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Sample records for actuator disc simulations

  1. Validation and modification of the Blade Element Momentum theory based on comparisons with actuator disc simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian; Døssing, Mads;

    2010-01-01

    -dimensional axial and tangential load coefficients can be used for the BEM model as for the numerical AD model. At a rotor disc loading corresponding to maximum power coefficient, we found close correlation between the AD and BEM model as concerns the integral value of the power coefficient. However, locally along......A comprehensive investigation of the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) model using detailed numerical simulations with an axis symmetric actuator disc (AD) model has been carried out. The present implementation of the BEM model is in a version where exactly the same input in the form of non...

  2. Airfoil data sensitivity analysis for actuator disc simulations used in wind turbine applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Karl; Breton, Simon-Philippe; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær;

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the sensitivity of blade geometry and airfoil characteristics on the prediction of performance characteristics of wind farms, large-eddy simulations using an actuator disc (ACD) method are performed for three different blade/airfoil configurations. The aim of the study is to determine...... how the mean characteristics of wake flow, mean power production and thrust depend on the choice of airfoil data and blade geometry. In order to simulate realistic conditions, pre-generated turbulence and wind shear are imposed in the computational domain. Using three different turbulence intensities...... and varying the spacing between the turbines, the flow around 4-8 aligned turbines is simulated. The analysis is based on normalized mean streamwise velocity, turbulence intensity, relative mean power production and thrust. From the computations it can be concluded that the actual airfoil characteristics...

  3. Wind Turbine Rotor Simulation via CFD Based Actuator Disc Technique Compared to Detailed Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Mahmoodi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a generalized Actuator Disc (AD is used to model the wind turbine rotor of the MEXICO experiment, a collaborative European wind turbine project. The AD model as a combination of CFD technique and User Defined Functions codes (UDF, so-called UDF/AD model is used to simulate loads and performance of the rotor in three different wind speed tests. Distributed force on the blade, thrust and power production of the rotor as important designing parameters of wind turbine rotors are focused to model. A developed Blade Element Momentum (BEM theory as a code based numerical technique as well as a full rotor simulation both from the literature are included into the results to compare and discuss. The output of all techniques is compared to detailed measurements for validation, which led us to final conclusions.

  4. Mechanics of Actuated Disc Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkhoda, Sevda; Detournay, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the mechanics of an actuated disc cutter with the objective of determining the average forces acting on the disc as a function of the parameters characterizing its motion. The specific problem considered is that of a disc cutter revolving off-centrically at constant angular velocity around a secondary axis rigidly attached to a cartridge, which is moving at constant velocity and undercutting rock at a constant depth. This model represents an idealization of a technology that has been implemented in a number of hard rock mechanical excavators with the goal of reducing the average thrust force to be provided by the excavation equipment. By assuming perfect conformance of the rock with the actuated disc as well as a prescribed motion of the disc (perfectly rigid machine), the evolution of the contact surface between the disc and the rock during one actuation of the disc can be computed. Coupled with simple cutter/rock interaction models that embody either a ductile or a brittle mode of fragmentation, these kinematical considerations lead to an estimate of the average force on the cartridge and of the partitioning of the energy imparted by the disc to the rock between the actuation mechanism of the disc and the translation of the cartridge on which the actuated disc is attached.

  5. 3D Lagrangian VPM: simulations of the near-wake of an actuator disc and horizontal axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdowski, T.; Ferreira, C.; Walther, J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of a 3-dimensional Lagrangian vortex particle method has been assessed for modelling the near-wake of an axisymmetrical actuator disc and 3-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine with prescribed circulation from the MEXICO (Model EXperiments In COntrolled conditions) experiment. The method was developed in the framework of the open- source Parallel Particle-Mesh library for handling the efficient data-parallelism on a CPU (Central Processing Unit) cluster, and utilized a O(N log N)-type fast multipole method for computational acceleration. Simulations with the actuator disc resulted in a wake expansion, velocity deficit profile, and induction factor that showed a close agreement with theoretical, numerical, and experimental results from literature. Also the shear layer expansion was present; the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer was triggered due to the round-off limitations of a numerical method, but this instability was delayed to beyond 1 diameter downstream due to the particle smoothing. Simulations with the 3-bladed turbine demonstrated that a purely 3-dimensional flow representation is challenging to model with particles. The manifestation of local complex flow structures of highly stretched vortices made the simulation unstable, but this was successfully counteracted by the application of a particle strength exchange scheme. The axial and radial velocity profile over the near wake have been compared to that of the original MEXICO experiment, which showed close agreement between results.

  6. Comparison between PIV measurements and computations of the near-wake of an actuator disc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Juhl; Lignarolo, L. E. M.; Ragni, D.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental stereoscopic PIV measurements in the wake of a two-bladed rotor and a porous actuator disc are compared to numerical simulation of an actuator disc. Compared to previous literature, the focus of the present analysis is on the near wake, where the actuator discs fail to represent...

  7. 3D Lagrangian VPM: simulations of the near-wake of an actuator disc and horizontal axis wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berdowski, T.; Ferreira, Célia Maria Dias; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    The application of a 3-dimensional Lagrangian vortex particle method has beenassessed for modelling the near-wake of an axisymmetrical actuator disc and 3-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine with prescribed circulation from the MEXICO (Model EXperiments InCOntrolled conditions) experiment...... in a wake expansion, velocity deficit profile, and induction factor that showed a close agreement with theoretical, numerical, and experimental results from literature. Also the shear layer expansion was present; the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer was triggered due to the round...... structures of highly stretched vortices made the simulation unstable, but this was successfully counteracted by the application of a particle strength exchange scheme. The axial and radial velocity profle over the near wake have been compared to that of the original MEXICO experiment, which showed close...

  8. Simulations of an offshore wind farm using large eddy simulation and a torque-controlled actuator disc model

    CERN Document Server

    Creech, Angus; Maguire, A Eoghan

    2014-01-01

    We present here a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of Lillgrund offshore wind farm, which is located in the {\\O}resund Strait between Sweden and Denmark. The simulation combines a dynamic representation of wind turbines embedded within a Large-Eddy Simulation CFD solver, and uses hr-adaptive meshing to increase or decrease mesh resolution where required. This allows the resolution of both large scale flow structures around the wind farm, and local flow conditions at individual turbines; consequently, the response of each turbine to local conditions can be modelled, as well as the resulting evolution of the turbine wakes. This paper provides a detailed description of the turbine model which simulates interactions between the wind, turbine rotors, and turbine generators by calculating the forces on the rotor, the body forces on the air, and instantaneous power output. This model was used to investigate a selection of key wind speeds and directions, investigating cases where a row of turbines would ...

  9. Computational Actuator Disc Models for Wind and Tidal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper details a computational fluid dynamic (CFD study of a constantly loaded actuator disc model featuring different boundary conditions; these boundary conditions were defined to represent a channel and a duct flow. The simulations were carried out using the commercially available CFD software ANSYS-CFX. The data produced were compared to the one-dimensional (1D momentum equation as well as previous numerical and experimental studies featuring porous discs in a channel flow. The actuator disc was modelled as a momentum loss using a resistance coefficient related to the thrust coefficient (CT. The model showed good agreement with the 1D momentum theory in terms of the velocity and pressure profiles. Less agreement was demonstrated when compared to previous numerical and empirical data in terms of velocity and turbulence characteristics in the far field. These models predicted a far larger velocity deficit and a turbulence peak further downstream. This study therefore demonstrates the usefulness of the duct boundary condition (for computational ease for representing open channel flow when simulating far field effects as well as the importance of turbulence definition at the inlet.

  10. Experimental comparison of a wind-turbine and of an actuator-disc near wake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lignarolo, L.; Ragni, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    The actuator disc (AD) model is commonly used to simplify the simulation of horizontal-axis wind-turbine aerodynamics. The limitations of this approach in reproducing the wake losses in wind farm simulations have been proven by a previous research. The present study is aimed at providing an experime

  11. Vortex ring state by full-field actuator disc model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, J.N.; Shen, W.Z.; Munduate, X. [DTU, Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    One-dimensional momentum theory provides a simple analytical tool for analysing the gross flow behavior of lifting propellers and rotors. Combined with a blade-element strip-theory approach, it has for many years been the most popular model for load and performance predictions of wind turbines. The model works well at moderate and high wind velocities, but is not reliable at small wind velocities, where the expansion of the wake is large and the flow field behind the rotor dominated by turbulent mixing. This is normally referred to as the turbulent wake state or the vortex ring state. In the vortex ring state, momentum theory predicts a decrease of thrust whereas the opposite is found from experiments. The reason for the disagreement is that recirculation takes place behind the rotor with the consequence that the stream tubes past the rotor becomes effectively chocked. This represents a condition at which streamlines no longer carry fluid elements from far upstream to far downstream, hence one-dimensional momentum theory is invalid and empirical corrections have to be introduced. More sophisticated analytical or semi-analytical rotor models have been used to describe stationary flow fields for heavily loaded propellers. In recent years generalized actuator disc models have been developed, but up to now no detailed computations of the turbulent wake state or the vortex ring state have been performed. In the present work the phenomenon is simulated by direct simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, where the influence of the rotor on the flow field is modelled simply by replacing the blades by an actuator disc with a constant normal load. (EG) 13 refs.

  12. Momentum theory of Joukowsky actuator discs with swirl

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuik, Gijs A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Actuator disc theory is the basis for most rotor design methods, be it with many extensions and engineering rules added to make it a well-established method. However, the off-design condition of a very low rotational speed Ω of the disc is still a topic for scientific discussions. Several authors have presented solutions of the associated momentum theory for actuator discs with a constant circulation, the so-called Joukowsky discs, showing the efficiency Cp → ∞ for Ω → 0. The momentum balance is very sensitive to the choice of the vortex core radius δ as the pressure and velocity gradients become infinite for δ → 0. Viscous vortex cores do not show this singular behaviour so an inviscid core model is sought which removes the momentum balance sensitivity to singular flow. A vortex core with a constant δ does so. Applying this results in Cp → 0 for Ω → 0, instead of Cp → ∞. The Joukowsky actuator disc theory is confirmed by a very good match with the numerically obtained results. It gives higher Cp values than corresponding solutions for discs with a Goldstein-based wake circulation published in literature.

  13. Validation of the actuator line and disc techniques using the New MEXICO measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarmast, Sasan; Shen, Wen Z.; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2016-01-01

    Actuator line and disc techniques are employed to analyse the wake obtained in the New MEXICO wind turbine experiment. The New MEXICO measurement campaign done in 2014 is a follow-up to the MEXICO campaign, which was completed in 2006. Three flow configurations in axial flow condition are simulated...

  14. Simulating Magneto-Aerodynamic Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-20

    2005. 19. Boeuf, J.P., Lagmich, Y., Callegari, Th., and Pitchford , L.C., Electro- hydrodynamic Force and Acceleration in Surface Discharge, AIAA 2006...Plasmadynamics and Laser Award, 2004 AFRL Point of Contact Dr. Donald B. Paul , AFRL/VA WPAFB, OH 937-255-7329, met weekly. Dr. Alan Garscadden, AFRL/PR...validating database for numerical simulation of magneto-aerodynamic actuator for hypersonic flow control. Points of contact at the AFRL/VA are Dr. D. Paul

  15. Validation of the actuator line and disc techniques using the New MEXICO measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmast, S.; Shen, W. Z.; Zhu, W. J.; Mikkelsen, R. F.; Breton, S. P.; Ivanell, S.

    2016-09-01

    Actuator line and disc techniques are employed to analyse the wake obtained in the New MEXICO wind turbine experiment. The New MEXICO measurement campaign done in 2014 is a follow-up to the MEXICO campaign, which was completed in 2006. Three flow configurations in axial flow condition are simulated and both computed loads and velocity fields around the rotor are compared with detailed PIV measurements. The comparisons show that the computed loadings are generally in agreement with the measurements under the rotor's design condition. Both actuator approaches under-predicted the loading in the inboard part of blade in stall condition as only 2D airfoil data were used in the simulations. The predicted wake velocities generally agree well with the PIV measurements. In the experiment, PIV measurements are also provided close to the hub and nacelle. To study the effect of hub and nacelle, numerical simulations are performed both in the presence and absence of the hub geometry. This study shows that the large hub used in the experiment has only small effects on overall wake behaviour.

  16. Actuator Disc Model Using a Modified Rhie-Chow/SIMPLE Pressure Correction Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rethore, Pierre-Elouan; Sørensen, Niels

    2008-01-01

    An actuator disc model for the flow solver EllipSys (2D&3D) is proposed. It is based on a correction of the Rhie-Chow algorithm for using discreet body forces in collocated variable finite volume CFD code. It is compared with three cases where an analytical solution is known....

  17. Numerical simulation of mechatronic sensors and actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenbacher, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Focuses on the physical modeling of mechatronic sensors and actuators and their precise numerical simulation using the Finite Element Method (FEM). This book discusses the physical modeling as well as numerical computation. It also gives a comprehensive introduction to finite elements, including their computer implementation.

  18. Kinematic structures in galactic disc simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roca-F� brega, S.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Figueras, F.; Antoja Castelltort, Teresa; Valenzuela, O.; Henney, W.J.; Torres-Peimbert, S.

    2011-01-01

    N-body and test particle simulations have been used to characterize the stellar streams in the galactic discs of Milky Way type galaxies. Tools such as the second and third order moments of the velocity ellipsoid and clustering methods -EM-WEKA and FoF- allow characterizing these kinematic structure

  19. Simulation and Performance of Brushless DC Motor Actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    AD-RI63 725 SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE OF IRUSHLESS DC MOTOR ACTUATORS(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA A GERDA DEC 85 NPS69-85-628 M...California Progress Report SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR ACTUATORS IN SUPPORT OF THE PROGRAM "ADVANCED MISSILE CONTROL DEVICES"I of...34.’ SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR ACTUATORS SUMMARY The simulation model for a Brushless D.C. Motor and the associated * commutation power

  20. Testing hydrodynamics schemes in galaxy disc simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, C. G.; Dobbs, C.; Pettitt, A.; Konstandin, L.

    2016-08-01

    We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. We compare an adaptive mesh refinement code (RAMSES), a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHNG), and a volume-discretized mesh-less code (GIZMO). Using standard refinement criteria, we find that RAMSES produces a disc that is less vertically concentrated and does not reach such high densities as the SPHNG or GIZMO runs. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes. There is also a greater degree of substructure in the SPHNG and GIZMO runs and secondary spiral arms are more pronounced. By resolving the Jeans length with a greater number of grid cells, we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. Other alterations to the refinement scheme (adding extra levels of refinement and refining based on local density gradients) are less successful in reducing the disparity between RAMSES and SPHNG/GIZMO. Although more similar, SPHNG displays different density distributions and vertical mass profiles to all modes of GIZMO (including the smoothed particle hydrodynamics version). This suggests differences also arise which are not intrinsic to the particular method but rather due to its implementation. The discrepancies between codes (in particular, the densities reached in the spiral arms) could potentially result in differences in the locations and time-scales for gravitational collapse, and therefore impact star formation activity in more complex galaxy disc simulations.

  1. Validation of four LES and a vortex model against stereo-PIV measurements in the near wake of an actuator disc and a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lignarolo, Lorenzo E.M.; Mehta, Dhruv; Stevens, Richard J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry was employed to obtain the velocity field and turbulence statistics in the near wake of a two-bladed wind turbine model and of a porous disc, which mimics the numerical actuator used in the simulations. Researchers have been invited to simulate the experimental case......In this paper we report the results of a workshop organised by the Delft University of Technology in 2014, aiming at the comparison between different state-of-the-art numerical models for the simulation of wind turbine wakes. The chosen benchmark case is a wind tunnel measurement, where...... based on the disc drag coefficient and the inflow characteristics. Four large eddy simulation (LES) codes from different institutions and a vortex model are part of the comparison. The purpose of this benchmark is to validate the numerical predictions of the flow field statistics in the near wake...

  2. Testing Hydrodynamics Schemes in Galaxy Disc Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Few, C G; Pettitt, A; Konstandin, L

    2016-01-01

    We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. We compare an adaptive mesh refinement code (RAMSES), a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (sphNG), and a volume-discretised meshless code (GIZMO). Using standard refinement criteria, we find that RAMSES produces a disc that is less vertically concentrated and does not reach such high densities as the sphNG or GIZMO runs. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes. There is also a greater degree of substructure in the sphNG and GIZMO runs and secondary spiral arms are more pronounced. By resolving the Jeans' length with a greater number of grid cells we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. Other alterations to the refinement scheme (adding extra levels of refinement and refining based on local density gradients) are less successful i...

  3. Validation of the actuator disc approach in PHOENICS using small scale model wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simisiroglou, N.; Sarmast, S.; Breton, S.-P.; Ivanell, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this study two wind turbine setups are investigated numerically: (a) the flow around a single model wind turbine and (b) the wake interaction between two in-line model wind turbines. This is done by using Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and an actuator disc (ACD) technique in the computational fluid dynamics code PHOENICS. The computations are conducted for the design condition of the rotors using four different turbulence closure models. The computed axial velocity field as well as the turbulent kinetic energy are compared with PIV measurements. For the two model wind turbine setup, the thrust and power coefficient are also computed and compared with measurements. The results show that this RANS ACD method is able to predict the overall behaviour of the flow with low computational effort and that the turbulence closure model has a direct effect on the predicted wake development.

  4. Three-dimensional simulation of polytropic accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molteni, D. (Palermo Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Belvedere, G.; Lanzafame, G. (Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia)

    1991-04-15

    We carried out three-dimensional simulations of the formation and evolution of accretion discs in close binary systems, using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method to solve the fluid dynamic equations. Although the runs presented here refer to an ideal gas with different polytropic indexes, and constitute the first stage of more physically complex forthcoming simulations, they nevertheless give some interesting results; the disc structure and dynamics are in agreement with standard models only for small {gamma}-values; as a consequence of the z-resolution is found that disc formation is inhibited for {gamma} {ge} 1.2, which means that some 2D simulations of polytropic discs are meaningless; the disc is slightly asymmetric in the x-y plane and its profile is irregular and pulsating at the outer boundary. (Author).

  5. A CFD analysis of the actuator disc flow compared with momentum theory results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard Madsen, H. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    The blade element momentum (BEM) model is still used in many aerodynamic and aeroelastic models for design and load calculations. This is due to its simplicity, robustness, computational speed and good accuracy for a wide range of applications. The question about accuracy is however closely connected to the airfoil section data and therefore correlation/lack of correlation with experimental results can both be due to the specific input data used and due to the induced velocity field predicted by the BEM method. It is also well-known that the BEM method for some applications is used under operational conditions that violates the assumptions made for the development of the model, e.g. operation in yaw and operation at high loading. The main objective with the present study is to investigate this part of the BEM method (the momentum strip theory MST) on which the determination of the induced velocities is based. This is done by comparing the results of the MST model with velocities predicted on basis of the Navier Stokes equations for the flow through an actuator disc. (au)

  6. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanskii, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Traditional approaches for active flow separation control using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators are limited to relatively low speed flows and atmospheric conditions. This results in low feasibility of the DBDs for aerospace applications. For active flow control at turbine blades, fixed wings, and rotary wings and on hypersonic vehicles, DBD plasma actuators must perform at a wide range of conditions, including rarified flows and combustion mixtures. An efficient, comprehensive, physically based DBD simulation tool can optimize DBD plasma actuators for different operation conditions. Researchers are developing a DBD plasma actuator simulation tool for a wide range of ambient gas pressures. The tool will treat DBD using either kinetic, fluid, or hybrid models, depending on the DBD operational condition.

  7. Metallicity gradients of disc stars for a cosmologically simulated galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Awat; Kawata, Daisuke; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Brook, Chris B.; Gibson, Brad K.; Kiessling, Alina

    2011-08-01

    We analyse for the first time the radial abundance gradients of the disc stars of a disc galaxy simulated with our three-dimensional, fully cosmological chemodynamical galaxy evolution code GCD+. We study how [Fe/H], [N/O], [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] vary with galactocentric radius. For the young stars of the disc, we found a negative slope for [Fe/H] and [N/O] but a positive [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] slope with radius. By analysing the star formation rate at different radii, we found that the simulated disc contains a greater fraction of young stars in the outer regions, while the old stars tend to be concentrated in the inner parts of the disc. This can explain the positive [α/Fe] gradient as well as the negative [N/O] gradient with radius. This radial trend is a natural outcome of an inside-out formation of the disc, regardless of its size and can thus explain the recently observed positive [α/Fe] gradients in the Milky Way disc open clusters.

  8. Metallicity gradients of disc stars for a cosmologically simulated galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Rahimi, Awat; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Brook, Chris B; Gibson, Brad K; Kiessling, Alina

    2011-01-01

    We analyse for the first time the radial abundance gradients of the disc stars of a disc galaxy simulated with our three dimensional, fully cosmological chemodynamical galaxy evolution code GCD+. We study how [Fe/H], [N/O], [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] vary with galactocentric radius. For the young stars of the disc, we found a negative slope for [Fe/H] and [N/O] but a positive [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] slope with radius. By analysing the star formation rate (SFR) at different radii, we found that the simulated disc contains a greater fraction of young stars in the outer regions, while the old stars tend to be concentrated in the inner parts of the disc. This can explain the positive [alpha/Fe] gradient as well as the negative [N/O] gradient with radius. This radial trend is a natural outcome of an inside-out formation of the disc, regardless of its size and can thus explain the recently observed positive [alpha/Fe] gradients in the Milky Way disc open clusters.

  9. A truly Newtonian softening length for disc simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Huré, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The softened point mass model is commonly used in simulations of gaseous discs including self-gravity while the value of associated length \\lambda remains, to some degree, controversial. This ``parameter'' is however fully constrained when, in a discretized disc, all fluid cells are demanded to obey Newton's law. We examine the topology of solutions in this context, focusing on cylindrical cells more or less vertically elongated. We find that not only the nominal length depends critically on the cell's shape (curvature, radial extension, height), but it is either a real or an imaginary number. Setting \\lambda as a fraction of the local disc thickness -- as usually done -- is indeed not the optimal choice. We then propose a novel prescription valid irrespective of the disc properties and grid spacings. The benefit, which amounts to 2-3 more digits typically, is illustrated in a few concrete cases. A detailed mathematical analysis is in progress.

  10. Numerical simulations of thin accretion discs with PLUTO

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarathy, Varadarajan

    2014-01-01

    Our goal is to perform global simulations of thin accretion discs around compact bodies like neutron stars with dipolar magnetic profile and black holes by exploiting the facilities provided by state-of-the-art grid-based, high resolution shock capturing (HRSC) and finite volume codes. We have used the Godunov-type code PLUTO to simulate a thin disc around a compact object prescribed with a pseudo-Newtonian potential in a purely hydrodynamical (HD) regime, with numerical viscosity as a first step towards achieving our goal as mentioned above.

  11. Design and dynamic evaluation for a linear ultrasonic stage using the thin-disc structure actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fuhliang; Yen, C-Y

    2007-12-01

    The design of a novel, single-axis ultrasonic actuating stage has been proposed. It consists of a movable plate, an edge-driving ultrasonic actuator as an actuating device, and a magnetic Magi encoder as a position sensor. The stage is impelled using a friction-contact mechanism by the ultrasonic actuator with long distance movement. Very high actuating and braking abilities are obtained. The stable and precise positioning control of the stage was achieved by using a neural-fuzzy controller. This simple and inexpensive structure of the single-axis stage demonstrates that the mechanical design of ultrasonic actuating concept could be done flexibly according to the requirements for various applications.

  12. NIHAO VI. The hidden discs of simulated galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Obreja, A; Dutton, A A; Macciò, A V; Wang, L; Kang, X

    2016-01-01

    Detailed studies of galaxy formation require clear definitions of the structural components of galaxies. Precisely defined components also enable better comparisons between observations and simulations. We use a subsample of eighteen cosmological zoom-in simulations from the NIHAO project to derive a robust method for defining stellar kinematic discs in galaxies. Our method uses Gaussian Mixture Models in a 3D space of dynamical variables. The NIHAO galaxies have the right stellar mass for their halo mass, and their angular momenta and S\\'ersic indices match observations. While the photometric disc-to-total ratios are close to 1 for all the simulated galaxies, the kinematic ratios are around ~0.5. Thus, exponential structure does not imply a cold kinematic disc. Above log(M*)~9.5, the decomposition leads to thin discs and spheroids that have clearly different properties, in terms of angular momentum, rotational support, ellipticity, [Fe/H] and [O/Fe]. At log(M*)<9.5, the decomposition selects discs and sph...

  13. Simulation of wind turbine wakes using the actuator line technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Henningson, Dan S.;

    2015-01-01

    The actuator line technique was introduced as a numerical tool to be employed in combination with large eddy simulations to enable the study of wakes and wake interaction in wind farms. The technique is today largely used for studying basic features of wakes as well as for making performance...

  14. Numerical simulations of accretion discs: Pt. 1. Superhumps: a tidal phenomenon of accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehurst, Robert

    1988-05-01

    Numerical simulations of the SU UMa star ZCha in outburst are presented which demonstrate the role of the secondary's tidal influence upon the accretion flow and provide explanations for the superhumps seen in SU UMa stars. They show that for a system with an extreme mass-ratio q = 0.15, the disc is tidally unstable and can become asymmetric and slowly rotate in the inertial frame of reference. The tidal stresses raised in this disc by the secondary produce a peak in the light curve of order 30 per cent which recurs with a period 3.5 per cent longer than that of the orbit. This is interpreted as the superhump. Analytic considerations show that only for systems with mass-ratios more extreme than approximately 4::1 will such behaviour occur, which is consistent with the known mass-ratio of SU UMa stars and other cataclysmic variables.

  15. Stochasticity in N-body Simulations of Disc Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sellwood, J A

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that the chaotic nature of N-body systems can lead to macroscopic variations in the outcomes of collisionless simulations containing rotationally supported discs. The unavoidable stochasticity that afflicts all simulations generally causes mild differences between the evolution of similar models but, in order to illustrate that this is not always true, we present a case that shows extreme bimodal divergence. We identify and give explicit illustrations of several sources of stochasticity, and also show that macroscopic variations in the outcomes can originate from differences at the round-off error level. We obtain somewhat more consistent results from simulations in which the halo is set up with great care compared with those started from more approximate equilibria, but we have been unable to eliminate diverging behaviour entirely because the main sources of stochasticity are intrinsic to the disc. We demonstrate that the divergent behaviour occurs in two different types of code and is indepen...

  16. Simulation and control of an electro-hydraulic actuated clutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balau, Andreea-Elena; Caruntu, Constantin-Florin; Lazar, Corneliu

    2011-08-01

    The basic function of any type of automotive transmission is to transfer the engine torque to the vehicle with the desired ratio smoothly and efficiently and the most common control devices inside the transmission are clutches and hydraulic pistons. The automatic control of the clutch engagement plays a crucial role in Automatic Manual Transmission (AMT) vehicles, being seen as an increasingly important enabling technology for the automotive industry. It has a major role in automatic gear shifting and traction control for improved safety, drivability and comfort and, at the same time, for fuel economy. In this paper, a model for a wet clutch actuated by an electro-hydraulic valve used by Volkswagen for automatic transmissions is presented. Starting from the developed model, a simulator was implemented in Matlab/Simulink and the model was validated against data obtained from a test-bench provided by Continental Automotive Romania, which includes the Volkswagen wet clutch actuated by the electro-hydraulic valve. Then, a predictive control strategy is applied to the model of the electro-hydraulic actuated clutch with the aims of controlling the clutch piston displacement and decreasing the influence of the network-induced delays on the control performances. The simulation results obtained with the proposed method are compared with the ones obtained with different networked controllers and it is shown that the strategy proposed in this paper can indeed improve the performances of the control system.

  17. Design and Simulation of an Electrothermal Actuator Based Rotational Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Sterling; Dallas, Tim

    2008-10-01

    As a participant in the Micro and Nano Device Engineering (MANDE) Research Experience for Undergraduates program at Texas Tech University, I learned how MEMS devices operate and the limits of their operation. Using specialized AutoCAD-based design software and the ANSYS simulation program, I learned the MEMS fabrication process used at Sandia National Labs, the design limitations of this process, the abilities and drawbacks of micro devices, and finally, I redesigned a MEMS device called the Chevron Torsional Ratcheting Actuator (CTRA). Motion is achieved through electrothermal actuation. The chevron (bent-beam) actuators cause a ratcheting motion on top of a hub-less gear so that as voltage is applied the CTRA spins. The voltage applied needs to be pulsed and the frequency of the pulses determine the angular frequency of the device. The main objective was to design electromechanical structures capable of transforming the electrical signals into mechanical motion without overheating. The design was optimized using finite element analysis in ANSYS allowing multi-physics simulations of our model system.

  18. Simulation of SU-8 frequency-driven scratch drive actuators

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso, David

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the simulation of Scratch Drive Actuators (SDAs) for micro-robotic applications. SDAs use electrostatic forces to generate motion on top of an interdigitated electrode array. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate several design geometries and micro-actuator configurations using ConventorWare®\\'s finite element analysis module. The study performed investigates the SDAs modal and electrostatic behavior and the effects of linking two or more SDAs together in a microrobot device. In addition, the interdigitated electrode array performance, used for power delivery, was studied by changing the thickness of its dielectric layer. We present our observations based on these studies, which will aid in the understanding and development of future SDA designs. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. Simulation of wind turbine wakes using the actuator line technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jens N; Mikkelsen, Robert F; Henningson, Dan S; Ivanell, Stefan; Sarmast, Sasan; Andersen, Søren J

    2015-02-28

    The actuator line technique was introduced as a numerical tool to be employed in combination with large eddy simulations to enable the study of wakes and wake interaction in wind farms. The technique is today largely used for studying basic features of wakes as well as for making performance predictions of wind farms. In this paper, we give a short introduction to the wake problem and the actuator line methodology and present a study in which the technique is employed to determine the near-wake properties of wind turbines. The presented results include a comparison of experimental results of the wake characteristics of the flow around a three-bladed model wind turbine, the development of a simple analytical formula for determining the near-wake length behind a wind turbine and a detailed investigation of wake structures based on proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of numerically generated snapshots of the wake.

  20. Simulation of wind turbine wakes using the actuator line technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jens N.; Mikkelsen, Robert F.; Henningson, Dan S.; Ivanell, Stefan; Sarmast, Sasan; Andersen, Søren J.

    2015-01-01

    The actuator line technique was introduced as a numerical tool to be employed in combination with large eddy simulations to enable the study of wakes and wake interaction in wind farms. The technique is today largely used for studying basic features of wakes as well as for making performance predictions of wind farms. In this paper, we give a short introduction to the wake problem and the actuator line methodology and present a study in which the technique is employed to determine the near-wake properties of wind turbines. The presented results include a comparison of experimental results of the wake characteristics of the flow around a three-bladed model wind turbine, the development of a simple analytical formula for determining the near-wake length behind a wind turbine and a detailed investigation of wake structures based on proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of numerically generated snapshots of the wake. PMID:25583862

  1. Kinetic energy entrainment in wind turbine and actuator disc wakes: an experimental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lignarolo, L.E.M.; Ragni, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The present experimental study focuses on the comparison between the wake of a two-bladed wind turbine and the one of an actuator disk. The flow field at the middle plane of the wake is measured with a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup, in the low-speed Open Jet Facility wind tunnel of t

  2. X-ray coronae in simulations of disc galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert A.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop

    2010-09-01

    The existence of X-ray luminous gaseous coronae around massive disc galaxies is a long-standing prediction of galaxy formation theory in the cold dark matter cosmogony. This prediction has garnered little observational support, with non-detections commonplace and detections for only a relatively small number of galaxies which are much less luminous than expected. We investigate the coronal properties of a large sample of bright, disc-dominated galaxies extracted from the GIMIC suite of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations recently presented by Crain et al. Remarkably, the simulations reproduce the observed scalings of X-ray luminosity with K-band luminosity and star formation rate (SFR) and, when account is taken of the density structure of the halo, with disc rotation velocity as well. Most of the star formation in the simulated galaxies (which have realistic stellar mass fractions) is fuelled by gas cooling from a quasi-hydrostatic hot corona. However, these coronae are more diffuse, and of a lower luminosity, than predicted by the analytic models of White & Frenk because of a substantial increase in entropy at z ~ 1-3. Both the removal of low entropy gas by star formation and energy injection from supernovae contribute to this increase in entropy, but the latter is dominant for halo masses M200 <~ 1012.5Msolar. Only a small fraction of the mass of the hot gas is outflowing as a wind but, because of its high density and metallicity, it contributes disproportionally to the X-ray emission. The bulk of the X-ray emission, however, comes from the diffuse quasi-hydrostatic corona which supplies the fuel for ongoing star formation in discs today. Future deep X-ray observations with high spectral resolution (e.g. with NeXT/ASTRO-H or IXO) should be able to map the velocity structure of the hot gas and test this fundamental prediction of current galaxy formation theory.

  3. Simulation of dynamics of a permanent magnet linear actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yatchev, Ivan; Ritchie, Ewen

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of two approaches for the simulation of the dynamic behaviour of a permanent magnet linear actuator is presented. These are full coupled model, where the electromagnetic field, electric circuit and mechanical motion problems are solved simultaneously, and decoupled model, where first...... a set of static magnetic filed analysis is carried out and then the electric circuit and mechanical motion equations are solved employing bi-cubic spline approximations of the field analysis results. The results show that the proposed decoupled model is of satisfactory accuracy and gives more...

  4. Properties of HI discs in the Auriga cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinacci, Federico; Grand, Robert J. J.; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker; Gómez, Facundo A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D. M.

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the properties of the HI gas distribution in the Auriga project, a set of magnetohydrodynamic cosmological simulations performed with the moving-mesh code AREPO and a physics model for galaxy formation that succeeds in forming realistic late-type galaxies in the 30 Milky Way-sized haloes simulated in this project. We use a simple approach to estimate the neutral hydrogen fraction in our simulation set, which treats low-density and star-forming gas separately, and we explore two different prescriptions to subtract the contribution of molecular hydrogen from the total HI content. The HI gas in the vast majority of the systems forms extended discs although more disturbed morphologies are present. Notwithstanding the general good agreement with observed HI properties - such as radial profiles and the mass-diameter relation - the Auriga galaxies are systematically larger and more gas-rich than typical nearby galaxies. Interestingly, the amount of HI gas outside the disc plane correlates with the star formation rate, consistent with a picture where most of this extra-planar HI gas originates from a fountain-like flow. Our findings are robust with respect to the different assumptions adopted for computing the molecular hydrogen fraction and do not vary significantly over a wide range of numerical resolution. The HI modelling introduced in this paper can be used in future work to build artificial interferometric HI data cubes, allowing an even closer comparison of the gas dynamics in simulated galaxies with observations.

  5. Why stellar feedback promotes disc formation in simulated galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Übler, Hannah; Oser, Ludwig; Aumer, Michael; Sales, Laura V; White, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We study how feedback influences baryon infall onto galaxies using cosmological, zoom-in simulations of haloes with present mass $\\mathrm{M}_{\\mathrm{vir}}=6.9\\times10^{11} \\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$ to $1.7\\times10^{12} \\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$. Starting at $z=4$ from identical initial conditions, implementations of weak and strong stellar feedback produce bulge- and disc-dominated galaxies, respectively. Strong feedback favours disc formation: (1) because conversion of gas into stars is suppressed at early times, as required by abundance matching arguments, resulting in flat star formation histories and higher gas fractions; (2) because $50\\%$ of the stars form ${\\it in}$ ${\\it situ}$ from recycled disc gas with angular momentum only weakly related to that of the $z=0$ dark halo; (3) because late-time gas accretion is typically an order of magnitude stronger and has higher specific angular momentum, with recycled gas dominating over primordial infall; (4) because $25-30\\%$ of the total accreted gas is ejected entirely ...

  6. Simulations of minor mergers - II. The phase-space structure of thick discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalobos, Alvaro; Helmi, Amina

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the phase-space structure of simulated thick discs that are the result of a 5:1 mass-ratio merger between a disc galaxy and a satellite. Our main goal is to establish what would be the imprints of a merger origin for the Galactic thick disc. We find that the spatial distribution predicted

  7. Simulations of minor mergers. II. The phase-space structure of thick discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalobos, ´Alvaro; Helmi, Amina

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the phase-space structure of simulated thick discs that are the result of a significant merger between a disc galaxy and a satellite. Our main goal is to establish what would be the characteristic imprints of a merger origin for the Galactic thick disc. We find that the spatial distributi

  8. Properties of HI discs in the Auriga cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Marinacci, Federico; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker; Gómez, Facundo; Frenk, Carlos; White, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the properties of the HI gas distribution in the Auriga project, a set of magnetohydrodynamic cosmological simulations performed with the moving-mesh code AREPO and a physics model for galaxy formation that succeeds in forming realistic late-type galaxies in the 30 Milky Way-sized haloes simulated in this project. We use a simple approach to estimate the neutral hydrogen fraction in our simulation set, which treats low-density and star-forming gas separately, and we explore two different prescriptions to subtract the contribution of molecular hydrogen from the total HI content. The HI gas in the vast majority of the systems forms extended discs although more disturbed morphologies are present. Notwithstanding the general good agreement with observed HI properties -- such as radial profiles and the mass-diameter relation -- the Auriga galaxies are systematically larger and more gas-rich than typical nearby galaxies. Interestingly, the amount of HI gas outside the disc plane correlates with the star ...

  9. 2D velocity fields of simulated interacting disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberger, T; Schindler, S; Ziegler, B L

    2007-01-01

    We investigate distortions in the velocity fields of disc galaxies and their use to reveal the dynamical state of interacting galaxies at different redshift. For that purpose, we model disc galaxies in combined N-body/hydrodynamic simulations. 2D velocity fields of the gas are extracted from these simulations which we place at different redshifts from z=0 to z=1 to investigate resolution effects on the properties of the velocity field. To quantify the structure of the velocity field we also perform a kinemetry analysis. If the galaxy is undisturbed we find that the rotation curve extracted from the 2D field agrees well with long-slit rotation curves. This is not true for interacting systems, as the kinematic axis is not well defined and does in general not coincide with the photometric axis of the system. For large (Milky way type) galaxies we find that distortions are still visible at intermediate redshifts but partly smeared out. Thus a careful analysis of the velocity field is necessary before using it for...

  10. Simulation model for analyzing SPUDI with actuated signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafahi, Y.; Haghani, A.; Carter, E.C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Gupta, K.N.V. [SIMCO Engineering, New York, NY (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A time based microsimulation model is developed for analyzing the traffic operation at single point urban diamond interchanges. Features of the model include actuated signal operation, protected and permitted left turn phasing, right turn phasing with and without right turn on red, traffic in shared lanes, traffic in left turn and right turn storage lanes, car following, lane changing, gap acceptance behavior, primary and secondary queue formation and dissipation. The model accepts geometric, traffic, and signal data in an interactive mode. Input files may also be created separately without going through the interactive session. The model outputs include measures of effectiveness such as stopped delay, total delay, average speed, and maximum and average queue length. These measures of effectiveness are given for each turning movement for each approach, and for the intersection as a whole. The model outputs also show the total green time and the total yellow and all red times assigned by the actuated system to each phase during the simulation time. The model results are compared with the actual data collected in the field.

  11. Numerical Simulation of High-Power Synthetic Jet Actuator Flowfield and its Influence on Mixing Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Detailed two-dimensional unsteady numerical simulation is carried out to investigate a high-power synthetic jet actuator flow field and its design characteristic. Simultaneously, mixing control mechanism of coaxial jets with actuators is also studied. Firstly, excitation frequency (rotating speed), piston displacement and its exit slot width have effect on the controlling ability and controlling efficiency of actuator. With the invariable model and concerned parameters, the actuator becomes more desirable as the rotating speed increases. Average velocity and maximal velocity at the actuator exit section increase as the piston displacement enlarges or the exit slot width decreases. But the actuator does not always exhibit good performance with the narrower exit. Secondly, the synthetic jets also have the "push" effect on the coaxial jets, which results in the fluctuation of vorticity and temperature distribution of mixing fiowfield. Finally, the employment of synthetic jet actuator can achieve mixing enhancement significantly.

  12. Thermo-Mechanical Simulation of Brake Disc Frictional Character by Moment of Inertia

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Gao

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of temperatures gradient and thermal stress of brake disc has been simulated by FEM code to make brake disc thermal stress more homogenously. In this study, using moment of inertia to simulate the realistic brake process instead of theoretically predefines the train deceleration rate, nonlinear deceleration rate and thermo-mechanical behavior has been revealed. The FEM models build upon LS-DYNA® thermo-mechanical code and contact algorithm. Non-uniform temperature alone disc ...

  13. The diverse formation histories of simulated disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Aumer, Michael; Naab, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the formation histories of 19 galaxies from cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics zoom-in resimulations. We construct mock three-colour images and show that the models reproduce observed trends in the evolution of galaxy colours and morphologies. However, only a small fraction of galaxies contains bars. Many galaxies go through phases of central mass growth by in-situ star formation driven by gas-rich mergers or misaligned gas infall. These events lead to accretion of low-angular momentum gas to the centres and leave imprints on the distributions of z=0 stellar circularities, radii and metallicities as functions of age. Observations of the evolution of structural properties of samples of disc galaxies at z=2.5-0.0 infer continuous mass assembly at all radii. Our simulations can only explain this if there is a significant contribution from mergers or misaligned infall, as expected in a LambdaCDM universe. Quiescent merger histories lead to high kinematic disc fractions and inside-out growth, ...

  14. A Simulation Model of Focus and Radial Servos in Compact Disc Players with Disc Surface Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle;

    2004-01-01

    Compact Disc players have been on the market in more than two decades.As a consequence most of the control servo problems have been solved. A large remaining problem to solve is the handling of Compact Discs with severe surface defects like scratches and fingerprints. This paper introduces a method...

  15. Analysis of long distance wakes of Horns Rev I using actuator disc approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, O.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose;

    2014-01-01

    farm (as infinitely wide), using only two columns of turbines. The meteorological conditions of the site are taken into account by introducing wind shear and pre-generated synthetic turbulence to the simulation domain using body forces. Simulations are carried out to study the power production...

  16. Wind turbine rotor simulation using the actuator disk and actuator line methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzimas, M.; Prospathopoulos, J.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper focuses on wind turbine rotor modeling for loads and wake flow prediction. Two steady-state models based on the actuator disk approach are considered, using either a uniform thrust or a blade element momentum calculation of the wind turbine loads. A third model is based on the unsteady-state actuator line approach. Predictions are compared with measurements in wind tunnel experiments and in atmospheric environment and the capabilities and weaknesses of the different models are addressed.

  17. The Properties of Bound and Unbound Molecular Cloud Populations Formed in Galactic Disc Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Rachel L; Wadsley, James; Sills, Alison; Couchman, H M P

    2015-01-01

    We explore the effect of galactic environment on properties of molecular clouds. Using clouds formed in a large-scale galactic disc simulation, we measure the observable properties from synthetic column density maps. We confirm that a significant fraction of unbound clouds forms naturally in a galactic disc environment and that a mixed population of bound and unbound clouds can match observed scaling relations and distributions for extragalactic molecular clouds. By dividing the clouds into inner and outer disc populations, we compare their distributions of properties and test whether there are statistically significant differences between them. We find that clouds in the outer disc have lower masses, sizes, and velocity dispersions as compared to those in the inner disc for reasonable choices of the inner/outer boundary. We attribute the differences to the strong impact of galactic shear on the disc stability at large galactocentric radii. In particular, our Toomre analysis of the disc shows a narrowing enve...

  18. Parametric identification of a servo-hydraulic actuator for real-time hybrid simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yili; Ou, Ge; Maghareh, Amin; Dyke, Shirley J.

    2014-10-01

    In a typical Real-time Hybrid Simulation (RTHS) setup, servo-hydraulic actuators serve as interfaces between the computational and physical substructures. Time delay introduced by actuator dynamics and complex interaction between the actuators and the specimen has detrimental effects on the stability and accuracy of RTHS. Therefore, a good understanding of servo-hydraulic actuator dynamics is a prerequisite for controller design and computational simulation of RTHS. This paper presents an easy-to-use parametric identification procedure for RTHS users to obtain re-useable actuator parameters for a range of payloads. The critical parameters in a linearized servo-hydraulic actuator model are optimally obtained from genetic algorithms (GA) based on experimental data collected from various specimen mass/stiffness combinations loaded to the target actuator. The actuator parameters demonstrate convincing convergence trend in GA. A key feature of this parametric modeling procedure is its re-usability under different testing scenarios, including different specimen mechanical properties and actuator inner-loop control gains. The models match well with experimental results. The benefit of the proposed parametric identification procedure has been demonstrated by (1) designing an H∞ controller with the identified system parameters that significantly improves RTHS performance; and (2) establishing an analysis and computational simulation of a servo-hydraulic system that help researchers interpret system instability and improve design of experiments.

  19. Chemodynamical analysis of bulge stars for simulated disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Kawata, D.; Brook, Chris B.; Gibson, Brad K.

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the kinematics and chemistry of the bulge stars of two simulated disc galaxies using our chemodynamical galaxy evolution code GCD+. First, we compare stars that are born inside the galaxy with those that are born outside the galaxy and are accreted into the centre of the galaxy. Stars that originate outside the bulge are accreted into it early in its formation within 3 Gyr so that these stars have high [α/Fe] as well as a high total energy reflecting their accretion to the centre of the galaxy. Therefore, higher total energy is a good indicator for finding accreted stars. The bulges of the simulated galaxies formed through multiple mergers separated by about a Gyr. Since [α/Fe] is sensitive to the first few Gyr of star formation history, stars that formed during mergers at different epochs show different [α/Fe]. We show that the [Mg/Fe] against star formation time relation can be very useful to identify a multiple merger bulge formation scenario, provided there is sufficiently good age information available. Our simulations also show that stars formed during one of the merger events retain a systematically prograde rotation at the final time. This demonstrates that the orbit of the ancient merger that helped to form the bulge could still remain in the kinematics of bulge stars.

  20. The impact of initial conditions in N-body simulations of debris discs

    CERN Document Server

    Thilliez, E

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulations are a crucial tool to understand the relationship between debris discs and planetary companions. However, simulations throughout the literature have been conducted with various initial conditions often with little or no justification. In this paper, we aim to study the dependence on the initial conditions of N-body simulations modelling the interaction between a massive and eccentric planet on an exterior debris disc. To achieve this, we first classify three broad approaches used in the literature and provide some physical context for when each category should be used. We then run a series of N-body simulations, that include radiation forces acting on small grains, with varying initial conditions across the three categories. We test the influence of the initial parent body belt width, eccentricity, and alignment with the planet on the resulting debris disc structure and compare the final peak emission location, disc width and offset of synthetic disc images produced with a radiative tran...

  1. Thermomechanical Simulation of Wear and Hot Bands in a Disc Brake by Adopting an Eulerian Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Asim; Strömberg, Niclas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper frictional heating of a disc brake is simulated while taking wear into account. By performing thermomechanical finite element analysis, it is studied how the wear history will influence the development of hot bands. The frictional heat analysis is based on an Eulerian formulation of the disc, which requires significantly lower computational time as compared to a standard Lagrangian approach. A real disc-pad system to a heavy truck is considered, where complete three-dimensional ...

  2. Active aeroelastic control aspects of an aircraft wing by using synthetic jet actuators: modeling, simulations, experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donnell, K.O.; Schober, S.; Stolk, M.; Marzocca, P.; De Breuker, R.; Abdalla M.; Nicolini, E.; Gürdal, Z.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses modeling, simulations and experimental aspects of active aeroelastic control on aircraft wings by using Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs). SJAs, a particular class of zero-net mass-flux actuators, have shown very promising results in numerous aeronautical applications, such as boun

  3. Analysis and simulation of fully ankle actuated planar bipedal robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Michel; Oort, van Gijs; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of planar bipedal robots, based on passive dynamic walkers, which are actuated only by actuation of the ankle joints. An overview of the major design characteristics of such robots and their influence on the feasibility of a stable limit cycle is presented. It is s

  4. Simulation studies for the PANDA endcap disc DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Mustafa; Biguenko, Klim; Dueren, Michael; Hayrapetyan, Avetik; Kroeck, Benno; Merle, Oliver; Rieke, Julian [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Foehl, Klaus [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The physics program of the PANDA detector at the future FAIR facility at GSI requires excellent particle identification. For the Panda forward endcap region a novel detector type called ''Disc DIRC'' has been designed. It covers the angular range between 5 and 22 degrees and uses internally reflected Cherenkov light in order to separate pions, kaons and protons up to a momentum of 4 GeV/c. During the design phase, extensive detector simulations have been performed to optimize and evaluate the design. The simulations were done using Geant4 and the PandaRoot framework in addition with a dedicated reconstruction software. An important aspect was the optimization of the imaging while taking the geometrical tolerances of the manufacturing process of the final detector into account. The main focus lies on the optimization process of the cylindrical and polynomial focussing optics at the edges of the detector plate, which has been performed with the merit function of a raytracer called PyOptics, written by one of the group members.

  5. Behavior of ionic conducting IPN actuators in simulated space conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fannir, Adelyne; Plesse, Cédric; Nguyen, Giao T. M.; Laurent, Elisabeth; Cadiergues, Laurent; Vidal, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    The presentation focuses on the performances of flexible all-polymer electroactive actuators under space-hazardous environmental factors in laboratory conditions. These bending actuators are based on high molecular weight nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) derivative and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxithiophene) (PEDOT). The electroactive PEDOT is embedded within the PEO/NBR membrane which is subsequently swollen with an ionic liquid as electrolyte. Actuators have been submitted to thermal cycling test between -25 to 60°C under vacuum (2.4 10-8 mbar) and to ionizing Gamma radiations at a level of 210 rad/h during 100 h. Actuators have been characterized before and after space environmental condition ageing. In particular, the viscoelasticity properties and mechanical resistance of the materials have been determined by dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile tests. The evolution of the actuation properties as the strain and the output force have been characterized as well. The long-term vacuuming, the freezing temperature and the Gamma radiations do not affect significantly the thermomechanical properties of conducting IPNs actuators. Only a slight decrease on actuation performances has been observed.

  6. The properties of bound and unbound molecular cloud populations formed in galactic disc simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rachel L.; Benincasa, Samantha M.; Wadsley, James; Sills, Alison; Couchman, H. M. P.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the effect of galactic environment on properties of molecular clouds. Using clouds formed in a large-scale galactic disc simulation, we measure the observable properties from synthetic column density maps. We confirm that a significant fraction of unbound clouds forms naturally in a galactic disc environment and that a mixed population of bound and unbound clouds can match observed scaling relations and distributions for extragalactic molecular clouds. By dividing the clouds into inner and outer disc populations, we compare their distributions of properties and test whether there are statistically significant differences between them. We find that clouds in the outer disc have lower masses, sizes, and velocity dispersions as compared to those in the inner disc for reasonable choices of the inner/outer boundary. We attribute the differences to the strong impact of galactic shear on the disc stability at large galactocentric radii. In particular, our Toomre analysis of the disc shows a narrowing envelope of unstable masses as a function of radius, resulting in the formation of smaller, lower mass fragments in the outer disc. We also show that the star formation rate is affected by the environment of the parent cloud, and is particularly influenced by the underlying surface density profile of the gas throughout the disc. Our work highlights the strengths of using galaxy-scale simulations to understand the formation and evolution of cloud properties - and the star formation within them - in the context of their environment.

  7. Large Eddy Simulation of the Effects of Plasma Actuation Strength on Film Cooling Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guozhan; Chen, Fu; Li, Linxi; Song, Yanping

    2016-11-01

    In this article, numerical investigation of the effects of different plasma actuation strengths on the film cooling flow characteristics has been conducted using large eddy simulation (LES). For this numerical research, the plasma actuator is placed downstream of the trailing edge of the film cooling hole and a phenomenological model is employed to provide the electric field generated by it, resulting in the body forces. Our results show that as the plasma actuation strength grows larger, under the downward effect of the plasma actuation, the jet trajectory near the cooling hole stays closer to the wall and the recirculation region observably reduces in size. Meanwhile, the momentum injection effect of the plasma actuation also actively alters the distributions of the velocity components downstream of the cooling hole. Consequently, the influence of the plasma actuation strength on the Reynolds stress downstream of the cooling hole is remarkable. Furthermore, the plasma actuation weakens the strength of the kidney shaped vortex and prevents the jet from lifting off the wall. Therefore, with the increase of the strength of the plasma actuation, the coolant core stays closer to the wall and tends to split into two distinct regions. So the centerline film cooling efficiency is enhanced, and it is increased by 55% at most when the plasma actuation strength is 10.

  8. Thermo-Mechanical Simulation of Brake Disc Frictional Character by Moment of Inertia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of temperatures gradient and thermal stress of brake disc has been simulated by FEM code to make brake disc thermal stress more homogenously. In this study, using moment of inertia to simulate the realistic brake process instead of theoretically predefines the train deceleration rate, nonlinear deceleration rate and thermo-mechanical behavior has been revealed. The FEM models build upon LS-DYNA® thermo-mechanical code and contact algorithm. Non-uniform temperature alone disc radial direction was caused by severe friction in short time and the low heat transfer coefficient of its material. Parametric analysis for disc brakes have been carried out by comparison of grouped brake applications conform to UIC code, the main factor cause the high temperature gradient and thermal stress of brake disc is brake force and its initial speed.

