contrary, a negative correlation was observed between lethal concentration value and dissolved CO2 /temperature of test water in the same months. To ascertain that such a relationship between toxicity and abiotic factors is not co-incidental, the nervous tissue of treated (40% and 80% of 24-h lethal concentration value) and control group of snails was assayed for the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in each of the 12 months of the same year. There was a maximum inhibition of 58.43% of AChE, in snails exposed to 80% of the 24-h lethal concentration value of ferulic acid + starch in the month of May. This work shows conclusively that the best time to control snail population with SAP containing ferulic acid is during the months of May, June and September.

  3. Effect of MgCl2 stress on germination, plant growth, chlorophyll content, proline content and lipid peroxidation in sorghum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khare T.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Present report deals with the effect of increasing levels (0-300 mM of MgCl2 salt on sorghum cultivars, Phule Vasudha and Phule Revati. Although MgCl2 stress did not show considerable adverse effects on germination, however, at higher (>200 mM concentrations, the seedlings turned brown and did not showed any further growth, with comparably higher magnitude of negative effects on Phule Revati than Phule Vasudha. Overall, increasing MgCl2 stress reduced plant growth and biomass production significantly in both the cultivars, though with lesser extent in Phule Vsudha as compared to Phule Rvati. Contrasting behavior was evidenced in both the cultivars in terms of protein content under varying levels of MgCl2 concentration at vegetative growth level, where salinity induced reduction in protein content was higher in Phule Revati than Phule Vasudha. The genotype Phule Vasudha showed higher proline content under non-saline condition. MgCl2 stress-induced proline accumulation was observed in both the sorghum cultivars, however, interestingly, Phule Revati (439% of control plants showed comparably higher proline content than Phule Vasudha (324% of control plants at the highest (300 mM level of stress. Even though, malondialdehyde (MDA: lipid peroxidation indicator content was on higher side under non-saline conditions in cultivar Phule Vasudha as compared to cultivar Phule Revati, however the rate of increase in MDA with increasing salt stress was much higher in the latter cultivar, indicating the comparably higher level of lipid peroxidation under the influence of MgCl2 stress. The salt tolerance nature of Phule Vasudha was positively correlated with its better performance in terms of physiological and biochemical parameters.

  4. Nonstructural carbohydrates and return bloom potential differ among cranberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    explain low fruit set and biennial bearing tendencies of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Yet, comparisons of nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations during critical phenological stages across cultivars that differ in biennial bearing tendencies and return bloom potential are lacking, particular...

  5. YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF INVESTIGATED RAPESEED HYBRIDS AND CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Pospišil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate new winter rapeseed hybrids and cultivars, investigations were conducted at the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, in the period 2009/10 - 2011/12. The trial involved 11 hybrids and 5 cultivars rapeseed of 5 seed producers selling seed in Croatia. The studied rapeseed hybrids and cultivars differed significantly in seed and oil yields, oil content and yield components (seed number per silique and 1000 seed weight. However, a number of hybrids rendered identical results, since the differences in the investigated properties were within statistically allowable deviation. Hybrids Traviata and CWH 119 can be singled out based on the achieved seed and oil yields, and the cultivar Ricco and hybrids CWH 119 and PR46W15 for their high oil content in seed. Hybrids with a larger silique number per plant also achieved a higher seed yield.

  6. RAPD-based genetic relationships in different Bougainvillea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with authenticating existing knowledge about 21 Bougainvillea cultivars comprisingof 9 hybrids and their parents through RAPD analysis. The 19 degenerate primer sets generated 234 bands from which 158(67.5% were polymorphic. The UPGMA based dendrogram divided 21 cultivars into two major groups with Jaccard’ssimilarity coefficient ranging from 0.51 to 0.942. Group A had three cultivars namely Trinidad, Formosa and Dr. H. B. Singhin which Dr. H.B. Singh was confirmed as a hybrid of other two cultivars. Group B was sub divided into 8 clusters. Theparentages of 7 out of 8 hybirds have been confirmed based on clusters. The study concluded that the RAPD technique issuitable for confirmation of parent-hybrid relationship.

  7. The use of cultivars of Raphanus sativus for cytokinin bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Six cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus were tested for their usefulness in radish cytokinin bioassay by the method of Letham (1971. The best cultivar was found to be 'Sopel Lodu' which responds well to both zeatin and 2iP over a wide range of concentrations. The fresh weight of cotyledons increased at most by 71.5% (if treated with zeatin or 101.0% (if treated with 2iP compared to untreated cotyledons. This cultivar is also sensitive to the partially purified cytokinin-like fraction isolated from the pine (Pinus silvestris cambial region. The cultivar 'Sopel Lodu' is therefore proposed to be a suitable plant for cytokinin bioassays.

  8. New hop (Humulus lupulus L. cultivars from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru SALONTAI

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available The research staff of the Agronomy Institute of Cluj-Napoca breeded the first Romanian hop cultivars officially approved in 1984 by the State Commission for the Testing and Approval of Plant Varieties. The new Humulus lupulus varieties are cv. "Napoca'l", cv. "Aroma" and cv. "Transilvania". The selection method, origin, biological characteristics, productivity and some technological qualities of the new cultivars are discussed in the paper.

  9. Androgenesis in anther culture of Lithuanian spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Asakavičiūtė, Rita; Pašakinskienė, Izolda

    2006-01-01

    The method of anther culture was used for the production of doubled haploids in Lithuanian spring barley cultivars. Two methods, (i) regeneration from callus (Szarjeko’s method) and (ii) direct regeneration from embryoids (Caredda’s method) were applied to determine the androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green double haploid regenerants were obtained in four Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (‘Aura’, ‘Aidas’, ‘Alsa’ and ‘Auksiniai’) ...

  10. Adaptability and stability of strawberry cultivars using a mixed model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Ferreira Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although strawberry crops have a strong socio-economic impact on the agricultural sector of Espírito Santo State, there are few studies on the performance of strawberry cultivars in different locations and years under a low tunnel management system (LT. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the parameters of adaptability and stability of strawberry cultivars under LT-protected cultivation using the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetically predicted values. Seven strawberry cultivars were assessed (‘Dover’, ‘Camino Real’, ‘Ventana’, ‘Camarosa’, ‘Seascape’, ‘Diamante’ and ‘Aromas’ in the agricultural years 2006/7, 2007/8 and 2008/9 in three locations in the mountainous region of Espírito Santo State. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with 3 replications and 15 plants per plot. The analysis of deviance for the yield (ton. ha-1 demonstrated that only the effects of genotype and the triple interaction genotype x location x year were significant, which indicates the presence of genetic variability among the cultivars and the inconsistency of the position among the genotypes for combinations of year and location. Considering the selection for yield, adaptability and stability, in LT-protected cultivation, cultivars Camarosa and Aromas are highlighted for expressing average values that were 22% higher than the overall mean of the cultivars (24.55 ton. há-1 in the environments assessed.

  11. Growth Responses of Wheat Cultivars to Rock Phosphate in Hydroponics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.ASHRAF; RAHMATULLAH; M.A.MAQSOOD; S.KANWAL; M.A.TAHIR; L.ALI

    2009-01-01

    Screening cultivars to grow under conditions of low phosphorus (P) availability and utilize P efficiently from compounds of low solubility in soils may be beneficial to overcome poor plant growth in P-deficient soils.The growth behavior and P utilization efficiency of seven wheat cultivars grown in hydroponics were studied,using rock phosphate as P source.The wheat cultivars grown for 30 days were significantly different in biomass accumulation,P uptake and P utilization efficiency.The dry matter production of all the cultivars was significantly correlated with P uptake,which in turn correlated to the drop in the root medium pH.The ranking of wheat cultivars on the basis of dry matter yield,P uptake and P utilization efficiency was Zamindar 80 > Yccora > C 271 > WL 711 > Barani 83 > PARI 73 > Rohtas.The cultivar Zamindar 80 appeared to possess the best growth potential in P-deficient soils.

  12. Adaptability of soybean cultivars in different crop years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, I O; Rezende, P M; Bruzi, A T; Zambiazzi, E V; Zuffo, A M; Silva, K B; Gwinner, R

    2015-08-07

    Soybean is one of the main sources of foreign exchange credits for Brazil in the agricultural sector. There is increasing interest in growing this leguminous crop, especially in the southern region of Minas Gerais, due to its importance as an alternative for crop rotation with maize. In this respect, the study of the adaptability of new cultivars to the region is indispensable so as to obtain high yields. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 38 soybean cultivars for growing in the summer season in the municipality of Lavras, MG, Brazil, in the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 crop years. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with 3 replications and the treatments consisted of 38 cultivars. At the time of harvest, the following assessments were made: grain yield (kg/ha), height of the lowest pod (cm), plant height (cm), and lodging. The data were subjected to individual and combined analysis of variance. The phenotypic mean values were clustered, adopting the Scott and Knott test. For simultaneous selection of multiple traits, the sum of rank index of Mulamba and Mock was adopted. The cultivar TMG 801 RR had the best yield performance; the cultivars Monsoy 8001, MGBR-46 (Conquista), and BRSMG 68 (Vencedora) also stood out. Considering simultaneous selection for grain yield, plant height, height of the lowest pod, and lodging, the cultivar TMG 801 RR is recommended for growing in the summer season in the southern region of Minas Gerais.

  13. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing.

  14. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomira eNovakova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV is an emerging viral pathogen in cucurbit-growing areas wordwide. Infection causes significant yield losses in several species of the family Cucurbitaceae. To identify proteins potentially involved with resistance towards infection by the severe ZYMV-H isolate, two Cucurbita pepo cultivars (Zelena susceptible and Jaguar partially resistant were analyzed using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach. Initial symptoms on leaves (clearing veins developed 6-7 days post inoculation (dpi in the susceptible C. pepo cv. Zelena. In contrast, similar symptoms appeared on the leaves of partially resistant C. pepo cv. Jaguar only after 15 dpi. This finding was confirmed by immune-blot analysis which showed higher levels of viral proteins at 6 dpi in the susceptible cultivar. Leaf proteome analyses revealed 28 and 31 spots differentially abundant between cultivars at 6 and 15 dpi, respectively. The variance early in infection can be attributed to a rapid activation of proteins involved with redox homeostasis in the partially resistant cultivar. Changes in the proteome of the susceptible cultivar are related to the cytoskeleton and photosynthesis.

  15. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars, and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Fuest, J; Horton, D L

    2008-12-01

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), showed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer blows, knife cuts, pruning wounds), infested by lesser peachtree borer larvae or injured by disease. In fact, there was no difference in female oviposition response to knife cut wounds and knife cut wounds infested with lesser peachtree borer larvae. Oviposition on wounded bark from three different high chill peach cultivars was similar and strongly suggests that the narrow genetic base of high chill peach cultivars grown in the southeastern United States has little inherent resistance to the lesser peachtree borer. In stark contrast, when provided different Prunus spp., i.e., exotic peach and the native species P. angustifolia and P. serotina, the exotic peach was highly preferred for oviposition by the native lesser peachtree borer.

  16. Avaliação de herbicidas para dois cultivares de mandioca Selectivity of herbicide alternatives for two cassava cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F Biffe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available É importante avaliar a tolerância de variedade de mandioca a novas alternativas de controle químico, com o intuito de ampliar as opções disponíveis. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência, para duas importantes variedades de mandioca cultivadas no Estado do Paraná. Os herbicidas e respectivas doses (g i.a. ha-1 avaliadas foram: diuron (400 e 800, metribuzin (360 e 720, isoxaflutole (60, atrazine (720, S-metolachlor (1.920 e as misturas ametryn + clomazone (1.350+1.900, ametryn+trifluralin (1.500+1.350, isoxaflutole+metribuzin (60+320, isoxaflutole+diuron (60+400, combinados com uso de uma testemunha dupla adjacente a cada tratamento. Os cultivares utilizados neste trabalho foram Fécula Branca e Fibra. Apenas o herbicida S-metolachlor, para ambos os cultivares, e metribuzin (360 g i.a. ha-1, para o cultivar Fibra, não provocaram injúrias. Atrazine provocou redução de estande para o cultivar Fécula Branca aos 60 DAP, mas não foi detectada redução na altura de plantas. Tanto atrazine (para os dois cultivares quanto diuron na dose de 800 g i.a. ha-1 (para o cultivar Fécula Branca afetaram a produtividade de raízes. Dessa forma, atrazine foi considerado não seletivo para ambos os cultivares, e a maior dose de diuron foi também considerada não seletiva para o cultivar Fécula Branca. Há diferenças de tolerância entre os cultivares, sendo o Fibra, de modo geral, mais tolerante aos herbicidas avaliados.It is important to evaluate the tolerance of cassava varieties under new weed chemical control alternatives. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the selectivity of herbicides, applied at pre-emergence, for two important cassava varieties grown in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The herbicides and respective doses (g a.i. ha-1 were: diuron (400 and 800, metribuzin (360 and 720, isoxaflutole (60, atrazine (720, S-metolachlor (1,920 and mixtures ametryn+clomazone (1

  17. Analysis of phosphorus use efficiency traits in Coffea genotypes reveals Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora have contrasting phosphorus uptake and utilization efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Neto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Phosphate (Pi is one of the most limiting nutrients for agricultural production in Brazilian soils due to low soil Pi concentrations and rapid fixation of fertilizer Pi by adsorption to oxidic minerals and/or precipitation by iron and aluminum ions. The objectives of this study were to quantify phosphorus (P uptake and use efficiency in cultivars of the species Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora L., and group them in terms of efficiency and response to Pi availability.Methods: Plants of twenty-one cultivars of C. arabica and four cultivars of C. canephora were grown under contrasting soil Pi availabilities. Biomass accumulation, tissue P concentration and accumulation and efficiency indices for P use were measured. Key Results: Coffee plant growth was significantly reduced under low Pi availability, and P concentration was higher in cultivars of C. canephora. The young leaves accumulated more P than any other tissue. The cultivars of C. canephora had a higher root/shoot ratio and were significantly more efficient in P uptake, while the cultivars of C. arabica were more efficient in P utilization. Agronomic P use efficiency varied among coffee cultivars and E16 Shoa, E22 Sidamo, Iêmen and Acaiá cultivars were classified as the most efficient and responsive to Pi supply. A positive correlation between P uptake efficiency and root to shoot ratio was observed across all cultivars at low Pi supply. These data identify Coffea genotypes better adapted to low soil Pi availabilities, and the traits that contribute to improved P uptake and use efficiency. These data could be used to select current genotypes with improved P uptake or utilization efficiencies for use on soils with low Pi availability and also provide potential breeding material and targets for breeding new cultivars better adapted to the low Pi status of Brazilian soils. This could ultimately reduce the use of Pi fertilizers in tropical soils, and contribute to

  18. Desempenho de cultivares de alface na região de Manaus Performance of lettuce cultivars in Manaus region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac N Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Na avaliação de cultivares de hortaliças, os rendimentos médios mais elevados nos ensaios de competição, associados a fatores de qualidade, são utilizados como critérios de recomendação para plantio. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as cultivares de alface Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire e Hortência nas condições climáticas da região de Manaus, sob cultivo protegido e a campo. Foram avaliadas as características: massa fresca total, massa fresca comercial, diâmetro da cabeça e altura. As cultivares de alface Marisa, Itapuã 401 e Hortência são opções mais adequadas para o cultivo protegido e a campo na região, incluindo-se para o cultivo a campo a cultivar Verônica, a qual apresentou a melhor produção na avaliação realizada neste ambiente.In the evaluation of vegetable cultivars, the high average yield in the competition assays associated to quality factors are utilized as criteria to recommend cultivars. In the present work we evaluated the lettuce cultivars Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire and Hortência under the climatic conditions of the region of Manaus, under protected and conventional cultivation. The evaluated characteristics were: total and commercial weight, plant diameter and height. The lettuce cultivars Marisa, Itapuã 401 and Hortência presented higher production in both environments adding Verônica with best production under conventional cultivation.

  19. Contrastive topics decomposed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wagner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of contrastive topics introduced in Büring 1997b and further developed in Büring 2003 relies on distinguishing two types of constituents that introduce alternatives: the sentence focus, which is marked by a FOC feature, and the contrastive topic, which is marked by a CT feature. A non-compositional rule of interpretation that refers to these features is used to derive a topic semantic value, a nested set of sets of propositions. This paper presents evidence for a correlation between the restrictive syntax of nested focus operators and the syntax of contrastive topics, a correlation which is unexpected under this analysis. A compositional analysis is proposed that only makes use of the flatter focus semantic values introduced by focus operators. The analysis aims at integrating insights from the original analysis while at the same time capturing the observed syntactic restrictions. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.5.8 BibTeX info

  20. Polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A., E-mail: king@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette 91192 (France); Reischig, P. [Xnovo Technology ApS, 4600 Køge (Denmark); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2628 CD (Netherlands); Adrien, J. [MATEIS, INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); Peetermans, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ludwig, W. [MATEIS, INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble 38043 (France)

    2014-11-15

    This tutorial review introduces the use of polychromatic radiation for 3D grain mapping using X-ray diffraction contrast tomography. The objective is to produce a 3D map of the grain shapes and orientations within a bulk, millimeter-sized polycrystalline sample. The use of polychromatic radiation enables the standard synchrotron X-ray technique to be applied in a wider range of contexts: 1) Using laboratory X-ray sources allows a much wider application of the diffraction contrast tomography technique. 2) Neutron sources allow large samples, or samples containing high Z elements to be studied. 3) Applied to synchrotron sources, smaller samples may be treated, or faster measurements may be possible. Challenges and particularities in the data acquisition and processing, and the limitations of the different variants, are discussed. - Highlights: • We present a tutorial review of polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography techniques. • The use of polychromatic radiation allows the standard synchrotron DCT technique to be extended to a range of other sources. • The characteristics and limitations of all variants of the techniques are derived, discussed and compared. • Examples using laboratory X-ray and cold neutron radiation are presented. • Suggestions for the future development of these techniques are presented.

  1. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, D.; Hofmann, T.; Kananizadeh, N.; Beeram, S.; Rodriguez, E.; Wimer, S.; Rodenhausen, K. B.; Herzinger, C. M.; Kasputis, T.; Pfaunmiller, E.; Nguyen, A.; Korlacki, R.; Pannier, A.; Li, Y.; Schubert, E.; Hage, D.; Schubert, M.

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  2. Novo cultivar de mamona: IAC-226(Tarabay New castor bean cultivar IAC-226 (Tarabay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Savy Filho

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve um novo cultivar de mamona (Ricinus communis 1., IAC-226 (Tarabay originado de linhagem pura, obtida do cruzamento controlado entre o 'Pindorama' e o 'Campinas': trata-se de germoplasma adaptado às condições climáticas normais de cultura no Estado de São Paulo, material de porte alto (250-350cm, diâmetro de copa de 215cm e ciclo vegetativo médio (180 dias, a partir da emergência. A produção econômica é dada pelos racemos primários, secundários, terciários e quaternários, com 19, 30, 23 e 28% da produção total respectivamente, elevado potencial produtivo (2.681kg/ha de sementes e 1.233kg/ha de óleo, e frutos indeiscentes.The characteristics of a new castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultivar, named IAC-226 (Tarabay, obtained by hybridization between 'Pindorama' and 'Campinas', and selected by the pedigree method, are reported. The origin, characteristics of the plant and fruits such as seed weight and yield are described. Remarkable traits are: tall height indehiscent fruits, adaptation and outstanding yield ability with mean value of 2,681kg of seeds/ha and 1,233kg of oil/ha.

  3. Microrganismos associados a frutos de diferentes cultivares de noz Pecan Microorganisms associated with fruits of different cultivars of Pecan nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Izumi Terabe

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do comportamento natural da nogueira Pecan às principais doenças é de suma importância para o estabelecimento do planejamento da implantação da cultura. O controle fitossanitário e tratos culturais devem ser realizados de modo a não comprometerem a qualidade do produto final, as amêndoas. Foram avaliadas nozes produzidas na safra de 2005 e oriundas de Uraí-PR, pelas cultivares Burkett, Frotscher e Moneymaker, para identificar e quantificar os microrganismos associados à amêndoas e cascas dos frutos, bem como observar diferenças entre organismos colonizadores das cultivares. Os frutos foram avaliados na pós-colheita, aos trinta dias de armazenamento em ambiente, através da metodologia do papel de filtro, sendo submetidos ou não à assepsia superficial. O fungo Cladosporium caryigenum, promotor da rancificação das amêndoas foi observado, em amêndoas e cascas, nas cultivares Burkett, Frotscher e Moneymaker; Fusarium sp., foi encontrado em porcentuais elevados, tanto em amêndoas quanto em cascas das três cultivares estudadas; Cephalothecium roseum, causador do mofo róseo em amêndoas, na cultivar Frotscher. Aspergillus sp. e Penicillium sp., causadores de emboloramento e produtores de aflotoxinas foram observados em porcentuais representativos, em amêndoas da cultivar Frotscher e em amêndoas e cascas das cultivares Frotscher, Burkett e Moneymaker, respectivamente. Os maiores porcentuais de perda do rendimento foram observados na cultivar Burkett, por causa da incidência de Colletotrichum sp., causador da antracnose em amêndoas, que acarreta escurecimento e deterioração do produto final, levando-o ao descarte.The knowledgement of the natural behavior of the main diseases of Pecan nut is of utmost importance for the stablishment of an implantation plan for that culture. The phytosanitary control and cultural treatments should be performed in order not to change the quality of the final product. Nuts harvest

  4. Relationships between phenotypic variation in osmotic adjustment, water-use efficiency, and drought tolerance of seven cultivars of Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Inostroza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lotus corniculatus L. is a perennial forage legume species highly-adapted to growth under drought conditions. However, the genetic and physiological mechanisms involved in its adaptive capacity have not been elucidated. The role of osmotic adjustment (OA and water-use efficiency (WUE on the drought tolerance of L. corniculatus was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Seven cultivars of different origin were subjected to two contrasting treatments of available soil water: No water stress (NWS and with water stress (WWS. Xylem water potential (Ψx, osmotic potential (Ψπ, pressure potential (Ψp, relative water content (RWC, stomatal conductance (g s, shoot DM production, water transpiration (T, and WUE (shoot DM/T were measured. Water treatments significantly (P < 0.05 affected plant water status, which was reflected in reduced Ψx, RWC, g s, and transpiration rate in the WWS treatment compared with the NWS treatment. All cultivars showed a high capacity for OA under WWS treatment because Ψπ decreased by approximately 60% and Ψp increased by approximately 30%, compared with the NWS treatment. Cultivars with a higher solute accumulation (low Ψπ value had the lowest DM production under WWS treatment. In contrast, WUE varied greatly among cultivars and was positively associated (R² = 0.88; P < 0.01 with DM production under drought conditions.

  5. Genealogy of wine grape cultivars: "Pinot" is related to "Syrah".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J F; Grando, M S

    2006-08-01

    Since the domestication of wild grapes ca 6000 years ago, numerous cultivars have been generated by spontaneous or deliberate crosses, and up to 10 000 are still in existence today. Just as in human paternity analysis, DNA typing can reveal unexpected parentage of grape cultivars. In this study, we have analysed 89 grape cultivars with 60 microsatellite markers in order to accurately calculate the identity-by-descent (IBD) and relatedness (r) coefficients among six putatively related cultivars from France ("Pinot", "Syrah" and "Dureza") and northern Italy ("Teroldego", "Lagrein" and "Marzemino"). Using a recently developed likelihood-based approach to analyse kinship in grapes, we provide the first evidence of a genetic link between grapes across the Alps: "Dureza" and "Teroldego" turn out to be full-siblings (FS). For the first time in grapevine genetics we were able to detect FS without knowing one of the parents and identify unexpected second-degree relatives. We reconstructed the most likely pedigree that revealed a third-degree relationship between the worldwide-cultivated "Pinot" from Burgundy and "Syrah" from the Rhone Valley. Our finding was totally unsuspected by classical ampelography and it challenges the commonly assumed independent origins of these grape cultivars. Our results and this new approach in grape genetics will (a) help grape breeders to avoid choosing closely related varieties for new crosses, (b) provide pedigrees of cultivars in order to detect inheritance of disease-resistance genes and (c) open the way for future discoveries of first- and second-degree relationships between grape cultivars in order to better understand viticultural migrations.

  6. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  7. Interferência de Raphanus sativus na produtividade de cultivares de soja Interference of Raphanus sativus in soybean cultivars' yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Bianchi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A forte dependência de herbicidas para o controle de plantas daninhas em soja tem como consequência a seleção de espécies daninhas tolerantes e resistentes. O manejo integrado considera, além do uso de herbicidas, técnicas como a habilidade competitiva do cultivar para controlar plantas daninhas. Com os objetivos de avaliar a resposta de cultivares à competição com nabo (Raphanus sativus e identificar aqueles portadores de habilidade competitiva superior, foi conduzido experimento em campo, em Cruz Alta-RS, na safra 2000/01. Testaram-se duas condições de competição (ausência ou presença de nabo forrageiro durante a fase de desenvolvimento vegetativo da soja, combinadas com 11 cultivares da cultura. O efeito da competição com nabo é variável entre os cultivares, caracterizando variabilidade genética que permite selecionar genótipos portadores de habilidade competitiva superior. A competição com nabo reduz a estatura de planta, o comprimento médio dos ramos e a produtividade de grãos de soja. Entre os genótipos de soja utilizados, o cultivar MSoy 6101 destaca-se quanto à habilidade competitiva pela maior produtividade potencial de grãos na ausência de competição e pela capacidade de mantê-la diante da competição com nabo.The strong dependence on herbicides for weed control in soybean has led to the selection of tolerant and/or resistant weed plants. Besides the use of herbicides, integrated management includes techniques such as cultivar competitive ability to control weed plants. This work aimed to evaluate cultivar response to competition with forage turnip (Raphanus sativus and to identify carriers of superior competitive ability. The experiment was carried out under field conditions in Cruz Alta-RS, during the 2000/01 season. Two competition conditions (absence and presence of forage turnip during the soybean vegetative growth stage were tested in combination with 11 soybean cultivars. The effect of forage

  8. Contrast Invariant SNR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Pierre; Escande, Paul; Dong, Yiqiu

    We design an image quality measure independent of local contrast changes, which constitute simple models of illumination changes. Given two images, the algorithm provides the image closest to the first one with the component tree of the second. This problem can be cast as a specific convex progra...... algorithms based on interior point methods. The algorithm has potential applications in change detection, color image processing or image fusion. A Matlab implementation is available at http://www.math.univ-toulouse.fr/_weiss/PageCodes.html....

  9. Growth stage-based modulation in physiological and biochemical attributes of two genetically diverse wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars grown in salinized hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise variation in the salt tolerance potential of two wheat cultivars (salt tolerant, S-24, and moderately salt sensitive, MH-97) at different growth stages. These two wheat cultivars are not genetically related as evident from randomized polymorphic DNA analysis (random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)) which revealed 28% genetic diversity. Salinity stress caused a marked reduction in grain yield of both wheat cultivars. However, cv. S-24 was superior to cv. MH-97 in maintaining grain yield under saline stress. Furthermore, salinity caused a significant variation in different physiological attributes measured at different growth stages. Salt stress caused considerable reduction in different water relation attributes of wheat plants. A significant reduction in leaf water, osmotic, and turgor potentials was recorded in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Maximal reduction in leaf water potential was recorded at the reproductive stage in both wheat cultivars. In contrast, maximal turgor potential was observed at the boot stage. Salt-induced adverse effects of salinity on different water relation attributes were more prominent in cv. MH-97 as compared to those in cv. S-24. Salt stress caused a substantial decrease in glycine betaine and alpha tocopherols. These biochemical attributes exhibited significant salt-induced variation at different growth stages in both wheat cultivars. For example, maximal accumulation of glycine betaine was evident at the early growth stages (vegetative and boot). However, cv. S-24 showed higher accumulation of this organic osmolyte, and this could be the reason for maintenance of higher turgor than that of cv. MH-97 under stress conditions. Salt stress significantly increased the endogenous levels of toxic ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and decreased essential cations (K(+) and Ca(2+)) in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Furthermore, K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios

  10. Consistência do padrão de agrupamento de cultivares de milho Clustering pattern consistency of corn cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a consistência do padrão de agrupamento obtido a partir da combinação de duas medidas de dissimilaridade e quatro métodos de agrupamento, em cenários formados por combinações de número de cultivares e número de variáveis, com dados reais de cultivares de milho (Zea mays L. e com dados simulados. Foram usados os dados reais de cinco variáveis mensuradas em 69 experimentos de competição de cultivares de milho, cujo número de cultivares avaliadas oscilou entre 9 e 40. A fim de investigar os resultados com maior número de cultivares e de variáveis, foram simulados, sob distribuição normal padrão, 1.000 experimentos para cada um dos 54 cenários formados pela combinação entre o número de cultivares (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 e 100 e o número de variáveis (5, 6, 7, 8, 9 e 10. Foram realizadas análises de correlação, de diagnóstico de multicolinearidade e de agrupamento. A consistência do padrão de agrupamento foi avaliada por meio do coeficiente de correlação cofenética. Há decréscimo da consistência do padrão de agrupamento com o acréscimo do número de cultivares e de variáveis. A distância euclidiana proporciona maior consistência no padrão de agrupamento em relação à distância de Manhattan. A consistência do padrão de agrupamento entre os métodos aumenta na seguinte ordem: Ward, ligação completa, ligação simples e ligação média entre grupo.The objective of this research was to evaluate the clustering pattern consistency obtained from the combination of the two dissimilarity measures and four clustering methods, in scenarios consist of combinations number of cultivars and number of variables, with real data in corn cultivars (Zea mays L. and simulated data. We used real data from five variables measured in 69 trials involving corn cultivars, the number of cultivars ranged between 9 and 40. In order to investigate the results with more cultivars and

  11. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance in Some of Winter Canola Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rashidifar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate terminal drought tolerance in different Canola cultivars based on drought tolerance indices, an experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications at experimental field of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII, Karaj in 2008-09. Results using stress tolerance index (STI, geometric mean productivity (GMP and mean productivity (MP indices revealed Zarfam, Talaye and GKH305, were as cultivars with highest yield in both optimum irrigation and terminal drought conditions. High and positive correlation between STI, GMP and MP indices with yield in optimum and drought conditions indicated that they were as the best indices for introduction and characterization of drought tolerant canola cultivars. Biplot graph showed that MP, GMP and STI indices had high correlation coefficient with each other, and tolerant genotypes were located near tolerance indices. Also results of three dimensional scatter plot indicated that cultivars Zarfam, GKH 305 and Tassilo were recognized as tolerant genotypes to drought stress, and cultivars ES Astrid, GK Helena, Modena and Okapi were identified as sensitive genotypes.

  12. Chemical characteristics and volatile profile of genetically modified peanut cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ee Chin; Dunford, Nurhan T; Chenault, Kelly

    2008-10-01

    Genetic engineering has been used to modify peanut cultivars for improving agronomic performance and pest resistance. Food products developed through genetic engineering have to be assessed for their safety before approval for human consumption. Preservation of desirable chemical, flavor and aroma attributes of the peanut cultivars during the genetic modifications is critical for acceptance of genetically modified peanuts (GMP) by the food industry. Hence, the main objective of this study is to examine chemical characteristics and volatile profile of GMP. The genetically modified peanut cultivars, 188, 540 and 654 were obtained from the USDA-ARS in Stillwater, Oklahoma. The peanut variety Okrun was examined as a control. The volatile analysis was performed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) equipped with an olfactory detector. The peanut samples were also analyzed for their moisture, ash, protein, sugar and oil compositions. Experimental results showed that the variations in nutritional composition of peanut lines examined in this study were within the values reported for existing cultivars. There were minor differences in volatile profile among the samples. The implication of this study is significant, since it shows that peanut cultivars with greater pest and fungal resistance were successfully developed without major changes in their chemical characteristics.

  13. Hyperoside and anthocyanin content of ten different pomegranate cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, M; Moghaddam, G; Oveisi, M R; Sadeghi, N; Jannat, B; Rostami, M; Saadat, M A; Hajimahmoodi, M

    2013-07-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is native to the Mediterranean region and has been used extensively as a medicine in many counties. Hyperoside is known as an important flavonoid with antioxidant activity and anti hypertension effect. Anthocyanins are the active component in several herbal medicines, thus accurate measurement of hyperoside and anthocyanins, along with their degradation indices, is very useful to food technologists and horticulturists. The aim of the current study was to determine the antioxidant capacity as hyperoside and anthocyanin content of ten different Iranian pomegranate cultivars. Spectroscopic analyses of the pomegranate showed Black peel cultivar had the highest hyperoside content (25.93 +/- 2.87, 620.41 +/- 30.32 mg/100 g) in its pulp and peel, respectively. Based on this study, the amounts of anthocyanin in pulp ranged between 1.56 +/- 0.05 and 3.89 +/- 0.07 mg g(-1) which related to Sweet white peel and Sweet alac cultivars, respectively. More over the highest and also the lowest peel anthocyanin contents related to these cultivars. The results revealed that the hyperoside and also anthocyanin peel content of each variety is higher than its pulp content. In addition the potency of black peel (Medicinal pomegranate) and Sweet alac cultivars for prevention of coronary heart disease and hypertension were presented.

