WorldWideScience

Sample records for actual safety performance

  1. Marijuana and actual driving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...

  2. Radiation safety actuality in Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuharuk, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Radioecological monitoring issues and radiation safety are actual in the Republic of Moldova. Japan events show us the possibility of natural disasters. Republic of Moldova is surrounded by 8 NPPs, the closest being at the distance of 160 km. Moldovas territory is in seismic zone where underground earthquake shocks reaches 7 points or more. Thatis why radiation safety and radioecological monitoring is actual in our republic. Traces of Chernobyl were left in Moldovas soils. The fallouts of radio nuclides formed on the soil surfaces in the Republic of Moldova following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station Accident have been continuously affected by attacks of both natural and technicaly generated agents since the time of fallout. During the past decade a shift in emphasis has taken place regarding the need for more complete and accurate information on reservoir sedimentation. Classical sedimentation surveys involve repeated field measurement and, therefore, this is probably the most costly and time consuming method. The application of radio nuclides, particularly Cs 137, for water erosion and sedimentation studies in Republic of Moldova has not been attempted so far. This paper presents the results obtained on reservoir sedimentation rates in an area subjected to wide range in land degradation dy sheet-rill erosion. The profil characteristics support the assumption that in most undisturbed sites there is a sharp decline in Cs 137 activity with increasing dept. Such an asymmetrical distribution of the Cs 137 would suggest a standard pattern in the form of a cantilever. If the validity of this assamption is accepted it is possible to define two major types of Cs 137 cantilever distribution: shallow and deep buried cantilever. The main criterion in classifying these pattents lies generally in the shape of Cs 137 depth profile and particularly in burial magnitude of Cs 137 peak derived from Chernobyl. Hills area has been impacted by greatest sendimentation. This regional

  3. Marijuana, alcohol and actual driving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically determine the separate and combined effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol on actual driving performance. This was the first study ever in which the drugs' combined effects were measured...

  4. Safety performance indicators program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, Patricia G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1997 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) initiated a program to define and implement a Safety Performance Indicators System for the two operating nuclear power plants, Atucha I and Embalse. The objective of the program was to incorporate a set of safety performance indicators to be used as a new regulatory tool providing an additional view of the operational performance of the nuclear power plants, improving the ability to detect degradation on safety related areas. A set of twenty-four safety performance indicators was developed and improved throughout pilot implementation initiated in July 1998. This paper summarises the program development, the main criteria applied in each stage and the results obtained. (author)

  5. Food safety performance indicators to benchmark food safety output of food safety management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M.; Devlieghere, F.; Rovira, J.; Oses Gomez, S.; Luning, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to measure the food safety performance in the agri-food chain without performing actual microbiological analysis. A food safety performance diagnosis, based on seven indicators and corresponding assessment grids have been developed and validated in nine European food businesses.

  6. Performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester in actual rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Voon-Kean; Ho, Jee-Hou; Chai, Ai-Bao

    2017-01-01

    When raindrops impact on the surface of a piezoelectric beam, strain energy produced by the impinging raindrop will be converted to harvestable electrical energy by the piezoelectric layers in a cantilever beam. The novelty of this study is to investigate the performance of the harvester in actual rain and provide practical insights on implementation. The influences of rain parameters such as rain rate, rainfall depth, raindrop count, and drop size distribution (DSD) are discussed in this study. The raindrops accumulated on the surface of the piezoelectric beam will form a water layer. It is described using added mass coefficient in this study. In an actual rain experiment, a piezoelectric beam with surface area of 0.0018 m 2 is able to produce 2076 μJ of energy over a duration of 301 min. The energy generation of a raindrop impact piezoelectric energy harvester is highly dependent on the rain rate. Due to the inconsistency of the energy generation, the piezoelectric energy harvester would require an integration of suitable energy storage device for continuous operation. Nevertheless, this work shows the feasibility of harvesting raindrop energy using a piezoelectric beam. - Highlights: • The performance of a piezoelectric rain energy harvester is tested in actual rain. • The energy generation is highly dependent on the rain rate. • Practical insights on the implementation of the harvester are discussed. • A total energy of 2076 μJ is generated over a duration of 301 min.

  7. An investigation into the actual condition of radiation safety control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsurayama, Kosuke

    1976-01-01

    The result of investigation on the real condition of radiation safety control is reported with some considerations. The investigation was made in April, 1975, by means of questionnaires to 418 companies, and the responses were obtained from 126 companies, i.e. 11 research laboratories, 98 manufacturing factories, and 17 inspection facilities. The average integrated dose in the inspection facilities was 0.91 rem/year, the most among three. The exposure dose in most of the research laboratories and manufacturing factories investigated was within the limit of 0.5 rem/year, and that in the inspection facilities was distributed over from the background level to 5 rem/year. The ratios of the workers engaged in radiation operation and the workers possessing the licences related to non-destructive examination to all employees were investigated, but they were not at satisfactory level. Regarding the abandonment of radioactive isotopes, 63.5% of the companies answered deliver the radioactive isotopes to be abandoned to Japan Isotope Association, and 25.7% let equipment makers to take them back. As for the education and training of operators for the safe treatment of radioactive substances and the prevention of accidents, most of the companies answered gave the education once or twice a year, and to those who just entered the companies, but more substantial education in desirable. (Nishino, S.)

  8. A concurrent diagnosis of microbiological food safety output and food safety management system performance: Cases from meat processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Rovira, J.; Oses Gomez, S.; Uyttendaele, M.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Stakeholder requirements force companies to analyse their food safety management system (FSMS) performance to improve food safety. Performance is commonly analysed by checking compliance against preset requirements via audits/inspections, or actual food safety (FS) output is analysed by

  9. Determination of Safety Performance Grade of NPP Using Integrated Safety Performance Assessment (ISPA) Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Dae Wook