  9. Simulating the emission and outflows from accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Scott C [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 366 Bloomberg Center, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Leung, Po Kin [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Gammie, Charles F [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Loomis Laboratory, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Book, Laura G [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Loomis Laboratory, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2007-06-21

    The radio source Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) is believed to be a hot, inhomogeneous, magnetized plasma flowing near the event horizon of the 3.6 x 10{sup 6} M{sub o-dot} black hole at the galactic centre. At a distance of 8 kpc ({approx_equal} 2.5 x 10{sup 22} cm) the black hole would be among the largest black holes as judged by angular size. Recent observations are consistent with the idea that the millimetre and sub-millimetre photons are dominated by optically thin, thermal synchrotron emission. Anticipating future Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of Sgr A* at these wavelengths, we present here the first dynamically self-consistent models of millimetre and sub-millimetre emission from Sgr A* based on general relativistic numerical simulations of the accretion flow. Angle-dependent spectra are calculated assuming a thermal distribution of electrons at the baryonic temperature dictated by the simulation and the accretion rate, which acts as a free parameter in our model. The effects of varying model parameters (black hole spin and inclination of the spin to the line of sight) and source variability on the spectrum are shown. We find that the accretion rate value needed to match our calculated millimetre flux to the observed flux is consistent with constraints on the accretion rate inferred from detections of the rotation measure. We also describe the relativistic jet that is launched along the black hole spin axis by the accretion disc and evolves to scales of {approx}10{sup 3}GMc{sup -2}, where M is the mass of the black hole.

  10. The hydrodynamical response of a tilted circumbinary disc linear theory and non-linear numerical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Larwood, J D; Larwood, John D.; Papaloizou, John C.B.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present an analytical and numerical study of the response of a circumbinary disc subject to the tidal-forcing of a binary with a fixed circular orbit. We consider fluid discs with a range of thicknesses and binaries with a range of mass ratios, orbital separations and inclination angles. Our numerical simulations are implemented using a SPH code. For our unperturbed disc models, we write a scaling relation for the shear viscosity and deduce that the disc thickness cannot be varied without affecting the viscosity in these kinds of SPH disc models. It is found that maintainance of an inner cavity owing to the tidal truncation of the disc is effective for non-zero orbital inclinations. Also we show that our model discs may precess approximately like rigid bodies, provided that the disc is able to communicate on a length scale comparable to the inner boundary radius by either sonic or viscous effects, in a sufficiently small fraction of the local precession period. Furthermore, the disc precessio...

  11. Disc Motor: Conventional and Superconductor Simulated Results Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, David; Martins, João; Neves, Mário Ventim; Álvarez, Alfredo; Rodrigues, Amadeu Leão

    Taking into consideration the development and integration of electrical machines with lower dimensions and higher performance, this paper presents the design and development of a three-phase axial flux disc motor, with 50 Hz frequency supply. It is made with two conventional semi-stators and a rotor, which can be implemented with a conventional aluminum disc or a high temperature-superconducting disc. The analysis of the motor characteristics is done with a 2D commercial finite elements package, being the modeling performed as a linear motor. The obtained results allow concluding that the superconductor motor provides a higher force than the conventional one. The conventional disc motor presents an asynchronous behavior, like a conventional induction motor, while the superconductor motor presents both synchronous and asynchronous behaviors.

  12. Simulations of Overstable Inertial-acoustic Modes in Black-Hole Accretion Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Wen

    2012-01-01

    We present two-dimensional inviscid hydrodynamic simulations of overstable inertial-acoustic oscillation modes (p-modes) in black-hole accretion discs. These global spiral waves are trapped in the inner-most region of the disc, and are driven overstable by wave absorption at the corotation resonance ($r_c$) when the gradient of the background disc vortensity (vorticity divided by surface density) at $r_c$ is positive and the disc inner boundary is sufficiently reflective. Previous linear calculations have shown that the growth rates of these modes can be as high as 10% of the rotation frequency at the disc inner edge. We confirm these linear growth rates and the primary disc oscillation frequencies in our simulations when the mode amplitude undergoes exponential growth. We show that the mode growth saturates when the radial velocity perturbation becomes comparable to the disc sound speed. During the saturation stage, the primary disc oscillation frequency differs only slightly (by less than a few percent) fro...

  13. Gas and dust hydrodynamical simulations of massive lopsided transition discs - I. Gas distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by lopsided structures observed in some massive transition discs, we have carried out 2D numerical simulations to study vortex structure in massive discs, including the effects of disc self-gravity and the indirect force which is due to the displacement of the central star from the barycenter of the system by the lopsided structure. When only the indirect force is included, we confirm the finding by Mittal & Chiang (2015) that the vortex becomes stronger and can be more than two pressure scale heights wide, as long as the disc-to-star mass ratio is >1%. Such wide vortices can excite strong density waves in the disc and therefore migrate inwards rapidly. However, when disc self-gravity is also considered in simulations, self-gravity plays a more prominent role on the vortex structure. We confirm that when the disc Toomre Q parameter is smaller than pi/(2h), where h is the disc's aspect ratio, the vortices are significantly weakened and their inward migration slows down dramatically. Most importan...

  14. Three-dimensional, global, radiative GRMHD simulations of a thermally unstable disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, B.; Fragile, P. C.; Johnson, L. C.; Kluźniak, W.

    2016-12-01

    We present results of a set of three-dimensional, general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics simulations of thin accretion discs around a non-rotating black hole to test their thermal stability. We consider two cases, one that is initially radiation-pressure-dominated and expected to be thermally unstable and another that is initially gas-pressure dominated and expected to remain stable. Indeed, we find that cooling dominates over heating in the radiation-pressure-dominated model, causing the disc to collapse vertically on roughly the local cooling time-scale. We also find that heating and cooling within the disc have a different dependence on the mid-plane pressure - a prerequisite of thermal instability. Comparison of our data with the relevant thin-disc thermal equilibrium curve suggests that our disc may be headed for the thermally stable, gas-pressure-dominated branch. However, because the disc collapses to the point that we are no longer able to resolve it, we had to terminate the simulation. On the other hand, the gas-pressure-dominated model, which was run for twice as long as the radiation-pressure-dominated one, remains stable, with heating and cooling roughly in balance. Finally, the radiation-pressure-dominated simulation shows some evidence of viscous instability. The strongest evidence is in plots of surface density, which show the disc breaking up into rings.

  15. Design and Simulation of a Low Actuation Voltage Capacitive Micro Electro Mechanical Systems’ (MEMS Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayub Soltani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed a new switch or structure for reducing actuation voltage. This switch is compared with four conventional structures considering the force range of 1uN to 3uN. We have used the ANSYS software for design and simulation for the switch parameters such as actuation voltage, collapse voltage, spring constant and resonant frequency. Small size (half of the size of other proposed materials, which can reduce the manufacturing cost, and also low-valued spring constant, which results in actuation voltage reduction, are among more noticeable features of the proposed switch.

  16. Intrinsic alignments of disc and elliptical galaxies in the MassiveBlack-II and Illustris simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenneti, Ananth; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Di Matteo, Tiziana

    2016-11-01

    We study the shapes and intrinsic alignments of discs and elliptical galaxies in the MassiveBlack-II (MBII) and Illustris cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, with volumes of (100 h-1 Mpc)3 and (75 h-1 Mpc)3, respectively. We find that simulated disc galaxies are more oblate in shape and more misaligned with the shape of their host dark matter subhalo when compared with ellipticals. The disc major axis is found to be oriented towards the location of nearby elliptical galaxies. We also find that the discs are thinner in MBII and misalignments with dark matter halo orientations are smaller in both discs and ellipticals when compared with Illustris. As a result, the intrinsic alignment correlation functions at fixed mass have a higher amplitude in MBII than in Illustris. Finally, at scales above ˜0.1 h-1 Mpc, the intrinsic alignment two-point correlation functions for disc galaxies in both simulations are consistent with a null detection, unlike those for ellipticals. Despite significant differences in the treatments of hydrodynamics and baryonic physics in the simulations, we find that the wδ + correlation function scales similarly with transverse separation. However, the less massive galaxies show different scale dependence in the ellipticity-direction correlation. This result indicates that, while hydrodynamic simulations are a promising tool to study intrinsic alignments, further study is needed to understand the impact of differences in the implementations of hydrodynamics and baryonic feedback.

  17. Simulating the sensitivity of cell nutritive environment to composition changes within the intervertebral disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, C. Ruiz; Malandrino, A.; van Rijsbergen, MM.; Lacroix, D.; Ito, K.; Noailly, J.

    2016-05-01

    Altered nutrition in the intervertebral disc affects cell viability and can generate catabolic cascades contributing to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Such degradation is expected to affect couplings between disc mechanics and nutrition, contributing to accelerate degenerative processes. However, the relation of ECM changes to major biophysical events within the loaded disc remains unclear. A L4-L5 disc finite element model including the nucleus (NP), annulus (AF) and endplates was used and coupled to a transport-cell viability model. Solute concentrations and cell viability were evaluated along the mid-sagittal plane path. A design of experiment (DOE) was performed. DOE parameters corresponded to AF and NP biochemical tissue measurements in discs with different degeneration grades. Cell viability was not affected by any parameter combinations defined. Nonetheless, the initial water content was the parameter that affected the most the solute contents, especially glucose. Calculations showed that altered NP composition could negatively affect AF cell nutrition. Results suggested that AF and NP tissue degeneration are not critical to nutrition-related cell viability at early-stage of disc degeneration. However, small ECM degenerative changes may alter significantly disc nutrition under mechanical loads. Coupling disc mechano-transport simulations and enzyme expression studies could allow identifying spatiotemporal sequences related to tissue catabolism.

  18. The tidally induced warping, precession and truncation of accretion discs in binary systems three dimensional simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Larwood, J D; Papaloizou, J C B; Terquem, C

    1996-01-01

    We present the results of non linear, hydrodynamic simulations, in three dimensions, of the tidal perturbation of accretion discs in binary systems where the orbit is circular and not necessarily coplanar with the disc mid-plane. The accretion discs are assumed to be geometrically thin, and of low mass relative to the stellar mass so that they are governed by thermal pressure and viscosity, but not self-gravity. The parameters that we consider in our models are the ratio of the orbital distance to the disc radius, D/R, the binary mass ratio, the initial inclination angle between the orbit and disc planes and the Mach number in the outer parts of the unperturbed disc. For binary mass ratios of around unity and D/R in the range 3 to 4, we find that the global evolution of the discs is governed primarily by the value of the Mach number. For relatively low Mach numbers (i.e. 10 to 20) we find that the discs develop a mildly warped structure, are tidally truncated, and undergo a near rigid body precession at a rat...

  19. Three-dimensional simulations of multiple protoplanets embedded in a protostellar disc

    CERN Document Server

    Cresswell, Paul; 10.1051/0004-6361:20079178

    2008-01-01

    Protoplanet eccentricities of e >~ H/r can slow or reverse migration, but previous 2D studies have shown that gravitational scattering cannot maintain significant planet eccentricities against disc-induced damping. We simulate the evolution of low-mass protoplanetary swarms in three dimensions. The aim is to examine both protoplanet survival rates and the dynamical structure of the resulting planetary systems, and to compare them with 2D simulations. We present results from a 3D hydrodynamic simulation of eight protoplanets embedded in a protoplanetary disc. We also present a suite of simulations performed using an N-body code, modified to include prescriptions for planetary migration and for eccentricity and inclination damping. These prescriptions were obtained by fitting analytic formulae to hydrodynamic simulations of planets embedded in discs with initially eccentric and/or inclined orbits. As was found in two dimensions, differential migration produces groups of protoplanets in stable, multiple mean-mot...

  20. Magnetic fields in protoplanetary discs: from MHD simulations to ALMA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrang, G. H.-M.; Flock, M.; Wolf, S.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic fields significantly influence the evolution of protoplanetary discs and the formation of planets, following the predictions of numerous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. However, these predictions are yet observationally unconstrained. To validate the predictions on the influence of magnetic fields on protoplanetary discs, we apply 3D radiative transfer simulations of the polarized emission of aligned aspherical dust grains that directly link 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations to Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations. Our simulations show that it is feasible to observe the predicted toroidal large-scale magnetic field structures, not only in the ideal observations but also with high-angular resolution ALMA observations. Our results show further that high-angular resolution observations by ALMA are able to identify vortices embedded in outer magnetized disc regions.

  1. Viscous Hydrodynamics Simulations of Circumbinary Accretion Discs: Variability, Quasi-Steady State, and Angular Momentum Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, Ryan; Lai, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Circumbinary discs are found in a variety of astrophysical contexts, including around young stellar binaries and supermassive black hole binaries. We carry out a suite of numerical simulations of circumbinary discs, solving the viscous hydrodynamics equations on a polar grid covering an extended disc outside the binary co-orbital region. We use carefully controlled outer boundary conditions and long-term integrations to ensure that the disc reaches a quasi-steady state, in which the time-averaged mass accretion rate onto the binary, $\\langle\\dot{M}\\rangle$, matches the mass supply rate at the outer disc. We focus on binaries with comparable masses, but with a wide range of eccentricities ($e_\\mathrm{B}$). For $e_\\mathrm{B} \\lesssim 0.05$, the mass accretion rate of the binary is modulated with a period of about $5$ times the binary period; otherwise it is modulated at the binary period. The inner part of the circumbinary disc generally becomes coherently eccentric. For low and high $e_\\mathrm{B}$, the disc li...

  2. Design and Maxwell 3D simulation of small permanent magnetic actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guangcai; Xu Yajie; Chang Yan; Chen Qiaoyan; Yang Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    According to the magnetic circuit design theory and performance requirements of magnetic field, an H-type permanent magnetic actuator that generates uniform magnetic field larger than 0.4 T in the interested re- gion has been designed in this paper. The static magnetic field simulation analysis was done by Ansoft' s Max- well three-dimensional (3D) software. The simulation results showed that the magnetic field of this system can meet the requirements, and this permanent magnetic actuator designed in this paper can be used in small nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) svstem.

  3. Numerical Simulation of a High-Lift Configuration with Embedded Fluidic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsa, Veer N.; Casalino, Damiano; Lin, John C.; Appelbaum, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed for a vertical tail configuration with deflected rudder. The suction surface of the main element of this configuration is embedded with an array of 32 fluidic actuators that produce oscillating sweeping jets. Such oscillating jets have been found to be very effective for flow control applications in the past. In the current paper, a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code known as the PowerFLOW(Registered TradeMark) code is used to simulate the entire flow field associated with this configuration, including the flow inside the actuators. The computed results for the surface pressure and integrated forces compare favorably with measured data. In addition, numerical solutions predict the correct trends in forces with active flow control compared to the no control case. Effect of varying yaw and rudder deflection angles are also presented. In addition, computations have been performed at a higher Reynolds number to assess the performance of fluidic actuators at flight conditions.

  4. Sensor and actuator modeling of a realistic wheeled mobile robot simulator

    OpenAIRE

    José Gonçalves; José Lima; Hélder Filipe Pinto de Oliveira; Paulo José Cerqueira Gomes da Costa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the sensor and actuator modelingof a realistic wheeled mobile robot simulator. The motivationof developing such simulator is to produce a personalizedversatile tool that allows production and validationof robot software reducing considerably the developmenttime. The mobile robot simulator was developed in ObjectPascal with its dynamics based on the ODE (OpenDynamics Engine), allowing to develop robot software fora three wheel omnidirectional robot equipped with Infra-Red ...

  5. Clues on the Milky Way disc formation from population synthesis simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, A. C.; Reylé, C.; Bienaymé, O.; Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.; Amôres, E. B.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years the stellar populations of the Milky Way have been investigated from large scale surveys in different ways, from pure star count analysis to detailed studies based on spectroscopic surveys. While in the former case the data can constrain the scale height and scale length thanks to completeness, they suffer from high correlation between these two values. On the other hand, spectroscopic surveys suffer from complex selection functions which hardly allow to derive accurate density distributions. The scale length in particular has been difficult to be constrained, resulting in discrepant values in the literature. Here, we investigate the thick disc characteristics by comparing model simulations with large scale data sets. The simulations are done from the population synthesis model of Besançon. We explore the parameters of the thick disc (shape, local density, age, metallicity) using a Monte Carlo Markov Chain method to constrain the model free parameters (Robin et al. 2014). Correlations between parameters are limited due to the vast spatial coverage of the used surveys (SDSS + 2MASS). We show that the thick disc was created during a long phase of formation, starting about 12 Gyr ago and finishing about 10 Gyr ago, during which gravitational contraction occurred, both vertically and radially. Moreover, in its early phase the thick disc was flaring in the outskirts. We conclude that the thick disc has been created prior to the thin disc during a gravitational collapse phase, slowed down by turbulence related to a high star formation rate, as explained for example in Bournaud et al. (2009) or Lehnert et al. (2009). Our result does not favor a formation from an initial thin disc thickened later by merger events or by secular evolution of the thin disc. We then study the in-plane distribution of stars in the thin disc from 2MASS and show that the thin disc scale length varies as a function of age, indicating an inside out formation. Moreover, we

  6. Spiral-driven accretion in protoplanetary discs - III tri-dimensional simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Hennebelle, Patrick; Fromang, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how accretion proceeds in proto-planetary discs and more generally their dynamics is a crucial issue for explaining the conditions in which planets form. The role that accretion of gas from the surrounding molecular cloud onto the disc may have on its structure needs to be quantified. We perform tri-dimensional simulations using the Cartesian AMR code RAMSES of an accretion disc subject to infalling material. For the aspect ratio of $H/R \\simeq 0.15$ and disk mass $M_d \\simeq 10^{-2}$ M$_\\odot$ used in our study, we find that for typical accretion rates on the order of a few 10$^{-7}$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$, values of the $\\alpha$ parameter as high as a few 10$^{-3}$ are inferred. The mass that is accreted in the inner part of the disc is typically at least $50\\%$ of the total mass that has been accreted onto the disc. Our results suggest that external accretion of gas at moderate values, onto circumstellar discs may trigger prominent spiral arms, reminiscent of recent observations made with variou...

  7. Viscous hydrodynamics simulations of circumbinary accretion discs: variability, quasi-steady state and angular momentum transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ryan; Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong

    2017-04-01

    We carry out numerical simulations of circumbinary discs, solving the viscous hydrodynamics equations on a polar grid covering an extended disc outside the binary co-orbital region. We use carefully controlled outer boundary conditions and long-term integrations to ensure that the disc reaches a quasi-steady state, in which the time-averaged mass accretion rate on to the binary, , matches the mass supply rate at the outer disc. We focus on binaries with comparable masses and a wide range of eccentricities (eB). For eB ≲ 0.05, the mass accretion rate of the binary is modulated at about five times the binary period; otherwise, it is modulated at the binary period. The inner part of the circumbinary disc (r ≲ 6aB) generally becomes coherently eccentric. For low and high eB, the disc line of apsides precesses around the binary, but for intermediate eB (0.2-0.4), it instead becomes locked with that of the binary. By considering the balance of angular momentum transport through the disc by advection, viscous stress and gravitational torque, we determine the time-averaged net angular momentum transfer rate to the binary, . The specific angular momentum, l_0 = /, depends non-monotonically on eB. Contrary to previous claims, we find that l0 is positive for most eB, implying that the binary receives net angular momentum, which may cause its separation to grow with time. The minimum l0 occurs at intermediate eB (0.2-0.4), corresponding to the regime where the inner eccentric disc is apsidally aligned with the binary.

  8. Disc-like Objects in Hierarchical Hydrodynamical Simulations Comparison with Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Saiz, A; Tissera, P B; Courteau, S

    2001-01-01

    We present results from a careful and detailed analysis of the structural and dynamical properties of a sample of 29 disc-like objects identified at z=0 in three AP3M-SPH fully consistent cosmological simulations. These simulations are realizations of a CDM hierarchical model, where an inefficient Schmidt law-like algorithm to model the stellar formation process has been implemented. We focus on properties that can be constrained with available data from observations of spiral galaxies, namely, the bulge and disc structural parameters and the rotation curves. Comparisons with data from Broeils (1992), de Jong (1996) and Courteau (1996, 1997) give satisfactory agreement, in contrast with previous findings using other codes. This suggests that the stellar formation implementation we have used has succeded in forming compact bulges that stabilize disc-like structures in the violent phases of their assembly, while in the quiescent phases the gas has cooled and collapsed according with the Fall & Efstathiou st...

  9. No Correlation Between Disc Scale-Height and Jet Power in GRMHD Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Fragile, P Chris; Rodriguez, Marco

    2012-01-01

    It is now well established that changes in the X-ray spectral state of black hole low-mass X-ray binaries are correlated with changes in the radio properties of those systems. Assuming radio power is a proxy for jet power, we can say that the jet is continuously present in the hard state and undetectable (and therefore weaker) in the soft state. Since the different accretion states are also generally assumed to be associated with different disc geometries -- the hard state with a hot, thick flow, and the soft state with a cold, thin disc -- we investigate the possibility that these two phenomena are linked; i.e., that the difference in disc geometry is the cause of the difference in observed jet power. We do this by comparing various measures of jet power in numerical simulations of accretion discs of differing temperatures and thicknesses. We perform these simulations using the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code Cosmos++ and a newly added cooling function, which allows us to regulate the disc scal...

  10. Installation of TVC Actuators in a Two Axis Inertial Load Simulator Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubanek, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about the installation of Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) actuators in the new Two Axis Inertial Load Simulator (ILS) at MSFC. The new test stand will support the core stage of the Space Launch System (SLS). Because of the unique geometry of the new test stand standard actuator installation procedures will not work. I have been asked to develop a design on how to install the actuators into the new test stand. After speaking with the engineers and technicians I have created a possible design solution. Using Pro Engineer design software and running my own stress calculations I have proven my design is feasible. I have learned how to calculate the stresses my design will see from this task. From the calculations I have learned I have over built the apparatus. I have also expanded my knowledge of Pro Engineer and was able to create a model of my idea.

  11. Simulation and experimental investigation of active lightweight compliant mechanisms with integrated piezoceramic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modler, Niels; Winkler, Anja; Filippatos, Angelos; Lovasz, Erwin-Christian; Mărgineanu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Compliant mechanisms with integrated actuators can enable new function-integrative structures through the elastic deformation of elements without the use of classical links and joints. For such designs, the mechanical behaviour of the mechanism has to be well known, because external loads, the utilised materials and the geometry of the structural parts influence the deformation performance significantly. In order to speed up the development process of such mechanisms, a tool for the dynamic analysis of compliant movements is necessary before any further FEM simulation and manufacturing. Therefore, the paper presents a simulating procedure for active compliant mechanisms obtained through the integration of piezoceramic actuators into fibre-reinforced composite structures using a double layer model. A new mechanism was designed, simulated, constructed and tested. The comparison between simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the presented procedure in regard to the design phase of new active compliant structures.

  12. The low abundance and insignificance of dark discs in simulated Milky Way galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Schaller, Matthieu; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F; Oman, Kyle A; Sawala, Till

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the presence and importance of dark matter discs in a sample of 24 simulated Milky Way galaxies in the APOSTLE project, part of the EAGLE programme of hydrodynamic simulations in Lambda-CDM cosmology. It has been suggested that a dark disc in the Milky Way may boost the dark matter density and modify the velocity modulus relative to a smooth halo at the position of the Sun, with ramifications for direct detection experiments. From a kinematic decomposition of the dark matter and a real space analysis of all 24 halos, we find that only one of the simulated Milky Way analogues has a detectable dark disc component. This unique event was caused by a merger at late time with an LMC-mass satellite at very low grazing angle. Considering that even this rare scenario only enhances the dark matter density at the solar radius by 35% and affects the high energy tail of the dark matter velocity distribution by less than 1%, we conclude that the presence of a dark disc in the Milky Way is unlikely, and is ve...

  13. The stellar metallicity distribution of disc galaxies and bulges in cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Calura, F; Michel-Dansac, L; Stinson, G S; Pilkington, K; House, E L; Brook, C B; Few, C G; Bailin, J; Couchman, H M P; Wadsley, J; .,

    2012-01-01

    By means of high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of Milky Way-like disc galaxies, we conduct an analysis of the associated stellar metallicity distribution functions (MDFs). After undertaking a kinematic decomposition of each simulation into spheroid and disc sub-components, we compare the predicted MDFs to those observed in the solar neighbourhood and the Galactic bulge. The effects of the star formation density threshold are visible in the star formation histories, which show a modulation in their behaviour driven by the threshold. The derived MDFs show median metallicities lower by 0.2-0.3 dex than the MDF observed locally in the disc and in the Galactic bulge. Possible reasons for this apparent discrepancy include the use of low stellar yields and/or centrally-concentrated star formation. The dispersions are larger than the one of the observed MDF; this could be due to simulated discs being kinematically hotter relative to the Milky Way. The fraction of low metallicity stars is largely ...

  14. The low abundance and insignificance of dark discs in simulated Milky Way galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Matthieu; Frenk, Carlos S.; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Oman, Kyle A.; Sawala, Till

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the presence and importance of dark matter discs in a sample of 24 simulated Milky Way galaxies in the APOSTLE project, part of the EAGLE programme of hydrodynamic simulations in ΛCDM cosmology. It has been suggested that a dark disc in the Milky Way may boost the dark matter density and modify the velocity modulus relative to a smooth halo at the position of the Sun, with ramifications for direct detection experiments. From a kinematic decomposition of the dark matter and a real space analysis of all 24 haloes, we find that only one of the simulated Milky Way analogues has a detectable dark disc component. This unique event was caused by a merger at late time with an LMC-mass satellite at very low grazing angle. Considering that even this rare scenario only enhances the dark matter density at the solar radius by 35 per cent and affects the high-energy tail of the dark matter velocity distribution by less than 1 per cent, we conclude that the presence of a dark disc in the Milky Way is unlikely, and is very unlikely to have a significant effect on direct detection experiments.

  15. Warps and waves in the stellar discs of the Auriga cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Facundo A.; White, Simon D. M.; Grand, Robert J. J.; Marinacci, Federico; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have revealed an oscillating asymmetry in the vertical structure of the Milky Way's disc. Here, we analyse 16 high-resolution, fully cosmological simulations of the evolution of individual Milky Way-sized galaxies, carried out with the magnetohydrodynamic code AREPO. At redshift zero, about 70 per cent of our galactic discs show strong vertical patterns, with amplitudes that can exceed 2 kpc. Half of these are typical 'integral sign' warps. The rest are oscillations similar to those observed in the Milky Way. Such structures are thus expected to be common. The associated mean vertical motions can be as large as 30 km s-1. Cold disc gas typically follows the vertical patterns seen in the stars. These perturbations have a variety of causes: close encounters with satellites, distant fly-bys of massive objects, accretion of misaligned cold gas from halo infall or from mergers. Tidally induced vertical patterns can be identified in both young and old stellar populations, whereas those originating from cold gas accretion are seen mainly in the younger populations. Galaxies with regular or at most weakly perturbed discs are usually, but not always, free from recent interactions with massive companions, although we have one case where an equilibrium compact disc reforms after a merger.

  16. The Atlas3D project - XXVI. HI discs in real and simulated fast and slow rotators

    CERN Document Server

    Serra, Paolo; Krajnovic, Davor; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Morganti, Raffaella; Cappellari, Michele; Emsellem, Eric; Young, Lisa M; Blitz, Leo; Davis, Timothy A; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Hirschmann, Michaela; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L; de Zeeuw, P T; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    One quarter of all nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) outside Virgo host a disc/ring of HI with size from a few to tens of kpc and mass up to ~1e+9 solar masses. Here we investigate whether this HI is related to the presence of a stellar disc within the host making use of the classification of ETGs in fast and slow rotators (FR/SR). We find a large diversity of HI masses and morphologies within both families. Surprisingly, SRs are detected as often, host as much HI and have a similar rate of HI discs/rings as FRs. Accretion of HI is therefore not always linked to the growth of an inner stellar disc. The weak relation between HI and stellar disc is confirmed by their frequent kinematical misalignment in FRs, including cases of polar and counterrotating gas. In SRs the HI is usually polar. This complex picture highlights a diversity of ETG formation histories which may be lost in the relative simplicity of their inner structure and emerges when studying their outer regions. We find that LCDM hydrodynamical simul...

  17. A load simulation method of piezoelectric actuator in FEM for smart structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Min; CHEN WeiMin; WANG MingChun; JIA LiJie

    2009-01-01

    More and more piezoelectric materials and structures have been used for structure control in aviation and aerospace industry. More efficient and convenient computation method for large complex structure with piezoelectric actuation devices is required. A load simulation method of piezoelectric actuation is presented in this paper. By this method, the freedom degree of finite element simulation is significantly reduced, the difficulty in defining in-plane voltage for multi-layers piezoelectric composite is overcome and the transfer computation between material main direction and the element main direction is sim-plified. The concept of simulation load is comprehensible and suitable for engineers of structure strength in shape and vibration control, thereby is valuable for promoting the application of piezoelec-tric material and structures in practical aviation and aerospace fields.

  18. A load simulation method of piezoelectric actuator in FEM for smart structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    More and more piezoelectric materials and structures have been used for structure control in aviation and aerospace industry. More efficient and convenient computation method for large complex structure with piezoelectric actuation devices is required. A load simulation method of piezoelectric actuation is presented in this paper. By this method, the freedom degree of finite element simulation is significantly reduced, the difficulty in defining in-plane voltage for multi-layers piezoelectric composite is overcome and the transfer computation between material main direction and the element main direction is simplified. The concept of simulation load is comprehensible and suitable for engineers of structure strength in shape and vibration control, thereby is valuable for promoting the application of piezoelectric material and structures in practical aviation and aerospace fields.

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Control Actuation System with Fuzzy-PID Logic Controlled Brushless Motor Drives for Missiles Glider Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniraj, Murali; Arulmozhiyal, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    A control actuation system has been used extensively in automotive, aerospace, and defense applications. The major challenges in modeling control actuation system are rise time, maximum peak to peak overshoot, and response to nonlinear system with percentage error. This paper addresses the challenges in modeling and real time implementation of control actuation system for missiles glider applications. As an alternative fuzzy-PID controller is proposed in BLDC motor drive followed by linkage mechanism to actuate fins in missiles and gliders. The proposed system will realize better rise time and less overshoot while operating in extreme nonlinear dynamic system conditions. A mathematical model of BLDC motor is derived in state space form. The complete control actuation system is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink environment and verified by performing simulation studies. A real time prototype of the control actuation is developed with dSPACE-1104 hardware controller and a detailed analysis is carried out to confirm the viability of the proposed system.

  20. Simulation of Flow Around Cylinder Actuated by DBD Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuling; Gao, Chao; Wu, Bin; Hu, Xu

    2016-07-01

    The electric-static body force model is obtained by solving Maxwell's electromagnetic equations. Based on the electro-static model, numerical modeling of flow around a cylinder with a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma effect is also presented. The flow streamlines between the numerical simulation and the particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiment are consistent. According to the numerical simulation, DBD plasma can reduce the drag coefficient and change the vortex shedding frequencies of flow around the cylinder.

  1. The distribution of mass components in simulated disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Santos-Santos, Isabel M; Stinson, Greg; Di Cintio, Arianna; Wadsley, James; Domínguez-Tenreiro, Rosa; Gottlöber, Stefan; Yepes, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Using 22 hydrodynamical simulated galaxies in a LCDM cosmological context we recover not only the observed baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, but also the observed "mass discrepancy--acceleration" relation, which reflects the distribution of the main components of the galaxies throughout their disks. This implies that the simulations, which span the range 52 < V$_{\\rm flat}$ < 222 km/s where V$_{\\rm flat}$ is the circular velocity at the flat part of the rotation curve, and match galaxy scaling relations, are able to recover the observed relations between the distributions of stars, gas and dark matter over the radial range for which we have observational rotation curve data. Furthermore, we explicitly match the observed baryonic to halo mass relation for the first time with simulated galaxies. We discuss our results in the context of the baryon cycle that is inherent in these simulations, and with regards to the effect of baryonic processes on the distribution of dark matter.

  2. 3D simulations of disc-winds extending radially self-similar MHD models

    CERN Document Server

    Stute, Matthias; Vlahakis, Nektarios; Tsinganos, Kanaris; Mignone, Andrea; Massaglia, Silvano

    2014-01-01

    Disc-winds originating from the inner parts of accretion discs are considered as the basic component of magnetically collimated outflows. The only available analytical MHD solutions to describe disc-driven jets are those characterized by the symmetry of radial self-similarity. However, radially self-similar MHD jet models, in general, have three geometrical shortcomings, (i) a singularity at the jet axis, (ii) the necessary assumption of axisymmetry, and (iii) the non-existence of an intrinsic radial scale, i.e. the jets formally extend to radial infinity. Hence, numerical simulations are necessary to extend the analytical solutions towards the axis, by solving the full three-dimensional equations of MHD and impose a termination radius at finite radial distance. We focus here on studying the effects of relaxing the (ii) assumption of axisymmetry, i.e. of performing full 3D numerical simulations of a disc-wind crossing all magnetohydrodynamic critical surfaces. We compare the results of these runs with previou...

  3. Breaking the disc-halo degeneracy in NGC 1291 using hydrodynamic simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Fragkoudi, F; Bosma, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a pilot study on the nearby massive galaxy NGC 1291, in which we aim to constrain the dark matter in the inner regions, by obtaining a dynamical determination of the disc mass-to-light ratio (M/L). To this aim, we model the bar-induced dust lanes in the galaxy, using hydrodynamic gas response simulations. The models have three free parameters, the M/L of the disc, the bar pattern speed and the disc height function. We explore the parameter space to find the best fit models, i.e. those in which the morphology of the shocks in the gas simulations matches the observed dust lanes. The best-fit models suggest that the M/L of NGC 1291 agrees with that predicted by stellar population synthesis models in the near-infrared ($\\approx$0.6\\,$M_{\\odot}/L_{\\odot}$), which leads to a borderline maximum disc for this galaxy. The bar rotates fast, with corotation radius $\\leq$ 1.4 times the bar length. Additionally, we find that the height function has a significant effect on the results, and can bias them towards ...

  4. Searching for nuclear stellar discs in simulations of star cluster mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Portaluri, E; Morelli, L; Hartmann, M; Bontà, E Dalla; Debattista, Victor P; Pizzella, A

    2013-01-01

    The nuclei of galaxies often host small stellar discs with scale-lengths of a few tens of parsecs and luminosities up to 10^7 Lsun. To investigate the formation and properties of nuclear stellar discs (NSDs), we look for their presence in a set of N-body simulations studying the dissipationless merging of multiple star clusters in galactic nuclei. A few tens of star clusters with sizes and masses comparable to those of globular clusters observed in the Milky Way are accreted onto a pre-existing nuclear stellar component: either a massive super star cluster or a rapidly rotating, compact disc with a scale-length of a few parsecs, mimicing the variety of observed nuclear structures. Images and kinematic maps of the simulation time-steps are then built and analysed as if they were real and at the distance of the Virgo cluster. We use the Scorza-Bender method to search for the presence of disc structures via photometric decomposition. In one case the merger remnant has all the observed photometric and kinematic p...

  5. Numerical simulations of type I planetary migration in nonturbulent magnetized discs

    CERN Document Server

    Fromang, S; Nelson, R P; Fromang, Sebastien; Terquem, Caroline; Nelson, Richard P.

    2005-01-01

    Using 2D MHD numerical simulations performed with two different finite difference Eulerian codes, we analyze the effect that a toroidal magnetic field has on low mass planet migration in nonturbulent protoplanetary discs. The presence of the magnetic field modifies the waves that can propagate in the disc. In agreement with a recent linear analysis (Terquem 2003), we find that two magnetic resonances develop on both sides of the planet orbit, which contribute to a significant global torque. In order to measure the torque exerted by the disc on the planet, we perform simulations in which the latter is either fixed on a circular orbit or allowed to migrate. For a 5 earth mass planet, when the ratio \\beta between the square of the sound speed and that of the Alfven speed at the location of the planet is equal to 2, we find inward migration when the magnetic field B_{\\phi} is uniform in the disc, reduced migration when B_{\\phi} decreases as r^{-1} and outward migration when B_{\\phi} decreases as r^{-2}. These res...

  6. The Self-Adaptive Fuzzy PID Controller in Actuator Simulated Loading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhui Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the structure principle of the actuator simulated loading system with variable stiffness, and establishes the simplified model. What’s more, it also does a research on the application of the self-adaptive tuning of fuzzy PID(Proportion Integration Differentiation in actuator simulated loading system with variable stiffness. Because the loading system is connected with the steering system by a spring rod, there must be strong coupling. Besides, there are also the parametric variations accompanying with the variations of the stiffness. Based on compensation from the feed-forward control on the disturbance brought by the motion of steering engine, the system performance can be improved by using fuzzy adaptive adjusting PID control to make up the changes of system parameter caused by the changes of the stiffness. By combining the fuzzy control with traditional PID control, fuzzy adaptive PID control is able to choose the parameters more properly.

  7. Wind Turbine Large-Eddy Simulations on Very Coarse Grid Resolutions using an Actuator Line Model

    CERN Document Server

    Tossas, Luis A Martínez; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-01-01

    In this work the accuracy of the Actuator Line Model (ALM) in Large Eddy Simulations of wind turbine flow is studied under the specific conditions of very coarse spatial resolutions. For finely-resolved conditions, it is known that ALM provides better accuracy compared to the standard Actuator Disk Model (ADM) without rotation. However, we show here that on very coarse resolutions, flow induction occurring at rotor scales can affect the predicted inflow angle and can adversely affect the ALM predictions. We first provide an illustration of coarse LES to reproduce wind tunnel measurements. The resulting flow predictions are good, but the challenges in predicting power outputs from the detailed ALM motivate more detailed analysis on a case with uniform inflow. We present a theoretical framework to compare the filtered quantities that enter the Large-Eddy Simulation equations as body forces with a scaling relation between the filtered and unfiltered quantities. The study aims to apply the theoretical derivation ...

  8. Simulation of crack coalescence mechanism underneath single and double disc cutters by higher order displacement discontinuity method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Fatehi Marji

    2015-01-01

    The present research is focused on the numerical crack coalescence analysis of the micro-cracks and cracks produced during the cutting action of TBM disc cutters. The linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) concepts and the maximum tangential stress criterion are used to investigate the micro crack propagation and its direction underneath the excavating discs. A higher order displacement discontinuity method with quadratic displacement discontinuity elements is used to estimate the stress intensity factors near the crack tips. Rock cutting mechanisms under single and double type discs are simulated by the proposed numerical method. The main purposes of the present modeling are to simulate the chip formation process of indented rocks by single and double discs. The effects of specific disc parameters (except speed) on the thrust force Ft, the rolling force Fr, and the specific energy ES are investigated. It has been shown that the specific energy (energy required to cut through a unit volume of rock) of the double disc is less than that of the single disc. Crack propagation in rocks under disc cutters is numerically modeled and the optimum ratio of disc spacing S to penetration depth Pd (i.e. S/Pd ratio) of about 10 is obtained, which is in good agreement with the theoretical and experimental results cited in the literature.

  9. Chandra Survey of Nearby Highly Inclined Disc Galaxies - III: Comparison with Hydrodynamical Simulations of Circumgalactic Coronae

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Q Daniel

    2014-01-01

    X-ray observations of circumgalactic coronae provide a valuable means by which to test galaxy formation theories. Two primary mechanisms are thought to be responsible for the establishment of such coronae: accretion of intergalactic gas (IGM) and/or galactic feedback. In this paper, we first compare our Chandra sample of galactic coronae of 53 nearby highly-inclined disc galaxies to an analytical model considering only the accretion of IGM. We confirm the existing conclusion that this pure accretion model substantially over-predicts the coronal emission. We then select 30 field galaxies from our original sample, and correct their coronal luminosities to uniformly compare them to deep X-ray measurements of several massive disc galaxies from the literature, as well as to a comparable sample of simulated galaxies drawn from the Galaxies-Intergalactic Medium Interaction Calculation (GIMIC). These simulations explicitly model both accretion and SNe feedback and yield galaxies exhibit X-ray properties in broad agre...

  10. A meta-model analysis of a finite element simulation for defining poroelastic properties of intervertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhoo, Mohammad; Hsu, Yu-Chun; Haghpanahi, Mohammad; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Wang, Jaw-Lin

    2013-06-01

    Finite element analysis is an effective tool to evaluate the material properties of living tissue. For an interactive optimization procedure, the finite element analysis usually needs many simulations to reach a reasonable solution. The meta-model analysis of finite element simulation can be used to reduce the computation of a structure with complex geometry or a material with composite constitutive equations. The intervertebral disc is a complex, heterogeneous, and hydrated porous structure. A poroelastic finite element model can be used to observe the fluid transferring, pressure deviation, and other properties within the disc. Defining reasonable poroelastic material properties of the anulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus is critical for the quality of the simulation. We developed a material property updating protocol, which is basically a fitting algorithm consisted of finite element simulations and a quadratic response surface regression. This protocol was used to find the material properties, such as the hydraulic permeability, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio, of intact and degenerated porcine discs. The results showed that the in vitro disc experimental deformations were well fitted with limited finite element simulations and a quadratic response surface regression. The comparison of material properties of intact and degenerated discs showed that the hydraulic permeability significantly decreased but Poisson's ratio significantly increased for the degenerated discs. This study shows that the developed protocol is efficient and effective in defining material properties of a complex structure such as the intervertebral disc.

  11. Wave-like warp propagation in circumbinary discs I. Analytic theory and numerical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Facchini, Stefano; Price, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the propagation of warps in protostellar circumbinary discs. We use these systems as a test environment in which to study warp propagation in the bending-wave regime, with the addition of an external torque due to the binary gravitational potential. In particular, we want to test the linear regime, for which an analytic theory has been developed. In order to do so, we first compute analytically the steady state shape of an inviscid disc subject to the binary torques. The steady state tilt is a monotonically increasing function of radius. In the absence of viscosity, the disc does not present any twist. Then, we compare the time-dependent evolution of the warped disc calculated via the known linearised equations both with the analytic solutions and with full 3D numerical simulations, which have been performed with the PHANTOM SPH code using 2 million particles. We find a good agreement both in the tilt and in the phase evolution for small inclinations, even at very low viscosities. Mor...

  12. An observer's view of simulated galaxies: disc-to-total ratios, bars, and (pseudo-)bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Scannapieco, Cecilia; Jonsson, Patrik; White, Simon D M

    2010-01-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of Milky Way mass galaxies to study the relative importance of the main stellar components, discs, bulges, and bars, at z=0. The main aim of this work is to understand if estimates of the structural parameters of these components determined from kinematics (as usually done in simulations) agree well with those obtained using a photometric bulge/disc/bar decomposition (as done in observations). To perform such a comparison, we produced synthetic observations of the simulation outputs with the Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code SUNRISE and used the BUDDA code to make 2D photometric decompositions of the resulting images. We find that the kinematic disc-to-total ratio (D/T) estimates are systematically and significantly lower than the photometric ones. While the maximum D/T ratios obtained with the former method are of the order of 0.2, they are typically >0.4, and can be as high as 0.7, according to the latter. The photometric decomposition shows ...

  13. Simulations of the formation of stellar discs in the Galactic centre via cloud-cloud collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Young massive stars in the central parsec of our Galaxy are best explained by star formation within at least one, and possibly two, massive self-gravitating gaseous discs. With help of numerical simulations, we here consider whether the observed population of young stars could have originated from a large angle collision of two massive gaseous clouds at R approx. 1 parsec from Sgr A*. In all the simulations performed, the post-collision gas flow forms an inner, nearly circular gaseous disc and one or two eccentric outer filaments, consistent with the observations. Furthermore, the radial stellar mass distribution is always very steep, Sigma proportional to R^-2, again consistent with the observations. All of our simulations produce discs that are warped by between 30 to 60 degrees, in accordance with the most recent observations. The 3D velocity structure of the stellar distribution is sensitive to initial conditions (e.g., the impact parameter of the clouds) and gas cooling details. For example, the runs in ...

  14. An actuator line model simulation with optimal body force projection length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Tossas, Luis; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-11-01

    In recent work (Martínez-Tossas et al. "Optimal smoothing length scale for actuator line models of wind turbine blades", preprint), an optimal body force projection length-scale for an actuator line model has been obtained. This optimization is based on 2-D aerodynamics and is done by comparing an analytical solution of inviscid linearized flow over a Gaussian body force to the potential flow solution of flow over a Joukowski airfoil. The optimization provides a non-dimensional optimal scale ɛ / c for different Joukowski airfoils, where ɛ is the width of the Gaussian kernel and c is the chord. A Gaussian kernel with different widths in the chord and thickness directions can further reduce the error. The 2-D theory developed is extended by simulating a full scale rotor using the optimal body force projection length scales. Using these values, the tip losses are captured by the LES and thus, no additional explicit tip-loss correction is needed for the actuator line model. The simulation with the optimal values provides excellent agreement with Blade Element Momentum Theory. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant OISE-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project).

  15. The formation of disc galaxies in high resolution moving-mesh cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Marinacci, Federico; Springel, Volker

    2013-01-01

    We present cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of eight Milky Way-sized haloes that have been previously studied with dark matter only in the Aquarius project. For the first time, we employ the moving-mesh code AREPO in zoom simulations combined with a new comprehensive model for galaxy formation physics designed for large cosmological simulations. Our simulations form in most of the eight haloes strongly disc-dominated systems with realistic rotation curves, close to exponential surface density profiles, a stellar-mass to halo-mass ratio that matches expectations from abundance matching techniques, and galaxy sizes and ages consistent with expectations from large galaxy surveys in the local Universe. There is no evidence for any dark matter core formation in our simulations, even so they include repeated baryonic outflows by supernova-driven winds and black hole quasar feedback. The simulations significantly improve upon the results obtained for the same objects in some of the earlier work based on the S...

  16. Simulating realistic disc galaxies with a novel sub-resolution ISM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murante, Giuseppe; Monaco, Pierluigi; Borgani, Stefano; Tornatore, Luca; Dolag, Klaus; Goz, David

    2015-02-01

    We present results of cosmological simulations of disc galaxies carried out with the GADGET-3 TreePM+SPH code, where star formation and stellar feedback are described using our MUlti Phase Particle Integrator model. This description is based on a simple multiphase model of the interstellar medium at unresolved scales, where mass and energy flows among the components are explicitly followed by solving a system of ordinary differential equations. Thermal energy from supernovae is injected into the local hot phase, so as to avoid that it is promptly radiated away. A kinetic feedback prescription generates the massive outflows needed to avoid the overproduction of stars. We use two sets of zoomed-in initial conditions of isolated cosmological haloes with masses (2-3) × 1012 M⊙, both available at several resolution levels. In all cases we obtain spiral galaxies with small bulge-over-total stellar mass ratios (B/T ˜ 0.2), extended stellar and gas discs, flat rotation curves and realistic values of stellar masses. Gas profiles are relatively flat, molecular gas is found to dominate at the centre of galaxies, with star formation rates following the observed Schmidt-Kennicutt relation. Stars kinematically belonging to the bulge form early, while disc stars show a clear inside-out formation pattern and mostly form after redshift z = 2. However, the baryon conversion efficiencies in our simulations differ from the relation given by Moster et al. at a 3σ level, thus indicating that our stellar discs are still too massive for the dark matter halo in which they reside. Results are found to be remarkably stable against resolution. This further demonstrates the feasibility of carrying out simulations producing a realistic population of galaxies within representative cosmological volumes, at a relatively modest resolution.

  17. Large scale simulation of NiTi helical spring actuators under repeated thermomechanical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeb, A. F.; Dhakal, B.; Hosseini, M. S.; Padula, S. A., II

    2013-09-01

    As typically utilized in applications, a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator operates under a large number of thermomechanical cycles, hence the importance of accounting for the cyclic behavior characteristics in modeling and numerical simulation of these actuators. To this end, the present work is focused on the characterization of the cyclic, evolutionary behavior of binary 55NiTi using a newly developed, multi-axial, material-modeling framework and its finite element analysis (FEA) implementation for use in the simulations of SMA actuators. In particular, two different geometric configurations of four- and two-coil helical springs subjected to axial end-forces are investigated under the effect of a large number of thermal cycles leading to the saturated deformation state of the coils. In addition, two different boundary conditions were examined, corresponding to: (a) the loading end cross section assumed to be free-to-twist, and (b) the loading end cross section assumed to be restrained against twist rotation. The study has led to the following five important conclusions: (i) the states of stresses and strains in the coils exhibited marked spatial non-homogeneities, both along the length as well as the cross section of the wires; (ii) the cyclic deformation response of the coils exhibits a similar evolutionary character to that of the 55NiTi material when tested under simple isobaric tensile stress conditions; (iii) the end boundary conditions affect the evolution of the deformation response; (iv) the magnitudes of the evolving nonlinear deformation states (i.e., axial displacements on the martensite and austenite sides, as well as the actuation displacement) were found to be proportional to the number of coils in an essentially linear manner, and (v) the change in coil diameter, while maintaining the pitch height, wire diameter and the number of coils fixed, has a significant effect on the response of the helical spring, both with regard to the resulting stress

  18. Global 3D MHD Simulations of Waves in Accretion Discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova M.M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss results of the first global 3D MHD simulations of warp and density waves in accretion disks excited by a rotating star with a misaligned dipole magnetic field. A wide range of cases are considered. We find for example that if the star’s magnetosphere corotates approximately with the inner disk, then a strong one-arm bending wave or warp forms. The warp corotates with the star and has a maximum amplitude (|zw|/r ~ 0.3 between the corotation radius and the radius of the vertical resonance. If the magnetosphere rotates more slowly than the inner disk, then a bending wave is excited at the disk-magnetosphere boundary, but it does not form a large-scale warp. In this case the angular rotation of the disk [Ω(r] has a maximum as a function of r so that there is an inner region where dΩ/dr > 0. In this region we observe radially trapped density waves in approximate agreement with the theoretical prediction of a Rossby wave instability in this region.

  19. Thermal instability (or not?) in three-dimensional, global, radiative GRMHD simulations of geometrically thin discs

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, B; Johnson, L C; Kluźniak, W

    2016-01-01

    We present results of a set of three-dimensional, general relativistic radiation magnetohydro- dynamics simulations of thin accretion discs to test their thermal stability. We consider two cases, one that is initially radiation-pressure dominated and expected to be thermally unstable and another that is initially gas-pressure dominated and expected to remain stable. Indeed, we find that cooling dominates over heating in the radiation-pressure-dominated case, causing the disc to collapse vertically on the local cooling timescale. On the other hand, the gas-pressure- dominated case, which was run for twice as long as the radiation-pressure-dominated case, remains stable, with heating and cooling roughly in balance. Because the radiation-pressure- dominated disc collapses to the point that we are no longer able to resolve it, we had to terminate the simulation. Thus, we do not know for sure whether it might find a much thinner, stable solution or if it will make a transition to unstable expansion and exhibit lim...

  20. Gas and dust hydrodynamical simulations of massive lopsided transition discs - II. Dust concentration

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of large dust grains in massive lopsided transition discs via 2D hydrodynamical simulations including both gas and dust. Our simulations adopt a ring-like gas density profile that becomes unstable against the Rossby-wave instability and forms a large crescent-shaped vortex. When gas self-gravity is discarded, but the indirect force from the displacement of the star by the vortex is included, we confirm that dust grains with stopping times of order the orbital time,...

  1. 3D Finite Volume Simulation of Accretion Discs with Spiral Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Makita, M; Makita, Makoto; Matsuda, Takuya

    1998-01-01

    We perform 2D and 3D numerical simulations of an accretion disc in a close binary system using the Simplified Flux vector Splitting (SFS) finite volume method. In our calculations, gas is assumed to be the ideal one, and we calculate the cases with gamma=1.01, 1.05, 1.1 and 1.2. The mass ratio of the mass losing star to the mass accreting star is unity. Our results show that spiral shocks are formed on the accretion disc in all cases. In 2D calculations we find that the smaller gamma is, the more tightly the spiral winds. We observe this trend in 3D calculations as well in somewhat weaker sense.

  2. Actuator Line Simulation of Wake of Wind Turbine Operating in Turbulent Inflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2007-01-01

    The wake of a wind turbine operating in an atmospheric turbulent inflow without mean shear is simulated using a numerical method, which combines large eddy simulations with an actuator line technique. A turbulent inflow with the same spectral characteristics as the atmosphere is produced....... Furthermore, the results are used to verify the validity of some of the basic assumptions employed in simpler engineering models and to study their bounds of application. The large amount of data from the wake simulation can easily be used in simple engineering methods to model a wind turbine operating...... by introducing time varying body forces in a plane upstream the rotor. The results of the simulation are compared to those obtained on a wind turbine in uniform inflow at the same mean wind speed and from this comparison a number of features of the influence of inflow turbulence on wake dynamics are deduced...

  3. Large-eddy simulations of isolated disc galaxies with thermal and turbulent feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Harald; Niemeyer, Jens C; Almgren, Ann S

    2014-01-01

    We present a subgrid-scale model for the Multi-phase Interstellar medium, Star formation, and Turbulence (MIST) and explore its behaviour in high-resolution large-eddy simulations of isolated disc galaxies. MIST follows the evolution of a clumpy cold and a diffuse warm component of the gas within a volume element which exchange mass and energy via various cooling, heating and mixing processes. The star formation rate is dynamically computed from the state of the gas in the cold phase. An important feature of MIST is the treatment of unresolved turbulence in the two phases and its interaction with star formation and feedback by supernovae. This makes MIST a particularly suitable model for the interstellar medium in galaxy simulations. We carried out a suite of simulations varying fundamental parameters of our feedback implementation. Several observational properties of galactic star formation are reproduced in our simulations, such as an average star formation efficiency ~1%, a typical velocity dispersion arou...