  14. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Three Plum Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Voća

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antioxidants capacity of three plum cultivars, namely ‘Top’, ‘Elena’ and ‘Bistrica’. Fruits were harvested and following parameters were determined: dry matter, total acids (TA, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, vitamin C, total phenols, nonflavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Differences between cultivars for most of the chemical parameters were observed. The cultivar ‘Bistrica’ showed higher values of dry matter, TSS, vitamin C and pH value, while ‘Top’ had higher total acids value and lowest TSS, dry matter, vitamin C and pH. Total phenolics content varied from 157.70 mg in ‘Elena’ to 344.10 mg in ‘Bistrica’, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE, on fresh weight basis. ‘Top’ contains the highest amount of non-flavonoids among cultivars studied. Therefore, ‘Bistrica’ and ‘Top’ show the highest antioxidant capacity, as well. There were significant differences between total phenolics and non-flavonoids content between ‘Elena’ and other two cultivars, while antioxidant capacity showed no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05. Total antioxidant capacity of fruits ranged from 3.10 mmol/kg in ‘Elena’ to 3.17 mmol/kg in ‘Top’ and ‘Bistrica’.

  15. Analysis of pecan cultivars Mahan and Western in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X; Li, Z; Sun, Z; Wan, X

    2016-09-16

    Pecan (Carya illinoensis) has been introduced to East China for over one hundred years, but its planting is still only occurring at a small scale. The key limiting factor is its low yield. To enhance the yield pecan in East China, two pecan cultivars, Mahan and Western, were examined. Twenty traits describing phasic development, yield, nut quality, and cultural practice were investigated. We found that pecan cultivar Mahan gives a higher yield and nut quality than cultivar Western. We recommend interplanting of cultivar Pawnee to act as a pollinator tree. Appropriate cultivation practices that can be implemented to enhance fruit yield of cultivars Mahan and Western include soil-applied paclobutrazol (PBZ) at certain concentrations, pinching, and supplementary pollination. For example, the addition of 1.25 g/m(2) of PBZ inhibits pecan branch growth and stimulates short bearing branches, which promotes fruit yield. We found that soil-applied PBZ reached optimal performance 82 days after application. A pinching length of 40 cm resulted in a fruit yield increase. In addition, grafting and transplantation may promote male flowering, but delays female flowering. These cultural practices may provide insights that can be used to improve pecan cultivation in East China.

  16. Bioecological aspects of Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on persimmon cultivars = Aspectos bioecológicos de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cultivares de caquizeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Hohmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology of Hypocala andremona (Cramer on persimmon (Diospyrus kaki L. leaves of the cultivars Atago and Giombo was studied in laboratory (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% RH, 14 hours photo period and egg distribution on plants of the cultivar Giombo in a commercial orchard, during the 2001/2002 crop season, in Londrina, Paraná state. The developmental period of larvae fed on ‘Giombo’ was longer (17.8 . 0.17 days in comparison to that of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ (15.8 . 0.27 days. In contrast, the duration of the pupal stage of insects raised on ‘Giombo’ was lower (12.0 . 0.29 days than that of insects reared on ‘Atago’ (13.3 . 0.17 days. The viabilities of larvae were 60.8 and 38.8% for insects reared on ‘Giombo’ and on ‘Atago’, respectively. Pupal viability was similar (ca. 93% between treatments. The duration of the preoviposition and incubation periods of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ were 4.0 days and 2.1 days, respectively, the fecundity 524.7 eggs, egg viability 77% and adult longevity 12.9 days. No eggs were obtained when H. andremona larvae were reared on ‘Giombo’ in laboratory. Adults preferred to lay their eggs on leaveslocated at the top of the persimmon tree canopy.A biologia de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foi estudada em folhas das cultivares de caquizeiro (Diospyrus kakiL. Atago e Giombo em laboratório (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% UR, 14h fotofase e a distribuição de ovos em plantas da cultivar Giombo em pomar comercial, durante o período de 2001/2002, em Londrina, Estado do Paraná. O período de desenvolvimento das lagartas alimentadas com ‘Giombo’ foi maior (17,8 . 0,17 dias em relação às alimentadas com‘Atago’ (15,8 . 0,27 dias. Entretanto, a duração do estágio de pupa de insetos criados em ‘Giombo’ foi menor (12,0 . 0,29 dias do que as criadas em ‘Atago’ (13,3 . 0,17 dias. As viabilidades das lagartas foram 60,8 e 38,8% para insetos alimentados em ‘Giombo’ e

  17. Phase Contrast Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    with a simple one-to-one mapping between resolution elements of a spatial phase modulator and resolution elements of the generated intensity pattern is provided. According to the invention a method is provided for synthesizing an intensity pattern with low loss of electromagnetic energy, comprising spatial...... modulation of electromagnetic radiation with a spatial phase mask for modulation of the phase of the incident eletromagnetic radiation by phasor values of individual resolution elements of the spatial phase mask, each phasor value being determined in such a way that the values of the Fourier transformed......The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed intensity pattern based on phase contrast imaging that is not based on the assumption of prior art methods that the pahase shift phi is less than 1 radian. An improved method based on a simple imaging operation...

  18. Desempenho agronômico de quatro cultivares de almeirão Agronomic performance of four chicory cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Na literatura são escassas as informações sobre as principais cultivares de almeirão (Cichorium intybus cultivadas no Brasil. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho agronômico de cultivares de almeirão na região de Campinas-SP. As cultivares avaliadas foram Catalonha, Folha Amarela, Folha Larga e Pão-de-Açúcar, em experimento realizado em canteiros no Centro Experimental Central do Instituto Agronômico, de dezembro de 2009 a janeiro de 2010 com mudas transplantadas. O delineamento experimental no campo foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Aos 50 dias após o transplante foram avaliadas cinco plantas de cada parcela quanto à altura, número de folhas, massa fresca e seca, e em duas dessas plantas avaliou-se a área foliar. Foi avaliado, também, o sabor, com e sem tempero, por seis provadores. As cultivares apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação à altura das plantas, área foliar e sabor. 'Pão-de-Açúcar' apresentou em magnitude maior rendimento agronômico (516,0 g planta-1, seguida pela 'Folha Amarela' (432,7 g planta-1. Esta constitui-se em uma alternativa para o mercado, uma vez que apresenta desempenho semelhante ao das principais cultivares de almeirão comercializadas no Estado de São Paulo.In the literature there is little information about the main chicory cultivars (Cichorium intybus grown in Brazil. The present paper aims to evaluate the agronomic performance of the chicory cultivars in the region of Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil. Catalonha, Folha Amarela, Folha Larga and Pão-de-Açúcar cultivars were evaluated, in an experiment carried out in field conditions in the Experimental Center of the Instituto Agronômico, from December 2009 to January 2010. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 4 replications. At 50 days after transplanting five plants of each plot were evaluated for the height, leaf number, fresh and dry weight and two of these plants

  19. Comportamento de cultivares de cafeeiros C. Arabica L. enxertados sobre cultivar 'Apoatã IAC 2258' (Coffea canephora Performance of C. Arabica L. Coffee cultivars grafted on 'Apoatã IAC 2258' cultivar (Coffea canephora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fonseca de Paiva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no trabalho avaliar a influência da enxertia e do porta-enxerto 'Apoatã IAC 2258' no comportamento agronômico de sete cultivares de cafeeiro da espécie Coffea arabica cultivadas em solo isento de fitonematoides. O ensaio foi conduzido em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (7 x 3 com quatro repetições, sendo sete cultivares de Coffea arabica ('Obatã IAC 1669-20', 'Acauã', 'Oeiras MG 6851', 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SL', 'Topázio MG 1190', 'IBC Palma II' e 'Paraíso MG H 419-1' e três tipos de enxertia (muda enxertada, auto enxertada e pé franco. Foi avaliada a produtividade média de quatro anos, uniformidade de maturação, percentagem de frutos chochos e classificação do grão por tipo de peneira. As cultivares enxertadas estudadas apresentaram comportamento agronômico satisfatório em todas as características avaliadas e semelhante ao pé-franco. Em áreas isentas de fitonematoides, à exceção das cultivares 'IBC Palma II' e 'Paraíso MG H 419-1', as demais cultivares estudadas são adequadas opções de escolha para uso como copas. A técnica da enxertia com o uso do porta-enxerto 'Apoatã IAC 2258' em área isenta de fitonematoides não se justifica para incremento de produtividade.This research had the objective to evaluate the effect of grafting and 'Apoatã IAC 2258' cv. as rootstock on agronomic performance of seven Coffea arabica cvs. planted in area nematodes free. The experimental design was randomized blocks using a 7x3 factorial scheme with four repetitions. The treatments were 'Obatã IAC 1669-20', 'Acauã', 'Oeiras MG 6851', 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SL', 'Topázio MG 1190', 'IBC Palma II' and 'Paraíso MG H 419-1' coffee cultivars grafted on 'Apoatã IAC 2258', self grafted (meaning a cultivar was grafted on a rootstock of the same cultivar and no grafting. The characteristic evaluated was the average yield of beans between the first and the fourth year, the fruit maturation stage

  20. Six cultivars of Solanum macrocarpon (Solanaceae in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Bukenya

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The  Solanum macrocarpon complex (the cultivated egg plant has been studied in Ghana using morphological and experimental methods. Six cultivars belonging to the S.  macrocarpon complex have been recognized and described. The cultivars are  S. macrocarpon ‘Gboma’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Mankessim’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Akwaseho’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Kade’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Sarpeiman’ and  S. macrocarpon ‘Bui’. The very spiny, hairy plant traditionally called S. dasyphyllum is regarded as the wild ancestor from which the cultivars have been derived through a process of crop evolution. The variation within S. macrocarpon complex is attributable to genotypic differences and environmental factors.

  1. Drought responses in six hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shahi-Gharahlar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major causes of reduction of crop yields worldwide, a problem that will increase in the next decades due to climate change. We describe here an initial attempt to define biochemical markers associated to water stress in several hazelnut cultivars, by measuring the levels of common osmolytes and the generation of secondary oxidative stress, in plants subjected to water stress, and after recovery from the stress treatment. Proline appears to be a reliable marker in this species, as its accumulation in leaves correlates well with the degree of stress affecting the plants. Differences between cultivars in relative Pro accumulation and oxidative stress suggested that some cultivars are more tolerant than others and could be selected for cultivation in drought-affected areas

  2. Volatile components from mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Jorge A; Mesa, Judith; Muñoz, Yamilie; Martí, M Pilar; Marbot, Rolando

    2005-03-23

    The volatile components of 20 mango cultivars were investigated by means of simultaneous distillation-extraction, GC, and GC-MS. Three hundred and seventy-two compounds were identified, of which 180 were found for the first time in mango fruit. The total concentration of volatiles was approximately 18-123 mg/kg of fresh fruit. Terpene hydrocarbons were the major volatiles of all cultivars, the dominant terpenes being delta-3-carene (cvs. Haden, Manga amarilla, Macho, Manga blanca, San Diego, Manzano, Smith, Florida, Keitt, and Kent), limonene (cvs. Delicioso, Super Haden, Ordonez, Filipino, and La Paz), both terpenes (cv. Delicia), terpinolene (cvs. Obispo, Corazon, and Huevo de toro), and alpha-phellandrene (cv. Minin). Other qualitative and quantitative differences among the cultivars could be demonstrated.

  3. Evaluation of fruit leather made from two cultivars of papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUHAIR RADHI ADDAI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two papaya cultivars were used to manufacture fruit leather. The objective of this study was to formulate papaya leather from locally grown papaya using natural ingredients like pectin, honey and citric acid. The fresh fruits were pureed and mix with natural ingredients, and dried in an oven at 60°C for 12 hours. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity were determined.The results showed that fruit leather made from Hongkong cultivar is significantly (P<0.05 higher in sensory parameters as well as physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity. The phenolics content and antioxidant activity increased by process of drying the fruit leather compared to fresh fruits in both papaya cultivars. Therefore, the consumer requirements for healthy and safe food products were respected.

  4. Identification of zygotic and nucellar seedlings in polyembryonic mango cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa del Carmen Martínez Ochoa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of polyembryony in the mango cultivars Manila and Ataulfo, and to determine whether seedlings cultured in vitro are zygotic or nucelar. Percentage of polyembryony was calculated and the number of embryos in 100 seeds of each cultivar was recorded. 'Manila' exhibited 97% polyembryony with 3.4 embryos per seed, while 'Ataulfo' had 95% polyembryony with 3.2 embryos per seed. Later, 20 seeds of each cultivar were established in vitro, and it was analyzed those in which all embryos germinated (12 seeds from 'Manila' and 7 from 'Ataulfo'. DNA was extracted from seedling leaf tissue, and its origin was identified with 14 RAPD primers. The polymorphic markers recognized the seedlings of sexual origin in seven of nine 'Manila' polyembryonic seeds, and in four of seven 'Ataulfo' ones. Also, in polyembryonic seeds not all zygotic seedlings were produced by small embryos located at the micropyle.

  5. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  6. Identificação de cultivares de trigo pelo teste de fenol Cultivars identification of wheat by phenol test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Lemos de Menezes

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O teste de fenol é recomendado para a identificação de cultivares de trigo em laboratório e se baseia na reação de compostos presentes no pericarpo das sementes. Devido à reação constante para cada cultivar, o teste serve para caracterização rápida e fácil de materiais com reações diferentes. No presente trabalho, com o objetivo de facilitar a identificação varietal em trigo, determinou-se a reação ao fenol de 42 cultivares, que estiveram ou estão em recomendação no Brasil.The phenol test is recommended for wheat cultivar identification and is based on the reaction of compounds present in the seeds pericarp. Due to the constant reaction for each cultivar, the test may be used for a rapid and easy characterization of different reactions materiais. In this essay, the phenol reaction was determined in 42 brazilian wheat varieties aiming to facilitate its identification.

  7. Bagasse production potential from late sugar cane cultivars; Potencial produtivo de bagaco por cultivares tardios de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tulibio F. da; Silva Neto, Helio F. da; Tasso Junior, Luiz C.; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias], E-mail: tulibio_fernandes@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In order to diversify energy sources, the residue of sugarcane gathers attributes that qualify its use. Therefore, this study was to evaluate the potential of bagasse production in late cultivars of sugarcane. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 6 treatments (cultivars) and 3 replications. The experiment was carried out at FCAV/UNESP Jaboticabal. To calculate the productivity, it was counted the number of stems in a row linear meter, it was obtained the weight of stems. The percentage of fiber for each cultivar was determined by a calculation of estimated production and productivity of mulch. Using these values to estimate the number of people who would benefit from the energy generated from the combustion of bagasse in a process of cogeneration power. The results were submitted to analysis of variance by F test and averages compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. Cultivars RB867515, RB72454 and CTC6 showed the best performance, indicating its greater potential for power cogeneration. Cultivars CTC IAC94-2 and 2101 were lower when considering the results obtained. (author)

  8. Effect of cultivar x ozone treatment interaction on the total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of globe artichoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lombardo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two globe artichoke cultivars (Violet de Provence and Apollo were harvested at an experimental field in Sicily, immediately washed with ozonised water and stored in: i normal atmosphere; ii ozone-enriched atmosphere for 3 days and for the last 4 days in normal atmosphere; iii ozone-enriched atmosphere for 7 days. A control (samples unwashed and stored at room temperature was also investigated. The effect of cultivar x ozone treatment interaction on water content losses, total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity was evaluated after 0, 3 and 7 days of storage. Washing with ozonised water and storage under O3- enriched atmosphere allowed higher water retention compared with the control, especially for Violet de Provence. After 3 days of storage in ozone-enriched atmosphere, on average of cultivars, the total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity increased by 11.7% and 5.5%, respectively. By contrast, after further 4 days of storage in ozonised atmosphere, Apollo and Violet de Provence displayed a significant reduction in their level of total polyphenols and aantioxidant activity. The exposure of globe artichoke heads to an ozone-enriched atmosphere should not exceed 3 days aimed at preserving their high nutritional value, with special emphasis on total polyphenols content.

  9. Combined Effects of Ozone and Drought on the Physiology and Membrane Lipids of Two Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura Rebouças, Deborah; Maia De Sousa, Yuri; Bagard, Matthieu; Costa, Jose Helio; Jolivet, Yves; Fernandes De Melo, Dirce; Repellin, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The interactive effects of drought and ozone on the physiology and leaf membrane lipid content, composition and metabolism of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) were investigated in two cultivars (EPACE-1 and IT83-D) grown under controlled conditions. The drought treatment (three-week water deprivation) did not cause leaf injury but restricted growth through stomatal closure. In contrast, the short-term ozone treatment (130 ppb 12 h daily during 14 day) had a limited impact at the whole-plant level but caused leaf injury, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and galactolipid degradation. These effects were stronger in the IT83-D cultivar, which also showed specific ozone responses such as a higher digalactosyl-diacylglycerol (DGDG):monogalactosyl-diacylglycerol (MGDG) ratio and the coordinated up-regulation of DGDG synthase (VuDGD2) and ω-3 fatty acid desaturase 8 (VuFAD8) genes, suggesting that membrane remodeling occurred under ozone stress in the sensitive cultivar. When stresses were combined, ozone did not modify the stomatal response to drought and the observed effects on whole-plant physiology were essentially the same as when drought was applied alone. Conversely, the drought-induced stomatal closure appeared to alleviate ozone effects through the reduction of ozone uptake. PMID:28273829

  10. Combined Effects of Ozone and Drought on the Physiology and Membrane Lipids of Two Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Moura Rebouças

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The interactive effects of drought and ozone on the physiology and leaf membrane lipid content, composition and metabolism of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. were investigated in two cultivars (EPACE-1 and IT83-D grown under controlled conditions. The drought treatment (three-week water deprivation did not cause leaf injury but restricted growth through stomatal closure. In contrast, the short-term ozone treatment (130 ppb 12 h daily during 14 day had a limited impact at the whole-plant level but caused leaf injury, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and galactolipid degradation. These effects were stronger in the IT83-D cultivar, which also showed specific ozone responses such as a higher digalactosyl-diacylglycerol (DGDG:monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG ratio and the coordinated up-regulation of DGDG synthase (VuDGD2 and ω-3 fatty acid desaturase 8 (VuFAD8 genes, suggesting that membrane remodeling occurred under ozone stress in the sensitive cultivar. When stresses were combined, ozone did not modify the stomatal response to drought and the observed effects on whole-plant physiology were essentially the same as when drought was applied alone. Conversely, the drought-induced stomatal closure appeared to alleviate ozone effects through the reduction of ozone uptake.

  11. Combined Effects of Ozone and Drought on the Physiology and Membrane Lipids of Two Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Deborah Moura; De Sousa, Yuri Maia; Bagard, Matthieu; Costa, Jose Helio; Jolivet, Yves; De Melo, Dirce Fernandes; Repellin, Anne

    2017-03-03

    The interactive effects of drought and ozone on the physiology and leaf membrane lipid content, composition and metabolism of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) were investigated in two cultivars (EPACE-1 and IT83-D) grown under controlled conditions. The drought treatment (three-week water deprivation) did not cause leaf injury but restricted growth through stomatal closure. In contrast, the short-term ozone treatment (130 ppb 12 h daily during 14 day) had a limited impact at the whole-plant level but caused leaf injury, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and galactolipid degradation. These effects were stronger in the IT83-D cultivar, which also showed specific ozone responses such as a higher digalactosyl-diacylglycerol (DGDG):monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) ratio and the coordinated up-regulation of DGDG synthase (VuDGD2) and ω-3 fatty acid desaturase 8 (VuFAD8) genes, suggesting that membrane remodeling occurred under ozone stress in the sensitive cultivar. When stresses were combined, ozone did not modify the stomatal response to drought and the observed effects on whole-plant physiology were essentially the same as when drought was applied alone. Conversely, the drought-induced stomatal closure appeared to alleviate ozone effects through the reduction of ozone uptake.

  12. Common bean cultivars and lines interactions with environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbonell Sérgio Augusto Morais

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of bean lines brought forth in breeding programs or of cultivars in use can be affected by environmental variability. The adaptability and stability of grain yield of 18 common bean cultivars and lines in 23 environments (combinations of seasons, years and locations were evaluated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. 'IAC-Carioca' and 'IAC-Carioca Eté' were used as standard cultivars for the carioca grain type, while 'FT-Nobre' and 'IAC-Una' represented the standard for black grains. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with four replications and plots consisting of two, two central five meters rows flanked by border rows. Stability parameters were estimated by the methods Maximum Yield Deviations (MYD and by the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction Analysis (AMMI. For the identification of the most stable cultivars, the two methods led to consistent results, although by MYD the highest stability was always associated to the highest yield. 'MAC-733327' and 'LP 9637' were the most suitable cultivars and lines for the joint seasons, while 'LP 9637' and 'FT-Nobre' were the most suitable for the dry season. The MYD method combined a simple procedure, easiness of result interpretation, uniqueness of parameters, and association between stability and yield. On the other hand, the AMMI method simplified the identification of stable cultivars by visual inspection, also providing information on the environments. However, the complex nature which combines uni-and multivariate techniques hampers its widespread use in breeding programs.

  13. Soil covering in organic cultivation of onion cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barreto Tavella

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The soil preparation in horticulture, including organic, is characterized by intense soil tillage, which increases energy costs and unbalanced the environment. The organic system in onion cultivation has shown satisfactory results, however the soil covering use tends to improve the cultivation environment and may result in higher yields. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of onion cultivars in organic cultivation under different soil coverages. The experiment was conducted in the period of April to October of 2009, under protected cropping, in the experimental area of the horticulture sector of the Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC, in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. A randomized block design was adopted, in a split-plot arrangement, the plots being comprised of soil coverings: coffee bean husks, grass straw (Brachiaria decumbens; dessicated bamboo leaves (Bambusa spp. and uncovered soil (control treatment, and the subplots comprised of three onion cultivars (IPA 10, IPA 11 and IPA 12, with four repetitions. The variables analyzed were total bulb yield (t ha-1, marketable bulb yield (t ha-1, fresh mass of the bulb (g bulb-1, classification of the bulbs and loss of mass as a function of storage time. There was no interaction effect between the soil coverings and the cultivars. Cultivars IPA 10 and IPA 11 showed greater agronomic performance of the studied variables. The soil coverings did not affect the yield and average mass of the bulbs under organic cultivation. The three cultivars presented more than approximately 70% of the bulbs in class 2 and a maximum of 5% of unmarketable bulbs. The loss of mass after 49 days of storage was 10% independent of the cultivar or soil covering.

  14. 波叶海菜花种子储存条件与萌发初步研究%Preliminary Studies on Characteristics of Seed Germination and Storage Condition of Ottelia acuminata var.crispa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌

    2011-01-01

    研究了储藏条件和萌发温度对波叶海菜花种子萌发的影响.将波叶海菜花新鲜和风干种子分别在0、4、10℃及15℃下贮藏120 d,在25℃下进行萌发试验.结果表明,风干的种子全部不萌发.新鲜种子在10℃及4℃储藏,种子萌发率高,没有显著差异;而在0℃下储藏的种子萌发率显著降低.并在15、20、25、30℃下对波叶海菜花进行萌发试验,发现种子在所有温度条件下均有较高的萌发率(>90%);温度越高萌发时滞越短,萌发持续时间越短.基质对种子萌发没有显著影响.%The effects of storage condition and germination temperature of Ottelia acuminata var. Crispaseeds were studied in order to find suitable store ways and germination condition. The author examined the germination after 120 days of dry and miost storage under 0 ℃,4 ℃, 10 ℃ and 15 ℃ respectively. The result showed that germination of O. Acuminata var. Crispa was affected by storage conditions remarkably and the optimal range was 10 ℃ to 4℃ , while the germination percentage of seeds was lower under 0 ℃. The seeds did not germinate when the duration of storage was dry. At the same time,the author tested the germination of seeds of Otteliaacuminata under 15 ℃ ,20 ℃ ,25 ℃ and 30℃. The germination could germinate in an abroad range of temperature. Seeds of O. Acuminata var. Crispa showed higher germination under 15 ℃ to 30 ℃ regions. The germination speed increased gradually with rising of temperature. Substance had no significant effect on percentage germination.

  15. Yield Potential of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Flengmark, Poul Kristiansen

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the yield potential of fibre hemp in Denmark, defined as seed yield, biomass, stem and fibre production, five cultivars were evaluated in field trials at two sites during 1998-2000. The total dry matter yield, stem yield, fibre yield, fibre percent, plant height, and seed...... was approximately 500 kg ha-1. In general, fibre yields increased when seed rates of 16 kg ha-1 or more were used. At 32 kg seed ha-1 Futura gave higher fibre yields than at all other seed rates, and higher yields at 24 cm row distance than at 48 cm. Fasamo differed from the other cultivars by having a lower dry...

  16. Bioactivity of sour cherry cultivars grown in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoo, Gaik Ming; Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted;

    2012-01-01

    Thirty four varieties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were investigated for their total antioxidant activity, Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activity and effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Total phenolic content, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cancer cell...... proliferation inhibitory activity of sour cherries were closely correlated but not PGE2 production. The cultivars ‘BirgitteBöttermö’, ‘Fanal’ and ‘Tiki’ were the three cultivars with the highest ORAC values (180, 147 and 133mmol TE/g, respectively) and inhibition against Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation (74...

  17. Biochemical and Physiological Changes of Three Watermelon Cultivars Infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. Sp.niveum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ming; HAO Chi; GUO Chun-rong; ZHANG Zuo-gang; HE Yun-chun

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic changes in membrane permeability, activities of disease-related enzymes, and contents of pathogenesis-relevant chemical compounds and photosynthetic pigments in root cells of three watermelon cultivars were studied after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum at seedling stage. The results showed that the capacity of self-regulating and returning to normal status of cultivar Kelunsheng (resistant) was greater than that of a susceptible cultivar, Zaohua, in terms of malonaldehyde (MDA) content, relative conductivity, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The resistant cultivar maintained a higher activity of dehydrogenase, higher content of vitamin C(Vc), and relatively lower content of soluble sugar than the susceptible cultivar. The content of soluble protein was higher in the resistant cultivar than that in the susceptible one at day 1 after inoculation. The capacities of the resistant cultivar to inhibit chlorophyll deterioration and maintain a higher carotenoid content were significantly stronger than those of the susceptible cultivar.

  18. Synonyms and homonyms of Malvasia cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) existing in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Torres, I.; Ibanez, J.; Andres, M. T. de; Rubio, C.; Borrego, J.; Cabello, F.; Zerolo, J.; Munoz Organero, G.

    2009-07-01

    Malvasia is a common name for different grape cultivars that have long been grown in Spain. In many cases, these cultivars are noted as being aromatic, sweet, and similar to Muscat in flavour. However, not all grapes that share this name exhibit these characteristics. This study compares the Malvasia cultivars in the Spanish Denominations of Origin with those grape cultivars grown in the grapevine collection of El Encin (Alcala de Henares, Spain) using morphological, iso enzymatic, and micro satellite analysis as well as a large bibliographic search of the studied cultivars. Despite their Malvasia denomination, some cultivars have been identified as synonyms of Macabeo, Alarije, Dona Blanca, Chasselas, or Planta Nova, all included on the official Spanish list of commercial grape cultivars. Malvasia de Sitges and Malvasia de Lanzarote have the characteristic flavour of Malvasia grapes and no synonyms were found among the cultivars grown in Spain, whereas Malvasia Rosada resulted from a colour mutation in Malvasia de Sitges. (Author) 26 refs.

  19. Stability of partial resistance in potato cultivars exposed to aggressive strains of Phytophthora infestans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, W.G.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Turkensteen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Potato cultivars were evaluated for their resistance responses to aggressive strains of Phytophthora infestans in field and laboratory experiments. Analysis of variance revealed differential cultivar-by-isolate interactions for both foliar and tuber blight resistance. Differential responses occur as

  20. Allelic variations in Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci of historical and modern Iranian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Izadi-Darbandi; Bahman Yazdi-Samadi; Ali-Akbar Su-Boushehri; Mohsen Mohammadi

    2010-08-01

    Proline and glutamine-rich wheat seed endosperm proteins are collectively referred to as prolamins. They are comprised of HMW-GSs, LMW-GSs and gliadins. HMW-GSs are major determinants of gluten elasticity and LMW-GSs considerably affect dough extensibility and maximum dough resistance. The inheritance of glutenin subunits follows Mendelian genetics with multiple alleles in each locus. Identification of the banding patterns of glutenin subunits could be used as an estimate for screening high quality wheat germplasm. Here, by means of a two-step 1D-SDS-PAGE procedure, we identified the allelic variations in high and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in 65 hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars representing a historical trend in the cultivars introduced or released in Iran from the years 1940 to 1990. Distinct alleles 17 and 19 were detected for Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, respectively. The allelic frequencies at the Glu-1 loci demonstrated unimodal distributions. At Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1, we found that the most frequent alleles were the null, 7 + 8, 2 + 12 alleles, respectively, in Iranian wheat cultivars. In contrast, Glu-3 loci showed bimodal or trimodal distributions. At Glu-A3, the most frequent alleles were c and e. At Glu-B3 the most frequent alleles were a, b and c. At Glu-D3 locus, the alleles b and a, were the most and the second most frequent alleles in Iranian wheat cultivars. This led to a significantly higher Nei coefficient of genetic variations in Glu-3 loci (0.756) as compared to Glu-1 loci (0.547). At Glu-3 loci, we observed relatively high quality alleles in Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 loci and low quality alleles at Glu-B3 locus.

  1. Contributions of cultivar shift, management practice and climate change to maize yield in North China Plain in 1981-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu

    2016-07-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yield is compounded by cultivar shifts and agronomic management practices. To determine the relative contributions of climate change, cultivar shift, and management practice to changes in maize ( Zea mays L.) yield in the past three decades, detailed field data for 1981-2009 from four representative experimental stations in North China Plain (NCP) were analyzed via model simulation. The four representative experimental stations are geographically and climatologically different, represent the typical cropping system in the study area, and have more complete weather/crop records for the period of 1981-2009. The results showed that while the shift from traditional to modern cultivar increased yield by 23.9-40.3 %, new fertilizer management increased yield by 3.3-8.6 %. However, the trends in climate variables for 1981-2009 reduced maize yield by 15-30 % in the study area. Among the main climate variables, solar radiation had the largest effect on maize yield, followed by temperature and then precipitation. While a significant decline in solar radiation in 1981-2009 (maybe due to air pollution) reduced yield by 12-24 %, a significant increase in temperature reduced yield by 3-9 %. In contrast, a non-significant increase in precipitation during the maize growth period increased yield by 0.9-3 % at three of the four investigated stations. However, a decline in precipitation reduced yield by 3 % in the remaining station. The study revealed that although the shift from traditional to modern cultivars and agronomic management practices contributed most to the increase in maize yield, the negative impact of climate change was large enough to offset 46-67 % of the trend in the observed yields in the past three decades in NCP. The reduction in solar radiation, especially in the most critical period of maize growth, limited the process of photosynthesis and thereby further reduced maize yield.

  2. A Fixed-Precision Sequential Sampling Plan for the Potato Tuberworm Moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechidae), on Potato Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbi, M; Rajabpour, A

    2017-02-15

    Phthorimaea operculella Zeller is an important pest of potato in Iran. Spatial distribution and fixed-precision sequential sampling for population estimation of the pest on two potato cultivars, Arinda(®) and Sante(®), were studied in two separate potato fields during two growing seasons (2013-2014 and 2014-2015). Spatial distribution was investigated by Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness. Results showed that the spatial distribution of eggs and larvae was random. In contrast to Iwao's patchiness, Taylor's power law provided a highly significant relationship between variance and mean density. Therefore, fixed-precision sequential sampling plan was developed by Green's model at two precision levels of 0.25 and 0.1. The optimum sample size on Arinda(®) and Sante(®) cultivars at precision level of 0.25 ranged from 151 to 813 and 149 to 802 leaves, respectively. At 0.1 precision level, the sample sizes varied from 5083 to 1054 and 5100 to 1050 leaves for Arinda(®) and Sante(®) cultivars, respectively. Therefore, the optimum sample sizes for the cultivars, with different resistance levels, were not significantly different. According to the calculated stop lines, the sampling must be continued until cumulative number of eggs + larvae reached to 15-16 or 96-101 individuals at precision levels of 0.25 or 0.1, respectively. The performance of the sampling plan was validated by resampling analysis using resampling for validation of sampling plans software. The sampling plant provided in this study can be used to obtain a rapid estimate of the pest density with minimal effort.

  3. Histology and Ultrastructure of Incompatible Combination Between Puccinia striiformis and Wheat Cultivars with Low Reaction Type Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Zhen-sheng; WANG Yao; HUANG Li-li; WEI Guo-rong; ZHAO Jie

    2003-01-01

    The incompatible combinations between races of Puccinia striiformis and wheat cuitivars withlow reaction type resistance were examined by means of fluorescent microscopy, differential interference con-trast microscopy and electron microscopy. The incompatible combinations consisted of wheat cultivar Niuzhuteplus CY28, Hybrid46 plus CY29 and Tianxuan882 plus CY29, while the compatible combination was wheatcultivar Huixianhong plus CY28. The observation revealed a striking difference in the fungal development andthe host responses between susceptible and resistant wheat cuitivars following infection by the pathogen. Themain histological manifestation of the pathogen development in the resistant wheat cultivars include inhibitionof hyphal growth, delay of hyphal branching and colony formation, decrease of formation of haustorial mothercells and haustoria, and occurrence of host cell necrosis. The observation by electron microscopy demonstratedthat a series of abnormal changes occurred in intercellular hyphae, haustorial mother cells and haustoria dur-ing pathogen development in the resistant wheat cultivars. The cytoplasm became more electron-dense and vac-uoles in the cytoplasm increased in number and size. The cell walls of hyphae, haustorial mother cells werethickened irregularly. The organeiles were disorderly distributed in the cytoplasm and the haustorial mothercells and haustoria lost their physiological function. In the final stage of the pathogen development, the inter-cellular hyphae, haustorial mother cells and haustoria became necrotic and collapsed. The structural defensereactions such as formation of cell wall apposition, collar and encasement of haustorium were essentially morepronounced in the infected wheat leaves of the resistant cultivars than in the susceptible one. In addition, therelationship between the host resistance expression and the histological and cytological features occurred in theincompatible combination was discussed in this paper.