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of 2000, the safety regulation of nuclear power plant (NPP) has been challenged to be conducted more reasonable, effective and efficient way using risk and performance information. In the United States, USNRC established Reactor Oversight Process (ROP) in 2000 for improving the effectiveness of safety regulation of operating NPPs. The main idea of ROP is to classify the NPPs into 5 categories based on the results of safety performance assessment and to conduct graded regulatory programs according to categorization, which might be interpreted as 'Graded Regulation'. However, the classification of safety performance categories is highly comprehensive and sensitive process so that safety performance assessment program should be prepared in integrated, objective and quantitative manner. Furthermore, the results of assessment should characterize and categorize the actual level of safety performance of specific NPP, integrating all the substantial elements for assessing the safety performance. In consideration of particular regulatory environment in Korea, the integrated safety performance assessment (ISPA) program is being under development for the use in the determination of safety performance grade (SPG) of a NPP. The ISPA program consists of 6 individual assessment programs (4 quantitative and 2 qualitative) which cover the overall safety performance of NPP. Some of the assessment programs which are already implemented are used directly or modified for incorporating risk aspects. The others which are not existing regulatory programs are newly developed. Eventually, all the assessment results from individual assessment programs are produced and integrated to determine the safety performance grade of a specific NPP

  10. Safety KPIs - Monitoring of safety performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Lališ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide brief overview of aviation safety development focusing on modern trends represented by implementation of Safety Key Performance Indicators. Even though aviation is perceived as safe means of transport, it is still struggling with its complexity given by long-term growth and robustness which it has reached today. Thus nowadays safety issues are much more complex and harder to handle than ever before. We are more and more concerned about organizational factors and control mechanisms which have potential to further increase level of aviation safety. Within this paper we will not only introduce the concept of Key Performance Indicators in area of aviation safety as an efficient control mechanism, but also analyse available legislation and documentation. Finally we will propose complex set of indicators which could be applied to Czech Air Navigation Service Provider.

  11. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.

    2014-01-01

    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured

  12. Food safety performance indicators to benchmark food safety output of food safety management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Uyttendaele, M; Devlieghere, F; Rovira, J; Gomez, S Oses; Luning, P A

    2010-07-31

    There is a need to measure the food safety performance in the agri-food chain without performing actual microbiological analysis. A food safety performance diagnosis, based on seven indicators and corresponding assessment grids have been developed and validated in nine European food businesses. Validation was conducted on the basis of an extensive microbiological assessment scheme (MAS). The assumption behind the food safety performance diagnosis is that food businesses which evaluate the performance of their food safety management system in a more structured way and according to very strict and specific criteria will have a better insight in their actual microbiological food safety performance, because food safety problems will be more systematically detected. The diagnosis can be a useful tool to have a first indication about the microbiological performance of a food safety management system present in a food business. Moreover, the diagnosis can be used in quantitative studies to get insight in the effect of interventions on sector or governmental level. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Photovoltaic performance models: an evaluation with actual field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    TamizhMani, Govindasamy; Ishioye, John-Paul; Voropayev, Arseniy; Kang, Yi

    2008-08-01

    Prediction of energy production is crucial to the design and installation of the building integrated photovoltaic systems. This prediction should be attainable based on the commonly available parameters such as system size, orientation and tilt angle. Several commercially available as well as free downloadable software tools exist to predict energy production. Six software models have been evaluated in this study and they are: PV Watts, PVsyst, MAUI, Clean Power Estimator, Solar Advisor Model (SAM) and RETScreen. This evaluation has been done by comparing the monthly, seasonaly and annually predicted data with the actual, field data obtained over a year period on a large number of residential PV systems ranging between 2 and 3 kWdc. All the systems are located in Arizona, within the Phoenix metropolitan area which lies at latitude 33° North, and longitude 112 West, and are all connected to the electrical grid.

  14. A study on human performance enhancement plan in maintenance field by survey on actual condition of human performance tools - 15035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.; Jeong, H.; Kim, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Human errors in nuclear power plant are one of the important factors that may cause reactor trip. Most operating companies of nuclear power plants manage human factor systematically through tools like HPES (Human Performance Enhancement), PSR (Periodic Safety Review), OE (Operating Experience), human performance tools, safety culture assessment and CAP (Corrective Action Program). But human factors are managed passively in maintenance field, because maintenance works are carrying out by partner companies. KHNP also contracts the maintenance work to the partner companies, and advise them to use human performance tools. But the actual condition on partner companies has not been surveyed. This paper suggests some plans that can improve human performance by analyzing the opinion of partner company employees about the causes and solutions of human errors, by analyzing utilization of human performance tools and by comparing the results of the partner companies survey with the results of the operating company survey. The survey is conducted to 3 partner companies by similar contents and categories in order to compare partner company with operating company, and the main analysis fields are the following: -1) Level of understanding and utilization of the human performance tools, -2) Difficulties of applying the human performance tools, -3) Level of employee's training (or education) in the use of the human performance tools, and -4) Root causes of human errors and countermeasures. (authors)

  15. ACTUAL PERFORMANCE 3D RESTRICTIONS OF INVENTOR 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOANȚĂ Adrian Mihai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The work ranges between papers that leave detailed documentation based on the analysis of current performance 3D constraints, the Autodesk Inventor 2015 and draws a number of conclusions in general about this latest software. Basically, the author, after a presentation of the current situation and trends and future aided design, makes an analysis of how 3D constraint of the three-dimensional assemblies. Also some of the innovations introduced by this version are highlighted.

  16. Actual Performance aNalysis of Innovative Blinds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Šiupšinskas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the innovative internal blinds, which allow to use the solar energy, received through a window for a heating, more efficiently and to ensure a greater air velocity due to the convection. Blinds are constructed that one side is covered with material, which absorbs the solar energy and the other side is reflective. Thus, there is an ability to control an amount of absorbed solar radiation and air supply temperature between the window and the blinds. In addition, the construction of the air to provide locating elements. The elements for air deflection are additionally foreseen in the construction. Due to the natural circulation cold air falls between the blinds and the window, then warms up and rises to the top. The paper presents an empirical and theoretical assessment of an operation of the blinds. In addition, the analysis of the experimental researches of an air flow intensity and a dependency of temperature increase from external (climatic conditions is performed.