  4. Numerical convergence in self-gravitating disc simulations: initial conditions and edge effects

    CERN Document Server

    Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Meru, Farzana

    2011-01-01

    We study the numerical convergence of hydrodynamical simulations of self-gravitating accretion discs, in which a simple cooling law is balanced by shock heating. It is well-known that there exists a critical cooling time scale for which shock heating can no longer compensate for the energy losses, at which point the disc fragments. The numerical convergence of previous results of this critical cooling time scale was questioned recently using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). We employ a two-dimensional grid-based code to study this problem, and find that for smooth initial conditions, fragmentation is possible for slower cooling as the resolution is increased, in agreement with recent SPH results. We show that this non-convergence is at least partly due to the creation of a special location in the disc, the boundary between the turbulent and the laminar region, when cooling towards a gravito-turbulent state. Converged results appear to be obtained in setups where no such sharp edges appear, and we then f...

  5. Modelling and simulation of flight control electromechanical actuators with special focus on model architecting, multidisciplinary effects and power flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Fu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the aerospace field, electromechanical actuators are increasingly being implemented in place of conventional hydraulic actuators. For safety-critical embedded actuation applications like flight controls, the use of electromechanical actuators introduces specific issues related to thermal balance, reflected inertia, parasitic motion due to compliance and response to failure. Unfortunately, the physical effects governing the actuator behaviour are multidisciplinary, coupled and nonlinear. Although numerous multi-domain and system-level simulation packages are now available on the market, these effects are rarely addressed as a whole because of a lack of scientific approaches for model architecting, multi-purpose incremental modelling and judicious model implementation. In this publication, virtual prototyping of electromechanical actuators is addressed using the Bond-Graph formalism. New approaches are proposed to enable incremental modelling, thermal balance analysis, response to free-run or jamming faults, impact of compliance on parasitic motion, and influence of temperature. A special focus is placed on friction and compliance of the mechanical transmission with fault injection and temperature dependence. Aileron actuation is used to highlight the proposals for control design, energy consumption and thermal analysis, power network pollution analysis and fault response.

  6. Two-dimensional FSI simulation of closing dynamics of a tilting disc mechanical heart valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V; Udaykumar, H S; Herbertson, L H; Deutsch, S; Manning, K B; Chandran, K B

    2010-03-01

    The fluid dynamics during valve closure resulting in high shear flows and large residence times of particles has been implicated in platelet activation and thrombus formation in mechanical heart valves. Our previous studies with bi-leaflet valves have shown that large shear stresses induced in the gap between the leaflet edge and the valve housing results in relatively high platelet activation levels whereas flow between the leaflets results in shed vortices not conducive to platelet damage. In this study we compare the result of closing dynamics of a tilting disc valve with that of a bi-leaflet valve. The two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction analysis of a tilting disc valve closure mechanics is performed with a fixed grid Cartesian mesh flow solver with local mesh refinement, and a Lagrangian particle dynamic analysis for computation of potential for platelet activation. Throughout the simulation the flow remains in the laminar regime and the flow through the gap width is marked by the development of a shear layer which separates from the leaflet downstream of the valve. Zones of re-circulation are observed in the gap between the leaflet edge and the valve housing on the major orifice region of the tilting disc valve and are seen to be migrating towards the minor orifice region. Jet flow is observed at the minor orifice region and a vortex is formed which sheds in the direction of fluid motion as observed in experiments using PIV measurements. The activation parameter computed for the tilting disc valve, at the time of closure was found to be 2.7 times greater than that of the bi-leaflet mechanical valve and was found to be in the vicinity of the minor orifice region mainly due to the migration of vortical structures from the major to the minor orifice region during the leaflet rebound of the closing phase.

  7. Dynamic Simulation and Opening Bouncing Analysis of Vacuum Circuit Breaker with Permanent Magnetic Actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xin; CAO Chen; LI Bin; LIU Yang; XU Jianyuan

    2013-01-01

    In order to research the dynamic characteristics of circuit breaker (CB) in opening process,taking a 12 kV vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) with permanent magnetic actuator as the example,a dynamic model of the VCB is established based on the virtual prototype technology,and dynamic equations of the model are deduced.Simulation and experiment are carried out on the VCB of both opening and closing processes.The simulative opening time and closing time are 39.5 ms and 54.6 ms respectively.Influencing factors of opening bouncing and their effect principles are analyzed through dynamic simulations of opening bouncing process.Analytic results indicate that the increase in the stiffness coefficient of contact spring limits the opening bouncing; meanwhile increases in the preload of contact spring and the mass of shaft can enlarge the opening bouncing.

  8. Formation and Settling of a Disc Galaxy During the Last 8 Billion Years in a Cosmological Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ceverino, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Kassin, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    We present results of a high-resolution zoom cosmological simulation of the evolution of a low-mass galaxy with a maximum velocity of V=100 km/s at z=0, using the initial conditions from the AGORA project (Kim et al 2014). The final disc-dominated galaxy matches local disc scaling relations. The galaxy evolves from a compact, dispersion-dominated galaxy into a rotation-dominated but dynamically hot disc in about 0.5 Gyr (from z=1.4 to z=1.2). The disc dynamically cools down for the following 7 Gyr, as the gas velocity dispersion decreases over time, in agreement with observations. The primary cause of this slow evolution of velocity dispersion in this low-mass galaxy is stellar feedback. It is related to the decline in gas fraction, and to the associated gravitational disk instability, as the disc slowly settles from a global Toomre Q>1 turbulent disc to a marginally unstable disc (Q=1).

  9. On the relevance of structure preservation to simulations of muscle actuated movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Ramona; Siebert, Tobias; Leyendecker, Sigrid

    2012-03-01

    In this work, we implement a typical nonlinear Hill-type muscle model in a structure-preserving simulation framework and investigate the differences to standard simulations of muscle-actuated movements with MATLAB/Simulink. The latter is a common tool to solve dynamical problems, in particular, in biomechanic investigations. Despite the simplicity of the examples used for comparison, it becomes obvious that the MATLAB/Simulink integrators artificially loose or gain energy and angular momentum during dynamic simulations. The relative energy error of the MATLAB/Simulink integrators related to a very low actual muscle work can naturally reach large values, even higher than 100%. But also during periods with large muscle work, the relative energy error reaches up to 2%. Even in simulations with very small time steps, energy and angular momentum errors are still present using MATLAB/Simulink and can (at least partially) be responsible for phase errors in long-term simulations. This typical behaviour of commercial integrators is known to increase for more complex models or for computations with larger time steps, whose use is crucial for efficiency, especially in the context of optimal control simulations. In contrast to that, time-stepping schemes being derived from a discrete variational principle yield discrete analogues of the Euler-Lagrange equations and Noethers theorem. This ensures that the structure of the system is preserved, i.e. the simulation results are symplectic and momentum consistent and exhibit a good energy behaviour (no drift).

  10. Broken discs: warp propagation in accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Chris; King, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We simulate the viscous evolution of an accretion disc around a spinning black hole. In general any such disc is misaligned, and warped by the Lense-Thirring effect. Unlike previous studies we use effective viscosities constrained to be consistent with the internal fluid dynamics of the disc. We find that nonlinear fluid effects, which reduce the effective viscosities in warped regions, can promote the breaking of the disc into two distinct planes. This occurs when the Shakura & Sunyaev dimen...

  11. Numerical Simulation of Stall Flow Control Using a DBD Plasma Actuator in Pulse Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshkhoo, R.; Jahangirian, A.

    2016-09-01

    A numerical simulation method is employed to investigate the effects of the unsteady plasma body force over the stalled NACA 0015 airfoil at low Reynolds number flow conditions. The plasma body force created by a dielectric barrier discharge actuator is modeled with a phenomenological method for plasma simulation coupled with the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The governing equations are solved using an efficient implicit finitevolume method. The responses of the separated flow field to the effects of an unsteady body force in various inter-pulses and duty cycles as well as different locations and magnitudes are studied. It is shown that the duty cycle and inter-pulse are key parameters for flow separation control. Additionally, it is concluded that the body force is able to attach the flow and can affect boundary layer grow that Mach number 0.1 and Reynolds number of 45000.

  12. Numerical simulation of a thermal-bubble actuated diffuser-nozzle valveless pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A valveless micropump actuated by thermal bubbles which are generated by an electrode heater mounted with a pair of diffuser nozzles has been numerically studied by commercial CFD software FLUENT. The relationships between the net flow rate and the superheating and heat supplying frequency have been investigated. The depth of the diffuser-nozzle micropump is 200 μm, the diameter of the actuating chamber is 1 mm, and a pair of diffuser nozzles whose gap has been expanded from 30 μm to 274 μm with an open angle of 7° are connected to the actuating chamber. The working fluid is methanol. In the numerical simulation, the flow pattern is laminar. The results show that the pump has different optimal driving frequencies at different superheating. A cycle resulting from bubble growth and shrinking costs more time at higher superheating temperature; different superheating has different optimal driving frequency; when the superheating increases, the maximum volume flow rate and the maximum pump pressure will increase simultaneously, and the optimal driving frequency decreases as well, the maximum volume flow rate and pump pressure also have the same tendency; in the condition of uncontrolled condensing, the bubble shrinking process is longer than the growth process, thus it is the determining factor to affect the pump performance. The maximum volume flow rate is 9.02 μL/min at △T = 15℃, and the maximum pump pressure is 680 Pa. With the increase of wall superheat, cycle including the bubble growth and condensation will become longer, resulting in a significant impact on the pumping flow; different wall superheat has different optimized frequency, increasing superheat will bring increased pumping flow and pump pressure, the optimized driving frequency will be reduced; liquid supply phase is longer than pumping phase.

  13. Gas and dust hydrodynamical simulations of massive lopsided transition discs - II. Dust concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Baruteau, Clément

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of large dust grains in massive lopsided transition discs via 2D hydrodynamical simulations including both gas and dust. Our simulations adopt a ring-like gas density profile that becomes unstable against the Rossby-wave instability and forms a large crescent-shaped vortex. When gas self-gravity is discarded, but the indirect force from the displacement of the star by the vortex is included, we confirm that dust grains with stopping times of order the orbital time, which should be typically a few centimetres in size, are trapped ahead of the vortex in the azimuthal direction, while the smallest and largest grains concentrate towards the vortex centre. We obtain maximum shift angles of about 25 degrees. Gas self-gravity accentuates the concentration differences between small and large grains. At low to moderate disc masses, the larger the grains, the farther they are trapped ahead of the vortex. Shift angles up to 90 degrees are reached for 10 cm-sized grains, and we show that such ...

  14. Snap, crackle, pop: sub-grid supernova feedback in AMR simulations of disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosdahl, Joakim; Schaye, Joop; Dubois, Yohan; Kimm, Taysun; Teyssier, Romain

    2017-04-01

    We compare five sub-grid models for supernova (SN) feedback in adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulations of isolated dwarf and L-star disc galaxies with 20-40 pc resolution. The models are thermal dump, stochastic thermal, 'mechanical' (injecting energy or momentum depending on the resolution), kinetic and delayed cooling feedback. We focus on the ability of each model to suppress star formation and generate outflows. Our highest resolution runs marginally resolve the adiabatic phase of the feedback events, which correspond to 40 SN explosions, and the first three models yield nearly identical results, possibly indicating that kinetic and delayed cooling feedback converge to wrong results. At lower resolution all models differ, with thermal dump feedback becoming inefficient. Thermal dump, stochastic and mechanical feedback generate multiphase outflows with mass loading factors β ≪ 1, which is much lower than observed. For the case of stochastic feedback, we compare to published SPH simulations, and find much lower outflow rates. Kinetic feedback yields fast, hot outflows with β ∼ 1, but only if the wind is in effect hydrodynamically decoupled from the disc using a large bubble radius. Delayed cooling generates cold, dense and slow winds with β > 1, but large amounts of gas occupy regions of temperature-density space with short cooling times. We conclude that either our resolution is too low to warrant physically motivated models for SN feedback, that feedback mechanisms other than SNe are important or that other aspects of galaxy evolution, such as star formation, require better treatment.

  15. Modeling and Simulation of Control Actuation System with Fuzzy-PID Logic Controlled Brushless Motor Drives for Missiles Glider Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniraj, Murali; Arulmozhiyal, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    A control actuation system has been used extensively in automotive, aerospace, and defense applications. The major challenges in modeling control actuation system are rise time, maximum peak to peak overshoot, and response to nonlinear system with percentage error. This paper addresses the challenges in modeling and real time implementation of control actuation system for missiles glider applications. As an alternative fuzzy-PID controller is proposed in BLDC motor drive followed by linkage mechanism to actuate fins in missiles and gliders. The proposed system will realize better rise time and less overshoot while operating in extreme nonlinear dynamic system conditions. A mathematical model of BLDC motor is derived in state space form. The complete control actuation system is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink environment and verified by performing simulation studies. A real time prototype of the control actuation is developed with dSPACE-1104 hardware controller and a detailed analysis is carried out to confirm the viability of the proposed system. PMID:26613102

  16. Modeling and Simulation of Control Actuation System with Fuzzy-PID Logic Controlled Brushless Motor Drives for Missiles Glider Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Muniraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A control actuation system has been used extensively in automotive, aerospace, and defense applications. The major challenges in modeling control actuation system are rise time, maximum peak to peak overshoot, and response to nonlinear system with percentage error. This paper addresses the challenges in modeling and real time implementation of control actuation system for missiles glider applications. As an alternative fuzzy-PID controller is proposed in BLDC motor drive followed by linkage mechanism to actuate fins in missiles and gliders. The proposed system will realize better rise time and less overshoot while operating in extreme nonlinear dynamic system conditions. A mathematical model of BLDC motor is derived in state space form. The complete control actuation system is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink environment and verified by performing simulation studies. A real time prototype of the control actuation is developed with dSPACE-1104 hardware controller and a detailed analysis is carried out to confirm the viability of the proposed system.

  17. Turbulent drag reduction through oscillating discs

    CERN Document Server

    Wise, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    The changes of a turbulent channel flow subjected to oscillations of wall flush-mounted rigid discs are studied by means of direct numerical simulations. The Reynolds number is $R_\\tau$=$180$, based on the friction velocity of the stationary-wall case and the half channel height. The primary effect of the wall forcing is the sustained reduction of wall-shear stress, which reaches a maximum of 20%. A parametric study on the disc diameter, maximum tip velocity, and oscillation period is presented, with the aim to identify the optimal parameters which guarantee maximum drag reduction and maximum net energy saving, computed by taking into account the power spent to actuate the discs. This may be positive and reaches 6%. The Rosenblat viscous pump flow is used to predict the power spent for disc motion in the turbulent channel flow and to estimate localized and transient regions over the disc surface subjected to the turbulent regenerative braking effect, for which the wall turbulence exerts work on the discs. The...

  18. Implementation of the Actuator Cylinder Flow Model in the HAWC2 code for Aeroelastic Simulations on Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the implementation of the Actuator Cylinder (AC) flow model in the HAWC2 aeroelastic code originally developed for simulation of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) aeroelasticity. This is done within the DeepWind project where the main objective is to explore the competitivene...

  19. Modeling and Investigation of Electromechanical Valve Train Actuator at simulated Pressure conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Tufail

    2012-01-01

    In an electromechanical valve actuated engine, the valves are driven by solenoid-type actuators and cam-shaft is eliminated. Control of each valve provides flexibility in valve timings over all engine conditions and achieves the benefits of variable valve timing(VVT). This paper is about investig......In an electromechanical valve actuated engine, the valves are driven by solenoid-type actuators and cam-shaft is eliminated. Control of each valve provides flexibility in valve timings over all engine conditions and achieves the benefits of variable valve timing(VVT). This paper is about...

  20. Enhancement of Optical Adaptive Sensing by Using a Dual-Stage Seesaw-Swivel Actuator with a Tunable Vibration Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chien Chou

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological obstacles to the use of rotary-type swing arm actuators to actuate optical pickup modules in small-form-factor (SFF disk drives stem from a hinge’s skewed actuation, subsequently inducing off-axis aberrations and deteriorating optical quality. This work describes a dual-stage seesaw-swivel actuator for optical pickup actuation. A triple-layered bimorph bender made of piezoelectric materials (PZTs is connected to the suspension of the pickup head, while the tunable vibration absorber (TVA unit is mounted on the seesaw swing arm to offer a balanced force to reduce vibrations in a focusing direction. Both PZT and TVA are designed to satisfy stable focusing operation operational requirements and compensate for the tilt angle or deformation of a disc. Finally, simulation results verify the performance of the dual-stage seesaw-swivel actuator, along with experimental procedures and parametric design optimization confirming the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  1. Simulation of Electrostatic Actuation in Interdigitated Comb Drive MEMS Resonator for Energy Harvester Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, S.; Pavithra, M.; Muruganand, S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an actuation mechanism based on the interdigitated comb drive MEMS resonator. The important role of that device is to establish MEMS resonators for the second order systems. Comb drive model is one of the basic model which uses the principle of electrostatic and force can be generated for the capacitive sensors. This work is done by overlapping movable and fixed comb fingers which produces an energy. The specific range of the polyimide material properties of young's modulus of 3.1GPa and density of 1300 Kg/m3. Results are shown in the structural domain performance of a lateral motion which corresponds to the applying voltage between the interdigitated comb fingers. It has laterally driven about 40pm with driving voltage. Also the resonance frequency 24Hz and 15Hz with high quality factors are depending on the spring length 260pm and 360pm and structure thickness of 2μm and 5 μm. Here Finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the various physics scenario and it is designed as two dimensional structure multiphysics domain. The prototype of comb drive MEMS resonator has been suitable for energy harvesting system applications.

  2. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators at Atmospheric and Sub-Atmospheric Pressures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Traditional approaches for active flow separation control using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators are limited to relatively low-speed flows and...

  3. The MaGICC Baryon Cycle: The Enrichment History of Simulated Disc Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brook, C B; Gibson, B K; Shen, S; Macciò, A V; Wadsley, J; Quinn, T

    2013-01-01

    Using cosmological galaxy formation simulations from the MaGICC project, spanning more than three magnitudes in stellar mass (~10^7-3x10^{10} Msun), we trace the baryonic cycle of infalling gas from the virial radius through to its participation in the star formation process. An emphasis is placed upon the temporal history of chemical enrichment during its passage through the corona and CGM. We derive the distributions of time between gas crossing the virial radius and being accreted to the star forming region (which allows mixing within the corona), as well as the time between gas being accreted to the star forming region and then forming stars (which allows mixing within the disc). Significant numbers of stars are formed from gas that cycles back through the hot halo after first accreting to the star forming region. Gas entering high mass galaxies is pre-enriched in low mass proto-galaxies prior to entering the virial radius of the central progenitor, with only small amounts of primordial gas accreted, even...

  4. Experimental and Simulation-Based Investigation of Polycentric Motion of an Inherent Compliant Pneumatic Bending Actuator with Skewed Rotary Elastic Chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Wilkening

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To offer a functionality that could not be found in traditional rigid robots, compliant actuators are in development worldwide for a variety of applications and especially for human–robot interaction. Pneumatic bending actuators are a special kind of such actuators. Due to the absence of fixed mechanical axes and their soft behavior, these actuators generally possess a polycentric motion ability. This can be very useful to provide an implicit self-alignment to human joint axes in exoskeleton-like rehabilitation devices. As a possible realization, a novel bending actuator (BA was developed using patented pneumatic skewed rotary elastic chambers (sREC. To analyze the actuator self-alignment properties, knowledge about the motion of this bending actuator type, the so-called skewed rotary elastic chambers bending actuator (sRECBA, is of high interest and this paper presents experimental and simulation-based kinematic investigations. First, to describe actuator motion, the finite helical axes (FHA of basic actuator elements are determined using a three-dimensional (3D camera system. Afterwards, a simplified two-dimensional (2D kinematic simulation model based on a four-bar linkage was developed and the motion was compared to the experimental data by calculating the instantaneous center of rotation (ICR. The equivalent kinematic model of the sRECBA was realized using a series of four-bar linkages and the resulting ICR was analyzed in simulation. Finally, the FHA of the sRECBA were determined and analyzed for three different specific motions. The results show that the actuator’s FHA adapt to different motions performed and it can be assumed that implicit self-alignment to the polycentric motion of the human joint axis will be provided.

  5. Effect of Degeneration on Fluid-Solid Interaction within Intervertebral Disc under Cyclic Loading – A Meta-Model Analysis of Finite Element Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eNikkhoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of low back pain resulted from cyclic loadings is greater than that resulted from prolonged static postures. Disc degeneration results in degradation of disc solid structures and decrease of water contents, which is caused by activation of matrix digestive enzymes. The mechanical responses resulted from internal solid-fluid interactions of degenerative discs to cyclic loadings are not well studied yet. The fluid-solid interactions in discs can be evaluated by mathematical models, especially the poroelastic finite element models. We developed a robust disc poroelastic FE model to analyze the effect of degeneration on solid-fluid interactions within disc subjected to cyclic loadings at different loading frequencies. A backward analysis combined with in-vitro experiments were used to find the elastic modulus and hydraulic permeability of intact and enzyme-induced degenerated porcine discs. The results showed that the averaged peak-to-peak disc deformations during the in-vitro cyclic tests were well fitted with limited FE simulations and a quadratic response surface regression for both disc groups. The results showed that higher loading frequency increased the intradiscal pressure, decreased the total fluid loss, and slightly increased the maximum axial stress within solid matrix. Enzyme-induced degeneration decreased the intradiscal pressure and total fluid loss, and barely changed the maximum axial stress within solid matrix. The increase of intradiscal pressure and total fluid loss with loading frequency was less sensitive after the frequency elevated to 0.1 Hz for the enzyme-induced degenerated disc. Based on this study, it is found that enzyme-induced degeneration decreases energy attenuation capability of disc, but less change the strength of disc.

  6. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators at Atmospheric and Sub-Atmospheric Pressures: SBIR Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanskii, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    This report is the final report of a SBIR Phase I project. It is identical to the final report submitted, after some proprietary information of administrative nature has been removed. The development of a numerical simulation tool for dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is reported. The objectives of the project were to analyze and predict DBD operation at wide range of ambient gas pressures. It overcomes the limitations of traditional DBD codes which are limited to low-speed applications and have weak prediction capabilities. The software tool allows DBD actuator analysis and prediction for subsonic to hypersonic flow regime. The simulation tool is based on the VORPAL code developed by Tech-X Corporation. VORPAL's capability of modeling DBD plasma actuator at low pressures (0.1 to 10 torr) using kinetic plasma modeling approach, and at moderate to atmospheric pressures (1 to 10 atm) using hydrodynamic plasma modeling approach, were demonstrated. In addition, results of experiments with pulsed+bias DBD configuration that were performed for validation purposes are reported.

  7. Simulation and Experimental Testing of an Actuator for a Fast Switching On-Off Valve Suitable to Efficient Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Bech, Michael Møller

    2014-01-01

    for the valve design process. In this paper simulation of such fast switching valve is presented and the transient actuator performance is experimentally validated against transient Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Models predict a switching time of approximately 1ms for the valve and a pressure loss of 0.5 bar......Digital Displacement (DD) fluid power machines are upcoming technology, improving the efficiency compared to traditional variable displacement machines, especially at low displacements where currently available fluid power pumps/motors suffer from mediocre efficiency. This efficiency improvement...

  8. Accretion disc dynamo activity in local simulations spanning weak-to-strong net vertical magnetic flux regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2015-01-01

    Strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes have attractive features that may explain enigmatic aspects of X-ray binary behaviour. The structure and evolution of these discs are governed by a dynamo-like mechanism, which channels part of the accretion power liberated by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) into an ordered toroidal magnetic field. To study dynamo activity, we performed three-dimensional, stratified, isothermal, ideal magnetohydrodynamic shearing box simulations. The strength of the self-sustained toroidal magnetic field depends on the net vertical magnetic flux, which we vary across almost the entire range over which the MRI is linearly unstable. We quantify disc structure and dynamo properties as a function of the initial ratio of mid-plane gas pressure to vertical magnetic field pressure, $\\beta_0^{\\rm mid} = p_{\\rm gas} / p_B$. For $10^5 \\geq \\beta_0^{\\rm mid} \\geq 10$ the effective $\\alpha$-viscosity parameter scales as a power-law. Dynamo activity persists up to and includin...

  9. Accretion disc time lag distributions: applying CREAM to simulated AGN light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, D. A.; Horne, Keith; Villforth, C.

    2016-02-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) vary in their brightness across all wavelengths. Moreover, longer wavelength ultraviolet-optical continuum light curves appear to be delayed with respect to shorter wavelength light curves. A simple way to model these delays is by assuming thermal reprocessing of a variable point source (a lamp post) by a blackbody accretion disc. We introduce a new method, CREAM (Continuum REprocessed AGN Markov Chain Monte Carlo), that models continuum variations using this lamp post model. The disc light curves lag the lamp post emission with a time delay distribution sensitive to the disc temperature-radius profile and inclination. We test CREAM's ability to recover both inclination and product of black hole mass and accretion rate {Mdot{M}}, and show that the code is also able to infer the shape of the driving light curve. CREAM is applied to synthetic light curves expected from 1000 s exposures of a 17th magnitude AGN with a 2-m telescope in Sloan g and i bands with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of 500-900 depending on the filter and lunar phase. We also test CREAM on poorer quality g and i light curves with SNR = 100. We find in the high-SNR case that CREAM can recover the accretion disc inclination to within an uncertainty of 5° and an {Mdot{M}} to within 0.04 dex.

  10. Coil Springs Layer Used to Support a Car Vertical Dynamics Simulator and to Reduce the Maximum Actuation Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan N. Dumitriu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A Danaher Thomson linear actuator with ball screw drive and a realtime control system are used here to induce vertical displacements under the driver/user seat of an in-house dynamic car simulator. In order to better support the car simulator and to dynamically protect the actuator’s ball screw drive, a layer of coil springs is used to support the whole simulator chassis. More precisely, one coil spring is placed vertically under each corner of the rectangular chassis. The paper presents the choice of the appropriate coil springs, so that to minimize as much as possible the ball screw drive task of generating linear motions, corresponding to the vertical displacements and accelerations encountered by a driver during a real ride. For this application, coil springs with lower spring constant are more suited to reduce the forces in the ball screw drive and thus to increase the ball screw drive life expectancy.

  11. An implicit method for the nonlinear modelling and simulation of piezoceramic actuators displaying hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Timothy D.; Zimmerman, David C.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments have shown that piezoceramic materials display a nonlinear relationship between the applied electric field and the actuation strain. This relationship also displays a substantial hysteresis upon reversal of the applied field. In this paper, piezoceramic actuator models are incorporated into the structural equations of motion to arrive at a set of nonlinear actively controlled structural equations of motion. A new implicit algorithm for determining the time history of the actively controlled structure is presented. The algorithm employs the trapezoidal rule for stepping the equations forward in time. The algorithm is compared to an explicit algorithm and is shown to provide greater numerical accuracy. In addition, the numerical stability and convergence characteristics are presented via example. The new algorithm displays convergence and stability properties that are comparable to the standard trapezoidal rule used for dynamic systems without hysteresis.

  12. Design, numerical simulation and experimental investigation of an SU-8 microgripper based on the cascaded V-shaped electrothermal actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Rodica-Cristina

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the numerical simulation results and the experimental investigations of a polymeric microgripper designed using the cascaded V-shaped electrothermal actuators. The microgripper was simulated using electro-thermo-mechanical finite element method (FEM) based on Coventorware 2014 software in order to check the performance of the gripper. As structural material of the microgripper, the SU-8 biocompatible polymer was used during the fabrication process. The metallic micro-heaters were encapsulated in the polymeric actuation structures of the microgrippers to reduce the undesirable out-of-plane displacement of the gripper tips, to reduce the mechanical stress and to improve the thermal efficiency. Experimental testing has been performed to determine the openings of the microgripper tips as function of electrical current. A displacement of the tips of more than 50 pm can be obtained at an electrical current of around 25-26 mA. Over 27-28 mA the heaters are still working but a softening and a damaging status in the polymer were observed.

  13. Accretion Disc Time Lag Distributions: Applying CREAM to Simulated AGN Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Starkey, David; Villforth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) vary in their brightness across all wavelengths. Moreover, longer wavelength ultraviolet - optical continuum light curves appear to be delayed with respect to shorter wavelength light curves. A simple way to model these delays is by assuming thermal reprocessing of a variable point source (a lamp post) by a blackbody accretion disc. We introduce a new method, CREAM (\\textbf{C}ontinuum \\textbf{RE}processed \\textbf{A}GN \\textbf{M}arkov Chain Monte Carlo), that models continuum variations using this lamp post model. The disc light curves lag the lamp post emission with a time delay distribution sensitive to the disc temperature-radius profile and inclination. We test CREAM's ability to recover both inclination and product of black hole mass and accretion rate $\\mmdot$, and show that the code is also able to infer the shape of the driving light curve. CREAM is applied to synthetic light curves expected from 1000 second exposures of a 17th magnitude AGN with a 2m telescope in Sloan g a...

  14. Co-simulation for the Power Generation Characteristics of an Electromagnetic Linear Actuator used in Active Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Anqi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to passive suspensions, active suspensions with electromagnetic linear actuator (EMLA not only has higher performance in active force control, but also can regenerate energy form road disturbances. In this study, the characteristics of a new designed EMLA were investigated under generator mode by precisely co-simulating the quarter active suspension with single degree of freedom. This model, which consists of sprung mass, EMLA imported from Maxwell and a spring in parallel with the EMLA, is built in Simplorer. Simulation results show that the mechanical power and electric power of the EMLA are both proportional to the frequency and amplitude of excitation. The efficiency, defined as the ratio of electric energy to mechanical energy, decreases with the increase of frequency while nonlinearly changes with the increase of stroke. The yielded maximal efficiency of 94% occur sat the frequency of 2 Hzand the stroke ranges of6mm to 9mm.

  15. Simulations of the formation of a gaseous disc and young stars near Sgr A* via cloud-cloud collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Nayakshin, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Young massive stars in the central parsec of our Galaxy are best explained by star formation within at least one, and possibly two, massive self-gravitating gaseous discs. With help of numerical simulations, we here consider whether the observed population of young stars could have originated from a large angle collision of two massive gaseous clouds at R ~ 1 pc from Sgr A*. In all the simulations performed, the post-collision gas flow forms an inner nearly circular gaseous disc and one or two eccentric outer filaments, consistent with the observations. Furthermore, the radial stellar mass distribution is always very steep, sigma proportional to R^-2, again consistent with the data. The 3D velocity structure of the stellar distribution is however sensitive to initial conditions (e.g., the impact parameter of the clouds) and gas cooling details. In all the cases the amount of gas accreted by our inner boundary condition is large, enough to allow Sgr A* to radiate near its Eddington limit during ~ 10^5 years. T...

  16. Convergence of simulations of self-gravitating accretion discs II: Sensitivity to the implementation of radiative cooling and artificial viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, W K M; Forgan, D H; Armitage, P J

    2013-01-01

    Recently it has been suggested that the fragmentation boundary in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) and FARGO simulations of self-gravitating accretion discs with beta-cooling do not converge as resolution is increased. Furthermore, this recent work suggests that by carefully optimising the artificial viscosity parameters in these codes it can be shown that fragmentation may occur for much longer cooling times than earlier work suggests. If correct, this result is intriguing as it suggests that gas giant planets could form, via direct gravitational collapse, reasonably close to their parent stars. This result is, however, slightly surprising and there have been a number of recent studies suggesting that the result is likely an indication of a numerical problem with the simulations. One suggestion, in particular, is that the SPH results are influenced by the manner in which the cooling is implemented. We extend this work here and show that if the cooling is implemented in a manner that removes a known numer...

  17. Low Reynolds Number Flow Dynamics of a Thin Airfoil with an Actuated Leading Edge using Direct Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Kevin; Apte, Sourabh

    2010-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effect of a movable leading edge on the unsteady flow at high angles of attack over a flat, thin airfoil at Reynolds number of 14700 based on the chord length. The leading edge of the airfoil is hinged at one-third chord length allowing dynamic variations in the effective angle of attack through specified oscillations (or flapping). A fictitious-domain based finite volume approach [(Apte et al. (JCP 2009)] is used to compute the flow over an airfoil with a flapping leading edge on a fixed background mesh. Cases were run at 20 degrees angle of attack to study the drag and lift characteristics with sinusoidal flapping of the leading edge about the hinge over a range of reduced frequencies (k=πf c/U∞ = 0.57- 5.7). It is shown that high-frequency low amplitude actuation of the leading edge significantly alters the leading edge boundary-layer and vortex shedding and increases the mean lift- to-drag ratio. The concept of an actuated leading-edge flap has potential for development of control techniques to stabilize and maneuver low-Reynolds number micro-air vehicles in response to unsteady perturbations.

  18. Generalized Wind Turbine Actuator Disk Parameterization in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model for Real-World Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, N.; Mirocha, J. D.; Chow, F. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we examine the performance of a generalized actuator disk (GAD) model embedded within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model to study wake effects on successive rows of turbines at a North American wind farm. These wake effects are of interest as they can drastically reduce down-wind energy extraction and increase turbulence intensity. The GAD, which is designed for turbulence-resolving simulations, is used within downscaled large-eddy simulations (LES) forced with mesoscale simulations and WRF's grid nesting capability. The GAD represents the effects of thrust and torque created by a wind turbine on the atmosphere within a disk representing the rotor swept area. The lift and drag forces acting on the turbine blades are parameterized using blade-element theory and the aerodynamic properties of the blades. Our implementation permits simulation of turbine wake effects and turbine/airflow interactions within a realistic atmospheric boundary layer flow field, including resolved turbulence, time-evolving mesoscale forcing, and real topography. The GAD includes real-time yaw and pitch control to respond realistically to changing flow conditions. Simulation results are compared to SODAR data from operating wind turbines and an already existing WRF mesoscale turbine drag parameterization to validate the GAD parameterization.

  19. DBD Plasma Actuators for Flow Control in Air Vehicles and Jet Engines - Simulation of Flight Conditions in Test Chambers by Density Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpis, David E.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma actuators for active flow control in aircraft and jet engines need to be tested in the laboratory to characterize their performance at flight operating conditions. DBD plasma actuators generate a wall-jet electronically by creating weakly ionized plasma, therefore their performance is affected by gas discharge properties, which, in turn, depend on the pressure and temperature at the actuator placement location. Characterization of actuators is initially performed in a laboratory chamber without external flow. The pressure and temperature at the actuator flight operation conditions need to be simultaneously set in the chamber. A simplified approach is desired. It is assumed that the plasma discharge depends only on the gas density, while other temperature effects are assumed to be negligible. Therefore, tests can be performed at room temperature with chamber pressure set to yield the same density as in operating flight conditions. The needed chamber pressures are shown for altitude flight of an air vehicle and for jet engines at sea-level takeoff and altitude cruise conditions. Atmospheric flight conditions are calculated from standard atmosphere with and without shock waves. The engine data was obtained from four generic engine models; 300-, 150-, and 50-passenger (PAX) aircraft engines, and a military jet-fighter engine. The static and total pressure, temperature, and density distributions along the engine were calculated for sea-level takeoff and for altitude cruise conditions. The corresponding chamber pressures needed to test the actuators were calculated. The results show that, to simulate engine component flows at in-flight conditions, plasma actuator should be tested over a wide range of pressures. For the four model engines the range is from 12.4 to 0.03 atm, depending on the placement of the actuator in the engine. For example, if a DBD plasma actuator is to be placed at the compressor exit of a 300 PAX engine, it

  20. Apu/hydraulic/actuator Subsystem Computer Simulation. Space Shuttle Engineering and Operation Support, Engineering Systems Analysis. [for the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Major developments are examined which have taken place to date in the analysis of the power and energy demands on the APU/Hydraulic/Actuator Subsystem for space shuttle during the entry-to-touchdown (not including rollout) flight regime. These developments are given in the form of two subroutines which were written for use with the Space Shuttle Functional Simulator. The first subroutine calculates the power and energy demand on each of the three hydraulic systems due to control surface (inboard/outboard elevons, rudder, speedbrake, and body flap) activity. The second subroutine incorporates the R. I. priority rate limiting logic which limits control surface deflection rates as a function of the number of failed hydraulic. Typical results of this analysis are included, and listings of the subroutines are presented in appendicies.

  1. Simulation of rotor aerodynamics : use of the actuator surface method to model the MEXICO wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, S.P.; Watters, C.S.; Masson, C. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed the model rotor experiments under controlled conditions (MEXICO) project. The experiments are being conducted in the largest wind tunnel in Europe in order to determine optimal yaw and pitch angles for wind turbines as well as to test the performance of blade aerodynamic profiles and rotor instrumentation. Data obtained during the experiments are used to determine velocity component points in order to develop a greater understanding of wind turbine aerodynamics and improve calculation methods. Blade element momentum (BEM) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and vortex wake codes are used in the program, which includes an actuator surface method embedded in a customized CFD finite element method. To date, the project has validated various models with experimental data, and mapped the induced velocities upwind and downwind from rotors. Further research is being conducted to compare experimental results with other results in the literature related to blade loading, root bending moments, and detailed flow characteristics. Charts of experimental results were included. tabs., figs.

  2. Validation of the Actuator Line Model for Simulating Flows past Yawed Wind Turbine Rotors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Yang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The Actuator Line/Navier-Stokes model is validated against wind tunnel measurements for flows past the yawed MEXICO rotor and past the yawed NREL Phase VI rotor. The MEXICO rotor is operated at a rotational speed of 424 rpm, a pitch angle of −2.3˚, wind speeds of 10, 15, 24 m/s and yaw angles of 15......˚, 30˚ and 45˚. The computed loads as well as the velocity field behind the yawed MEXICO rotor are compared to the detailed pressure and PIV measurements which were carried out in the EU funded MEXICO project. For the NREL Phase VI rotor, computations were carried out at a rotational speed of 90.2 rpm......, a pitch angle of 3˚, a wind speed of 5 m/s and yaw angles of 10˚ and 30˚. The computed loads are compared to the loads measured from pressure measurement....

  3. Spinning out of control: wall turbulence over rotating discs

    CERN Document Server

    Wise, Daniel J; Ricco, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The friction drag reduction in a turbulent channel flow generated by surface-mounted rotating disc actuators is investigated numerically. The wall arrangement of the discs has a complex and unexpected effect on the flow. For low disc-tip velocities, the drag reduction scales linearly with the percentage of the actuated area, whereas for higher disc-tip velocity the drag reduction can be larger than the prediction found through the linear scaling with actuated area. For medium disc-tip velocities, all the cases which display this additional drag reduction exhibit stationary-wall regions between discs along the streamwise direction. This effect is caused by the viscous boundary layer which develops over the portions of stationary wall due to the radial flow produced by the discs. For the highest disc-tip velocity, the drag reduction even increases by halving the number of discs. The power spent to activate the discs is instead independent of the disc arrangement and scales linearly with the actuated area for al...

  4. 制动盘材料选型仿真对比分析%Simulation Comparative Analysis of Brake Disc Material Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文伟; 廉超; 钱坤才; 王常川

    2013-01-01

      针对高速动车组运行速度高,制动释放能量大,对基础制动装置特别是制动盘高温性能要求高等特点,研究了新型合金钢材料和结构制动盘。通过运用ANSYS仿真软件对1#材料和2#材料两种制动盘盘体的温度场、热应力场等关键性能进行仿真对比分析,结果表明:2#材料制动盘的温升、盘体热应力情况明显优于1#材料制动盘,为高速列车制动盘的材料选择提供了依据。%In view of the characteristics of High Speed Train-high speed, large braking energy releasing, high requirements for foundation braking device especially for braking disc high temperature performance, this paper studies the new alloy steel material and structure brake disc. The ANSYS simulation software is used to do simulation comparative analysis of the disc temperature field, thermal stress field and other key performance of 1#material and 2#material brake disc. The result shows that, the temperature rise and disc thermal stress of 2# material brake disc is much better than that of 1#material and thus providing basis for the material selection of high speed train brake disc.

  5. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Goodwin, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-...

  6. Tracing Planets in Circumstellar Discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Ana L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Planets are assumed to form in circumstellar discs around young stellar objects. The additional gravitational potential of a planet perturbs the disc and leads to characteristic structures, i.e. spiral waves and gaps, in the disc density profile. We perform a large-scale parameter study on the observability of these planet-induced structures in circumstellar discs in the (submm wavelength range for the Atacama Large (SubMillimeter Array (ALMA. On the basis of hydrodynamical and magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of star-disc-planet models we calculate the disc temperature structure and (submm images of these systems. These are used to derive simulated ALMA maps. Because appropriate objects are frequent in the Taurus-Auriga region, we focus on a distance of 140 pc and a declination of ≈ 20°. The explored range of star-disc-planet configurations consists of six hydrodynamical simulations (including magnetic fields and different planet masses, nine disc sizes with outer radii ranging from 9 AU to 225 AU, 15 total disc masses in the range between 2.67·10-7 M⊙ and 4.10·10-2 M⊙, six different central stars and two different grain size distributions, resulting in 10 000 disc models. At almost all scales and in particular down to a scale of a few AU, ALMA is able to trace disc structures induced by planet-disc interaction or the influence of magnetic fields in the wavelength range between 0.4...2.0 mm. In most cases, the optimum angular resolution is limited by the sensitivity of ALMA. However, within the range of typical masses of protoplane tary discs (0.1 M⊙...0.001 M⊙ the disc mass has a minor impact on the observability. At the distance of 140 pc it is possible to resolve discs down to 2.67·10-6 M⊙ and trace gaps in discs with 2.67·10-4 M⊙ with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than three. In general, it is more likely to trace planet-induced gaps in magneto-hydrodynamical disc models, because gaps are wider in the presence of

  7. Counter-Rotating Accretion Discs

    OpenAIRE

    Dyda, Sergei; Lovelace, Richard V. E.; Ustyugova, Galina V.; Romanova, Marina M.; Koldoba, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud onto the surface of an existing co-rotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inward to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc center. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of a viscous counter-rotating disc for cases where the tw...

  8. Coevolution of Binaries and Gaseous Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, David P

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by $\\it Kepler$ raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc, and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for $10^4$ binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentri...

  9. Apsidal precession, disc breaking and viscosity in warped discs

    CERN Document Server

    Nealon, Rebecca; Price, Daniel J; King, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the importance of general relativistic apsidal precession in warped black hole accretion discs by comparing three - dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations in which this effect is first neglected, and then included. If apsidal precession is neglected, we confirm the results of an earlier magnetohydrodynamic simulation which made this assumption, showing that at least in this case the $\\alpha$ viscosity model produces very similar results to those of simulations where angular momentum transport is due to the magnetorotational instability. Including apsidal precession significantly changes the predicted disc evolution. For moderately inclined discs thick enough that tilt is transported by bending waves, we find a disc tilt which is nonzero at the inner disc edge and oscillates with radius, consistent with published analytic results. For larger inclinations we find disc breaking.

  10. How do accretion discs break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  11. Intervertebral disc swelling demonstrated by 3D and water content magnetic resonance analyses after a 3-day dry immersion simulating microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Treffel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Vertebral deconditioning is commonly experienced after space flight andsimulation studies. Disc herniation (DH is quadrupled after space flight.Purpose The main hypothesis formulated by the authors is that microgravity results inintervertebral disc swelling.Study Design The aim of the study was to identify the morphological changes of the spine andtheir clinical consequences after simulated microgravity by 3-day dry immersion (DI.The experimental protocol was performed on 12 male volunteers using magnetic resonanceimaging and spectroscopy before and after DI.Methods All the experiment was financially supported by CNES (Centre national d’étudesspatiales i.e. French Space Agency.Results We observed an increase in rachis height of 1.5 ± 0.4 cm and a decrease in curvature,particularly for the lumbar region with a decrease of -4 ± 2.5°. We found a significantincrease in intervertebral disc (IVD volume of +8 ± 9% at T12-L1 and +11 ± 9% at L5-S1.This phenomenon is likely associated with the increase in disc intervertebral water content(IWC, 17 ± 27%. During the 3 days in DI, 92% of the subjects developed back pain in thelumbar region below the diaphragmatic muscle. This clinical observation may be linked to themorphological changes of the spine.Conclusions The morphological changes observed and, specifically, the disc swelling causedby increased IWC may contribute to understanding disc herniation after microgravityexposure. Our results confirmed the efficiency of the 3-day DI model to reproduce quickly theeffects of microgravity on spine morphology. Our findings raise the question of the subjectselection in spatial studies, especially studies about spine morphology and reconditioningprograms after space flight. These results may contribute to a better understanding of themechanisms underlying disc herniation and may serve as the basis to developcountermeasures for astronauts and to prevent IVD herniation and back pain on Earth.

  12. Evolution of Protoplanetary Discs with Magnetically Driven Disc Winds

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Takeru K; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Crida, Aurélien; Guillot, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the evolution of protoplanetary discs (PPDs hereafter) with magnetically driven disc winds and viscous heating. Methods: We consider an initially massive disc with ~0.1 Msun to track the evolution from the early stage of PPDs. We solve the time evolution of surface density and temperature by taking into account viscous heating and the loss of the mass and the angular momentum by the disc winds within the framework of a standard alpha model for accretion discs. Our model parameters, turbulent viscosity, disc wind mass loss, and disc wind torque, which are adopted from local magnetohydrodynamical simulations and constrained by the global energetics of the gravitational accretion, largely depends on the physical condition of PPDs, particularly on the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux in weakly ionized PPDs. Results: Although there are still uncertainties concerning the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux remaining, surface densities show a large variety, depending on the combinatio...

  13. Intervertebral Disc Swelling Demonstrated by 3D and Water Content Magnetic Resonance Analyses after a 3-Day Dry Immersion Simulating Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffel, Loïc; Mkhitaryan, Karen; Gellee, Stéphane; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude; Blanc, Stéphane; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vertebral deconditioning is commonly experienced after space flight and simulation studies. Disc herniation is quadrupled after space flight. Purpose: The main hypothesis formulated by the authors is that microgravity results in intervertebral disc (IVD) swelling. Study Design: The aim of the study was to identify the morphological changes of the spine and their clinical consequences after simulated microgravity by 3-day dry immersion (DI). The experimental protocol was performed on 12 male volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy before and after DI. Methods: All the experiment was financially supported by CNES (Centre national d'études spatiales i.e., French Space Agency). Results: We observed an increase in spine height of 1.5 ± 0.4 cm and a decrease in curvature, particularly for the lumbar region with a decrease of −4 ± 2.5°. We found a significant increase in IVD volume of +8 ± 9% at T12-L1 and +11 ± 9% at L5-S1. This phenomenon is likely associated with the increase in disc intervertebral water content (IWC), 17 ± 27%. During the 3 days in DI, 92% of the subjects developed back pain in the lumbar region below the diaphragmatic muscle. This clinical observation may be linked to the morphological changes of the spine. Conclusions: The morphological changes observed and, specifically, the disc swelling caused by increased IWC may contribute to understanding disc herniation after microgravity exposure. Our results confirmed the efficiency of the 3-day DI model to reproduce quickly the effects of microgravity on spine morphology. Our findings raise the question of the subject selection in spatial studies, especially studies about spine morphology and reconditioning programs after space flight. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying disc herniation and may serve as the basis to develop countermeasures for astronauts and to prevent IVD herniation and back pain on Earth. PMID

  14. Integrated Plasma Simulation of Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Range of Frequencies Actuators in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoli, P. T.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wright, J. C.; Harvey, R. W.; Batchelor, D. B.; Berry, L. A.; Chen, Jin; Poli, F.; Kessel, C. E.; Jardin, S. C.

    2012-10-01

    Recent upgrades to the ion cyclotron RF (ICRF) and lower hybrid RF (LHRF) components of the Integrated Plasma Simulator [1] have made it possible to simulate LH current drive in the presence of ICRF minority heating and mode conversion electron heating. The background plasma is evolved in these simulations using the TSC transport code [2]. The driven LH current density profiles are computed using advanced ray tracing (GENRAY) and Fokker Planck (CQL3D) [3] components and predictions from GENRAY/CQL3D are compared with a ``reduced'' model for LHCD (the LSC [4] code). The ICRF TORIC solver is used for minority heating with a simplified (bi-Maxwellian) model for the non-thermal ion tail. Simulation results will be presented for LHCD in the presence of ICRF heating in Alcator C-Mod. [4pt] [1] D. Batchelor et al, Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 125, 012039 (2008).[0pt] [2] S. C. Jardin et al, J. Comp. Phys. 66, 481 (1986).[0pt] [3] R. W. Harvey and M. G. McCoy, Proc. of the IAEA Tech. Comm. Meeting on Simulation and Modeling of Therm. Plasmas, Montreal, Canada (1992).[0pt] [4] D. Ignat et al, Nucl. Fus. 34, 837 (1994).[0pt] [5] M. Brambilla, Plasma Phys. and Cont. Fusion 41,1 (1999).

  15. 基于ANSYS的制动盘瞬态热仿真分析%Simulated Transient Thermal Analysis on Brake Disc Based on ANSYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仁华

    2015-01-01

    本文运用ANSYS技术对汽车制动器制动盘进行了急速制动温度分布仿真分析.分析了100Km/h情况下汽车紧急、连续制动工况,利用Solidworks三维软件对制动盘进行实体建模,并导入到ANSYS,利用ANSYS进行仿真分析,得出温度在周向及径向的分布情况.%In this paper, ANSYS technology was used to simulate the temperaturedistribution of brake disc. The emergent and continuous braking conditions were analyzedunder the speed of 100Km/h. Solidworks 3D software was used to simulate the brake disc, and ANSYS was used to simulate the distribution of temperature in the circumferential and radial direction.

  16. The debris disc of solar analogue τ Ceti: Herschel observations and dynamical simulations of the proposed multiplanet system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawler, S.M.; Di Francesco, J.; Kennedy, G.M.; Sibthorpe, B.; Booth, M.; Vandenbussche, B.; Matthews, B.C.; Holland, W.S.; Greaves, J.; Wilner, D.J.; Tuomi, M.; Blommaert, J.A.D.L.; de Vries, B.L.; Dominik, C.; Fridlund, M.; Gear, W.; Heras, A.M.; Ivison, R.; Olofsson, G.

    2014-01-01

    τ Ceti is a nearby, mature G-type star very similar to our Sun, with a massive Kuiper Belt analogue and possible multiplanet system that has been compared to our Solar system. We present Herschel Space Observatory images of the debris disc, finding the disc is resolved at 70 μm and 160 μm, and margi

  17. Simulation of a MW rotor equipped with vortex generators using CFD and an actuator shape model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels; Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a comparison of CFD simulations of the DTU 10 MW reference wind turbine with and without vortex generators installed on the inboard part of the blades. The vortex generators are modelled by introducing body forces determined using a modified version of the so-called BAY mode...

  18. Closed loop performance of a brushless dc motor powered electromechanical actuator for flight control applications. [computerized simulation for Shuttle Orbiter applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive digital model for the analysis and possible optimization of the closed loop dynamic (instantaneous) performance of a power conditioner fed, brushless dc motor powered, electromechanical actuator system (EMA) is presented. This model was developed for the simulation of the dynamic performance of an actual prototype EMA built for NASA-JSC as a possible alternative to hydraulic actuators for consideration in Space Shuttle Orbiter applications. Excellent correlation was achieved between numerical model simulation and experimental test results obtained from the actual hardware. These results include: various current and voltage waveforms in the machine-power conditioner (MPC) unit, flap position as well as other control loop variables in response to step commands of change of flap position. These results with consequent conclusions are detailed in the paper.

  19. Simulation of Asymmetric Lamb Waves for Sensing and Actuation in Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghoshal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two approaches used for monitoring the health of thin aerospace structures are active interrogation and passive monitoring. The active interrogation approach generates and receives diagnostic Lamb waves to detect damage, while the passive monitoring technique listens for acoustic waves caused by damage growth. For the application of both methods, it is necessary to understand how Lamb waves propagate through a structure. In this paper, a Physics-Based Model (PBM using classical plate theory is developed to provide a basic understanding of the actual physical process of asymmetric Lamb mode wave generation and propagation in a plate. The closed-form model uses modal superposition to simulate waves generated by piezoceramic patches and by simulated acoustic emissions. The generation, propagation, reflection, interference, and the sensing of the waves are represented in the model, but damage is not explicitly modeled. The developed model is expected to be a useful tool for the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM community, particularly for studying high frequency acoustic wave generation and propagation in lieu of Finite Element models and other numerical models that require significant computational resources. The PBM is capable of simulating many possible scenarios including a variety of test cases, whereas experimental measurements of all of the cases can be costly and time consuming. The model also incorporates the sensor measurement effect, which is an important aspect in damage detection. Continuous and array sensors are modeled, which are efficient for measuring waves because of their distributed nature.

  20. Modeling and Simulation of SMA Wire Actuator%SMA驱动丝的建模与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨士斌; 徐敏

    2012-01-01

    研究SMA动力学优化模型,针对形状记忆合金(SMA)驱动丝具有强非线性、迟滞效应等特性,为设计SMA驱动丝的自适应结构,提出建立SMA驱动丝模型并提供高效的仿真方法.采用有限元软件实现了受轴向载荷的SMA驱动丝的仿真建模.对本构模型是根据自由能的一维热-力学耦合模型,可以同时复现形状记忆效应和超弹性.数值仿真能够引起材料相变的非均匀温度和应变分布.仿真结果表明,建立热-力学耦合模型,可为设计SMA驱动丝的自适应结构计算提供可靠依据.%Shape memory alloy (SMA) shows high nonlinear and hysteretic phenomenon. In order to design SMA based adaptive structure, it is necessary to model and simulate the wire actuator in an efficient way. A thermo - mechanical model of SMA wire under uniaxial loading was implemented in finite element codes. The constitutive model is a one dimensional model which based on free energy and motivated by statistical thermodynamics. The model has the ability to represent both shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity. The numerical simulations can capture the inhomogeneous thermal and strain distribution which triggers the phase transformation locally. After investigation under different convective boundary conditions, the result shows that an obvious stroke lost happened in fixed temperature case comparing with adiabatic thermal boundary conditions which come from the thermo-mechanical coupling effect.