  4. Ripening-Dependent Changes in Antioxidants, Color Attributes, and Antioxidant Activity of Seven Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the ripening-dependent changes in phytonutrients, seven commercial cultivars (two general and five cherry) of tomatoes were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. Fruits were harvested at breaker, turning, pink, light red, and red stages of each cultivar, and antioxidant contents, color attributes, and antioxidant activities were measured. During ripening process, lycopene content increased from the breaker to red stage, while lutein displayed the reverse accumulation pattern, with higher values during the breaker stage. In contrast, β-carotene showed the highest levels of synthesis in pink and light red stages. Furthermore, flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, naringenin, and luteolin) also showed similar ripening-dependent changes, with higher quantities in pink and light red stages. Ascorbic acid showed continuously increasing patterns throughout ripening until the red stage, while the accumulation of total phenolics was cultivar-dependent. These results indicate that each antioxidant compound has a unique pattern of accumulation and degradation during the ripening process. “Unicon” exhibited highest total carotenoid (110.27 mg/100 g), total phenol (297.88 mg GAE/100 g) and total flavonoid content (273.33 mg/100 g), and consequently highest antioxidant activity (2552.4 μmol TE/100 g) compared to other cultivars. Throughout the ripening processes, total phenolics showed the highest correlation with antioxidant activity, followed by β-carotene and total flavonoids. In conclusion, ripening in tomatoes is accompanied by incremental increases in various antioxidant compounds to some extent, as well as by concomitant increases in antioxidant activity. PMID:27668121

  5. Ripening-Dependent Changes in Antioxidants, Color Attributes, and Antioxidant Activity of Seven Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Ram Bhandari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the ripening-dependent changes in phytonutrients, seven commercial cultivars (two general and five cherry of tomatoes were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. Fruits were harvested at breaker, turning, pink, light red, and red stages of each cultivar, and antioxidant contents, color attributes, and antioxidant activities were measured. During ripening process, lycopene content increased from the breaker to red stage, while lutein displayed the reverse accumulation pattern, with higher values during the breaker stage. In contrast, β-carotene showed the highest levels of synthesis in pink and light red stages. Furthermore, flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, naringenin, and luteolin also showed similar ripening-dependent changes, with higher quantities in pink and light red stages. Ascorbic acid showed continuously increasing patterns throughout ripening until the red stage, while the accumulation of total phenolics was cultivar-dependent. These results indicate that each antioxidant compound has a unique pattern of accumulation and degradation during the ripening process. “Unicon” exhibited highest total carotenoid (110.27 mg/100 g, total phenol (297.88 mg GAE/100 g and total flavonoid content (273.33 mg/100 g, and consequently highest antioxidant activity (2552.4 μmol TE/100 g compared to other cultivars. Throughout the ripening processes, total phenolics showed the highest correlation with antioxidant activity, followed by β-carotene and total flavonoids. In conclusion, ripening in tomatoes is accompanied by incremental increases in various antioxidant compounds to some extent, as well as by concomitant increases in antioxidant activity.

  6. Physicochemical and functional properties of two cowpea cultivars grown in temperate Indian climate

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Hamid; Sabeera Muzzafar; Idrees Ahmed Wani; Farooq Ahmad Masoodi

    2015-01-01

    Flours of two local cowpea cultivars namely Red cowpea and Black cowpea were analysed for proximate composition, pasting and functional properties. The crude protein and fat contents were higher for Black cultivar than the Red cultivar. The apparent amylose content was significantly higher for Red cowpea (25.54%) than Black cowpea (15.09%). Polyphenols were significantly higher for Red cowpea than Black cowpea. The pasting profile of two cultivars revealed significantly higher values of peak ...

  7. Estimation of resistance pear cultivars to Erwinia amylovora using artificial immature pear fruits method

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilović, Veljko; Stanisavljević, Rade; Stošić, Stefan; Stevanović, Miloš; Aleksić, Goran; Stajić, Milica; Dolovac, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility of different pear cultivars to Erwinia amaylovora by artificial inoculated immature pear fruits are shown in this article. According obtained results significant differences among cultivars are confirmed and they could be divided in four groups. Most susceptibly cultivars were Santa Marija. Second group includes Williams, Morettini, Carmen, Hardenpont. As most resistant shown to be Magness, Turandot and two local varietyies Karamanka, as well as another unknown local cultivar. ...

  8. Resposta de cultivares de algodoeiro a subdoses de glyphosate Response of cotton cultivars to reduced rates of glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Yamashita

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta de nove cultivares de algodoeiro, de importância econômica no Estado do Mato Grosso, quanto à intoxicação causada por subdoses de glyphosate. Os cultivares de algodoeiro utilizados foram Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal, BRS Facual, Antares e Coodetec 407. As plantas foram cultivadas em tubetes preenchidos com substrato de solo e mantidas em casa telada, tendo recebido a aplicação do glyphosate aos 20 dias após a emergência, época em que apresentavam quatro folhas verdadeiras. As subdoses de glyphosate, simulando deriva, foram de 270 e 540 g ha-1. Também foi utilizada testemunha, sem aplicação do herbicida, para efeito de comparação. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais até 42 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA, período em que também foi tomada a altura das plantas. Os sintomas visuais de intoxicação iniciaram-se aos 3 DAA, caracterizados pelo amarelecimento das pontas das folhas mais novas, seguido de murchamento do ápice das plantas. Na dose de 270 g ha-1 esses sintomas foram de baixa intensidade, mas a 540 g ha-1 causaram, na maioria dos casos, toxidez "preocupante" a "muito alta". Os cultivares BRS Facual e FM 986 mostraram-se os mais suscetíveis. A altura das plantas foi mais afetada quando se aplicou a menor dose de glyphosate. Houve recuperação de todos os cultivares tratados com 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate até os 42 DAA. Quando tratados com 540 g ha-1 de glyphosate, os cultivares Fabrika, Coodetec 407, BRS-Facual e ITA-90 foram mais sensíveis, apresentando redução de altura entre 84 e 90% aos 42 DAA. Os cultivares menos sensíveis na dose de 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate não foram os mesmos para a dose de 540 g ha-1.The response of nine cotton cultivars economically important in the state of Mato Grosso was evaluated in relation to the toxicity caused by reduced rates of glyphosate. The cotton cultivars used were Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal

  9. Resistance of squash cultivars to Aphis gossypii Resistência de cultivares de abobrinha italiana a Aphis gossypii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson LL Baldin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cucurbitaceae plants are damaged by attack of a wide spectrum of insects and microorganisms. Among the sucker insects causing damages on squash Cucurbita pepo (L., the aphid Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae is pointed as one of the most important, once their nymphs and adults suck the sap of the leaves continuously, besides being potential vector of virus. The present research evaluated different cultivars, aiming to identify the resistance against this aphid. The cultivars Novita, Sandy, Caserta Cac Melhorada, Novita Plus, Samira, AF-2858 and Caserta TS were used in laboratory assays (T= 25±2ºC; RH= 70±10% and fotophase= 12 h. In the immature phase the duration of nymphal instars was evaluated, the total duration and their viability, confining individuals on leaf disks from cultivars. In the adult phase the duration of reproductive period, the fecundity and the biological cycle were observed. The cultivar 'Sandy' expressed high level of antibiosis and feeding non-preference against A. gossypii, increasing the nymphal stage and causing mortality near to 70%. Besides, this cultivar reduced the production of nymphs and the longevity of the insects. The 'Novita Plus' cultivar also induced significant nymphal mortality, however in lower levels than those verified in 'Sandy', indicating a moderate resistance.As plantas da família Cucurbitaceae são prejudicadas pelo ataque de um amplo espectro de insetos e microrganismos. Dentre os insetos sugadores que atacam a abobrinha Cucurbita pepo (L., o pulgão Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae merece destaque, uma vez que suas ninfas e adultos sugam a seiva das folhas constantemente, além de ser potencial vetor de vírus. A presente pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar diferetes cultivares de abobrinha italiana quanto à resistência a esse pulgão. Utilizaram-se as cultivares Novita, Sandy, Caserta Cac Melhorada, Novita Plus, Samira, AF-2858 e Caserta TS em ensaios

  10. A Multiplexed Microsatellite Fingerprinting Set for Hazelnut Cultivar Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a robust and cost-effective fingerprinting set for hazelnuts using microsatellite (SSR) markers. Twenty SSRs containing repeat motifs of = three nucleotides distributed throughout the hazelnut genome were screened on eight genetically diverse cultivars to a...

  11. BRS Centauro – oat cultivar for ground cover and grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants and seeds of oat cultivar BRS Centauro, of the species Avena brevis Roth., are highly uniform. The crop cycle is long, the suitability as fodder excellent, and leaf production particularly high, resulting in better quality forage than that of the black oat forage controls.

  12. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, C A; Clarke, J M; Duguid, S; Chaney, R L

    2008-02-15

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet.

  13. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, C.A. [AAFC Brandon Research Centre, Box 1000A, R.R. 3, Brandon, MB, R7A 5Y3 (Canada)], E-mail: cgrant@agr.gc.ca; Clarke, J.M. [AAFC Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Swift Current, SK, S9H 3X2 (Canada); Duguid, S. [AAFC Morden Research Station, Morden, MB, R6M 1Y5 (Canada); Chaney, R.L. [USDA, ARS, Animal Manure and Byproducts Laboratory, Room 013, Building 007, BARC-West, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet.

  14. Reaction of peanut cultivars to late leafspot and rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimitr Vorasoot

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Late leafspot caused by Phaeoisariopsis personata (Berk. & M.A. Curtis van Arx and rust caused by Puccinia arachidis Speg. are among the most serious diseases of peanut. Although fungicide application is effective in controlling the diseases, its high cost is considered uneconomical in many developing countries. In this situation, the use of resistant cultivars offers a better alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate seven peanut cultivars for their resistances to late leafspot and rust. Peanut cultivars were planted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with 4 replications at Khon Kaen University Experimental Farm. Natural infection of late leafspot and rust were allowed. Disease score, sporulation index and lesion number per 100 cm2 of leaf area were recorded as the resistance parameters of both diseases. Pod yield, seed yield, shelling percentage, pod number per plant and pod length were also measured. NC 17135 was the most resistant to late leafspot and moderately resistant to rust. NC 17090 was the most resistant to rust but susceptible to late leafspot. NC 17135 and NC 17090 should be recommended as sources of late leafspot and rust resistance, respectively. The two Thai released cultivars, Tainan 9 and Lampang were highly susceptible to both diseases.

  15. Susceptibility of highbush blueberry cultivars to Phytophthora root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen associated with root rot in many woody perennial plant species, including highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). To identify genotypes with resistance to the pathogen, cultivars and advanced selections of highbush blueberry were grown in a...

  16. Atividade antioxidante de frutos de quatro cultivares de pessegueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Mendes dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Esforços são empregados para identificar plantas com teores de antioxidantes que conferem benefícios à saúde. A capacidade antioxidante do pêssego deve-se aos compostos fenólicos, vitamina C e carotenoides. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar quatro cultivares de pessegueiro (Aurora, Biuti, Diamante e Douradão em relação à capacidade antioxidante, determinando o teor dos compostos antioxidantes relacionados a essa atividade. Os frutos foram separados em dois grupos: sem armazenamento e armazenados por cinco dias à temperatura ambiente. Foram determinados os teores de vitamina C, carotenoides, compostos fenólicos e a capacidade antioxidante, pelos métodos DPPH e β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. As quatro cultivares mostraram-se ricas em substâncias antioxidantes, porém a intensidade dessa ação foi diferenciada entre elas. A cultivar Biuti apresentou maior teor das substâncias analisadas e maior atividade antioxidante em relação às outras cultivares. Foi observado que o potencial antioxidante dos frutos de pêssego aumentou durante o período de armazenamento.

  17. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 48: strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  18. Irreversible commitment to flowering in two mango cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the state of Nayarit, Mexico has experienced variations in rainfall distribution and warmer temperatures during the autumn-winter season which have caused erratic flowering of mango. The early-flowering cultivars, such as ‘Ataulfo’, have been less affected than tardy ones such as ‘T...

  19. Susceptibility of Geranium Cultivars (Pelargonium spp.) to Ralstonia solanacearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty-one cultivars of geraniums including zonal, regal, ivy, and scented were tested for susceptibility to three strains of Ralstonia solanacearum: a Race 1 Biovar 1 (R1B1) strain P597 isolated from tomato in Florida, a R1B1 strain P673 obtained from pothos originating in Costa Rica, and a Race 3 B...

  20. Nutritional composition of new peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Mondragon, M. G.; Calderon de la Barca, A. M.; Duran-Prado, A.; Campos-Reyes, L. C.; Oliart-Ros, R. M.; Ortega-Garcia, J.; Medina-Juarez, L. A.; Angulo, O.

    2009-07-01

    Six peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars (Col-24-Gro, Col-61-Gto, VA-81-B, Ranferi Diaz, NC-2 and Florunner) were studied for agricultural yield, chemical composition (protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber and ash), amino acid profile, digestibility, fatty acid profile, tocopherol and sterol contents. Results indicated that Ranferi Diaz and Col-61-Gto presented the highest yield (6.3 Ton/ha). Protein content was from 23.5 to 26.6% and fat content ranged from 49.8-53.4%. Mean digestibility was 86%. Lysine and threonine levels in all cultivars were sufficient to meet human requirements. Total saturated fatty acids ranged from 15-18%. The oleic/linoleic ratio was estimated 1.3-1.4. Tocopherol levels varied from 390 to 706 ppm. The highest tocopherol levels corresponded to the cultivars with the lowest yield. The alpha tocopherol content was estimated at 90-150 ppm, while gamma tocopherol was 270-570 ppm. The main sterol present was A- sitosterol (approx. 65%). Ranferi Diaz variety presented the highest agronomic yield and the highest protein content but low oleic acid, low sterols and low total tocopherols. The differences among cultivars suggest differences in their applications. (Author) 40 refs.

  1. RB962962, a sugarcane cultivar for late harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José Oliveira Tavares de Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeast of Brazil, sugarcane cultivar RB962962 is harvested at the end of the cycle, between December and February, with a high sugar yield per area. Recommended for sandy soils of medium texture and fertility, it is resistant to the major diseases and fast-growing in plant and ratoon crops.

  2. Sensitivity and growth of twelve Elatior begonia cultivars to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinert, R.A.; Nelson, P.V.

    1979-12-01

    Twelve cultivars of Elatior begonia (Begonia X hiemalis Fotsch.) were exposed to O/sub 3/ at 25 and 50 pphM. The 'Schwabenland' group, 'Whisper 'O' Pink', and 'Improved Krefeld Orange' were the most sensitive, whereas 'Ballerina', 'Mikkell Limelight', and 'Turo' were the least sensitive. 'Rennaisance', 'Heirloom' 'Nixe', and 'Fantasy' were intermediate in sensitivity. The dry weight of foliage (stems plus leaves) of 9 cultivars exposed to O/sub 3/ was significantly less than that of control plants. Ozone at 25 and 50 pphM inhibited flower growth (including peduncles) and development in 4 and 8 of the 12 cultivars, respectively. Differences in flower weight ranged from 43 to 105% of the control at 25 pphM and from 25 to 98% of the control at 50 pphM, depending on cultivar. 1 table.

  3. Leaf gas exchange and yield of three upland rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Félix Alvarez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of physiological parameters associated with crop performance and growth in different groups of upland rice (Oryza sativa L. may support plant breeding programs. We evaluated the role of gas exchange rates and dry matter accumulation (DMA as traits responsible for yields in a traditional (cv. ‘Caiapó’, intermediate (cv. ‘Primavera’ and modern (cv. ‘Maravilha’ upland rice cultivars. Leaf gas exchange rates, DMA, leaf area index (LAI, harvest indexes (HI and yield components were measured on these genotypes in the field, under sprinkler irrigation. Panicles per m2 and DMA at flowering (FL and heading, as well as CO2 assimilation rates (A were similar across these cultivars. The highest yield was found in ‘Primavera’, which may be explained by (i a two-fold higher HI compared to the other cultivars, (ii greater rates of DMA during spikelet formation and grain-filling, as well as (iii a slow natural decrease of A in this cultivar, at the end of the season (between FL and maturation.

  4. WHEAT CULTIVARS: RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION AND SOWING DATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klar A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in an Alfisol-Oxisol transition sandy-clay texture, using six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum, L.: two tall and tolerant to soil aluminium toxicity (BH-1146, and IAC-18, and four semi-dwarf cultivars - Anahuac, IAC-162, IAC-24, and IAC-60 - of which only the first two are sensitive to soil aluminium toxicity. Two minimum soil water potentials (ys levels were used: 1. watered, when Ys reached about -0.05 MPa; 2. dry, when the water potential reached around -1.5 MPa. Two sowing dates, 05/22/92 and 06/11/92, were used. The results showed that Anahuac and IAC-60 are the most indicated cultivars for the studied region; when irrigated all cultivars presented similar yield level under no irrigation conditions; the irrigation was not sufficient to avoid yield differences between the two growing seasons; differences in rainfall were important for the crop in the dry treatment for both seasons.

  5. Predicting Development of an Epidemics on Cultivar Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model for the development of an epidemic on a plant cultivar mixture illustrates the influence of the infection efficiency, spore production rate, proportion of deposited spores, frequency of autodeposition, and composition of the mixture on the genetic composition of the pathogen...

  6. Variation in fruit chilling injury among mango cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phakawatmongkol, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Mango(Mangifera indica L.) fruit of six cultivars ('Kaew', 'Rad', 'Okrong', 'Tongdum', 'Nam Dok Mai' and 'Nungklangwun') were stored at 4, 8 and 12degreesC (85-90% RH) and randomly sampled every 5 days. Chilling injury was manifested initially as a gray to brown discoloration of the peel, followed b

  7. Características do cultivar iarana de coffea arabica The iarana cultivar of coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Misturas mecânicas de sementes de cafeeiros selecionados portadores de alelos individuais SH1, SH2 , SH3 , SH4 responsáveis pela resistência de Coffea arabica a grupos de raças fisiológicas de Hemileia vastatrix foram distribuídas aos lavradores com as denominações de cultivar iarana-C 73 e iarana-C 74. As sementes foram misturadas nas proporções, em peso, de 2:12:3:1 e 2:8:2:1, para os genotipos SH1SH1, SH2SH2 , SH3,SH3, e SH4SH4 , para os anos de 1973 e 1974, respectivamente. Todos os cafeeiros devem ser portadores dos alelos SH5SH5. A mistura foi distribuida em 1973, a 987 lavradores e, em 1974, a 463 lavradores de todas as regiões cafeeiras do Brasil. O iarana deverá ser plantado isoladamente do resto do cafezal em cada propriedade, para observação e seleção das plantas mais adaptadas para produção de sementes. As hibridações naturais que ocorrem entre plantas de diferentes genotipos darão origem a novas combinações genéticas portadoras de vários dos fatores genéticos, com espectro mais amplo de resistência às raças fisiológicas de H. vastatrix.Mechanical mixtures of seeds of selected plants of Coffea arabica carrying the dominant alleles SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4 conditioning resistance to different races of Hemileia vastatrix were released to the growers as Iarana C 73 and Iarana C 74 cultivars. The seeds were mixed in the proportion of 2:12:3:1 and 2:8:2:1 for the genotypes SH1SH1, SH2SH2, SH2SH3 and SH4SH4 for 1973 and 1974 crops, respectively. The mixed seeds were distributed to 987 farmers in 1973 and 463 coffee farmers in 1974 from most of the coffee regions in Brazil. Iarana is to be planted in isolated plots for observation and selection of the more adapted plants for seed production. Natural hybridization between plants of different genotypes will give rise to new combinations with broader spectrum of resistance to physiological races of H. vastratrix.

  8. Effect of Resin Ducts and Sap Content on Infestation and Development of Immature Stages of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Four Mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Larissa; Adaime, Ricardo; Birke, Andrea; Velázquez, Olinda; Angeles, Guillermo; Ortega, Fernando; Ruíz, Eliel; Aluja, Martín

    2017-01-10

    We determined the influence of resin ducts, sap content, and fruit physicochemical features of four mango cultivars (Criollo, Manila, Ataulfo, and Tommy Atkins) on their susceptibility to the attack of the two most pestiferous fruit fly species infesting mangoes in Mexico: Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart). We performed three studies: 1) analysis of resin ducts in mango fruit exocarp to determine the density and area occupied by resin ducts in each mango cultivar, 2) assessment of mango physicochemical features including fruit sap content, and 3) a forced infestation trial under field conditions using enclosed fruit-bearing branches to expose mangoes to gravid A. ludens or A. obliqua females. Infestation rates, development time from egg to prepupae and pupae, pupal weight, and percent of adult emergence, were assessed. 'Ataulfo' and 'Tommy Atkins' cultivars exhibited the highest resin duct density and sap content, the lowest infestation rate, and had a negative effect on immature development and pupal weight. In sharp contrast, 'Manila' and 'Criollo' cultivars, with the lowest resin duct density and sap content, were highly susceptible to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack. We conclude that sap content and the number, size, and distribution of resin ducts as well as firmness in mango fruit exocarp are all involved in the resistance of mango to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack.

  9. Influence of soil type, cultivar and Verticillium dahliae on the structure of the root and rhizosphere soil fungal microbiome of strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallanchakravarthula, Srivathsa; Mahmood, Shahid; Alström, Sadhna; Finlay, Roger D

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable management of crop productivity and health necessitates improved understanding of the ways in which rhizosphere microbial populations interact with each other, with plant roots and their abiotic environment. In this study we examined the effects of different soils and cultivars, and the presence of a soil-borne fungal pathogen, Verticillium dahliae, on the fungal microbiome of the rhizosphere soil and roots of strawberry plants, using high-throughput pyrosequencing. Fungal communities of the roots of two cultivars, Honeoye and Florence, were statistically distinct from those in the rhizosphere soil of the same plants, with little overlap. Roots of plants growing in two contrasting field soils had high relative abundance of Leptodontidium sp. C2 BESC 319 g whereas rhizosphere soil was characterised by high relative abundance of Trichosporon dulcitum or Cryptococcus terreus, depending upon the soil type. Differences between different cultivars were not as clear. Inoculation with the pathogen V. dahliae had a significant influence on community structure, generally decreasing the number of rhizosphere soil- and root-inhabiting fungi. Leptodontidium sp. C2 BESC 319 g was the dominant fungus responding positively to inoculation with V. dahliae. The results suggest that 1) plant roots select microorganisms from the wider rhizosphere pool, 2) that both rhizosphere soil and root inhabiting fungal communities are influenced by V. dahliae and 3) that soil type has a stronger influence on both of these communities than cultivar.

  10. The Processing of Turning Colour Olives of Oblica Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Kulišić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research the observation of the preservation process of turning colour olives of Oblica cultivar (an autochthonous Croatian cultivar processed according to the Californian type of processing has been carried out. Although the oblica cultivar is the most frequent cultivar in Croatian orchards, it is absolutely unexplored concerning the concentration of polyphenolic compounds (oleuropein and its derivatives as well as concerning the composition of natural microflora in the fruit. It has been very important to determine to what extent the choice of preserving technology is optimal for the cultivar’s particularities. The changes of fundamental physical and chemical features of brine (total acidity, pH value, the concentration of sodium chloride, the concentration of sugar, and brine temperature have been screened during the process of preservation. The appearance of the lactobacilli population has also been observed. The Lactobacillus plantarum species has been isolated and identified in this population on the seventh day after the fruit has been put in brine. The Lactobacillus plantarum species has been isolated and identified by means of the API 50 CHL (“bioMérieux”, France biochemical test and the APILAB PLUS (“bioMérieux”, France software. During further phases of the process, no appearance of the lactobacilli has been identified. On the basis of our physical and chemical examinations, we have concluded that the type of processing of turning colour olives of Oblica cultivar (which was applied without a complete knowledge of the Oblica’s particularities did not give optimal and expected values (low brine temperature, exceptionally high acidity of the medium. We have also concluded that it is necessary for further research to include the examinations of the portion of polyphenolic compounds in the fruit, as well as the examinations of the composition of naturally present microflora. Both examinations represent the

  11. Does excess boron affect malondialdehyde levels of potato cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kemal Avci

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malondialdehyde (MDA is a product of lipid peroxidation and a sign of oxidative stress in plants. Therefore, determining the responses of plants to a particular type of stress at a particular time will shed a light on clarifying the stress status of the plants. In this study, we report how MDA levels in potato cultivars changed under toxic concentrations of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Materials and Methods: Eight different potato (Solanum tuberosum cultivars (cv. Konsul, cv. Morene, cv. Slaney, cv. Mona Lisa, cv. Jaerla, cv. Poroventa, cv. Yayla Kizi, cv. Armada were used as study material. Excess boron was applied for seven weeks in three concentrations (0.5, 2.5 and 5 mM to plants that were grown from tubers. Plants were harvested and malondialdehyde content analyses were carried out in leaf tissues. Results: MDA levels under excess boron in cv. Mona Lisa and Yayla Kizi steadily increased rose with increasing concentrations in all groups, compared to control. In cv. Morene, MDA decreased in 0.5 mM Boron and increased in 2.5 and 5 mM Boron applications. In cv. Armada, cv. Slaney, cv. Konsul and cv. Poroventa, MDA levels fluctuated in different groups of each cultivar. In cv. Jaerla, MDA decreased in all groups with increasing boron, compared to control. Conclusions: MDA levels under excess boron showed increase, fluctuation and decrease in each group of the cultivars, compared to control. Therefore, MDA levels in potato plants under excess boron might not be a clear sign to determine the level of stress. This is the first report of MDA levels in eight different potato cultivars subjected to three different excess boron concentrations.

  12. The Value of Contrast Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon C. Treiber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is much evidence-based research proving the effectiveness of contrast echocardiography, but there are still questions and concerns about its specific uses. This study tested the effectiveness of contrast echocardiography in defining the left ventricular endocardial border. Methods: From 30 patients, a total of 60 echocardiograms –– 30 with and 30 without use of contrast –– were retrospectively reviewed by four blinded cardiologists with advanced training in echocardiography. No single cardiologist reviewed contrast and noncontrast images of the same patient. Each set of 30 echocardiograms was then studied for wall-motion scoring. Visualization of left ventricular wall segments and a global visualization confidence level of interpretation were recorded. Results: Of all wall segments (N = 510, 91% were visualized in echocardiograms with use of contrast, whereas 75% of the walls were visualized in echocardiograms without contrast (P < 0.001. Of 30 examinations, 17 contrast echocardiograms were read with high confidence compared to 6 without contrast use (P = 0.004. The number of walls visualized with contrast was increased in 18 patients (60%, whereas noncontrast echocardiograms yielded more visualized walls in 6 patients (20%, P = 0.002. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that contrast is valuable to echocardiographic imaging. Its use should be supported throughout echocardiography clinics and encouraged in certain patients for whom resting and stress echocardiography results without contrast often prove uninterpretable.

  13. Desempenho de cultivares de alface no Estado do Acre Performance of lettuce cultivars in the State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. da S. Lédo

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Devido às condições ambientais verificadas no estado do Acre, caracterizado pela ocorrência de temperaturas elevadas e alta precipitação, as cultivares tradicionalmente utilizadas pelos produtores apresentam baixo rendimento e qualidade. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento das novas cultivares de alface disponíveis no mercado, em termos de características agronômicas e rendimento, nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Branco, Acre. Para isso foram realizados dois ensaios no campo experimental da Embrapa Acre, em um solo do tipo Argissolo Vermelho-Escuro, textura argilosa. O primeiro de maio a julho de 1996 (período seco e o segundo de dezembro de 1996 a fevereiro de 1997 (período chuvoso. Foram avaliadas as cultivares Babá de Verão, Brisa, Carolina AG-576, Elisa, Lucy Brown, Marisa AG-216, Piracicaba 65, Regina 71, Tainá, Simpson, Vanessa e Verônica, sendo que 'Regina 71' e 'Elisa' foram incluídas apenas no ensaio do período seco. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. No período seco, as cultivares Simpson, Lucy Brown e Regina 71 apresentaram os maiores pesos médios (373; 362 e 341 g, respectivamente e produções comerciais de 49,8; 48,3 e 45,5 t/ha, respectivamente. Em geral, as cultivares dos tipos lisa sem cabeça e lisa com cabeça apresentaram maior índice de ataque de nematóide (Meloidogyne javanica quando comparadas às do tipo crespa. No ensaio realizado no período chuvoso, as cultivares Marisa AG-216, Verônica, Lucy Brown, Brisa, Tainá e Piracicaba-65 apresentaram os maiores pesos médios e produções comerciais. Entretanto, as médias obtidas foram bem inferiores às verificadas no ensaio do período seco, variando de 164 a 198 g para o peso médio, e 21,9 a 25,9 t/ha para produção comercial. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas no período seco, Regina 71 (lisa, sem cabeça e Carolina AG-576 (lisa, com cabeça destacaram-se entre as do tipo

  14. Resistance and susceptibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to the aphid Therioaphis maculata (Homoptera:Aphididae): insect biology and cultivar evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALEXANDRE DE ALMEIDA E SILVA; ELENICE MOURO VARANDA; JOS(E) RICARDO BAROSELA

    2006-01-01

    Biology of the aphid Therioaphis maculata was studied on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), including four resistant (Mesa-Sirsa, CUF101, Baker and Lahontan) and two susceptible (ARC and Caliverde) alfalfa cultivars, and one of the most cropped Brazilian cultivars, Crioula. Under controlled conditions, antibiosis (i.e., reduced longevity, fecundity and increased mortality of the aphid) was observed mainly on the resistant alfalfa cultivars,except on Lahontan. Crioula seemed to be tolerant to aphids. Present data support geographic limitation usage of cultivars, and we suggest Baker and Mesa-Sirsa as sources of antibiosis,and provide biological information of a tropical T. maculata biotype on alfalfa.

  15. Variantes somaclonais da cultivar de arroz Bluebelle resistentes à brusone Blast resistant somaclonal variants of rice cultivar Bluebelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Garcês de Araújo

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A brusone, causada por Pyricularia grisea, constitui fator limitante da produtividade do arroz irrigado, principalmente no Estado do Tocantins. A detecção de variabilidade genética quanto à resistência à brusone em cultivares suscetíveis, como a Bluebelle, considerada uma das cultivares-padrões quanto à qualidade dos grãos, foi o principal objetivo deste trabalho. O procedimento adotado incluiu a indução de calos provenientes de panículas imaturas, regeneração, avaliação e seleção das plantas R2 resistentes à doença. O mesmo procedimento foi utilizado para nova indução de calos e regeneração de plantas a partir de três plantas R2 selecionadas. Foi realizada a avaliação e a seleção de plantas resistentes nas gerações R2 e R4 em viveiro de brusone. Nos testes realizados em casa de vegetação com três isolados coletados da cultivar Metica1, pertencentes aos patótipos IB41 e IB45 de P. grisea, todos os 47 somaclones R6 foram resistentes. Por outro lado, os somaclones apresentaram reações diferenciais frente a cinco isolados provenientes de somaclones da cultivar Bluebelle, e resistência a um isolado proveniente da cultivar Bluebelle, enquanto a cultivar Bluebelle foi suscetível a todos os isolados. Estes resultados indicaram variação genética no que diz respeito à resistência à brusone, na segunda fase de indução de calos e na regeneração de plantas. Dos 47 somaclones R6, 22 apresentaram alto grau de resistência vertical nos testes conduzidos nos viveiros de brusone em quatro locais, e poderão ser utilizados como novas fontes de resistência.Rice blast, caused by Pyricularia grisea, is the major yield constraint in irrigated rice mainly in the State of Tocantins. The detection of genetic variability for blast resistance in susceptible cultivars such as Bluebelle, considered as a standard for superior grain quality, was the main objective of the present investigation. The adopted procedure included

  16. LEAF MINERAL CONCENTRATION OF FIVE OLIVE CULTIVARS GROWN ON CALCAREOUS SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Pasković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are limited numbers of scientific publication regarding genotypic differences which exist among olive cultivars concerning nutrient uptake and translocation. For that purpose, the object of our study was to determine possible differences between leaf mineral content of five selected olive cultivars since leaf nutrient analysis is consider being the best method for diagnosing olive tree nutritional status. Plant material was obtained from an olive collection, grown on calcareous soil maintained at Institute of Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Split, Croatia. The study was conducted with two Croatian autochthonous olive cultivars (“Istarska bjelica”, “Lastovka”, two Italian cultivars (“Pendolino”, “Leccino” and one Spanish cultivar (“Hojiblanca”. Completely randomized design was applied. This study has shown questionably low Mg concentration in all olive cultivars with exception for “Hojiblanca” cultivar. Also, only Croatian cultivars “Istarska bjelica” and “Lastovka” as well as Spanish cultivar “Hojiblanca” recorded sufficient levels of iron leaf mineral content. Regarding other elements studied (P, K, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu all cultivars were above literature cited thresholds for possible deficiencies. Selected olive cultivars in our experiment demonstrated different nutrient leaf concentration, which is of particular importance for fertilization requirements and fertilization practice in Croatian orchards grown on calcareous soil.