  17. Know thyself: misperceptions of actual performance undermine achievement motivation, future performance, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Zou, Zhimin

    2010-09-01

    Contrary to the popular assumption that self-enhancement improves task motivation and future performance, the authors propose that both inflated and deflated self-assessments of performance are linked to an increased likelihood of practicing self-handicapping and having relatively poor performance in future tasks. Consistent with this proposal, we found that irrespective of the level of actual performance, compared with accurate self-assessment, both inflated and deflated self-assessments of task performance are associated with a greater tendency to (a) practice self-handicapping (Study 1: prefer to work under distraction; Study 2: withhold preparatory effort), (b) perform relatively poorly in a subsequent task (Study 3), (c) have relatively low academic achievement (Study 4), and (d) report a relatively low level of subjective well-being (Study 5). The authors discuss these results in terms of their educational implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Fatigue Performance Assessment of Composite Arch Bridge Suspenders Based on Actual Vehicle Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the through arch bridges, the suspenders are the key components connecting the arch rib and the bridge deck in the middle, and their safety is an increasing focus in the field of bridge engineering. In this study, various vehicle traffic flow parameters are investigated based on the actual vehicle data acquired from the long-term structural health monitoring system of a composite arch bridge. The representative vehicle types and the probability density functions of several parameters are determined, including the gross vehicle weight, axle weight, time headway, and speed. A finite element model of the bridge structure is constructed to determine the influence line of the cable force for various suspenders. A simulated vehicle flow, generated using the Monte Carlo method, is applied on the influence lines of the target suspender to determine the stress process, and then the stress amplitude spectrum is obtained based on the statistical analysis of the stress process using the rainflow counting method. The fatigue performance levels of various suspenders are analyzed according to the Palmgren-Miner linear cumulative damage theory, which helps to manage the safety of the suspenders.

  19. Pump performance and reliability follow-up by the French Safety Authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausner, J.P.; De La Ronciere, X.; Scott de Martinville, E.; Courbiere, P.

    1990-12-01

    This paper will present, through actual examples, the methodology of the performance and reliability safety-related pumps evaluation applied by the French Safety Authorities and the lessons drawn from this evaluation

  20. Theoretical Model for the Performance of Liquid Ring Pump Based on the Actual Operating Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid ring pump is widely applied in many industry fields due to the advantages of isothermal compression process, simple structure, and liquid-sealing. Based on the actual operating cycle of “suction-compression-discharge-expansion,” a universal theoretical model for performance of liquid ring pump was established in this study, to solve the problem that the theoretical models deviated from the actual performance in operating cycle. With the major geometric parameters and operating conditions of a liquid ring pump, the performance parameters such as the actual capacity for suction and discharge, shaft power, and global efficiency can be conveniently predicted by the proposed theoretical model, without the limitation of empiric range, performance data, or the detailed 3D geometry of pumps. The proposed theoretical model was verified by experimental performances of liquid ring pumps and could provide a feasible tool for the application of liquid ring pump.

  1. Safety performance indicators for the road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W. Gitelman, V. Papadimitriou, E. Lima De & Azevedo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Within the 6th FP European project SafetyNet, a team has worked on the development of Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs) on seven road safety related areas. These SPIs reflect the operational conditions of the road traffic system that influence the system's safety performance. SPIs were developed

  2. Consistency across repeated eyewitness interviews: contrasting police detectives' beliefs with actual eyewitness performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krix, Alana C; Sauerland, Melanie; Lorei, Clemens; Rispens, Imke

    2015-01-01

    In the legal system, inconsistencies in eyewitness accounts are often used to discredit witnesses' credibility. This is at odds with research findings showing that witnesses frequently report reminiscent details (details previously unrecalled) at an accuracy rate that is nearly as high as for consistently recalled information. The present study sought to put the validity of beliefs about recall consistency to a test by directly comparing them with actual memory performance in two recall attempts. All participants watched a film of a staged theft. Subsequently, the memory group (N = 84) provided one statement immediately after the film (either with the Self-Administered Interview or free recall) and one after a one-week delay. The estimation group (N = 81) consisting of experienced police detectives estimated the recall performance of the memory group. The results showed that actual recall performance was consistently underestimated. Also, a sharp decline of memory performance between recall attempts was assumed by the estimation group whereas actual accuracy remained stable. While reminiscent details were almost as accurate as consistent details, they were estimated to be much less accurate than consistent information and as inaccurate as direct contradictions. The police detectives expressed a great concern that reminiscence was the result of suggestive external influences. In conclusion, it seems that experienced police detectives hold many implicit beliefs about recall consistency that do not correspond with actual recall performance. Recommendations for police trainings are provided. These aim at fostering a differentiated view on eyewitness performance and the inclusion of more comprehensive classes on human memory structure.

  3. Research on mass transfer and actual performance of the membrane regeneration air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiu-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Song; Chen, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental research has been made on the membrane air-conditioning system. • We develop mass transfer models for the membrane regeneration process. • The paper exposes the actual performance of the system. • Increase of membrane pairs improves the performance. - Abstract: Absorption air-conditioning system has great advantages in energy conservation and environmental protection. To improve the performance of the traditional system, the membrane regeneration absorption system was proposed. Its COP could approach 6 by regenerating absorbent solution with the ion exchange membranes. However, the theoretical conclusion has not been supported by the experiment. This paper presents the experimental research of the membrane regeneration process. It has investigated the mass transfer process, energy efficiency and actual performance under different working conditions. Based on that, a mass transfer model has been developed and the influences of some key parameters have been exposed. It found the regeneration performance is mainly influenced by the current intensity. The calculation results with the model agree well the experimental data. The actual efficiency was lower than 50%, caused by energy loss in heat and electrochemical reactions. The actual COP is between 1 and 3, lower current intensity and more membrane pairs could improve it.

  4. Critical review of safety performance metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios

    2016-01-01

    Various tools for safety performance measurement have been introduced in order to fulfil the need for safety monitoring in organisations, which is tightly related to their overall performance and achievement of their business goals. Such tools include accident rates, benchmarking, safety culture and

  5. Performance standards of road safety management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milenko R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety management controlling means the process of finding out the information whether the road safety is improving in a measure to achieve the objectives. The process of control consists of three basic elements: definition of performances and standards, measurement of current performances and comparison with the set standards, and improvement of current performances, if they deviate from the set standards. The performance standards of road safety management system are focused on a performances measurement, in terms of their design and characteristics, in order to support the performances improvement of road safety system and thus, ultimately, improve the road safety. Defining the performance standards of road safety management system, except that determines the design of the system for performances measurement, directly sets requirements whose fulfillment will produce a road safety improvement. The road safety management system, based on the performance standards of road safety, with a focus on results, will produce the continuous improvement of road safety, achieving the long-term 'vision zero', the philosophy of road safety, that human life and health take priority over mobility and other traffic objectives of the road traffic.