  1. Altering Kinetic Energy Entrainment in Large Eddy Simulations of Large Wind Farms Using Unconventional Wind Turbine Actuator Forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire VerHulst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, horizontally periodic large eddy simulations (LES are utilized to study turbulent atmospheric boundary-layer flow over wind turbines in the far-downstream portion of a large wind farm where the wakes have merged and the flow is fully developed. In an attempt to increase power generation by enhancing the mean kinetic energy (MKE entrainment to the wind turbines, hypothetical synthetic forcing is applied to the flow at the turbine rotor locations. The synthetic forcing is not meant to represent any existing devices or control schemes, but rather acts as a proof of concept to inform future designs. The turbines are modeled using traditional actuator disks, and the unconventional synthetic forcing is applied in the vertical direction with the magnitude and direction dependent on the instantaneous velocity fluctuation at the rotor disk; in one set of LES meant to enhance the vertical entrainment of MKE, a downward force is prescribed in conjunction with a positive axial velocity fluctuation, whereas a negative axial velocity fluctuation results in an upward force. The magnitude of the forcing is proportional to the instantaneous thrust force with prefactors ranging from 0.1 to 1. The synthetic vertical forcing is found to have a significant effect on the power generated by the wind farm. Consistent with previous findings, the MKE flux to the level of the turbines is found to vary along with the total power produced by the wind turbine array. The reverse strategy of downward forcing of slow axial velocity flow is found to have almost no effect on the power output or entrainment. Several of the scenarios tested, e.g., where the vertical force is of similar magnitude to the horizontal thrust, would be very difficult to implement in practice, but the simulations serve the purpose of identifying trends and bounds on possible power increases from flow modifications through action at the turbine rotor.

  2. Thermo-fluid simulation of a rotating disc with radial cooling passages / Francois Holtzhausen

    OpenAIRE

    Holtzhausen, Francois

    2003-01-01

    Turbine blade cooling via internal cooling channels is a very important aspect in modern-day gas turbine cycles. The need for blade cooling stems from the fact that higher cycle efficiencies requires higher maximum temperatures and therefore also higher turbine inlet temperatures. In order to evaluate the effects of these cooling flows on the cycle as a whole under various load conditions, it is necessary to simulate the compressible flow with heat transfer within the channe...

  3. Simulation of a liquid droplet ejection device using multi-actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yoshihiro; Yoshino, Michitaka; Yasuda, Akira; Tanuma, Chiaki

    2016-07-01

    An equivalent circuit model for a liquid droplet ejection device using a multiactuator has been developed. The equivalent circuit was simplified using a gyrator in the synthesis of the outputs of many elements. The simulation was performed for an inkjet head having three piezoelectric elements using MATLAB/Simulink. In this model, the pressure chamber is filled with a Newtonian fluid. For this reason, the model assumed only the resistance component of the pressure chamber and the nozzle as a load. Furthermore, since the resistance component of the inlet is much larger than that of the nozzle, it is not considered in this model. As a result, by providing a time difference between the driving signals of the piezoelectric elements, we found that the pressure of the ink chamber could be arbitrarily controlled. By this model, it becomes possible to control the pressure in the ink chamber of the inkjet head required for the ejection of various inks.

  4. Numerical simulation of mechatronic sensors and actuators finite elements for computational multiphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenbacher, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Like the previous editions also the third edition of this book combines the detailed physical modeling of mechatronic systems and their precise numerical simulation using the Finite Element (FE) method. Thereby, the basic chapter concerning the Finite Element (FE) method is enhanced, provides now also a description of higher order finite elements (both for nodal and edge finite elements) and a detailed discussion of non-conforming mesh techniques. The author enhances and improves many discussions on principles and methods. In particular, more emphasis is put on the description of single fields by adding the flow field. Corresponding to these field, the book is augmented with the new chapter about coupled flow-structural mechanical systems. Thereby, the discussion of computational aeroacoustics is extended towards perturbation approaches, which allows a decomposition of flow and acoustic quantities within the flow region. Last but not least, applications are updated and restructured so that the book meets mode...

  5. Tip loss correction for actuator / Navier Stokes computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2004-01-01

    The new tip loss correction, initially developed for ID BEM computations [1], is now extended to 2D Actuator Disc / Navier-Stokes (AD/NS) computations and 3D Actuator Line / Navier-Stokes (AL/NS) computations. As shown in the paper, the tip loss correction is an important and necessary step...

  6. Galaxies in the Illustris simulation as seen by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - I: Bulge+disc decompositions, methods, and biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrell, Connor; Torrey, Paul; Simard, Luc; Ellison, Sara L.

    2017-01-01

    We present an image-based method for comparing the structural properties of galaxies produced in hydrodynamical simulations to real galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The key feature of our work is the introduction of extensive observational realism, such as object crowding, noise and viewing angle, to the synthetic images of simulated galaxies, so that they can be fairly compared to real galaxy catalogs. We apply our methodology to the dust-free synthetic image catalog of galaxies from the Illustris simulation at z = 0, which are then fit with bulge+disc models to obtain morphological parameters. In this first paper in a series, we detail our methods, quantify observational biases, and present publicly available bulge+disc decomposition catalogs. We find that our bulge+disc decompositions are largely robust to the observational biases that affect decompositions of real galaxies. However, we identify a significant population of galaxies (roughly 30% of the full sample) in Illustris that are prone to internal segmentation, leading to systematically reduced flux estimates by up to a factor of 6, smaller half-light radii by up to a factor of ˜ 2, and generally erroneous bulge-to-total fractions of (B/T)=0.

  7. Simulation of impulsively started flow past a sphere and a disc using iterative brinkman penalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spietz, Henrik Juul; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Walther, Jens Honore

    We present an iterative Brinkman penalization scheme to enforce the no-slip condition onsolid boundaries in three-dimensional ow simulations. We use a high-order particle-meshvortex method, where the velocity field is obtained from the vorticity field by solving a Poisson equation on a Cartesian...... mesh as a convolution of the vorticity field with a regularized Green's function [2]. By doing this we can enforce free-space boundary conditions allowing us to consider a minimal computational domain. The Brinkman penalization method [1] is an immersed body method that allows the treatment of solids...... having complex geometries on a Cartesian mesh. Thereby we avoid the use of unstructured meshes that conventional ow solvers rely on. In the presented iterative scheme the penalization term is only active in the solid region and in its immediate neighborhood thus the computational costs required...

  8. 舵机负载模拟器惯量失配加载补偿方法%Missile Actuator Load Simulator Inertia Mismatch Compensation Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶渝辉; 王战

    2012-01-01

    The compensation methods are discussed when load simulator inertia is greater than missile control surface inertia. Errors of missile actuator torque and deflection angle exist in simulation using compensation. The approaches are presented to improve simulation according to different errors. Analysis results show that the compensation method is useable and valuable to many missile actuator load simulations.%针对舵机负载力矩模拟器输出等效惯量大于被加载舵机舵面惯量的舵机加载试验情况,研究了其力矩加载补偿方法,分析了其力矩加载误差,提出了针对不同误差源的提高仿真精度的技术途径.分析结果表明,此力矩加载补偿方法现实可行,提高了试验资源的利用率,具有较好的经济效益和现实意义.

  9. 飞艇电动舵机的研究与仿真分析%Research and Simulation Analysis of Electromechanical Actuator in Airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远平; 王生

    2011-01-01

    A new type of electromechanical proportional control actuation system for airship is presented in this paper. This paper is based on the engineering practice of an airship project. According to the specifications of the actuator system, this paper chooses brushless DC motor as the electric power component, and potentiometer as the feedback component. Based on the analysis of the system, a complete model is established and simulated in this paper.The sliding - mode control theory is adopted so as not to be disturbed by the outside. The simulation of the model is built and the model is simulated with Matlab/Simulink. And the artificial experiment waveforms of the position servo system by simulation are presented. The result of computer simulation indicates that this model used in the paper is adoptable, and the response is correspond to the characteristics of electromechanical actuator. The presented model is feasible and it can be used as a model of electromechanical actuator.%研究飞艇电动舵机稳定性控制问题,针对飞艇研制工程可靠性的需求,为保证飞艇空中按轨迹稳定飞行,提出采用飞艇电动舵机方案.根据电动舵机系统的指标和负载情况,选择直流无刷电机和光电编码器作为电动舵机的功率元件和位置传感器,建立了完整的电动舵机系统.为了不受外部扰动影响,采用了滑模控制理论,并利用Matlab平台对滑模控制系统进行了计算机建模仿真.结果证明给出了位置伺服系统在各种情况下稳态工作波形.仿真结果说明建立的舵机研究模型是可信的,响应完全符合电动舵机的特性,可以作为飞艇电动舵机的系统设计提供依据.

  10. AMT执行机构多轴道路模拟试验台设计%Design of Multi- axial Road Simulation Test Bench for AMT Actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹤; 石晓辉; 邹喜红

    2012-01-01

    A type of multi - axial road simulation test bench based on RPC( Remote Parameter Control) for AMT actuator is proposed, the fixture design of the test bench as well as its kinematics is mainly analyzed. A set of fixtures are designed according to the actual assembly on the car, and the test bench simulation model of both kinematics and dynamics is established in ADAMS, the problem of interference is solved and the range of motion is optimized through simulation and analysis. Road load spectrum of AMT actuator can be reproduced on the multi - axial test bench so that the fatigue reliability of AMT actuator can be appraised and assessed in the laboratory.%提出了一种基于远程参数控制(RPC)的电控机械式自动变速器(AMT)执行机构多轴道路模拟试验台,重点对试验台装夹部分和运动学进行了设计和分析.结合AMT在实车上的安装情况,设计了一套夹具装置,并在动力学仿真软件ADAMS中建立了试验台运动学和动力学仿真模型,通过仿真分析,解决了运动干涉问题,优化了试验台运动范围.结合RPC技术,可以在所设计的多轴试验台上复现AMT执行机构的实际行驶道路载荷谱,从而在室内对AMT执行机构疲劳可靠性进行评价和考核.

  11. Implementation of a generalized actuator disk wind turbine model into the weather research and forecasting model for large-eddy simulation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirocha, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kosovic, B. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Aitken, M. L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lundquist, J. K. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-10

    A generalized actuator disk (GAD) wind turbine parameterization designed for large-eddy simulation (LES) applications was implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. WRF-LES with the GAD model enables numerical investigation of the effects of an operating wind turbine on and interactions with a broad range of atmospheric boundary layer phenomena. Numerical simulations using WRF-LES with the GAD model were compared with measurements obtained from the Turbine Wake and Inflow Characterization Study (TWICS-2011), the goal of which was to measure both the inflow to and wake from a 2.3-MW wind turbine. Data from a meteorological tower and two light-detection and ranging (lidar) systems, one vertically profiling and another operated over a variety of scanning modes, were utilized to obtain forcing for the simulations, and to evaluate characteristics of the simulated wakes. Simulations produced wakes with physically consistent rotation and velocity deficits. Two surface heat flux values of 20 W m–2 and 100 W m–2 were used to examine the sensitivity of the simulated wakes to convective instability. Simulations using the smaller heat flux values showed good agreement with wake deficits observed during TWICS-2011, whereas those using the larger value showed enhanced spreading and more-rapid attenuation. This study demonstrates the utility of actuator models implemented within atmospheric LES to address a range of atmospheric science and engineering applications. In conclusion, validated implementation of the GAD in a numerical weather prediction code such as WRF will enable a wide range of studies related to the interaction of wind turbines with the atmosphere and surface.

  12. Coevolution of binaries and circumbinary gaseous discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc which drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for 104 binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentric binaries which strongly couple to the disc develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance which corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. All systems display binary semimajor axis decay due to dissipation from the viscous disc.

  13. Comparison of the near-wake between actuator-line simulations and a simplified vortex model of a horizontal-axis wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarmast, Sasan; Segalini, Antonio; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming;

    2016-01-01

    The flow around an isolated horizontal-axis wind turbine is estimated by means of a new vortex code based on the Biot–Savart law with constant circulation along the blades. The results have been compared with numerical simulations where the wind turbine blades are replaced with actuator lines. Two...... different wind turbines have been simulated: one with constant circulation along the blades, to replicate the vortex method approximations, and the other with a realistic circulation distribution, to compare the outcomes of the vortex model with real operative wind-turbine conditions (Tjæreborg wind turbine......). The vortex model matched the numerical simulation of the turbine with constant blade circulation in terms of the near-wake structure and local forces along the blade. The results from the Tjæreborg turbine case showed some discrepancies between the two approaches, but overall, the agreement is qualitatively...

  14. Dielectric elastomer actuators for facial expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuzhe; Zhu, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators have the advantage of mimicking the salient feature of life: movements in response to stimuli. In this paper we explore application of dielectric elastomer actuators to artificial muscles. These artificial muscles can mimic natural masseter to control jaw movements, which are key components in facial expressions especially during talking and singing activities. This paper investigates optimal design of the dielectric elastomer actuator. It is found that the actuator with embedded plastic fibers can avert electromechanical instability and can greatly improve its actuation. Two actuators are then installed in a robotic skull to drive jaw movements, mimicking the masseters in a human jaw. Experiments show that the maximum vertical displacement of the robotic jaw, driven by artificial muscles, is comparable to that of the natural human jaw during speech activities. Theoretical simulations are conducted to analyze the performance of the actuator, which is quantitatively consistent with the experimental observations.

  15. Simulation of the Friction Temperature Field for Disc Brake%盘式制动器摩擦温度场的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹; 周启兴

    2012-01-01

    采用COMSOL Multiphysics模拟盘式制动器制动过程的二维瞬态温度场,研究了割动盘和摩擦片的温度分布情况以及它们的热物性参数对摩擦副温度场的影响.结果表明:盘式制动器在制动过程中的高温时刻,高温处在沿盘转动方向与摩擦片滑出的区域;制动盘表面温度从高温度区域沿制动盘转动方向递减,摩擦片表面温度沿盘转动反方向递减;制动盘和摩擦片的径向温度最大值出现在摩擦区域的中部位置,而外径和内径处温度较低,轴向方向都由摩擦面表层向内层方向递减;增大制动盘或摩擦片的某一热物性参数均可降低摩擦副表面最大温度值,但制动盘相对摩擦片,其导热系数、比热容和密度对摩擦副温度值的影响要大得多,研究内容可为制动器的结构设计及材料的选择提供参考.%The three-dimensional transient temperature field for disc brake were simulated using software COM-SOL Multiphysics, the situation of temperature distribution for friction pairs device in the braking process and the effect of material thermal parameters on its temperature field were investigated. The results showed that at the high-temperature moment of the braking process of the disc brake, the high temperature place was located on the area of sliding out with the friction plate along the disk rotates direction; the surface temperature of brake disc decreased from the high temperature zone along the direction of the brake disc rotation; the surface temperature of friction plate decreased along the opposite direction of the brake disc rotation; the maximum radial temperature of the brake disc and friction plate in the braking process was located on the central part of the friction zone,the temperature of the outside radius and inside radius was lower, the temperature of the axial direction decreased from the friction surface layer to the inner layer direction; it can reduce the maximum

  16. Evolution of protoplanetary discs with magnetically driven disc winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeru K.; Ogihara, Masahiro; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Crida, Aurélien; Guillot, Tristan

    2016-12-01

    Aims: We investigate the evolution of protoplanetary discs (PPDs) with magnetically driven disc winds and viscous heating. Methods: We considered an initially massive disc with 0.1 M⊙ to track the evolution from the early stage of PPDs. We solved the time evolution of surface density and temperature by taking into account viscous heating and the loss of mass and angular momentum by the disc winds within the framework of a standard α model for accretion discs. Our model parameters, turbulent viscosity, disc wind mass-loss, and disc wind torque, which were adopted from local magnetohydrodynamical simulations and constrained by the global energetics of the gravitational accretion, largely depends on the physical condition of PPDs, particularly on the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux in weakly ionized PPDs. Results: Although there are still uncertainties concerning the evolution of the vertical magnetic flux that remains, the surface densities show a large variety, depending on the combination of these three parameters, some of which are very different from the surface density expected from the standard accretion. When a PPD is in a wind-driven accretion state with the preserved vertical magnetic field, the radial dependence of the surface density can be positive in the inner region migration of protoplanets. Conclusions: The variety of our calculated PPDs should yield a wide variety of exoplanet systems.

  17. NiTi Alloy Negator Springs for Long-Stroke Constant-Force Shape Memory Actuators: Modeling, Simulation and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaggiari, Andrea; Dragoni, Eugenio; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-07-01

    This work aims at the experimental characterization and modeling validation of shape memory alloy (SMA) Negator springs. According to the classic engineering books on springs, a Negator spring is a spiral spring made of strip of metal wound on the flat with an inherent curvature such that, in repose, each coil wraps tightly on its inner neighbor. The main feature of a Negator springs is the nearly constant force displacement behavior in the unwinding of the strip. Moreover the stroke is very long, theoretically infinite, as it depends only on the length of the initial strip. A Negator spring made in SMA is built and experimentally tested to demonstrate the feasibility of this actuator. The shape memory Negator spring behavior can be modeled with an analytical procedure, which is in good agreement with the experimental test and can be used for design purposes. In both cases, the material is modeled as elastic in austenitic range, while an exponential continuum law is used to describe the martensitic behavior. The experimental results confirms the applicability of this kind of geometry to the shape memory alloy actuators, and the analytical model is confirmed to be a powerful design tool to dimension and predict the spring behavior both in martensitic and austenitic range.

  18. On the reliability of protostellar disc mass measurements and the existence of fragmenting discs

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Michael M; Arce, Héctor G

    2014-01-01

    We couple non-magnetic, hydrodynamical simulations of collapsing protostellar cores with radiative transfer evolutionary models to generate synthetic observations. We then use these synthetic observations to investigate the extent to which a simple method for measuring protostellar disc masses used in the literature recovers the intrinsic masses of the discs formed in the simulations. We evaluate the effects of contamination from the surrounding core, partially resolving out the disc, optical depth, fixed assumed dust temperatures, inclination, and the dust opacity law. We show that the combination of these effects can lead to disc mass underestimates by up to factors of 2-3 at millimeter wavelengths and up to an order of magnitude or larger at submillimeter wavelengths. The optically thin portions of protostellar discs are generally cooler in the Class I stage than the Class 0 stage since Class I discs are typically larger and more optically thick, and thus more shielded. The observed disc mass distribution ...

  19. 基于ADAMS的电力液压盘式制动器仿真研究%Simulation of Electro-hydraulic Disc Brake Based on ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜朝俊; 田树涛; 孔祥虎

    2015-01-01

    以电力液压盘式制动器为研究对象 ,利用ADAMS软件进行建模仿真 ,优化分析获得制动器所需要的制动力矩和间隙.仿真数据与试验数据对比表明 :ADAMS软件的分析结果和试验数据基本吻合 ,为制动器的设计和计算提供了可靠的方法和依据 ,节省了研发费用并缩短了开发周期.%Taking an electro-hydraulic disc brake as research object ,this paper carried out the simulation analysis on electro-hydraulic disc brake ,getting braking moment and clearance .Experimental data show the analytical results of ADAMS agree with that of ex-perimental data .It provides a reliable method and basis for the design of brakes .

  20. A Highly Resolved Large-Eddy Simulation of a Wind Turbine using an Actuator Line Model with Optimal Body Force Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tossas, Luis A.; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-09-01

    When representing the blade aerodynamics with rotating actuator lines, the computed forces have to be projected back to the CFD flow field as a volumetric body force. That has been done in the past with a geometrically simple uniform three-dimensional Gaussian at each point along the blade. We argue that the body force can be shaped in a way that better predicts the blade local flow field, the blade load distribution, and the formation of the tip/root vortices. In previous work, we have determined the optimal scales of circular and elliptical Gaussian kernels that best reproduce the local flow field in two-dimensions. In this work we extend the analysis and applications by considering the full three-dimensional blade to test our hypothesis in a highly resolved Large Eddy Simulation.

  1. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity and have the ability to periodically store and release energy in cyclic movements. In order to overcome the loss of bandwidth introduced by the elastic element and to guarantee a higher range in force/torque generation, new actuator designs consider variable or nonlinear stiffness elements, respectively. These components cannot only be adapted to the walking speed or the patient condition, but also entail additional challenges for feedback control. This paper introduces a novel design method for an impedance-based controller that fulfills the control objectives and compares the performance and robustness to a classical cascaded control approach. The new procedure is developed using a non-standard positive-real Η2 controller design and is applied to a loop-shaping approach. Robust norm optimal controllers are designed with regard to the passivity of the actuator load-impedance transfer function and the servo control problem. Classical cascaded and positive-real Η2 controller designs are validated and compared in simulations and in a test bench using a passive elastic element of varying stiffness.

  2. Actuator lifetime predictions for Ni60Ti40 shape memory alloy plate actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert; Ottmers, Cade; Hewling, Brett; Lagoudas, Dimitris

    2016-04-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs), due to their ability to repeatedly recover substantial deformations under applied mechanical loading, have the potential to impact the aerospace, automotive, biomedical, and energy industries as weight and volume saving replacements for conventional actuators. While numerous applications of SMA actuators have been flight tested and can be found in industrial applications, these actuators are generally limited to non-critical components, are not widely implemented and frequently one-off designs, and are generally overdesigned due to a lack of understanding of the effect of the loading path on the fatigue life and the lack of an accurate method of predicting actuator lifetimes. Previous efforts have been effective at predicting actuator lifetimes for isobaric dogbone test specimens. This study builds on previous work and investigates the actuation fatigue response of plate actuators with various stress concentrations through the use of digital image correlation and finite element simulations.

  3. Thermal vertical bimorph actuators and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sehr, H J

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, a novel concept for lateral actuators based on vertical bimorphs is presented. Vertical bimorphs consist of silicon beams side-coated with aluminium, which bend when heated due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the two materials causing a displacement in the wafer plane. The heating of the actuator is provided by an electrical current through the silicon beam. The simplest implementation of a vertical bimorph actuator is a clamped-clamped beam. To obtain higher deflections, a meander shaped actuator has been designed. By combining four meander actuators, a two-dimensional positioning stage has been realised. The meander actuator has also been applied for normally closed and normally open micro-relays. Analytical calculations and ANSYS simulations have been carried out to predict the physical behaviour of the bimorph devices, including temperature distribution, static deflection, vertical stiffness, thermal time constant and lateral resonances. For both the clamped-clamped beam...

  4. Design and Fabrication of the Large Thrust Force Piezoelectric Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyang-Jye Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel piezoelectric actuator containing double pushers. By using finite element analysis software, this study simulated the vibration mode and amplitude of piezoelectric actuators. The Taguchi method was used to design the parameters of piezoelectric actuators including length, width, height, and electrodes setting. This paper also presents a discussion regarding the influence that the design parameters had on the actuator amplitudes. Based on optimal design parameters, a novel piezoelectric actuator containing double pushers is produced and some thrust tests are also carried out. From the experiment results, the piezoelectric actuator containing double pushers can provide a greater thrust force than that of traditional actuators containing a single pusher as the preload is greater. Comparing with the traditional actuators, the thrust force of new actuator can be increased by 48% with the double preload.

  5. Circumplanetary discs around young giant planets: a comparison between core-accretion and disc instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulágyi, J.; Mayer, L.; Quinn, T.

    2017-01-01

    Circumplanetary discs can be found around forming giant planets, regardless of whether core accretion or gravitational instability built the planet. We carried out state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations of the circumplanetary discs for both formation scenarios, using as similar initial conditions as possible to unveil possible intrinsic differences in the circumplanetary disc mass and temperature between the two formation mechanisms. We found that the circumplanetary discs' mass linearly scales with the circumstellar disc mass. Therefore, in an equally massive protoplanetary disc, the circumplanetary discs formed in the disc instability model can be only a factor of 8 more massive than their core-accretion counterparts. On the other hand, the bulk circumplanetary disc temperature differs by more than an order of magnitude between the two cases. The subdiscs around planets formed by gravitational instability have a characteristic temperature below 100 K, while the core-accretion circumplanetary discs are hot, with temperatures even greater than 1000 K when embedded in massive, optically thick protoplanetary discs. We explain how this difference can be understood as the natural result of the different formation mechanisms. We argue that the different temperatures should persist up to the point when a full-fledged gas giant forms via disc instability; hence, our result provides a convenient criterion for observations to distinguish between the two main formation scenarios by measuring the bulk temperature in the planet vicinity.

  6. Numerical investigation of aerodynamic flow actuation produced by surface plasma actuator on 2D oscillating airfoil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minh Khang Phan; Jichul Shin

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulation of unsteady flow control over an oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is investigated. Flow actuation of a turbulent flow over the airfoil is provided by low current DC sur-face glow discharge plasma actuator which is analytically modeled as an ion pressure force pro-duced in the cathode sheath region. The modeled plasma actuator has an induced pressure force of about 2 kPa under a typical experiment condition and is placed on the airfoil surface at 0%chord length and/or at 10%chord length. The plasma actuator at deep-stall angles (from 5° to 25°) is able to slightly delay a dynamic stall and to weaken a pressure fluctuation in down-stroke motion. As a result, the wake region is reduced. The actuation effect varies with different plasma pulse frequen-cies, actuator locations and reduced frequencies. A lift coefficient can increase up to 70%by a selec-tive operation of the plasma actuator with various plasma frequencies and locations as the angle of attack changes. Active flow control which is a key advantageous feature of the plasma actuator reveals that a dynamic stall phenomenon can be controlled by the surface plasma actuator with less power consumption if a careful control scheme of the plasma actuator is employed with the opti-mized plasma pulse frequency and actuator location corresponding to a dynamic change in reduced frequency.

  7. Resonances in retrograde circumbinary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the interaction of an eccentric binary with a circular coplanar circumbinary disc that rotates in a retrograde sense with respect to the binary. In the circular binary case, no Lindblad resonances lie within the disc and no Lindblad resonant torques are produced, as was previously known. By analytic means, we show that when the binary orbit is eccentric, there exist components of the gravitational potential of the binary which rotate in a retrograde sense to the binary orbit and so rotate progradely with respect to this disc, allowing a resonant interaction to occur between the binary and the disc. The resulting resonant torques distinctly alter the disc response from the circular binary case. We describe results of three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations to explore this effect and categorise the response of the disc in terms of modes whose strengths vary as a function of binary mass ratio and eccentricity. These mode strengths are weak compared to the largest mode strengths expected in the prog...

  8. Counter-Rotating Accretion Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Dyda, Sergei; Ustyugova, Galina V; Romanova, Marina M; Koldoba, Alexander V

    2014-01-01

    Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud onto the surface of an existing co-rotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inward to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc center. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of a viscous counter-rotating disc for cases where the two components are vertically separated and radially separated. The viscosity is described by an isotropic $\\alpha-$viscosity including all terms in the viscous stress tensor. For the vertically separated components a shear layer forms between them. The middle of this layer free-falls to the disk center. The accretion rates are increased by factors $\\sim 10^2-10^4$ over that of a conventional disc rotating in one direction with the same viscosity. The vertical width of the shear layer and the accretion rate are strongly dep...

  9. Mathematical modeling of a V-stack piezoelectric aileron actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical modeling of aileron actuation that uses piezo V-shaped stacks. The aim of the actuation is the increasing of flutter speed in the context of a control law, in order to widen the flight envelope. In this way the main advantage of such a piezo actuator, the bandwidth is exploited. The mathematical model is obtained based on free body diagrams, and the numerical simulations allow a preliminary sizing of the actuator.

  10. Optimization of Moving Coil Actuators for Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Bech, Michael Møller; Roemer, Daniel Beck;

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on deriving an optimal moving coil actuator design, used as force pro-ducing element in hydraulic on/off valves for Digital Displacement machines. Different moving coil actuator geometry topologies (permanent magnet placement and magnetiza-tion direction) are optimized...... for actuating annular seat valves in a digital displacement machine. The optimization objectives are to the minimize the actuator power, the valve flow losses and the height of the actuator. Evaluation of the objective function involves static finite element simulation and simulation of an entire operation...

  11. Numerical simulation and experimental study for the die forging process of a high-speed railway brake disc hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingyue; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Long; LI, Dianzhong

    2013-05-01

    With the aim of manufacturing a near-net shape forging product of a brake disk hub for the high-speed railway, the die forging process was designed and optimized in this study. Firstly, based on the measured stress-strain curves at different strain rates and the thermal-physical parameters of 40Cr A steel, a finite element model for the forging process of a high-speed railway brake disc hub was established. Then, the temperature, stress and strain fields were studied and analyzed at the pre-forging and the finial-forging stages. Besides, in order to trace the stress and strain evolution, five points at different positions were chosen on the billet, and the comparison of the state conditions was made among these points. The results have demonstrated that the product can be well formed by an elaborately designed three-stage forging process, which may reduce the metal machine allowance and the producing cost effectively. Finally, an industrial trial was made and a machined product with sound quality was obtained.

  12. Galaxy Merger Morphologies and Time-Scales from Simulations of Equal-Mass Gas-Rich Disc Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Lotz, Jennifer M; Cox, T J; Primack, Joel R

    2008-01-01

    A key obstacle to understanding the galaxy merger rate and its role in galaxy evolution is the difficulty in constraining the merger properties and time-scales from instantaneous snapshots of the real universe. The most common way to identify galaxy mergers is by morphology, yet current theoretical calculations of the time-scales for galaxy disturbances are quite crude. We present a morphological analysis of a large suite of GADGET N-Body/hydro-dynamical equal-mass gas-rich disc galaxy mergers which have been processed through the Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code SUNRISE. With the resulting images, we examine the dependence of quantitative morphology (G, M20, C, A) in the SDSS g-band on merger stage, dust, viewing angle, orbital parameters, gas properties, supernova feedback, and total mass. We find that mergers appear most disturbed in G-M20 and asymmetry at the first pass and at the final coalescence of their nuclei, but can have normal quantitative morphologies at other merger stages. The merger observa...

  13. Design of semi-physical simulation system of piezoceramic actuator%压电陶瓷执行器半实物仿真系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain a fast response and high⁃precision in the jogging control of piezoceramic actuator,the control algorithm is designed on third order trajectory planning. For purpose of evaluating the performance of control algorithm accurate⁃ly,the xPC Target real⁃time kernel technology is used,with high speed analog signal acquisition card as the I/O channel of con⁃trol or feedback signal,to set up a semi⁃physical simulation platform,and achieves a servo period of milliseconds. Experiments show that third order trajectory planning could make piezoelectric actuator locate with an error of ±1 μm in 0.5 s,the jogging control with high accuracy and high speed is realized,when the servo cycle is 1 ms and the position stroke is 200 μm. The semi⁃physical simulation system could effectively verify the property of the control algorithm,and provide a useful reference for the further application of the algorithm.%  为了在压电陶瓷执行器微动控制中获得高精度的同时,实现高响应速度,采用三阶轨迹规划方法设计控制算法。为了对控制算法的性能做出准确评价,采用xPC Target实时内核技术,以高速模拟信号采集卡作为控制/反馈信号的I/O通道,搭建了半实物仿真平台,获得了毫秒量级的伺服周期。实验表明,当伺服周期为1 ms、定位行程为200μm时,三阶轨迹规划算法使压电陶瓷执行器可以在0.5 s内完成精度为±1μm的定位,实现了兼顾高精度与高速度的微动控制。该半实物仿真系统可以有效验证控制算法的性能,为算法的后续移植提供了有益参考。

  14. Characterization of kink actuators as compared to traditional chevron shaped Bent-Beam electrothermal actuators

    KAUST Repository

    Rawashdeh, E.

    2012-07-06

    This paper compares the design and performance of kink actuators, a modified version of the bent-beam thermal actuator, to the standard chevron-shaped designs. A variety of kink and chevron actuator designs were fabricated from polysilicon. While the actuators were electrically probed, these designs were tested using a probe station connected to a National Instruments (NI) controller that uses LabVIEW to extract the displacement results via image processing. The displacement results were then used to validate the thermal-electric-structural simulations produced by COMSOL. These results, in turn, were used to extract the stiffness for both actuator types. The data extracted show that chevron actuators can have larger stiffness values with increasing offsets, but at the cost of lower amplification factors. In contrast, kink actuators showed a constant stiffness value equivalent to the chevron actuator with the highest amplification factor. The kink actuator also had larger amplification factors than chevrons at all designs tested. Therefore, kink actuators are capable of longer throws at lower power levels than the standard chevron designs.

  15. Numerical simulation of viscoelastic flow due to rotating disc enclosed in a cylindrical casing with large axial clearance; Kaiten enban ni yoru nendansei ryutai no yokinai nagare no suchi simulation (jikuhoko clearance ga hiroi baai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, M. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Moroi, T. [Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, Ltd., Aichi (Japan); Toda, H. [Toray Industries, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-25

    Numerical simulations by a finite-difference method have been made for a viscoelastic flow due to a rotating disc enclosed in a cylindrical casing with large axial clearance. The Giesekus model with a single relaxation time was applied as a constitutive equation. We could simulate some typical secondary flow patterns for viscoelastic fluids which were different from Newtonian fluids; e.g., a secondary flow of which circulation direction at very low Reynolds number is reversed compared with that for a Newtonian fluid and a double-cell flow structure which Escudier et. all observed at relatively high Reynolds number. We show that the double-cell flow structure relates to nonlinear terms of the constitutive equation. The secondary flow patterns are characterized by the elasticity number (=Weissenberg number/Reynolds number) from low to high Reynolds numbers. 16 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Viscoelastic flow due to a rotating disc enclosed in a cylindrical casing. Numerical simulation and experiment; Kaiten enban ni yoru nendansei ryutai no yokinai nagare. Suchi simulation to jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroi, T. [Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, Ltd., Aichi (Japan); Ito, M.; Fujita, K. [Nagoya Institue of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1999-11-25

    Numerical simulations by a finite-difference method have been made for a viscoelastic flow due to a rotating disc enclosed in a cylindrical casing with relatively large axial clearance. The Giesekus model, modified Giesekus modal and Phan Thien-Tanner model were applied as the constitutive equations. Using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), the effects of rheological properties on the distribution of the velocity component V{sub {theta}} and the secondary flow were clarified. By comparing the experimental results with the numerical simulations the validity of the respective viscoelastic fluid models were examined. The secondary flow patters observed by flow visualizations were characterized by the elasticity number (= Weissenberg number/Reynolds number). It was confirmed experimentally that near the rotating axis there was a place where the tangential velocity component was negative for the cases of 0.3 wt% and 1 wt% polyacrylamide aqueous solutions. (author)

  17. The quiescent phase of galactic disc growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumer, Michael; Binney, James; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    We perform a series of controlled N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies within non-growing, live dark matter haloes of varying mass and concentration. Our initial conditions include either a low-mass disc or a compact bulge. New stellar particles are continuously added on near-circular orbits to the existing disc, so spiral structure is continuously excited. To study the effect of combined spiral and giant molecular cloud (GMC) heating on the discs, we introduce massive, short-lived particles that sample a GMC mass function. An isothermal gas component is introduced for a subset of the models. We perform a resolution study and vary parameters governing the GMC population, the histories of star formation and radial scale growth. Models with GMCs and standard values for the disc mass and halo density provide the right level of self-gravity to explain the age-velocity dispersion relation of the solar neighbourhood (Snhd). GMC heating generates remarkably exponential vertical profiles with scaleheights that are radially constant and agree with observations of galactic thin discs. GMCs are also capable of significantly delaying bar formation. The amount of spiral-induced radial migration agrees with what is required for the metallicity distribution of the Snhd. However, in our standard models, the outward-migrating populations are not hot enough vertically to create thick discs. Thick discs can form in models with high baryon fractions, but the corresponding bars are too long, the young stellar populations too hot and the discs flare considerably.

  18. Motion Control of Disc Electrode by Electrorheological Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Kazutoshi; Hirose, Yuji; Ogura, Hironao; Otsubo, Yasufumi

    2008-07-01

    The electrorheological(ER) suspensions are sandwiched between two flat disc electrodes with the radial line patterns. The pattern electrodes are fixed on the parallel plate geometry on a stress-controlled rheometer which was modified for the ER experiments. The motion of disk electrodes analyzed as a function of electrification modes to obtain the basic data for ER actuators.

  19. A disc-type magneto-rheologic fluid damper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝长生

    2003-01-01

    A disc-type magneto-rheological fluid damper operating in shear mode is proposed in this paper, which is based on the special characteristics of the magneto-rheological (MR) fluid with rapid, reversible and dramatic change in its rheological properties by the application of an external magnetic field. The magnetic field of the disc-type MR fluid damper is analysed by the finite element method; the controllability of the disc-type MR fluid damper on the dynamic behaviour of a rotor system; and the effectiveness of the disc-type MR fluid damper in controlling the vibration of a rotor system, are studied in a flexible rotor system with an over-hung disc. It is shown that the magnetic flux density of the disc-type MR fluid damper in the working areas can significantly change with the applied current in the coil; and that the dynamic behavior of the disc-type MR fluid damper can be varied by the application of an external magnetic field produced by a low voltage electromagnetic coil. The disc-type MR fluid damper can significantly change the dynamic characteristics of a rotor system, provided that the location of the disk-type MR fluid damper is carefully chosen. The disc-type MR fluid damper is a new actuator with good dynamic characteristics for rotating machinery.

  20. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Pihajoki, Pauli

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength {\\lambda} = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  1. Model of magnetostrictive actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lin; ZHANG Yuan-yuan

    2005-01-01

    The hysteresis of the magnetostrictive actuator was studied. A mathematical model of the hysteresis loop was obtained on the basis of experiment. This model depends on the frequency and the amplitude of the alternating current inputted to the magnetostrictive actuator. Based on the model, the effect of hysteresis on dynamic output of the magnetostrictive actuator was investigated. Then how to consider hysteresis and establish a dynamic model of a magnetostrictive actuator system is discussed when a practical system was designed and applied.

  2. Electromagnetic rotational actuation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Alexander Lee

    2010-08-01

    There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.

  3. Extended DNA Tile Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Martin; Kryger, Mille; Zhang, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic linear DNA tile actuator is expanded to three new structures of higher complexity. The original DNA actuator was constructed from a central roller strand which hybridizes with two piston strands by forming two half-crossover junctions. A linear expansion of the actuator is obtained...

  4. Effective Actuation: High Bandwidth Actuators and Actuator Scaling Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    piezo elements mounted on structural members and devices that exhibited aeroacoustic resonance. The former type of actuator ( piezo ) was considered...Raman and Kibens (Raman et al. 2000). These experiments involved high-frequency forcing applied to low-speed flows using wedge piezo actuators and... Subharmonic Interaction and Wall Influence," AIAA- 86-1047, May, 1986. Davis, S. A., 2000, "The manipulation of large and small flow structures in single and

  5. Stellar irradiated discs and implications on migration of embedded planets I: equilibrium discs

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsch, Bertram; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Kley, Willy; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The strength and direction of migration of low mass planets depends on the disc's thermodynamics. In discs where the viscous heating is balanced by radiative transport, the migration can be directed outwards, a process which extends the lifetime of growing planetary embryos. We investigate the influence of opacity and stellar irradiation on the disc thermodynamics. Utilizing the resulting disc structure, we determine the regions of outward migration. We perform two-dimensional numerical simulations of equilibrium discs with viscous heating, radiative cooling and stellar irradiation. We use the hydrodynamical code NIRVANA that includes a full tensor viscosity and stellar irradiation, as well as a two temperature solver that includes radiation transport in the flux-limited diffusion approximation. The migration is studied by using torque formulae. In the constant opacity case, we reproduce the analytical results of a black-body disc: the stellar irradiation dominates in the outer regions -- leading to flaring -...

  6. Be discs in binary systems I. Coplanar orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Panoglou, Despina; Vieira, Rodrigo G; Cyr, Isabelle H; Jones, Carol E; Okazaki, Atsuo T; Rivinius, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Be stars are surrounded by outflowing circumstellar matter structured in the form of decretion discs. They are often members of binary systems, where it is expected that the decretion disc interacts both radiatively and gravitationally with the companion. In this work we study how various orbital (period, mass ratio, eccentricity) and disc (viscosity) parameters affect the disc structure in coplanar systems. We simulate such binaries with the use of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. The main effects of the secondary on the disc are its truncation and the accumulation of material inwards of truncation. In circular or nearly circular prograde orbits, the disc maintains a rotating, constant in shape, configuration, which is locked to the orbital phase. The disc is smaller in size, more elongated and more massive for low viscosity parameter, small orbital separation and/or high mass ratio. Highly eccentric orbits are more complex, with the disc structure and total mass strongly dependent on the orbital phas...

  7. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    CERN Document Server

    Salvesen, Greg; Simon, Jacob B; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  8. Angular momentum transport in protostellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Salmeron, Roberto Aureliano; Wardle, M; Salmeron, Raquel; Konigl, Arieh; Wardle, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Angular momentum transport in protostellar discs can take place either radially, through turbulence induced by the magnetorotational instability (MRI), or vertically, through the torque exerted by a large-scale magnetic field that threads the disc. Using semi-analytic and numerical results, we construct a model of steady-state discs that includes vertical transport by a centrifugally driven wind as well as MRI-induced turbulence. We present approximate criteria for the occurrence of either one of these mechanisms in an ambipolar diffusion-dominated disc. We derive ``strong field'' solutions in which the angular momentum transport is purely vertical and ``weak field'' solutions that are the stratified-disc analogues of the previously studied MRI channel modes; the latter are transformed into accretion solutions with predominantly radial angular-momentum transport when we implement a turbulent-stress prescription based on published results of numerical simulations. We also analyze ``intermediate field strength'...

  9. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  10. Dynamos in accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg, A.; von Rekowski, B.

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that accretion discs in young stellar objects may have hot coronae that are heated by magnetic reconnection. This is a consequence of the magneto-rotational instability driving turbulence in the disc. Magnetic reconnection away from the midplane leads to heating of the corona which, in turn, contributes to driving disc winds.

  11. Large-eddy simulations of the Lillgrund wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Karl; Ivanell, Stefan; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose;

    2015-01-01

    The power production of the Lillgrund wind farm is determined numerically using large-eddy simulations and compared with measurements. In order to simulate realistic atmospheric conditions, pre-generated turbulence and wind shear are imposed in the computational domain. The atmospheric conditions...... are determined from data extracted from a met mast, which was erected prior to the establishment of the farm. In order to allocate most of the computational power to the simulations of the wake flow, the turbines are modeled using an actuator disc method where the discs are imposed in the computational domain...... ambient turbulence in the simulations. By introducing ambient atmospheric turbulence, the simulations compare very well with measurements at the studied inflow angles. A final study aiming at increasing the farm production by curtailing the power output of the front row turbines and thus letting more...

  12. Vertical shear instability in accretion disc models with radiation transport

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, Moritz H R

    2014-01-01

    The origin of turbulence in accretion discs is still not fully understood. While the magneto-rotational instability is considered to operate in sufficiently ionized discs, its role in the poorly ionized protoplanetary disc is questionable. Recently, the vertical shear instability (VSI) has been suggested as a possible alternative. Our goal is to study the characteristics of this instability and the efficiency of angular momentum transport, in extended discs, under the influence of radiative transport and irradiation from the central star. We use multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations to model a larger section of an accretion disc. First we study inviscid and weakly viscous discs using a fixed radial temperature profile in two and three spatial dimensions. The simulations are then extended to include radiative transport and irradiation from the central star. In agreement with previous studies we find for the isothermal disc a sustained unstable state with a weak positive angular momentum transport of the o...

  13. Disc heating: possible link between weak bars and superthin galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Kanak

    2014-01-01

    The extreme flatness of stellar discs in superthin galaxies is puzzling and the apparent dearth of these objects in cosmological simulation poses challenging problem to the standard cold dark matter paradigm. Irrespective of mergers or accretion that a galaxy might be going through, stars are heated as they get older while they interact with the spirals and bars which are ubiquitous in disc galaxies -- leading to a puffed up stellar disc. It remains unclear how superthin galaxies maintain their thinness through the cosmic evolution. We follow the internal evolution of a sample of 16 initially extremely thin stellar discs using collisionless N-body simulation. All of these discs eventually form a bar in their central region. Depending on the initial condition, some of these stellar discs readily form strong bars while others grow weak bars over secular evolution time scale. We show that galaxies with strong bars heat the stars very efficiently, eventually making their stellar discs thicker. On the other hand, ...

  14. The inner cavity of the circumnuclear disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, M.; Morris, M. R.; Frank, A.; Carroll-Nellenback, J. J.; Duschl, W. J.

    2016-06-01

    The circumnuclear disc (CND) orbiting the Galaxy's central black hole is a reservoir of material that can ultimately provide energy through accretion, or form stars in the presence of the black hole, as evidenced by the stellar cluster that is presently located at the CND's centre. In this paper, we report the results of a computational study of the dynamics of the CND. The results lead us to question two paradigms that are prevalent in previous research on the Galactic Centre. The first is that the disc's inner cavity is maintained by the interaction of the central stellar cluster's strong winds with the disc's inner rim, and secondly, that the presence of unstable clumps in the disc implies that the CND is a transient feature. Our simulations show that, in the absence of a magnetic field, the interaction of the wind with the inner disc rim actually leads to a filling of the inner cavity within a few orbital time-scales, contrary to previous expectations. However, including the effects of magnetic fields stabilizes the inner disc rim against rapid inward migration. Furthermore, this interaction causes instabilities that continuously create clumps that are individually unstable against tidal shearing. Thus the occurrence of such unstable clumps does not necessarily mean that the disc is itself a transient phenomenon. The next steps in this investigation are to explore the effect of the magnetorotational instability on the disc evolution and to test whether the results presented here persist for longer time-scales than those considered here.

  15. A disc-type magneto-rheologic fluid damper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝长生

    2003-01-01

    A disc-type magneto-rheological fluid damper operating in shear mode is proposed in this paper,which is based on the special characteristics of the magneto-rheological (MR) fluid with rapid, reversible and dramatic change in its rheological properties by the application of an external magnetic field. The magneticfield of the disc-type MR fluid damper is analysed by the finite element method ; the controllability of the disctype MR fluid damper on the dynamic behaviour of a rotor system ; and the effectiveness of the disc-type MR fluid damper in controlling the vibration of a rotor system, are studied in a flexible rotor system with an over-hung disc. It is shown that the magnetic flux density of the disc-type MR fluid damper in the working areas can significantly change with the applied current in the coil ; and that the dynamic behavior of the disc-type MR fluid damper can be varied by the application of an external magnetic field produced by a low voltage electromagnetic coil. The disc-type MR fluid damper can significantly change the dynamic characteristics of a rotor system, provided that the location of the disk-type MR fluid damper is carefully chosen. The disc-type MR fluid damper is a new actuator with good dynamic characteristics for rotating machinery.

  16. Tearing up a misaligned accretion disc with a binary companion

    CERN Document Server

    Doğan, Suzan; King, Andrew; Price, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. We calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. We run hydrodynamical simulations to check these results, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and generally enhances accretion on to the central object. This applies in many cases of astrophysical accretion, e.g. supermassive black hole binaries and X--ray binaries.

  17. Simulation and Experimental Study on Novel Solenoid-actuated Shock Absorber%新型电磁阀式减振器的仿真与试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏光; 陈无畏; 唐希雯; 王洪成

    2012-01-01

    对一种新型电磁阀式阻尼连续可调减振器进行了研究,分析了其结构特点与工作原理,建立了复原行程和压缩行程的液压模型与数学模型,对其阻尼特性进行仿真;同时在单通道电液伺服悬架动态性能试验台上进行试验.仿真结果与试验数据基本吻合,说明所建立的电磁阀式减振器模型较为准确,可用于电磁阀式阻尼连续可调减振器的研究与开发.%A new type of solenoid-actuated shock absorber with continuously variable damping is studied. Its structural features and working principle are analyzed, the hydraulic model and the mathematic model for compress and rebounce strokes are established and its damping characteristics are simulated. Meanwhile a corresponding test is also conducted on a single-channel electro-hydraulic servo tester. The results of simulation agree well with test data, indicating that the model established for solenoid-actuated shock absorber is relatively accurate and can be used for the research and development of solenoid-actuated shock absorber with continuously variable damping.

  18. 座面可调电动轮椅的机构运动仿真%Kinematics Simulation for a Power Wheelchair with Self-Actuated Seating Fnctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 张建国

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of a wheelchair with self-actuated seating.functions was presented,including tilt-in-space,and backrest recline.Each link length was determined according to ergonomics and position analysis.In sofiwar Matlab,a kinematics model of wheelchair was developed and the motion of mechanical linkages was simulated to realize the velocity and acceleration analysis.In the way,the fidelity of the construction was demonstrated by comparing the behavior of the moving drawings with the real mechanism's requirement.The described wheelchair should bring greater freedom of movement to people and dock with other rehabilitation equipment.The mechanism design method should enable better improving design plans according to functional requirement,which could shorten the time of design.%通过运动仿真,对座面可调的多功能轮椅进行机构设计.基于人机工程学及位姿分析,设计各构件尺寸.在MATLAB中建立轮椅运动学模型,通过仿真分析得到了各刚体关键铰接点的位移、速度、加速度等参数.将得到的运动学参数与轮椅的功能要求进行比较,对轮椅整车机构进行修正.所设计的轮椅能辅助残障者实现坐立、站立、平躺等多种姿态间的转变,也便于轮椅与其它康复设备的安全对接.多刚体运动学仿真方法能更直观进行机构功能分析,从而缩短设计周期.

  19. CFD Analysis Of Straight Ventilated Disc Brake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil K

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brakes are the key pieces of a vehicle that plays an active role in safety and performance of the system. The study of aerodynamic cooling of a disc brake in real working condition of vehicle is important in present situations. Brake discs get very hot quickly, so it should be dissipated properly through different modes of heat transfer. Contributions of these heat transfer modes are different in different type of problems. The cooling transfer rates are different in vane surface and frictional surface of a disc brake. Also the temperature varies in each small interval of braking time. So a transient problem simulation is important to study the cooling of a disc brake when a vehicle decelerates from a particular speed. ANSYS CFX tool is used for the simulation of this transient problem.

  20. Simulation Research of the Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Based on the MOSA Algorithm%基于MOSA算法的压电堆执行器多目标优化仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊庆辉; 张幽彤; 苏海峰; 刘永峰

    2011-01-01

    建立了高压共轨压电堆执行器有限元模型,并通过Matlab与Python语言的混合编程实现压电堆执行器多目标优化仿真,采用多目标模拟退火算法MOSA(Multi Objective Simulated Annealing),以压电堆执行器内部拉应力和延迟时间为目标函数建立多目标优化模型,进行多目标优化设计.结果表明:压电堆执行器内部拉应力降低20.1%,达到10.7MPa;延迟时间降低20.4%,达到39.4μs.%The FEM model of piezoelectric actuator of common rail fuel injector was built. By using Matlab and Python language to perform the mixed-language programming, the FEM model could be built and calculat ed, also the MOO ( multi objective optimization) . This paper uses MOSA( Multi Objective Simulated Annealing) method to optimize the parameters of the actuator. The aim function is the delay of the opening of the actuator and the tension stress in the actuator. The results show that the tension stress is 10. 7 mPa that reduces by 20. 1% ; while the delay of the opening is 39.4 μs, which is reduced by 20.4%.

  1. MEMS fluidic actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholwadwala, Deepesh K.; Johnston, Gabriel A.; Rohrer, Brandon R.; Galambos, Paul C.; Okandan, Murat

    2007-07-24

    The present invention comprises a novel, lightweight, massively parallel device comprising microelectromechanical (MEMS) fluidic actuators, to reconfigure the profile, of a surface. Each microfluidic actuator comprises an independent bladder that can act as both a sensor and an actuator. A MEMS sensor, and a MEMS valve within each microfluidic actuator, operate cooperatively to monitor the fluid within each bladder, and regulate the flow of the fluid entering and exiting each bladder. When adjacently spaced in a array, microfluidic actuators can create arbitrary surface profiles in response to a change in the operating environment of the surface. In an embodiment of the invention, the profile of an airfoil is controlled by independent extension and contraction of a plurality of actuators, that operate to displace a compliant cover.

  2. Series elastic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Matthew M.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis presents the design, construction, control and evaluation of a novel for controlled actuator. Traditional force controlled actuators are designed from the premise that 'Stiffer is better'. This approach gives a high bandwidth system, prone to problems of contact instability, noise, and low power density. The actuator presented in this thesis is designed from the premise that 'Stiffness isn't everything'. The actuator, which incorporates a series elastic element, trades off achievable bandwidth for gains in stable, low noise force control, and protection against shock loads. This thesis reviews related work in robot force control, presents theoretical descriptions of the control and expected performance from a series elastic actuator, and describes the design of a test actuator constructed to gather performance data. Finally the performance of the system is evaluated by comparing the performance data to theoretical predictions.

  3. The role of disc self-gravity in circumbinary planet systems - I. Disc structure and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, Matthew M.; Pierens, Arnaud; Nelson, Richard P.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of self-gravitating circumbinary discs around binaries whose parameters match those of the circumbinary planet-hosting systems Kepler-16, Kepler-34 and Kepler-35. Previous work has shown that non-self-gravitating discs in these systems form an eccentric precessing inner cavity due to tidal truncation by the binary, and planets which form at large radii migrate until stalling at this cavity. Whilst this scenario appears to provide a natural explanation for the observed orbital locations of the circumbinary planets, previous simulations have failed to match the observed planet orbital parameters. The aim of this work is to examine the role of self-gravity in modifying circumbinary disc structure as a function of disc mass, prior to considering the evolution of embedded circumbinary planets. In agreement with previous work, we find that for disc masses between one and five times the minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN), disc self-gravity affects modest changes in the structure and evolution of circumbinary discs. Increasing the disc mass to 10 or 20 MMSN leads to two dramatic changes in disc structure. First, the scale of the inner cavity shrinks substantially, bringing its outer edge closer to the binary. Secondly, in addition to the eccentric inner cavity, additional precessing eccentric ring-like features develop in the outer regions of the discs. If planet formation starts early in the disc lifetime, these changes will have a significant impact on the formation and evolution of planets and precursor material.