  17. Assessment of inter- and intra-cultivar variations in olive using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ipek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. production in the world has been made by using many cultivars, and the genetic uniformity of commercial cultivars is important for standard olive oil and table olive production. The genetic variation among and within commonly cultivated olive cultivars in Turkey was analyzed using SSR markers. A total of 135 leaf samples were collected from 11 commonly cultivated olive cultivars from 11 provinces in four geographical regions of Turkey. Seven SSR primer pairs generated 46 SSR markers, and the number of SSR markers per primer pair ranged from 4 (UDO-14 to 9 (GAPU-89 with an average of 6.57. This high level of SSR polymorphism suggests that olive production in Turkey has been made using genetically diverse olive cultivars and this high level of genetic variation is probably due to the location of Turkey in the center of the origin of olive. The UPGMA dendrogram, developed to visualize the estimated genetic relationships among the 135 samples, demonstrated that the clustering of olive cultivars was not based on geographical regions of cultivation. Presence of genetic variation was detected within a nationwide grown Turkish olive cultivar, called 'Gemlik'. Olive growers successfully discriminated olive cultivars with distinct morphological and pomological characters. However, there was some confusion about the identification of cultivars with similar phenotypic traits. To prevent misidentification of olive cultivars and to minimize intra-cultivar variation, certified propagation materials which were characterized using DNA based molecular markers should be used during the establishment of new olive orchards.

  18. Caracterização morfológica, produtividade e rendimento comercial de cultivares de alho Morphological characterization, commercial yield and productivity of garlic cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Tadeu V de Resende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil tem condições de elevar a produção de alho a ponto de suprir a demanda interna. Para alcançar tal êxito, é necessário avaliar o maior número possível de cultivares visando estabelecer as melhores para cada região. Sendo assim, esse trabalho objetivou avaliar o rendimento econômico e a qualidade de bulbos de 20 cultivares de alho na região Centro-Sul do Paraná. O experimento foi conduzido entre os meses de março e setembro de 2009, no município de Guarapuava-PR. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se em doze cultivares de alho seminobre e oito cultivares de alho nobre. Foram realizadas as avaliações de produtividade total (PT, produção comercial (PC e classificação comercial dos bulbos; superbrotamento; e seis caracteres relacionados à morfologia da planta: diâmetro do pseudocaule, comprimento e largura da folha, comprimento, largura e número de bulbilhos. As cultivares do grupo nobre apresentaram PT superior às cultivares do grupo seminobre, porém, não houve diferença com relação à PC. Entre as cultivares do grupo nobre, a São Valentim apresentou a maior PC de bulbos, com 8,9 t ha-1. As cultivares do grupo nobre apresentaram maior porcentagem de bulbos nas classes 6 e 7, com destaque para as cultivares Chonan, com 40,3% dos bulbos na classe 7 e a cultivar Ito, com 75% dos bulbos nas classes 6 e 7. O oposto foi observado no grupo seminobre, pois a maioria dos bulbos encontra-se nas classes 3, 4 e 5. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas, a cultivar São Valentim se adaptou melhor às condições edafoclimáticas da região, apresentando elevado potencial produtivo.Brazil could increase garlic production up to the point of supplying the internal demand. To achieve this success, it is necessary to evaluate the maximum number of cultivars to establish the best ones for each region. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate economic yield and quality of

  19. Avaliação de cultivares de berinjela em armazenamento refrigerado Post-harvest quality of eggplant cultivars in cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alfredo Kluge

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de diferentes cultivares de berinjela foram armazenados a 11 + 0,5ºC e 90 + 5% UR, por períodos de 7, 14 e 21 dias (+ 2 dias a 24-25ºC e 70-75% UR, com o objetivo de verificar o comportamento pós-colheita destes frutos. As cultivares estudadas foram Diamante Negro, Kiko, Piracicaba F-100, Flórida Market, Super F-100, F-2000, Suzuki, Nápoli e Ciça. Verificaram-se diferenças nas respostas das diferentes cultivares em relação à perda de peso, pressão de turgescência e qualidade global durante o armazenamento refrigerado. A frigoconservação dos frutos foi viável até 7 dias para todos as cultivares. O armazenamento por período superior a 7 dias dependeu da cultivar. A cultivar Super F-100 foi a que apresentou a maior capacidade de armazenamento (21 dias.Our objective was to evaluate the post-harvest behavior of nine eggplant cultivars. Fruits were stored at 11 + 0,5ºC e 90 + 5% RH, for periods of 7, 14 and 21 days (including 2 days of simulated commercialization at 24-25ºC and 70-75% RH. The cultivars studies were Diamante Negro, Kiko, Piracicaba F-100, Flórida Market, Super F-100, F-2000, Suzuki, Nápoli and Ciça. We measured changes in weight loss, turgor pressure and visual quality during the cold storage period. Low temperature storage of the fruits was acceptable up to 7 days for all cultivars. Storage above 7 days was dependent of the cultivar. The cultivar Super F-100 presented the largest storage capacity.

  20. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncica, Ana Maria; Saftoiu, Adrian;

    2011-01-01

    agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy, assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal, gastric and gall bladder...... sonography to depict tumor neovascularization can be increased by contrast agents. Contrast-enhanced harmonic imaging is a useful aid in identifying the tumor vasculature and studying pancreatic microperfusion. In the future, these techniques could potentially be used to quantify tumor perfusion, to assess...

  1. Fuzzy-Contextual Contrast Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Anil; Verma, Om; Khanna, Chintan

    2017-02-08

    This paper presents contrast enhancement algorithms based on fuzzy contextual information of the images. We introduce fuzzy similarity index and fuzzy contrast factor to capture the neighborhood characteristics of a pixel. A new histogram, using fuzzy contrast factor of each pixel is developed, and termed as the fuzzy dissimilarity histogram (FDH). A cumulative distribution function (CDF) is formed with normalized values of FDH and used as a transfer function to obtain the contrast enhanced image. The algorithm gives good contrast enhancement and preserves the natural characteristic of the image. In order to develop a contextual intensity transfer function, we introduce a fuzzy membership function based on fuzzy similarity index and coefficient of variation of the image. The contextual intensity transfer function is designed using the fuzzy membership function to achieve final contrast enhanced image. The overall algorithm is referred as the fuzzy contextual contrast-enhancement (FCCE) algorithm. The proposed algorithms are compared with conventional and state-of-art contrast enhancement algorithms. The quantitative and visual assessment of the results is performed. The results of quantitative measures are statistically analyzed using t-test. The exhaustive experimentation and analysis show the proposed algorithm efficiently enhances contrast and yields in natural visual quality images.

  2. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  3. Dissecting the Genetic Basis of Extremely Large Grain Shape in Rice Cultivar ‘JZ1560'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-Zheng Ying; Ji-Ping Gao; Jun-Xiang Shan; Mei-Zhen Zhu; Min Shi; Hong-Xuan Lin

    2012-01-01

    Rice grain shape,grain length (GL),width (GW),thickness (GT) and length-to-width ratio (LWR),are usually controlled by multiple quantitative trait locus (QTL).To elucidate the genetic basis of extremely large grain shape,QTL analysis was performed using an F2 population derived from a cross between a japonica cultivar ‘JZ1560' (extremely large grain) and a contrasting indica cultivar ‘FAZ1' (small grain).A total number of 24 QTLs were detected on seven different chromosomes.QTLs for GL,GW,GT and LWR explained 11.6%,95.62%,91.5% and 89.9% of total phenotypic variation,respectively.Many QTLs pleiotropically controlled different grain traits,contributing complex traits correlation.GW2 and qSW5/GW5,which have been cloned previously to control GW,showed similar chromosomal locations with qGW2-1/qGT2-1/qLWR2-2 and qGW5-2/qLWR5-1 and should be the right candidate genes.Plants pyramiding GW2 and qSW5/GW5 showed a significant increase in GW compared with those carrying one of the two major QTLs.Furthermore,no significant QTL interaction was observed between GW2 and qSW5/GW5.These results suggested that GW2 and qSW5/GW5 might work in independent pathways to regulate grain traits.‘JZ1560' alleles underlying all QTLs contributed an increase in GW and GT and the accumulation of additive effects generates the extremely large grain shape in ‘JZ1560'.

  4. Intergenic spacer length variants in Old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ana Carvalho; Henrique Guedes-Pinto; José Lima-Brito

    2011-08-01

    The intergenic spacer of the ribosomal DNA is highly variable, but is location specific in the nucleolar organizer region of the chromosomes. This study provides an event of high level of polymorphism / size variation and occurrence of 14 unique phenotypes in 48 landraces of Portuguese bread wheat cultivars for IGS-amplified products obtained by PCR-RFLP technique performed with TaqI. The attendant IGS polymorphism has been used to deduce affinities between landraces. Some of the high molecular weight IGS allelic variants were also probed for their chromosomal localization by sequential silver nitrate staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization. However, only the intergenic spacer allelic variant of 3.1 kb could be successfully hybridized, and was observed to be physically located on the chromosome pair 1B in the NOR loci of the cultivar ‘Magueija’.

  5. A new red -fleshed kiwifruit cultivar ‘Chuhong’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZhongyan; ZhongCaihong; BuFanwen

    2004-01-01

    ‘Chuhong’ is a red-fleshed kiwifruit cultivar selected from Actinidia chinensis var. rufopulpa grown in the wild.The fruit has beautiful red flesh color around the central core. It also has high soluble solids content and good taste. The plantsgrow well in both high and low altitude conditions, and are precocious and productive. The fruit matures in early September, and has reasonably good storage quality. There is a very positive response from customers according to preliminary marketing tests.

  6. Sensory quality of scab-resistant apple cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-two scab-resistant apple cultivars were harvested in autumn 1999 and evaluated for sensory quality the following October, November and December. Multivariate analysis was effective in describing the comblex relationships and variabillity among the numerous attributes used to characterise apple quality. Crispness, mealiness, skin toughness, apple flavour, sweetness, unripe flavour and overripe flavour were informative attributes describing the variation in the sensory quality. Texture a...

  7. Nodule senescence and biomass components in common bean cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián Fernández Luqueño; David Espinosa Victoria; Antonio Munive; Langen Corlay Chee; Luis M. Serrano Covarrubias

    2008-01-01

    Most legumes establish mutualistic symbiotic relationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), giving origin to nodules. Nodules exhibit natural or induced aging which coincides with the drop in nitrogenase activity at the flowering period or at the pod filling stage. In this research, the onset of nodule senescence (NS) was evaluated under greenhouse conditions in five common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars of two growth habits, determined (Type I) and indeterminate ...

  8. Evaluation of Tunisian olive oils from different cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Slim, Souihli; Rodrigues, Nuno; Dias, Luís G.; Veloso, Ana C. A.; Pereira, José A.; Oueslati, Souheib; António M. Peres

    2016-01-01

    [Excerpt] Olive oil is a highly appreciated food product due to sensory and healthy attributes, being quite prone to frauds. So, physicochemical evaluation of olive oils is legally required. In this study, 43 olive oil samples produced in Tunisia from different olive cultivars (groups: Sahli cv – 11 samples; Chetoui cv- 26 samples; and, Other cvs – 4 samples including Leguim cv and Arbequina cv) were physicochemically evaluated taking into account: (i) free acidity (FA), K232 and K270 extinct...

  9. The Impact of Switchgrass Cultivar Diversity on Nitrogen Use Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, A. C.; Jastrow, J. D.; SIX, J. W. U. A.; Morris, G.; De Graaff, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The search for new sources of sustainable energy has cast attention on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a potential biofuel crop. However, growing switchgrass in a high-input, low-diversity cropping system can have negative environmental consequences, such as enhanced nitrate (NO3) leaching and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Increasing plant diversity has been shown to promote plant production by increasing nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE), which may lower fertilizer requirements in cropping systems. With this study we asked how increasing cultivar diversity of switchgrass impacts NUE. The study took place at Fermilab National Environmental Research Park in Batavia, IL. In 2013, we applied a 15N tracer label to switchgrass planted in monocultures and mixtures of 2-types, 4-types, and 6-types of cultivars. We harvested the aboveground biomass and collected soil cores after one growing season. Preliminary data showed that cultivars differed significantly in yield and in the total 15N content in aboveground biomass, but there are no differences in tissue 15N concentration. In addition, there appears to be no effect of diversity level on 15N contents or concentrations. We intend to use this aboveground and soil 15N data to calculate NUE. These results could suggest that choosing the cultivar that most efficiently takes up N and produces the most yield may be more important than increasing diversity to promote the efficacy of biofuel feedstock production. However, increasing diversity can have other positive ecological consequences and does not appear to have negative impacts on yield or the N cycle.

  10. Soil covering in organic cultivation of onion cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Barreto Tavella; Regina Lúcia Felix Ferreira; Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto; Antônio Jussie da Silva Solino; Eliana Mara Napoli Corrêa de Paula da Silva; Maísa Pinto Bravin

    2015-01-01

    The soil preparation in horticulture, including organic, is characterized by intense soil tillage, which increases energy costs and unbalanced the environment. The organic system in onion cultivation has shown satisfactory results, however the soil covering use tends to improve the cultivation environment and may result in higher yields. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of onion cultivars in organic cultivation under different soil coverages. The experiment was co...

  11. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L.) CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae) cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-n...

  12. Eficiência hospedeira de oito cultivares de bananeira a fitonematóides Host reaction of eight banana cultivars to plant parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Lucí Dinardo-Miranda

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivares de bananeira (Musa spp. Grande Naine, Nanicão Jangada, Nanicão (Grupo AAA, Enxerto, Prata, Prata Zulu, Maçã e Mysore (Grupo AAB foram plantados em campo e avaliados quanto à eficiência hospedeira a nematóides. Todos eles apresentaram elevadas populações de Meloidogyne arenaria raça 1, sendo considerados, portanto, hospedeiros favoráveis dessa espécie. Os cultivares do grupo AAA e Mysore foram também hospedeiros favoráveis de Radopholus similis, enquanto os demais do grupo AAB se comportaram como hospedeiros pouco favoráveis. Helicotylenchus dihystera foi detectado em baixas populações, em raízes e no solo da rizosfera de todos os cultivares.The host reaction of eight banana cultivars (Musa spp. to nematodes was assessed in a field experiment. Three cultivars evaluated were members of AAA Group (Grande Naine, Nanicão and Nanicão Jangada and five belonged to AAB Group (Prata, Enxerto, Prata Zulu, Maçã and Mysore. All cultivars were infested by Meloidogyne arenaria race 1, rated as efficient hosts. The AAA Group cultivars and Mysore were also efficient hosts to Radopholus similis, whereas Prata, Enxerto and Maçã were not. Helicotylenchus dihystera was detected at low density populations in soil and root samples of all cultivars.

  13. Contrast discrimination at high contrasts reveals the influence of local light adaptation on contrast processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdom, F A; Whittle, P

    1996-03-01

    Previous measurements of contrast discrimination threshold, delta C, as a function of pedestal contrast, C, for sine-wave gratings have shown a power law relationship between delta C and C at suprathreshold levels of C. However, these studies have rarely used contrasts greater than 50%. Whittle (1986), using incremental and decremental patches, found that delta C increased with C only up to about 50%. At higher contrasts it decreased. Since a periodic stimulus can be considered to be composed of increments and decrements, we thought we might find such an inverse U-shaped function for gratings if we used contrasts up to 100%. We tested this for both sine-wave and square-wave stimuli at spatial frequencies from 0.0625 to 8.0 c/deg. We found that for frequencies up to 0.5 c/deg, delta C in nearly all cases 'dipped down' after about C = 50% contrast. At 4.0 and 8.0 c/deg, however, no dip-down occurred. Additional experiments showed that the dip-down was unlikely to be due to cortical long-term adaptation and most likely an effect of localized light adaptation to the dark bars. We argue that the absence of dip-down at high spatial frequencies was mainly due to the attenuation of contrast by the optics of the eye. As for the results of Whittle (1986), a Weber's Law in W = (Lmax-Lmin)/Lmin describes the inverse U-shaped contrast discrimination function well. Two other contrast expressions also linearize the data on log-log plots. We show how some familiar notions about the physiological operation of localized light adaptation can easily account for the form of the contrast discrimination function. Finally we estimate the number of discriminable steps in contrast from detection threshold to maximum contrast for the various spatial frequencies tested.

  14. COMBINING EFFECTS OF CULTURAL PRACTICES AND RESISTANT CULTIVARS ON REDUCING THE INCIDENCE OF Meloidogyne spp. AND Thrips palmy Karny ON POTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwin Setiawati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. and melon thrips (Thrips palmy Karny are two serious pests on potato. These pests are conventionally controlled with synthetic pesticides. Cultural practices based on integrated pest management (IPM are alternative methods to control these pests. The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of combined applications of cultural practices and potato cultivars in reducing the incidences of nematode and thrips. Treatments evaluated were methods of nematode and thrips control by implementing IPM and conventional practices. A split-plot randomized complete block design with four replications was  sed. The main plots were IPM or cultural practices (subsoiling, soil solarization and use of trap crop of marigold Tagetes erecta and conventional practices using synthetic pesticides. The subplots were five potato cultivars, i.e. No. 095 (Herta x FLS–17, 720050/Kikondo, 676068/ I.1085, Granola, and Atlantic. The results showed that applications of cultural practices in combination with potato cultivars reduced Meloidogyne spp. population and potato tuber damage by 53.70% and 61.36%, respectively, as well as a significantly decreased thrips population. In the cultural control plots, thrips populations were below the action threshold (10.0 nymphs per leaf, therefore no single application of pesticide was used. This was in contrast to the conventional control treatments where insecticide was spayed 10 times until harvest. The subsoiling and solarization cut off the life cycle of the thrips and any survive thrips were trapped by marigold plant. Population of T. palmi on the five potato cultivars differed significantly; the lowest population was found on the cultivars No. 095 (Herta x FLS-17 and 676068/I.1085. The cultural control practices combined with potato cultivar No. 095 (Herta x FLS–17 were the best treatment for controlling Meloidogyne spp. and T. palmi on potato and also produced the highest yield (31.01 t

  15. Influence of Cultivar on the Postharvest Hardening of Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumetorum Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Siadjeu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cultivar on the postharvest hardening of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was assessed. 32 cultivars of D. dumetorum tubers were planted in April 2014, harvested at physiological maturity, and stored under prevailing tropical ambient conditions (19–28°C, 60–85% RH for 0, 5, 14, 21, and 28 days. Samples were evaluated for cooked hardness. Results showed that one cultivar, Ibo sweet 3, was not affected by the hardening phenomenon. The remaining 31 were all subject to the hardening phenomenon at different degree. Cooked hardness increased more rapidly in cultivars with many roots on the tuber surface compared to cultivars with few roots on the tuber surface. When both the characteristics flesh colour and number of roots on tuber surface were associated, cooked hardness in cultivars with yellow flesh and many roots increased more rapidly than in cultivars with white flesh and many roots, whereas cooked hardness in cultivars with yellow flesh and few roots increased more slowly than in cultivars with white flesh and few roots. Accessions collected in high altitude increased more rapidly compared to accessions collected in low altitude. The cultivar Ibo sweet 3 identified in this study could provide important information for breeding program of D. dumetorum against postharvest hardening phenomenon.

  16. Ribonuclease activity of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum) cultivars with different sensitivities to buckwheat burn virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindarovska, Y R; Guzyk, O I; Yuzvenko, L V; Demchenko, O A; Didenko, L F; Grynevych, O I; Spivak, M Ya

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleases (RNases) are present in base-level amounts in intact plants, but this level is able to increase greatly under stress conditions. The possible cause for such an increase is protection against plant RNA-virus attack. Buckwheat burn virus (BBV) is a highly virulent pathogen that belongs to Rhabdoviridae family. In our study, we have analyzed the correlation between RNase activity and resistance of different buckwheat cultivars to BBV infection. Two cultivars, Kara-Dag and Roksolana, with different sensitivities to BBV have been used. Kara-Dag is a cultivar with medium sensitivity to virus and Roksolana is a tolerant cultivar. It has been shown that the base level of RNase activity in Roksolana cultivar was in most cases higher than the corresponding parameter in Kara-Dag cultivar. Both infected and uninfected plants of Roksolana cultivar demonstrated high RNase activity during two weeks. Whereas infected plants of Kara-Dag cultivar demonstrated unstable levels of RNase activity. Significant decline in RNase activity was detected on the 7th day post infection with subsequent gradual increase in RNase activity. Decline of the RNase activity during the first week could promote the virus replication and therefore more successful infection of upper leaves of plants. Unstable levels of RNase activity in infected buckwheat plants may be explained by insufficiency of virus-resistant mechanisms that determines the medium sensitivity of the cultivar to BBV. Thus, plants of buckwheat cultivar having less sensitivity to virus, displayed in general higher RNase activity.

  17. Contrast enhancement in light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst Keller, H; Watkins, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The optical microscope is a fundamental component of an image cytometry system. This unit covers the basic concepts of light microscopy, including Köhler illumination, resolution, contrast, and numerical aperture, and reviews the many types of instruments and techniques for contrast enhancement.

  18. Contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Yousef W; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) has gained wide acceptance as a valuable tool in the diagnostic work-up of patients with peripheral arterial disease. This review presents current concepts in peripheral CE-MRA with emphasis on MRI technique and contrast...

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopy is feasible to discriminate hazelnut cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Stella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the feasibility of the near infrared (NIR spectroscopy use for hazelnut-cultivar sorting. Hazelnut spectra were acquired from 600 fruit for each cultivar sample, two diffuse reflectance spectra were acquired from opposite sides of the same hazelnut. Spectral data were transformed into absorbance before the computations. A different variety of spectral pretreatments were applied to extract characteristics for the classification. An iterative Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA algorithm was used to select a relatively small set of variables to correctly classify samples. The optimal group of features selected for each test was analyzed using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA. The spectral region most frequently chosen was the 1980-2060 nm range, which corresponds to best differentiation performance for a total minimum error rate lower than 1.00%. This wavelength range is generally associated with stretching and bending of the N-H functional group of amino acids and proteins. The feasibility of using NIR Spectroscopy to distinguish different hazelnut cultivars was demonstrated.

  20. Polyphenol and glycoalkaloid contents in potato cultivars grown in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusser, Hannah; Guignard, Cédric; Hoffmann, Lucien; Evers, Danièle

    2012-12-15

    The polyphenol (phenolic acids, flavanols and flavonols) and glycoalkaloid (α-chaconine and α-solanine) contents of potato tubers grown in Luxembourg were analyzed by UPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS separately in peel (approx. 2mm), outer (approx. 1cm) and inner flesh. Polyphenol contents decreased from the peel via the outer to the inner flesh and differed among the cultivars. The cultivars Vitelotte and Luminella had the highest polyphenol contents (5202 and 572 μg/g dry weight (DW) in the outer flesh), whereas Charlotte and Bintje had the lowest contents (19.5 and 48.0 μg/g DW). Chlorogenic acid and its isomers (neo- and cryptochlorogenic acid) were the major polyphenols. Glycoalkaloid contents were highest in the peel and lowest in the inner flesh, values in the flesh were below guideline limits in all cultivars. In conclusion, potatoes contribute to the daily intake of polyphenols and their consumption, thereby, may have positive effects on health.

  1. Phosphorus Uptake from Rhizosphere Soilby Two Wheat Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAJIAN; T.S.GAHOONIA; 等

    1998-01-01

    Inorganic soil phosphorus extractable with sodium bicarbonate(NaHCO3-Pi),soil pH and root hairs length and density in the rhizosphere of two winter wheat cultivars (Tritium aestivum L.cv.Shichum,Sleipner)grown on a high pH Chinese silt loam(52.7 mg NaHCO3-Pikg-1) and a Danish sandy loam(43.4mg NaHCO3-Pi kg-1)wer studied to assess how these wheat cultivars differed in phosphorus uptake.The rhizosphere soil pH of two wheat cultivars grown on the two soils were fairly unchanged with increasing distrance from the roo surface.However the root hairs of Shichun were 2.1 times longer than those of Sleipner,Root surface area(RSA) of Shichun increased by 192% due to root hairs whereas root hairs of Sleipner increased RSA by 68% only.Hence the root system of Shichun was in contact with more soil than that of Sleipner,even though Sleipner had a longer root,Grown at the lower pH and level of NaHCO3-Pi in the Danish soil Shichun absorbed more inorganic phosphorus than Sleipner whereas at the higher pH and level of NaHCO3-Pi in the Chinese soil there was no phosphorus uptake difference between the two wheat culivars.

  2. Response of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cultivars to different postharvest preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, Biniam; Belew, Derbew; Kassa, Negussie

    2013-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of selected pulsing solutions on the days to flower bud shrinkage, leaf wilting and petal edge drying occurrence of carnation cultivars (Green-Go and Galy). The pulsing solutions used for this investigation were Silver Thiosulfate (STS) (0.2, 0.6, 1 mM) and also ethanol (6, 8, 10%), both received equal amount of sucrose (10%). Besides, to simulate the actual practice of the farm (0.4 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 0.3 mM T.O.G) was used as a standard control. Senescence symptoms such as flower bud shrinkage, petal edge drying and leaf wilting were monitored. The results obtained showed that 1 mM STS plus 25 g sucrose achieved rapid petal edge drying for Green-Go cultivar. On the other hand, positive effects were also observed in days to flower bud shrinkage extended by 6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and being in par with 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose for Green-Go cultivar. Subsequently, the standard control, 0.6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose attended comparable increment on the days to leaf wilting occurrences.

  3. In vitro starch digestion in sorghum flour from Algerian cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souilah, Rachid; Djabali, Djaffar; Belhadi, Badreddine; Mokrane, Hind; Boudries, Nadia; Nadjemi, Boubekeur

    2014-05-01

    This work aims to evaluate starch digestion in whole sorghum grains. Nine sorghum cultivars were sampled from the Sahara of Algeria. The structural characteristics of sorghum grains were measured. Total starch (TS) varied between 67.67% and 74.82%, digestible starch (DS) between 64.34% and 69.70%, and resistant starch (RS) ranged from 2.55% to 7.98%. The kinetic of starch digestion displayed first-order model. For all sorghum cultivars, starch were digested with different extents, DS at infinite time (D ∞) ranged from 52.58 to 102.13 g/100 g dry starch, while the hydrolysis index (HI) ranged from 41.55% to 76.93% and high average glycemic index (GIavg) ranged from 65.97 to 94.14. The results showed that there are differences in grain quality of Algerian sorghum cultivars. The starch fractions have acceptable nutritional value with good in vitro digestibility characteristics suitable for human health and nutrition.

  4. Chemical characterization and genetic relationships among Ocimum basilicum L. cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Zlatko; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Politeo, Olivera; Strikić, Frane; Kolak, Ivan; Milos, Mladen; Satovic, Zlatko

    2011-11-01

    Twenty-seven Ocimum basilicum cultivars were subjected to a chemical characterization of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and a genetic characterization using the amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Since the same 27 accessions had previously been classified into six morphotypes, these analyses allowed us to make detailed comparisons of chemistry, genetics, and morphology. The chemical composition and morphology of the studied cultivars appeared to have a strong genetic component. The AFLP analysis revealed a distinction between the green and purple morphotypes. The green morphotypes predominantly utilized the terpene biosynthetic pathway, while most purple morphotypes primarily utilized the phenylpropene biosynthetic pathway. The GC/MS analysis led to identification of 87 volatiles. Among the 27 cultivars, five chemotypes were identified. A detailed characterization of the essential oil constituents indicated the existence of both specific combinations of compounds and 'private' compounds with the potential to be used in many aspects of human life. The established relationship between a genetic profile, chemical composition, and morphology represents an important step in future breeding programs and in the cultivation of this species.

  5. Screening of Amaranth Cultivars (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) for Cadmium Hyperaccumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-li; ZHOU Wei

    2009-01-01

    The potential harm of soil cadmium pollution to ecological environment and human health has been increasingly widely concerned. Phytoremediation, as a kind of new and effective technology, has become an important method for cleaning up cadmium in contaminated sites. The amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) is widely distributed and has abundant varieties in China, its rapid growth and large biomass can be served as candidate for cadmium hyperaccumulators for phytoremediation. To obtain cadmium hyper-accumulator, Cd uptake in 23 amaranth euitivars from different ecological region was investigated under hydroponic culture condition. Meanwhile, pot experiment was established to probe phytoremediation potentiality of Cd contaminated soil by amaranth. Three treatment (Cd 5, 10, and 25 mg kg-1) were imposed to red soil, yellow brown soil, and vegetable soil. The results showed that under hydroponic culture with Cd 3 mg L-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 260 mg kg-1, and its total cadmium uptake was the highest among various cultivars. In the treatment Cd 25 mg kg-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 212 mg kg-1, while bioaccumulation factor and shoot purification rate reached 8.50 and 3.8%, respectively. Further, the total biomass and shoot biomass were not decreased significantly under Cd exposure.These results suggested that eultivar Tianxingmi is a typical Cd hyperaccumulator, and can be expected to be used in phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil.

  6. Emergy assessment method for wheat cultivar efficiency and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Jankowiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The method based on emergy was applied to quantify the fluxes of the energy, matter and monetary investment use (water, seeds, work, fertilizer and plant protecting agents, fuel, goods and services, productivity, environmental services and sustainability in typical wheat cultivar conducted in Wielkopolska. In order to convert all the flows mentioned into common base (seJ a conversion factors (solar transformities were used. In this way it was possible to consider also such flows that are free and generally neglected in the traditional balances. Generally only 52% emergy inflow is delivered by financial investment, while the remaining part, delivered in the form of the environmental services, is free. The Emergy Yield Ratio EYR = 1.14 indicate a low level of output per emergy investment unit. The values of Environmental Loading Ratio ELR = 11 and Emergy Sustainability Index ESI = 0.1 indicate an environmental stress and low level of cultivar sustainability, respectively. The final cultivar product (wheat has the emergy density 4.35 E12 seJ/kg and transformity 26.3 E4 seJ/J.

  7. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Boa Experimental Farm of Embrapa Roraima, from December 2013 to February 2014. The experimental design was of randomised blocks (DBC, with six replications. The treatments comprised six watermelon cultivars: Verena, Explore, Elisa, Juliane, Crimson Sweet and Crimson Sweet Super, for which the productive, physical, chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated. There was no difference between cultivars in yield, number of fruit ha-1 or the number of fruit with a weight of between 6 and 9 kg. The cultivars differed as to physical characteristics (weight, size and number of seeds per fruit. There were differences between cultivars for all the chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. The cultivar Elisa displayed the highest levels for total soluble solids (12.58 °Brix. Fruits of the cultivars Explore and Crimson Sweet Super showed the greatest ratio between total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fruits of the cultivars Explore and Elisa had the highest pH. The conditions of soil and climate in the Cerrado at Boa Vista favour the productive and qualitative characteristics of the cultivars being analysed. = A produção de melancia é consolidada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Porém, as informações sobre produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, de diferentes cultivares no mesmo ambiente, ainda são tímidas, sobretudo em Roraima, tornando necessária a realização de estudos para suprir essa carência. Objetivou

  8. Alterations in Kernel Proteome after Infection with Fusarium culmorum in Two Triticale Cultivars with Contrasting Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Halina; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Góral, Tomasz; Ochodzki, Piotr; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Augustyniak, Adam; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: The level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to Fusarium head blight. Triticale was used here as a model to recognize new components of molecular mechanism of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals. Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) of two lines distinct in levels of resistance to FHB were applied into a proteome profiling using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to create protein maps and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the proteins differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines. This proteomic research was supported by a measurement of alpha- and beta-amylase activities, mycotoxin content, and fungal biomass in the analyzed kernels. The 2-DE analysis indicated a total of 23 spots with clear differences in a protein content between the more resistant and more susceptible triticale lines after infection with Fusarium culmorum. A majority of the proteins were involved in a cell carbohydrate metabolism, stressing the importance of this protein group in a plant response to Fusarium infection. The increased accumulation levels of different isoforms of plant beta-amylase were observed for a more susceptible triticale line after inoculation but these were not supported by a total level of beta-amylase activity, showing the highest value in the control conditions. The more resistant line was characterized by a higher abundance of alpha-amylase inhibitor CM2 subunit and simultaneously a lower activity of alpha-amylase after inoculation. We suggest that the level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to FHB. PMID:27582751

  9. Alterations in Kernel Proteome after Infection with Fusarium culmorum in Two Triticale Cultivars with Contrasting Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Halina; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Góral, Tomasz; Ochodzki, Piotr; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Augustyniak, Adam; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: The level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to Fusarium head blight. Triticale was used here as a model to recognize new components of molecular mechanism of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals. Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) of two lines distinct in levels of resistance to FHB were applied into a proteome profiling using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to create protein maps and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the proteins differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines. This proteomic research was supported by a measurement of alpha- and beta-amylase activities, mycotoxin content, and fungal biomass in the analyzed kernels. The 2-DE analysis indicated a total of 23 spots with clear differences in a protein content between the more resistant and more susceptible triticale lines after infection with Fusarium culmorum. A majority of the proteins were involved in a cell carbohydrate metabolism, stressing the importance of this protein group in a plant response to Fusarium infection. The increased accumulation levels of different isoforms of plant beta-amylase were observed for a more susceptible triticale line after inoculation but these were not supported by a total level of beta-amylase activity, showing the highest value in the control conditions. The more resistant line was characterized by a higher abundance of alpha-amylase inhibitor CM2 subunit and simultaneously a lower activity of alpha-amylase after inoculation. We suggest that the level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to FHB.