  6. Consistency across Repeated Eyewitness Interviews: Contrasting Police Detectives’ Beliefs with Actual Eyewitness Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krix, Alana C.; Sauerland, Melanie; Lorei, Clemens; Rispens, Imke

    2015-01-01

    In the legal system, inconsistencies in eyewitness accounts are often used to discredit witnesses’ credibility. This is at odds with research findings showing that witnesses frequently report reminiscent details (details previously unrecalled) at an accuracy rate that is nearly as high as for consistently recalled information. The present study sought to put the validity of beliefs about recall consistency to a test by directly comparing them with actual memory performance in two recall attempts. All participants watched a film of a staged theft. Subsequently, the memory group (N = 84) provided one statement immediately after the film (either with the Self-Administered Interview or free recall) and one after a one-week delay. The estimation group (N = 81) consisting of experienced police detectives estimated the recall performance of the memory group. The results showed that actual recall performance was consistently underestimated. Also, a sharp decline of memory performance between recall attempts was assumed by the estimation group whereas actual accuracy remained stable. While reminiscent details were almost as accurate as consistent details, they were estimated to be much less accurate than consistent information and as inaccurate as direct contradictions. The police detectives expressed a great concern that reminiscence was the result of suggestive external influences. In conclusion, it seems that experienced police detectives hold many implicit beliefs about recall consistency that do not correspond with actual recall performance. Recommendations for police trainings are provided. These aim at fostering a differentiated view on eyewitness performance and the inclusion of more comprehensive classes on human memory structure. PMID:25695428

  7. Consistency across repeated eyewitness interviews: contrasting police detectives' beliefs with actual eyewitness performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana C Krix

    Full Text Available In the legal system, inconsistencies in eyewitness accounts are often used to discredit witnesses' credibility. This is at odds with research findings showing that witnesses frequently report reminiscent details (details previously unrecalled at an accuracy rate that is nearly as high as for consistently recalled information. The present study sought to put the validity of beliefs about recall consistency to a test by directly comparing them with actual memory performance in two recall attempts. All participants watched a film of a staged theft. Subsequently, the memory group (N = 84 provided one statement immediately after the film (either with the Self-Administered Interview or free recall and one after a one-week delay. The estimation group (N = 81 consisting of experienced police detectives estimated the recall performance of the memory group. The results showed that actual recall performance was consistently underestimated. Also, a sharp decline of memory performance between recall attempts was assumed by the estimation group whereas actual accuracy remained stable. While reminiscent details were almost as accurate as consistent details, they were estimated to be much less accurate than consistent information and as inaccurate as direct contradictions. The police detectives expressed a great concern that reminiscence was the result of suggestive external influences. In conclusion, it seems that experienced police detectives hold many implicit beliefs about recall consistency that do not correspond with actual recall performance. Recommendations for police trainings are provided. These aim at fostering a differentiated view on eyewitness performance and the inclusion of more comprehensive classes on human memory structure.

  8. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2013-10-01

    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer

  9. Safety performance monitoring of autonomous marine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, Christoph A.; Utne, Ingrid B.

    2017-01-01

    The marine environment is vast, harsh, and challenging. Unanticipated faults and events might lead to loss of vessels, transported goods, collected scientific data, and business reputation. Hence, systems have to be in place that monitor the safety performance of operation and indicate if it drifts into an intolerable safety level. This article proposes a process for developing safety indicators for the operation of autonomous marine systems (AMS). The condition of safety barriers and resilience engineering form the basis for the development of safety indicators, synthesizing and further adjusting the dual assurance and the resilience based early warning indicator (REWI) approaches. The article locates the process for developing safety indicators in the system life cycle emphasizing a timely implementation of the safety indicators. The resulting safety indicators reflect safety in AMS operation and can assist in planning of operations, in daily operational decision-making, and identification of improvements. Operation of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) exemplifies the process for developing safety indicators and their implementation. The case study shows that the proposed process leads to a comprehensive set of safety indicators. It is expected that application of the resulting safety indicators consequently will contribute to safer operation of current and future AMS. - Highlights: • Process for developing safety indicators for autonomous marine systems. • Safety indicators based on safety barriers and resilience thinking. • Location of the development process in the system lifecycle. • Case study on AUV demonstrating applicability of the process.

  10. Nursing home safety: does financial performance matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Reid M; Zhao, Mei; Liu, Darren; Carretta, Henry J

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between financial performance and selected safety measures of nursing homes in the State of Florida. We used descriptive analysis on a total sample of 1,197. Safety information was from the Online Survey, Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) data of 2003 to 2005, while the financial performance measures were from the Medicare cost reports of 2002 to 2004. Finally, we examined the most frequently cited deficiencies as well as the relationship between financial performance and quality indicators. Nursing homes in the bottom quartile of financial performance perform poorly on most resident-safety measures of care; however, nursing homes in the top two financial categories also experienced a higher number of deficiencies. Nursing homes in the next to lowest quartile of financial performance category best perform on most of these safety measures. The results reinforce the need to monitor nursing home quality and resident safety in US nursing homes, especially among facilities with poor overall financial performance.

  11. Safety performance indicators. Topical issues paper no. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, K.; Lederman, L.; Szikszai, T.; Palomo, J.

    2001-01-01

    Since its creation the nuclear industry has been struggling with the question of how safe is safe enough. Safety is a common goal to all involved in the design, operation and regulation of a nuclear installation. As a concept safety is not easy to define. However, there is a general understanding of what attributes a nuclear power plant should have in order to operate safely. The challenge lies in measuring the attributes. The new competitive open electricity market, in many countries throughout the world, is increasing the economic pressure on operators to lower operating costs without jeopardizing safety. Challenges are occurring at a rate that is unprecedented in the nuclear industry: competitiveness; downsizing; ageing; policy changes; reorganization; restructuring; mergers; globalization; and takeovers demand increasing attention to the management of safety. There are various means to measure safety performance, some of which are more qualitative in nature and others which through quantitative measures provide the means by which to evaluate performance trends with clear ties to safety. According to their use, indicators are generally considered in two groups: leading or proactive and lagging or reactive indicators. Leading indicators are most useful as a precursor to safety degradation for early management reaction. Lagging indicators are most commonly used to drive plant performance, to monitor and for benchmarking against similar plants. The actual values of the indicators are not intended to be direct measures of safety, although safety performance can be inferred from the results achieved. Each plant needs to determine which indicators best serve its needs. Selected indicators should not be static, but should be adapted to the conditions and performance of the plant, considering the cost-benefit of maintaining each individual indicator. It should be recognized that while indicators provide valuable information in the effective management of plant safety