  4. Magnetic actuators and sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Brauer, John R

    2014-01-01

    An accessible, comprehensive guide on magnetic actuators and sensors, this fully updated second edition of Magnetic Actuators and Sensors includes the latest advances, numerous worked calculations, illustrations, and real-life applications. Covering magnetics, actuators, sensors, and systems, with updates of new technologies and techniques, this exemplary learning tool emphasizes computer-aided design techniques, especially magnetic finite element analysis, commonly used by today's engineers. Detailed calculations, numerous illustrations, and discussions of discrepancies make this text an inva

  5. Remote switch actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan

    2013-01-29

    The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.

  6. Actuator environmental stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Shoko; Farrell, Michael

    2000-06-01

    Various configurations of piezoelectric high strain actuators are available in the market. The influence of humidity at high temperature is not well documented, even though it is an important consideration for actuator performance. This paper describes the testing and results of two different families of actuators; QuickPack products and multilayer actuators, tested under two environments; room temperature low humidity and elevated temperature and humidity (80°C/80%RH). A constant DC load was applied to the QP10N andand QP10Ni products in free condition, while positive only AC field was applied to multilayer actuators, under pre-stressed condition. High field IR was used as the main tool to determine the health of QuickPack products, whereas, in-situ displacement was measured to monitor the health of multilayer actuators. As expected, in both families of actuators, it was shown that the actuator life is significantly reduced when specimens are exposed to humidity at elevated temperature. Improvement of the humidity barrier, thus less moisture penetration, even when electrodes do not contain silver, is expected to prolong life of actuators.

  7. Investigations of electronic amplifiers supplying a piezobimorph actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milecki, Andrzej; Regulski, Roman

    2016-10-01

    Piezoelectric bending actuators, also known as bimorphs, are characterized by very good dynamic properties and by displacements in a range of a few millimeters. Therefore these actuators are used in a wide range of applications. However their usage is limited because they require supplying amplifiers with output voltage of about 200 V, which are rather expensive. This paper presents investigation results of such amplifiers with high voltage output. The model of a piezobending actuator is proposed and implemented in Matlab-Simulink software in order to simulate the behavior of the actuator supplied by the amplifiers. The simulation results are presented and compared with investigation results of high voltage amplifier used for supplying a piezoactuator. The influence of current limitation of operational amplifier on the actuator current is tested. Finally, a low cost audio power amplifier is proposed to control the piezobender actuator (as a cheaper alternative to the high-voltage amplifier) and its investigations results are presented in the paper.

  8. Images of accretion discs. 1. The eclipse mapping method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, K.

    1985-03-01

    A method of mapping the surface brightness distributions of accretion discs in eclipsing cataclysmic binaries is described and tested with synthetic eclipse data. Accurate synthetic light curves are computed by numerical simulation of the accretion disc eclipse, and images of the disc are reconstructed by maximum entropy methods. The conventional definition of entropy leads to a distorted image of the disc. A modified form of entropy, sensitive to the aximuthal structure of the image but not to its radial profile, suppresses azimuthal structure but correctly recovers the radial structure of the accretion disc. This eclipse mapping method permits powerful tests of accretion disc theory by deriving the spatial structure of discs from observational data with a minimum of model-dependent assumptions.

  9. Black hole accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. outbursting black-hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We then turn to the role of advection in accretion flow onto black holes illustrating its action and importance with a toy model describing both ADAFs and slim discs. We conclude with a presentation of the general-relativistic formalism describing accretion discs in the Kerr space-time.

  10. MHD disc winds

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, J

    2006-01-01

    This is a doctorate level lecture on the physics of accretion discs driving magnetically self-confined jets, usually referred to in the literature as disc winds. I will first review the governing magnetohydrodynamic equations and then discuss their physical content. At that level, necessary conditions to drive jets from keplerian accretion discs can already be derived. These conditions are validated with self-similar calculations of accretion-ejection structures. In a second part, I will critically discuss the biases introduced when using self-similarity as well as some other questions such as: Are these systems really unstable? Can a standard accretion disc provide the conditions to launch jets in its innermost parts? What is the difference between X-winds and disc-winds? Finally, the magnetic interaction between a protostar and its circumstellar disc will be discussed with a focus on stellar spin down.

  11. Analysis of Innovative Design of Energy Efficient Hydraulic Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    M Osman Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic cylinder actuators are used extensively in industrial, construction and agricultural works. The small sized outlet ports of the cylinders resist the flow of discharged oil; and as a result the piston motion is slowed down. This causes a lot of heat generation and energy loss within the actuators. The study investigates and analyzes the possibilities of reducing the hydraulic resistance and increasing efficiency of the hydraulic actuator. Conventional hydraulic cylinders are simulate...

  12. The tidal disruption of protoplanetary accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Larwood, J D

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we revisit the problem of the tidal interaction occuring between a protostellar accretion disc and a secondary point mass following a parabolic trajectory. We model the disc response analytically and we compare our results with three-dimensional SPH simulations. Inviscid as well as viscous hydrodynamics is considered. We show that in a viscous system the response derived from inviscid considerations is predominant even for the highest estimates of an anomalous disc shear viscosity. The angular momentum lost from the disc during the encounter is derived from linear theory, for distant fly-bys, as well as the changes to the disc orientation expected in non-coplanar encounters. It is shown that the target discs can become warped and precess by a small amount during non-coplanar encounters. This small precession is shown to give rise to a relative tilt of the disc which is always more important for determining its final orientation than is the change to the orbital inclination. We discuss the implic...

  13. Black hole accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. ou...

  14. Sensors and actuators, Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the organization and the research programme of the Sensor and Actuator (S&A) Research Unit of the University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands. It includes short descriptions of all present projects concerning: micromachined mechanical sensors and actuators, optical sensors,

  15. Conjugated Polymers as Actuators: Modes of Actuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen

    The physical and chemical properties of conjugated polymers often depend very strongly on the degree of doping with anions or cations. The movement of ions in and out of the polymer matrix as it is redox cycled is also accompanied by mechanical changes. Both the volume and the stiffness can exhibit...... significant differences between the oxidized and reduced states. These effects form the basis of the use of conjugated polymers as actuators (or “artificial muscles”) controllable by a small (1-10 V) voltage. Three basic modes of actuation (bending, linear extension and stiffness change) have been proposed...

  16. Conjugated polymers as actuators: modes of actuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen

    2007-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of conjugated polymers often depend very strongly on the degree of doping with anions or cations. The movement of ions in and out of the polymer matrix as it is redox cycled is also accompanied by mechanical changes. Both the volume and the stiffness can exhibit...... significant differences between the oxidized and reduced states. These effects form the basis of the use of conjugated polymers as actuators (or “artificial muscles”) controllable by a small (1-10 V) voltage. Three basic modes of actuation (bending, linear extension and stiffness change) have been proposed...

  17. Wind turbine and actuator disc wake: Two experimental campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lignarolo, L.; Ragni, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper is the summary of 3 years of research on the wake aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine at Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. In particular, the main results and the conclusions of two experimental campaigns are collected. The underlying research question is: h

  18. Verification and validation of an actuator disc model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Troldborg, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    take any kind of shape discretization, determine the intersectional elements with the computational grid and use the size of these elements to redistribute proportionally the forces. This method can potentially reduce the need for mesh refinement in the region surrounding the rotor and, therefore, also...

  19. Eccentricity Compensation Mechanism for Improving Reliability of Removable Performance in Near-Field Optical Disc Drive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunmin; Ishimoto, Tsutomu; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi; Kawakubo, Osamu

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we propose the eccentricity-compensating actuator mechanism for near-field (NF) optical disc drives. In this proposed dual-stage compensating actuator mechanism, the disc-spindle unit is actuated instead of the solid immersion lens (SIL) along the tracking axis to cancel out an eccentricity less than 20 µmpp (pp: peak to peak), which is the required criterion for NF discs of 160 nm track pitch. As a result, the proposed method enables the decrease in the required residual tracking error to lower than the criteria of 4.5 nm in NF optical disc drive (ODD) even when using the tracking servo of moderate performance. The proposed active eccentricity compensation method can be effective and applicable to dealing with the eccentricity problem in NF ODD, which we verified experimentally.

  20. Digital simulation and analysis on temperature f ield of wet multi-disc brake based on ABAQUS%基于ABAQUS的湿式多盘制动器温度场数值模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建成; 张文明; 姜勇; 李荣昊; 朱利明

    2012-01-01

    以井下工程车辆的湿式多盘制动器为研究对象,建立了基于ABAQUS的湿式多盘制动器的热-机耦合有限元分析模型。通过对湿式多盘制动器温度场的数值模拟分析,得到了不同制动工况下湿式多盘制动器各摩擦副的温度变化曲线,为分析湿式多盘制动器的失效形式及原因提供了参考。%The paper established thermal-mechanical coupling FEM model of the wet multi-disc brake of an underground engineering truck based on ABAQUS.After the digital simulation and analysis of the temperature field of the wet multi-disc brake,the temperature variation curves of each friction pair at various braking modes were obtained.The curves offered references for analyzing failure forms and causes of the wet multi-disc brake.

  1. Magnetic Field Amplification via Protostellar Disc Dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Dyda, Sergei; Ustyugova, Galina V; Koldoba, Alexander V; Wasserman, Ira

    2015-01-01

    We model the generation of a magnetic field in a protostellar disc using an \\alpha-dynamo and perform axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations of a T Tauri star. We find that for small values of the dimensionless dynamo parameter $\\alpha_d$ the poloidal field grows exponentially at a rate ${\\sigma} \\propto {\\Omega}_K \\sqrt{\\alpha_d}$ , before saturating to a value $\\propto \\sqrt{\\alpha_d}$ . The dynamo excites dipole and octupole modes, but quadrupole modes are suppressed, because of the symmetries of the seed field. Initial seed fields too weak to launch MHD outflows are found to grow sufficiently to launch winds with observationally relevant mass fluxes of order $10^{-9} M_{\\odot}/\\rm{yr}$ for T Tauri stars. For large values of $\\alpha_d$ magnetic loops are generated over the entire disc. These quickly come to dominate the disc dynamics and cause the disc to break up due to the magnetic pressure.

  2. A Review of a Study on Disc Brake Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the development of the automotive industry, disc brake noise has become an issue of growing concern to the automotive industry and customers. In this paper, the types of disc brake noise have been discussed. Ajter that, the theories and models that have been proposed as an explanation of brake squeal are reviewed. On the basis of these theories and models, some example simulations of disc brake squeal which use the Finite Element method and mathematical model have been introduced.

  3. Actuator characterization of a man-portable precision maneuver concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ilmars CELMINS; Frank E.FRESCONI; Bryant P.NELSON

    2014-01-01

    The US Army Research Laboratory is conducting research to explore technologies that may be suitable for maneuvering man-portable munitions. Current research is focused on the use of rotary actuators with spin-stabilized munitions. A rotary actuator holds the potential of providing a low-power solution for guidance of a spinning projectile. This is in contrast to a linear (reciprocating) actuator which would need to constantly change direction, resulting in large accelerations which in turn would require large forces, thereby driving up the actuator power. A rotational actuator would be operating at a fairly constant rotation rate once it is up to speed, resulting in much lower power requirements. Actuator experiments conducted over a variety of conditions validate the dynamic models of the actuator and supply the data necessary for model parameter estimation. Actuator performance metrics of spin rate response, friction, and power requirements were derived from the data. This study indicates that this class of maneuver concepts can be driven with these actuators. These results enable actuator design and multi-disciplinary simulation of refined maneuver concepts for a specific application.

  4. Actuator characterization of a man-portable precision maneuver concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilmars Celmins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The US Army Research Laboratory is conducting research to explore technologies that may be suitable for maneuvering man-portable munitions. Current research is focused on the use of rotary actuators with spin-stabilized munitions. A rotary actuator holds the potential of providing a low-power solution for guidance of a spinning projectile. This is in contrast to a linear (reciprocating actuator which would need to constantly change direction, resulting in large accelerations which in turn would require large forces, thereby driving up the actuator power. A rotational actuator would be operating at a fairly constant rotation rate once it is up to speed, resulting in much lower power requirements. Actuator experiments conducted over a variety of conditions validate the dynamic models of the actuator and supply the data necessary for model parameter estimation. Actuator performance metrics of spin rate response, friction, and power requirements were derived from the data. This study indicates that this class of maneuver concepts can be driven with these actuators. These results enable actuator design and multi-disciplinary simulation of refined maneuver concepts for a specific application.

  5. Fuzzy control of electro-mechanical gearbox actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Iordanidis; P H Mellor; D Holliday; P M Churn

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a prototype direct-drive electro-mechanical actuator is proposed to select gears in a high performance gearbox. Because of the nonlinear behavior of the actuator, a fuzzy logic controller is adopted. The result of simulation has proved that the dynamic response obtained using the fuzzy controller is much faster than that obtained using traditional PD controller.

  6. Cryogenic Piezoelectric Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Cook, William B.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, PMN-PT single crystal piezoelectric stack actuators and flextensional actuators were designed, prototyped and characterized for space optics applications. Single crystal stack actuators with footprint of 10 mm x10 mm and the height of 50 mm were assembled using 10 mm x10mm x0.15mm PMN-PT plates. These actuators showed stroke > 65 - 85 microns at 150 V at room temperature, and > 30 microns stroke at 77 K. Flextensional actuators with dimension of 10mm x 5 mm x 7.6 mm showed stroke of >50 microns at room temperature at driving voltage of 150 V. A flextensional stack actuator with dimension of 10 mm x 5 mm x 47 mm showed stroke of approx. 285 microns at 150 V at room temperature and > 100 microns at 77K under driving of 150 V should be expected. The large cryogenic stroke and high precision of these actuators are promising for cryogenic optics applications.

  7. Investigation of Equivalent Unsprung Mass and Nonlinear Features of Electromagnetic Actuated Active Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic actuated active suspension benefits active control and energy harvesting from vibration at the same time. However, the rotary type electromagnetic actuated active suspension introduces a significant extra mass on the unsprung mass due to the inertia of the rotating components of the actuator. The magnitude of the introduced unsprung mass is studied based on a gearbox type actuator and a ball screw type actuator. The geometry of the suspension and the actuator also influence the equivalent unsprung mass significantly. The suspension performance simulation or control logic derived should take this equivalent unsprung mass into account. Besides, an extra force should be compensated due to the nonlinear features of the suspension structure and it is studied. The active force of the actuator should compensate this extra force. The discovery of this paper provides a fundamental for evaluating the rotary type electromagnetic actuated active suspension performance and control strategy derived as well as controlling the electromagnetic actuated active suspension more precisely.

  8. Magnetic white dwarfs with debris discs

    CERN Document Server

    Külebi, Baybars; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Isern, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    It has long been accepted that a possible mechanism for explaining the existence of magnetic white dwarfs is the merger of a binary white dwarf system, as there are viable mechanisms for producing sustainable magnetic fields within the merger product. However, the lack of rapid rotators in the magnetic white dwarf population has been always considered a problematic issue of this scenario. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations show that in mergers in which the two white dwarfs have different masses a disc around the central compact object is formed. If the central object is magnetized it can interact with the disc through its magnetosphere. The torque applied by the disc changes the spin of the star, whereas the transferred angular momentum from the star to the disc determines the properties of the disc. In this work we build a model for the disc evolution under the effect of magnetic accretion, and for the angular momentum evolution of the star, which can be compared with the observations. Our model pre...

  9. Magnetically Actuated Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinera, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a magnetically actuated seal in which either a single electromagnet, or multiple electromagnets, are used to control the seal's position. This system can either be an open/ close type of system or an actively controlled system.

  10. Magnetically Actuated Seal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a magnetically actuated dynamic seal. Dynamic seals are used throughout the turbopump in high-performance, pump-fed, liquid rocket...

  11. Simulation and Experimental Analysis of Braking Squeal of Disc Brake System Considering Thermo-mechanical Coupling Effect%盘式制动器制动尖叫热机耦合特性仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪德成; 陈凌珊; 黄欣; 蒋培露

    2014-01-01

    利用试验和仿真相结合的方法,对某车型前通风盘式制动器进行研究。基于多功能制动器动力学试验台架,分别对两套同型号制动器试件进行制动尖叫试验,基于有限元建立制动器热机耦合分析模型,在拖滞制动模式下进行仿真计算。分析研究表明,拖滞制动模式是一个明显的热机耦合过程,其热机耦合效应与减速制动模式具有很多共同点。热机耦合效应对制动尖叫影响较大,考虑热机耦合效应有利于提高尖叫预测精度,并能够反映制动尖叫的时变特性。%Braking squeal of ventilation disc brake systems was studied through experimental and numerical analysis. Using multi-function brake dynamometer test rig, brake squeal tests of two disc brake systems were carried out. The finite element model of the disc brake was built, and the thermo-mechanical coupling effect was investigated under drag braking conditions. The simulation results show that the thermo-mechanical coupling effect exists obviously in drag braking mode, which is similar to that in emergency braking mode. This effect has a serious influence on braking squeal. It must be considered in the brake squeal simulation analysis to improve the prediction accuracy and to reflect the time-varying characteristics of the braking squeal.

  12. Tendon Driven Finger Actuation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a robotic hand having at least one finger. An actuation system for the robotic finger includes an actuator assembly which is supported by the robot and is spaced apart from the finger. A tendon extends from the actuator assembly to the at least one finger and ends in a tendon terminator. The actuator assembly is operable to actuate the tendon to move the tendon terminator and, thus, the finger.

  13. Positioning magnetorheological actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, Valery; Bazinenkov, Alexey; Akimov, Igor [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2-nd Baumanskaia st. 5, MT-11, 105005, Moscow (Russian Federation); Borin, Dmitry [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, 01062, Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: mikhailov@bmstu.ru

    2009-02-01

    In this work we consider a construction of a positioning magnetorheological actuator based on bellow units, as well as dynamical model, which include such elements as a magnetically hysteresis, pressure loses in hydraulic system, nonlinearity of rheological behaviour of working fluid. Two operating modes of positioning actuator are taken into account and transients are presented. Dynamical modelling shows possibility for the improvement of a real control system and ensure of submicron precision of positioning with millisecond time of response.

  14. Orbital eccentricity as a probe of thick disc formation scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sales, Laura V.; Helmi, Amina; Abadi, Mario G.; Brook, Chris B.; Gomez, Facundo A.; Roskar, Rok; Debattista, Victor P.; House, Elisa; Steinmetz, Matthias; Villalobos, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    We study the orbital properties of stars in four (published) simulations of thick discs formed by (i) accretion from disrupted satellites, (ii) heating of a pre-existing thin disc by a minor merger, (iii) radial migration and (iv) gas-rich mergers. We find that the distribution of orbital eccentrici

  15. Dynamical stability and evolution of the discs of Sc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, B

    1997-01-01

    We examine the local stability of galactic discs against axisymmetric density perturbations with special attention to the different dynamics of the stellar and gaseous components. In particular the discs of the Milky Way and of NGC 6946 are studied. The Milky Way is shown to be stable, whereas the inner parts of NGC 6946, a typical Sc galaxy from the Kennicutt (1989) sample, are dynamically unstable. The ensuing dynamical evolution of the composite disc is studied by numerical simulations. The evolution is so fierce that the stellar disc heats up dynamically on a short time scale to such a degree, which seems to contradict the morphological appearance of the galaxy. The star formation rate required to cool the disc dynamically is estimated. Even if the star formation rate in NGC 6946 is at present high enough to meet this requirement, it is argued that the discs of Sc galaxies cannot sustain such a high star formation rate for longer periods.

  16. Accretion disc viscosity: a limit on the anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Observations of warped discs can give insight into the nature of angular momentum transport in accretion discs. Only a few objects are known to show strong periodicity on long timescales, but when such periodicity is present it is often attributed to precession of the accretion disc. The X-ray binary Hercules X-1/HZ Herculis (Her X-1) is one of the best examples of such periodicity and has been linked to disc precession since it was first observed. By using the current best-fitting models to Her X-1, which invoke precession driven by radiation warping, I place a constraint on the effective viscosities that act in a warped disc. These effective viscosities almost certainly arise due to turbulence induced by the magneto-rotational instability. The constraints derived here are in agreement with analytical and numerical investigations into the nature of magneto-hydrodynamic disc turbulence, but at odds with some recent global simulations.

  17. Evolution of inclined planets in three-dimensional radiative discs

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsch, Bertram

    2011-01-01

    While planets in the solar system only have a low inclination with respect to the ecliptic there is mounting evidence that in extrasolar systems the inclination can be very high, at least for close-in planets. One process to alter the inclination of a planet is through planet-disc interactions. Recent simulations considering radiative transport have shown that the evolution of migration and eccentricity can strongly depend on the thermodynamic state of the disc. We extend previous studies to investigate the planet-disc interactions of fixed and moving planets on inclined and eccentric orbits. We also analyse the effect of the disc's thermodynamic properties on the orbital evolution of embedded planets in detail. The protoplanetary disc is modelled as a viscous gas where the internally produced dissipation is transported by radiation. For locally isothermal discs, we confirm previous results and find inclination damping and inward migration for planetary cores. For low inclinations i < 2 H/r, the damping is...

  18. Actuation of polypyrrole nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alexander S.; Peteu, Serban F.; Ly, James V.; Requicha, Aristides A. G.; Thompson, Mark E.; Zhou, Chongwu

    2008-04-01

    Nanoscale actuators are essential components of the NEMS (nanoelectromechanical systems) and nanorobots of the future, and are expected to become a major area of development within nanotechnology. This paper demonstrates for the first time that individual polypyrrole (PPy) nanowires with diameters under 100 nm exhibit actuation behavior, and therefore can potentially be used for constructing nanoscale actuators. PPy is an electroactive polymer which can change volume on the basis of its oxidation state. PPy-based macroscale and microscale actuators have been demonstrated, but their nanoscale counterparts have not been realized until now. The research reported here answers positively the fundamental question of whether PPy wires still exhibit useful volume changes at the nanoscale. Nanowires with a 50 nm diameter and a length of approximately 6 µm, are fabricated by chemical polymerization using track-etched polycarbonate membranes as templates. Their actuation response as a function of oxidation state is investigated by electrochemical AFM (atomic force microscopy). An estimate of the minimum actuation force is made, based on the displacement of the AFM cantilever.

  19. Actuation of polypyrrole nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Alexander S; Peteu, Serban F; Ly, James V; Requicha, Aristides A G; Thompson, Mark E; Zhou Chongwu [Laboratory for Molecular Robotics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States)], E-mail: requicha@usc.edu

    2008-04-23

    Nanoscale actuators are essential components of the NEMS (nanoelectromechanical systems) and nanorobots of the future, and are expected to become a major area of development within nanotechnology. This paper demonstrates for the first time that individual polypyrrole (PPy) nanowires with diameters under 100 nm exhibit actuation behavior, and therefore can potentially be used for constructing nanoscale actuators. PPy is an electroactive polymer which can change volume on the basis of its oxidation state. PPy-based macroscale and microscale actuators have been demonstrated, but their nanoscale counterparts have not been realized until now. The research reported here answers positively the fundamental question of whether PPy wires still exhibit useful volume changes at the nanoscale. Nanowires with a 50 nm diameter and a length of approximately 6 {mu}m, are fabricated by chemical polymerization using track-etched polycarbonate membranes as templates. Their actuation response as a function of oxidation state is investigated by electrochemical AFM (atomic force microscopy). An estimate of the minimum actuation force is made, based on the displacement of the AFM cantilever.

  20. Actuation of polypyrrole nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alexander S; Peteu, Serban F; Ly, James V; Requicha, Aristides A G; Thompson, Mark E; Zhou, Chongwu

    2008-04-23

    Nanoscale actuators are essential components of the NEMS (nanoelectromechanical systems) and nanorobots of the future, and are expected to become a major area of development within nanotechnology. This paper demonstrates for the first time that individual polypyrrole (PPy) nanowires with diameters under 100 nm exhibit actuation behavior, and therefore can potentially be used for constructing nanoscale actuators. PPy is an electroactive polymer which can change volume on the basis of its oxidation state. PPy-based macroscale and microscale actuators have been demonstrated, but their nanoscale counterparts have not been realized until now. The research reported here answers positively the fundamental question of whether PPy wires still exhibit useful volume changes at the nanoscale. Nanowires with a 50 nm diameter and a length of approximately 6 µm, are fabricated by chemical polymerization using track-etched polycarbonate membranes as templates. Their actuation response as a function of oxidation state is investigated by electrochemical AFM (atomic force microscopy). An estimate of the minimum actuation force is made, based on the displacement of the AFM cantilever.

  1. The effect of radiative feedback on disc fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Anthony; Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2017-02-01

    Protostellar discs may become massive enough to fragment producing secondary low-mass objects: planets, brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We study the effect of radiative feedback from such newly formed secondary objects using radiative hydrodynamic simulations. We compare the results of simulations without any radiative feedback from secondary objects with those where two types of radiative feedback are considered: (i) continuous and (ii) episodic. We find that (i) continuous radiative feedback stabilizes the disc and suppresses further fragmentation, reducing the number of secondary objects formed; (ii) episodic feedback from secondary objects heats and stabilizes the disc when the outburst occurs, but shortly after the outburst stops, the disc becomes unstable and fragments again. However, fewer secondary objects are formed compared to the case without radiative feedback. We also find that the mass growth of secondary objects is mildly suppressed due to the effect of their radiative feedback. However, their mass growth also depends on where they form in the disc and on their subsequent interactions, such that their final masses are not drastically different from the case without radiative feedback. We find that the masses of secondary objects formed by disc fragmentation are from a few MJ to a few 0.1 M⊙. Planets formed by fragmentation tend to be ejected from the disc. We conclude that planetary-mass objects on wide orbits (wide-orbit planets) are unlikely to form by disc fragmentation. Nevertheless, disc fragmentation may be a significant source of free-floating planets and brown dwarfs.

  2. Molecular valves actuated by intermolecular forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, M A; Vlachos, D G

    2005-06-01

    Phase behavior in nanostructured thin films under a gradient in chemical potential is studied via kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. Switching between saturated, partially saturated, and unsaturated states drives precipitous changes in permeation. This phenomenon could render nanostructured thin films as molecular valves, where adsorbate-adsorbate forces actuate the flow of molecules.

  3. Design and Control of Disc PMSM Directly Driven Wheel for Tramcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenggang Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new solution of disc permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM directly driven wheel is proposed as a design customized for low floor tramcar. And the motors are overhung on the bogie frame to make the weight as the sprung mass. Meanwhile, the universal coupling is installed between the driven wheel and motor shaft. A disc PMSM is designed according to the demand of traction power. The motors are not only traction and steering actuators but are also regarded as sensors to obtain the rotational speed of motor directly driven wheel. Through the obtained data, an active sensorless steering control method is applied using the relative rotational speed between wheel pair. Finally, models combined with motor control and steering control are set up to check the control strategies. The simulation results indicate that sliding mode observer has the functionality of estimating the rotating speed with high accuracy for active steering control. The tramcar exhibits self-steering and better negotiation under active steering control. The tramcar is under a better condition of running along the central line of track with small attack angle and low power consumption while passing the shape curve track.

  4. Design of an innovative magnetostrictive patch actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquemani, S.; Giberti, H.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetostrictive actuators can be profitably used to reduce vibration in structures. However, this technology has been exploited only to develop inertial actuators, while patches actuators have not been ever used in practice. Patches actuators consist on a layer of magnetostrictive material, which has to be stuck to the surface of the vibrating structure, and on a coil surrounding the layer itself. However, the presence of the winding severely limits the use of such devices. As a matter of fact, the scientific literature reports only theoretical uses of such actuators, but, in practice it does not seem they were ever used. This paper presents an innovative solution to improve the structure of the actuator patches, allowing their use in several practical applications. The principle of operation of these devices is rather simple. The actuator patch is able to generate a local deformation of the surface of the vibrating structure so as to introduce an equivalent damping that dissipates the kinetic energy associated to the vibration. This deformation is related to the behavior of the magnetostrictive material immersed in a variable magnetic field generated by the a variable current flowing in the winding. Contrary to what suggested in the theoretical literature, the designed device has the advantage of generating the variable magnetic field no longer in close proximity of the material, but in a different area, thus allowing a better coupling. The magnetic field is then conveyed through a suitable ferromagnetic structure to the magnetostrictive material. The device has been designed and simulated through FEA. Results confirm that the new configuration can easily overcome all the limits of traditional devices.

  5. Electromagnetic versus Lense-Thirring alignment of black hole accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polko, Peter; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2017-01-01

    Accretion discs and black holes (BHs) have angular momenta that are generally misaligned, which can lead to warped discs and bends in any jets produced. We examine whether a disc that is misaligned at large radii can be aligned more efficiently by the torque of a Blandford-Znajek (BZ) jet than by Lense-Thirring (LT) precession. To obtain a strong result, we will assume that these torques maximally align the disc, rather than cause precession, or disc tearing. We consider several disc states that include radiatively inefficient thick discs, radiatively efficient thin discs, and super-Eddington accretion discs. The magnetic field strength of the BZ jet is chosen as either from standard equipartition arguments or from magnetically arrested disc (MAD) simulations. We show that standard thin accretion discs can reach spin-disc alignment out to large radii long before LT would play a role, due to the slow infall time that gives even a weak BZ jet time to align the disc. We show that geometrically thick radiatively inefficient discs and super-Eddington discs in the MAD state reach spin-disc alignment near the BH when density profiles are shallow as in magnetohydrodynamical simulations, while the BZ jet aligns discs with steep density profiles (as in advection-dominated accretion flows) out to larger radii. Our results imply that the BZ jet torque should affect the cosmological evolution of BH spin magnitude and direction, spin measurements in active galactic nuclei and X-ray binaries, and the interpretations for Event Horizon Telescope observations of discs or jets in strong-field gravity regimes.

  6. The Role of Disc Self-Gravity in Circumbinary Planet Systems: I. Disc Structure and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mutter, Matthew M; Nelson, Richard P

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of 2-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of self-gravitating circumbinary discs around binaries whose parameters match those of the circumbinary planet-hosting systems Kepler-16, -34 and -35. Previous work has shown that non-self-gravitating discs in these systems form an eccentric precessing inner cavity due to tidal truncation by the binary, and planets which form at large radii migrate until stalling at this cavity. While this scenario appears to provide a natural explanation for the observed orbital locations of the circumbinary planets, previous simulations have failed to match the observed planet orbital parameters. The aim of this work is to examine the role of self-gravity in modifying circumbinary disc structure as a function of disc mass, prior to considering the evolution of embedded circumbinary planets. In agreement with previous work, we find that for disc masses between 1--5 times the minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN), disc self-gravity affects modest changes in the struc...

  7. NEW HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR'S POSITION SERVOCONTROL STRATEGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Zunrong; ZHU Yuquan; LING Xuan

    2007-01-01

    A new hydraulic actuator-hydraulic muscle (HM) is described, and the actuator's features and applications are analyzed, then a position servocontrol system in which HM is main actuator is set up. The mathematical model of the system is built up and several control strategies are discussed. Based on the mathematical model, simulation research and experimental investigation with subsection PID control, neural network self-adaptive PID control and single neuron self-adaptive PID control adopted respectively are carried out, and the results indicate that compared with PID control, neural network self-adaptive PID control and single neuron self-adaptive PID control don't need controlled system's accurate model and have fast response, high control accuracy and strong robustness, they are very suitable for HM position servo control system.

  8. Simulation design and research of actuating mechanism for refuse-removal vessel%水面垃圾清理船执行机构的仿真设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉新; 王帅

    2011-01-01

    The actuating mechanism for refuse-remaval vessel is designed for the decontamination work on lakes,urban rivers and other sites.It introduces in detail the design process of this mechanism,mainly including operating principle, theoretical foundation of simulation design,prototype modeling based on CATIA,determining the key parameters based on ADAMS.Finally,the reasonableness of this actuating mechanism was tested by producing the physical prototypes.%该水面垃圾清理船执行机构是专门为湖泊、城市河道等场所的清污工作设计的.详细介绍了此机构的设计过程,主要包括工作原理,仿真设计理论基础,利用CATIA建立样机模型,利用ADAMS确定各关键参数等.最后生产出实物样机进行了测试,验证了该机构的合理性.

  9. Feasibility of transit photometry of nearby debris discs

    CERN Document Server

    Zeegers, S T; Kalas, P

    2014-01-01

    Dust in debris discs is constantly replenished by collisions between larger objects. In this paper, we investigate a method to detect these collisions. We generate models based on recent results on the Fomalhaut debris disc, where we simulate a background star transiting behind the disc, due to the proper motion of Fomalhaut. By simulating the expanding dust clouds caused by the collisions in the debris disc, we investigate whether it is possible to observe changes in the brightness of the background star. We conclude that in the case of the Fomalhaut debris disc, changes in the optical depth can be observed, with values of the optical depth ranging from $10^{-0.5}$ for the densest dust clouds to $10^{-8}$ for the most diffuse clouds with respect to the background optical depth of $\\sim1.2\\times10^{-3}$.

  10. Digital Actuator Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Thomas; Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst

    2014-09-01

    There are significant developments underway in new types of actuators for power plant active components. Many of these make use of digital technology to provide a wide array of benefits in performance of the actuators and in reduced burden to maintain them. These new product offerings have gained considerable acceptance in use in process plants. In addition, they have been used in conventional power generation very successfully. This technology has been proven to deliver the benefits promised and substantiate the claims of improved performance. The nuclear industry has been reluctant to incorporate digital actuator technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns due to a number of concerns. These could be summarized as cost, regulatory uncertainty, and a certain comfort factor with legacy analog technology. The replacement opportunity for these types of components represents a decision point for whether to invest in more modern technology that would provide superior operational and maintenance benefits. Yet, the application of digital technology has been problematic for the nuclear industry, due to qualification and regulatory issues. With some notable exceptions, the result has been a continuing reluctance to undertake the risks and uncertainties of implementing digital actuator technology when replacement opportunities present themselves. Rather, utilities would typically prefer to accept the performance limitations of the legacy analog actuator technologies to avoid impacts to project costs and schedules. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate that the benefits of digital actuator technology can be significant in terms of plant performance and that it is worthwhile to address the barriers currently holding back the widespread development and use of this technology. It addresses two important objectives in pursuit of the beneficial use of digital actuator technology for nuclear power plants: 1. To demonstrate the benefits of digital actuator

  11. Dynamic simulation of high-speed punch actuator based on ADAMS and ANSYS%基于ADAMS和ANSYS的高速冲床执行机构动态仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦为前; 王栓虎; 解德乾; 田芳; 孙宇

    2011-01-01

    在虚拟样机仿真分析可行性得到论证的基础上,介绍了一种基于虚拟样机技术的高速冲床执行机构有限元分析方法;采用SolidWorks、ANSYS和ADAMS联合仿真的关键技术,建立高速冲床执行机构的多刚体及刚柔耦合的虚拟样机模型,对其进行仿真分析,比较了两者的仿真结果,得出刚柔耦合模型更能反映机构的真实运动;根据仿真得到的执行机构中柔性体的动态载荷,然后将载荷数据导入有限元分析软件ANSYS中,对其进行有限元优化分析,为执行机构各构件结构的设计优化提供依据.%On the basis of the proved feasibility for virtual prototype simulation analysis, the virtual prototype actuator of the high-speed press finite element analysis method based on the technology was introduced. Using the key technol ogy of combined simulation based on SolidWorks, ANSYS and ADAMS, the multi-rigid and rigid-flexible coupling vir tual prototype models of the press actuator were established and the difference of the results after the kinematic simula tion was compared . The conclusion shows that the rigid-flexible coupling model reflects more accurately the real movement. The dynamic load of flexible body was obtained by the simulation, then the data were induced into finite el ement analysis software ANSYS, and finally the finite element analysis was conducted which provides the basis for structural component design of the actuator.

  12. Electromagnetic vs. Lense-Thirring alignment of black hole accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Polko, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Accretion discs and black holes (BHs) have angular momenta that are generally misaligned with respect to each other, which can lead to warps in the discs and bends in any jets produced. We consider a disc that is misaligned at large radii and torqued by Lense-Thirring (LT) precession and a Blandford-Znajek (BZ) jet torque. We consider a variety of disc states that include radiatively inefficient thick discs, radiatively efficient thin discs, and super-Eddington accretion discs. The magnetic field strength of the BZ jet is chosen as either from standard equipartition arguments or from magnetically arrested disc (MAD) simulations. We show that standard thin accretion discs can reach spin-disc alignment out to large radii long before LT would play a role, as caused by the slow infall time that gives even a weak BZ jet time to align the disc. We show that geometrically thick radiatively inefficient discs and super-Eddington discs in the MAD state reach disc-spin alignment near the black hole when density profiles...

  13. Integrated design and analysis of smart actuators for hybrid assistive knee bracese-fla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. T.; Liao, W. H.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop smart actuators for knee braces as assistive devices for helping disabled people to recover their mobility. The actuator functions as motor, clutch, and brake. In the design, magnetorheological (MR) fluids are utilized to generate controllable torque. To decrease the size of the actuator, motor and MR fluids are integrated. MR fluids are filled inside the DC motor based actuator. Additional design factors of smart actuators including influence of permanent magnet on MR fluids and dynamic sealing are also considered. Finite element model of the smart actuator is built and analyzed. A prototype of the smart actuator with two different inner armatures is fabricated and their characteristics are investigated. Torques are compared between simulation and experiments. The results show that the developed smart actuator with multiple functions is promising for assistive knee braces.

  14. Simulation analysis for effect of pad lining arc on disc brake squeal%摩擦衬片包角对盘式制动器尖叫影响的仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立军; 陈前银; 刁坤; 孟德建; 余卓平

    2016-01-01

    摩擦衬片包角对制动尖叫具有重要影响。针对某通风盘式制动器,建立有限元复模态模型并通过尖叫台架试验进行了正确性验证。基于该模型针对5种包角水平的摩擦衬片,通过仿真计算分析其对制动尖叫倾向性的影响,并从制动块自由模态特性、盘块间接触压力分布、不稳定模态频率及模态耦合特性角度解释了不同摩擦衬片包角对制动尖叫的影响机制。分析表明:摩擦衬片包角的改变会同时引起制动块结构特性变化和接触压力分布的变化,进而引起不稳定模态数量、频率和模态耦合特性的改变。%Lining arc of brake pad has a very important effect on disc brake squeal.A finite element complex analysis model of a ventilated disc brake was established and validated through a bench test of brake squeal.Based on this model,the influence of pad lining arc on brake squeal trend was investigated using simulation of disc brakes with pads of five lining arcs.At the same time,the influence mechanism was studied from view points of natural vibration characteristics of brake pad,pressure distribution between pad and disc,instable modal frequencies and modal coupling. It was shown that the structural characteristics and pressure distribution variations due to pad lining arc variations can cause the change of instable modes,modal frequencies and modal coupling.

  15. Orbital evolution of eccentric planets in radiative discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, B.; Kley, W.

    2010-11-01

    Context. With an average eccentricity of about 0.29, the eccentricity distribution of extrasolar planets is markedly different from the solar system. Among other scenarios considered, it has been proposed that eccentricity may grow through planet-disc interaction. Recently, it has been noticed that the thermodynamical state of the disc can significantly influence the migration properties of growing protoplanets. However, the evolution of planetary eccentricity in radiative discs has not been considered yet. Aims: In this paper we study the evolution of planets on eccentric orbits that are embedded in a three-dimensional viscous disc and analyse the disc's effect on the orbital evolution of the planet. Methods: We use the three-dimensional hydrodynamical code NIRVANA that includes full tensor viscosity and implicit radiation transport in the flux-limited diffusion approximation. The code uses the FARGO-algorithm to speed up the simulations. First we measure the torque and power exerted on the planet by the disc for fixed orbits, and then we let the planet start with initial eccentricity and evolve it in the disc. Results: For locally isothermal discs we confirm previous results and find eccentricity damping and inward migration for planetary cores. For low eccentricity (e ⪉ 2 H/r) the damping is exponential, while for higher e it follows dot{e} ∝ e-2. In the case of radiative discs, the planets experience an inward migration as long as its eccentricity lies above a certain threshold. After the damping of eccentricity cores with masses below 33 MEarth begin to migrate outward in radiative discs, while higher mass cores always migrate inward. For all planetary masses studied (up to 200 MEarth) we find eccentricity damping. Conclusions: In viscous discs the orbital eccentricity of embedded planets is damped during the evolution independent of the mass. Hence, planet-disc interaction does not seem to be a viable mechanism to explain the observed high eccentricity of

  16. Magnetic Actuators and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, John R.

    2005-12-01

    Magnetic actuators and sensors are needed to enable computer and manual control of motion. Magnetic actuators allow a small electrical signal to move small or large objects. To sense the amount of motion, magnetic sensors are frequently used. This book provides the most up-to-date coverage of topics important to modern engineers, both electrical and mechanical. The author includes the latest findings and design techniques from computer models. The latest software tools are used.

  17. Actuator concepts and mechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Horner, Garnett C.

    1998-06-01

    Mechatronic design implies the consideration of integrated mechanical, electrical, and local control characteristics in electromechanical device design. In this paper, mechatronic development of actuation device concepts for active aircraft aerodynamic flow control are presented and discussed. The devices are intended to be embedded in aircraft aerodynamic surfaces to provide zero-net-momentum jets or additional flow-vorticity to control boundary layers and flow- separation. Two synthetic jet device prototypes and one vorticity-on-demand prototype currently in development are described in the paper. The aspects of actuation materials, design approaches to generating jets and vorticity, and the integration of miniaturized electronics are stressed.

  18. Hydraulic involute cam actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Lonnie J.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-11-01

    Mechanical joints are provided in which the angle between a first coupled member and a second coupled member may be varied by mechanical actuators. In some embodiments the angle may be varied around a pivot axis in one plane and in some embodiments the angle may be varied around two pivot axes in two orthogonal planes. The joints typically utilize a cam assembly having two lobes with an involute surface. Actuators are configured to push against the lobes to vary the rotation angle between the first and second coupled member.

  19. Jet Vectoring Control Using a Novel Synthetic Jet Actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A primary air jet vectoring control system with a novel synthetic jet actuator (SJA) is presented and simulated numerically. The results show that, in comparison with an existing traditional synthetic jet actuator, which is able to perform the duty of either "push" or "pull", one novel synthetic jet actuator can fulfill both "push" and "pull" functions to vector the primary jet by shifting a slide block inside it. Therefore, because the new actuator possesses greater efficiency, it has potentiality to replace the existing one in various applications, such as thrust vectoring and the reduction of thermal signature. Moreover, as the novel actuator can fulfill those functions that the existing one can not, it may well be expected to popularize it into more flow control systems.

  20. Adaptive actuator failure compensation and disturbance rejection scheme for spacecraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuelian Yao; Gang Tao; Ruiyun Qi

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive actuator failure compensation scheme is proposed for attitude tracking control of spacecraft with unknown disturbances and uncertain actuator failures. A new feature of this adaptive control scheme is the adaptation of the failure pattern parameter estimates, as wel as the failure signal parameter es-timates, for direct adaptive actuator failure compensation. Based on an adaptive backstepping control design, the estimates of the disturbance parameters are used to solve the disturbance rejection problem. The unknown disturbances are compensated completely with the stability of the whole closed-loop system. The scheme is not only able to accommodate uncertain actuator failures, but also robust against unknown external disturbances. Simulation results verify the desired adaptive actuator failure compensation perfor-mance.

  1. Asymmetric Bellow Flexible Pneumatic Actuator for Miniature Robotic Soft Gripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesha Udupa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the soft gripping devices is increasing day-by-day in medical robotics especially when safe, gentle motions and soft touch are necessary. In this paper, a novel asymmetric bellow flexible pneumatic actuator (AFPA has been designed and fabricated to construct a miniaturised soft gripper that could be used to grip small objects. The model of AFPA is designed using solid works and its bending motion is simulated in Abaqus software for optimisation and compared with experimental results. The actuator is fabricated using compression molding process that includes micromachining of the molds. Experiments conducted show the bending characteristics of the actuator at different pressures. The actuator shows excellent bending performance and the eccentricity in its design supports increased bending or curling motion up to a certain extent compared to normal bellows without eccentricity. The effects of profile shape and eccentricity on the actuator performance are analysed and the results are presented.

  2. Black hole feedback from thick accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Sadowski, Aleksander; Abramowicz, Marek A; Narayan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    We study energy flows in geometrically thick accretion discs, both optically thick and thin, using general relativistic, three-dimensional simulations of black hole accretion flows. We find that for non-rotating black holes the efficiency of the total feedback from thick accretion discs is $3\\%$ - roughly half of the thin disc efficiency. This amount of energy is ultimately distributed between outflow and radiation, the latter scaling weakly with the accretion rate for super-critical accretion rates, and returned to the interstellar medium. Accretion on to rotating black holes is more efficient because of the additional extraction of rotational energy. However, the jet component is collimated and likely to interact only weakly with the environment, whereas the outflow and radiation components cover a wide solid angle.

  3. Morphological Evolution of Disc Galaxies in Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of several numerical simulations of disc binary galaxies. It was performed detailed numerical N-body simulations of the dynamical interaction of two disc galaxies. The disc galaxies are embedded in spherical halos of dark matter and present central bulges. The dynamical evolution of the binary galaxy is analyzed in order to study the morphological evolution of the stellar distribution of the discs. The satellite galaxy is held on fixed, coplanar or polar discs, of eccentric ($e=0.1$, $e=0.4$ or $e=0.7$) orbits. Both galaxies have the same mass and size similar to the Milk Way. We have shown that the merge of two disc galaxy, depending on the initial conditions, can result in a disc or a lenticular galaxy, instead of an elliptical one. Besides, we have demonstrated that the time of merging increases linearly with the initial apocentric distance of the galaxies and decreases with the orbit's eccentricity. We also have shown that the tidal forces and the fusion of the discs can excite tran...

  4. Optimization of Valve Disc Using Orthogonal Array and Kriging Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueguan; Wang, Lin; Kang, Jungho; Kim, Seung Gyu; Jo, Young Jik; Park, Youngchul

    2008-10-01

    A butterfly valve is a type of flow control device, typically used to regulate a fluid flowing. Currently, FEA is often used to predict the safety in the design of valve disc. Also, the study about the affection of butterfly valve's disc to the valve flow characteristics by using CFD has been done by many researchers. Along with the development of computer technique, design and analysis of computer experiments has becoming more and more important in engineering design and optimization. Hereinto Kriging model is one popular analysis approach for the purpose of creating a cheap "meta-model" as a surrogate to a computationally expensive simulation model. In this paper, the numerical analysis considered the strength, pressure loss coefficient and weight of valve disc simultaneously is investigated to improve the shape of a traditional butterfly valve disc. Firstly, an initial model of butterfly valve is made to evaluate the performance of the valve disc by using CFD and FEM. Then several experiments with different variables combination of the valve disc are conducted by mean of orthogonal array. Finally, the Kriging model is used to find the optimum variables combination of valve disc based on the result of computer experiments. In addition, the optimum result is verified by FEA and CFD simulation again. The result shows that compared with traditional computer experiments, optimization by using Kriging model can improve the weight of the valve disc very effectively in a short time.

  5. The inner cavity of the circumnuclear disc

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, Marvin; Frank, Adam; Carroll-Nellenback, Jonathan J; Duschl, Wolfgang J

    2016-01-01

    The circumnuclear disc (CND) orbiting the Galaxy's central black hole is a reservoir of material that can ultimately provide energy through accretion, or form stars in the presence of the black hole, as evidenced by the stellar cluster that is presently located at the CND's centre. In this paper, we report the results of a computational study of the dynamics of the CND. The results lead us to question two paradigms that are prevalent in previous research on the Galactic Centre. The first is that the disc's inner cavity is maintained by the interaction of the central stellar cluster's strong winds with the disc's inner rim, and second, that the presence of unstable clumps in the disc implies that the CND is a transient feature. Our simulations show that, in the absence of a magnetic field, the interaction of the wind with the inner disc rim actually leads to a filling of the inner cavity within a few orbital time-scales, contrary to previous expectations. However, including the effects of magnetic fields stabi...

  6. Structures induced by companions in galactic discs

    CERN Document Server

    Kyziropoulos, P; Gravvanis, G; Patsis, P

    2016-01-01

    Using N-body simulations we study the structures induced on a galactic disc by repeated flybys of a companion in decaying eccentric orbit around the disc. Our system is composed by a stellar disc, bulge and live dark matter halo, and we study the system's dynamical response to a sequence of a companion's flybys, when we vary i) the disc's temperature (parameterized by Toomre's Q-parameter) and ii) the companion's mass and initial orbit. We use a new 3D Cartesian grid code: MAIN (Mesh-adaptive Approximate Inverse N-body solver). The main features of MAIN are reviewed, with emphasis on the use of a new Symmetric Factored Approximate Sparse Inverse (SFASI) matrix in conjunction with the multigrid method that allows the efficient solution of Poisson's equation in three space variables. We find that: i) companions need to be assigned initial masses in a rather narrow window of values in order to produce significant and more long-standing non-axisymmetric structures (bars and spirals) in the main galaxy's disc by t...

  7. The quiescent phase of galactic disc growth

    CERN Document Server

    Aumer, Michael; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    We perform a series of controlled N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies within non-growing, live dark matter haloes of varying mass and concentration. Our initial conditions include either a low-mass disc or a compact bulge. New stellar particles are continuously added on near-circular orbits to the existing disc, so spiral structure is continuously excited. To study the effect of combined spiral and giant molecular cloud (GMC) heating on the discs we introduce massive, short-lived particles that sample a GMC mass function. An isothermal gas component is introduced for a subset of the models. We perform a resolution study and vary parameters governing the GMC population, the histories of star formation and radial scale growth. Models with GMCs and standard values for the disc mass and halo density provide the right level of self-gravity to explain the age velocity dispersion relation of the Solar neighbourhood (Snhd). GMC heating generates remarkably exponential vertical profiles with scaleheights that ...

  8. HEAT TRANSIENT TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF BRAKE DISC /PAD SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Thuppal Vedanta, Srivatsan; Kora, Naga Vamsi Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Braking is mainly controlled by the engine. Friction between a pair of pads and a rotating disc converts the kinetic energy of the vehicle into heat. High temperatures can be reached in the system which can be detrimental for both, components and passenger safety. Numerical techniques help simulate load cases and compute the temperatures field in brake disc and brake pads. The present work implements a Finite Element (FE) toolbox in Matlab/Simulink able to simulate different braking manoeuvre...

  9. Gravitoturbulence in magnetised protostellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Riols, A

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational instability (GI) features in several aspects of protostellar disk evolution, most notably in angular momentum transport, fragmentation, and the outbursts exemplified by FU Ori and EX Lupi systems. The outer regions of protostellar discs may also be coupled to magnetic fields, which could then modify the development of GI. To understand the basic elements of their interaction, we perform local 2D ideal and resistive MHD simulations with an imposed toroidal field. In the regime of moderate plasma beta, we find that the system supports a hot gravito-turbulent state, characterised by considerable magnetic energy and stress and a surprisingly large Toomre parameter $Q~10$. This result has potential implications for disk structure, vertical thickness, ionisation, etc. Our simulations also reveal the existence of long-lived and dense `magnetic islands' or plasmoids. Lastly, we find that the presence of a magnetic field has little impact on the fragmentation criterion of the disk. Though our focus is on...

  10. Overview on permanent magnetic actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Permanent magnetic actuator (PMA), as a new electronic actuator of vacuum circuit breakers, certainly will be used to replace the traditional mechanical actuator. It has such advantages as simple structure, high reliability, free maintenance, and so on. This paper summarizes the development, structure, magnetic analysis, character analysis, and control strategy of PMA, and also predicts the future trend of PMA development

  11. Nonmagnetic driver for piezoelectric actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric actuator drive aims to enable reliable motor performance in strong magnetic fields for magnetic res- onance imaging and computed tomography treatment tables. There are technical limitations in operation of these motors and drive systems related to magnetic interference. Piezoelectric...... actuators. Therefore, piezoelectric transformer-based power converters are used for driving piezoelectric actuator drive motor in the presence of high electromagnetic field....

  12. Rotary actuators for plastic valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M. [Georg Fischer Piping Systems Ltd, Schaffhausen (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    Flexibility and modularity plus a high level of quality are the defining characteristics of this new generation of actuators from Georg Fischer. In conjunction with the new 546 ball valve, the PA 11/PA 21 pneumatic actuators and the EA 11/EA 21 electric actuators form an optimally co-ordinated system. (orig.)

  13. Structure Formation in Gas-Rich Galactic Discs with Finite Thickness: From Discs to Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Behrendt, Manuel; Schartmann, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational instabilities play an important role in structure formation of gas-rich high-redshift disc galaxies. In this paper, we revisit the axisymmetric perturbation theory and the resulting growth of structure, by taking the realistic thickness of the disc into account. In the unstable regime, which corresponds for thick discs to a Toomre parameter below the critical value Q=0.696, we find a fastest growing perturbation wavelength that is always a factor 1.93 times larger than in the classical razor-thin disc approximation. This result is independent of the adopted disc scale height and by this independent of temperature and surface density. In order to test the analytical theory, we compare it with a high resolution hydrodynamical simulation of an isothermal gravitationally unstable gas disc with the typical vertical sech density profile and study its break-up into rings that subsequently fragment into dense clumps. In the first phase rings form, that organise themselves discretely, with distances corr...