  10. Caracterização botânica de cultivares de morangueiro Botanical characterization of strawberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz Voltan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de caracterização botânica em seis cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria X ananassa Duch. quatro desenvolvidos no Brasil - 'Campinas (IAC-2712', 'Guarani (IAC-5074', 'AGF 080' e 'IAC Princesa Isabel' - e dois introduzidos - 'Reiko', do Japão, e 'Sequóia', dos Estados Unidos - visando sua distinção taxonômica. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na Estação Experimental de Monte Alegre do Sul (SP durante os anos agrícolas de 1992/93. Os caracteres morfológicos que se mostraram úteis na diferenciação dos seis cultivares foram os seguintes: tipo de planta; número de folíolos; coloração da folha; razão entre o comprimento e a largura dos folíolos medianos; ângulo da base do limbo do folíolo mediano; comprimento das estipulas; posição das flores primárias em relação à folhagem; número de pétalas das flores primárias; razão entre o comprimento e a largura das pétalas; receptáculo do ovário; forma das infrutescências e da base da infrutescência; posição do cálice e calículo; espaços vazios no interior da infrutescência e comprimento e largura da infrutescência. Para a identificação dos cultivares, foi elaborada uma chave analítica. Os cultivares AGF 080 e Campinas não foram distinguidos com base nos caracteres analisados.Six strawberry cultivars (Fragaria X ananassa Duch., four developed in Brazil (AGF 080, Campinas, Guarani and IAC Princesa Isabel and two introduced (Reiko from Japan and Sequoia from USA were botanically evaluated in order to screening morphological vegetativa and reproductive characters to get the taxonomical distinction of them. Two experiments were carried out in 1992 and 1993 at the Experimental Station of Monte Alegre do Sul, Instituto Agronômico (IAC, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The following morphological characters were screened to distinguish the cultivars studied: growing habit; leaflet number; leaf colour; middle leaflet length and width ratio; middle

  11. Cultivares de soja sob plantio direto em Latossolo Vermelho compactado = Soybean cultivars under no-till on a compacted oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyde Fabíola Balarezo Giarola

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O processo de compactação pode modificar os atributos físicos do solo a ponto de limitar o potencial genético de desenvolvimento de culturas agrícolas ou de cultivares mais sensíveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico típico, a resposta de parâmetros de produção de cultivares de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill e atributos físicos do solo ao sistema plantio direto em condições de lavoura e com compactação adicional. O estudo foi conduzido na C-Vale Cooperativa Agroindustrial, em Palotina, Estado do Paraná. Foram avaliados dois tratamentos de solo: sistema plantio direto sem compactação adicional (SPD-C0 e sistema plantio direto com compactação adicional (PD-C1, e cinco cultivares de soja: (1 Coodetec 204, (2 Coodetec 215, (3 Monsoy 5942,(4 Embrapa 48 e (5 Spring. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 X 2. Os atributos de solo avaliados foram: densidade do solo, porosidade total, macro e microporosidade. Nas plantas, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: fitomassa seca, altura de plantas, altura de inserção da primeira vagem, massa demil grãos e produtividade. Os resultados demonstraram que as variáveis de produção das cultivares de soja não foram influenciados pelos diferentes níveis de compactação do solo, e as diferenças observadas se deveram às características das próprias cultivares.The compaction process can promote changes in the physical attributes of soil, to the point of limiting the genetic potential for the development of more sensitive agricultural crops or cultivars. Thegoal of this study was to evaluate, on a clayed Red Latosol (Oxisol, the response of production parameters of different varieties of soybean (Glycine max and physical attributes of soil under tillage farming, and with additional compression. The study was conducted at C-Valley Agroindustrial Cooperative, in Palotina (Paraná State. Two treatments

  12. Comportamento de cultivares de cafeeiro em diferentes densidades de plantio The behavior of coffee cultivars under different plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Martins Paulo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se em Adamantina, na Região da Alta Paulista, em São Paulo, entre maio de 1995 e junho de 2000, o crescimento e quatro produções de cafeeiros das cultivares de porte baixo Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 e Obatã IAC 1669-20 de Coffea arabica L., submetidas às densidades de plantio de 2.500, 5.000, 7.519 e 10.000 plantas ha-1, com uma planta por cova. Estudou-se também a população de 2.500 plantas.ha-1 em covas com duas plantas com 2,0 m de distância na linha de plantio. Adotou-se o delineamento estatístico de blocos ao acaso com três repetições, com parcelas subdivididas, onde as parcelas foram as populações e as subparcelas, as cultivares. Os resultados permitiram inferir que, no período estudado, o aumento da densidade influenciou positivamente a altura e negativamente o diâmetro do caule e da base da copa dos cafeeiros, mas não a altura da inserção do primeiro ramo plagiotrópico a partir do nível do solo. O aumento da população de cafeeiros acarretou menor produção de café beneficiado por planta, mas concorreu para o aumento da produtividade no período de 1997 a 2000. O plantio de duas mudas de café por cova acarretou também diminuição do diâmetro do caule e da produção individual dos cafeeiros. Observou-se na cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 maior diâmetro da base da copa e maior crescimento em altura, enquanto a cv. Obatã IAC 1669-20 evidenciou seu maior diâmetro do caule. As cultivares Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 e Obatã IAC 1669-20 não diferiram entre si quanto à produção individual e à produtividade de café beneficiado no quadriênio (1997-2000.This experiment was developed at Adamantina, west region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, during May of 1995 to June of 2000. The plant growth and productivity of two coffee cultivars Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 and Obatã IAC 1669-20, were evaluated considering to plant densities of 2.500, 5.000, 7.519 and 10.000 plants ha-1. The density of 2500 also was

  13. Contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA. Technique and contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Yousef W. [Dept. of Radiology, Copenhagen Univ. Hospital Bispebjerg, Bispebjerg (Denmark)], e-mail: ywnielsen@gmail.com; Thomsen, Henrik S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen Univ. Hospital Herlev, Herlev (Denmark)

    2012-09-15

    In the last decade contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) has gained wide acceptance as a valuable tool in the diagnostic work-up of patients with peripheral arterial disease. This review presents current concepts in peripheral CE-MRA with emphasis on MRI technique and contrast agents. Peripheral CE-MRA is defined as an MR angiogram of the arteries from the aortic bifurcation to the feet. Advantages of CE-MRA include minimal invasiveness and lack of ionizing radiation. The basic technique employed for peripheral CE-MRA is the bolus-chase method. With this method a paramagnetic MRI contrast agent is injected intravenously and T1-weighted images are acquired in the subsequent arterial first-pass phase. In order to achieve high quality MR angiograms without interfering venous contamination or artifacts, a number of factors need to be taken into account. This includes magnetic field strength of the MRI system, receiver coil configuration, use of parallel imaging, contrast bolus timing technique, and k-space filling strategies. Furthermore, it is possible to optimize peripheral CE-MRA using venous compression techniques, hybrid scan protocols, time-resolved imaging, and steady-state MRA. Gadolinium(Gd)-based contrast agents are used for CE-MRA of the peripheral arteries. Extracellular Gd agents have a pharmacokinetic profile similar to iodinated contrast media. Accordingly, these agents are employed for first-pass MRA. Blood-pool Gd-based agents are characterized by prolonged intravascular stay, due to macromolecular structure or protein binding. These agents can be used for first-pass, as well as steady-state MRA. Some Gd-based contrast agents with low thermodynamic stability have been linked to development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with severe renal insufficiency. Using optimized technique and a stable MRI contrast agent, peripheral CE-MRA is a safe procedure with diagnostic accuracy close to that of conventional catheter X

  14. 'PiraRoxa': cultivar de alface crespa de cor vermelha intensa 'PiraRoxa': triple red lettuce cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Sala

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available 'PiraRoxa' é uma cultivar de alface (Lactuca sativa L. crespa de cor vermelha intensa, resistente à Bremia lactucae, Thielaviopsis basicola e LMV, patótipo II. Foi selecionada por meio do método genealógico a partir do cruzamento entre o tipo Lolla Rossa 'RS 521998' e a cv. Gizela. Apresenta plantas grandes e vigorosas, folhas crespas, coloração vermelha intensa e brilhante. Em ensaios conduzidos no verão (2003/2004 o pendoamento da 'PiraRoxa' foi de 10 e 20 dias mais lento quando comparado às cvs. Banchu New Red Fire e Loretta, respectivamente. Trata-se da primeira cultivar tropicalizada para o segmento de alface vermelha com resistência a doenças no Brasil.'PiraRoxa' is a triple red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cultivar resistant to Bremia lactucae, Thielaviopsis basicola and LMV, pathotype II. This cv. was obtained through pedigree selection from the cross between a Lolla Rossa 'RS 521998' and cv. Gizela. This shiny and intense red lettuce presents vigorous plants with loose leaves. In summer trials (2003/2004 'PiraRoxa' presented slow bolting performance (10 to 20 days later in comparison to cvs. Banchu New Red Fire and Loretta. This is the first tropicalized red leaf lettuce with multiple disease resistance developed in Brazil.

  15. Caracterização e diversidade genética de cultivares de morangueiro Characterization and genetic diversity of strawberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete Beatriz Radmann

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a diversidade genético-molecular, por marcadores RAPD, das dez principais cultivares de morangueiro utilizadas no País: Aromas, Bürkley, Camarosa, Campinas, Dover, Milsei-Tudla, Oso Grande, Santa Clara, Sweet Charlie e Vila Nova. O DNA foi extraído de folhas maduras, as análises RAPD foram realizadas com 26 primers e os produtos de amplificação separados por eletroforese. O coeficiente de Dice foi utilizado para estimar a similaridade genética entre as cultivares e o método UPGMA para gerar o fenograma por meio do NTSYS. Houve amplificação de fragmentos consistentes com 19 primers, tendo sido encontrado polimorfismo em 14. Dos 116 fragmentos gerados, 84 foram polimórficos. As cultivares foram classificadas em dois grupos principais quanto à similaridade genética: cultivares destinadas à industrialização (Bürkley, Santa Clara e Vila Nova e cultivares destinadas ao mercado in natura (demais cultivares. A similaridade foi menor no grupo das cultivares para consumo in natura (44-74%, o que ocorreu em função dos parentais serem diferentes. A maior similaridade genética ocorreu entre as cultivares de indústria Santa Clara e Vila Nova (98%, ambas obtidas pelo programa de melhoramento da Embrapa Clima Temperado, e provenientes dos mesmos parentais ('Konvoy-Cascata' e 'Lassen'. Padrões RAPD foram estabelecidos para a caracterização genética das dez cultivares de morangueiro estudadas.In this work we characterized the genetic-molecular diversity by RAPD markers of the main ten strawberry cultivars cultivated in Brazil: Aromas, Bürkley, Camarosa, Campinas, Dover, Milsei-Tudla, Oso Grande, Santa Clara, Sweet Charlie and Vila Nova. The DNA was extracted from mature leaves, the RAPD analysis were carried out with 26 primers and the amplification products were separated by electrophoreses. The coefficient of Dice was used to estimate the genetic similarity among the cultivars and the UPGMA

  16. Variation among Rice Cultivars in Root Acidification and Its Relation to Cadmium Uptake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-guo; XU Hai; CAI Guo-liang; QIAN Min; WANG De-ke; ZHU Qing-sen

    2006-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of Cd uptake and accumulation in rice, soil acidification by root activities was investigated in six rice cultivars differing in Cd accumulation. The results showed a significant difference among the cultivars in pH of pot water and root exudate. Soil acidification abilities varied with rice cultivars. Both pH of pot water and root exudate were lower in indica cultivars than in japonica ones. The difference in root acidification was larger in Cd treated cultivars than the control. Under Cd stress, the pH of pot water and root exudate correlated negatively and significantly with Cd concentrations in rice plants. It was suggested that the soil acidification by root exudates, especially in Cd contaminated soils, may be one of the mechanisms responsible for Cd uptake in rice cultivars.

  17. Determination of Apomictic Fruit Set Ratio in Several Romanian Walnut (Juglans regia L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Niculina COSMULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available carried out to determine the ability of apomictic fruit setting in twelve Romanian walnut cultivars. ‘Sibisel 44’, ‘Geoagiu 65’, ‘Germisara’, ‘Muscelean’, ‘Sarmis’, ‘Valcor’, ‘Valmit’, ‘Valrex’, ‘Jupanesti’, ‘Velnita’, ‘Orastie’ and ‘Argesean’ cultivars were used in the experiment. Female flowers were isolated with pergament paper bags and the apomictic fruit set was determined 8 weeks after anthesis. The apomixis degree was determined as the number of fruit calculated in relation to the number of isolated flowers. The percentage of apomictic fruit set without pollination in cultivars analyzed is low, ranging from 7.86% (‘Orastie’ cultivar up to 12.46% (‘Jupanesti’ cultivar. The results indicated that apomictic fruit set is insufficient for economical seed and crop production in these Romanian walnut cultivars.

  18. Discrimination of sugarcane according to cultivar by 1H NMR and chemometric analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G.; Silva, Lorena M.A.; Choze, Rafael; Liao, Luciano M. [Laboratorio de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Honda, Neli K.; Alcantara, Glaucia B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Several technologies for the development of new sugarcane cultivars have mainly focused on the increase in productivity and greater disease resistance. Sugarcane cultivars are usually identified by the organography of the leaves and stems, the analysis of peroxidase and esterase isoenzyme activities and the total soluble protein as well as soluble solid content. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) associated with chemometric analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for cultivar assessment. Thus, this article describes the potential of chemometric analysis applied to 1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) and NMR in solution for the investigation of sugarcane cultivars. For this purpose, leaves from eight different cultivars of sugarcane were investigated by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis. The approach shows to be a useful tool for the distinction and classification of different sugarcane cultivars as well as to access the differences on its chemical composition. (author)

  19. Ozone phytotoxicity in relation to stress ethylene evolution and stomatal resistance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adepipe, N.O.; Tingey, D.T.

    1979-01-01

    In greenhouse experiments, the ozone sensitivities of three cowpea cultivars differing in growth habits and some physiological traits were determined and related to stress ethylene production and leaf diffusive resistance. The cultivars were more sensitive at the 3-leaf than at the 2-leaf stages of growth. There was no consistent leaf injury at less than 0.50 ..mu..l/l of ozone for 2 hr. At an ozone concentration of 1.0 ..mu..l/l for 2 hr. the cultivar Adzuki exhibited marked leaf injury, amounting to over 80% symptom coverage of the leaf surface while New Era and Ife Brown sustained leaf injury maxima of 58 and 35% respectively. Stress ethylene production did not differ among the cultivars. While ozone increased stomatal diffusive resistance in all cultivars, there were not significant differences among the cultivars.

  20. Using protein markers of embryo and seed storage proteins in identification of four pistachio cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ehsanpour

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of protein marker for Pistachio cultivars, as a valuable source of food is important. In this study, the protein patterns of embryo from four pistachio cultivars including Akbari, Ahmad Aghaei, Fandoghi and Kaleghouchi were analyzed using SDS-PAGE. The presence of protein bands about 90 and 45 killo dalton (kd in protein pattern of embryonic axes in cultivars Kaleghouchi and Akbari respectively and the absence of protein bands with approximate molecular weight 30 and 20 kd in protein pattern of cotyledons in cultivars Kaleghouchi and Akbari respectively can be used as protein markers for these pistachio cultivars. On the other hand, the maximum expression level of bands 45 kd in protein pattern of cotyledons could be indicative of a protein marker for cultivar Ahmad Aghaei.

  1. Variations in Disease Resistance of Chestnut Cultivars against Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Sanghyun; KIM Kyunghee; PIAO Chungen; MOON Byungju

    2006-01-01

    Chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica is one of the major chestnut diseases occurred on stems and branches. Oriental chestnut has more resistance than American one. Twenty-five cultivars of chestnut tree including various cultivars such as Tsukuba, Okkwang, Rihei, Ginyose, Eunsan, etc. Were tested with a rapid, simple and reliable method. The cultivar Banseki is one of the most resistant cultivars tested and has the necrotic area of 0.40 cm2. However, the necrotic areas of the cultivars of American chestnut, Eunsan, Kwangjujoyul and Eaton, ranges from 3.35 to 2.61 cm2 and these cultivars are relatively susceptible to this pathogen. Many pycnidia of this pathogen were observed on the inner and outer bark tissues after incubating for 3 weeks.

  2. Camptothecin and 10-Hydroxycamptothecin Accumulate Differentially Under Specific Developmental Control in Camptotheca acuminata%喜树碱和10-羟基喜树碱受喜树生长发育调控的不同特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖元刚; 唐中华; 于景华; 赵春建

    2003-01-01

    Camptotheca acuminata Decaisne is a tree unique to China, producing terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA), camptothecin (CPT), and 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), which possesses strong anti-cancer bioactivity. The dynamics of HCPT and CPT during seed maturation, seed germination, postgerminative development and daily growth were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). This article provides some evidence for presenting the theory that each characteristic of HCPT and CPT accumulation is under developmental regulation and then attempt to elucidate the metabolic relationships between them. HCPT accumulates particularly in young tissues and organs and is relatively unstable, while the distribution of CPT is more ubiquitous and stable. Their different distribution properties suggest that HCPT and CPT are differentially regulated and play distinct roles during development.%为了揭示喜树碱(camptothecin, CPT)和10-羟基喜树碱(10-hydroxycamptothecin, HCPT)在喜树(Camptotheca acuminata Decaisne)体内代谢的生理调控机制及这两种类似物之间的关系和作用,运用高效液相色谱技术对种子形成、成熟、萌发和幼苗生长过程中喜树碱和10-羟基喜树碱的代谢动态进行了全面的研究.结果表明,喜树碱相对稳定地存在于成熟和幼嫩的组织中;10-羟基喜树碱特异性地积累在乳熟期的种子、种芽的子叶、幼嫩的真叶等幼嫩组织中,随着组织的进一步发育和成熟,其含量快速减少,成熟组织中积累极少,并且这两种生物碱的代谢在时间和数量上都呈现出相互消长的特点,由此推断,这两种生物碱不同程度地受生长发育调控的特点可能与喜树的化学防御策略密切相关,并且,它们之间可以相互转化以充分利用有限的氮素资源.

  3. Heat shock increases oxidative stress to modulate growth and physico-chemical attributes in diverse maize cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Iqbal; Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Rasheed, Rizwan; Iqbal, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ashraf, Shamila

    2016-10-01

    The present investigation was conducted to appraise the physiochemical adjustments in contrasting maize cultivars, namely, PakAfgoi (tolerant) and EV-5098 (sensitive) subjected to heat shock. Seven-day-old seedlings were exposed to heat shock for different time intervals (1, 3, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h) and data for various physiochemical attributes determined to appraise time course changes in maize. After 72 h of heat shock, the plants were grown under normal conditions for 5 d and data for different growth attributes and photosynthetic pigments recorded. Exposure to heat shock reduced growth and photosynthetic pigments in maize cultivars. The plants exposed to heat shock for up to 3 h recovered growth and photosynthetic pigments when stress was relieved. A time course rise in the relative membrane permeability, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde contents was recorded particularly in the EV-5098 indicating that heat shock-induced oxidative stress. Activities of different enzymatic antioxidants greatly altered due to heat shock. For instance, an increase in superoxide dismutase activity was recorded in both maize cultivars. The activity of ascorbate peroxidase was greater in Pak-Afgoi. However, the peroxidase and catalase activities were higher in plants of EV-5098. Heat shock caused a significant rise in the proline and decline in the total free amino acids. Overall, the performance of Pak-Afgoi was better in terms of having lesser oxidative damage and greater cellular levels of proline. The results suggested that oxidative stress indicators (relative membrane permeability, H2O2 and malondialdehyde) and proline can be used as markers for heat shock tolerant plants.

  4. Morphological and pheno logical description of 38 sweet chestnut cultivars (Castanea sativa Miller) in a contemporary collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furones-Perez, P.; Fernandez-Lopez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Thirty eight traditional chestnut cultivars, from a contemporary collection, were described using nine characteristics, seven of which are included in the guidelines for carrying out tests of distinctness, homogeneity and stability of chestnut established by the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV). The nine variables were chosen from among 13 characteristics evaluated in the collection with regard to the criteria for distinctness, uniformity and stability. The evaluations were carried out over the years 2003, 2004 and 2005, in two plantations, situated in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Each mean value obtained for each cultivar, plantation and year were assigned a state and numerical number using the UPOV system or proposed new descriptors. No cultivar showed a very late time of leaf bud burst nor a very late time for the start of male and female flowering, nor a strong penetration of the seed coat into embryo. In five variables there was no or few differences among years and between plantations. Consequently they can be evaluated at one site in one year. These characters were: filament length of male flowers, percent of chestnuts with a split pericarp, the degree of penetration of the seed coat into the embryo, fruit shape and the ratio of hilum length to hilum width. Of the remaining four variables, three were phonologic (time of leaf bud burst, time of beginning of male and female flowering) and one related to fruit size (size of fruit hilum). They varied among years and between plantations and consequently need to be evaluated under contrasting site conditions for a minimum number of years. Additional key words: cultivated varieties, descriptor, genetic resources, UPOV. (Author) 27 refs.

  5. Development and Validation of National Cotton Cultivar Registration lndex Model in Yangtze River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naiyin XU; Jian Ll

    2014-01-01

    Based on the cotton variety high yielding potential, fiber quality traits, disease resistance, and early maturity characters, a cultivar registration index model was developed to simplify the tedious calculation process in national cotton registration procedure, and thus to enhance the practical application of cultivar regis-tration index in cotton breeding and cotton recommending. [Method] By means of correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis and path analysis methods, the cor-relation of cotton main properties and their effects on cultivar registration index were explored using the dataset of national cotton regional trials in Yangtze River Val ey during 1996-2013. The cultivar registration index model was constructed with step-wise regression statistical technique to ascertain the quantitative relationship of main characters with cultivar registration index, and the regional cotton trial dataset in 2013 was used to validate the model. [Result] Several characters with larger deter-minants to cultivar registration index were screened out, i.e. lint yield increase ratio, pro-frost yield ratio, verticil ium wilt index, fiber strength, fusarium wilt index and mi-cronaire value. The cultivar registration index model defined the functional relation-ship of cultivar registration index with the selected main characters, among which lint yield increase ratio, fiber strength and micronaire value contributed most to culti-var registration index. The model validation with regional cotton trials in 2013 indi-cated the root mean square error, RMSE was only 2.77, and the variation coeffi-cient was 6.77%, which confirmed the model prediction effect was quite perfect. [Conclusion] The developed cultivar registration index model was reliable enough to simulate the complicated scoring system in cultivar registration procedure, also sim-plified cotton registration process, and enhanced the practicability of the cultivar reg-istration index.

  6. Control of Pratylenchus brachyurus with Selected Nonfumigant Nematicides on a Tolerant and a Sensitive Soybean Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenning, S R; Schmitt, D P

    1987-10-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate soybean cultivar sensitivity to Pratylenchus brachyurus and selected nonfumigant nematicides for control of this nematode. 'Essex', a tolerant cultivar, yielded more than 'Forrest' , a sensitive cultivar, in an infested field. Plots treated with aldicarb, carbofuran, and fenamiphos had fewer nematodes 40 days after planting than nontreated plots. Plots planted with Forrest and treated with carbofuran had a greater yield than the untreated controls.

  7. Small intestine contrast injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

  8. Potencial de multiplicação in vitro de cultivares de morangueiro In vitro multiplication potential of strawberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ucker Brahm

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro de dez cultivares de morangueiro: Aromas, Bürkley, Camarosa, Campinas, Dover, Milsei-Tudla, Oso Grande, Santa Clara, Sweet Charlie e Vila Nova. Utilizou-se protocolo similar ao dos laboratórios comerciais. A desinfestação dos estolões foi realizada em soluções à base de álcool e hipoclorito de sódio; a cultura dos meristemas em meio semi-sólido MS com 1 mg L-1 BAP, 0,01 mg L-1 ANA e 0,1 mg L-1 AG3; e a multiplicação em meio MS com 1 mg L-1 BAP, à 25 ± 4ºC, 20 µE m-2 s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Partiu-se de 10 meristemas de cada cultivar, avaliando-se a taxa de multiplicação e os níveis de contaminação, vitrificação e oxidação durante as fases de estabelecimento (30 dias e de multiplicação (quatro subcultivos. O número estimado de plântulas obtidas por meristema foi: 559 de 'Aromas'; 569 de 'Bürkley'; 516 de 'Camarosa'; 517 de 'Campinas'; 3.907 de 'Dover'; 1.841 de 'Milsei-Tudla'; 943 de 'Oso Grande'; 350 de 'Santa Clara'; 298 de 'Sweet Charlie', e 1.132 de 'Vila Nova'. A quantificação dessa variabilidade genética é importante para o planejamento da produção de matrizes de cada cultivar nos laboratórios de micropropagação.The objective of this research work was to evaluate the in vitro multiplication potential of ten strawberry cultivars : 'Aromas', 'Bürkley', 'Camarosa', 'Campinas', 'Dover', 'Milsei-Tudla', 'Oso Grande', 'Santa Clara', 'Sweet Charlie', and 'Vila Nova'. The procedures used for this purpose were similar to those found in the protocol observed by commercial micropropagation laboratories. The disinfestation of the scions was made by dipping them in an alcohol and sodium hypochlorite solution, the meristem culturing in a semisolid medium containing 1 mg of BAP, 0.01 mg of NAA, and 0.1 mg of G3A per liter and the scions multiplication in an MS medium containing 1 mg of BAP at 25° ± 4° C, 20 µ

  9. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nischita K Reddy; Ana Maria Ioncic(a); Adrian S(a)ftoiu; Peter Vilmann; Manoop S Bhutani

    2011-01-01

    Contrast agents are increasingly being used to characterize the vasculature in an organ of interest,to better delineate benign from malignant pathology and to aid in staging and directing therapeutic procedures.We review the mechanisms of action of first,second and third generation contrast agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract.Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy,assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal,gastric and gall bladder cancers and visualization of the portal venous system and esophageal varices.In addition,contrast agents can be used to differentiate pancreatic lesions.The use of color Doppler further increases the ability to diagnose and differentiate various pancreatic malignancies.The sensitivity of power Doppler sonography to depict tumor neovascularization can be increased by contrast agents.Contrast-enhanced harmonic imaging is a useful aid in identifying the tumor vasculature and studying pancreatic microperfusion.In the future,these techniques could potentially be used to quantify tumor perfusion,to assess and monitor the efficacy of antiangiogenic agents,to assist targeted drug delivery and allow molecular imaging.

  10. A theory of behavioral contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Peter R

    2014-11-01

    The reinforcers that maintain target instrumental responses also reinforce other responses that compete with them for expression. This competition, and its imbalance at points of transition between different schedules of reinforcement, causes behavioral contrast. The imbalance is caused by differences in the rates at which different responses come under the control of component stimuli. A model for this theory of behavioral contrast is constructed by expanding the coupling coefficient of MPR (Killeen, 1994). The coupling coefficient gives the degree of association of a reinforcer with the target response (as opposed to other competing responses). Competing responses, often identified as interim or adjunctive or superstitious behavior, are intrinsic to reinforcement schedules, especially interval schedules. In addition to that base-rate of competition, additional competing responses may spill over from the prior component, causing initial contrast; and they may be modulated by conditioned reinforcement or punishment from stimuli associated with subsequent component change, causing terminal contrast. A formalization of these hypotheses employed (a) a hysteresis model of off-target responses giving rise to initial contrast, and (b) a competing traces model of the suppression or enhancement of ongoing competitive responses by signals of following-schedule transition. The theory was applied to transient contrast, the following schedule effect, and the component duration effect.

  11. Genetic Diversity of European and Chinese Oilseed Brassica rapa Cultivars from Different Breeding Periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-guo; Ofori Atta1; LU Chang-ming

    2009-01-01

    The Brassica oilseed crops went through two major breeding bottlenecks during the introgression of genes for zero erucic acid and low glucosinolate content, respectively, which may lead to reduced genetic biodiversity of the crop. This study investigates the impact of these bottlenecks on the genetic diversity within and across European and Chinese winter B. Rapa cultivars. We compared eight cultivars from Europe and China, representing three different seed qualities from three different breeding periods: (1) high erucic acid, high glucosinolates (++); (2) zero erucic acid, high glucosinolates (0+); (3) zero erueic acid, low glueosonolates (00, canola quality). Diversity was estimated on 32 plants per cultivar, with 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers covering each of the B. Rapa linkage groups. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that genetic variations within cultivars, across cultivars and across regions (Europe and China) were significant, with about 60% of the total variation within cultivars. There was a slight, but non-significant loss in genetic diversity within cultivars when comparing the three breeding periods as indicated by effective number of alleles (2.39,2.23, and 1.99 for breeding periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively), Shannon information index (0.93, 0.90, 0.75), and expected heterozygosity (0.51, 0.49, 0.42). By cluster analysis (UPGMA dendrogram) and principal coordinate analysis, Chinese and European cultivars were clearly divided into two distinct groups. In conclusion, quality improvement did not significantly reduce the genetic diversity of European and Chinese B. Rapa cultivars.

  12. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHEAT CULTIVARS IN GRAIN PARAMETERS RELATED TO ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mikulíková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain samples from sixteen winter cultivars originated from four localities were evaluated and compared in traits related to ethanol production as grain yield, grain hardness, content of protein, starch and amylose, and α-amylase activity. Results obtained indicate significant differences between cultivars in amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness compared to grain yield, protein content, and starch content where differences were not significant. The amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness were affected by cultivar. Both testing methods for starch fermentation - separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF revealed difference between cultivars in ethanol yield.

  13. Adaptability and phenotypic stability of soybean cultivars for grain yield and oil content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K B; Bruzi, A T; Zuffo, A M; Zambiazzi, E V; Soares, I O; de Rezende, P M; Fronza, V; Vilela, G D L; Botelho, F B S; Teixeira, C M; de O Coelho, M A

    2016-04-25

    The aim of this study was to verify the adaptability and stability of soybean cultivars with regards to yield and oil content. Data of soybean yield and oil content were used from experiments set up in six environments in the 2011/12 and 2012/13 crop seasons in the municipalities of Patos de Minas, Uberaba, Lavras, and São Gotardo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, testing 36 commercial soybean cultivars of both conventional and transgenic varieties. The Wricke method and GGE biplot analysis were used to evaluate adaptability and stability of these cultivars. Large variations were observed in grain yield in relation to the different environments studied, showing that these materials are adaptable. The cultivars exhibited significant differences in oil content. The cultivars BRSGO204 (Goiânia) and BRSMG (Garantia) exhibited the greatest average grain yield in the different environments studied, and the cultivar BRSMG 760 SRR had the greatest oil content among the cultivars evaluated. Ecovalence was adopted to identify the most stable cultivars, and the estimates were nearly uniform both for grain yield and oil content, showing a variation of 0.07 and 0.01%, respectively. The GGE biplot was efficient at identifying cultivars with high adaptability and phenotype stability.

  14. Pomological properties of sweet cherry cultivars grafted on ‘colt’ rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milatović Dragan P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomological properties of 11 newly sweet cherry cultivars grafted on Colt rootstock were studied in the region of Macva over a three-year period (2010- 2012. An investigation has included phenological traits (flowering and maturing, the elements of productivity (number of flowers in an inflorescence, fruit set and yield, the most important fruit characteristics (physical, chemical and sensory, and fruit cracking index. Average time of flowering of tested cultivars was in the first and the second decade of April, while the maturing time was between 15 May (‘Early Lory’ and 20 June (‘Penny’. The highest yield was achieved by cultivars ‘Giorgia’, ‘Sunburst’, and ‘Crystalina’. Large fruit size was found in cultivars ‘Penny’, ‘Santina’, ‘Sunburst’, ‘Olympus’, and ‘Kordia’. The lowest susceptibility to fruit cracking was manifested in cultivars ‘Early Lory’ and ‘Giorgia’. Cultivars ‘Kordia’ and ‘Cristalina’ were given the highest sensory ratings. Overall, the best results were shown by medium-early season cultivar ‘Santina’, which can be recommended for commercial cultivation. In addition, the early-season cultivar ‘Early Lory’, and the late-season cultivar ‘Kordia’ can also be recommended for cultivation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063

  15. Influence of Olive Cultivar on Oil Attributes in the Arid Region of Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Asheri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive cultivation has economic and health implications. The quality of harvested oil is affected by the type of cultivar and the climate in which the trees are cultivated. This study was carried out to determine quality indices (peroxide value, K232, and K270, fatty acid composition, and pigment profiles in some cultivars grown in an arid region in central Iran. These are cultivated in completely different climatic conditions than the major olive growing areas of Iran. The results have illustrated that there are significant differences between the cultivars in oil quality, pigments content, and fatty acid composition. Oil quality of all studied cultivars falls within the established ranges for extra virgin olive oil. Oleic acid levels of the ‘Beledy’ and ‘Leccino’ cultivars are below the International Olive Council (IOC established limit. Oils of the ‘Mari’, ‘Koroneiki’, and ‘Mission’ cultivars had the highest monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA content. However, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content for Mission oil was considerably higher than ‘Koroneiki’ and ‘Mari’ oils. The ratio of MUFA/PUFA for ‘Mari’ and ‘Koroneiki’ was higher among all the cultivars studied. Furthermore, these two cultivars presented higher oleic/linoleic acid ratio and lower Cox values. Based on our findings, ‘Mari’ and ‘Koroneiki’ are among the best performing cultivars for producing olive oil in intensely hot and arid regions.

  16. Quantification of major flavonoids in carnation tissues (Dianthus caryophyllus) as a tool for cultivar discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Francesco; Barile, Elisa; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Marcello; Curir, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    One flavone-C-glycoside and two flavonol-O-glycosides were recognized and isolated as the main flavonoidal components in nine different carnation cultivars, and their chemical structures have been determined by spectroscopic methods, including UV detection, MS and NMR. The distribution of these three compounds in flowers, leaves, stems, young sprouts, and roots of each cultivar was evaluated by a simple HPLC-UV method: the graphic representation of their content in the different tissues allows to identify and characterize unambiguously each considered carnation cultivar. The presented method could be an easy, inexpensive and reliable tool for carnation cultivar discrimination.