  12. Indicators to monitor NPP operational safety performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Cobo, Ana

    2002-01-01

    Since December 1995 the IAEA activities on safety performance indicators focused on the elaboration of a framework for the establishment of an operational safety performance indicator programme. The development of this framework began with the consideration of the concept of NPP operational safety performance and the identification of operational safety attributes. For each operational safety attribute, overall indicators, envisioned as providing an overall evaluation of relevant aspects of safety performance, were established. Associated with each overall indicator is a level of strategic indicators intended to provide a bridge from overall to specific indicators. Finally each strategic indicator was supported by a set of specific indicators, which represent quantifiable measures of performance. The programme development was enhanced by pilot plant studies, conducted over a 15 month period from January 1998 to March 1999. The result of all this work is compiled in the IAEA-TECDOC-1141, to be published shortly. This paper presents a summary of this IAEA TECDOC. It describes the operational safety performance indicator framework proposed and discusses the results of and lessons learned from the pilot studies. Despite the efforts described, it is clear that additional research is still necessary in areas such as plant-specific adaptation of proposed frameworks in order to suit individual data collection systems and plant characteristics, indicator selection, indicator definition, goal setting, action thresholds, analysis of trends, indicator display systems, analysis of overall safety performance (i.e., aggregation or combination of indicators), safety culture indicators, qualitative indicators, and use of additional indicators to address issues such as industrial safety attitude and performance, staff welfare, and environmental compliance. This is the rationale for a new IAEA Coordinated Research Project on 'Development and application of indicators to monitor NPP

  13. Development of safety performance indicators for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jong-Sup; Jung, Hoan-Sung; Ahn, Guk-Hoon; Lee, Kye-Hong; Lim, In-Cheol

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear facilities need an extensive basis for ensuring their safety. An operating organization should conduct its operation and utilization important to the safety in accordance with approved procedures and regulations. The general aims of a management system for nuclear facilities are to improve the safety performance through a planning, control and supervision of safety related activities and to foster a strong safety culture. The effectiveness of a management system can be monitored and measured to confirm the ability of its processes to achieve the intended safety performance by an assessment of the operational performance. The Operational Safety Performance Indicators, also known as SPI, help an organization define and measure a progress with regard to safety activity goals. The elements of a SPI are quantifiable measurements that reflect the critical success factors of an organizational safety. Since 1995, efforts have been directed towards the elaboration of a framework for the establishment of an operational safety performance indicator program in nuclear power plants (NPP). IAEA-TECDOC-1141, 'Operational safety performance indicators for NPP' attempted to provide a frame work for an identification of performance indicators which have a relationship to the desired safety attributes, and therefore, to a safe plant operation. Three key attributes of a smooth operation, an operation with a low risk, and an operation with a positive safety attitude, were recommended, which are associated with a safe operation. Because these attributes cannot be directly measured, an indicator structure is expanded further until a level of easily quantifiable or directly measurable indicators is identified. The intention of this approach is to use quantitative information provided by the specific indicators and to analyze performance trends relative to established goals. The safety activities in HANARO have been continuously conducted to enhance its safe operation. HANARO

  14. The actual development of European aviation safety requirements in aviation medicine: prospects of future EASA requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, J

    2009-04-01

    Common Rules for Aviation Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint Aviation Authorities in the 1990s. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European Aviation Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and final adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Aviation Requirement-Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in aviation medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international aviation safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for aviation safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them.

  15. Prospective safety performance evaluation on construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianguo; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Limao; Skibniewski, Miroslaw J; Wang, Yanhong

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a systematic Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) based approach for Prospective Safety Performance Evaluation (PSPE) on construction sites, with causal relationships and interactions between enablers and the goals of PSPE taken into account. According to a sample of 450 valid questionnaire surveys from 30 Chinese construction enterprises, a SEM model with 26 items included for PSPE in the context of Chinese construction industry is established and then verified through the goodness-of-fit test. Three typical types of construction enterprises, namely the state-owned enterprise, private enterprise and Sino-foreign joint venture, are selected as samples to measure the level of safety performance given the enterprise scale, ownership and business strategy are different. Results provide a full understanding of safety performance practice in the construction industry, and indicate that the level of overall safety performance situation on working sites is rated at least a level of III (Fair) or above. This phenomenon can be explained that the construction industry has gradually matured with the norms, and construction enterprises should improve the level of safety performance as not to be eliminated from the government-led construction industry. The differences existing in the safety performance practice regarding different construction enterprise categories are compared and analyzed according to evaluation results. This research provides insights into cause-effect relationships among safety performance factors and goals, which, in turn, can facilitate the improvement of high safety performance in the construction industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Calibration between Undergraduate Students' Prediction of and Actual Performance: The Role of Gender and Performance Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Antonio P.; Price, Addison F.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated changes in male and female students' prediction and postdiction calibration accuracy and bias scores, and the predictive effects of explanatory styles on these variables beyond gender. Seventy undergraduate students rated their confidence in performance before and after a 40-item exam. There was an improvement in students'…

  17. Actual performance of mechanical ventilators in ICU: a multicentric quality control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Leonardo; Dellaca', Raffaele L; Peñuelas, Oscar; Bellani, Giacomo; Artigas, Antonio; Ferrer, Miquel; Navajas, Daniel; Pedotti, Antonio; Farré, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Even if the performance of a given ventilator has been evaluated in the laboratory under very well controlled conditions, inappropriate maintenance and lack of long-term stability and accuracy of the ventilator sensors may lead to ventilation errors in actual clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the actual performances of ventilators during clinical routines. A resistance (7.69 cmH(2)O/L/s) - elastance (100 mL/cmH(2)O) test lung equipped with pressure, flow, and oxygen concentration sensors was connected to the Y-piece of all the mechanical ventilators available for patients in four intensive care units (ICUs; n = 66). Ventilators were set to volume-controlled ventilation with tidal volume = 600 mL, respiratory rate = 20 breaths/minute, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 8 cmH(2)O, and oxygen fraction = 0.5. The signals from the sensors were recorded to compute the ventilation parameters. The average ± standard deviation and range (min-max) of the ventilatory parameters were the following: inspired tidal volume = 607 ± 36 (530-723) mL, expired tidal volume = 608 ± 36 (530-728) mL, peak pressure = 20.8 ± 2.3 (17.2-25.9) cmH(2)O, respiratory rate = 20.09 ± 0.35 (19.5-21.6) breaths/minute, PEEP = 8.43 ± 0.57 (7.26-10.8) cmH(2)O, oxygen fraction = 0.49 ± 0.014 (0.41-0.53). The more error-prone parameters were the ones related to the measure of flow. In several cases, the actual delivered mechanical ventilation was considerably different from the set one, suggesting the need for improving quality control procedures for these machines.