  14. Impacts of a Flaring Star-forming Disc and Stellar Radial Mixing on the Vertical Metallicity Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Daisuke; Grand, Robert J. J.; Gibson, Brad K.; Casagrande, Luca; Hunt, Jason A. S.; Brook, Chris B.

    2016-09-01

    Using idealised N-body simulations of a Milky Way-sized disc galaxy, we qualitatively study how the metallicity distributions of the thin disc star particles are modified by the formation of the bar and spiral arm structures. The thin disc in our numerical experiments initially has a tight negative radial metallicity gradient and a constant vertical scale-height. We show that the radial mixing of stars drives a positive vertical metallicity gradient in the thin disc. On the other hand, if the initial thin disc is f flared, with vertical scale-height increasing with galactocentric radius, the metal poor stars originally in the outer disc become dominant in regions above the disc plane at every radii. This process can drive a negative vertical metallicity gradient, which is consistent with the current observed trend. This model mimics a scenario where the star-forming thin disc was flared in the outer region at earlier epochs. Our numerical experiment with an initial flared disc predicts that the negative vertical metallicity gradient of the mono-age relatively young thin disc population should be steeper in the inner disc, and the radial metallicity gradient of the mono-age population should be shallower at greater heights above the disc plane. We also predict that the metallicity distribution function of mono-age young thin disc populations above the disc plane would be more positively skewed in the inner disc compared to the outer disc.

  15. Piezoelectric actuator renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    This paper resumes the content of the invited talk of the author, read at the occasion of the International Workshop on Relaxor Ferroelectrics, IWRF 14, held on October 12-16, 2014 in Stirin, Czech Republic. It reviews the recent advances in materials, designing concepts, and new applications of piezoelectric actuators, as well as the future perspectives of this area.

  16. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  17. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  18. Airplane Actuation Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    the electrical subsystem it is anticipated that 270 HVDC will not always be the most efficient power source. Lighting, instrumentation, avionics...sizing considerations all motor loads such as surface control actuators, fuel pumps, ECS fans and pumps, etc., are regarded as powered by 270 HVDC . All

  19. Investigation of wake interaction using full-scale lidar measurements and large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Troldborg, Niels;

    2016-01-01

    dynamics flow solver, using large eddy simulation and fully turbulent inflow. The rotors are modelled using the actuator disc technique. A mutual validation of the computational fluid dynamics model with the measurements is conducted for a selected dataset, where wake interaction occurs. This validation...... is based on a comparison between wake deficit, wake generated turbulence, turbine power production and thrust force. An excellent agreement between measurement and simulation is seen in both the fixed and the meandering frame of reference. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  20. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  1. A lab-on-a-disc with reversible and thermally stable diaphragm valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hyeong; Sunkara, Vijaya; Park, Juhee; Kim, Chi-Ju; Woo, Hyun-Kyung; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2016-10-01

    A lab-on-a-disc is a unique microfluidic platform that utilizes centrifugal force to pump liquids. This offers many benefits for point-of-care devices because it eliminates the need for connections to multiple pumps and complex tubing connections. A wide range of applications including clinical chemistry, immunoassay, cell analysis, and nucleic acid tests could be demonstrated on a spinning disc. To enable the performance of assays in a fully integrated and automated manner, the robust actuation of integrated valves is a prerequisite. However, conventional passive-type valves incur a critical drawback in that their operation is dependent on the rotational frequency, which is easily influenced by the channel geometry and chemistry, in addition to the physical properties of the liquids to be transferred. Even though a few active-type valving techniques permit the individual actuation of valves, independent of the rotational frequency, complex procedures for the fabrication as well as actuation mechanisms have prevented their broader acceptance in general applications. Here, we report on a lab-on-a-disc incorporating individually addressable diaphragm valves (ID valves) that enable the reversible and thermally stable actuation of multiple valves with unprecedented ease and robustness. These ID valves are configured from an elastic epoxy diaphragm embedded on a 3D printed push-and-twist valve, which can be easily actuated by a simple automatic driver unit. As a proof of concept experiment, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on a disc in a fully automated manner to demonstrate the robust, reversible, leak-free, and thermally stable actuation of the valves.

  2. Innervation of ''painful'' lumbar discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, MH; Marani, E; Thomeer, RTWM; Groen, GJ

    1997-01-01

    Study Design. The authors investigated the innervation of discographically confirmed degenerated and ''painful'' human intervertebral discs. Objective. To determine the type and distribution patterns of nerve fibers present in degenerated human intervertebral discs. Summary of Background Data. The i

  3. Investigation of Product Performance of Al-Metal Matrix Composites Brake Disc using Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatchurrohman, N.; Marini, C. D.; Suraya, S.; Iqbal, AKM Asif

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand of fuel efficiency and light weight components in automobile sectors have led to the development of advanced material parts with improved performance. A specific class of MMCs which has gained a lot of attention due to its potential is aluminium metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs). Product performance investigation of Al- MMCs is presented in this article, where an Al-MMCs brake disc is analyzed using finite element analysis. The objective is to identify the potentiality of replacing the conventional iron brake disc with Al-MMCs brake disc. The simulation results suggested that the MMCs brake disc provided better thermal and mechanical performance as compared to the conventional cast iron brake disc. Although, the Al-MMCs brake disc dissipated higher maximum temperature compared to cast iron brake disc's maximum temperature. The Al-MMCs brake disc showed a well distributed temperature than the cast iron brake disc. The high temperature developed at the ring of the disc and heat was dissipated in circumferential direction. Moreover, better thermal dissipation and conduction at brake disc rotor surface played a major influence on the stress. As a comparison, the maximum stress and strain of Al-MMCs brake disc was lower than that induced on the cast iron brake disc.

  4. Electro-mechanical behavior of a shape memory alloy actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausley, Matthew E.; Furst, Stephen J.; Talla, Vamsi; Seelecke, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents experimental study and numerical simulation of the electro-thermo-mechanical behavior of a commercially available Flexinol shape memory alloy (SMA) wire [1]. Recently, a novel driver device has been presented [2], which simultaneously controls electric power and measures resistance of an SMA wire actuator. This application of a single wire as both actuator and sensor will fully exploit the multifunctional nature of SMA materials and minimize system complexity by avoiding extra sensors. Though the subject is not new [3-6], comprehensive resistance data under controlled conditions for time-resolved and hysteresis-based experiments is not readily available from the literature. A simple experimental setup consisting of a Flexinol wire mounted in series with the tip of a compliant cantilever beam is used to systematically study the SMA behavior. A Labview-based data acquisition system measures actuator displacement and SMA wire stress and resistance and controls the power passed through the SMA actuator wire. The experimental setup is carefully insulated from ambient conditions, as the thermal response of a 50-micron diameter Flexinol wire is extremely sensitive to temperature fluctuation due to convective heat transfer. Actuator performance is reported for a range of actuation frequencies and input power levels. The effect of varying actuator pre-stress is reported as well. All of the experimental data is compared with simulated behavior that is derived from a numerical model for SMA material [7-10].

  5. Modeling the Electrostatic Deflection of a MEMS Multilayers Based Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen M. Ouakad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An actuator comprised of a rigid substrate and two parallel clamped-clamped microbeams is modeled under the influence of electrostatic loading. The problem is considered under the context of nonlinear Euler's mechanics, where the actuating system is described by coupled integrodifferential equations with relevant boundary conditions. Galerkin-based discretization is utilized to obtain a reduced-order model, which is solved numerically. Actuators with different gap sizes between electrode and beams are investigated. The obtained results are compared to simulations gotten by the finite-element commercial software ANSYS.

  6. Optic disc drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C

    2017-01-01

    , which, in view of the small disc at risk, may seem a paradox. METHODS: This is an observational retrospective study on an eye clinic series (n = 49), focusing on visual acuity, kinetic/static perimetry, and longitudinal trends, to include the question of eventual visual incapacity. RESULTS: Forty...

  7. Accretion and magnetic field morphology around Class 0 stage protostellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Seifried, D; Pudritz, R E; Klessen, R S

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the results of existing and newly performed and simulations of turbulent, collapsing molecular cloud cores focussing on the formation of Class 0 stage protostellar discs and the physical conditions in their surroundings. We show that for a wide range of initial conditions rotationally supported discs are formed in the Class 0 stage already. In particular, we show that even mild, i.e. subsonic turbulent motions, reduce the magnetic braking efficiency sufficiently in order to allow Keplerian discs to form. Based on this result we suggest that already during the Class 0 stage the fraction of Keplerian discs is significantly higher than 50%. This is consistent with recent observational trends but significantly higher than predictions based on simulations with misaligned magnetic fields and disc angular momentum vectors, demonstrating the importance of turbulent motions for the formation of Keplerian discs. We show that the accretion of mass and angular momentum in the surroundings of protostellar discs...

  8. Design Optimization for an Electro-Thermally Actuated Polymeric Microgripper

    CERN Document Server

    Voicu, R; Eftime, L

    2008-01-01

    Thermal micro-actuators are a promising solution to the need for large-displacement, gentle handling force, low-power MEMS actuators. Potential applications of these devices are micro-relays, assembling and miniature medical instrumentation. In this paper the development of thermal microactuators based on SU-8 polymer is described. The paper presents the development of a new microgripper which can realize a movement of the gripping arms with possibility for positioning and manipulating of the gripped object. Two models of polymeric microgripper electrothermo- mechanical actuated, using low actuation voltages, designed for SU-8 polymer fabrication were presented. The electro-thermal microgrippers were designed and optimized using finite element simulations. Electro-thermo-mechanical simulations based on finite element method were performed for each of the model in order to compare the results. Preliminary experimental tests were carried out.

  9. Cellular Automata Based Traffic Flow Simulation and Actuated Signal Control Strategy%基于CA方法的交通流数值模拟及信号灯感应控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 陈建桥

    2011-01-01

    According to the theory of cellular automata ( CA), the urban traffic flows at 4 intersections were investigated and a set of discrete equations were proposed to describe the traffic dynamics. The effect of two signal control strategies, i.e., synchronous timing control and actuated control, on traffic flow were discussed. Simulation results show that ( 1 ) the effect of signal control strategies is related to the density of traffic flow; (2) and there exists a certain range of actuated control parameters in which the efficiency of traffic flow can be optimized. Therefore, in order to ensure the efficiency of traffic flow, one the proper signal control strategy should be chosen for different global densities of traffic flow.%采用细胞自动机方法(Cellular Automata:CA)模拟含4个路口的城市道路交通流状态,并通过离散方程描述车辆的运动过程.研究了信号灯控制策略(同步定时控制及感应控制)对交通流状态的影响.数值模拟结果表明,信号灯对交通流的影响与道路中车辆密度有关,同时,感应控制参数的选取存在一合理的取值范围,可优化交通流通行效率.因此,为保证交通流的通行效率,应针对不同的车辆密度,选取适当的信号灯控制方式.

  10. Cometary ices in forming protoplanetary disc midplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovskaya, Maria N.; Walsh, Catherine; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Furuya, Kenji; Marboeuf, Ulysse; Thiabaud, Amaury; Harsono, Daniel; Visser, Ruud

    2016-10-01

    Low-mass protostars are the extrasolar analogues of the natal Solar system. Sophisticated physicochemical models are used to simulate the formation of two protoplanetary discs from the initial prestellar phase, one dominated by viscous spreading and the other by pure infall. The results show that the volatile prestellar fingerprint is modified by the chemistry en route into the disc. This holds relatively independent of initial abundances and chemical parameters: physical conditions are more important. The amount of CO2 increases via the grain-surface reaction of OH with CO, which is enhanced by photodissociation of H2O ice. Complex organic molecules are produced during transport through the envelope at the expense of CH3OH ice. Their abundances can be comparable to that of methanol ice (few per cent of water ice) at large disc radii (R > 30 au). Current Class II disc models may be underestimating the complex organic content. Planet population synthesis models may underestimate the amount of CO2 and overestimate CH3OH ices in planetesimals by disregarding chemical processing between the cloud and disc phases. The overall C/O and C/N ratios differ between the gas and solid phases. The two ice ratios show little variation beyond the inner 10 au and both are nearly solar in the case of pure infall, but both are subsolar when viscous spreading dominates. Chemistry in the protostellar envelope en route to the protoplanetary disc sets the initial volatile and prebiotically significant content of icy planetesimals and cometary bodies. Comets are thus potentially reflecting the provenances of the midplane ices in the solar nebula.

  11. Contributions to Design of Actuators functioning with Nitinol Active Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Amariei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results achieved in order to perform a comparison regarding the influence of natural and forced cooling process applied to the Nitinol active springs inside a linear motion actuator. SMAs offer attractive potentials such as reversible strains of several percent, generation of high recovery stresses and high power / weight ratios. The actuator behavior was simulated first with SolidWorks and experimentally tested for results validation.

  12. Carbon nanotube based NEMS actuators and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, Michael; Poler, Jordan

    2011-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been widely studied due to superior mechanical and electrical properties. We have grown vertically aligned SWNTs (VA-SWNTs) onto microcantilever (MC) arrays, which provides an architecture for novel actuators and sensors. Raman spectroscopy confirms that the CVD-grown nanotubes are SWNTs and SEM confirms aligned growth. As an actuator, this hybrid MC/VA-SWNT system can be electrostatically modulated. SWNTs are excellent electron acceptors, so we can charge up the VA-SWNT array by applying a voltage. The electrostatic repulsion among the charged SWNTs provides a surface stress that induces MC deflection. Simulation results show that a few electrons per SWNT are needed for measureable deflections, and experimental actuators are being characterized by SEM, Raman, and an AFM optical lever system. The applied voltage is sinusoidally modulated, and deflection is measured with a lock-in amplifier. These actuators could be used for nano-manipulation, release of drugs from a capsule, or nano-valves. As a sensor, this MC/VA-SWNT system offers an improved sensitivity for chemical and bio-sensing compared to surface functionalized MC-based sensors. Those sensors only have a 2D sensing surface, but a MC/VA-SWNT system has significantly more sensing surface because the VA-SWNTs extend microns off the MC surface.

  13. Numerical simulation for die forging of high-speed railway brake disc hub%高速列车制动盘盘毂锻造工艺数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 孙明月; 李殿中

    2012-01-01

    基于实测的40CrA钢高温应力-应变曲线和热物性参数,建立了高速列车制动盘盘毂毛坯在模锻过程的有限元模型.运用DEFORM-3D软件,对该盘毂的多步骤锻造过程进行热力耦合模拟,得到了应力、应变和温度随时间的变化规律;研究盘毂成形过程的金属流动机制,模拟了产生折叠缺陷的位置;预测了盘毂完全成形所需的锻锤打击次数;对终锻模具的最大主应力进行分析,预测了模具在实际生产中可能产生的塌陷、开裂缺陷及其位置.根据模拟结果进行了生产试制,验证了工艺的可行性和模拟的准确性.%Based on the measured stress-strain curves at different strain rates and the thermal-physical parameters of 40CrA steel, the finite element model for the forging process of a high-speed railway brake disc hub was established. The thermal-mechanical coupling process was simulated by using DEFORM-3D code. From the simulation results, the strain, stress and temperature field in the forging process were obtained. In order to simulate the folding defect position, the mechanism of metal flow of the disc hub was investigated. Furthermore, the number of combating for forging hammer was predicted. By analyzing the maximum principal stress on the final-forging mold, the collapse and crack that might arise in the actual production were predicted. The experimental results verified the feasibility of the process and the accuracy of the simulation.

  14. The formation of brown dwarfs in discs: Physics, numerics, and observations

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    A large fraction of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars may form by gravitational fragmentation of relatively massive (a few 0.1 Msun), extended (a few hundred AU) discs around Sun-like stars. We present an ensemble of radiative hydrodynamic simulations that examine the conditions for disc fragmentation. We demonstrate that this model can explain the low-mass IMF, the brown dwarf desert, and the binary properties of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Observing discs that are undergoing fragmentation is possible but very improbable, as the process of disc fragmentation is short lived (discs fragment within a few thousand years).

  15. Active Polymer Gel Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Hashimoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many kinds of stimuli-responsive polymer and gels have been developed and applied to biomimetic actuators or artificial muscles. Electroactive polymers that change shape when stimulated electrically seem to be particularly promising. In all cases, however, the mechanical motion is driven by external stimuli, for example, reversing the direction of electric field. On the other hand, many living organisms can generate an autonomous motion without external driving stimuli like self-beating of heart muscles. Here we show a novel biomimetic gel actuator that can walk spontaneously with a wormlike motion without switching of external stimuli. The self-oscillating motion is produced by dissipating chemical energy of oscillating reaction. Although the gel is completely composed of synthetic polymer, it shows autonomous motion as if it were alive.

  16. Numerical Simulation on Sliding Abrasion when TBM Disc Cutter Breaking the Rock%TBM 滚刀破岩时滑移量的数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏翠侠

    2015-01-01

    With large consumption and high cost of disc cutter which used for TBM rock breaking,the irrational cutter changing will cause an adverse impact on duration,construction cost and TBM.So it is of great importance to study disc cutter wear characteristics and predict cutter wear,and the force of disc cutter and sliding abrasion are vital to the predic-tions of cutter wear mechanism and its abrasion.A finite element model is built to simulate the process of rock breaking by ABAQUS in this paper.Cutter sliding and the force distribution of cutter are obtained and the influence of cutter penetration and friction coefficient to cutter sliding are also studied based on the established model numerically.The results indicate that sliding abrasion is proportional to cutter penetration and inversely proportional to friction coefficient.The results may be utilized to the abrasion prediction of TBMdisc cutter.%TBM破岩用的盘形滚刀消耗量大且价格昂贵,不合理的换刀会对工期、施工成本以及 TBM本身造成不利影响,研究盘形滚刀的磨损特性以及预测滚刀磨损具有重要意义。滚刀破岩时其受力情况及滑移量对滚刀磨损机理及磨损量的预测至关重要,本文利用软件 ABAQUS 建立了盘形滚刀破岩过程的有限元模型,研究了滚刀滑移现象以及滚刀受力分布情况。定量地分析了滚刀贯入度以及滚刀与岩石间的摩擦系数对滚刀滑移的影响。结果表明:滚刀破岩时的滑移量与贯入度成正比,与摩擦系数成反比。所得结果可以为滚刀磨损量的预测提供参考。

  17. Active Polymer Gel Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Shuji Hashimoto; Ryo Yoshida; Yusuke Hara; Shingo Maeda

    2010-01-01

    Many kinds of stimuli-responsive polymer and gels have been developed and applied to biomimetic actuators or artificial muscles. Electroactive polymers that change shape when stimulated electrically seem to be particularly promising. In all cases, however, the mechanical motion is driven by external stimuli, for example, reversing the direction of electric field. On the other hand, many living organisms can generate an autonomous motion without external driving stimuli like self-beating of he...

  18. Dissolution actuated sample container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Thomas A.; McCoy, Frank T.

    2013-03-26

    A sample collection vial and process of using a vial is provided. The sample collection vial has an opening secured by a dissolvable plug. When dissolved, liquids may enter into the interior of the collection vial passing along one or more edges of a dissolvable blocking member. As the blocking member is dissolved, a spring actuated closure is directed towards the opening of the vial which, when engaged, secures the vial contents against loss or contamination.

  19. Can giant planets form by gravitational fragmentation of discs?

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2007-01-01

    Context: Disc fragmentation has been proposed as a possible mechanism for the formation of giant planets at close distances to solar-type stars. However, it is debatable whether this mechanism can function in the inner region of real discs. Aims: To investigate the thermodynamics of discs and the probability of fragmentation. Methods: We use a newly developed method to treat the energy equation and equation of state, which accounts for radiative transfer effects in SPH simulations of protostellar discs. The different chemical and internal states of hydrogen and the properties of dust at different densities and temperatures (ice coated dust grains at low temperatures, ice melting, dust sublimation) are all taken into account by the new method. Results: We present radiative hydrodynamic simulations of discs where the effects of the equation of state and energy equation are taken into account. We focus on the inner parts of discs, R<40 AU and examine 2 cases (i) a disc heated by an ambient radiation field of ...

  20. Cylindrical Piezoelectric Fiber Composite Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of piezoelectric devices has become widespread since Pierre and Jacques Curie discovered the piezoelectric effect in 1880. Examples of current applications of piezoelectric devices include ultrasonic transducers, micro-positioning devices, buzzers, strain sensors, and clocks. The invention of such lightweight, relatively inexpensive piezoceramic-fiber-composite actuators as macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators has made it possible to obtain strains and displacements greater than those that could be generated by prior actuators based on monolithic piezoceramic sheet materials. MFC actuators are flat, flexible actuators designed for bonding to structures to apply or detect strains. Bonding multiple layers of MFC actuators together could increase force capability, but not strain or displacement capability. Cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite (CPFC) actuators have been invented as alternatives to MFC actuators for applications in which greater forces and/or strains or displacements may be required. In essence, a CPFC actuator is an MFC or other piezoceramic fiber composite actuator fabricated in a cylindrical instead of its conventional flat shape. Cylindrical is used here in the general sense, encompassing shapes that can have circular, elliptical, rectangular or other cross-sectional shapes in the planes perpendicular to their longitudinal axes.

  1. Vibration analysis of atomising discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, H; Ouyang, H, E-mail: H.Ouyang@liverpool.ac.u [Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    The centrifugal atomisation of metallic melts using a spinning disc is an important process for powder production and spray deposition. In the manufacturing process the high-temperature melt flows down to the surface of the atomising disc spinning at very high speed. It is observed that there is a hydraulic jump of the melt flow prior to atomisation. In this paper, the dynamic model of the atomising disc as a spinning Kirchhoff plate with this hydraulic jump is established. The flowing melt is modelled as moving mass and weight force in the radial direction. Using a Galerkin method, it is found that the vibration properties of the atomising disc vary with the disc clamping ratio. The amplitude of the vibration is largely raised when the clamping ratio is smaller than the critical jump radius ratio. It is also found that the disc vibration is non-stationary before becoming steady and the amplitude decreases with increasing disc speed.

  2. 分布式系统用盘式永磁同步发电机的设计与仿真%Design and Simulation of Disc Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator for Distributed Systems?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李争; 孙甜甜; 高培峰

    2016-01-01

    盘式永磁发电机的磁通为轴向,其磁路与传统电机相比具有很大不同. 介绍了分布式系统用盘式永磁发电机的结构特点并推导了其基本的电磁关系;通过经验及计算分析确定了电机的各尺寸和永磁体材料,利用Ansoft Maxwell 3D软件对电机的静态和瞬态磁场进行了仿真计算并对其磁场分布、电磁力、磁链等进行了分析. 结果与设计相符,同时为改善风力发电机系统参数提供了理论依据,方便了电机的优化设计,可以有效降低研发成本,提高设计精度.%The flux of the disc permanent magnet generator is axial, and its magnetic circuit is very different from the traditional motor. The structure characteristics of disc permanent magnet generator for distributed system applications were introduced, and the basic electromagnetic relationship was deduced, the size of the motor and the permanent magnet material had been determined through empirical calculation and analysis, the static and transient magnetic field of the motor was simulated and calculated by the Ansoft Maxwell 3D and the magnetic field distribution, electromagnetic force and flux linkage were analyzed. The results were consistent with the design as well as provide the theoretical basis to improve the parameters of wind turbine system and reduce its development costs, increasing its design accuracy.

  3. A small-gap electrostatic micro-actuator for large deflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Holger; Schenk, Harald; Kaiser, Bert; Langa, Sergiu; Gaudet, Matthieu; Schimmanz, Klaus; Stolz, Michael; Lenz, Miriam

    2015-12-11

    Common quasi-static electrostatic micro actuators have significant limitations in deflection due to electrode separation and unstable drive regions. State-of-the-art electrostatic actuators achieve maximum deflections of approximately one third of the electrode separation. Large electrode separation and high driving voltages are normally required to achieve large actuator movements. Here we report on an electrostatic actuator class, fabricated in a CMOS-compatible process, which allows high deflections with small electrode separation. The concept presented makes the huge electrostatic forces within nanometre small electrode separation accessible for large deflections. Electrostatic actuations that are larger than the electrode separation were measured. An analytical theory is compared with measurement and simulation results and enables closer understanding of these actuators. The scaling behaviour discussed indicates significant future improvement on actuator deflection. The presented driving concept enables the investigation and development of novel micro systems with a high potential for improved device and system performance.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A MULTILAYER PIEZOELECTRIC STACK ACTUATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsicn-YangLin; Chien-ChingMa

    2002-01-01

    Multilayer piezoelectric stack actuators are widely used in many industrial applications and the investigation on the dynamic behavior of this element is needed. In this study, two optical interferometric techniques called amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (AF-ESPI) and laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) are used to experimentally investigate the vibration characteristics of a single-layer piezoelectric disc and a multilayer piezoelectric stack actuator. These two techniques are full-field measurement for AF-ESPI and point-wise displacement measurement for LDV. Because the clear fringe patterns obtained by the AF-ESPI method will be shown only at resonant frequencies, both the resonant frequencies and corresponding vibration mode shapes of the piezoelectric disc and the multilayer piezoelectric stack actuator are obtained simultaneously by the AF-ESPI method. Interferometric fringe patterns for both the in-plane and out-of-plane vibration mode shapes are demonstrated. In addition to the proposed two optical techniques, numerical computations based on a commercially available finite element package are presented for comparison with the experimental results. Good agreement between the measured data by experimental methods and the numerical results predicted by FEM is found in resonant frequencies and mode shapes for the single-layer piezoelectric disc. However, some discrepancies are observed for the results obtained by AF-ESPI and impedance analysis for the multilayer piezoelectric stack actuator. A detailed discussion is made to address important issues of this problem.

  5. The effect of radiative feedback on disc fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Mercer, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Protostellar discs may become massive enough to fragment producing secondary low-mass objects: planets, brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We study the effect of radiative feedback from such newly-formed secondary objects using radiative hydrodynamic simulations. We compare the results of simulations without any radiative feedback from secondary objects with those where two types of radiative feedback are considered: (i) continuous, and (ii) episodic. We find that: (i) continuous radiative feedback stabilizes the disc and suppresses further fragmentation, reducing the number secondary objects formed; (ii) episodic feedback from secondary objects heats and stabilises the disc when the outburst occurs, but shortly after the outburst stops, the disc becomes unstable and fragments again. However, fewer secondary objects are formed compared to the the case without radiative feedback. We also find that the mass growth of secondary objects is mildly suppressed due to the effect of their radiative feedback. However, th...

  6. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  7. 城市轨道交通列车3次紧急制动工况下的制动盘热容仿真%Thermo-mechanical Coupling Simulation of Brake Disc during 3 times Emergency Braking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立国

    2013-01-01

    The design of urban rail transit system must satisfy the requirements of three times emergency braking, so it is necessary to analyze the thermal capacity of brake disc in the condition of three times emergency braking. Based on finite element analysis with heat coupling, the transient temperature field and stress field contours could be obtained by creating simulation model of the brake disc, setting boundary conditions by using the simulation parameters according to train operation data, and the finite element software ANSYS. The result of numerical simulation indicates that the method based on ANSYS is effective, and the peak temperature during three times emergency braking is about 293°, the maximal stress is about 135 MPa, which could meet the design requirements of operation.%城市轨道交通列车制动系统的设计需要满足3次紧急制动的需要,因此有必要对3次紧急制动工况下的制动盘热容量进行分析.基于有限元热机耦合仿真方法,通过建立的制动盘仿真模型,根据列车运行参数设置边界条件及仿真参数,利用有限元软件ANSYS计算得到瞬态温度场、应力场分布.仿真结果表明,基于ANSYS的有限元方法用于制动盘3次紧急制动工况分析的方法正确,根据设定的站间距分析的3次紧急制动工况下制动盘最高温度约293℃,最大应力约135 MPa,满足列车运行设计要求,可为制动盘的工程应用提供参考.

  8. Global Structure of Magnetorotationally Turbulent Protoplanetary Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Flaig, M; Kley, W; Kissmann, R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the spatial structure of a protoplanetary disc whose dynamics is governed by magnetorotational turbulence. We perform a series of local 3D chemo-radiative MHD simulations located at different radii of a disc which is twice as massive as the standard minimum mass solar nebula of Hayashi (1981). The ionisation state of the disc is calculated by including collisional ionisation, stellar X-rays, cosmic rays and the decay of radionuclides as ionisation sources, and by solving a simplified chemical network which includes the effect of the absorption of free charges by {\\mu}m-sized dust grains. In the region where the ionisation is too low to assure good coupling between matter and magnetic fields, a non-turbulent central "dead zone" forms, which ranges approximately from a distance of 2 AU to 4 AU from the central star. The approach taken in the present work allows for the first time to derive the global spatial structure of a protoplanetary disc from a set of physical...

  9. Cometary ices in forming protoplanetary disc midplanes

    CERN Document Server

    Drozdovskaya, Maria N; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Furuya, Kenji; Marboeuf, Ulysse; Thiabaud, Amaury; Harsono, Daniel; Visser, Ruud

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass protostars are the extrasolar analogues of the natal Solar System. Sophisticated physicochemical models are used to simulate the formation of two protoplanetary discs from the initial prestellar phase, one dominated by viscous spreading and the other by pure infall. The results show that the volatile prestellar fingerprint is modified by the chemistry en route into the disc. This holds relatively independent of initial abundances and chemical parameters: physical conditions are more important. The amount of CO2 increases via the grain-surface reaction of OH with CO, which is enhanced by photodissociation of H2O ice. Complex organic molecules are produced during transport through the envelope at the expense of CH3OH ice. Their abundances can be comparable to that of methanol ice (few % of water ice) at large disc radii (R > 30 AU). Current Class II disc models may be underestimating the complex organic content. Planet population synthesis models may underestimate the amount of CO2 and overestimate CH3...

  10. The formation of disc galaxies in a LCDM universe

    OpenAIRE

    Agertz, Oscar; Teyssier, Romain; Moore, Ben

    2010-01-01

    We study the formation of disc galaxies in a fully cosmological framework using adaptive mesh refinement simulations. We perform an extensive parameter study of the main subgrid processes that control how gas is converted into stars and the coupled effect of supernovae feedback. We argue that previous attempts to form disc galaxies have been unsuccessful because of the universal adoption of strong feedback combined with high star formation efficiencies. Unless extreme amounts of energy are in...

  11. Failure of cargo aileron’s actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zucca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During a ferry flight, in a standard operation condition and at cruising level, a military cargo experienced a double hydraulic system failure due to a structural damage of the dual booster actuator. The booster actuator is the main component in mechanism of aileron’s deflection. The crew was able to arrange an emergency landing thanks to the spare oil onboard: load specialists refilled the hydraulic reservoirs. Due to safety concerns and in order to prevent the possibility of other similar incidents, a technical investigation took place. The study aimed to carry out the analysis of root causes of the actuator failure. The Booster actuator is composed mainly by the piston rod and its aluminum external case (AA7049. The assembly has two bronze caps on both ends. These are fixed in position by means of two retainers. At one end of the actuator case is placed a trunnion: a cylindrical protrusion used as a pivoting point on the aircraft. The fracture was located at one end of the case, on the trunnion side, in correspondence to the cap and over the retainer. One of the two fracture surfaces was found separated to the case and with the cap entangled inside. The fracture surfaces of the external case indicated fatigue crack growth followed by ductile separation. The failure analysis was performed by means of optical, metallographic, digital and electronic microscopy. The collected evidences showed a multiple initiation fracture mechanism. Moreover, 3D scanner reconstruction and numerical simulation demonstrated that dimensional non conformances and thermal loads caused an abnormal stress concentration. Stress concentration was located along the case assy outer surface where the fatigue crack originated. The progressive rupture mechanism grew under cyclical axial load due to the normal operations. Recommendations were issued in order to improve dimensional controls and assembly procedures during production and overhaul activities.

  12. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc...

  13. Accretion Discs in Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Jolley, E. J. D.; Kuncic, Z.; Bicknell, G. V.; Wagner, S.(Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117, Heidelberg, Germany)

    2009-01-01

    The characteristic properties of blazars (rapid variability, strong polarization, high brightness) are widely attributed to a powerful relativistic jet oriented close to our line of sight. Despite the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) being strongly jet-dominated, a "big blue bump" has been recently detected in sources known as flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). These new data provide a unique opportunity to observationally test coupled jet-disc accretion models in these extreme sources....

  14. Total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine.

  15. Simulation and Analysis on Disc Brake Vibration Based on Rigid-Flexible Coupling%基于刚柔耦合的盘式制动器振动仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力; 谷正气; 李伟平; 梁小波; 彭国谱

    2011-01-01

    综合考虑摩擦特征和模态耦合,建立了基于刚柔耦合的矿用自卸车盘式制动器模型,以对其振动进行仿真分析.首次通过直接设置柔性体问的接触,模拟制动器典型制动工况.对其进行瞬态动力学分析.研究结果表明,部件间摩擦因数、部件阻尼对盘式制动器的振动有很大影响;合适的部件阻尼可有效提高制动系统的稳定性.%With concurrent consideration of friction feature and modal coupling, a model for the disc brake of a mining dump truck is built based on rigid-flexible coupling for the simulation and analysis of its vibration. It is for the first time by directly setting the contact between flexible bodies to simulate the typical braking condition of disk brake and conduct its transient dynamics analysis. The results show that the friction coefficient and the damping of components have significant influence on the vibration of disk brake and appropriate component damping can effectively improve the stability of brake system.

  16. Study of the shape of an optical window in a super-resolution state by electromagnetic-thermal coupled simulation: Effects of melting of an active layer in an optical disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Haruyuki; Shima, Takayuki; Kuwahara, Masashi; Fujita, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Munehisa; Aono, Yoshiyuki

    2014-04-01

    We performed a multi-physics simulation for the propagation of electromagnetic waves and heat conduction in a super-resolution optical disc that includes an active layer of InSb. Because the change in the optical constant of InSb due to the phase transition is taken into account, the melting of the active layer can be realistically simulated in our calculation. It was found that in the case of an incident light power (P) of 2 mW, a profile of the electric field intensity transmitted through the InSb layer has an asymmetric shape with a narrow peak. This beam-narrowing was suggested to be an essential mechanism of the super-resolution, because a narrower light beam allows the detection of a smaller pit structure than the optical diffraction limit. This beam-narrowing was found to be originating from a small molten region produced in the InSb layer, which works as a mask for light exposure.

  17. A biochemical/biophysical 3D FE intervertebral disc model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Y; Huyghe, J M; van Donkelaar, C C; Ito, K

    2010-10-01

    Present research focuses on different strategies to preserve the degenerated disc. To assure long-term success of novel approaches, favorable mechanical conditions in the disc tissue are essential. To evaluate these, a model is required that can determine internal mechanical conditions which cannot be directly measured as a function of assessable biophysical characteristics. Therefore, the objective is to evaluate if constitutive and material laws acquired on isolated samples of nucleus and annulus tissue can be used directly in a whole-organ 3D FE model to describe intervertebral disc behavior. The 3D osmo-poro-visco-hyper-elastic disc (OVED) model describes disc behavior as a function of annulus and nucleus tissue biochemical composition, organization and specific constituent properties. The description of the 3D collagen network was enhanced to account for smaller fibril structures. Tissue mechanical behavior tests on isolated nucleus and annulus samples were simulated with models incorporating tissue composition to calculate the constituent parameter values. The obtained constitutive laws were incorporated into the whole-organ model. The overall behavior and disc properties of the model were corroborated against in vitro creep experiments of human L4/L5 discs. The OVED model simulated isolated tissue experiments on confined compression and uniaxial tensile test and whole-organ disc behavior. This was possible, provided that secondary fiber structures were accounted for. The fair agreement (radial bulge, axial creep deformation and intradiscal pressure) between model and experiment was obtained using constitutive properties that are the same for annulus and nucleus. Both tissue models differed in the 3D OVED model only by composition. The composition-based modeling presents the advantage of reducing the numbers of material parameters to a minimum and to use tissue composition directly as input. Hence, this approach provides the possibility to describe internal

  18. Study on Simulation of Coupled Heat Transfer, Stress and Wear Behavior in Pin-on-disc Experiments%销-盘试验的热-应力-磨损耦合模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张方宇; 桂良进; 范子杰

    2015-01-01

    销-盘磨损试验涉及复杂的热-应力-磨损耦合现象。基于广义Archard磨损模型和商用有限元软件ABAQUS,开发模拟销-盘磨损试验过程中热-应力-磨损耦合模拟分析的顺序耦合方法。分析销-盘试验的瞬态温度场,将温度场作为热载荷分析摩擦副的应力-磨损耦合问题;分析过程中考虑温度对摩擦副材料的力学和热学性能的影响以及广义Archard磨损系数和摩擦因数对温度和接触压力的依赖性。热传导分析考虑摩擦生热、销-盘接触传热、各个表面与空气之间的强制对流换热、自然对流换热以及热辐射。将该方法用于销-盘磨损试验的模拟,得到温度场、接触压力和磨损量的演变过程,揭示温度场对接触和磨损的影响规律,仿真结果与试验结果吻合良好。%Pin-on-disc wear experiments involve complicated coupled heat transfer, stress and wear phenomenon. Based on generalised Archard wear model and commercial finite element analysis(FEA) software ABAQUS, a sequentially coupled analysis(SCA) method for simulating the coupled multi-fields problem is developed. The SCA method is applicable to 3-dimensional transient dry sliding problems. In SCA, the temperature field is simulated first by transient heat transfer procedure, after which the coupled contact and wear problem between the contact interface is analysed under the influence of thermal load caused by the precalculated temperature. This method also includes the influence of temperature on mechanical and thermal property of mating materials, and the dependency of wear coefficient and friction coefficient on temperature and contact pressure is involved as well. Thermal boundary conditions such as frictional heating, contact conductance, forced and natural convection and radiation are included in the heat transfer analysis. A pin-on-disc wear experiment is simulated by SCA method to obtaln the evolution of temperature field

  19. Investigations on Actuator Dynamics through Theoretical and Finite Element Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somashekhar S. Hiremath

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a new approach for modeling the fluid-structure interaction of servovalve component-actuator. The analyzed valve is a precision flow control valve-jet pipe electrohydraulic servovalve. The positioning of an actuator depends upon the flow rate from control ports, in turn depends on the spool position. Theoretical investigation is made for No-load condition and Load condition for an actuator. These are used in finite element modeling of an actuator. The fluid-structure-interaction (FSI is established between the piston and the fluid cavities at the piston end. The fluid cavities were modeled with special purpose hydrostatic fluid elements while the piston is modeled with brick elements. The finite element method is used to simulate the variation of cavity pressure, cavity volume, mass flow rate, and the actuator velocity. The finite element analysis is extended to study the system's linearized response to harmonic excitation using direct solution steady-state dynamics. It was observed from the analysis that the natural frequency of the actuator depends upon the position of the piston in the cylinder. This is a close match with theoretical and simulation results. The effect of bulk modulus is also presented in the paper.

  20. Search for substellar-mass companions and asymmetries in their parent discs

    CERN Document Server

    Willson, M; Kluska, J; Monnier, J D; Ireland, M; Aarnio, A; Sitko, M L; Calvet, N; Espaillat, C; Wilner, D J

    2016-01-01

    Transitional discs are a class of circumstellar discs around young stars with extensive clearing of dusty material within their inner regions on 10s of au scales. One of the primary candidates for this kind of clearing is the formation of planet(s) within the disc that then accrete or clear their immediate area as they migrate through the disc. Our sample included eight transitional discs. Using the Keck/NIRC2 instrument we utilised the Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM) interferometry technique to search for asymmetries indicative of ongoing planet formation. We searched for close-in companions using both model fitting and interferometric image reconstruction techniques. Using simulated data, we derived diagnostics that helped us to distinguish between point sources and extended asymmetric disc emission. In addition, we investigated the degeneracy between the contrast and separation that appear for marginally resolved companions. We found FP Tau to contain a previously unseen disc wall, and DM Tau, LkHa 330, and ...

  1. Nonlinear hydrodynamical evolution of eccentric Keplerian discs in two dimensions: validation of secular theory

    CERN Document Server

    Barker, Adrian J

    2016-01-01

    We perform global two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of Keplerian discs with free eccentricity over thousands of orbital periods. Our aim is to determine the validity of secular theory in describing the evolution of eccentric discs, and to explore their nonlinear evolution for moderate eccentricities. Linear secular theory is found to correctly predict the structure and precession rates of discs with small eccentricities. However, discs with larger eccentricities (and eccentricity gradients) are observed to precess faster (retrograde relative to the orbital motion), at a rate that depends on their eccentricities (and eccentricity gradients). We derive analytically a nonlinear secular theory for eccentric gas discs, which explains this result as a modification of the pressure forces whenever eccentric orbits in a disc nearly intersect. This effect could be particularly important for highly eccentric discs produced in tidal disruption events, or for narrow gaseous rings; it might also play a role in cau...

  2. Development of an acoustic actuator for launch vehicle noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Benjamin K; Lane, Steven A; Gussy, Joel; Griffin, Steve; Farinholt, Kevin M

    2002-01-01

    In many active noise control applications, it is necessary that acoustic actuators be mounted in small enclosures due to volume constraints and in order to remain unobtrusive. However, the air spring of the enclosure is detrimental to the low-frequency performance of the actuator. For launch vehicle noise control applications, mass and volume constraints are very limiting, but the low-frequency performance of the actuator is critical. This work presents a novel approach that uses a nonlinear buckling suspension system and partial evacuation of the air within the enclosure to yield a compact, sealed acoustic driver that exhibits a very low natural frequency. Linear models of the device are presented and numerical simulations are given to illustrate the advantages of this design concept. An experimental prototype was built and measurements indicate that this design can significantly improve the low-frequency response of compact acoustic actuators.

  3. Pneumatically actuated micropipetting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szita, Nicolas; Buser, Rudolf A.

    1998-03-01

    We have realized a valveless micropipetting device with an integrated sensor which can aspirate and dispense liquid volumes without any valves, hence without any reflow or dead volume. With an external pneumatic actuation, we have demonstrated aspirating and dispensing from 190nl of 6 (mu) l of water. Measurements showed a standard deviation of down to 1 percent. An integrated capacitive sensor will allow monitoring of the pressure throughout the pipetting process and detect malfunctions, e.g. clotting of the pipetting tip. It is our intention to use this demonstrated precise aspiration mechanism in combination with a micromachined reaction chamber and a miniaturized optical analysis system.

  4. Piezoelectric actuated gimbal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschaggeny, Charles W.; Jones, Warren F.; Bamberg, Eberhard

    2011-09-13

    A gimbal is described and which includes a fixed base member defining an axis of rotation; a second member concentrically oriented relative to the axis of rotation; a linear actuator oriented in immediate, adjoining force transmitting relation relative to the base member or to the second member, and which applies force along a linear axis which is tangential to the axis of rotation so as to cause the second member to rotate coaxially relative to the fixed base member; and an object of interest mounted to the second member such that the object of interest is selectively moved relative to the base member about the axis of rotation.

  5. Numerical simulation of microstructure evolution during GH864 alloy disc forging%GH864合金涡轮盘锻造过程中微观组织的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚志浩; 王秋雨; 张麦仓; 董建新

    2011-01-01

    In order to predict the evolution of microstructure in GH864 superalloy for φ1250 mm deformation disc, numerical simulation for the microstructure evolution of GH864 alloy disc was implemented by MSC. Super-form soft-ware, then the coupling between thermo-mechanieal and microstructure evolution was realized. Meanwhile, the method was used to predict the influence of various deformation parameters, such as initial deformation temperature, strain rate, mould preheating temperature, frication coefficient and insulation measures and so on. The results show that the numerical simulation results are consistent with the actual results whose microstructures are researched from φ1250 mm samplering. The microstructures could be optimized by adding insulation measures of forgings, increasing mould preheating temperature, using good lubrication lubricant and increasing deformation rate.%为了预测GH864合金φ1250 mm涡轮盘锻造过程中微观组织的演变规律,将微观组织模型加入到模拟软件MSC Super-form中,实现了高温合金塑性变形-传热-微观组织演变的耦合.研究了不同变形工艺参数对涡轮盘组织分布的影响,包括初始变形温度、变形速率、模具预热温度、摩擦系数及保温措施等的影响.结果表明:实际φ1250mm涡轮盘试样环的组织分布情况与模拟结果相一致;对锻件添加包套、适当提高模具预热温度、使用具有良好润滑作用的润滑剂、适当提高变形速率均可使晶粒组织更加均匀细小.

  6. Heat distribution in disc brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenda, Frantisek; Soukup, Josef; Kampo, Jan

    2016-06-01

    This article is deals by the thermal analysis of the disc brake with floating caliper. The issue is solved by numerically. The half 2D model is used for solution in program ADINA 8.8. Two brake discs without the ventilation are solved. One disc is made from cast iron and the second is made from stainless steel. Both materials are an isotropic. By acting the pressure force on the brake pads will be pressing the pads to the brake disc. Speed will be reduced (slowing down). On the contact surface generates the heat, which the disc and pads heats. In the next part of article is comparison the maximum temperature at the time of braking. The temperatures of both materials for brake disc (gray cast iron, stainless steel) are compares. The heat flux during braking for the both materials is shown.

  7. Origin of the Metallicity Distribution in the Thick Disc

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, Maider S; Gibson, Brad K; Brook, Christopher B; Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia; Minchev, Ivan; Few, Christopher Gareth; Smith, Rory; Domínguez-Tenreiro, Rosa; Obreja, Aura; Bailin, Jeremy; Stinson, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Using a suite of cosmological chemodynamical disc galaxy simulations, we assess how (a) radial metallicity gradients evolve with scaleheight; (b) the vertical metallicity gradients change through the thick disc; and (c) the vertical gradient of the stellar rotation velocity varies through the disc. We compare with the Milky Way to search for analogous trends. Methods. We analyse five simulated spiral galaxies with masses comparable to the Milky Way. The simulations span a range of star formation and energy feedback strengths and prescriptions, particle- and grid-based hydrodynamical implementations, as well as initial conditions/assembly history. Results. Consistently, we find that the steeper, negative, radial metallicity gradients seen in the mid-plane flatten with increasing height away from the plane. In simulations with stronger (and/or more spatially-extended) feedback, the negative radial gradients invert, becoming positive for heights in excess of 1 kpc. Such behaviour is consistent with that in...

  8. Accretion Discs with an Inner Spiral Density Wave

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M M

    2010-01-01

    In Montgomery (2009a), we show that accretion discs in binary systems could retrogradely precess by tidal torques like the Moon and the Sun on a tilted, spinning, non-spherical Earth. In addition, we show that the state of matter and the geometrical shape of the celestial object could significantly affect the precessional value. For example, a Cataclysmic Variable (CV) Dwarf Novae (DN) non-magnetic system that shows negative superhumps in its light curve can be described by a retrogradely precessing, differentially rotating, tilted disc. Because the disc is a fluid and because the gas stream overflows the tilted disc and particles can migrate into inner disc annuli, coupled to the disc could be a retrogradely precessing inner ring that is located near the innermost annuli of the disc. However, numerical simulations by Bisikalo et al. (2003, 2004) and this work show that an inner spiral density wave can be generated instead of an inner ring. Therefore, we show that retrograde precession in non-magnetic, spinni...

  9. Accretion of the Moon from non-canonical discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, J; Canup, R M

    2014-09-13

    Impacts that leave the Earth-Moon system with a large excess in angular momentum have recently been advocated as a means of generating a protolunar disc with a composition that is nearly identical to that of the Earth's mantle. We here investigate the accretion of the Moon from discs generated by such 'non-canonical' impacts, which are typically more compact than discs produced by canonical impacts and have a higher fraction of their mass initially located inside the Roche limit. Our model predicts a similar overall accretional history for both canonical and non-canonical discs, with the Moon forming in three consecutive steps over hundreds of years. However, we find that, to yield a lunar-mass Moon, the more compact non-canonical discs must initially be more massive than implied by prior estimates, and only a few of the discs produced by impact simulations to date appear to meet this condition. Non-canonical impacts require that capture of the Moon into the evection resonance with the Sun reduced the Earth-Moon angular momentum by a factor of 2 or more. We find that the Moon's semi-major axis at the end of its accretion is approximately 7R⊕, which is comparable to the location of the evection resonance for a post-impact Earth with a 2.5 h rotation period in the absence of a disc. Thus, the dynamics of the Moon's assembly may directly affect its ability to be captured into the resonance.

  10. Genetic Algorithm-Based Design Optimization of Electromagnetic Valve Actuators in Combustion Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Hwan Lee; Hwa Cho Yi; Kyuyoung Han; Jin Ho Kim

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the design of a new electromagnetic engine valve in the limited space of combustion engine is optimized by multidisciplinary simulation using MATLAB and Maxwell. An electromagnetic engine valve actuator using a permanent magnet is a new actuator concept for overcoming the inherent drawbacks of the conventional solenoid-driven electromagnetic engine valve actuator, such as high power consumption and so on. This study aims to maximize the vibration frequency of the armature to...

  11. Adaptive backstepping control for three axis microsatellite attitude pointing under actuator faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOHAMMED, M. A. SI; BOUSSADIA, H.; BELLAR, A.; ADNANE, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) micro-satellite attitude controller using reaction wheels, and under actuator faults. Firstly, a backstepping controller is developed when the actuator is fault-free. Then, a fault tolerant controller is designed to compensate the actuator fault. Two types of this latter are considered (additive and multiplicative faults). The presented control strategy is based on adaptive backstepping technique. The simulation results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented technique.

  12. Dynamics of warped accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Tremaine, Scott; Davis, Shane W.

    2013-01-01

    Accretion discs are present around both stellar-mass black holes in X-ray binaries and supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. A wide variety of circumstantial evidence implies that many of these discs are warped. The standard Bardeen--Petterson model attributes the shape of the warp to the competition between Lense--Thirring torque from the central black hole and viscous angular-momentum transport within the disc. We show that this description is incomplete, and that torques from...

  13. Serpentine Geometry Plasma Actuators for Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    electrical power is supplied to them. As a method of introducing perturbations for low speed flow control, dielectric barrier discharge ( DBD ) actuators...SERPENTINE GEOMETRY DBD ACTUATORS DBD actuators are devices consisting of two asymmetri- cally placed actuators separated by a dielectric material and exposed...parameters can be found in Table I. The effects of plasma actuation are FIG. 1. (a) Schematic of DBD plasma actuator and the generated body force. (b

  14. Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonek, J.C.; Dane, C.W.

    1964-01-01

    Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.

  15. Rotary actuator for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andión, J. A.; Burgui, C.; Migliorero, G.

    2005-07-01

    SENER is developing a rotary actuator for space applications. The activity, partially funded under ESA GSTP contract, aims at the design, development and performance testing of an innovative rotary actuator concept for space applications. An engineering model has been manufactured and has been tested to demonstrate the compliance with the requirements specification.

  16. Biomimeitc Design of a Stubble-Cutting Disc Using Finite Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mo Li; Donghui Chen; Shujun Zhang; Jin Tong

    2013-01-01

    Mole rat (Scaptochirus moschatus),a soil-burrowing mammal,can efficiently dig soil using its fore claws.The profile curves of its claw toe provide excellent structure for digging.In this paper,a biomimetic stubble-cutting disc was designed by learning from the geometrical characteristics of the mole rat claw toes.To compare the structural strength and working efficiency of the biomimetic disc and the conventional stubble-cutting disc,three-dimensional (3D) models of the discs were built and numerical analyzed in ABAQUS.In the dynamic soil cutting model,soil was modeled as an elastic-plastic material with elastic parameters,including Young's modulus,Poisson's ratio and Drucker-Prager criterion,which were obtained from triaxial tests.A general contact algorithm was used to simulate the interaction between rotary disc and soil.In FEA models,for the combined action of normal and friction stresses,the stress on the biomimetic disc is 34.33% lower than that of the conventional disc.For only the normal stress,the stress on the biomimetic disc is 22.64% lower than that on the conventional one.The magnitude of soil stress in biomimetic disc cutting model is 6.87% higher than that in conventional disc.The FEA results indicate that the biomimetic disc performs better in structural strength and cutting efficiency.

  17. Relativistic Disc lines

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C; Parker, M L

    2014-01-01

    Broad emission lines, particularly broad iron-K lines, are now commonly seen in the X-ray spectra of luminous AGN and Galactic black hole binaries. Sensitive NuSTAR spectra over the energy range of 3-78 keV and high frequency reverberation spectra now confirm that these are relativistic disc lines produced by coronal irradiation of the innermost accretion flow around rapidly spinning black holes. General relativistic effects are essential in explaining the observations. Recent results are briefly reviewed here.

  18. Magnetically driven accretion in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Jacob B; Kunz, Matthew W; Armitage, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    We characterize magnetically driven accretion at radii between 1 au and 100 au in protoplanetary discs, using a series of local non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The simulations assume a Minimum Mass Solar Nebula (MMSN) disc that is threaded by a net vertical magnetic field of specified strength. Confirming previous results, we find that the Hall effect has only a modest impact on accretion at 30 au, and essentially none at 100 au. At 1-10 au the Hall effect introduces a pronounced bi-modality in the accretion process, with vertical magnetic fields aligned to the disc rotation supporting a strong laminar Maxwell stress that is absent if the field is anti-aligned. In the anti-aligned case, we instead find evidence for bursts of turbulent stress at 5-10 au, which we tentatively identify with the non-axisymmetric Hall-shear instability. The presence or absence of these bursts depends upon the details of the adopted chemical model, which suggests that appreciable regions of actual protoplanetary di...