  17. Weed suppression and weed tolerance of wheat cultivars - relevant traits for Integrated Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschwele, Arnd

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An assortment of 10 winter wheat cultivars was tested for specific effects on weed suppression. Furthermore cultivar specific effects of weed infestation and weed control measures on the crop yield were investigated. Two trial series conducted from 2005 to 2010 demonstrated a wide cultivar specific range of shading capacity and weed suppression. Light penetration and the dry matter of the model weed Sinapis alba were highly correlated (r = 0.87 in trial series A (2005-2007. Consequently, the weed dry matter in the less competitive cultivar Dekan was 5 times higher compared to the weak competitor Cubus. Mechanical weed control by harrowing reduced ears density of all cultivars tested in trial series A. These reductions were significantly higher in the cultivars Bussard and Pegassos compared to the other cultivars. Since the weed infestation was low and negative crop effects by harrowing could be compensated by a higher number of kernels/ear, the yield effects were the same for all cultivars. Contrary to the hypothesis, a cultivar specific yield response by harrowing could not be assessed. Higher competition effects by sowing the model weed Sinapis alba could be realised in trial series B (2008-20120. Consequently, the control measures (a harrowing (b 50% herbicide (c 100% herbicide resulted in significantly higher crop yields ranging from 1.23 t*ha-1 (harrowing to 2.08 t*ha-1 (100% herbicide. The yield reduction caused by the model weed was not the same for all cultivars and was lower for the cultivars Cubus and Limes (6% and 7% compared to Boomer (15%. Thus, weed tolerance could be identified as a cultivar specific trait. There were significant interactions between cultivar and weed control measures: The yield increase (relative to model weed was 5% for Bussard, which was much lower compared to the treatment effects on the cultivar Impression (11%. The hypothesis that yield effects by mechanical and chemical weed control may be affected by the

  18. Phenological behaviour of Vitis rotundifolia cultivars in Pinhais – PR / Comportamento fenológico de cultivares de Vitis rotundifolia em Pinhais – PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Zanette

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the phenological cycle of nine Vitis rotundifolia cultivars during the 2004/2005 season. The cultivars were Bontiful, Creek, Dixie, Magnolia, Magoon, Noble, Regale, Roanoke e Topsail. The experiment was performed on an orchard implanted in 1999 at the Canguiri Experimental Station of the Federal University of Paraná in Pinhais-PR. The phenology of two adult plants of each cultivar was monitored. The recorded phenological stages were: 1 Dormant bud; 2 Swollen bud; 3 Wool bud; 4 Green tip; 5 Bud burst (first leaf appearance; 6 Two to three leaves unfolded; 7 Five to six leaves unfolded; 8 Fully developed inflorescence; 9 Trace bloom (flowerhoods detached; 10 Full flowering (50% of the flowerhoods fallen; 11 Fruit set; 12 Groat-sized berries; 13 Pea-sized berries; 14 50% filled berries (beginning to touch berries; 15 Final size; 16 Color change; 17 Berries ripe for harvest; and 18 End of harvesting. A very long phenological cycle was observed when compared to species such as Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca. These evaluations allowed us to conclude that: a there is no difference in the phenological cycle periods between bronze and dark skinned cultivars; b cultivars presented desuniform wool bud to full flowering cycle, ranging from 25 days (‘Regale’ to 81 days (‘Creek’; c the cultivar Regale presented the longest cycle (203 days from full flowering to harvest and the cultivar Creek the shortest (136 days. The evaluated cultivars additionally presented desuniform ripening and a tendency to drop berries. O objetivo foi caracterizar o ciclo fenológico de nove cultivares de Vitis rotundifolia avaliadas na safra de 2004/2005. As cultivares estudadas foram as seguintes: Bontiful, Creek, Dixie, Magnolia, Magoon, Noble, Regale, Roanoke e Topsail. O trabalho foi realizado em um pomar do Setor de Fruticultura da Estação Experimental do Canguiri da Universidade Federal do Paraná, em Pinhais-PR, sendo que

  19. Organ-specific phosphorus-allocation patterns and transcript profiles linked to phosphorus efficiency in two contrasting wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Tariq; Finnegan, Patrick M; Lambers, Hans; Jost, Ricarda

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies have identified genotypic variation in phosphorus (P) efficiency, but rarely have the underlying mechanisms been described at the molecular level. We demonstrate that the highly P-efficient wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Chinese 80-55 maintains higher inorganic phosphate (Pi ) concentrations in all organs upon Pi withdrawal in combination with higher Pi acquisition in the presence of Pi when compared with the less-efficient cultivar Machete. These findings correlated with differential organ-specific expression of Pi transporters TaPHT1;2, TaPHT1;5, TaPHT1;8, TaPHT2;1 and H(+) -ATPase TaHa1. Observed transcript level differences between the cultivars suggest that higher de novo phospholipid biosynthetic activities in Pi -limited elongating basal leaf sections are another crucial adaptation in Chinese 80-55 for sustaining growth upon Pi withdrawal. These activities may be supported through enhanced breakdown of starch in Chinese 80-55 stems as suggested by higher TaGPho1 transcript levels. Chinese 80-55 fine roots on the other hand show strong suppression of transcripts involved in glycolysis, transcriptional regulation and ribosomal activities. Our work reveals major differences in the way the two contrasting cultivars allocate Pi and organic P compounds between source and sink tissues and in the acclimation of their metabolism to changes in Pi availability.

  20. Incidência e severidade da malformação floral em seis cultivares de mangueira Incidence and severity of mango flower malformation in six cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilma Oliveira Dias

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a incidência e a severidade da malformação floral em diferentes cultivares de mangueira (Mangifera indica L., em condições de clima semi-árido, no município de Santa Maria da Vitória, Estado da Bahia. O experimento foi conduzido no mês de julho de 2001, em um cultivo comercial formado por diversas cultivares divididas em talhões. Os tratamentos foram compostos por seis cultivares assim distribuídas: T1- Rosa; T2- Haden; T3- Bourbon; T4- Palmer; T5- Tommy Atkins; T6-Van Dyke. Nas condições em que o trabalho foi desenvolvido, os menores índices de incidência e severidade da malformação floral foram obtidos pela cultivar Rosa que não apresentou sintomas, seguida pela 'Bourbon'. A cultivar Haden apresentou os maiores índices da doença.The present work was developed with the objective to evaluate the incidence and the severity of mango flower malformation in different cultivars, in conditions of semi-arid region, in Santa Maria da Vitória, Bahia State, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in july, 2001, in a mango orchard composed of different cultivars. The used treatments cultivars were: T1- Rosa; T2- Haden; T3 Bourbon; T4- Palmer; T5- Tommy Atkins; T6- Van Dyke. In the conditions that this work was carried out, the highest percentage of incidence and severity of flower malformation was gotten by Haden variety. Rosa and Bourbon cultivars presented minimum occurrence of the disease.

  1. Relationships between stomatal behavior, xylem vulnerability to cavitation and leaf water relations in two cultivars of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea; Farinelli, Daniela; Palliotti, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Current understanding of physiological mechanisms governing stomatal behavior under water stress conditions is still incomplete and controversial. It has been proposed that coordination of stomatal kinetics with xylem vulnerability to cavitation [vulnerability curve (VC)] leads to different levels of isohydry/anisohydry in different plant species/cultivars. In this study, this hypothesis is tested in Vitis vinifera cultivars displaying contrasting stomatal behavior under drought stress. The cv Montepulciano (MP, near-isohydric) and Sangiovese (SG, anisohydric) were compared in terms of stomatal response to leaf and stem water potential, as possibly correlated to different petiole hydraulic conductivity (k(petiole)) and VC, as well as to leaf water relations parameters. MP leaves showed almost complete stomatal closure at higher leaf and stem water potentials than SG leaves. Moreover, MP petioles had higher maximum k(petiole) and were more vulnerable to cavitation than SG. Water potential at the turgor loss point was higher in MP than in SG. In SG, the percentage reduction of stomatal conductance (PLg(s)) under water stress was almost linearly correlated with corresponding percentage loss of k(petiole) (PLC), while in MP PLg(s) was less influenced by PLC. Our results suggest that V. vinifera near-isohydric and anisohydric genotypes differ in terms of xylem vulnerability to cavitation as well as in terms of k(petiole) and that the coordination of these traits leads to their different stomatal responses under water stress conditions.

  2. Initial growth and tolerance of melon cultivars under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbia Bressia Gonçalves Araujo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The melon crop is normally developed in semiarid regions, where water resources are limited. This scarcity of water is a strong stressor on the crops, and requires the supplementation of existing water supplies with poor quality water, especially saline water. This can impede the growth and production of plants; however, the use of tolerant genotypes may minimize this problem. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was developed at the Federal University of Campina Grande - UFCG, Pombal Campus, Paraiba State, Brazil, in order to study the emergence, initial growth, and tolerance of melon cultivars irrigated with waters of different salt content. We studied three melon cultivars (Gaúcho Redondo, Gaúcho Casca de Carvalho and Halles Best Jumbo irrigated with five levels of saline water (0.6; 1.2; 1.8; 2.4; and 3.0 dS m-1, arranged in a 3 x 5 factorial scheme, with the treatments distributed in a randomized block design with four replications. The plants seeds were monitored for 30 days after sowing, and at 30 days the growth and salinity tolerance index was evaluated. Cultivar Halles Best Jumbo was the most tolerant to saline water during initial stage of growth, while the Gaucho Redondo was more sensitive to salinity. It was found that saline waters up to 1.8 dS m-1 were suitable for irrigation of melon plants round Gaucho and waters up to 2.4 dS m-1 could be used for irrigation of Gaucho Casca de Carvalho and Halles Best Jumbo crops during the initial growth phase.

  3. Biofortification of Wheat Cultivars to Combat Zinc Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattha, Muhammad U.; Hassan, Muhammad U.; Khan, Imran; Chattha, Muhammad B.; Mahmood, Athar; Chattha, Muhammad U.; Nawaz, Muhammad; Subhani, Muhammad N.; Kharal, Mina; Khan, Sadia

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake is a global nutritional problem, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, zinc biofortification of wheat and other cereal crops is being urgently addressed and highly prioritized as a research topic. A field study was planned to evaluate the influence of zinc application on grain yield, grain zinc content, and grain phytic acid concentrations of wheat cultivars, and the relationships between these parameters. Three wheat cultivars, C1 = Faisalabad-2008, C2 = Punjab-2011, and C3 = Millet-2011 were tested with five different methods of zinc application: T1 = control, T2 = seed priming, T3 = soil application, T4 = foliar application, and T5 = soil + foliar application. It was found that grain yield and grain zinc were positively correlated, whereas, grain phytic acid and grain zinc were significantly negatively correlated. Results also revealed that T5, T3, and T4 considerably increased grain yield; however, T2 only slightly enhanced grain yield. Grain zinc concentration increased from 33.1 and 33.7 mg kg−1 in T1 to 62.3 and 63.1 mg kg−1 in T5 in 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively. In particular, T5 markedly decreased grain phytic acid content; however, maximum concentration was recorded in T1. Moreover, all the tested cultivars exhibited considerable variation in grain yield, grain zinc, and grain phytic acid content. In conclusion, T5 was found to be most suitable for both optimum grain yield and grain biofortification of wheat. PMID:28352273

  4. A COMPARATIVE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RICE CULTIVARS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugemangango Cyprien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, rice cultivars data have been analysed by three different statisticaltechniques viz. Split-plot analysis in RBD, two-factor factorial analysis in RBD and analysis oftwo-way classified data with several observations per cell. The powers of the tests under differentmethods of analysis have been calculated. The method of two-way classified data with severalobservations per cell is found better followed by two-factor factorial technique in RBD and splitplot analysis for analyzing the given data.

  5. Evaluation of ensilage potential of alfalfa cultivars (Medicago sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, ALG; Costa,Ciniro; Arrigoni, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the ensilage potential of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L,.). The material used in the evaluation was harvested from an experiment in a complete randomized blocks design with three replicates, with seventeen alfalfa cultivars, Criouil, Florida 77, P555, P581, Moapa, Gilboa, 34 Linea, C/W 8754, C/W 4468, C/W 86, C/W 8746, Hunter Field, Trifecta, Sequel, CUF 101, Aurora e Siriver, during three years. The harvest used for the determinations was collected at 30...

  6. Rendimento de cultivares de tomate para processamento em Goias

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Seis ensaios de competição de cultivares de tomate para processamento industrial foram conduzidos nos municípios goianos de Anápolis, Jataí, Porangatú e Santa Isabel, em 1990, e Anápolis e Porangatu, em 1991. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, tendo as parcelas 80 plantas em 1990 e 70 em 1991. Em Porangatu, em 1990, as plantas foram mais precoces, florescendo 35 e 41 dias após a semeadura e iniciando-se a colheita 38 dias após a antese. Em ...

  7. How to misuse echo contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Missios Anna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary intracardiac tumours are rare, there are however several entities that can mimic tumours. Contrast echocardiography has been suggested to aid the differentiation of various suspected masses. We present a case where transthoracic echocardiography completely misdiagnosed a left atrial mass, partly due to use of echo contrast. Case presentation An 80 year-old woman was referred for transthoracic echocardiography because of one-month duration of worsening of dyspnoea. Transthoracic echocardiography displayed a large echodense mass in the left atrium. Intravenous injection of contrast (SonoVue, Bracco Inc., It indicated contrast-enhancement of the structure, suggesting tumour. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed, however, a completely normal finding in the left atrium. Subsequent gastroscopy examination showed a hiatal hernia. Conclusion It is noteworthy that the transthoracic echocardiographic exam completely misdiagnosed what seemed like a left atrial mass, which in part was an effect of the use of echo contrast. This example highlights that liberal use of transoesophageal echocardiography is often warranted if optimal display of cardiac structures is desired.

  8. Fungus-Elicited Metabolites from Plants as an Enriched Source for New Leishmanicidal Agents: Antifungal Phenyl-Phenalenone Phytoalexins from the Banana Plant (Musa acuminata) Target Mitochondria of Leishmania donovani Promastigotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Ortega, Juan Román; Martínez, Silvia; Saugar, José María; Izquierdo, Laura R.; Abad, Teresa; Luis, Javier G.; Piñero, José; Valladares, Basilio; Rivas, Luis

    2004-01-01

    Two antifungal phenyl-phenalenone phytoalexins isolated from the banana plant (Musa acuminata) elicited with the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, together with a methoxy derivative of one of them and two epoxide precursors of their chemical synthesis, were tested for leishmanicidal activity on Leishmania donovani promastigotes and L. infantum amastigotes. Drugs inhibited proliferation of both forms of the parasite with a 50% lethal concentration range between 10.3 and 68.7 μg/ml. Their lethal mechanism was found linked to the respiratory chain by a systematic approach, including electron microscopy, measurement of the oxygen consumption rate on digitonin-permeabilized promastigotes, and enzymatic assays on a mitochondrial enriched fraction. Whereas the whole set of compounds inhibited the activity of fumarate reductase in the mitochondrial fraction (50% effective concentration [EC50] between 33.3 and 78.8 μg/ml) and on purified enzyme (EC50 = 53.3 to 115 μg/ml), inhibition for succinate dehydrogenase was only observed for the two phytoalexins with the highest leishmanicidal activity: anigorufone and its natural analogue 2-methoxy-9-phenyl-phenalen-1-one (EC50 = 33.5 and 59.6 μg/ml, respectively). These results provided a new structural motif, phenyl-phenalenone, as a new lead for leishmanicidal activity, and support the use of plant extracts enriched in antifungal phytoalexins, synthesized under fungal challenge, as a more rational and effective strategy to screen for new plant leishmanicidal drugs. PMID:15105102

  9. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Chalcone Isomerase Gene (CHI) from Brunfelsia acuminata Flowers%鸳鸯茉莉查尔酮异构酶基因(CHI)cDNA的克隆与生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉婷; 邱栋梁

    2012-01-01

    采用RT-PCR与RACE技术克隆了鸳鸯茉莉(Brunfelsia acuminata)花瓣中查尔酮异构酶基因(CHI)的全长cDNA,GenBank登录号为JN887637.该基因全长1051 bp,含有1个792 bp的开放阅读框,编码263个氨基酸,为不稳定蛋白.对保守区功能区的分析,推导CHI蛋白具有查尔酮超级家族的保守结构域,二级结构预测显示其主要以α螺旋和β折叠为主.氨基酸同源性分析表明,鸳鸯茉莉CHI蛋白与矮牵牛(Petunia hybrida)、金花茶(Camellia nitidissima)、甜樱桃(Prunus avium)、芍药(Paeonia lactiflora)、牡丹(P.suffruticosa)、菊花(Chry santhemum morifolium)等植物的同源性分别达到90%、89%、84%、85%、84%、80%.因此,CHI基因可能与鸳鸯茉莉的花色形成有关.

  10. Influencia de la pérdida foliar sobre la cosecha en el cv. Gruesa, Musa acuminata Colla (AAA, cultivado bajo invernadero en las Islas Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cabrera Cabrera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de la variedad de platanera Gruesa, selección local de Dwarf Cavendish, ha experimentado un importante aumento en los últimos años en las Islas Canarias, tanto al aire libre como bajo invernadero. La eliminación de hojas, tras la floración, es una práctica habitual en los cultivos bajo invernadero. Asimismo es frecuente la pérdida de hojas por el efecto de los vientos en los cultivos al aire libre. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar, mediante simulación de pérdida foliar por daños mecánicos, la influencia que tiene la disminución de superficie foliar sobre el llenado y cosecha de la fruta en dicho cultivar. Para ello, cuatro meses antes de la cosecha se efectuaron cinco niveles de defoliación: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% y 100%. Se valoran dos métodos diferentes de defoliación, eliminación de limbo foliar y tronchado de hojas con posterior corte de éstas. Se analizan y presentan datos morfológicos, fenológicos y productivos, así como valoración de la metodología empleada en este trabajo para la simulación de daños. A partir de un 25% de defoliado, equivalente a 7.5 hojas funcionales por planta, se detectaron diferencias significativas con las plantas testigos.

  11. Subharmonic imaging of contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, F; Shi, W T; Goldberg, B B

    2000-03-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents promise to improve the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic ultrasound imaging. It is of great importance to adapt ultrasound equipment for optimal use with contrast agents e.g., by exploiting the nonlinear properties of the contrast microbubbles. Harmonic imaging is one technique that has been extensively studied and is commercially available. However, harmonic imaging is associated with problems, due to second harmonic generation and accumulation within the tissue itself. Given the lack of subharmonic generation in tissue, one alternative is the creation of subharmonic images by transmitting at the fundamental frequency (fo) and receiving at the subharmonic (fo/2). Subharmonic imaging should have a much better lateral resolution and may be suitable for scanning deep-lying structures owing to the higher transmit frequency and the much smaller attenuation of scattered subharmonic signals. In this paper, we will review different aspects of subharmonic imaging including implementation, in-vitro gray-scale imaging and subharmonic aided pressure estimation.

  12. Multiscale image contrast amplification (MUSICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuylsteke, Pieter; Schoeters, Emile P.

    1994-05-01

    This article presents a novel approach to the problem of detail contrast enhancement, based on multiresolution representation of the original image. The image is decomposed into a weighted sum of smooth, localized, 2D basis functions at multiple scales. Each transform coefficient represents the amount of local detail at some specific scale and at a specific position in the image. Detail contrast is enhanced by non-linear amplification of the transform coefficients. An inverse transform is then applied to the modified coefficients. This yields a uniformly contrast- enhanced image without artefacts. The MUSICA-algorithm is being applied routinely to computed radiography images of chest, skull, spine, shoulder, pelvis, extremities, and abdomen examinations, with excellent acceptance. It is useful for a wide range of applications in the medical, graphical, and industrial area.

  13. Divergência genética entre cultivares de caupi Genetic divergence among cultivars of cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José de Oliveira

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a divergência genética de cultivares de caupi, agrupadas por análise multivariada visando à seleção de parentais superiores. Foram utilizadas 16 cultivares de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] do banco de germoplasma do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Ceará. As observações fenotípicas foram realizadas num ensaio com delineamento experimental em blocos completos casualizados, com seis blocos e 16 tratamentos, incluindo três testemunhas, com parcela experimental de 24 m² e área útil de 16 m², sendo quatro fileiras de plantas, com espaços de 1,0 x 0,5 m, contendo duas plantas por cova. Para mensurar os caracteres fenotípicos, cinco plantas competitivas, localizadas nas duas fileiras centrais da parcela, foram tomadas ao acaso. Os cruzamentos entre os grupos I [TVx-337-3F e Vita-4 (TVu 1977-OD] e II (Bengala e V-4 Alagoas podem resultar em produção de novas combinações gênicas, por serem divergentes e reunirem maior número de caracteres agronomicamente desejáveis. Os caracteres que mais contribuem para divergência genética são o comprimento da vagem (36,80% e o peso de 100 sementes (19,21%.This work aimed to determine the genetic divergence among cowpea cultivars [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] when grouped in a multivariate analysis concerning to select superior parents. So 16 cowpea cultivars were used from the germplasm bank of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal do Ceará, in Brazil. The data were accomplished in complete randomized blocks, with six blocks, 16 treatments and three cultivar checks. The total area of experimental plots was 24 m² and the net area was 16 m², displayed in four rows, plants were spaced about 1.0 x 0.5 m with two plants in each plot. The phenotypic data were estimated from five competitive plants as casual samples on two central rows of each replicate. Breeding among the groups I [TVx-337-3F and

  14. Potencial de multiplicação in vitro de cultivares de framboeseira In vitro multiplication rate of raspberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro de quatro das principais cultivares de framboeseira utilizadas no Brasil: Autumn Bliss, Batum, Dorman Red e Heritage. Utilizou-se protocolo empregado em laboratórios comerciais. A desinfestação dos explantes foi realizada em soluções à base de álcool e hipoclorito de sódio; a cultura dos meristemas em meio semissólido MS com 1 mg L-1 BAP, 0,01 mg L-1 ANA e 0,1 mg L-1 AG3; a multiplicação em MS com 0,8 mg L-1 BAP e 15 mg L-1 sulfato de ferro; e o enraizamento em ½MS com 0,1 mg L-1 ANA, sempre a 25±4ºC, 20 µE m-2 s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Partiu-se de 60 meristemas de cada cultivar, avaliando-se a taxa de multiplicação e os níveis de contaminação, vitrificação e oxidação durante as fases de estabelecimento (60 dias, multiplicação (seis subcultivos de 40 dias e enraizamento in vitro (30 dias. As cultivares de framboeseira apresentaram pronunciada variabilidade genética quanto ao potencial de multiplicação. O número estimado de mudas obtidas por meristema no sistema de micropropagação descrito foi de 56.664 para 'Autumn Bliss', 6.692 para 'Heritage', 1.942 para 'Batum' e 696 para 'Dorman Red'. A quantificação dessa variabilidade de resposta in vitro é importante para o planejamento da produção de mudas nos laboratórios de micropropagação.The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro potential of multiplication of the four main raspberry cultivars used in Brazil: Autumn Bliss, Batum, Dorman Red and Heritage. A commercial micropropagation protocol was used. The explant desinfestation was carried out in solution of alcohol and sodium hypochlorite. The meristem culture was carried out in semi-solid MS medium with 1 mg L-1 BAP, 0.01 mg L-1 ANA and 0.1 mg L-1 AG3; the explant multiplication in MS medium with 0.8 mg L-1 BAP and 15 mg L-1 iron sulphate; and the rooting in ½MS medium with 0.1 mg L-1 ANA, always at 25±4ºC, 20 µE m-2 s-1 and 16

  15. Influence of cultivar and harvest year on the volatile profiles of leaves and roots of carrots (Daucus carota spp. sativus Hoffm.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Detlef; Nothnagel, Thomas; Schulz, Hartwig

    2015-04-08

    The focus of the present work centers on the diversity of volatile patterns of carrots. In total 15 main volatiles were semiquantified in leaves and roots using isolation by headspace solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography with FID and MS detection. Significant differences in the main number of compounds were detected between the cultivars as well as the years. Genotype-environment interactions (G × E) are discussed. The most abundant metabolites, β-myrcene (leaves) and terpinolene (roots), differ in the sum of all interactions (cultivar × harvest year) by a factor of 22 and 62, respectively. A statistical test indicates significant metabolic differences between cultivars for nine volatiles in leaves and 10 in roots. In contrast to others the volatiles α-pinene, γ-terpinene, limonene, and myristicine in leaves as well as β-pinene, humulene, and bornyl acetate in roots are relatively stable over years. A correlation analysis shows no strict clustering regarding root color. While the biosynthesis in leaves and roots is independent between these two organs for nine of the 15 volatiles, a significant correlation of the myristicine content between leaves and roots was determined, which suggests the use of this compound as a bitter marker in carrot breeding.

  16. Considerations for Managing Agricultural Co-Existence between Transgenic and Non-Transgenic Cultivars of Outcrossing Perennial Forage Plants in Dairy Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin F. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many of the major forage species used in agriculture are outcrossing and rely on the exchange of pollen between individuals for reproduction; this includes the major species used for dairy production in grazing systems: perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. and white clover (Trifolium repens L.. Cultivars of these species have been co-existing since contrasting cultivars were developed using plant breeding, but the consequences and need for strategies to manage co-existence have been made more prominent with the advent of genetic modification. Recent technological developments have seen the experimental evaluation of genetically modified (GM white clover and perennial ryegrass, although there is no current commercial growing of GM cultivars of these species. Co-existence frameworks already exist for two major cross-pollinated grain crops (canola and maize in Europe, and for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in the US, so many of the principles that the industry has developed for co-existence in these crops such as detection techniques, segregation, and agronomic management provide lessons and guidelines for outcrossing forage species, that are discussed in this paper.

  17. New Cultivars Derived from Crosses between Commercial Cultivar and a Wild Population of Papaya Rescued at Its Center of Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Mariela Vázquez Calderón; Manuel Jesús Zavala León; Fernando Amilcar Contreras Martín; Francisco Espadas y Gil; Abelardo Navarrete Yabur; Lorenzo Felipe Sánchez Teyer; Jorge M. Santamaría

    2014-01-01

    In order to generate new varieties, this study focused on the rescue and use of landraces and wild Carica papaya L. populations located at southern Yucatan, Mexico, to cross them with a commercial papaya cultivar (Maradol). In the cross L7 × M22, The native parent line L7 was used as the receiver parent while the commercial Maradol (M22) was used as the donor parent, seeking to generate genotypes with improved productivity and reduced plant height. Cluster analysis and principal components an...

  18. Melhoramento genético do cultivar de milho IAC-1 Genetic improvement of the maize cultivars IAC-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Torres de Miranda

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados os resultados obtidos no melhoramento do cultivar de milho IAC-1 pela introdução de linhagens prolíficas nesta população, que já vinha sendo melhorada há oito ciclos pelo método de seleção entre e dentro de famílias de meios irmãos. Para produção de grãos foi observado um progresso genético médio de 3,3% por ciclo, comparado com um progresso genético esperado de 7,2% por ciclo. Para índice-de-espigas foi observado um progresso genético de 8,9% e um progresso genético espe-rado de 1,9% por ciclo. Com a introdução de fatores de prolificidade, o índice-de-espigas aumentou consideravelmente superando inclusive o do híbrido duplo comercial utilizado como controle. Houve pequeno aumento da porcentagem de plantas acamadas e quebra-das, com o decorrer dos ciclos de seleção. Computando-se os ganhos obtidos inicialmente neste cultivar, houve em 10 ciclos de seleção um progresso acumulado de 28% para produção de grãos e de 10% para índice-de-espigas, sendo este último obtido quase exclusivamente após a introdução das linha-gens prolíficas.There are presented results of the improvement of the maize (Zea mays, L. cultivars IAC-1, after the introduction of prolificacy in a population formerly improved for eight cycles by the modified ear-to-row procedure. It was obtained an average progress of 3.3% per cycle in grain yield, against an expected genetic progress of 7.2% per cycle. For the ear index a genetic progress of 8.9% per cycle was observed and an expected genetic progress of 1.9% per cycle was estimated. With the introduction of prolificacy factors, ear index increased considerably outyielding the commercial double hybrid control Lodging changed 'very little with the cycles of selection. The IAC-1 cultivars showed an accumulated progress of 28% for grain yield and 10% for ear index. The gain in ear index is mainly due to the prolific inbred lines introduced in the synthetic.

  19. 'PiraRoxa': cultivar de alface crespa de cor vermelha intensa 'PiraRoxa': triple red lettuce cultivar

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando César Sala; Cyro Paulino da Costa

    2005-01-01

    'PiraRoxa' é uma cultivar de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) crespa de cor vermelha intensa, resistente à Bremia lactucae, Thielaviopsis basicola e LMV, patótipo II. Foi selecionada por meio do método genealógico a partir do cruzamento entre o tipo Lolla Rossa 'RS 521998' e a cv. Gizela. Apresenta plantas grandes e vigorosas, folhas crespas, coloração vermelha intensa e brilhante. Em ensaios conduzidos no verão (2003/2004) o pendoamento da 'PiraRoxa' foi de 10 e 20 dias mais lento quando comparado...

  20. Lily Cultivars Have Allelopathic Potential in Controlling Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chai

    Full Text Available As a devastating holoparasitic weed, Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon. (Egyptian broomrape causes serious damage to agricultural production and threatens economic development, which has raised widespread concern. The present study was conducted to determine whether lilies have the potential to be used as 'trap crops' for controlling O. aegyptiaca Persoon. In the experiments, the ability of three popular lily cultivars (Lilium Oriental hybrids 'Sorbonne', Lilium LA (Longiflorum hybrids x Asiatic hybrids hybrids 'Ceb Dazzle', and Lilium Longiflorum hybrids (L. formosanum x L. longiflorum 'L. formolongo' to induce O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed germination was assessed. Parts of the three lily cultivars, including the rhizosphere soil and underground and above-ground organs, all induced "suicidal germination" of parasitic O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed at four growth stages. Specifically, Sorbonne and Ceb Dazzle behaved with similar allelopathy, and the bulb, scale leaf and aerial stem exhibited stronger allelopathic effects on O. aegyptiaca Pers. germination compared to other organs. Aqueous L. formolongo leaf extracts may contain more stable, effective stimulants given that they induced the highest germination rate at 76.7% even though the extracts were serially diluted. We speculate that these organs may be advantageous in further isolating and purifying economical active substances that can be substitutes for GR24. These results indicate that lilies have the potential to be used as a trap crops or can be processed into green herbicide formulations that can be applied in agriculture production to rapidly deplete the seed bank of O. aegyptiaca Persoon. parasitic weeds in soil.

  1. Selection indices to identify drought-tolerant grain sorghum cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, C B; Ticona-Benavente, C A; Tardin, F D; Cardoso, M J; Bastos, E A; Nogueira, D W; Portugal, A F; Santos, C V; Schaffert, R E

    2014-11-27

    Twenty-five cultivars of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] were examined under both drought stress and normal conditions in 4 experiments. In each condition, genotypes were evaluated in a factorial experiment using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Eight drought tolerance indices including stability tolerance index, mean productivity (MP), geometric MP, harmonic mean, stress susceptibility index, tolerance index, yield index, and yield stability index were estimated for each genotype based on grain yield under drought (Ys) and irrigated conditions (Yp). The results indicated that there were positive and significant correlations among Yp and Ys with geometric MP, MP, harmonic mean, and stability tolerance index, indicating that these factors are better predictors of Yp and Ys than tolerance index, stress susceptibility index, yield stability index, and yield index. Based on adjusted means at Yp and Ys, indices geometric MP, MP, harmonic mean, and stability tolerance index, unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster and biplot analysis, the most tolerant cultivars were '9929020', '9929034', and 'N 95B'.

  2. Vernalization and Photoperiod Genes in Iranian Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Hamid Reza Ramazani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. can avoid the deleterious effects of low temperatures by using environmental adaptation strategies such as vernalization requirement and photoperiod reaction. Awareness of the genetic factors influencing growth and flowering patterns is necessary for introducing new varieties to specific environments. We performed morphological and genetic studies of 104 lines and cultivars of Iranian wheat genotypes, including four durum genotypes, obtained from national wheat breeding programmes. We used sequence-tagged site (STS-PCR with specific primers to identify alleles affecting the sensitivity to vernalization and photoperiod response at the Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1, and Ppd-D1 loci. Some morphological traits such as percentage germination, growth habit, final leaf number (FLN, ear length, and days to ear emergence were also measured. Results showed that FLN and days to ear emergence are the best morphological traits to study wheat flowering time. Allelic variation showed that Vrn-D1 is more frequent than other genes in Iranian wheat genotypes, and so most Iranian genotypes are vernalization-insensitive. In addition, most genotypes were photoperiod-insensitive because of the semi-dominant mutation allele, Ppd-D1a. Based on allelic variation and morphological traits, we identified five classes of Iranian genotypes. The allelic variation study and morphology evaluation of this germplasm showed that the majority of Iranian cultivars and breeding lines are spring varieties and insensitive to day length.