  18. Evidence of a logarithmic relationship between motor capacity and actual performance in daily life of the paretic arm following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, Marian E; de Niet, Mark; Ribbers, Gerard M; Stam, Henk J; Bussmann, Johannes B

    2009-04-01

    To examine the associations between actual performance in daily life and function, capacity and self-perceived performance of the paretic upper limb following stroke. Seventeen individuals with stroke. Correlation coefficients between actual performance (measured with the Stroke-Upper Limb Activity Monitor), function (Fugl-Meyer Assessment), capacity (Action Research Arm test) and self-perceived performance (ABILHAND questionnaire). High correlations were found between actual performance and function (r = 0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-0.90), and capacity (r =0.71; 95% CI: 0.35-0.89), whereas a moderate correlation was found between actual performance and self-perceived performance (r = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.21-0.86). For the relationship between actual performance and both function and capacity, logarithmic regression explained more variance than did linear regression. The present study provides first evidence of the existence of a non-linear relationship between actual performance, function and capacity of the paretic upper limb following stroke. The results indicate that function and capacity need to reach a certain threshold-level before actual performance also starts to increase. Because of the small sample size of the present study caution is needed when generalizing these results.

  19. 29 CFR 783.33 - Employment “as a seaman” depends on the work actually performed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment âas a seamanâ depends on the work actually... § 783.33 Employment “as a seaman” depends on the work actually performed. Whether an employee is “employed as a seaman”, within the meaning of the Act, depends upon the character of the work he actually...

  20. A comparative study of three types of grid connected photovoltaic systems based on actual performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya’acob, M. Effendy; Hizam, Hashim; Khatib, Tamer; Radzi, M. Amran M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present and analyze actual performance of three types of PV systems in the tropics. • We present conclusion and recommendations for sun tracking systems and CPV. • We present worthwhile experiment results for those who are interested in PV system. - Abstract: In this study, three photovoltaic (PV) systems are evaluated based on actual performance. The energy generation of three types of PV systems namely concentrating PV system (6 units × 1 kWp), PV system with sun tracking flat (2 units × 1 kWp) and fixed flat PV system (2 units × 1 kWp) is analyzed in this research. Data analysis for ten consecutive months consisting of 12,190 samples of 15 min interval is done. The performance evaluation is done using energy yield, yield factor, capacity factor, power efficiency and PV array efficiency. Based on the experiment data, it is concluded that tracking flat PV system is the most suitable system for Malaysia in normal operation mode with average daily generation of 4.7 kW h (141 kW h as a monthly average), system efficiency of 11%, power efficiency of 85%, average daily yield factor of 2.3 kW h/kWp and capacity factor of 32%. This study also highlights the PV energy (E PV ) models for each PV generators with respect to the environmental factors. The advantage of employing a tracking flat system as compared to the fixed flat system is considered based on the effectiveness of the dual-axis tracking mechanism tracking the sun for maximum power output

  1. Safety performance of preliminary KALIMER conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn Dohee; Kim Kyoungdoo; Kwon Youngmin; Chang Wonpyo; Suk Soodong [Korea atomic Energy Resarch Inst., Taejon (Korea)

    1999-07-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor), which is a sodium cooled, 150 MWe pool-type reactor. The safety design of KALIMER emphasizes accident prevention by using passive processes, which can be accomplished by the safety design objectives including the utilization of inherent safety features. In order to assess the effectiveness of the inherent safety features in achieving the safety design objectives, a preliminary evaluation of ATWS performance for the KALIMER design has been performed with SSC-K code, which is a modified version of SSC-L code. KAERI's modification of the code includes development of reactivity feedback models for the core and a pool model for KALIMER reactor vessel. This paper describes the models for control rod driveline expansion, gas expansion module and the thermal hydraulic model for reactor pool and the results of preliminary analyses for unprotected loss of flow and loss o heat sink. (author)

  2. Safety performance of preliminary KALIMER conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn Dohee; Kim Kyoungdoo; Kwon Youngmin; Chang Wonpyo; Suk Soodong

    1999-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor), which is a sodium cooled, 150 MWe pool-type reactor. The safety design of KALIMER emphasizes accident prevention by using passive processes, which can be accomplished by the safety design objectives including the utilization of inherent safety features. In order to assess the effectiveness of the inherent safety features in achieving the safety design objectives, a preliminary evaluation of ATWS performance for the KALIMER design has been performed with SSC-K code, which is a modified version of SSC-L code. KAERI's modification of the code includes development of reactivity feedback models for the core and a pool model for KALIMER reactor vessel. This paper describes the models for control rod driveline expansion, gas expansion module and the thermal hydraulic model for reactor pool and the results of preliminary analyses for unprotected loss of flow and loss o heat sink. (author)

  3. Optimization of CCGT power plant and performance analysis using MATLAB/Simulink with actual operational data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Naimul; Rai, Jitendra Nath; Arora, Bharat Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    In the Modern scenario, the naturally available resources for power generation are being depleted at an alarming rate; firstly due to wastage of power at consumer end, secondly due to inefficiency of various power system components. A Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) integrates two cycles- Brayton cycle (Gas Turbine) and Rankine cycle (Steam Turbine) with the objective of increasing overall plant efficiency. This is accomplished by utilising the exhaust of Gas Turbine through a waste-heat recovery boiler to run a Steam Turbine. The efficiency of a gas turbine which ranges from 28% to 33% can hence be raised to about 60% by recovering some of the low grade thermal energy from the exhaust gas for steam turbine process. This paper is a study for the modelling of CCGT and comparing it with actual operational data. The performance model for CCGT plant was developed in MATLAB/Simulink.

  4. Development of safety performance indicators in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, H.; Tamao, S.; Tanaka, J.; Sawayama, T.