  19. Outwards migration for planets in stellar irradiated 3D discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lega, E; Bitsch, B; Crida, A; Szulagyi, J

    2015-01-01

    For the very first time we present 3D simulations of planets embedded in stellar irradiated discs. It is well known that thermal effects could reverse the direction of planetary migration from inwards to outwards, potentially saving planets in the inner, optically thick parts of the protoplanetary disc. When considering stellar irradiation in addition to viscous friction as a source of heating, the outer disc changes from a shadowed to a flared structure. Using a suited analytical formula it has been shown that in the flared part of the disc the migration is inwards; planets can migrate outwards only in shadowed regions of the disc, { because the radial gradient of entropy is stronger there}. In order to confirm this result numerically, we have computed the total torque acting on planets held on fixed orbits embedded in stellar irradiated 3D discs using the hydrodynamical code FARGOCA. We find qualitatively good agreement between the total torque obtained with numerical simulations and the one predicted by th...

  20. The Evolution of Protoplanetary Discs in the Arches Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Olczak, C; Harfst, S; Pfalzner, S; Zwart, S Portegies

    2012-01-01

    Most stars form in a cluster environment. These stars are initially surrounded by discs from which potentially planetary systems form. Of all cluster environments starburst clusters are probably the most hostile for planetary systems in our Galaxy. The intense stellar radiation and extreme density favour rapid destruction of circumstellar discs via photoevaporation and stellar encounters. Evolving a virialized model of the Arches cluster in the Galactic tidal field we investigate the effect of stellar encounters on circumstellar discs in a prototypical starburst cluster. Despite its proximity to the deep gravitational potential of the Galactic centre only a moderate fraction of members escapes to form an extended pair of tidal tails. Our simulations show that encounters destroy one third of the circumstellar discs in the cluster core within the first 2.5 Myr of evolution, preferentially affecting the least and most massive stars. A small fraction of these events causes rapid ejection and the formation of a we...

  1. Mass transfer between debris discs during close stellar encounters

    CERN Document Server

    Jilkova, Lucie; Hammer, Michael; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2016-01-01

    We study mass transfers between debris discs during stellar encounters. We carried out numerical simulations of close flybys of two stars, one of which has a disc of planetesimals represented by test particles. We explored the parameter space of the encounters, varying the mass ratio of the two stars, their pericentre and eccentricity of the encounter, and its geometry. We find that particles are transferred to the other star from a restricted radial range in the disc and the limiting radii of this transfer region depend on the parameters of the encounter. We derive an approximate analytic description of the inner radius of the region. The efficiency of the mass transfer generally decreases with increasing encounter pericentre and increasing mass of the star initially possessing the disc. Depending on the parameters of the encounter, the transfer particles have a specific distributions in the space of orbital elements (semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and argument of pericentre) around their new hos...

  2. Radiative transfer on decretion discs of Be binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Panoglou, Despina; Carciofi, Alex C; Okazaki, Atsuo T; Rivinius, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore the effect of binarity in the decretion disc of Be stars, in order to explain their variability. To this aim, we performed smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations on Be binary systems, following the matter ejected isotropically from the equator of the Be star towards the base of an isothermal decretion disc. We let the system evolve for time long enough to be considered at steady state, and focus on the effect of viscosity for coplanar prograde binary orbits. The disc structure is found to be locked to the orbital phase, exhibiting also a dependence on the azimuthal angle. Additionally, we present the first results from detailed non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) radiative transfer calculations of the disc structure computed with the SPH code. This is achieved by the use of the three-dimensional (3D) Monte Carlo code HDUST, which can produce predictions with respect to a series of observables.

  3. A disc in the heart of the Ant nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Lykou, Foteini; Lagadec, Eric; Zijlstra, Albert

    2007-01-01

    We present the discovery of a silicate disc at the centre of the planetary nebula Mz3 (the Ant). The nebula was observed with MIDI on the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The visibilities obtained at different orientations clearly indicate the presence of a dusty, nearly edge-on disc in the heart of the nebula. An amorphous silicate absorption feature is clearly seen in our mid-IR spectrum and visibility curves. We used radiative transfer Monte Carlo simulations to constrain the geometrical and physical parameters of the disc. We derive an inner radius of 9 AU (~6mas assuming D=1.4kpc). This disc is perpendicular to, but a factor of 10^{3} smaller than the optical bipolar outflow.

  4. Clumpy Disc and Bulge Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, J; Tissera, P; Michel-Dansac, L

    2013-01-01

    We present a set of hydrodynamical/Nbody controlled simulations of isolated gas rich galaxies that self-consistently include SN feedback and a detailed chemical evolution model, both tested in cosmological simulations. The initial conditions are motivated by the observed star forming galaxies at z ~ 2-3. We find that the presence of a multiphase interstellar media in our models promotes the growth of disc instability favouring the formation of clumps which in general, are not easily disrupted on timescales compared to the migration time. We show that stellar clumps migrate towards the central region and contribute to form a classical-like bulge with a Sersic index, n > 2. Our physically-motivated Supernova feedback has a mild influence on clump survival and evolution, partially limiting the mass growth of clumps as the energy released per Supernova event is increased, with the consequent flattening of the bulge profile. This regulation does not prevent the building of a classical-like bulge even for the most ...

  5. Efficiency of thin magnetically arrested discs around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avara, Mark J.; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2016-10-01

    The radiative and jet efficiencies of thin magnetized accretion discs around black holes (BHs) are affected by BH spin and the presence of a magnetic field that, when strong, could lead to large deviations from Novikov-Thorne (NT) thin disc theory. To seek the maximum deviations, we perform general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of radiatively efficient thin (half-height H to radius R of H/R ≈ 0.10) discs around moderately rotating BHs with a/M = 0.5. First, our simulations, each evolved for more than 70 000 rg/c (gravitational radius rg and speed of light c), show that large-scale magnetic field readily accretes inward even through our thin disc and builds-up to the magnetically arrested disc (MAD) state. Secondly, our simulations of thin MADs show the disc achieves a radiative efficiency of ηr ≈ 15 per cent (after estimating photon capture), which is about twice the NT value of ηr ˜ 8 per cent for a/M = 0.5 and gives the same luminosity as an NT disc with a/M ≈ 0.9. Compared to prior simulations with ≲10 per cent deviations, our result of an ≈80 per cent deviation sets a new benchmark. Building on prior work, we are now able to complete an important scaling law which suggests that observed jet quenching in the high-soft state in BH X-ray binaries is consistent with an ever-present MAD state with a weak yet sustained jet.

  6. Analysis of Innovative Design of Energy Efficient Hydraulic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Osman Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic cylinder actuators are used extensively in industrial, construction and agricultural works. The small sized outlet ports of the cylinders resist the flow of discharged oil; and as a result the piston motion is slowed down. This causes a lot of heat generation and energy loss within the actuators. The study investigates and analyzes the possibilities of reducing the hydraulic resistance and increasing efficiency of the hydraulic actuator. Conventional hydraulic cylinders are simulated in FLUENT. Results show that the small outlet ports are the sources of energy loss in hydraulic cylinders. A new hydraulic system was proposed as a solution to relieve the hydraulic resistance in the actuators. The proposed system is a four ports hydraulic cylinder fitted with a novel flow control valve. The proposed four ports cylinder was simulated and parameters such as ports sizes, loads and pressures are varied during the simulation. The hydraulic resisting forces, piston speed and mass flow rates are computed. Results show that the hydraulic resistance is significantly reduced in the proposed four ports actuators; and the proposed cylinders run faster than the conventional cylinders and a considerable amount of energyis saved as well.

  7. Dynamic modeling of brushless dc motors for aerospace actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

    1980-11-01

    A discrete time model for simulation of the dynamics of samarium cobalt-type permanent magnet brushless dc machines is presented. The simulation model includes modeling of the interaction between these machines and their attached power conditioners. These are transistorized conditioner units. This model is part of an overall discrete-time analysis of the dynamic performance of electromechanical actuators, which was conducted as part of prototype development of such actuators studied and built for NASA-Johnson Space Center as a prospective alternative to hydraulic actuators presently used in shuttle orbiter applications. The resulting numerical simulations of the various machine and power conditioner current and voltage waveforms gave excellent correlation to the actual waveforms collected from actual hardware experimental testing. These results, numerical and experimental, are presented here for machine motoring, regeneration and dynamic braking modes. Application of the resulting model to the determination of machine current and torque profiles during closed-loop actuator operation were also analyzed and the results are given here. These results are given in light of an overall view of the actuator system components. The applicability of this method of analysis to design optimization and trouble-shooting in such prototype development is also discussed in light of the results at hand.

  8. Dynamic modeling of brushless dc motors for aerospace actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    A discrete time model for simulation of the dynamics of samarium cobalt-type permanent magnet brushless dc machines is presented. The simulation model includes modeling of the interaction between these machines and their attached power conditioners. These are transistorized conditioner units. This model is part of an overall discrete-time analysis of the dynamic performance of electromechanical actuators, which was conducted as part of prototype development of such actuators studied and built for NASA-Johnson Space Center as a prospective alternative to hydraulic actuators presently used in shuttle orbiter applications. The resulting numerical simulations of the various machine and power conditioner current and voltage waveforms gave excellent correlation to the actual waveforms collected from actual hardware experimental testing. These results, numerical and experimental, are presented here for machine motoring, regeneration and dynamic braking modes. Application of the resulting model to the determination of machine current and torque profiles during closed-loop actuator operation were also analyzed and the results are given here. These results are given in light of an overall view of the actuator system components. The applicability of this method of analysis to design optimization and trouble-shooting in such prototype development is also discussed in light of the results at hand.

  9. Simulation of three-dimensional transient temperature field and thermal stress of airplane braking disc%飞机刹车副的三维瞬态温度场和热应力仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩建辉; 聂宏; 魏小辉

    2012-01-01

    飞机的刹车装置是利用摩擦产生制动将高速运动的动能转换成热能,产生的高温使摩擦材料的物理、化学性质发生变化,由于较大的温度梯度的出现使刹车盘上存在非常大的热应力,使刹车系统的安全性能受到威胁,所以对刹车盘瞬态温度场和由此产生的热应力进行计算就显得非常必要.针对飞机刹车盘瞬态温度场和热应力仿真建立了有限元模型,有限元网格划分采用六面体结构.对刹车过程进行了理论分析与计算,并运用MSC PATRAN/MARC软件对其进行了仿真计算.刹车副的最高温度为1 020℃,与刹车副温度场的经验值基本吻合,在以温度场和刹车副的位移约束为边界条件计算得到刹车副的热应力.热应力的分布特点和温度梯度是一致的,所以热应力的计算结果是合理可行的,可以应用于飞机刹车盘设计过程中.%The brake system of airplanes transforms kinetic energy into heat by friction. Heat causes physical and chemical instability of brake disc,a large temperature gradient result in a very large thermal stress on the brakes,which results in insecurity to the brake system. Therefore, the calculation of the transient temperature field and thermal stress on the brake disc becomes essential. Establish a finite element model for transient temperature field and thermal stress of the aircraft brakes, the grid is knitted from hexahedral. Concentrate on theoretical analysis and digital simulation by MSC PATRAN/MARC. The result meets the actual braking condition, which benefit to the design of aircraft brakes.

  10. Some challenges and directions for next generation accretion disc theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, Eric G

    2015-01-01

    Accretion disc theory is far less developed than that of stellar evolution, although a similarly mature phenomenological picture is ultimately desired. While conceptual progress from the interplay of theory and numerical simulations has amplified awareness of the role of magnetic fields in angular momentum transport, there remains a significant gap between the output of magneto-rotational instability (MRI) simulations and the synthesis of lessons learned into improved practical models. If discs are turbulent, then axisymmetric models must be recognized to be sensible only as mean field theories. Such is the case for the wonderfully practical and widely used framework of Shakura-Sunyaev (SS73). This model is most justifiable when the radial angular momentum transport dominates in discs and the transport is assumed to take the form of a local viscosity. However, the importance of large scale fields in coronae and jets and numerical evidence from MRI simulations points to a significant fraction of transport bein...

  11. 盘式制动器NVH性能的时-频域耦合仿真方法%Coupling Simulation Method for Disc Brake NVH Performance Evaluation in Time-frequency Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭涛; 周亨; 田振勇

    2016-01-01

    汽车制动时的NVH性能对于乘车舒适性和防治环境噪声污染具有重要意义。目前常规的仿真方法为复特征值(CEA)法,通常CEA法比实际测试出现的制动尖叫频率点更多,容易造成误判。为此,提出采用时-频域耦合动态仿真方法对盘式制动器的NVH性能进行分析。基于有限元平台ABAQUS,根据国际噪声测试标准SAE J 2521规定的工况,分别采用CEA法和时-频域耦合仿真方法,对制动器的非稳态响应进行了分析,得到了制动器的加速度-频率响应曲线以及制动尖叫的频率点;将时-频域耦合仿真及CEA仿真结果与测试结果进行比较,结果表明:传统的CEA仿真得到的的尖叫频率值过多,相比之下时-频域耦合仿真得到的结果与测试数据更为吻合,能够更精准地预测制动器的尖叫噪声频率值。%During car braking, NVH performance is of great significance for ride comfort and environmental noise prevention. Currently, the conventional simulation method is the complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) method. But this method usually gets more squeal frequencies than the test results which may cause misjudgments. So, the coupling dynamic simulation method in the time-frequency domain was brought up to analyze the NVH performance of disc brakes. Based on the finite element platform of ABAQUS, and according to the international noise test standard SAE J2521, both the CEA method and the implicit-explicit coupling simulation method were adopted to analyze the unsteady response of a disc brake. And the acceleration-frequency response curve of the brake and the frequency sampling points of the braking squeal were obtained. Both results from implicit-explicit coupling simulation and CEA method were compared with the test results. Results show that the CEA can get more squeal frequencies than the test results, but the results from time-frequency domain coupling method are in good agreement with the

  12. Finite element analysis and validation of dielectric elastomer actuators used for active origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Kevin; Ahmed, Saad; Frecker, Mary; Ounaies, Zoubeida

    2014-09-01

    The field of active origami explores the incorporation of active materials into origami-inspired structures in order to serve as a means of actuation. Active origami-inspired structures capable of folding into complex three-dimensional (3D) shapes have the potential to be lightweight and versatile compared to traditional methods of actuation. This paper details the finite element analysis and experimental validation of unimorph actuators. Actuators are fabricated by adhering layers of electroded dielectric elastomer (3M VHB F9473PC) onto a passive substrate layer (3M Magic Scotch Tape). Finite element analysis of the actuators simulates the electromechanical coupling of the dielectric elastomer under an applied voltage by applying pressures to the surfaces of the dielectric elastomer where the compliant electrode (conductive carbon grease) is present. 3D finite element analysis of the bending actuators shows that applying contact boundary conditions to the electroded region of the active and passive layers provides better agreement to experimental data compared to modeling the entire actuator as continuous. To improve the applicability of dielectric elastomer-based actuators for active origami-inspired structures, folding actuators are developed by taking advantage of localized deformation caused by a passive layer with non-uniform thickness. Two-dimensional analysis of the folding actuators shows that agreement to experimental data diminishes as localized deformation increases. Limitations of using pressures to approximate the electromechanical coupling of the dielectric elastomer under an applied electric field and additional modeling considerations are also discussed.

  13. Mathematical Modeling of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Actuation via Hydrogen Driving Metal Hydride-LaNi5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thananchai Leephakpreeda

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative understanding of mechanical actuation of intricate Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) actuators is technically required in control system design for effective real-time implementation.This paper presents mathematical modeling of the PAM driven by hydrogen-gas pressure due to absorption and desorption of metal hydride.Empirical models of both mechanical actuation of industrial PAM and chemical reaction of the metal hydride-LaNi5 are derived systematically where their interactions comply with the continuity principle and energy balance in describing actual dynamic behaviors of the PAM actuator (PAM and hydriding/dehydriding-reaction bed).Simulation studies of mechanical actuation under various loads are conducted so as to present dynamic responses of the PAM actuators.From the promising results,it is intriguing that the heat input for the PAM actuator can be supplied to,or pumped from the reaction bed,in such a way that absorption and desorption of hydrogen gas take place,respectively,in controlling the pressure of hydrogen gas within the PAM actuator.Accordingly,this manipulation results in desired mechanical actuation of the PAM actuator in practical uses.

  14. Accretion discs trapped near corotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Angelo, C.R.; Spruit, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    We show that discs accreting on to the magnetosphere of a rotating star can end up in a trapped state, in which the inner edge of the disc stays near the corotation radius, even at low and varying accretion rates. The accretion in these trapped states can be steady or cyclic; we explore these states

  15. Genetic Algorithm-Based Design Optimization of Electromagnetic Valve Actuators in Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the design of a new electromagnetic engine valve in the limited space of combustion engine is optimized by multidisciplinary simulation using MATLAB and Maxwell. An electromagnetic engine valve actuator using a permanent magnet is a new actuator concept for overcoming the inherent drawbacks of the conventional solenoid-driven electromagnetic engine valve actuator, such as high power consumption and so on. This study aims to maximize the vibration frequency of the armature to reduce the transition time of the engine valve. The higher performance of the new actuator is demonstrated by dynamic finite element analysis.

  16. Highly Tunable Electrothermally and Electrostatically Actuated Resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.

    2016-03-30

    This paper demonstrates experimentally, theoretically, and numerically for the first time, a wide-range tunability of an in-plane clamped-clamped microbeam, bridge, and resonator actuated electrothermally and electrostatically. Using both actuation methods, we demonstrate that a single resonator can be operated at a wide range of frequencies. The microbeam is actuated electrothermally by passing a dc current through it, and electrostatically by applying a dc polarization voltage between the microbeam and the stationary electrode. We show that when increasing the electrothermal voltage, the compressive stress inside the microbeam increases, which leads eventually to its buckling. Before buckling, the fundamental frequency decreases until it drops to very low values, almost to zero. After buckling, the fundamental frequency increases, which is shown to be as high as twice the original resonance frequency. Adding a dc bias changes the qualitative nature of the tunability both before and after buckling, which adds another independent way of tuning. This reduces the dip before buckling, and can eliminate it if desired, and further increases the fundamental frequency after buckling. Analytical results based on the Galerkin discretization of the Euler Bernoulli beam theory are generated and compared with the experimental data and simulation results of a multi-physics finite-element model. A good agreement is found among all the results. [2015-0341

  17. Magnetic fields in giant planet formation and protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Sarah Louise

    2015-12-01

    Protoplanetary discs channel accretion onto their host star. How this is achieved is critical to the growth of giant planets which capture their massive gaseous atmosphere from the surrounding flow. Theoretical studies find that an embedded magnetic field could power accretion by hydromagnetic turbulence or torques from a large-scale field. This thesis presents a study of the inuence of magnetic fields in three key aspects of this process: circumplanetary disc accretion, gas flow across gaps in protoplanetary discs, and magnetic-braking in accretion discs. The first study examines the conditions needed for self-consistent accretion driven by magnetic fields or gravitational instability. Models of these discs typically rely on hydromagnetic turbulence as the source of effective viscosity. However, magnetically coupled,accreting regions may be so limited that the disc may not support sufficient inflow. An improved Shakura-Sunyaev ? disc is used to calculate the ionisation fraction and strength of non-ideal effects. Steady magnetically-driven accretion is limited to the thermally ionised, inner disc so that accretion in the remainder of the disc is time-dependent. The second study addresses magnetic flux transport in an accretion gap evacuated by a giant planet. Assuming the field is passively drawn along with the gas, the hydrodynamical simulation of Tanigawa, Ohtsuki & Machida (2012) is used for an a posteriori analysis of the gap field structure. This is used to post-calculate magnetohydrodynamical quantities. This assumption is self-consistent as magnetic forces are found to be weak, and good magnetic coupling ensures the field is frozen into the gas. Hall drift dominates across much of the gap, with the potential to facilitate turbulence and modify the toroidal field according to the global field orientation. The third study considers the structure and stability of magnetically-braked accretion discs. Strong evidence for MRI dead-zones has renewed interest in

  18. Modelling of Moving Coil Actuators in Fast Switching Valves Suitable for Digital Hydraulic Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Bech, Michael Møller

    2015-01-01

    an estimation of the eddy currents generated in the actuator yoke upon current rise, as they may have significant influence on the coil current response. The analytical model facilitates fast simulation of the transient actuator response opposed to the transient electro-magnetic finite element model which...

  19. FLUTTER SUPPRESSION USING DISTRIBUTEDPIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A piezoelectric actuator has the benefits of flexibility of its position, without time lag and wide bandpass characteristics. The early results of the wind tunnel flutter suppression test using the piezoeletric actuator were presented in Ref.[1]. A rigid rectangular wing model is constrained by a plunge spring and a pitch spring, and a pair of piezoelectric actuators is bonded on both sides of the plunge spring so as to carry out the active control. Refs.[2,3] reported two flutter suppression wind tunnel tests where the distributed piezoelectric actuators were used. In Ref.[2] low speed wind tunnel tests were conducted with aluminum and composite plate-like rectangular models fully covered by piezoelectric actuators. Flutter speed is increased by 11%. In Ref.[3] a composite plate-like swept back model with piezoceramic actuators bonded on the inboard surface was tested in a transonic wind tunnel and a 12% increment of flutter dynamic pressure was achieved.  In the present investigation, an aluminum plate-like rectangular model with inboard bonded piezoceramic actuators is adopted. Active flutter suppression control law has been designed. A series of analyses and ground tests and, finally, low-speed wind tunnel tests with the active control system opened and closed are conducted. Reasonable results have been obtained.

  20. Intraoral micro-identification discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R W

    1991-12-01

    Intraoral micro-identification discs have recently been utilized to provide a more permanent method of personal identification. A wafer of plastic or metal with a surface area of 2.5 to 5 mm2 and carrying identifying numbers and/or letters (indicia) is bonded to the buccal enamel surface of the posterior teeth. Personal identification can occur after the I.D. disc is identified and the indicia is read. Reading of photoreduced indicia requires the aid of a microscope subsequent to the removal of the microdisc. In situ reading of disc indicia is possible using low power handheld magnifiers if the size of the indicia approximates 0.3 mm. Computerization is an integral part of non-custom alpha/numeric type designs, but a custom disc carries a name, address, and other specific information unique to the manufacturer. The use of a computer improves access to the database and it decreases the amount of data placed on the disc. Microdisc bases may be fabricated using a mylar type plastic or they may be manufactured from a stainless steel blank. Plastic discs are constructed with an internal sandwich containing the photo-reduced indicia. Metal discs are marked with a photochemical etch or engraved with a computer driven YAG laser. Attachment of the disc to the enamel surface is accomplished by conventional etching and bonding techniques and are typically bonded to the buccal surface of the maxillary first permanent molar or the second primary molar. Clear composite bonding material covers the disc so that salivary contamination does not result in degradation of the indicia. Orthodontic style discs with a mesh back carry laser written information that may be cemented with conventional orthodontic bonding cement. Standardization of the indicia and overall design is considered to be an important aspect of patient and professional acceptance.

  1. Gear-Driven Turnbuckle Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ricky N.

    2010-01-01

    This actuator design allows the extension and contraction of turnbuckle assemblies. It can be operated manually or remotely, and is extremely compact. It is ideal for turnbuckles that are hard to reach by conventional tools. The tool assembly design solves the problem of making accurate adjustments to the variable geometry guide vanes without having to remove and reinstall the actuator system back on the engine. The actuator does this easily by adjusting the length of the turnbuckles while they are still attached to the engine.

  2. Energy-Efficient Variable Stiffness Actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Ludo C.; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Variable stiffness actuators are a particular class of actuators that is characterized by the property that the apparent output stiffness can be changed independent of the output position. To achieve this, variable stiffness actuators consist of a number of elastic elements and a number of actuated

  3. NIHAO III: the constant disc gas mass conspiracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, G. S.; Dutton, A. A.; Wang, L.; Macciò, A. V.; Herpich, J.; Bradford, J. D.; Quinn, T. R.; Wadsley, J.; Keller, B.

    2015-11-01

    We show that the cool gas masses of galactic discs reach a steady state that lasts many Gyr after their last major merger in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The mass of disc gas, Mgas, depends mostly upon a galaxy virial mass and halo's spin, and less upon stellar feedback. Haloes with low spin have high star formation efficiency and lower disc gas mass. Similarly, lower stellar feedback leads to more star formation so the gas mass ends up being nearly the same regardless of stellar feedback strength. Rather than regulating cool gas mass, stellar feedback regulates the mass of stars that forms. Even considering spin, the Mgas relation with halo mass, M200 only shows a factor of 3 scatter. The simulated Mgas-M200 relation shows a break at M200 = 2 × 1011 M⊙ that corresponds to an observed break in the Mgas-M⋆ relation. The galaxies that maintain constant disc masses share a common halo gas density profile shape in all the simulated galaxies. In their outer regions, the profiles are isothermal. Where the profile rises above n = 10-3 cm-3, the gas readily cools and the profile steepens. Inside the disc, rotation supports gas with a flatter density profile. Energy injection from stellar feedback provides pressure support to the halo gas to prevent runaway cooling flows. The constant gas mass makes simpler models for galaxy formation possible, either using a `bathtub' model for star formation rates or when modelling chemical evolution.

  4. Finite element modelingof spherical induction actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Galary, Grzegorz

    2005-01-01

    The thesis deals with finite element method simulations of the two-degree of freedom spherical induction actuator performed using the 2D and 3D models. In some cases non-linear magnetization curves, rotor movement and existence of higher harmonics are taken into account. The evolution of the model leading to its simplification is presented. Several rotor structures are tested, namely the one-layer, two-layers and two-layers-with-teeth rotor. The study of some rotor parameters, i.e. t...

  5. Multi-stage Three Dimensional Sweeping and Annealing of Disc Galaxies in Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, S E; Schulz, Steven; Struck, Curtis

    2001-01-01

    We present new three dimensional, hydrodynamic simulations of the ram pressure stripping of disc galaxies via interaction with an hot intracluster medium (ICM). The simulations were carried with the smoothed-particle hydrodynamics, adaptive mesh 'Hydra' code (SPH-A$P^3$M), with model galaxies consisting of dark halo, and gas and stellar disc components. The simulations also include radiative cooling, which is important for keeping the warm, diffuse gas of moderate density from being unrealistically heated by the ICM. We examine the role that wind velocity, density and galaxy tilt play in gas stripping. The onset of the ICM wind has a profound effect on the disc gas that is not immediately stripped. This remnant disc is displaced relative to the halo center and compressed. This can trigger gravitational instability and the formation of numerous flocculent spirals. These waves transport angular momentum outward, resulting in further compression of the inner disc and the formation of a prominent gas ring. This '...

  6. The stellar metallicity gradients in galaxy discs in a cosmological scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Tissera, Patricia B; Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia; Pedrosa, Susana E; Sánchez, Sebastián F; Snaith, Owain N; Vilchez, José M

    2016-01-01

    The stellar metallicity gradients of disc galaxies provide information on the disc assembly, star formation processes and chemical evolution. They also might store information on dynamical processes which could affect the distribution of chemical elements in the gas-phase and the stellar components. We studied the stellar metallicity gradients of stellar discs in a cosmological simulation. We explored the dependence of the stellar metallicity gradients on stellar age and the size and mass of the stellar discs. We used galaxies selected from a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation performed including a physically-motivated Supernova feedback and chemical evolution. The metallicity profiles were estimated for stars with different ages. We confront our numerical findings with results from the CALIFA Survey. The simulated stellar discs are found to have metallicity profiles with slopes in global agreement with observations. Low stellar-mass galaxies tend to have a larger variety of metallicity slopes. When norma...

  7. Stability of self-gravitating discs under irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, W K M; Mamatsashvili, G R; Lodato, G; Clarke, C J

    2011-01-01

    Self-gravity becomes competitive as an angular momentum transport process in accretion discs at large radii, where the temperature is low enough that external irradiation likely contributes to the thermal balance. Irradiation is known to weaken the strength of disc self-gravity, and can suppress it entirely if the disc is maintained above the threshold for linear instability. However, its impact on the susceptibility of the disc to fragmentation is less clear. We use two-dimensional numerical simulations to investigate the evolution of self-gravitating discs as a function of the local cooling time and strength of irradiation. In the regime where the disc does not fragment, we show that local thermal equilibrium continues to determine the stress - which can be represented as an effective viscous alpha - out to very long cooling times (at least 240 dynamical times). In this regime, the power spectrum of the perturbations is uniquely set by the effective viscous alpha and not by the cooling rate. Fragmentation o...

  8. Face-on accretion onto a protoplanetary disc

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnen, T P G; Pelupessy, F I; Zwart, S Portegies

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are known to harbor multiple stellar populations. To explain these observations Bastian et al. suggested a scenario in which a second population is formed by the accretion of enriched material onto the low-mass stars in the initial GC population. The idea is that the low-mass, pre-main sequence stars sweep up gas expelled by the massive stars of the same generation into their protoplanetary disc as they move through the GC core. We perform simulations with 2 different smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes to investigate if a low-mass star surrounded by a protoplanetary disc can accrete the amount of enriched material required in this scenario. We focus on the gas loading rate onto the disc and star as well as on the lifetime of the disc. We find that the gas loading rate is a factor of 2 smaller than the geometric rate, because the effective cross section of the disc is smaller than its surface area. The loading rate is consistent for both codes, irrespective of resolution. The disc ga...

  9. The gas metallicity gradient and the star formation activity of disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tissera, Patricia B; Sillero, Emanuel; Vilchez, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    We study oxygen abundance profiles of the gaseous disc components in simulated galaxies in a hierarchical universe. We analyse the disc metallicity gradients in relation to the stellar masses and star formation rates of the simulated galaxies. We find a trend for galaxies with low stellar masses to have steeper metallicity gradients than galaxies with high stellar masses at z ~0. We also detect that the gas-phase metallicity slopes and the specific star formation rate (sSFR) of our simulated disc galaxies are consistent with recently reported observations at z ~0. Simulated galaxies with high stellar masses reproduce the observed relationship at all analysed redshifts and have an increasing contribution of discs with positive metallicity slopes with increasing redshift. Simulated galaxies with low stellar masses a have larger fraction of negative metallicity gradients with increasing redshift. Simulated galaxies with positive or very negative metallicity slopes exhibit disturbed morphologies and/or have a clo...

  10. Does the mass distribution in discs influence encounter-induced losses in young star clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhausen, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    One mechanism for the external destruction of protoplanetary discs in young dense clusters is tidal disruption during the flyby of another cluster member. The degree of mass loss in such an encounter depends, among other parameters, on the distribution of the material within the disc. Previous work showed that this is especially so in encounters that truncate large parts of the outer disc. The expectation is that the number of completely destroyed discs in a cluster depends also on the mass distribution within the discs. Here we test this hypothesis by determining the influence of encounters on the disc fraction and average disc mass in clusters of various stellar densities for different mass distributions in the discs. This is done by performing Nbody6 simulation of a variety of cluster environments, where we track the encounter dynamics and determine the mass loss due to these encounters for different disc-mass distributions. We find that although the disc mass distribution has a significant impact on the d...

  11. Evolution of warped and twisted accretion discs in close binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fragner, Moritz

    2009-01-01

    We aim to examine the detailed disc structure that arises in a misaligned binary system as a function of the disc aspect ratio h, viscosity parameter alpha, disc outer radius R, and binary inclination angle gamma_F. We also aim to examine the conditions that lead to an inclined disc being disrupted by strong differential precession. We use a grid-based hydrodynamic code to perform 3D simulations. This code has a relatively low numerical viscosity compared with the SPH schemes that have been used previously to study inclined discs. This allows the influence of viscosity on the disc evolution to be tightly controlled. We find that for thick discs (h=0.05) with low alpha, efficient warp communication in the discs allows them to precess as rigid bodies with very little warping or twisting. Such discs are observed to align with the binary orbit plane on the viscous evolution time. Thinner discs with higher viscosity, in which warp communication is less efficient, develop significant twists before achieving a state...

  12. Research on Heat-Mechanical Coupling of Ventilated Disc Brakes under the Condition of Emergency Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuelong; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Wenxian; Zhang, Yang

    Taking the ventilated disc brake in some company as research object, and using UG to build 3D models of brake disc and pad, and making use of ABAQUS/Standard to set up two parts' finite element model, via the decelerated motion of actual simulation brake disc, which gets ventilated disc brake in the case of emergency breaking in time and space distribution of conditions of temperature and stress field, summarizes the distribution of temperature field and stress field, proves complex coupling between temperature, stress, and supplies the direct basis for brake's fatigue life analysis.

  13. A DYNAMIC MODEL FOR A DISC EXCITED BY VERTICALLY MISALIGNED, ROTATING, FRICTIONAL SLIDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Huajiang; GU Yuanxian; YANG Haitian

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for a disc subjected to two sliders rotating in the circumferential direction over the top and bottom surfaces of the disc. The two sliders are vertically misaligned and each is a mass-spring-damper system with friction between the slider and the disc.The moving loads produced by misaligned sliders can destabilise the whole system. Stability analysis is carried out in a simulated example. This model is meant to explain the friction mechanism for generating unstable vibration in many applications involving rotating discs.

  14. Triggered fragmentation in gravitationally unstable discs: forming fragments at small radii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meru Farzana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We carry out three dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations of gravitationally unstable discs using to explore the movement of mass in a disc following its fragmentation. Compared to a more quiescent state before it fragments, the radial velocity of the gas increases by up to a factor of ≈ 2 – 3 after fragmentation. While the mass movement occurs both inwards and outwards, the inwards motion can cause the inner spirals to be suciently dense that they may become unstable and potentially fragment. Consequently, the dynamical behaviour of fragmented discs may cause subsequent fragmentation at smaller radii after an initial fragment has formed in the outer disc.

  15. Piezoelectric actuator for pulsating jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, Michel; Gonnard, Paul; Bera, Jean-Christophe; Sunyach, Michel

    2000-08-01

    Recent researches in aeronautics showed that fluidic actuator systems could offer possibilities for drag reduction and lift improvement. To this end many actuator types were designed. This paper deals with the design, fabrication and test of piezoelectric actuator in order to generate pulsated jets normal to a surface and control air flow separation. It is based on the flexural displacement of a rectangular metal plate clamped on one of its large edge. Piezoelectric patches cemented on the plate were used for driving into vibration the actuator. Experimental measurements show that pulsed flow velocities are adjustable from 1.5m/s to 35m/s through a 100x1mm2 slit andwithin a 100 to 400 Hz frequency range. Prototype provides the jet performances classically required for active control flow.

  16. NEW PRECISION PIEZOELECTRIC STEP ACTUATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianfang; YANG Zhigang; FAN Zunqiang; CHENG Guangming

    2006-01-01

    A new precision piezoelectric actuator is proposed to improve its drive capabilities. The actuator is based on the piezoelectric technology. It adopts the principle of bionics and works with a new method of stator initiative anchoring/loosen and a distortion structure of double-side thin flexible hinge. It solves the problem of anchoring/loosen, frequency, journey, resolution and velocity. The experiment shows that the new linear piezoelectric actuator works with high frequency (100 Hz), high speed (502 μm/s), large travel (>10 mm), high resolution (0.05 μm) and high load (100 N). This kind of new piezoelectric actuator will be applied for large travel and high resolution driving device, optics engineering, precision positioning and some micromanipulation field.

  17. Modeling and control of precision actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Kiong, Tan Kok

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionGrowing Interest in Precise ActuatorsTypes of Precise ActuatorsApplications of Precise ActuatorsNonlinear Dynamics and ModelingHysteresisCreepFrictionForce RipplesIdentification and Compensation of Preisach Hysteresis in Piezoelectric ActuatorsSVD-Based Identification and Compensation of Preisach HysteresisHigh-Bandwidth Identification and Compensation of Hysteretic Dynamics in Piezoelectric ActuatorsConcluding RemarksIdentification and Compensation of Frict

  18. Soft Pneumatic Actuators for Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Belforte; Gabriella Eula; Alexandre Ivanov; Silvia Sirolli

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles are pneumatic devices with practical and various applications as common actuators. They, as human muscles, work in agonistic-antagonistic way, giving a traction force only when supplied by compressed air. The state of the art of soft pneumatic actuators is here analyzed: different models of pneumatic muscles are considered and evolution lines are presented. Then, the use of Pneumatic Muscles (PAM) in rehabilitation apparatus is described and the general characteri...

  19. High torque miniature rotary actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbandian, Ruben

    2005-07-01

    This paper summarizes the design and the development of a miniature rotary actuator (36 mm diameter by 100 mm length) used in spacecraft mechanisms requiring high torques and/or ultra-fine step resolution. This actuator lends itself to applications requiring high torque but with strict volume limitations which challenge the use of conventional rotary actuators. The design challenge was to develop a lightweight (less than 500 grams), very compact, high bandwidth, low power, thermally stable rotary actuator capable of producing torques in excess of 50 N.m and step resolutions as fine as 0.003 degrees. To achieve a relatively high torsional stiffness in excess of 1000 Nm/radian, the design utilizes a combination of harmonic drive and multistage planetary gearing. The unique design feature of this actuator that contributes to its light weight and extremely precise motion capability is a redundant stepper motor driving the output through a multistage reducing gearbox. The rotary actuator is powered by a high reliability space-rated stepper motor designed and constructed by Moog, Inc. The motor is a three-phase stepper motor of 15 degree step angle, producing twenty-four full steps per revolution. Since micro-stepping is not used in the design, and un-powered holding torque is exhibited at every commanded step, the rotary actuator is capable of reacting to torques as high as 35 Nm by holding position with the power off. The output is driven through a gear transmission having a total train ratio of 5120:1, resulting in a resolution of 0.003 degrees output rotation per motor step. The modular design of the multi-stage output transmission makes possible the addition of designs having different output parameters, such as lower torque and higher output speed capability. Some examples of an actuator family based on this growth capability will be presented in the paper.

  20. Soft Pneumatic Actuators for Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Belforte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic artificial muscles are pneumatic devices with practical and various applications as common actuators. They, as human muscles, work in agonistic-antagonistic way, giving a traction force only when supplied by compressed air. The state of the art of soft pneumatic actuators is here analyzed: different models of pneumatic muscles are considered and evolution lines are presented. Then, the use of Pneumatic Muscles (PAM in rehabilitation apparatus is described and the general characteristics required in different applications are considered, analyzing the use of proper soft actuators with various technical properties. Therefore, research activity carried out in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering in the field of soft and textile actuators is presented here. In particular, pneumatic textile muscles useful for active suits design are described. These components are made of a tubular structure, with an inner layer of latex coated with a deformable outer fabric sewn along the edge. In order to increase pneumatic muscles forces and contractions Braided Pneumatic Muscles are studied. In this paper, new prototypes are presented, based on a fabric construction and various kinds of geometry. Pressure-force-deformation tests results are carried out and analyzed. These actuators are useful for rehabilitation applications. In order to reproduce the whole upper limb movements, new kind of soft actuators are studied, based on the same principle of planar membranes deformation. As an example, the bellows muscle model and worm muscle model are developed and described. In both cases, wide deformations are expected. Another issue for soft actuators is the pressure therapy. Some textile sleeve prototypes developed for massage therapy on patients suffering of lymph edema are analyzed. Different types of fabric and assembly techniques have been tested. In general, these Pressure Soft Actuators are useful for upper/lower limbs treatments

  1. Resonant thickening of self-gravitating discs: orbital diffusion in the tightly wound limit

    CERN Document Server

    Fouvry, Jean-Baptiste; Monk, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The secular thickening of a self-gravitating stellar galactic disc embedded in a fluctuating potential is investigated. The thick WKB limit for the diffusion coefficient of the corresponding dressed Fokker-Planck equation is found using the epicyclic approximation, while assuming that only radially tightly wound transient spirals are sustained by the disc. This yields a simple quadrature, providing a clear understanding of the positions of maximum vertical orbital diffusion within the disc. This thick limit also offers a consistent derivation of a thick disc Toomre parameter, which is shown to be exponentially boosted by the ratio of the vertical to radial scale heights. When applied to a tepid stable tapered disc perturbed by shot noise, this formalism predicts the formation of ridges of resonant orbits towards larger vertical actions, as found in simulations. Potential fluctuations within the disc statistically induce a vertical bending of a subset of resonant orbits, triggering the corresponding increase i...

  2. The Role of Discs in the Collapse and Fragmentation of Prestellar Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, O; Hubber, D A

    2015-01-01

    Disc fragmentation provides an important mechanism for producing low mass stars in prestellar cores. Here, we describe Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations which show how populations of prestellar cores evolve into stars. We find the observed masses and multiplicities of stars can be recovered under certain conditions. First, protostellar feedback from a star must be episodic. The continuous accretion of disc material on to a central protostar results in local temperatures which are too high for disc fragmentation. If, however, the accretion occurs in intense outbursts, separated by a downtime of $\\sim10^4\\,\\mathrm{years}$, gravitational instabilities can develop and the disc can fragment. Second, a significant amount of the cores' internal kinetic energy should be in solenoidal turbulent modes. Cores with less than a third of their kinetic energy in solenoidal modes have insufficient angular momentum to form fragmenting discs. In the absence of discs, cores can fragment but results in a top heavy dist...

  3. Accretion discs trapped near corotation

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angelo, C.R.; Spruit, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    We show that discs accreting on to the magnetosphere of a rotating star can end up in a trapped state, in which the inner edge of the disc stays near the corotation radius, even at low and varying accretion rates. The accretion in these trapped states can be steady or cyclic; we explore these states over a wide range of parameter space. We find two distinct regions of instability: one related to the buildup and release of mass in the disc outside corotation, and the other to mass storage with...

  4. Brown dwarfs forming in discs: Where to look for them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatellos D.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A large fraction of the observed brown dwarfs may form by gravitational fragmentation of unstable discs. This model reproduces the brown dwarf desert, and provides an explanation for the existence of planetary-mass objects and for the binary properties of low-mass objects. We have performed an ensemble of radiative hydrodynamic simulations and determined the statistical properties of the low-mass objects produced by gravitational fragmentation of discs. We suggest that there is a population of brown dwarfs loosely bound on wide orbits (100–5000 AU around Sun-like stars that surveys of brown dwarf companions should target. Our simulations also indicate that planetary-mass companions to Sun-like stars are unlikely to form by disc fragmentation.

  5. Thin accretion discs are stabilized by a strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sądowski, Aleksander

    2016-07-01

    By studying three-dimensional, radiative, global simulations of sub-Eddington, geometrically thin (H/R ≈ 0.15) black hole accretion flows we show that thin discs which are dominated by magnetic pressure are stable against thermal instability. Such discs are thicker than predicted by the standard model and show significant amount of dissipation inside the marginally stable orbit. Radiation released in this region, however, does not escape to infinity but is advected into the black hole. We find that the resulting accretion efficiency (5.5 ± 0.5 per cent for the simulated 0.8dot{M}_Edd disc) is very close to the predicted by the standard model (5.7 per cent).

  6. Brown dwarfs forming in discs: where to look for them?

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    A large fraction of the observed brown dwarfs may form by gravitational fragmentation of unstable discs. This model reproduces the brown dwarf desert, and provides an explanation the existence of planetary-mass objects and for the binary properties of low-mass objects. We have performed an ensemble of radiative hydrodynamic simulations and determined the statistical properties of the low-mass objects produced by gravitational fragmentation of discs. We suggest that there is a population of brown dwarfs loosely bound on wide orbits (100-5000 AU) around Sun-like stars that surveys of brown dwarf companions should target. Our simulations also indicate that planetary-mass companions to Sun-like stars are unlikely to form by disc fragmentation.

  7. Prevention of thinning at disc center during rotary forging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents the simulation and analysis of the rotary forging of a disc using a finite element method, which re veals the thinning at the disc center is caused by higher radial and tangential tensile stresses resulting from the local loading of a rotary die and acting at the center of a workpiece, and proposes a new design of rotary die with a hole opened in its center to prevent the continuous occurrence of shortening in the axial direction and elongation in the tan gential and radial directions, and concludes from simulation results that the rotary die with a hole opened in its center is effective for prevention of thinning or cracking at the center of a disc during rotary forging.

  8. Large Scale Magnetostrictive Valve Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, James A.; Holleman, Elizabeth; Eddleman, David

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's Valves, Actuators and Ducts Design and Development Branch developed a large scale magnetostrictive valve actuator. The potential advantages of this technology are faster, more efficient valve actuators that consume less power and provide precise position control and deliver higher flow rates than conventional solenoid valves. Magnetostrictive materials change dimensions when a magnetic field is applied; this property is referred to as magnetostriction. Magnetostriction is caused by the alignment of the magnetic domains in the material s crystalline structure and the applied magnetic field lines. Typically, the material changes shape by elongating in the axial direction and constricting in the radial direction, resulting in no net change in volume. All hardware and testing is complete. This paper will discuss: the potential applications of the technology; overview of the as built actuator design; discuss problems that were uncovered during the development testing; review test data and evaluate weaknesses of the design; and discuss areas for improvement for future work. This actuator holds promises of a low power, high load, proportionally controlled actuator for valves requiring 440 to 1500 newtons load.

  9. Wave-like warp propagation in circumbinary discs II. Application to KH 15D

    CERN Document Server

    Lodato, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    KH 15D is a protostellar binary system that shows a peculiar light curve. In order to model it, a narrow circumbinary precessing disc has been invoked, but a proper dynamical model has never been developed. In this paper, we analytically address the issue of whether such a disc can rigidly precess around KH 15D, and we relate the precessional period to the main parameters of the system. Then, we simulate the disc's dynamics by using a 1D model developed in a companion paper, such that the warp propagates into the disc as a bending wave, which is expected to be the case for protostellar discs. The validity of such an approach has been confirmed by comparing its results with full 3D SPH simulations on extended discs. In the present case, we use this 1D code to model the propagation of the warp in a narrow disc. If the inner truncation radius of the disc is set by the binary tidal torques at {\\sim} 1 AU, we find that the disc should extend out to 6-10 AU (depending on the models), and is therefore wider than pre...

  10. Simulation of the friction temperature field for mineral car's disc brake%矿车盘式制动器温度场的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋涛; 刘莹

    2014-01-01

    根据热分析理论,建立矿车盘式制动器摩擦副的有限元模型,模拟矿车制动过程的三维瞬态温度场,研究制动工况、制动时间对摩擦副温度的影响。研究结果表明,摩擦副温度场呈非轴对称分布,且轴向温度梯度较大;制动工况对温升速率和最大值影响显著;制动时间对温升过程有一定的影响。研究结果为制动器摩擦副热应力分析提供支持,进而为矿车盘式制动器工况提供技术数据,为改善制动器工作条件和改进制动器摩擦副的设计提供参考。%According to the heat analysis theory ,the kinetic model of the brake was established and its three-dimensional transient temperature field was simulated .The effect of braking condition and braking time on friction pairs'temperature were investigated . The results show that the temperature distribution in the brake is nonaxi-symmetric and possesses a sharper gradient in axial di-rections.Braking conditon plays an important role on the rising time and the maximum of temperature ,braking time has a certain influence on the rising process of temperature .The research results can offer support for the thermal stress analysis of the brake friction pair and can provide a technical data for the mineral car's actual braking condition .The research results can also improve the working condition of brake and provide a better structural design for the friction pairs of brake .

  11. A self-similar solution for thermal disc winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, C. J.; Alexander, R. D.

    2016-08-01

    We derive a self-similar description for the 2D streamline topology and flow structure of an axisymmetric, thermally driven wind originating from a disc in which the density is a power-law function of radius. Our scale-free solution is strictly only valid in the absence of gravity or centrifugal support; comparison with 2D hydrodynamic simulations of winds from Keplerian discs however demonstrates that the scale-free solution is a good approximation also in the outer regions of such discs, and can provide a reasonable description even for launch radii well within the gravitational radius of the flow. Although other authors have considered the flow properties along streamlines whose geometry has been specified in advance, this is the first isothermal calculation in which the flow geometry and variation of flow variables along streamlines is determined self-consistently. It is found that the flow trajectory is very sensitive to the power-law index of radial density variation in the disc: the steeper the density gradient, the stronger is the curvature of streamlines close to the flow base that is required in order to maintain momentum balance perpendicular to the flow. Steeper disc density profiles are also associated with more rapid acceleration, and a faster fall-off of density, with height above the disc plane. The derivation of a set of simple governing equations for the flow structure of thermal winds from the outer regions of power-law discs offers the possibility of deriving flow observables without having to resort to hydrodynamical simulation.

  12. Disc fragmentation and the formation of Population III stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.

    2015-05-01

    Our understanding of Population III star formation is still in its infancy. They are formed in dark matter minihaloes of 105-106 M⊙ at z = 20-30. Recent high-resolution cosmological simulations show that a protostellar disc forms as a consequence of gravitational collapse and fragments into multiple clumps. However, it is not entirely clear if these clumps will be able to survive to form multiple stars as simulations are unable to follow the disc evolution for longer times. In this study, we employ a simple analytical model to derive the properties of marginally stable steady-state discs. Our results show that the stability of the disc depends on the critical value of the viscous parameter α. For αcrit = 1, the disc is stable for an accretion rate of ≤10-3 M⊙ yr-1 and becomes unstable at radii about ≥ 100 au in the presence of an accretion rate of 10-2 M⊙ yr-1. For 0.06 < αcrit < 1, the disc can be unstable for both accretion rates. The comparison of the migration and the Kelvin-Helmholtz time-scales shows that clumps are expected to migrate inwards before reaching the main sequence. Furthermore, in the presence of a massive central star, the clumps within the central 1 au will be tidally disrupted. We also find that UV feedback from the central star is unable to disrupt the disc, and that photoevaporation becomes important only once the accretion rate has dropped to 2 × 10-4 M⊙ yr-1. As a result, the central star may reach a mass of 100 M⊙ or even higher.

  13. 汽车电动静液压主动悬架联合仿真研究%Co-simulation research on vehicle active suspension with electro-hydrostatic actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇发荣; 孙秦豫; 刘攀

    2015-01-01

    Because the stiffness and damping of traditional suspensions cannot change along with vehicle’s movement state,the technology of electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA)in the field of aerospace was introduced and a new kind of vehicle active suspen-sion was put forward based on EHA.Compared with the traditional hydraulic servo active suspension,which uses hydraulic valves,the structure of EHA active suspension is simple and reliable.The models of active suspension with EHA were estab-lished by AMEsim.It mainly includes the sprung mass,non-sprung mass,the road input,spring and EHA actuator.Ground-hook controller and LQG controller for EHA active suspension were designed by using Matlab/Simulink software.The control-lers were integrated with the AMEsim suspension model and the co-simulations were performed.The results show that LQG ac-tive suspension with EHA is better than the ground-hook active suspension.Under the LQG control,the body acceleration re-duces by 26.2%,the suspension dynamic deflection reduces by 19.8%,and the tire dynamic load reduces by 18.4%.As a result, the ride comfort and stability are improved obviously.%针对传统悬架的刚度和阻尼不能随汽车行驶状况变化而调节的弊端,将航空领域先进的电动静液压作动器(electro-hy-drostatic actuator,EHA)技术应用于汽车悬架控制,设计了基于 EHA 的电动静液压新型主动悬架结构。与传统采用各类阀件的液压伺服车辆主动悬架相比,EHA 主动悬架结构简单、可靠性高。利用 AMEsim 建立了二自由度 EHA 主动悬架模型,该模型主要由簧载质量、非簧载质量、路面输入、弹簧和 EHA 作动器构成。同时,利用 Matlab/Simulink 软件设计了 EHA 主动悬架地棚控制器和线性二次型(LQG)最优控制器。将 AMEsim 模型导入 Matlab/Simulink 中,开展了 EHA 主动悬架的地棚控制和LQG 控制联合仿真研究。仿真结果表明,相比地棚控制,LQG 控制效

  14. Likelihood inference for unions of interacting discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Helisova, K.

    2010-01-01

    with respect to a given marked Poisson model (i.e. a Boolean model). We show how edge effects and other complications can be handled by considering a certain conditional likelihood. Our methodology is illustrated by analysing Peter Diggle's heather data set, where we discuss the results of simulation......This is probably the first paper which discusses likelihood inference for a random set using a germ-grain model, where the individual grains are unobservable, edge effects occur and other complications appear. We consider the case where the grains form a disc process modelled by a marked point......-based maximum likelihood inference and the effect of specifying different reference Poisson models....

  15. Modelling Neutral Hydrogen Discs of Spiral Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林伟鹏; 洪碧海

    2002-01-01

    We present an analytical model of a neutral hydrogen disc in a spiral galaxy. The gas disc of the spiral galaxy isassumed to have an exponential surface density profile and to be ionized by the cosmic ultraviolet background.To compare with observations, we consider the disc position angle and inclination angle for a line of sight goingthrough the galaxy disc. The HI column densities depend on the strength of ionizing field and disc position andinclination. The model was applied to NGC 3198 and the results were compared with observational data. TheHI disc profile at large disc radii can be tested by further HI observations using radio telescopes with a largeraperture than the present facilities. This HI disc model can be used to predict quasar absorption line systems bygalaxy discs if quasar lines of sight go through the discs.

  16. Debris disc formation induced by planetary growth

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Several hundred stars older than 10 million years have been observed to have infrared excesses. These observations are explained by dust grains formed by the collisional fragmentation of hidden planetesimals. Such dusty planetesimal discs are known as debris discs. In a dynamically cold planetesimal disc, collisional coagulation of planetesimals produces planetary embryos which then stir the surrounding leftover planetesimals. Thus, the collisional fragmentation of planetesimals that results from planet formation forms a debris disc. We aim to determine the properties of the underlying planetesimals in debris discs by numerically modelling the coagulation and fragmentation of planetesimal populations. The brightness and temporal evolution of debris discs depend on the radial distribution of planetesimal discs, the location of their inner and outer edges, their total mass, and the size of planetesimals in the disc. We find that a radially narrow planetesimal disc is most likely to result in a debris disc that ...