  3. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity analysis of Malaysian pineapple cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiet, Chong Hang; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Hidayat, Topik; Yaakob, Harisun

    2014-03-01

    Pineapple industry is one of the important agricultural sectors in Malaysia with 76 cultivars planted throughout the country. This study aims to generate useful nutritional information as well as evaluating antioxidant properties of different pineapple commercial cultivars in Malaysia. The bioactive compound content and antioxidant capacity of `Josapine', `Morris' and `Sarawak' pineapple (Ananas comosus) were studied. The pineapple varieties were collected at commercial maturity stage (20-40% yellowish of fruit peel) and the edible portion of the fruit was used as sample for evaluation. The bioactive compound of the fruit extracts were evaluated by total phenolic and tannin content assay while the antioxidant capacity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). From the results obtained, total phenolic and tannin content was highest for `Josapine' followed by `Morris' and `Sarawak'. With respect to FRAP, `Josapine' showed highest reducing capacity, followed by `Morris' and then `Sarawak' having the least value. The bioactive compounds content are positively correlated with the antioxidant capacities of the pineapple extracts. This result indicates that the total phenolics and tannin content present in the pineapples may contribute to the antioxidant capacity of the pineapples.

  4. IMPROVING SUBMERGENCE TOLERANCE OF VIETNAMESE RICE CULTIVAR BY MOLECULAR BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Hong Linh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Submergence stress has caused by climate change is the major hindrance to enhancing rice production of Vietnam. In this study, we have evaluated the levels of submergence tolerance ability of the imported rice cultivars under the 4 different field trials. Among these, IR64-Sub1 exhibits the highest submergence tolerance with stable and high yield, and was used as a donor plant, while Bacthom 7, an elite Vietnamese rice cultivar was used as the recipient plant. In molecular markers study, we have used closely linkage markers with Sub1, flanking markers Sub1, and unlinked marker to Sub1 for the foreground, recombinant and background selections in the backcrossing generations between the donor and the recipient plants. In BC3F1 generation, the individual plant number 116 has carried QTL/Sub1 and retained the highest genetic background of the recipient parent up to 98.6%. The newly improved rice line may be useful for growing in the flooding areas of Vietnam to cope with the climate change.

  5. Physicochemical Characteristics of Orange Juice Samples From Seven Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Some physicochemical parameters of orange juice from seven orange varieties (Pineapple orange, Hamlin, Trovita, Jincheng,1232 Tangor, Olinda Valencia, and Delta Valencia) were analyzed, special attention was paid to the level of sugars, organic acids, free amino acids, mineral composition, and color parameters. The results showed that total soluble solids (TSS),TSS/titratable acidity (TA) ratios, sugars, and organic acids were kept within a proper range for juice processing except that Jincheng had lower TSS than the others. Sucrose was the most dominant sugar in the orange cultivars, followed by fructose and glucose, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Serine and proline were the principal amino acids.Potassium was the most abundant mineral in all of the juice samples, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium content of most varieties was under 10 mg kg-1. Though all of the samples had orange colour, Olinda Valencia and Delta Valencia had deeper red colour than the others. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the samples in most of the characteristics. The results provided important information on the physicochemical characteristics of the varieties and on how to make the best use of orange cultivars for different purposes, which is of significance for both technological research and processing practice.

  6. Produção de mudas de cultivares de morangueiro em duas épocas de coleta Runners production of strawberry cultivars in two collection dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tessarioli Neto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da grande importância das mudas na implantação de um cultivo de morango, pouca importância tem sido dada a estudos experimentais nesta fase da cultura. Avaliou-se o comportamento de sete cultivares de morangueiro na fase de produção de mudas, em duas épocas, sob condições de campo, em Piracicaba (SP. Empregou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos completamente casualizados, com 14 tratamentos e 4 repetições através de um esquema fatorial 7 x 2. Os fatores estudados foram cultivar (Campinas IAC-2712, IAC Princesa Isabel, Chandler, Dover, Pajaro, Toyonoka e Korona e épocas de coleta das mudas (14/03/1997; 15/04/1997. Determinou-se a quantidade de mudas produzidas por metro quadrado e a classificação das mudas em quatro categorias: Extra, Primeira, Segunda e Descarte. Houve diferenças quanto a quantidade de mudas de morangueiro produzidas por metro quadrado, de acordo com a cultivar. As cultivares Dover e Campinas produziram maior quantidade de mudas do que as cultivares Korona, Chandler, Princesa Isabel, Toyonoka e Pajaro, independentemente da época de coleta. A coleta de mudas na segunda época (15/04/97 proporcionou a obtenção de mudas de qualidade superior à observada na primeira época (14/03/97, independente da cultivar.In spite of the great importance of runners in the formation of new strawberry fields, little importance has been given to experimental studies of this phase of the crop. There were evaluated seven strawberry cultivars in the stage of runner production, during two different collection dates under field conditions, in Piracicaba, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized with 14 treatments and 4 replications, using a factorial scheme of 7 x 2. The variables were the cultivars (Campinas IAC-2712, IAC Princesa Isabel, Chandler, Dover, Pajaro, Toyonoka and Korona and the dates of runner collection (14/031997;15/04/1997. The runners were considered according to four categories: Extra

  7. Caracterização molecular de cultivares de pessegueiro e nectarineira com microssatélites Molecular characterization of peach and nectarine cultivars though microsatellites markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor João Bianchi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Na certificação de mudas de plantas frutíferas, a identificação genética é importante em todas as etapas do processo de produção. Em pessegueiro, a identificação de genótipos baseada somente em características morfofenológicas deixa dúvidas quanto à verdadeira identidade de algumas cultivares. Marcadores moleculares de microssatélies foram utilizados objetivando a caracterização molecular de 8 cultivares de nectarineira e 28 de pessegueiro. Para a análise, foram utilizados 13 incializadores de microssatélites (primers, sendo que todos foram marcadores produzindo polimorfismo suficiente para identificar 32 das 36 cultivares analisadas. A maior similaridade genética verificada nas cultivares para consumo in natura foi entre Coral e Planalto (0,94 e entre Della Nona e Marfim (0,90, enquanto, para os pessegueiros para indústria, foi de 0,93 entre Jubileu e Capdeboscq e de 0,92 entre Jade e Esmeralda. Os marcadores de microssatélites permitiram separar em grupos distintos as nectarineiras e os pessegueiros de consumo in natura dos de indústria, havendo uma elevada concordância entre os dados genealógicos das cultivares e os dados gerados pelos microssatélites, confirmando a grande utilidade da técnica para a caracterização genética.Genetic identification of fruit tree plants is important in all phases of the production process. On peach the genotypes identification based only on the morphologic and phenologic characteristics leaves doubts on the true identity of some cultivars. Microsatellite markers were used aiming at the molecular characterization of eight nectarine and 28 peach cultivars. Thirteen microsatellite primers were used and all of them generated enough polimorfism that may identify 32 out of 36 of the analysed cultivars. The greatest genetic similarity was found between the fresh market 'Coral' and 'Planalto'(0,94 and between the 'Della Nona' and 'Marfim' cultivars (0,90, whereas for caning peaches the

  8. DNA typing and genetic relations among European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccacci, P; Akkak, A; Botta, R

    2006-06-01

    In this work, 78 hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars from various germplasm repositories were studied at 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci in order to identify the genotypes and investigate their genetic relations. Polymorphism at SSR loci was evaluated on the basis of number of alleles (mean: 9.4), expected heterozygosity (mean: 0.78), and power of discrimination (mean: 0.91). Several synonyms reported in the literature were confirmed, and new cases of synonymy were identified. The parentage of North American cultivars 'Butler', 'Ennis', and 'Royal', the French selection 'Fercoril-Corabel', and 'Impératrice Eugenie' was investigated on the basis of the alleles present at 16 loci and analysis at 8 additional loci. A dendrogram generated from cluster analysis using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean grouped cultivars according to their pedigrees or geographical origins. There was an evident differentiation of the northern European cultivars from the southern European ones and from the Turkish cultivars. The latter clustered close to but separate from the Italian and Spanish clusters. It is very likely that exchanges of cultivars occurred between the central and western Mediterranean basin as a result of human migration and trade. A database containing the SSR profiles of the most important hazelnut cultivars will be useful for identification of cultivars and synonyms, legal protection, and parentage analysis.

  9. Soil and Cultivar Type Shape the Bacterial Community in the Potato Rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inceoglu, Ozgul; Salles, Joana Falcao; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The rhizospheres of five different potato cultivars (including a genetically modified cultivar) obtained from a loamy sand soil and two from a sandy peat soil, next to corresponding bulk soils, were studied with respect to their community structures and potential function. For the former analyses, w

  10. Utilisation of N in perennial ryegrass cultivars by stall-fed lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, B.M.; Taweel, H.Z.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    In the summers of 2000 and 2001, the effect of six diploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars on the N utilisation by 12 high productive dairy cows was determined. Experiments were conducted according to a double 3 × 3 Latin square design; within each Latin square, three cultivars were

  11. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environments for sugarcane cultivars in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of test environments and classification of regional ecological zones are the two key issues in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analyzed by u...

  12. CARBOHYDRATES, PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN PULP AND PEEL OF 15 BANANA CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÉSAR FERNANDES AQUINO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the levels of carbohydrates and phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity in the pulp and peel of 15 banana cultivars in two ripening stages. Four bunches per cultivar were harvested in the pre-climacteric stage, six fruits were used by sample unit. Fruits were analyzed in the pre-climacteric stage and after ripening. Total, reducing and non-reducing soluble sugars, starch, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Cultivar and ripening stage influenced all characteristics analyzed. Unripe pulp and peel had small percentage of sugar, but high percentage of starch, especially ‘Terrinha’ and ‘Marmelo’ cultivars. AAB and ABB cultivars presented the highest percentages of starch, when compared to AA and AAA cultivars. For the phenolic compounds, the highest content was observed in ripe peel, followed by ripe pulp and unripe peel and pulp, highlighting ‘Terrinha’ cultivar in all parts and stages evaluated. The antioxidant potential was higher in ripe peel, followed by unripe peel, ripe and unripe pulp. Fruits of Terrinha, Marmelo, Maçã, Ouro and Caru-Verde cultivars showed the highest carbohydrate contents, and phenolic compounds or antioxidant activity, justifying future actions in the expansion of planting and consumption of these fruits.

  13. ‘IAC Milênio’ – Common bean cultivar with high grain quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Augusto Morais Carbonell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Instituto Agronômico de Campinas – IAC registered the carioca type common bean cultivar IAC Milênio. The cultivar has a mean yield of 2831 kg ha-1, high grain quality with tolerance to darkening, and resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and physiological races 81, 89, and 95 of the anthracnose pathogen (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.

  14. Factors affecting the vase life of Rosa cultivar 'Sonia': Microbiological and scanning electron microscopic investigations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, H.M.C.

    1991-01-01

    The papers compiled in this thesis comprise a series of successively executed investigations into the role of micro-organisms in xylem plugging, and disturbance of the water relations and the vase life of cut flowers. For this purpose Rosahybrida cultivar 'Sonia' (the hybrid tea-rose Rosa cultivar '

  15. Lesser-known European wine grape cultivars in southwestern Idaho: cold hardiness, berry maturity and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cold tolerance, phenology, yield and fruit maturity of lesser-known red and white-skinned wine grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera, L.) of European origin were compared to that of ‘Merlot’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ over two growing seasons in southwestern Idaho. Variability among cultivars was detec...

  16. Base temperature for leaf appearance and phyllochron of selected strawberry cultivars in a subtropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Telles Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf development is characterized by the appearance of new leaves and is related to crop leaf area index, which affects the interception of solar radiation used for photosynthesis and biomass production and ultimately defines crop yield. The objectives of this paper were to estimate the base temperature for leaf appearance and to determine the phyllochron of two strawberry cultivars considering several planting dates. A two-year field experiment was conducted during 2008 and 2009 in Santa Maria (RS. The cultivars Arazá (early and Yvapitá (late were used at three planting dates in both years. Base temperature (Tb was estimated using the Mean Square Error (MSE approach of the regression between accumulated leaf number (LN and accumulated thermal time (ATT. The phyllochron was calculated as the inverse of the slope of the regression of LN against ATT. Estimated Tb for leaf appearance in both cultivars was 0 °C. Variations in phyllochron were observed among the two cultivars, among planting dates and also during the plant developmental period of each cultivar. Before flowering, the phyllochron was similar in both cultivars and after flowering it was higher in cultivar Arazá. Phyllochron was greater for later planting dates and increased at short photoperiods in Fall and Winter. Results showed that both cultivars have a typical long-day plant response because phyllochron decreased as photoperiod increased up to approximately 11.8 hours, and phyllochron was the lowest at longer photoperiod.

  17. BRSMG Uai: common bean cultivar with carioca grain type and upright plant architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The common bean cultivar with carioca grain type, BRSMG Uai, is recommended for cultivation in Minas Gerais and stands out for its upright plant architecture, which facilitates cultivation and mechanical harvesting. This cultivar has high yield potential and is resistant to the major races of anthracnose that occur in region.

  18. Genetic Relationships of Aglaonema Species and Cultivars Inferred from AFLP Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jianjun; DEVANAND, PACHANOOR S.; Norman, David J; HENNY, RICHARD J.; CHAO, CHIH‐CHENG T.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Aglaonema is an important ornamental foliage plant genus, but genetic relationships among its species and cultivars have not been reported. This study analysed genetic relatedness of 54 cultivars derived from nine species using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers.

  19. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 45. Banana, cacao, Spanish lime, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 45 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released cacao, banana, plantain, and genip cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield....

  20. URS Brava – a new oat cultivar with partial resistance to crown rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Federizzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar URS Brava, obtained from a simple cross between the line ‘UFRGS 995078-2’ and the cultivar ‘URS 21’, shows high grain yield and stability, high grain quality, desirable agronomical traits and partial resistance to crown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae.

  1. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  2. Experimental sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 32 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  3. Physiological studies on cultivar-specific resistance of tomato plants to Cladosporium fulvum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrastructural and physiological aspects of cultivar-specific resistance of tomato against Cladosporium fulvum (syn. Fulvia fulva) are subject of this thesis.The ultrastructural study described in the first paper was meant as an introduction to a physiological study of cultivar-specific resistance.

  4. Differences in tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Greenhouse and field experiments were designed to compare the tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone and assess its potential for weed management in broccoli. Fo...

  5. Identification of QTLs conferring resistance to downy mildew in legacy cultivars of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), the most popular leafy vegetable, are susceptible to downy mildew disease caused by Bremia lactucae. Cultivars Iceberg and Grand Rapids that were released in 18th and 19th century, respectively, have high levels of quantitative resistance to downy milde...

  6. Rheological properties of biscuit dough from different cultivars, and relationship to baking characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene; Kaack, Karl; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker

    2004-01-01

    Rheological properties of semi-sweet biscuit doughs from eight wheat cultivars were studied, and related to the dimensional changes of biscuits after cutting and baking. The tested cultivars were selected in order to represent a wide diversity in biscuit baking performance, and were grown with lo...

  7. Digestibilidade in vivo dos nutrientes de cultivares de amoreira (Morus alba L. em caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorigan Cláudia Josefina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar a digestibilidade "in vivo" dos nutrientes dos cultivares de amoreira FM 86 e FM SM nas idades de crescimento de 45 e 90 dias. Foram utilizados 8 caprinos machos, da raça Saanen, com 6 meses de idade e peso vivo médio de 26kg. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 X 2 (2 cultivares de amoreira e 2 idades de crescimento. O coeficiente de digestibilidade da FDN do cultivar FM 86 (74,82 % superou o cultivar FM SM (69,36 %, não ocorrendo diferença significativa entre as idades de crescimento. Ocorreu interação significativa entre cultivar e idade de crescimento para o Coeficiente de Digestibilidade da FDA, e o cultivar FM 86 na idade de 45 dias (75,09 % superou a de 90 dias (68,82 %. Para os parâmetros NDT e oeficientes de digestibilidade da energia, MS e PB, verificou-se superioridade da idade de corte de 45 dias, sem diferença entre os cultivares. Concluiu-se que os cultivares FM 86 e FM SM apresentaram excelente valor energético e altos coeficientes de digestibilidade da MS, da PB e dos constituintes da parede celular, indicando um elevado potencial da amoreira como forrageira para caprinos.

  8. Phenotypic variability in a panel of strawberry cultivars from North America and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phenotypic diversity in 96 antique and modern cultivars from the European Union and North America was evaluated in Michigan and Oregon, in 2011 and 2012. A total of thirty-five fruit and developmental characteristics were measured. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among cultivars...

  9. Cultivar effect on the sweet cherry antioxidant and some chemical attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzyński Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic composition, antioxidant capacities, sugars and organic acids content of sweet cherry cultivars (Bianca, Burlat, Johanna 1, Johanna 2, Kordia, Kunzes Kirsche, Merton Premier, Napoleon, Orleans, Regina, Rivan, Schneiders Spate Knorpelkirsche, Summit, Trebnitzer Lotkirsche grown in Poland. Significant differences were observed between tested cultivars for all studied parameters.

  10. Truhart-NR, A Root-knot Nematode Resistant, Pimento-type Pepper Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts to develop a high-yielding, pimento-type pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivar that is highly resistant to root-knot nematodes were completed with the official release of Truhart-NR on October 20, 2009. The new cultivar is homozygous for the dominant N gene that conditions a high level of re...

  11. A relative resistance Ratio for Evaluation of Stem Borer Susceptibility Among Sugarcane Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is a major pest of sugarcane in Louisiana and Texas. Cultivar resistance to E. loftini was evaluated in commercial and experimental sugarcane cultivars in four replicated field studies between 2009 and 2012. A relative resistance ratio was developed t...

  12. Adaptation to partial resistance to powdery mildew in the hop cultivar Cascade by Podosphaera macularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hop cultivar Cascade has been grown in the Pacific Northwestern U.S. with minimal input for management of powdery mildew (Podosphaera macularis) for nearly 20 years due to the putatively quantitative resistance in this cultivar. While partial resistance is generally thought to be more durable th...

  13. Rhizoctonia root rot resistance in experimental sugar beet cultivars in Twin Falls County, ID, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia root rot continues to be a concerning problem in sugar beet production areas. To investigate resistance to this disease in 26 experimental sugar beet cultivars, field studies were conducted with three Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 IIIB strains. Based on means for the 26 cultivars, surface ...

  14. Rhizoctonia root rot resistance in commercial sugar beet cultivars in Twin Falls County, ID, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia root rot continues to be a concerning problem in sugar beet production areas. To investigate resistance to this disease in 26 commercial sugar beet cultivars, field studies were conducted with three Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 IIIB strains. Based on means for the 26 cultivars, surface ro...

  15. Genome composition of triploid lily cultivars derived from sexual polyploidization of Longiflorum x Asiatic hybrids (Lilium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shujun Zhou,; Ramanna, M.S.; Visser, R.G.F.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2008-01-01

    About 19 cultivars, which had originated from backcrosses between F1 LA (Longiflorum × Asiatic) hybrids (2n = 2x = 24) as female parents and Asiatic cultivars as male parents (2n = 2x = 24), were analyzed with genomic in situ hybridization. 17 of them were triploid (2n = 3x = 36), and two aneuploid

  16. Partial resistance to Erwinia carotovora SUBSP. carotovora and plant vigour among F1 hybrids of Zantedeschia cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, R.C.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The potential of breeding Zantedeschia cultivars for resistance to soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (syn. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum) was determined. Hybrids of six cultivars (`Back Magic`, Galaxy`, Pink Persuasion`, Sensation`, `Treasure` and `Florex Gold`)

  17. Whole mitochondrial and plastid genome SNP analysis of nine date palm cultivars reveals plastid heteroplasmy and close phylogenetic relationships among cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal S M Sabir

    Full Text Available Date palm is a very important crop in western Asia and northern Africa, and it is the oldest domesticated fruit tree with archaeological records dating back 5000 years. The huge economic value of this crop has generated considerable interest in breeding programs to enhance production of dates. One of the major limitations of these efforts is the uncertainty regarding the number of date palm cultivars, which are currently based on fruit shape, size, color, and taste. Whole mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences were utilized to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of date palms to evaluate the efficacy of this approach for molecular characterization of cultivars. Mitochondrial and plastid genomes of nine Saudi Arabian cultivars were sequenced. For each species about 60 million 100 bp paired-end reads were generated from total genomic DNA using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. For each cultivar, sequences were aligned separately to the published date palm plastid and mitochondrial reference genomes, and SNPs were identified. The results identified cultivar-specific SNPs for eight of the nine cultivars. Two previous SNP analyses of mitochondrial and plastid genomes identified substantial intra-cultivar ( = intra-varietal polymorphisms in organellar genomes but these studies did not properly take into account the fact that nearly half of the plastid genome has been integrated into the mitochondrial genome. Filtering all sequencing reads that mapped to both organellar genomes nearly eliminated mitochondrial heteroplasmy but all plastid SNPs remained heteroplasmic. This investigation provides valuable insights into how to deal with interorganellar DNA transfer in performing SNP analyses from total genomic DNA. The results confirm recent suggestions that plastid heteroplasmy is much more common than previously thought. Finally, low levels of sequence variation in plastid and mitochondrial genomes argue for using nuclear SNPs for

  18. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncică, Ana Maria; Săftoiu, Adrian;

    2011-01-01

    cancers and visualization of the portal venous system and esophageal varices. In addition, contrast agents can be used to differentiate pancreatic lesions. The use of color Doppler further increases the ability to diagnose and differentiate various pancreatic malignancies. The sensitivity of power Doppler...

  19. Abordagem Bayesiana das curvas de crescimento de duas cultivares de feijoeiro Bayesian approach in the growth curves of two cultivars of common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Martins Filho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi utilizada a metodologia Bayesiana para ajustar o modelo não-linear logístico para dados de crescimento de duas cultivares de feijoeiro, "Neguinho" e "Carioca". O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com vinte repetições, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo que os tratamentos principais foram constituídos pelas cultivares e as subparcelas foram constituídas por 17 períodos de avaliações, do plantio até aos 85 dias. A metodologia permitiu comparar as curvas de crescimentos sem utilizar a teoria assintótica e estes resultados mostraram um maior incremento em altura para a cultivar "Carioca".In this paper the Bayesian methodology was used to fit the logistic nonlinear model to growth data of two common bean cultivars, 'Neguinho' and 'Carioca'. The experiment was a split plot under a completely randomized design with twenty replicates, being the main treatments constituted by cultivars and the sub plots constituted by seventeen periods of evaluations, from planting to 85 days. The methodology allowed comparing the growth curves without using the asymptotic theory, and these results showed a larger height increment for the 'Carioca' cultivar.

  20. Responses of different Chinese flowering cabbage (brassica parachinensis l.) cultivars to cadmium and lead exposure: screening for Cd + Pb pollution-safe cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Qiu; Yang, Zhongyi; Xin, Junliang; Yuan, Jiangang; Wang, Jianbing; Xin, Guorong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yutao [Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2011-11-15

    To reduce the potential risks of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) entering the human food chain in vegetables, two pot experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) were carried out to screen for Cd and Pb pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). The three Cd treatments in Exp. 1 (0.114, 0.667, and 1.127 mg kg{sup -1}) showed that Chinese flowering cabbage could easily take up Cd from polluted soils, and there were wide variations in Cd accumulation among different cultivars. The Cd accumulation trait at cultivar level was rather stable under different soil Cd treatments. In Exp. 2, seven cultivars that had been shown in Exp. 1 to be typical high or low accumulators of Cd were selected and six Cd + Pb joint exposure treatments were applied to them. The results showed that there were similar trends of accumulation between Cd and Pb for the tested cultivars, but Pb accumulation by the species was much poorer than that of Cd. It was worth noting that an increase in soil Pb levels significantly (p < 0.01) depressed shoot Cd accumulation. Six cultivars were selected as Cd + Pb PSCs. This study showed that it is feasible to apply a PSC strategy in Chinese flowering cabbage cultivation, to cope with the Cd and Pb contamination commonly found in agricultural soils. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Potential of bagasse production from middle sugarcane cultivars; Potencial de producao de bagaco por cultivares medias de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebre, Antonio Carlos Pereira; Siva Neto, Helio Francisco da; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos Omir; Tasso Junior, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV /UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Tecnologia], E-mail: antoniocplebre8@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    In the search for sustainability a major concern relates to the sugarcane agroindustry waste, and their potential use as an energy source. In this sense, the objective was to identify the production and productivity of bagasse of different sugarcane cultivars, aimed at the completion of the cogeneration of electricity. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 6 treatments (cultivars) and 3 replications. The experiment was carried out at FCAV/UNESP-Jaboticabal. To calculate the productivity, the number of stems was counted in a meter, obtaining the weight of stems. The percentage of fiber for each cultivar was determined by calculating the estimated production and productivity of mulch. Using these values to estimate the potential number of people who could benefit from the electricity that would be produced by the combustion of bagasse generated within a system of cogeneration of electricity put in practice by the sugar mills and ethanol distilleries. Cultivars with the best performance IAC91-1099 and CEC 15 who obtained the highest production and productivity of mulch increases the number of people benefited. Cultivars IAC94-4004-5000 and IAC95 showed intermediate results and the cultivars SP81-3250 and RB855536 obtained less satisfactory results. (author)

  2. Analysis of different European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars: authentication, phenotypic features, and phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarmiello, Loredana F; Mazzeo, Maria F; Minasi, Paola; Peluso, Angela; De Luca, Antonio; Piccirillo, Pasquale; Siciliano, Rosa A; Carbone, Virginia

    2014-07-02

    Hazelnuts exhibit functional properties due to their content in fatty acids and phenolic compounds that could positively affect human health. The food industry requires precise traits for morphological, chemical, and physical kernel features so that some cultivars could be more suitable for specific industrial processing. In this study, agronomical and morphological features of 29 hazelnut cultivars were evaluated and a detailed structural characterization of kernel polyphenols was performed, confirming the presence of protocatechuic acid, flavan-3-ols such as catechin, procyanidin B2, six procyanidin oligomers, flavonols, and one dihydrochalcone in all the analyzed cultivars. In addition, an innovative methodology based on the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of peptide/protein components extracted from kernels was developed for the authentication of the most valuable cultivars. The proposed method is rapid, simple, and reliable and holds the potential to be applied in quality control processes. These results could be useful in hazelnut cultivar evaluation and choice for growers, breeders, and food industry.

  3. Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Water Dynamics in Different Ginger Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chongyang; Zhou, Qi; Gao, Shan; Bao, Qingjia; Chen, Fang; Liu, Chaoyang

    2016-01-20

    Different ginger cultivars may contain different nutritional and medicinal values. In this study, a time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance method was employed to study water dynamics in different ginger cultivars. Significant differences in transverse relaxation time T2 values assigned to the distribution of water in different parts of the plant were observed between Henan ginger and four other ginger cultivars. Ion concentration and metabolic analysis showed similar differences in Mn ion concentrations and organic solutes among the different ginger cultivars, respectively. On the basis of Pearson's correlation analysis, many organic solutes and 6-gingerol, the main active substance of ginger, exhibited significant correlations with water distribution as determined by NMR T2 relaxation, suggesting that the organic solute differences may impact water distribution. Our work demonstrates that low-field NMR relaxometry provides useful information about water dynamics in different ginger cultivars as affected by the presence of different organic solutes.

  4. Cultivar and Rhizobium Strain Effects on the Symbiotic Performance of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif

    1983-01-01

    content and dry weight/N ratio. At harvest 63 days after planting, cultivars accounted for 75% of the variation in dry weight, while the Rhizobium strains accounted for 63% of the variation in N-content and 70% of the variation in dry weight/N ratio. Cultivar × strain interactions were statistically......The symbiotic performance of four pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars in combination with each of four strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was studied in growth chamber experiments in order to estimate the effects of cultivars, strains and cultivar × strain interaction on the variation in dry weight, N...... significant, but of minor quantitative importance, accounting for 5–15% of the total variation. Rhizobium strains also influenced the partitioning of N between reproductive and vegetative plant parts and between root and shoot biomass....

  5. Determination of acrylamide in local and commercial cultivar of potatoes from biological farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchettini, Nadia; Focardi, Silvia; Guarnieri, Massimo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Perra, Guido

    2013-02-15

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary study on the characterization of parameters influencing formation of acrylamide in fried potatoes, from biological cultivation. The formation of acrylamide was investigated in relation to frying in biological extra virgin olive oil and commercial seed oil. Three different cultivars (Rossa di Colfiorito, Quarantina bianca genovese and Kennebec) were chosen. Asparagine, glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations were determined in potato slice before frying, while acrylamide content was analysed by LC-ESI-MS/MS in the slices fried in seed and extra virgin olive oil. The Kennebec cultivar showed differences in its potential for acrylamide formation, which was primarily related to its relatively high asparagine and reducing sugars contents, respect the other local cultivars (particulary Quarantina). Values of acrylamide below detection limit (LOD) were found in Quarantina bianca genovese cultivar samples fried in extra virgin olive oil and peanuts seed oil and higher in peanuts seed oil fried potatoes of Kennebec cultivar.

  6. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Organically Cultivated Fennel Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Saleh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene were highly abundant in all of the examined oils. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and metal chelating assays. Essential oils from the azoricum and dulce cultivars were more effective antioxidants than that from the vulgare cultivar. Antimicrobial activities of each oil were measured against two species of fungi, two species of Gram negative and two species of Gram positive bacteria. All three cultivars showed similar antimicrobial activity.

  7. Evaluation of Drought Resistance Indicates for Yield and Its Components in Three Triticale Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kinaci

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a wide-spread problem seriously influencing cereal production and quality. The development of triticale cultivars which are tolerant to drought is an objective in many breeding programmes, but so far success has been limited. This study was carried to examine differences in yield and yield components and kernel features among triticale cultivars (Tatlicak 97, Karma 2000 and MIKHAM 2002 under drought stress. Three triticale cultivars with different yield performance were grown in separate experiments under the rain fed and irrigated conditions at Eskisehir, Turkey, in 2006-2007 growing season. In the study, susceptibility index (SSI, stress tolerance index (STI, tolerance (TOL, yield index (YI, yield stability index (YSI, mean productivity (MP and geometric mean productivity (GMP were calculated. The best yielding cultivar under the drought stress, hence having a low susceptibility index, was Karma 2000. This cultivar may be utilized for improvement of drought resistance in triticale breeding programmes.

  8. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiye Gözlekçi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars ("Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar" was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. "Lefan" displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested.

  9. Physical and chemical properties of olive oil extracted from olive cultivars grown in Shiraz and Kazeroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homapour, M.; Hamedi, M.; Moslehishad, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon......, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Materials and methods: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow....... These results indicate that the quality of the olive oil depends both on the olive cultivar and geographical region. Keywords: Olive oil, Yellow cultivar, Oil-grade cultivar, Shiraz, Kazeroon...

  10. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Andersen, Sven Bode; DeMartini, J.;

    2012-01-01

    -plate technique. This technique enabled us to estimate cultivar-related and environmental correlations between sugar yield, chemical composition, agronomic qualities, and distribution of botanical plant parts of wheat straw cultivars. Straws from 20 cultivars were collected in duplicates on two sites in Denmark......Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends strongly on understanding the biological variation of feedstocks. Our objective was to study variation in capacity for producing fermentable sugars from straw of winter wheat cultivars with a high-throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis well...... suggest that selection of cultivars for improved biofuel feedstock of wheat straw is possible, because heritability of sugar release is 57% and there are few adverse correlations to other agronomic traits....

  11. DETERMINATION OF THE SEEDLING REACTIONS OF TWENTY BARLEY CULTIVARS TO SIX ISOLATES OF DRECHSLERA TERES F. MACULATA

    OpenAIRE

    Pınar USTA; KARAKAYA, Aziz; OĞUZ, Arzu ÇELİK; MERT, Zafer; AKAN, Kadir; ÇETİN, Lütfi

    2014-01-01

    Seedling reactions of 20 barley cultivars grown in Turkey were determined under greenhouse conditions to six isolates of Drechslera teres f. maculata, the causal agent of spot form of barley net blotch disease. Isolates were obtained from different provinces of Turkey. Differences among the reactions of the cultivars to the isolates of the fungus were observed. Isolate differences in pathogenicity for each cultivar were also present. The reactions of cultivars to the isolates ranged betwee...

  12. Molecular Screening and Resistance Evaluation of American Wheat Cultivars to Chinese Stripe Rust Races

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yu-lu; ZHANG Chun-yu; SUN Quan; LIN Feng; CUI Na; XU Shi-chang; GAO Yang; XU Xiao-dan

    2010-01-01

    Stripe rust,caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp.tritici,is one of the major diseases of wheat in China.In order to asses the resistance levels and existing Yr genes among 59 wheat cultivars (lines) from the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States,to provide resistance resources for genetic improvement of wheat stripe rust resistance in China,59 wheat cultivars (lines) from PNW of the United States were infected by 3 mixed races of predominant Chinese stripe rust races CRY31,CRY32,and CRY33 to evaluate their resistance at seedling and adult plant stages,and screened with molecular markers tightly linked to currently effective all-stage resistance genes Yr10,Yr15 and adult plant resistance genes Yr18,Yr39.Of 59 American cultivars (lines),five cultivars (lines),Expresso,02W50076,ACS52610,WA008012,and WA00801833,had all-stage resistance,showing resistance to mixed races of CRY31,CRY32,and CRY33 at both seedling and adult plant stages.33 cultivars (lines) had adult plant resistance,only showing resistance to stripe rust at adult stage.Based on the molecular screening,none of the 59 PNW cultivars (lines) had the polymorphic bands of linked markers to Yr10.There were 12,33 and 29 cultivars (lines) which had polymorphic bands of linked markers to Yr15,Yr18 and Yr39,accounting for 20,55 and 49% of the 59 PNW cultivars (lines),respectively.All these results suggested that Yr15,Yr18 and Yr39 were widespread among PNW cultivars (cultivars) and could be utilized in Chinese wheat stripe rust resistance breeding.