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of safety regulations of operating nuclear power stations in Japan, the regulatory authorities utilize two types of regulations. One is the direct regulation, such as periodical inspection to inspect the function and performance of equipment important to safety, and the other is the audit type regulation such as preservation inspection to audit the compliance with the safety preservation rules. As performance indicators are expected to be an effective tool to evaluate the activities by audit type regulations, NUPEC is studying a comprehensive set of operational performance indicators to meet the effective evaluation method for the safety preservation activities in the audit type regulations under the frame of current safety regulation system. The study includes the establishment of comprehensive operational performance indicators applicable in Japan, the effective application of performance indicators to the current Japanese regulation, the clarification of the applicable scope of utilization, the possibility of applying the performance indicators. This report describes the present status of our performance indicator studies. After the completion of these studies the regulatory authorities will evaluate if and how the new set of comprehensive performance indicators could be introduced to Japanese regulatory scheme. (author)

  5. Risk-based safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Prohaska, G.; Flodin, Y.; Grint, G.; Habermacher, H.; Hallman, A.; Isasia, R.; Melendez, E.; Verduras, E.; Karsa, Z.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Koeberlein, K.; Schwaeger, C.; Matahri, N.; Moravcik, I.; Tkac, M.; Preston, J.

    2003-01-01

    In a Concerted Action (CA), sponsored by the European Commission within its 5th Framework Program, a consortium of eleven partners from eight countries has reviewed and evaluated the application of Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs), which - in combination with other tools - can be used to monitor and improve the safety of nuclear power plants. The project was aimed at identification of methods that can be used in a risk-informed regulatory system and environment, and to exploit PSA techniques for the development and use of meaningful additional/alternative SPIs. The CA included the review of existing indicator systems, and the collection of information on the experience from indicator systems by means of a specific questionnaire. One of the most important and challenging issues for nuclear plant owners and/or regulators is to recognize early signs of deterioration in safety performance, caused by influences from management, organization and safety culture (MOSC), before actual events and/or mishaps take place. Most of the existing SPIs as proposed by various organizations are considered as 'lagging' indicators, that is, they are expected to show an impact only when a downward trend has already started. Furthermore, most of the available indicators are at a relatively high level, such that they will not provide useful information on fundamental weaknesses causing the problem in the first place. Regulators' and utilities' views on the use of a Safety Performance Indicator System have also been a part of the development of the CA. (author)

  6. Mining Behavior Based Safety Data to Predict Safety Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe

    2010-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) operates a behavior based safety program called Safety Observations Achieve Results (SOAR). This peer-to-peer observation program encourages employees to perform in-field observations of each other's work practices and habits (i.e., behaviors). The underlying premise of conducting these observations is that more serious accidents are prevented from occurring because lower level “at risk” behaviors are identified and corrected before they can propagate into culturally accepted “unsafe” behaviors that result in injuries or fatalities. Although the approach increases employee involvement in safety, the premise of the program has not been subject to sufficient empirical evaluation. The INL now has a significant amount of SOAR data on these lower level “at risk” behaviors. This paper describes the use of data mining techniques to analyze these data to determine whether they can predict if and when a more serious accident will occur.

  7. Actual performance of mechanical ventilators in ICU: a multicentric quality control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govoni L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leonardo Govoni,1 Raffaele L Dellaca,1 Oscar Peñuelas,2,3 Giacomo Bellani,4,5 Antonio Artigas,3,6 Miquel Ferrer,3,7 Daniel Navajas,3,8,9 Antonio Pedotti,1 Ramon Farré3,81TBM-Lab, Dipartimento di Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano University, Milano, Italy; 2Hospital Universitario de Getafe – CIBERES, Madrid, Spain; 3CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Bunyola, Spain; 4Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Milan, Bicocca, Italy; 5Department of Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza (MI, Italy; 6Critical Care Center, Sabadell Hospital, Corporació Sanitaria Universitaria Parc Tauli, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, CIBERES, Spain; 7Department of Pneumology, Hospital Clinic, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain; 8Unitat de Biofísica i Bioenginyeria, Facultat de Medicina, Universidad de Barcelona-IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain; 9Institut de Bioenginyeria de Catalunya, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Even if the performance of a given ventilator has been evaluated in the laboratory under very well controlled conditions, inappropriate maintenance and lack of long-term stability and accuracy of the ventilator sensors may lead to ventilation errors in actual clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the actual performances of ventilators during clinical routines. A resistance (7.69 cmH2O/L/s – elastance (100 mL/cmH2O test lung equipped with pressure, flow, and oxygen concentration sensors was connected to the Y-piece of all the mechanical ventilators available for patients in four intensive care units (ICUs; n = 66. Ventilators were set to volume-controlled ventilation with tidal volume = 600 mL, respiratory rate = 20 breaths/minute, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP = 8 cmH2O, and oxygen fraction = 0.5. The signals from the sensors were recorded to compute the ventilation parameters. The average ± standard deviation and range (min–max of the ventilatory parameters were the following: inspired

  8. 2011 Annual Criticality Safety Program Performance Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrea Hoffman

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 review of the INL Criticality Safety Program has determined that the program is robust and effective. The review was prepared for, and fulfills Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item H.20, 'Annual Criticality Safety Program performance summary that includes the status of assessments, issues, corrective actions, infractions, requirements management, training, and programmatic support.' This performance summary addresses the status of these important elements of the INL Criticality Safety Program. Assessments - Assessments in 2011 were planned and scheduled. The scheduled assessments included a Criticality Safety Program Effectiveness Review, Criticality Control Area Inspections, a Protection of Controlled Unclassified Information Inspection, an Assessment of Criticality Safety SQA, and this management assessment of the Criticality Safety Program. All of the assessments were completed with the exception of the 'Effectiveness Review' for SSPSF, which was delayed due to emerging work. Although minor issues were identified in the assessments, no issues or combination of issues indicated that the INL Criticality Safety Program was ineffective. The identification of issues demonstrates the importance of an assessment program to the overall health and effectiveness of the INL Criticality Safety Program. Issues and Corrective Actions - There are relatively few criticality safety related issues in the Laboratory ICAMS system. Most were identified by Criticality Safety Program assessments. No issues indicate ineffectiveness in the INL Criticality Safety Program. All of the issues are being worked and there are no imminent criticality concerns. Infractions - There was one criticality safety related violation in 2011. On January 18, 2011, it was discovered that a fuel plate bundle in the Nuclear Materials Inspection and Storage (NMIS) facility exceeded the fissionable mass limit, resulting in a technical safety requirement (TSR) violation. The

  9. Performance and safety of hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekke, H

    2010-01-01

    The first part of the paper contains the choice of small turbines for run of the river power plants. Then a discussion is given on the optimization of the performance of different types of large turbines. Finally a discussion on the safety and necessary maintenance of turbines is given with special attention to bolt connections.