  17. Eclipse mapping of accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, R

    2000-01-01

    The eclipse mapping method is an inversion technique that makes use of the information contained in eclipse light curves to probe the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs. In this review I present the basics of the method and discuss its different implementations. I summarize the most important results obtained to date and discuss how they have helped to improve our understanding of accretion physics, from testing the theoretical radial brightness temperature distribution and measuring mass accretion rates to showing the evolution of the structure of a dwarf novae disc through its outburst cycle, from isolating the spectrum of a disc wind to revealing the geometry of disc spiral shocks. I end with an outline of the future prospects.

  18. Modeling of thermo-mechanical fatigue and damage in shape memory alloy axial actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert W.; Hartl, Darren J.; Chemisky, Yves; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2015-04-01

    The aerospace, automotive, and energy industries have seen the potential benefits of using shape memory alloys (SMAs) as solid state actuators. Thus far, however, these actuators are generally limited to non-critical components or over-designed due to a lack of understanding regarding how SMAs undergo thermomechanical or actuation fatigue and the inability to accurately predict failure in an actuator during use. The purpose of this study was to characterize the actuation fatigue response of Nickel-Titanium-Hafnium (NiTiHf) axial actuators and, in turn, use this characterization to predict failure and monitor damage in dogbone actuators undergoing various thermomechanical loading paths. Calibration data was collected from constant load, full cycle tests ranging from 200-600MPa. Subsequently, actuator lifetimes were predicted for four additional loading paths. These loading paths consisted of linearly varying load with full transformation (300-500MPa) and step loads which transition from zero stress to 300-400MPa at various martensitic volume fractions. Thermal cycling was achieved via resistive heating and convective cooling and was controlled via a state machine developed in LabVIEW. A previously developed fatigue damage model, which is formulated such that the damage accumulation rate is general in terms of its dependence on current and local stress and actuation strain states, was utilized. This form allows the model to be utilized for specimens undergoing complex loading paths. Agreement between experiments and simulations is discussed.

  19. Development of a resonant trailing-edge flap actuation system for helicopter rotor vibration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.-S.; Wang, K. W.; Smith, E. C.

    2007-12-01

    A resonant trailing-edge flap actuation system for helicopter rotors is developed and evaluated experimentally. The concept involves deflecting each individual trailing-edge flap using a compact resonant piezoelectric actuation system. Each resonant actuation system yields high authority, while operating at a single frequency. By tailoring the natural frequencies of the actuation system (including the piezoelectric actuator and the related mechanical and electrical elements) to the required operating frequencies, one can increase the output authority. The robustness of the device can be enhanced by increasing the high authority bandwidth through electric circuitry design. Such a resonant actuation system (RAS) is analyzed for a full-scale piezoelectric induced-shear tube actuator, and bench-top testing is conducted to validate the concept. An adaptive feed-forward controller is developed to realize the electric network dynamics and adapt to phase variation. The control strategy is then implemented via a digital signal processor (DSP) system. Analysis is also performed to examine the rotor system dynamics in forward flight with piezoelectric resonant actuators, using a perturbation method to evaluate the system's time-varying characteristics. Numerical simulations reveal that the resonant actuator concept can be applied to forward flights as well as to hover conditions.

  20. Active control of structural vibration by piezoelectric stack actuators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Jun-chuan; ZHAO Guo-qun; HU Xia-xia

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a general analytical model of flexible isolation system for application to the installation of high-speed machines and lightweight structures. Piezoelectric stack actuators are employed in the model to achieve vibration control of flexible structures, and dynamic characteristics are also investigated. Mobility technique is used to derive the governing equations of the system. The power flow transmitted into the foundation is solved and considered as a cost function to achieve optimal control of vibration isolation. Some numerical simulations revealed that the analytical model is effective as piezoelectric stack actuators can achieve substantial vibration attenuation by selecting proper value of the input voltage.

  1. Photon Bubbles in Accretion Discs

    OpenAIRE

    Gammie, Charles F.

    1998-01-01

    We show that radiation dominated accretion discs are likely to suffer from a ``photon bubble'' instability similar to that described by Arons in the context of accretion onto neutron star polar caps. The instability requires a magnetic field for its existence. In an asymptotic regime appropriate to accretion discs, we find that the overstable modes obey the remarkably simple dispersion relation \\omega^2 = -i g k F(B,k). Here g is the vertical gravitational acceleration, B the magnetic field, ...

  2. Self-gravitating accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Lodato, G.

    2008-01-01

    I review recent progresses in the dynamics and the evolution of self-gravitating accretion discs. Accretion discs are a fundamental component of several astrophysical systems on very diverse scales, and can be found around supermassive black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), and also in our Galaxy around stellar mass compact objects and around young stars. Notwithstanding the specific differences arising from such diversity in physical extent, all these systems share a common feature whe...

  3. Lumbar disc excision through fenestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lumbar disc herniation often causes sciatica. Many different techniques have been advocated with the aim of least possible damage to other structures while dealing with prolapsed disc surgically in the properly selected and indicated cases. Methods : Twenty six patients with clinical symptoms and signs of prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc having radiological correlation by MRI study were subjected to disc excision by interlaminar fenestration method. Results : The assessment at follow-up showed excellent results in 17 patients, good in 6 patients, fair in 2 patients and poor in 1 patient. The mean preoperative and postoperative Visual Analogue Scores were 9.34 ±0.84 and 2.19 ±0.84 on scale of 0-10 respectively. These were statistically significant (p value< 0.001, paired t test. No significant complications were recorded. Conclusion : Procedures of interlaminar fenestration and open disc excision under direct vision offers sufficient adequate exposure for lumbar disc excision with a smaller incision, lesser morbidity, shorter convalescence, early return to work and comparable overall results in the centers where recent laser and endoscopy facilities are not available.

  4. Trans-permanent magnetic actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Daniel Jay

    The demands for an actuator to deploy, position and shape large spaced-based structures form a unique set of design criteria. In many applications it is desirable to hold displacements or forces between two points to within specified requirements (the regulation problem) and to periodically to change position (the tracking problem). Furthermore, the interest generally lies in satisfying the dynamic performance requirements while expending minimal power, while meeting tight tolerances and while experiencing little wear and fatigue. The actuator must also be able to withstand a variety of operational conditions such as impacts and thermal changes over an extended period of time. Current trends in large-scale structures have addressed the demands by using conventional actuators and motors, along with elaborate linkages or mechanisms to shape, position, protect and deploy. The developed designs use unique characteristics of permanent magnets to create simple direct-acting actuators and motors very suitable for space based structures. The developed trans-permanent magnetic (T-PM) actuators and motors are systems consisting of one or more permanent magnets, some of whose magnetic strengths can be switched on-board by surrounding pulse-coils. The T-PM actuator and motors expend no power during regulation. The T-PM can periodically change or remove the strength of its own magnets thereby enabling both fine-tune adjustments (microsteps) and large-scale adjustments (rotation). The fine (microstep) adjustments are particularly helpful in thermally varying space environments. The large-scale adjustments (rotation) are particularly helpful in deployment where the structure or antenna must experience large-angle rotations and/or large displacements. T-PM concepts are illustrated in direct acting actuators and built into stepper motor and permanent magnet motor applications. Several examples of design, analysis and testing are developed to verify the technology and supporting

  5. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.

  6. Face-on accretion onto a protoplanetary disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, T. P. G.; Pols, O. R.; Pelupessy, F. I.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Stars are generally born in clustered stellar environments, which can affect their subsequent evolution. An example of this environmental influence can be found in globular clusters (GCs) harbouring multiple stellar populations. An evolutionary scenario in which a second (and possibly higher order) population is formed by the accretion of chemically enriched material onto the low-mass stars in the initial GC population has been suggested to explain the multiple stellar populations. The idea, dubbed early disc accretion, is that the low-mass, pre-main-sequence stars sweep up gas expelled by the more massive stars of the same generation into their protoplanetary disc as they move through the cluster core. The same process could also occur, to a lesser extent, in embedded stellar systems that are less dense. Aims: Using assumptions that represent the (dynamical) conditions in a typical GC, we investigate whether a low-mass star of 0.4 M⊙ surrounded by a protoplanetary disc can accrete a sufficient amount of enriched material to account for the observed abundances in so-called second generation GC stars. In particular, we focus on the gas-loading rate onto the disc and star, as well as on the lifetime and stability of the disc. Methods: We perform simulations at multiple resolutions with two different smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes and compare the results. Each code uses a different implementation of the artificial viscosity. Results: We find that the gas-loading rate is about a factor of two smaller than the rate based on geometric arguments, because the effective cross-section of the disc is smaller than its surface area. Furthermore, the loading rate is consistent for both codes, irrespective of resolution. Although the disc gains mass in the high-resolution runs, it loses angular momentum on a timescale of 104 yr. Two effects determine the loss of (specific) angular momentum in our simulations: (1) continuous ram pressure stripping and (2

  7. 基于移动热源的盘式制动器三维瞬态温度场仿真分析%Simulation of Three-dimensional Transient Temperature Field for Disc Brake Based on Moving Heat Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建辉; 张兵; 闫先朝

    2015-01-01

    Taking FSAE car front disc brake as a research subject, the effect of moving heat source on the disc brake was analyzed, the model of three-dimensional transient temperature field for the brake was established by using Ansys. The temperature distribution of brake disc and the time course curve of different nodes in an emergency braking condition were gained.%以FSAE赛车前轮盘式制动器为研究对象,考虑了移动热源的影响,运用Ansys软件建立了其三维瞬态温度场模型。由此得到了一次紧急制动工况,不同初始车速制动盘的温度场分布以及其上不同位置节点温度的时间历程曲线。

  8. Motion Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    MOOG, Inc. supplies hydraulic actuators for the Space Shuttle. When MOOG learned NASA was interested in electric actuators for possible future use, the company designed them with assistance from Marshall Space Flight Center. They also decided to pursue the system's commercial potential. This led to partnership with InterActive Simulation, Inc. for production of cabin flight simulators for museums, expositions, etc. The resulting products, the Magic Motion Simulator 30 Series, are the first electric powered simulators. Movements are computer-guided, including free fall to heighten the sense of moving through space. A projection system provides visual effects, and the 11 speakers of a digital laser based sound system add to the realism. The electric actuators are easier to install, have lower operating costs, noise, heat and staff requirements. The U.S. Space & Rocket Center and several other organizations have purchased the simulators.

  9. Aerodynamic flow-control with dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators; Aerodynamische Stroemungssteuerung mittels dielektrischer Barriereentladungs-Plasmaaktuatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Joern Bastian

    2009-07-01

    In this work, measurements of the spatial-temporal evolution of velocity vector fields, induced by a dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator, are presented for the first time in order to enhance the understanding of these actuators. A procedure for calculating the body forces-induced by these actuators-from the measured velocity vector fields is also described. A number of parametric studies with plasma actuators, were performed in order to identify the relevant parameter dependencies concerning the effectiveness and the efficiency for an optimization of these actuators. A new phenomenological model for the simulation of the aerodynamic effect of plasma actuators was developed, which can be used to produce more accurate numerical results than existing models. The suitability of plasma actuators in aerodynamic applications was investigated for two different cases. In the first case, a circulation control of a rotorcraft airfoil by plasma actuators, the actuators were arranged such that the gurney flap active principle was achieved and observed for the first time. In the second case, a plasma actuator was mounted on the leading edge of a delta wing to successfully demonstrate flow control up to Re=10{sup 6}. The three velocity components in the plane normal to the flow velocity were measured, enabling the analysis of the change of the leading edge vortices due to plasma actuation. (orig.)

  10. Low power linear actuator for direct drive electrohydraulic valves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong LI; Fan DING; Jian CUI; Qi-peng LI

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a bi-directional permanent-magnet linear actuator for directly driving electrohydraulic valves with low power consumption. Its static and dynamic performances were analyzed using the 2D finite element method, taking into account the nonlinear characterization and the eddy current loss of the magnetic material. The experiment and simulation results agree well and show that the prototype actuator can produce a force of+100 N with the maximum power being 7 W and has linear characteristics with a positive magnetic stiffness within a stroke of±1 mm. Its non-linearity is less than 1.5% and the hysteresis less than 1.5%. The actuator's frequency response (-3 dB) of the displacement reaches about 15 Hz, and the most significant factor affecting the dynamic performance is identified as the eddy current loss of the magnetic material.

  11. Study on electrothermally actuated cantilever array for nanolithography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Nanolithography is a patterning technique for the fabrication of nano-scale structures.A promising method of nanolithography known as scanning probe lithography has particularly extensive applications for its high resolution,high reliability,and simple operation.In this paper,a novel electrothermally actuated cantilever with integrated heater,thermal conductor and actuator for scanning probe lithography is proposed.Cantilevers are designed in an 8×4 array.Analytical models are presented to simulate the temperature distribution,deflection and thermal crosstalk of the cantilever array.This structure is successfully fabricated.It is demonstrated that this structure can produce a tip deflection of 16.9 μm at an actuation current of 5.5 mA and the thermal crosstalk between the cantilevers is neglected.

  12. Vibration control of a flexible structure with electromagnetic actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruzman, Maurício; Santos, Ilmar

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the model of a shear-frame-type structure composed of six flexible beams and three rigid masses. Fixed on the ground, outside the structure, two voltage-controlled electromagnetic actuators are used for vibration control. To model the flexible beams, unidimensional finite...... elements were used. Nonlinear equations for the actuator electromagnetic force, noise in the position sensor, time delays for the control signal update and voltage saturation were also considered in the model. For controlling purposes, a discrete linear quadratic regulator combined with a predictive full......-order discrete linear observer was employed. Results of numerical simulations, where the structure is submitted to an impulsive disturbance force and to a harmonic force, show that the oscillations can be significantly reduced with the use of the electromagnetic actuators....

  13. Artificial heart for humanoid robot using coiled SMA actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Tadesse, Yonas

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we have presented the design and characterization of artificial heart using cylindrical shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for humanoids [1]. The robotic heart was primarily designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate blushing or anger by the use of elastomeric substrates for the transport of fluids. It can also be used for other applications. In this paper, we present an improved design by using high strain coiled SMAs and a novel pumping mechanism that uses sequential actuation to create peristalsis-like motions, and hence pump the fluid. Various placements of actuators will be investigated with respect to the silicone elastomeric body. This new approach provides a better performance in terms of the fluid volume pumped.

  14. Disc instabilities and semi-analytic modelling of galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Athanassoula, E

    2008-01-01

    The Efstathiou, Lake and Negroponte (1982) criterion can not distinguish bar stable from bar unstable discs and thus should not be used in semi-analytic galaxy formation simulations. I discuss the reasons for this, illustrate it with examples and point out shortcomings in the recipes used for spheroid formation. I propose an alternative, although much less straightforward, possibility.

  15. Massive black hole binary mergers within sub-pc scale gas discs

    CERN Document Server

    Cuadra, J; Alexander, R D; Begelman, M C

    2008-01-01

    [ABRIDGED] We study supermassive black hole binary mergers driven by angular momentum loss to small-scale gas discs. Such binaries form after major galaxy mergers, but their fate is unclear since hardening through stellar scattering becomes very inefficient at sub-parsec distances. Gas discs may dominate binary dynamics on these scales, and promote mergers. Using numerical simulations, we investigate the evolution of the orbits of binaries embedded within geometrically thin gas discs. Our simulations directly resolve angular momentum transport within the disc, which at the radii of interest is likely dominated by disc self-gravity. We show that the binary decays at a rate which is in good agreement with analytical estimates, while the eccentricity grows. Saturation of eccentricity growth is not observed up to values e > 0.35. Accretion onto the black holes is variable, and is roughly modulated by the binary orbital frequency. Scaling our results, we analytically estimate the maximum rate of binary decay that ...

  16. Parallel kinematic mechanisms for distributed actuation of future structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, G.; Plummer, A. R.; Cleaver, D. J.; Zhou, H.

    2016-09-01

    Future machines will require distributed actuation integrated with load-bearing structures, so that they are lighter, move faster, use less energy, and are more adaptable. Good examples are shape-changing aircraft wings which can adapt precisely to the ideal aerodynamic form for current flying conditions, and light but powerful robotic manipulators which can interact safely with human co-workers. A 'tensegrity structure' is a good candidate for this application due to its potentially excellent stiffness and strength-to-weight ratio and a multi-element structure into which actuators could be embedded. This paper presents results of an analysis of an example practical actuated tensegrity structure consisting of 3 ‘unit cells’. A numerical method is used to determine the stability of the structure with varying actuator length, showing how four actuators can be used to control movement in three degrees of freedom as well as simultaneously maintaining the structural pre-load. An experimental prototype has been built, in which 4 pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are embedded in one unit cell. The PAMs are controlled antagonistically, by high speed switching of on-off valves, to achieve control of position and structure pre-load. Experimental and simulation results are presented, and future prospects for the approach are discussed.

  17. Bumpless switching control for switched systems with partial actuator failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yiwen; Bao, Wen; Zhang, Qingxin; Chang, Juntao

    2016-11-01

    This study is concerned with the bumpless transfer problem for switched systems with partial actuator failures, in order to obtain smooth system performance output transition. Taking into account that the system requires a controller switching from current sub-controller to a fault-tolerant sub-controller after actuator fault. And bumpless transfer for control input cannot be traditionally designed when the actuator fault occurs, while performance smoothing can be considered and it is actually the ultimate goal of bumpless transfer. Specifically, the actuator fault model is firstly established and partial actuator fault is considered. Then, the system performance output signal is deemed as the main design variable of bumpless transfer, and closed-loop control systems both previous and after controller switching are constructed. Moreover, by using model matching thought and the adaptive sliding mode control technique, a bumpless transfer compensator design strategy is given to drive the performance output variable (after controller switching) to track the one of reference model. At last, simulation results of numeric and application examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed bumpless transfer strategy.

  18. Modelling and control of double-cone dielectric elastomer actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branz, F.; Francesconi, A.

    2016-09-01

    Among various dielectric elastomer devices, cone actuators are of large interest for their multi-degree-of-freedom design. These objects combine the common advantages of dielectric elastomers (i.e. solid-state actuation, self-sensing capability, high conversion efficiency, light weight and low cost) with the possibility to actuate more than one degree of freedom in a single device. The potential applications of this feature in robotics are huge, making cone actuators very attractive. This work focuses on rotational degrees of freedom to complete existing literature and improve the understanding of such aspect. Simple tools are presented for the performance prediction of the device: finite element method simulations and interpolating relations have been used to assess the actuator steady-state behaviour in terms of torque and rotation as a function of geometric parameters. Results are interpolated by fit relations accounting for all the relevant parameters. The obtained data are validated through comparison with experimental results: steady-state torque and rotation are determined at a given high voltage actuation. In addition, the transient response to step input has been measured and, as a result, the voltage-to-torque and the voltage-to-rotation transfer functions are obtained. Experimental data are collected and used to validate the prediction capability of the transfer function in terms of time response to step input and frequency response. The developed static and dynamic models have been employed to implement a feedback compensator that controls the device motion; the simulated behaviour is compared to experimental data, resulting in a maximum prediction error of 7.5%.

  19. 核电厂反应堆保护多样性驱动系统功能仿真与验证研究%Simulation and Verification for Reactor Protection Diversity Actuation System of Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢超; 平嘉临; 江辉; 谭珂; 谢红云; 颜振宇

    2014-01-01

    本文研究了CPR1000核电厂反应堆保护系统的总体结构,对其纵深防御功能进行了分析。在此基础上介绍了软件共因故障及 AP1000核电厂的应对技术———多样性驱动系统(DAS )。并对基于CPR1000核电厂的DAS基本功能需求和仿真模拟的实现方法进行了研究。以安全壳内主给水系统管道破裂事故瞬态为例,对发生反应堆保护系统共因实效情况下DAS功能的验证、分析过程进行了阐述,证实其功能设置能有效将机组带入安全状态,缓解事故后果。%The overall structure of the reactor protection system of CPR1000 nuclear power plant was studied in this paper ,and its defense in depth was analyzed .On this basis ,the software common cause failure and AP1000 nuclear power plant’s handling technique of diversity actuation system (DAS) were introduced ,and CPR1000 nuclear power plant’s DAS basic functional requirement and the method of the realization of the simulation were mainly studied .There was an example of the transient accident related to the steam generator tube rupture in the main feed water system in the containment . The DAS function verification was proved in the case of common cause failure in the pro‐tection system ,and the whole process was analyzed in detail as well .All of these con‐firmed its feature set can carry the plant to the safe state and alleviate the consequence of the accident effectively .

  20. Experimental investigation of magnetic anisotropy in spin vortex discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garraud, N., E-mail: ngarraud@ufl.edu; Arnold, D. P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    We present experimental 2D vector vibrating sample magnetometer measurements to demonstrate the shape anisotropy effects occurring in micrometer-diameter supermalloy spin vortex discs. Measurements made for different disc sizes and orientations confirm the out-of-plane susceptibility is several orders of magnitude smaller than the in-plane susceptibility. These results validate with a high certitude that spin vortices with high diameter to thickness ratio retain in-plane-only magnetization, even when subjected to fields in the out-of-plane direction. These results contribute to further computational simulations of the dynamics of spin vortex structures in colloidal suspensions where external fields may be applied in any arbitrary direction.

  1. Conditions for circumstellar disc formation - II. Effects of initial cloud stability and mass accretion rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2016-12-01

    Disc formation in strongly magnetized cloud cores is investigated using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation with a focus on the effects of the initial cloud stability and the mass accretion rate. The initial cloud stability greatly alters the disc formation process even for prestellar clouds with the same mass-to-flux ratio. A high mass accretion rate on to the disc-forming region is realized in initially unstable clouds, and a large angular momentum is introduced into the circumstellar region in a short time. The region around the protostar has both a thin infalling envelope and a weak magnetic field, which both weaken the effect of magnetic braking. The growth of the rotation-supported disc is promoted in such unstable clouds. Conversely, clouds in an initially near-equilibrium state show lower accretion rates of mass and angular momentum. The angular momentum is transported to the outer envelope before protostar formation. After protostar formation, the circumstellar region has a thick infalling envelope and a strong magnetic field that effectively brakes the disc. As a result, disc formation is suppressed when the initial cloud is in a nearly stable state. The density distribution of the initial cloud also affects the disc formation process. Disc growth strongly depends on the initial conditions when the prestellar cloud has a uniform density, whereas there is no significant difference in the disc formation process in prestellar clouds with non-uniform densities.

  2. On the Bardeen-Petterson Effect in black hole accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Nealon, Rebecca; Nixon, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of black hole spin on warped or misaligned accretion discs - in particular i) whether or not the inner disc edge aligns with the black hole spin and ii) whether the disc can maintain a smooth transition between an aligned inner disc and a misaligned outer disc, known as the Bardeen-Petterson effect. We employ high resolution 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of $\\alpha$-discs subject to Lense-Thirring precession, focussing on the bending wave regime where the disc viscosity is smaller than the aspect ratio $\\alpha \\lesssim H/R$. We first address the controversy in the literature regarding possible steady-state oscillations of the tilt close to the black hole. We successfully recover such oscillations in 3D at both small and moderate inclinations ($\\lesssim 15^{\\circ}$), provided both Lense-Thirring and Einstein precession are present, sufficient resolution is employed, and provided the disc is not so thick so as to simply accrete misaligned. Second, we find that discs in...

  3. Modeling disc non-axisymmetries: Multiple patterns, radial migration, and thick disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehnen W.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Disc non-axisymmetric components, such as spirals and central bars, are nowadays known to play an important role in shaping galactic discs. Here we use Tree-SPH N-body simulations to examine the effect of these perturbers on two aspects: the occurrence of multiple patterns in discs and the effects of radial migration on disc thickening. We find that, in addition to a central bar, multiple spiral patterns and lopsided modes develop in all models. Interaction among these asymmetric features results in a large scale stellar migration. However, we show that, despite the strong radial mixing, discs cannot be thickened sufficiently to match observed thick discs. We relate this to the adiabatic cooling as stars migrate radially outwards. We also find that the bulge contribution to a thick-disc component for an Sa-type galaxy at ∼ 2.5 disc scale-lengths is less than 1% and zero in the case of a Milky Way-like, Sb-type. Our findings cast doubt on the plausibility of thick disc formation via stellar radial migration.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Effect of Disc Plate's Openings on Shell Side Properties of Coiled Heat Exchanger with Convergent-Divergent Tubes%圆盘板开孔对缩放管盘环式换热器壳程性能影响的数值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋华

    2013-01-01

    利用CFD技术对圆盘板上开不同直径孔的缩放管盘环式换热器壳程进行了数值模拟.结果表明,田盘板开孔能在一定程度上改善圆盘板后侧流体的流动状况,且开孔后圆盘与圆环折流板之间的流体压力分布较均匀;开孔直径越大,挟热器的壳程传热系数和压降均越小,综合性能越好;开孔直径不宜过小,适当地开孔才能有效地提高换热器的综合性能.%Making use of CFD,the shell side properties of coiled heat exchanger with convergent — divergent tubes were simulated.The results show that,the disc plate' s opening can improve fluid' s flow condition at disc plate' s rear side and can bring a well-distributed fluid pressure between disc and baffle plate ; and the openings'larger diameter can bring smaller shell side heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop.The opening's proper diameter can benefit the improvement of comprehensive properties of heat exchangers.

  5. Dynamic analysis of the actuated redundantly parallel seismic simulator by using the virtual prototype software%冗余驱动地震模拟台虚拟样机动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱可; 何俊; 张晓妮; 董兴建; 赵永杰

    2012-01-01

    The process of building the virtual prototyping and the dynamic analysis of a kind of actuated redundantly parallel seismic simulator was carried out by using the solid modeling software SolidWorks(R) and the multibody dynamics software ADAMS(R). The virtual prototyping was built by virtue of SolidWorks(R) and ADAMS(R). Then the position, the velocity, the acceleration of the sliders, the driving torque and power were calculated when the motion of the moving platform was defined in ADAMS(R). Finally, the required output work was also achieved by means of Post-Processor. The simulation results show that the maximal driving torque, the maximal driving power and the output work of the 3rd motor are biggest among all the motors according to the given trajectory. The whole process reveals the advantages of the virtual prototyping technique since it not only reduces the work of complex modeling and programming, but also completes the dynamic analysis of the parallel seismic simulator rapidly for the building of the prototype.%以实体造型软件SolidWorks(R)及多刚体动力学软件ADAMS(R)为工具,对一种冗余驱动地震模拟台进行虚拟样机搭建及动力学分析.首先在SolidWorks(R)中搭建好冗余驱动地震模拟台的装配体模型,然后导入ADAMS(R)中完成虚拟样机构建.利用ADAMS(R)软件对地震模拟台末端添加运动,通过运动学与动力学逆解计算出滑块的位置、速度、加速度、驱动力矩及功率,采用后处理模块对驱动功率的绝对值积分求解出驱动电机的作功.根据给定的轨迹,仿真结果表明:在8个电机中,第3个电机的最大驱动力矩、驱动功率与作功均大于其余电机.该过程免去了繁琐的理论建模及编程工作,可快速实现冗余驱动地震模拟台的动力学分析,为物理样机的建造提供依据,体现了虚拟样机技术的优越性.

  6. Sparse aperture masking interferometry survey of transitional discs. Search for substellar-mass companions and asymmetries in their parent discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, M.; Kraus, S.; Kluska, J.; Monnier, J. D.; Ireland, M.; Aarnio, A.; Sitko, M. L.; Calvet, N.; Espaillat, C.; Wilner, D. J.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Transitional discs are a class of circumstellar discs around young stars with extensive clearing of dusty material within their inner regions on 10s of au scales. One of the primary candidates for this kind of clearing is the formation of planet(s) within the disc that then accrete or clear their immediate area as they migrate through the disc. Aims: The goal of this survey was to search for asymmetries in the brightness distribution around a selection of transitional disc targets. We then aimed to determine whether these asymmetries trace dynamically-induced structures in the disc or the gap-opening planets themselves. Methods: Our sample included eight transitional discs. Using the Keck/NIRC2 instrument we utilised the Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM) interferometry technique to search for asymmetries indicative of ongoing planet formation. We searched for close-in companions using both model fitting and interferometric image reconstruction techniques. Using simulated data, we derived diagnostics that helped us to distinguish between point sources and extended asymmetric disc emission. In addition, we investigated the degeneracy between the contrast and separation that appear for marginally resolved companions. Results: We found FP Tau to contain a previously unseen disc wall, and DM Tau, LkHα330, and TW Hya to contain an asymmetric signal indicative of point source-like emission. We placed upper limits on the contrast of a companion in RXJ 1842.9-3532 and V2246 Oph. We ruled the asymmetry signal in RXJ 1615.3-3255 and V2062 Oph to be false positives. In the cases where our data indicated a potential companion we computed estimates for the value of McṀc and found values in the range of . Conclusions: We found significant asymmetries in four targets. Of these, three were consistent with companions. We resolved a previously unseen gap in the disc of FP Tau extending inwards from approximately 10 au. Based on observations made with the Keck observatory

  7. Prosthetic Lumbar disc replacement for degenerative disc disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Arvind

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical articulated device to replace intervertebral disc as a treatment for low back pain secondary to disc degeneration has emerged as a promising tool for selected patients. The potential advantages are prevention of adjacent segment degeneration, maintenance of mobility as well as avoidance of all the complications associated with fusion. The short-term results have been comparable to that of fusion, a few mid-term results have shown mixed outcome, but information on long-term results and performance are not available at present. The rationale for lumbar disc arthroplasty, indications, contraindications, the various artificial devices in the market and the concepts intrinsic to each of them, basic technique of insertion, complications are discussed and a brief summary of our experience with one of the devices is presented.

  8. Photochemical-dynamical models of externally FUV irradiated protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Haworth, Thomas J; Facchini, Stefano; Bisbas, Thomas G; Clarke, Cathie J

    2016-01-01

    There is growing theoretical and observational evidence that protoplanetary disc evolution may be significantly affected by the canonical levels of far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation found in a star forming environment, leading to substantial stripping of material from the disc outer edge even in the absence of nearby massive stars. In this paper we perform the first full radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the flow from the outer rim of protoplanetary discs externally irradiated by such intermediate strength FUV fields, including direct modelling of the photon dominated region (PDR) which is required to accurately compute the thermal properties. We find excellent agreement between our models and the semi-analytic models of Facchini et al. (2016) for the profile of the flow itself, as well as the mass loss rate and location of their "critical radius". This both validates their results (which differed significantly from prior semi-analytic estimates) and our new numerical method, the latter of which can now be ...

  9. The collective mode and turbulent viscosity in accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridman, A.M.; Boyarchuk, A.A.; Bisikalo, D.V.; Kuznetsov, O.A.; Khoruzhii, O.V.; Torgashin, Yu.M.; Kilpio, A.A

    2003-10-20

    The existence of a spiral-vortex structure is revealed by a numerical simulation of the dynamics of an accretion disc in close binary stars. This structure is not related to the tidal influence of a companion star. It is a density wave containing a one-armed spiral and an anticyclonic vortex. The formation of the structure is caused by a hydrodynamical instability. The latter results in a disc turbulence with a turbulent viscosity coefficient {nu}{approx_equal}0.035 {omega}h{sup 2} (h is a semithickness of the disc). This value is in accordance with both the value of a numerical viscosity in presented calculations and the results of observations. The period of the density wave rotation is in agreement with the typical periods of light curve variations observed in cataclysmic binary stars.

  10. Beryllium Drive Disc Characterization for Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmar, J. R.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.

    2009-11-01

    Laboratory Astrophysics scales large-scale phenomena, such as core-collapse supernovae shocks, down to the sub-millimeter scale for investigation in a laboratory setting. In some experiments, targets are constructed with a 20μm thick beryllium disc attached to a polyimide tube. A shockwave is created by irradiating the Be disc with ˜ 4kJ of energy from the Omega Laser. The Be material is rolled into a 20μm sheet and then machined to a 2.5mm diameter. Characterizing the roughness and knowing if there are any major features on the initial surface could affect interpretations of data taken during experiments. Structure in the Beryllium discs could become an important parameter in future high-fidelity computer simulations. Surfaces were characterized with a Scanning Electron Microscope and an Atomic Force Microscope.

  11. Hysteresis Modeling of Magnetic Shape Memory Alloy Actuator Based on Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaolei Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new type of intelligent material, magnetically shape memory alloy (MSMA has a good performance in its applications in the actuator manufacturing. Compared with traditional actuators, MSMA actuator has the advantages as fast response and large deformation; however, the hysteresis nonlinearity of the MSMA actuator restricts its further improving of control precision. In this paper, an improved Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii (KP model is used to establish the hysteresis model of MSMA actuator. To identify the weighting parameters of the KP operators, an improved gradient correction algorithm and a variable step-size recursive least square estimation algorithm are proposed in this paper. In order to demonstrate the validity of the proposed modeling approach, simulation experiments are performed, simulations with improved gradient correction algorithm and variable step-size recursive least square estimation algorithm are studied, respectively. Simulation results of both identification algorithms demonstrate that the proposed modeling approach in this paper can establish an effective and accurate hysteresis model for MSMA actuator, and it provides a foundation for improving the control precision of MSMA actuator.

  12. Hysteresis modeling of magnetic shape memory alloy actuator based on Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Miaolei; Wang, Shoubin; Gao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    As a new type of intelligent material, magnetically shape memory alloy (MSMA) has a good performance in its applications in the actuator manufacturing. Compared with traditional actuators, MSMA actuator has the advantages as fast response and large deformation; however, the hysteresis nonlinearity of the MSMA actuator restricts its further improving of control precision. In this paper, an improved Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii (KP) model is used to establish the hysteresis model of MSMA actuator. To identify the weighting parameters of the KP operators, an improved gradient correction algorithm and a variable step-size recursive least square estimation algorithm are proposed in this paper. In order to demonstrate the validity of the proposed modeling approach, simulation experiments are performed, simulations with improved gradient correction algorithm and variable step-size recursive least square estimation algorithm are studied, respectively. Simulation results of both identification algorithms demonstrate that the proposed modeling approach in this paper can establish an effective and accurate hysteresis model for MSMA actuator, and it provides a foundation for improving the control precision of MSMA actuator.

  13. Modular Actuators for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocketstar Robotics is proposing the development of a modern dual drive actuator. Rocketstar has put together numerous modern concepts for modular actuators that...

  14. Electrodynamic actuators for rocket engine valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, O.; Doshi, D.

    1972-01-01

    Actuators, employed in acoustic loudspeakers, operate liquid rocket engine valves by replacing light paper cones with flexible metal diaphragms. Comparative analysis indicates better response time than solenoid actuators, and improved service life and reliability.

  15. Transputer Control of Hydraulic Actuators and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Results from a Danish mechatronics research program entitled IMCIA - Intelligent Control and Intelligent Actuators. The objective is development of intelligent actuators for intelligent motion control. A mechatronics test facility with a transputer controlled hydraulic robot suiteable for real...

  16. The long-term evolution of photoevaporating transition discs with giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Rosotti, Giovanni P; Owen, James E

    2015-01-01

    Photo-evaporation and planet formation have both been proposed as mechanisms responsible for the creation of a transition disc. We have studied their combined effect through a suite of 2d simulations of protoplanetary discs undergoing X-ray photoevaporation with an embedded giant planet. In a previous work we explored how the formation of a giant planet triggers the dispersal of the inner disc by photo-evaporation at earlier times than what would have happened otherwise. This is particularly relevant for the observed transition discs with large holes and high mass accretion rates that cannot be explained by photo-evaporation alone. In this work we significantly expand the parameter space investigated by previous simulations. In addition, the updated model includes thermal sweeping, needed for studying the complete dispersal of the disc. After the removal of the inner disc the disc is a non accreting transition disc, an object that is rarely seen in observations. We assess the relative length of this phase, to...

  17. Study on Optimal Placement of Piezoelectric Actuators for a Whole Spacecraft Vibration Isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Fang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Position of actuators plays an important role in active vibration control, which affects not only the performance of vibration control but also the stability of the whole system, especially for flexible structures. In this paper, dynamic sensitivity analysis method was used to derive an optimization criterion for Piezoelectric Stack Actuator (PSA, this criterion was only related to the dynamic characteristics of the structure itself and the features of disturbances, but was not affected by initial conditions and control methods. Then by using this criterion, optimal placement of the piezoelectric actuator of a Whole-Spacecraft Vibration Isolator (WSVI was studied, and vibration control effect of random position and optimal position was compared; simulation results verified the validity of the criteria, and showed that the optimized location of actuator could greatly enhance the actuation efficiency and vibration control effect.

  18. Design of Rotating Moving-Magnet-Type VCM Actuator for Miniaturized Mobile Robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Bu Hyun [Hanbat Nat' l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seungyop [Sogana Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyungmin [Korean Intellectual Property Office, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Dongho [Chungnam Nat' l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A voice coil actuator with a rotating moving magnet has been developed for a miniaturized mobile robot. The actuator has simple structure comprising a magnet, a coil, and a yoke. Actuator performance is predicted using a linearized theoretical model, and dynamic performance based on the air-gap between the magnet and the coil is predicted using motor constant and restoring constant obtained through finite element simulations. The theoretical model was verified using a prototype with 60 Hz resonance and 80 Hz bandwidth. We found that an input of 1.5 V can make the actuator rotate by 20 .deg. statically. The driving configuration of the proposed actuator can be simplified because of its implementation of open-loop control.

  19. A General Contact Force Analysis of an Under-actuated Finger in Robot Hand Grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Vinh Ha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a mathematical analysis of contact forces for the under-actuated finger in a general under-actuated robotic hand during grasping. The concept of under-actuation in robotic grasping with fewer actuators than degrees of freedom (DOF, through the use of springs and mechanical limits, allows the hand to adjust itself to an irregularly shaped object without complex control strategies and sensors. Here the main concern is the contact forces, which are important elements in grasping tasks, based on the proposed mathematical analysis of their distributions of the n-DOF under-actuated finger. The simulation results, along with the 3-DOF finger from the ADAMS model, show the effectiveness of the mathematical analysis method, while comparing them with the measured results. The system can find magnitudes of the contact forces at the contact positions between the phalanges and the object.

  20. The magnetorotational instability in debris-disc gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Quentin; Latter, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    Debris discs are commonly swathed in gas, which can be observed in UV, in fine structure lines in FIR, and in resolved maps of CO emission. Carbon and oxygen are overabundant in such gas, but it is severely depleted in hydrogen. As a consequence, its ionization fraction is remarkably high, suggesting that magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes could be important. In particular, the gas may be subject to the magnetorotational instability (MRI), and indeed, recent modelling of β Pictoris requires an anomalous viscosity to explain the gas's observed radial structure. In this paper, we explore the possibility that the MRI is active in debris-disc gas and responsible for the observed mass transport. We find that non-ideal MHD and dust-gas interactions play a subdominant role, and that linear instability is viable at certain radii. However, owing to low gas densities, the outer parts of the disc could be stabilized by a weak ambient magnetic field, though it is difficult to constrain such a field. Even if the MRI is stabilized by too strong a field, a magnetocentrifugal wind may be launched in its place, and this could lead to equivalent (non-turbulent) transport. Numerical simulations of the vertically stratified MRI in conditions appropriate to the debris-disc gas should be able to determine the nature of the characteristic behaviour at different radii, and decide on the importance of the MRI (and MHD more generally) on the evolution of these discs.

  1. Bending instability in galactic discs. Advocacy of the linear theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rodionov, S A

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that in N-body simulations of isolated disc galaxies there is numerical vertical heating which slowly increases the vertical velocity dispersion and the disc thickness. Even for models with over a million particles in a disc, this heating can be significant. Such an effect is just the same as in numerical experiments by Sellwood (2013). We also show that in a stellar disc, outside a boxy/peanut bulge, if it presents, the saturation level of the bending instability is rather close to the value predicted by the linear theory. We pay attention to the fact that the bending instability develops and decays very fast, so it couldn't play any role in secular vertical heating. However the bending instability defines the minimal value of the ratio between the vertical and radial velocity dispersions $\\sigma_z / \\sigma_R \\approx 0.3$ (so indirectly the minimal thickness) which could have stellar discs in real galaxies. We demonstrate that observations confirm last statement.

  2. Internal kinematics of modelled interacting disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberger, T; Schindler, S; Böhm, A; Kutdemir, E; Ziegler, B L

    2006-01-01

    We present an investigation of galaxy-galaxy interactions and their effects on the velocity fields of disc galaxies in combined N-body/hydrodynamic simulations, which include cooling, star formation with feedback, and galactic winds. Rotation curves (RCs) of the gas are extracted from these simulations in a way that follows the procedure applied in observations of distant, small, and faint galaxies as closely as possible. We show that galaxy-galaxy mergers and fly-bys significantly disturb the velocity fields and hence the RCs of the interacting galaxies, leading to asymmetries and distortions in the RCs. Typical features of disturbed kinematics are rising or falling profiles in direction to the companion galaxy and bumps in the RCs. In addition, tidal tails can leave strong imprints on the rotation curve. All these features are observable for intermediate redshift galaxies, on which we focus our investigations. The appearance of these distortions depends, however, strongly on the viewing angle. The velocity ...

  3. Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennett, Thomas; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, Brian J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-04-22

    The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

  4. Analysis of the sweeped actuator line method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The actuator line method made it possible to describe the near wake of a wind turbine more accurately than with the actuator disk method. Whereas the actuator line generates the helicoidal vortex system shed from the tip blades, the actuator disk method sheds a vortex sheet from the edge of the rotor plane. But with the actuator line come also temporal and spatial constraints, such as the need for a much smaller time step than with actuator disk. While the latter one only has to obey the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition, the former one is also restricted by the grid resolution and the rotor tip-speed. Additionally the spatial resolution has to be finer for the actuator line than with the actuator disk, for well resolving the tip vortices. Therefore this work is dedicated to examining a method in between of actuator line and actuator disk, which is able to model the transient behaviour, such as the rotating blades, but which also relaxes the temporal constraint. Therefore a larger time-step is used and the blade forces are swept over a certain area. The main focus of this article is on the aspect of the blade tip vortex generation in comparison with the standard actuator line and actuator disk.

  5. Experimental identification of piezo actuator characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľ. Miková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with piezoelectric material, which can be used as actuator for conversion of electrical energy to mechanical work. Test equipment has been developed for experimental testing of the piezoactuators. Piezoactivity of this actuator has non-linear characteristic. This type of actuator is used for in-pipe mechanism design.

  6. Atomic gas in debris discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Antonio S.; Barlow, M. J.; Crawford, I. A.; Casassus, S.

    2017-04-01

    We have conducted a search for optical circumstellar absorption lines in the spectra of 16 debris disc host stars. None of the stars in our sample showed signs of emission line activity in either Hα, Ca II or Na I, confirming their more evolved nature. Four stars were found to exhibit narrow absorption features near the cores of the photospheric Ca II and Na I D lines (when Na I D data were available). We analyse the characteristics of these spectral features to determine whether they are of circumstellar or interstellar origins. The strongest evidence for circumstellar gas is seen in the spectrum of HD 110058, which is known to host a debris disc observed close to edge-on. This is consistent with a recent ALMA detection of molecular gas in this debris disc, which shows many similarities to the β Pictoris system.

  7. Disc-protoplanet interaction Influence of circumprimary radiative discs on self-gravitating protoplanetary bodies in binary star systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gyergyovits, M; Lohinger, E Pilat -; Theis, Ch

    2014-01-01

    Context. More than 60 planets have been discovered so far in systems that harbour two stars, some of which have binary semi-major axes as small as 20 au. It is well known that the formation of planets in such systems is strongly influenced by the stellar components, since the protoplanetary disc and the particles within are exposed to the gravitational influence of the binary. However, the question on how self-gravitating protoplanetary bodies a?ect the evolution of a radiative, circumprimary disc is still open. Aims. We present our 2D hydrodynamical GPU-CPU code and study the interaction of several thousands of self-gravitating particles with a viscous and radiative circumprimary disc within a binary star system. To our knowledge this program is the only one at the moment that is capable to handle this many particles and to calculate their influence on each other and on the disc. Methods. We performed hydrodynamical simulations of a circumstellar disc assuming the binary system to be coplanar. Our gridbased ...

  8. How to Detect the Signatures of Self-Gravitating Circumstellar Discs with the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array

    CERN Document Server

    Dipierro, Giovanni; Testi, Leonardo; Monsalvo, Itziar de Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present simulated Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) observations of self-gravitating circumstellar discs with different properties in size, mass and inclination, located in four of the most extensively studied and surveyed star-forming regions. Starting from a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation and representative dust opacities, we have initially constructed maps of the expected emission at sub-mm wavelengths of a large sample of discs with different properties. We have then simulated realistic observations of discs as they may appear with ALMA using the Common Astronomy Software Application ALMA simulator. We find that, with a proper combination of antenna configuration and integration time, the spiral structure characteristic of self-gravitating discs is readily detectable by ALMA over a wide range of wavelengths at distances comparable to TW Hydrae ($\\sim 50 \\,$pc), Taurus - Auriga and Ophiucus ($\\sim 140 \\,$pc) star-forming regions. However, for discs loca...

  9. Parametric Design and Multiobjective Optimization of Maglev Actuators for Active Vibration Isolation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The microvibration has a serious impact on science experiments on the space station and on image quality of high resolution satellites. As an important component of the active vibration isolation platform, the maglev actuator has a large stroke and exhibits excellent isolating performance benefiting from its noncontact characteristic. A maglev actuator with good linearity was designed in this paper. Fundamental features of the maglev actuator were obtained by finite element simulation. In order to minimize the coil weight and the heat dissipation of the maglev actuator, parametric design was carried out and multiobjective optimization based on the genetic algorithm was adopted. The optimized actuator has better mechanical properties than the initial one. Active vibration isolation platforms for different-scale payload were designed by changing the arrangement of the maglev actuators. The prototype to isolate vibration for small-scale payload was manufactured and the experiments for verifying the characteristics of the actuators were set up. The linearity of the actuator and the mechanical dynamic response of the vibration isolation platform were obtained. The experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed design.

  10. Polypyrrole Actuators for Tremor Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Mogensen, Naja; Bay, Lasse

    2003-01-01

    Neurological tremor affecting limbs can be divided into at least 6 different types with frequencies ranging from 2 to about 20 Hz. In order to alleviate the symptoms by suppressing the tremor, sensing and actuation systems able to perform at these frequencies are needed. Electroactive polymers...

  11. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  12. SMA actuators for morphing wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovski, V.; Terriault, P.; Georges, T.; Coutu, D.

    An experimental morphing laminar wing was developed to prove the feasibility of aircraft fuel consumption reduction through enhancement of the laminar flow regime over the wing extrados. The morphing wing prototype designed for subsonic cruise flight conditions (Mach 0.2 … 0.3; angle of attack - 1 … +2∘), combines three principal subsystems: (1) flexible extrados, (2) rigid intrados and (3) an actuator group located inside the wing box. The morphing capability of the wing relies on controlled deformation of the wing extrados under the action of shape memory alloys (SMA) actuators. A coupled fluid-structure model of the morphing wing was used to evaluate its mechanical and aerodynamic performances in different flight conditions. A 0.5 m chord and 1 m span prototype of the morphing wing was tested in a subsonic wind tunnel. In this work, SMA actuators for morphing wings were modeled using a coupled thermo-mechanical finite element model and they were windtunnel validated. If the thermo-mechanical model of SMA actuators presented in this work is coupled with the previously developed structureaerodynamic model of the morphing wing, it could serve for the optimization of the entire morphing wing system.

  13. Explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den Dennis Micha

    2008-01-01

    Microactuators are key components in numerous microsystems, and in many applications strong and fast microactuators are required. The principles used to generate forces in the current actuators are not capable of fulfilling both requirements at the same time, so new principles have to be investigate

  14. Compliant actuation of rehabilitation robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallery, Heike; Veneman, Jan; Asseldonk, van Edwin; Ekkelenkamp, Ralf; Buss, Martin; Kooij, van der Herman

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the pros and cons of compliant actuation for rehabilitation robots on the example of LOPES, focusing on the cons. After illustrating the bandwidth limitations, a new result has been derived: if stability in terms of passivity of the haptic device is desired, the renderable sti

  15. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  16. Design of an innovative dielectric elastomer actuator for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branz, Francesco; Sansone, Francesco; Francesconi, Alessandro

    2014-03-01

    The capability of Dielectric Elastomers to show large deformations under high voltage loads has been deeply investigated to develop a number of actuators concepts. From a space systems point of view, the advantages introduced by this class of smart materials are considerable and include high conversion efficiency, distributed actuation, self-sensing capability, light weight and low cost. This paper focuses on the design of a solid-state actuator capable of high positioning resolution. The use of Electroactive Polymers makes this device interesting for space mechanisms applications, such as antenna and sensor pointing, solar array orientation, attitude control, adaptive structures and robotic manipulators. In particular, such actuation suffers neither wear, nor fatigue issues and shows highly damped vibrations, thus requiring no maintenance and transferring low disturbance to the surrounding structures. The main weakness of this actuator is the relatively low force/torque values available. The proposed geometry allows two rotational degrees of freedom, and simulations are performed to measure the expected instant angular deflection at zero load and the stall torque of the actuator under a given high voltage load. Several geometric parameters are varied and their influence on the device behaviour is studied. Simplified relations are extrapolated from the numerical results and represent useful predicting tools for design purposes. Beside the expected static performances, the dynamic behaviour of the device is also assessed and the input/output transfer function is estimated. Finally, a prototype design for laboratory tests is presented; the experimental activity aims to validate the preliminary results obtained by numerical analysis.

  17. Piezoelectric multilayer actuator life test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Jones, Christopher M; Aldrich, Jack B; Blodget, Chad J; Moore, James D; Carson, John W; Goullioud, Renaud

    2011-04-01

    Potential NASA optical missions such as the Space Interferometer Mission require actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of nanometers. Commercially available multilayer piezoelectric stack actuators are being considered for driving these precision mirror positioning mechanisms. These mechanisms have potential mission operational requirements that exceed 5 years for one mission life. To test the feasibility of using these commercial actuators for these applications and to determine their reliability and the redundancy requirements, a life test study was undertaken. The nominal actuator requirements for the most critical actuators on the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) in terms of number of cycles was estimated from the Modulation Optics Mechanism (MOM) and Pathlength control Optics Mechanism (POM) and these requirements were used to define the study. At a nominal drive frequency of 250 Hz, one mission life is calculated to be 40 billion cycles. In this study, a set of commercial PZT stacks configured in a potential flight actuator configuration (pre-stressed to 18 MPa and bonded in flexures) were tested for up to 100 billion cycles. Each test flexure allowed for two sets of primary and redundant stacks to be mechanically connected in series. The tests were controlled using an automated software control and data acquisition system that set up the test parameters and monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The samples were driven between 0 and 20 V at 2000 Hz to accelerate the life test and mimic the voltage amplitude that is expected to be applied to the stacks during operation. During the life test, 10 primary stacks were driven and 10 redundant stacks, mechanically in series with the driven stacks, were open-circuited. The stroke determined from a strain gauge, the temperature and humidity in the chamber, and the temperature of each individual stack were recorded. Other properties of the stacks, including the

  18. Dead discs, unstable discs and the stars they surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Angelo Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong stellar magnetic fields significantly alter the behaviour of surrounding accretion discs. Recent work has demonstrated that at low accretion rates a large amount of mass can remain confined in the disc, contrary to the standard assumption that the magnetic field will expel the disc in an outflow (the “propeller regime”. These “dead discs” often become unstable, causing cycles of accretion onto the central star. Here I present the main predictions of this model, and argue that it provides a good explanation for the peculiar behaviour seen in several accreting sources with strong magnetic fields. I will focus in particular on three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars: SAX J1808.4-3658, NGC 6440 X-2 and IGR J00291+5934. These sources all show low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations consistent with a variable accretion rate, as well as unusual outburst patterns that suggest gas is confined in the inner disc regions during quiescence.

  19. Dependence of fragmentation in self-gravitating accretion discs on small scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    We propose a framework for understanding the fragmentation criterion for self-gravitating discs which, in contrast to studies that emphasise the `gravoturbulent' nature of such discs, instead focuses on the properties of their quasi-regular spiral structures. Within this framework there are two evolutionary paths to fragmentation: i) collapse on the free-fall time, which requires that the ratio of cooling time to dynamical time ($\\beta$) $< 3$ and ii) quasistatic collapse on the cooling time at a rate that is sufficiently fast that fragments are compact enough to withstand disruption when they encounter spiral features in the disc. We perform 2D grid simulations which demonstrate numerically converged fragmentation at $\\beta < 3$ (in good agreement with Paardekooper et al. (2011) and others) and argue that this is a consequence of the fact that such simulations smooth the gravitational force on the scale $H$, the scale height of the disc. Such simulations thus only allow fragmentation via route i) above...

  20. The Auriga Project: the properties and formation mechanisms of disc galaxies across cosmic time

    CERN Document Server

    Grand, Robert J J; Marinacci, Federico; Pakmor, Ruediger; Springel, Volker; Campbell, David J R; Frenk, Carlos S; Jenkins, Adrian; White, Simon D M

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a suite of thirty cosmological magneto-hydrodynamical zoom simulations of the formation of Milky Way-like galaxies and their dark haloes. These were carried out with the moving mesh code \\textlcsc{AREPO}, together with a comprehensive model for galaxy formation physics, including AGN feedback and magnetic fields, which produces realistic galaxy populations in large cosmological simulations. We demonstrate that our simulations reproduce a wide range of observables, in particular, two component disc dominated galaxies with appropriate stellar masses, sizes, rotation curves, star formation rates and metallicities. We investigate the driving mechanisms that set present day disc sizes/scale lengths, and find that they are related to the angular momentum of halo material. We show that the largest discs are produced by quiescent mergers that inspiral into the galaxy and deposit high angular momentum material into the pre-existing disc, simultaneously increasing the spin of dark matter and gas in the hal...