  13. Effect of salt stress on growth, Na+ accumulation and proline metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinse Jaarsma

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na(+ homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na(+ levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na(+ concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na(+ shoot distribution index (SDI for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na(+ accumulation was found and the SDI for Na(+ points to a role of stem Na(+ accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1 gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na(+ accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na(+ transport to the leaves.

  14. Effect of salt stress on growth, Na+ accumulation and proline metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Rinse; de Vries, Rozemarijn S M; de Boer, Albertus H

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na(+) homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na(+) levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na(+) concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na(+) shoot distribution index (SDI) for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na(+) accumulation was found and the SDI for Na(+) points to a role of stem Na(+) accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na(+) accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na(+) transport to the leaves.

  15. Diversidade genética entre cultivares de mangueiras, baseada em caracteres de qualidade dos frutos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A mangueira é uma das fruteiras mais importantes do Brasil. Apesar de existirem muitos cultivares, o cultivo tem sido realizado basicamente com o cultivar 'Tommy Atkins' e existem poucos trabalhos sobre caracterização e análise da diversidade genética dos genótipos disponíveis. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a diversidade genética de 15 cultivares de mangueiras, produzidos na Zona da Mata Mineira, sendo oito brasileiros e sete oriundos da Flórida (EUA. Para isto, frutos maduros dos 15 cultivares foram colhidos e analisados química e fisicamente. Os cultivares que se apresentaram mais similares foram 'Kent' e 'Palmer'. O cultivar 'Extrema' não se agrupou com os outros pelo método de agrupamento UPGMA, e, por esta análise houve a separação dos cultivares brasileiros e norte-americanos. Quanto às características químicas, a técnica de componentes principais não agrupou os cultivares 'Extrema' e 'Tommy Atkins' com os demais; já quanto às características físicas, observou-se a mesma separação obtida pelo agrupamento UPGMA, com exceção do cultivar 'Extrema' que, neste caso, agrupou-se com os demais cultivares. Observou-se correlação entre a coloração da polpa, o ângulo hue e o teor de açúcares solúveis totais e entre a coloração da casca, o índice b* e a percentagem de casca e polpa.

  16. BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PINEAPPLE FRUIT OF DIFFERENT CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTER ALICE FERREIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pineapple is widely consumed and appreciated not only due to its taste and aroma, and also to its nutritional, functional and antioxidant properties, including its vitamin C and carotenoid contents. Brazil is one of the largest world’ pineapple producer, and Pérola and Smooth Cayenne cultivars are the most commonly grown and marketed, but their susceptibility to fusariosis can compromise cultivation. New cultivars resistant to this pathogen are available to meet the demands of pineapple producers and consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of pineapple fruits of Imperial, Victoria, IAC Fantástico and Gomo de Mel cultivars, as well as traditional Pérola and Smooth Cayenne cultivars. Fruits grown in the Triângulo Mineiro region were evaluated by colorimetry, determination of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds by spectrometry, antioxidant activity by ABTS and carotenoid profile by HPLC. Regarding color, Gomo de Mel cultivar showed lower brightness and higher value of parameter b*, indicating a more intense yellow color in this fruit. This result is consistent with the highest carotenoid concentration in this cultivar. Another cultivar that stood out was Imperial, which, while maintaining high carotenoid levels, also showed high concentrations of vitamin C and phenolic compounds, and higher antioxidant activity. Victoria cultivar showed low levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, even lower than IAC Fantástico cultivar, which showed levels of bioactive compounds similar to traditional Pérola and Smooth Cayenne cultivars.

  17. THE STEM BORER INFESTATION ON RICE CULTIVARS AT THREE PLANTING TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendarsih Suharto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem borer is the second important rice pest after rats in Indonesia. A field trial was conducted in Karawang, West Java in dry season of 2003 to study the effect of planting time on the stem borer infestation on seven rice cultivars. The rice cultivars tested were Fatmawati (new plant type cultivar, Gilirang (semi-new plant type cultivar, Maro and Intani 3 (hybrid rice cultivars, and IR72, Cilosari and IR62 (inbreed rice cultivars. The three planting times (PT were: (1 the early PT, 14 days before farmer’s PT, (2 the common PT, simultaneously with farmer’s PT, and (3 the late PT, 14 days after farmer’s PT. The trial was arranged in a split plot design with four replications. Planting time is the main plot and rice cultivar is the subplot. Fourteen-day old rice seedlings were transplanted at 25 cm x 25 cm planting distance in a 5 m x 6 m plot size. Species and fluctuation of rice stem borer were determined by using water traps containing four synthetic sex pheromone lures of rice stem borer species as attractant. Results showed that the dominant species of stem borer was yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.. Degree of stem borer infestation depended upon the planting time. Stem borer infestation at the first planting time was higher (average 37.90% compared to those found at the second and third planting time, i.e. 0.65% and 0.54%, respectively. Rice yields of Fatmawati, Gilirang, Maro, Intani-3, and Cilosari cultivars correlated with the degree of stem borer infestation, but did not correlate with planting time. Cilosari cultivar showed the most tolerant under heavily stem borer infestation. The present study implies that adjustment of planting time is the most feasible effort to reduce stem borer infestation because none of the seven rice cultivars tested were able to minimize damage under heavily infestation of yellow stem borer.

  18. Response of French Bean Cultivars to Plant Spacing Under Agroclimatic Condition of Baffa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveed Ahmed; Muhammad Razaq; Hasnain Alam; and Salahuddin

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was carried out at Mansehra during cropping season of 2013. There were three French bean cultivars and four different plant spacings. The experiment was laid out on a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Different cultivars, plant spacings and their interactions significantly influenced all the parameters studied. Maximum days to flowering (59.33) and seed maturity (97.66) were recorded in cultivar Komal Green grown at 15 cm spacing, while, maximum 100-grain weight (42.20 g) was noted in cultivar Peshawar Local grown at 60 cm spacing. However, maximum fresh pod yield• plant-1 (109.67 g), number of seed• pod-1 (7.99) and seed yield• hm-2 (1 437.3 kg) were recorded in cultivar Paulista grown at spacing of 45 cm. Whereas, maximum plant height (40.50 cm) was noticed in cultivar Paulista grown at 15 cm plant spacing. While, the least number of days to flowering (50.33) and to seed maturity (85.66) were taken by cultivar Paulista grown at 60 cm plant spacing. Likewise, minimum seed yield (311.9 kg• hm-2) was recorded in plants of cultivar Komal Green spaced at 60 cm plant spacing. While, minimum fresh pod weight• plant-1 (67.00 g) and number of seed• pod-1 (4.66) were attained in cultivar Peshawar Local grown at 15 cm plant spacing. Whereas, minimum plant height (27.59 cm) and 100-grain weight (15.60 g) were recorded for cultivar Komal Green grown at 45 and 15 cm, respectively.

  19. Vernalização de cultivares de alho nobre na região de Lavras Vernalization of noble garlic cultivars in the region of Lavras, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovilson José de Souza

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se cultivares de alho nobre [Caçador 30, Caçador 40, Caçador, Caxiense, Chonan, Contestado, Gigante Núcleo, Quitéria e Quitéria obtida por cultura de tecidos (CT] submetidas à vernalização (4ºC por 50 dias na região de Lavras (MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre as cultivares em relação à altura de plantas aos 60 dias após o plantio. A cultivar Caxiense apresentou a maior produção total de bulbos, diferindo estatisticamente das cultivares Caçador 30 e Contestado. As cultivares que apresentaram os menores índices de superbrotamento foram Chonan, Gigante Núcleo, Quitéria e Caçador. As cultivares Contestado e Caxiense apresentaram as maiores taxas de ocorrência desta anormalidade. As maiores produções comerciais de bulbos foram obtidas com as cultivares Quitéria e Caçador. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas de peso médio de bulbos e número de bulbilhos por bulbo da produção comercial entre as cultivares. A cultivar Gigante Núcleo apresentou maior peso médio de bulbilho da produção comercial quando comparada com as cultivares Contestado, Quitéria (CT e Caçador 30, que não diferiram entre si.Noble garlic cultivars were submitted to the vernalization (4ºC during 50 days in the region of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The evaluated cultivars were Caçador 30, Caçador 40, Caçador, Caxiense, Chonan, Contestado, Gigante Núcleo, Quitéria and Quitéria obtained through tissue culture (CT. The experimental design was a complete randomized block, with three replications. No significant differences were observed in relation to plant height 60 days after planting date. Caxiense presented the highest total production of bulbs, differing significantly from the cultivars Caçador 30 and Contestado. The cultivars showing lesser indexes of secondary growth were Chonan, Gigante Núcleo

  20. Grain Yield Variation in Malting Barley Cultivars in Uruguay and Its Consequences for the Design of a Trials Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceretta, S.S.E.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of cultivar trial networks is an important subject in official cultivar testing. We investigated this efficiency for malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Uruguay, using data on 213 cultivars tested across an eight-year period at six locations. The variance-components approach was us

  1. Allelic divergence and cultivar-specific SSR alleles revealed by capillary electrophoresis using fluorescence-labeled SSR markers in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Though sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp. hybrids) are complex aneu-polyploid hybrids, genetic evaluation and tracking of clone- or cultivar-specific alleles become possible due to capillary electrophoregrams (CE) using fluorescence-labeled SSR primer pairs. Twenty-four sugarcane cultivars, 12 each...

  2. Use of electronic tongue for differentiation of tomato taste by cultivar, harvest maturity, and chilling or heating exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate whether an electronic-tongue (etongue) could differentiate “taste” profiles of tomato fruit between different cultivars, harvest maturities, and postharvest chilling or heating exposure. The four cultivars included: two common commercial cultivars, ‘Tyg...

  3. Habilidade competitiva de cultivares de cevada convivendo com azevém Competitive ability of barley cultivars against ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Galon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A determinação da habilidade competitiva de cultivares de cevada com plantas daninhas torna-se relevante para a adoção do método de manejo cultural; desse modo, podemse diminuir os custos de produção, bem como os impactos ambientais causados por outros métodos de manejo, como o químico. Este trabalho comparou as habilidades competitivas relativas de três cultivares de cevada e um biótipo de azevém. Foram realizados experimentos em casa de vegetação na estação de crescimento 2008/09, utilizando-se delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em série de substituição e constituíram-se de cinco proporções de plantas de cevada e do azevém competidor com a cultura: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 e 0:100. A cevada foi representada pelos cultivares BRS Greta, BRS Elis e BRS 225, e o competidor, pelo azevém. A análise da competitividade foi efetuada por meio de diagramas aplicados a experimentos substitutivos, mais uso de índices de competitividade relativa. As variáveis estudadas foram: afilhamento, estatura, área foliar e massa da matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas. O azevém afetou o afilhamento, a área foliar e a massa da matéria seca da parte aérea de plantas dos cultivares de cevada BRS Greta, BRS Elis e BRS 225, demonstrando grande habilidade competitiva com a cultura pelos recursos disponíveis no meio. Entre os cultivares de cevada avaliados, BRS Elis foi o mais competitivo na presença do azevém, que é uma das espécies daninhas que necessitam de controle mesmo quando presente em baixas proporções na cultura da cevada.Characterization of the competitive ability of barley varieties against weed species is relevant for the adoption of the cultural method of weed control; thus, it is possible to reduce both the production costs and environmental impacts caused by other management methods, including the use of chemicals. This work assessed the

  4. Efeito da autofecundação em cultivares de abacaxi Effects of self pollination in pineapple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Santos Cabral

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O elevado nível de heterozigose dos parentais utilizados em hibridações é a principal causa da baixa eficiência dos programas de melhoramento genético do abacaxizeiro em gerar novas cultivares. Por outro lado, os efeitos da autofecundação são pouco conhecidos em abacaxi, mas esta estratégia pode proporcionar avanços significativos no melhoramento desta planta. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo observar os efeitos da autofecundação em cultivares de abacaxi. Inflorescências das cultivares Primavera, Perolera, Roxo-de-Tefé, Pérola e Smooth Cayenne foram protegidas antes da antese para possibilitar a ocorrência de autofecundação. As sementes produzidas foram germinadas em câmara de crescimento, utilizando-se como substrato do meio de cultura MS, suplementado com 30 g.L-1 de sacarose e solidificado com 2 g.L-1 de "Phytagel. Durante a germinação, observou-se que cerca de 16% das sementes de 'Roxo-de-Tefé' produziram plântulas albinas. Foram obtidas 43 plantas a partir de 'Primavera', cinco de 'Perolera', onze de 'Roxo-de-Tefé' e nenhuma de 'Pérola' e 'Smooth Cayenne'. Todas as plantas da progênie de 'Primavera' apresentaram folhas sem espinhos nos bordos ("piping", evidenciando homozigose para esta característica, enquanto na progênie de 'Perolera' três plantas evidenciaram folhas sem espinhos nos bordos e duas com folhas espinhosas, segregando para o caráter espinescência. Na descendência de 'Roxo-de-Tefé', oito plantas apresentaram folhas de cor roxa e três com folhas verdes, com segregação para a cor da folha, mas todas evidenciaram folhas com espinhos no bordo. As baixas porcentagens de germinação, o crescimento lento e o baixo vigor observados nas plantas em casa de vegetação, viveiro e campo, evidenciaram a ocorrência de depressão por endogamia nestas fases de desenvolvimento.The high level of heterozygosis of parentals used to generate pineapple hybrids has resulted in low efficiency of the

  5. Caracterização físico-química de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo Physical and chemical characteristics from fruits of four okra cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner F. da Mota

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo neste estudo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco repetições. Na maturidade comercial os frutos da cultivar Star of David tiveram maior diâmetro, peso fresco total e teor de matéria seca, menor comprimento, teor de umidade e de vitamina C comparado com as demais cultivares. A cultivar Red Velvet teve o menor diâmetro, peso fresco, teor de matéria seca, açúcares redutores e teores de clorofilas a, b e total, e maior teor de umidade e vitamina C. Frutos da cultivar Mammoth Spinless apresentaram os maiores teores de clorofilas a, b e total. A cultivar Amarelinho teve maior comprimento e menores teores de clorofila, a, b e total. As cultivares Amarelinho e Mammoth Spinless apresentaram maiores teores de açúcares redutores.In an experiment some physical and chemical characteristics of four okra cultivars were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, where the treatments were the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless with five replications. At commercial maturity fruits of the cultivar Star of David presented the largest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, smallest length, content of water and vitamin C in comparison to the other cultivars. The cultivar Red Velvet presented the smallest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, reducing sugars and content of chlorophyll a, b and total, but the largest content of water and vitamin C. The cultivar Amarelinho produced the longest fruits and the smallest content of chlorophyll a, b and total. The cultivars Amarelinho and Mammoth Spinless showed higher contents of total reducing sugars.

  6. Osmolality of nonionic contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklautz, H; Fichte, K; Wegscheider, K

    1989-01-01

    Solutions of different low osmolar contrast media (CM) obviously show clinically relevant differences in the osmolality despite equal iodine concentrations and similar molecular structure. To obtain precise and comparable data, the osmolality of five batches (usually) each of contrast media, iopamidol, iohexol, iopromide, and ioxaglate-all preparations commercially available-were measured by means of the vapor pressure method. The osmolality of the solutions of sodium meglumine ioxaglate with the same iodine concentration is lower than that of the nonionic CM examined. Iopromide showed the lowest osmolality and iohexol the highest value of the nonionic preparations. The differences are statistically significant as a rule. They are attributed to a varying association and hydration of the CM molecules in the solution.

  7. The Generalised Phase Contrast Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    An analytic framework and a complete description for the design and optimisation of on-axis centred spatially filtering common path systems are presented. The Generalised Phase Contrast method is derived and introduced as the common denominator for these systems basically extending Zernike....... Optimal conditions for visibility, peak irradiance and accuracy are derived and shown to be perfectly in line with empirical results from the literature. New graphic methods for advanced analysis purposes are demonstrated supporting these conclusions as well as providing new tools for innovative filter...... designs and parameter settings. Finally, a number of original applications facilitated by the parallel light-beam encoding of the Generalised Phase Contrast method are briefly outlined. These include among others, wavefront sensing and generation, advanced usercontrolled optical micro...

  8. Ensaio de cultivares e híbridos de morangueiro, Jundiaí, 1971 Strawberry cultivar trial at Jundiaí experiment station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leocádio de Souza Camargo

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de ensaio de competição de cinco cultivares e híbridos de morangueiro (Fragaria híbridos, realizado em 1971 na Estação Experimental de Jundiaí, SP, região de altitude aproximada de 715 m e latitude 23° e 6'S. O município de Jundiaí e os municípios vizinhos são os maiores produtores de morango do Brasil. Os cultivares estudados foram os seguintes: Campinas, Monte Alegre, Mantiqueira, Híbrido 1AC-4703 e Dr. Morère ou Comum. A colheita se estendeu de maio a novembro, para os cultivares Campinas, Monte Alegre e Híbrido IAC-4703. Foram tardios na produção de frutos, colhendo-se de julho a novembro, os cultivares Mantiqueira e Dr. Morère ou Comum. Com relação a precocidade, produtividade e características comerciais de produto - tamanho, paladar, coloração, firmeza dos frutos - obtiveram-se resultados significantemente superiores com os cultivares Campinas e Monte Alegre.A comparative study of strawberry cultivars (Fragaria hb. and hybrids was carried out at the Jundiaí Experiment Station, in 1971. The cultivar "Dr. Morère", also called "Comum", formerly the most cultivated in the State of São Paulo, was included as a standard. April 16 was the planting date. The cultivars were statistically compared on the basis of total yield of fruits (harvested from May to November and on early yield (corresponding to the May to July harvest. The cultivars were Campinas (IAC-2712, Monte Alegre (IAC-3113, Hybrid IAC-4703, Mantiqueira (IAC-3976 and Dr. Morère or Comum (I-699. Campinas (IAC-2712, Monte Alegre (IAC-3113 and Hybrid IAC-4703 showed significantly higher total yield than the others. Monte Alegre (IAC-3113 proved to be the earliest in yield followed by Campinas (IAC-2712. Dr. Morère and Mantiqueira were the latest in yield. Campinas and Monte Alegre were superior to the other cultivars also in characters as fruit size, taste, color and firmness.

  9. Armazenamento refrigerado de três cultivares de hortênsia cultivadas em vaso Three potted hydrangea cultivars storaged in low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Sonego

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. RS, no período de agosto de 1993 a janeiro de 1995. Os objetivos foram verificar o efeito do armazenamento a 2°C sobre a duração do cultivo da hortênsia - Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ser. e fornecer subsídios para o desenvolvimento da cultura da hortênsia, através da caracterização fenométrica das cultivares disponíveis na região. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, constituído por um esquema bifatorial 6x3, cujos tratamentos constaram de seis períodos de armazenamento a frio (zero, duas, três, quatro, cinco e seis semanas, em câmara frigorífica a 2°C e três cultivares de hortênsia (Rústica, Branca e Decorativa. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que as cultivares Rústica e Decorativa mostraram-se indiferentes ao armazenamento a 2°C, enquanto que a cultivar Branca atrasou o florescimento, em cerca de dois meses. Por sua vez. as três cultivares possuem potencial para a produção em vasos e são caracterizadas pelas diferenças de diâmetro da inflorescência, ciclo de florescimento e ciclo total da cultura.The experiment was conducted at the Department of Fitotecnia, in the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, from August 1993 to January 1995. The purposes were to verify the effect of cold storage in the lenght of cultivation of hydrangea - Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ser, and to obtain informations on the development of the hydrangea culture, through the fenometric characterization of the cultivars available in the region. It was conducted in completely randomized design, with five replications. The experiment was a 6 x 3 bifactorial whose treatments were six cold storage periods (zero, two, three, four, five and six weeks in a cold chamber in a temperature of 2°C and three hydrangea cultivars (cv. Rustic, White and Decorative. The results showed no influence of the 2°C storage

  10. Resposta de cultivares de trigo à infestação do pulgão Rhopalosiphum padi Wheat cultivars response to Rhopalosiphum padi infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Peruzzo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de oito cultivares comerciais de trigo (BRS 194, BRS 208, BRS Camboatá, BRS Guabiju, BRS Guamirim, BRS Louro, BRS Timbaúva e BRS Umbu à infestação do pulgão Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae. O experimento foi realizado na Embrapa Trigo, em telado, em blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos e seis repetições, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas. As parcelas principais receberam os tratamentos com e sem infestação de pulgões, e as subparcelas foram compostas pelas cultivares. A infestação com os pulgões (20 adultos ápteros por planta foi realizada aos 12 dias após a emergência das plantas, quando se encontravam no início do afilhamento, e foi mantida durante 15 dias. As cultivares avaliadas responderam diferentemente à infestação do pulgão R. padi. A cultivar BRS Timbaúva é a mais resistente, e as cultivares BRS Umbu e BRS Guabiju são as mais suscetíveis ao pulgão, quanto ao crescimento e a capacidade produtiva de plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of eight commercial wheat cultivars (BRS 194, BRS 208, BRS Camboatá, BRS Guabiju, BRS Guamirim, BRS Louro, BRS Timbaúva e BRS Umbu to the infestation of Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Trigo, in greenhouse conditions. It was used the randomized block design, in a split-plot array, with eight treatments and six replicates. The plots received treatments with or without infestation with aphids, and the split-plots were composed by the cultivars. The infestation with aphids (20 wingless adults per plant was done 12 days after plant emergency, in the beginning of tillering, and was kept for 15 days. The cultivars responded differently to the infestation with aphids. BRS Timbaúva cultivar is more resistant, and BRS Umbu and BRS Guabiju cultivars are more susceptible to R. padi, concerning plant growth and plant yield.

  11. Ontogenia da nodulação em duas cultivares de feijão-caupi Ontogeny of nodulation in two cultivars of cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Ferreira Xavier

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ontogenia da nodulação em duas cultivares de feijão-caupi. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação utilizando-se as cultivares "BRS-Guariba" e "BRS-Marataoã" cultivadas em sacos plásticos com 5kg de areia. A adubação mineral, isenta de N, foi realizada na véspera da semeadura e as sementes foram inoculadas com Bradyrhizobium sp, estirpe BR 2001. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 dias após emergência das plantas, sendo determinados o número, a massa seca e o tamanho dos nódulos e a matéria seca da parte aérea. As cultivares apresentaram maior número de nódulos aos 30 e 50 dias após a emergência. A massa e o tamanho dos nódulos aumentaram durante o ciclo das cultivares. A matéria seca da parte aérea aumentou até o estádio de formação de vagens, diminuindo até o final do ciclo fenológico. As cultivares "BRS-Guariba" e "BRS-Marataoã" apresentam comportamento semelhante em relação à nodulação pela estirpe utilizada.The aim of this paper was at evaluating the ontogeny of nodulation in two cultivars of cowpea. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse and was used the cultivars BRS-Guariba and BRS-Marataoã cultivated in plastic pots with 5 kg of sand. The mineral fertilization, without N, was made before the sowing and the seeds were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp, strain BR 2001. The evaluations were made to the 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 days after plant emergence, being measured nodule number, dry mass and size and shoot dry mass. The cultivars showed higher nodule number to 30 and 50 days after plant emergence. Nodule dry mass and size increased significantly during the cycle of cultivars. Shoot dry mass increased to stage of formation of pods, decreasing until the end of the phenological cycle. BRS-Guariba and BRS-Marataoã cultivars present similar behavior in relation to nodulation by used strain.

  12. Evaluation of twelve maize (Zea mays L. cultivars for silage Avaliação de doze cultivares de milho (Zea mays L. para silagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celina Jorge Leme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the agronomic characteristics and chemical composition of different maize cultivars for ensiling of the plant. Twelve maize cultivar were analyzed in a completely randomized block design, with three block, twelve treatments and three replication. The plot with three lines of six meters long and spacing of 0.8 m were used in all trials. The cycle of the plants of the planting to harvest varied from 105 to 114 days. The height average differed among (P 0.05 for ear by plant number (0.9 to 1.1, dry matter (33.2 to 38.2 %, ether extract (1.9 to 2.5 % and neutral detergent fiber (49.1 to 56.2 %. The dry matter production differed (P O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características agronômicas e químico-bromatológica de diferentes cultivares de milho para ensilagem. Foram avaliados doze cultivares de milho em delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com três blocos, 12 tratamentos e três repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por três linhas de seis metros de comprimento e espaçamento de 0,8 m entre linhas. O ciclo das plantas, do plantio à colheita, variou de 105 a 114 dias. A altura média diferiu entre os cultivares (P 0,05 entre os cultivares para número de espigas por planta (0,9 a 1,1, teores de matéria seca (33,2 a 38,2 %, de extrato etéreo (1,9 a 2,5 % e de fibra em detergente neutro (49,1 a 56,2 %. A produção de matéria seca diferiu (P < 0,05 entre o cultivar TORK (20,6 t/ha e os cultivares CD-302 (16,4 t/ha e TRAKTOR (15,7 t/ha. O AGN-3150 apresentou o menor teor de fibra em detergente ácido (24,2 % e maior digestibilidade (80,7 %. Todas as cultivares apresentaram características agronômicas e qualitativas adequadas para produção de silagem, destacando-se os cultivares TORK e AGN-3150.

  13. Electrofluidic systems for contrast management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Keith J.; Maranchi, Jeffrey P.; Tiffany, Jason E.; Brown, Christopher Y.; Maisano, Adam J.; Hagedon, Matthew A.; Heikenfeld, Jason C.

    2012-06-01

    Operating in dynamic lighting conditions and in greatly varying backgrounds is challenging. Current paints and state-ofthe- art passive adaptive coatings (e.g. photochromics) are not suitable for multi- environment situations. A semi-active, low power, skin is needed that can adapt its reflective properties based on the background environment to minimize contrast through the development and incorporation of suitable pigment materials. Electrofluidic skins are a reflective display technology for electronic ink and paper applications. The technology is similar to that in E Ink but makes use of MEMS based microfluidic structures, instead of simple black and white ink microcapsules dispersed in clear oil. Electrofluidic skin's low power operation and fast switching speeds (~20 ms) are an improvement over current state-ofthe- art contrast management technologies. We report on a microfluidic display which utilizes diffuse pigment dispersion inks to change the contrast of the underlying substrate from 5.8% to 100%. Voltage is applied and an electromechanical pressure is used to pull a pigment dispersion based ink from a hydrophobic coated reservoir into a hydrophobic coated surface channel. When no voltage is applied, the Young-Laplace pressure pushes the pigment dispersion ink back down into the reservoir. This allows the pixel to switch from the on and off state by balancing the two pressures. Taking a systems engineering approach from the beginning of development has enabled the technology to be integrated into larger systems.

  14. Expression of genes SBP and leginsulin in contrasting soybean seed coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Bahry

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluation of differential candidate gene expression in contrasting soybean seeds is an auxiliary tool in the partial elucidation of processes involved in seeds formation, as well as it contributes to the generation of new information that can be used in future research or in the development of r genetic superior constitutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of two candidate genes, SBP and leginsulin genes, possibly involved in seed quality, in contrasting coats of four soybean genotypes. Two cultivars of yellow soybeans were used, BMX Potência RR and CD 202, and two lines of black soybean, TP and IAC. Gene expression was evaluated using qPCR in seven stages of development from seed coats for four genotypes, at 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, and 55 days after anthesis. The design was completely randomized, with three replications. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey's test at 5% probability. SBP and leginsulin gene have higher expression in the early phases of development from seed coats of BMX Potência RR cultivar, followed by the IAC line. These genotypes are therefore of interest for further research involving these genes.

  15. Separation and quantification of inulin in selected artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) cultivars and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale WEB. ex WIGG.) roots by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Katrin; Muks, Erna; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas

    2006-12-01

    The profile of fructooligosaccharides and fructopolysaccharides in artichoke heads and dandelion roots was investigated. For this purpose, a suitable method for high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometic detection was developed. The separation of monomers, oligomers and polymers up to a chain length of 79 sugar residues was achieved in one single run. Glucose, fructose, sucrose and individual fructooligosaccharides (kestose, nystose, fructofuranosylnystose) were quantified in six different artichoke cultivars and in dandelion roots. The contents ranged from 12.9 g/kg DM to 71.7 g/kg DM for glucose, from 15.8 g/kg DM to 67.2 g/kg DM for fructose, and from 16.8 g/kg DM to 55.2 g/kg DM for sucrose in the artichoke heads. Kestose was the predominant fructooligosaccharide, followed by nystose and fructofuranosylnystose. In four cultivars fructofuranosylnystose was only detectable in traces and reached its maximum value of 3.6 g/kg DM in the cultivar Le Castel. Furthermore, an average degree of polymerization of 5.3 to 16.7 was calculated for the individual artichoke cultivars, which is noticeably lower than hitherto reported. In contrast, the contents of kestose, nystose and fructofuranosylnystose in dandelion root exceeded that of artichoke, reflecting the short chain characteristic of the inulin, which was confirmed by chromatographic analysis.

  16. Response of root explants to in vitro cultivation of marketable garlic cultivars Resposta dos explantes radiculares ao cultivo in vitro de cultivares comerciais de alho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C Scotton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic cultivars are sexually sterile under standard growth conditions, with direct implications for commercial production costs as well as breeding programs. Garlic is propagated commercially via bulblets, which facilitates disease transmission and virus load accumulation over vegetative generations. Tissue culture produces virus-free clones that are more productive, while keeping the desired traits of the cultivar. Consequently, this technique allows studies of garlic genetics as well as guarantees genetic conservation of varieties. We aimed at analyzing the in vitro regeneration of eight marketable cultivars of garlic using root segments as explants. For each genotype, bulblet-derived explants were isolated and introduced into MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D and 2-iP. Calli were transferred to MS medium supplemented with 8.8 mM BAP and 0.1 mM NAA (regeneration medium A, or with 4.6 mM kinetin alone (regeneration medium B. The calli were then evaluated for regeneration frequency after sixty days of in vitro cultivation. The noble cultivar 'Jonas' presented the highest rates of plant regeneration among the cultivars tested. The medium A, which contained auxin and cytokinin, induced the highest regeneration rates of all cultivars. The process described herein is simple, reproducible and can potentially be used as a tool in molecular breeding strategies for other marketable cultivars and genotypes of garlic.Cultivares de alho são sexualmente estéreis sob condições padrão de cultivo, com implicações diretas nos custos de produção comercial, bem como em programas de melhoramento. O alho é comercialmente propagado por meio de bulbilhos, o que facilita a transmissão de doenças e leva ao acúmulo de cargas virais ao longo das gerações. A cultura de tecidos produz clones livres de vírus que são mais produtivos, mantendo as características desejadas da cultivar. Consequentemente, esta técnica permite estudar a genética do alho, bem

  17. Efeito de densidade de plantas na produtividade de cultivares de pepino para processamento tipo "cornichon" Effect of plant density on yield of cornichon pickling cucumber cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Milanez de Resende

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de cultivares de pepino para processamento, tipo "cornichon", semeadas em diferentes espaçamentos. O experimento foi desenvolvido em Petrolina, PE, no período de abril a julho de 1999. Foram estudadas as cultivares para processamento Calypso, Eureka, Prêmio, Vlaspik e Vlasset e os espaçamentos entre plantas de 0,20, 0,30 e 0,50 m, em sistema rasteiro. Os tratamentos foram arranjados no esquema fatorial 5x3, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. A parcela experimental foi composta de quatro linhas de 3,0 m, com espaços entre elas de 1,0 m, duas plantas por cova, e área útil constituída pelas linhas centrais. O incremento do espaçamento entre plantas teve efeitos lineares negativos na produtividade das cultivares Vlaspik, Vlasset e Prêmio. As menores produtividades das cultivares Calypso e Eureka ocorreram sob espaçamento, respectivamente, de 0,50 e 0,46 m. Os maiores valores de massa de matéria fresca dos frutos foram observados nas cultivares Vlasset (6,94 g/fruto e Eureka (6,82 g/fruto que não apresentaram diferenças entre si. Observaram-se efeitos lineares positivos do aumento do espaçamento entre plantas no número de frutos por planta em todas as cultivares. As cultivares apresentaram uma variação de 12,18 a 15,10% de frutos tipo 3 (5,0 a 5,5 cm de comprimento, tendo as cultivares Vlaspik (15,10%, Eureka (14,50% e Calypso (13,60% apresentado as maiores proporções, sem diferirem entre si.The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield of cornichon pickling cucumber cultivars in different sowing spacings. The experiment was developed out in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil, from April to July, 1999. Five cultivars of pickling for processing (Calypso, Eureka, Prêmio, Vlaspik and Vlasset and three plant spacings (0.20, 0.30 and 0.50 m led in the low system were studied. The treatments were arranged in the 5x3 factorial scheme in experimental

  18. Influence of cultivar and processing on cherry (Prunus avium) allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavesi, L; Brenna, O V; Pompei, C; Pravettoni, V; Farioli, L; Pastorello, E A

    2006-12-27

    Oral allergy syndrome is an immediate food allergic event that affects lips, mouth, and pharynx, is often triggered by fruits and vegetables, and may be associated with pollinosis. Here, we report on the allergenic pattern of different varieties of cherry (Prunus avium) and results obtained by applying several technological processes to the selected varieties. Whole cherries were submitted to chemical peeling, thermal treatment, and syruping processes, and the relative protein extracts were analyzed by in vitro (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis) and in vivo tests (skin prick test). Electrophoretic analyses demonstrated that there was no marked difference among cherry cultivars. Chemical peeling successfully removed Pru av 3, a lipid transfer protein (LTP) responsible for oral allergy syndrome in patients without pollinosis, leading to the industrial production of cherry hypoallergenic derivatives. Furthermore, the syruping process removed almost all allergenic proteins to whom patients with pollinosis are responsive. In vivo tests confirmed electrophoretic results.

  19. In vitro fermentation of ten cultivars