  10. SGHWR fuel performance, safety and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickman, D.O.; Inglis, G.H.

    1977-05-01

    The design principles involved in fuel pins and elements need to take account of the sometimes conflicting requirements of safety and reliability. The principal factors involved in this optimisation are discussed and it is shown from fuel irradiation experience in the Winfrith SGHWR that the necessary bias towards safety has not resulted in a reliability level lower than that shown by other successful water reactor designs. Reliability has important economic implications. By a detailed evaluation of SGHWR fuel defects it is shown that very few defects can be shown to be related to design, rating, or burn-up. This demonstrates that economic aspects have not over-ridden necessary criteria that most be met to achieve the desirable reliability level. It is possible that large scale experience on SGHWR fuel may eventually demonstrate that the balance is too much in favour of reliability and consideration may be given to whether design changes favouring economy could be achieved without compromising safety. The safety criteria applied to SGHWR fuel are designed to avoid any possibility of a temperature runaway in any credible accident situation. the philosophy and supporting experimental work programme are outlines and the fuel design features which particularly contribute to maximising safety margins are outlined. Reference is made to the new 60-pin fuel element to be used in the commercial SGHWRs and to its comparison in design and performance aspects with the 36-pin element that has been used to date in the Winfrith SGHWR. (author)

  11. Perceived Motor Competence Differs From Actual Performance in 8-Year-Old Neonatal ECMO Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toussaint, L.C.; Cammen-van Zijp, M.H. van der; Janssen, A.J.; Tibboel, D.; Heijst, A.F. van; Ijsselstijn, H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess perceived motor competence, social competence, self-worth, health-related quality of life, and actual motor performancein 8-year-old survivors of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). METHODS: In a prospective nationwide study, 135 children completed the extended

  12. Actual performance and characteristic of a grid connected photovoltaic power system in the tropics: A short term evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Tamer; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Kazem, Hussein A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed an actual performance of grid connected PV system. • We derived accurate models for the system based on the actual performance. • We assist the electricity productively of the proposed system. - Abstract: This paper presents a field operation experience for a grid connected PV system under tropical climate. The system is consisted of a 5 kWp photovoltaic (PV) array and a 6 kW DC/AC inverter. The operation performance data are recorded in order to develop accurate mathematical models for the system as well as to evaluate the productivity of the system. The experiment results show that, the average PV performance (the ratio of the theoretical performance to the actual performance) is 73.12% while the average inverter performance (the ratio of the theoretical inverter efficiency to the actual inverter efficiency) is 98.56%. Moreover, it is found that the daily yield factor of the PV system is 2.51 kW h/kWp day while, the capacity factor is 10.47%. However, it is concluded that the productivity of the system is below the prospected rate and thus, an inspection of the system must be done in order to diagnose the problem of the system’s low productivity. This paper presents worthwhile information for those who are interested in PV system installation in Malaysia and nearby country

  13. High Burnup Fuel Performance and Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Je Keun; Lee, Chan Bok; Kim, Dae Ho (and others)

    2007-03-15

    The worldwide trend of nuclear fuel development is to develop a high burnup and high performance nuclear fuel with high economies and safety. Because the fuel performance evaluation code, INFRA, has a patent, and the superiority for prediction of fuel performance was proven through the IAEA CRP FUMEX-II program, the INFRA code can be utilized with commercial purpose in the industry. The INFRA code was provided and utilized usefully in the universities and relevant institutes domesticallly and it has been used as a reference code in the industry for the development of the intrinsic fuel rod design code.

  14. SGHWR fuel performance, safety and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickman, D.O.; Inglis, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    The design principles involved in fuel pins and elements need to take account of the sometimes conflicting requirements of performance, safety and reliability. The principal factors involved in this optimisation are discussed and it is shown from fuel irradiation experience in the Winfrith S.G.H.W.R. that the necessary bias toward safety has not resulted in a reliability level lower than that shown by other successful water reactor designs. Reliability has important economic implications and has to be paid for. By a detailed evaluation of S.G.H.W.R. fuel defects it is shown that very few defects can be shown to be related to design, rating or burn-up. This demonstrates that economic aspects have not over-ridden necessary criteria that must be met to achieve the desirable reliability level. It is possible that large-scale experience with S.G.H.W.R. fuel may eventually demonstrate that the balance is too much in favour of reliability and consideration may be given to whether design changes favouring economy could be achieved without compromising safety. The safety criteria applied to S.G.H.W.R. fuel are designed to avoid any possibility of a temperature runaway in any credible accident situation. The philosophy and supporting experimental work programme are outlined and the fuel design features which particularly contribute to maximising safety margins are outlined. Reference is made to new 60 pin fuel element to be used in the commercial S.G.H.W.R.'s and how it compares in design and performance aspects with the 36 pin element that has been used to date in the Winfrith S.G.H.W.R

  15. Safety assessment, safety performance indicators at the Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baji, C.; Vamos, G.; Toth, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Paks Nuclear Power Plant has been using different methods of safety assessment (event analysis, self-assessment, probabilistic safety analysis), including performance indicators characterizing both operational and safety performance since the early years of operation of the plant. Regarding the safety performance, the indicators include safety system performance, number of scrams, release of radioactive materials, number of safety significant events, industrial safety indicator, etc. The Paks NPP also reports a set of ten indicators to WANO Performance Indicator Programme which, among others, include safety related indicators as well. However, a more systematic approach to structuring and trending safety indicators is needed so that they can contribute to the enhancement of the operational safety. A more comprehensive set of indicators and a systematic evaluation process was introduced in 1996. The performance indicators framework proposed by the IAEA was adapted to Paks in this year to further improve the process. Safety culture assessment and characterizing safety culture is part of the assessment process. (author)

  16. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  17. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems

  18. Performance of dynamic safety barriers-Structuring, modelling and visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Wikdahl, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this master thesis is to discuss performance of dynamic safety barriers. A comprehensive literature review is performed in order to get understanding what dynamic safety barrier is. Three different concepts of dynamic safety barriers based on various meanings of dynamic were derived from the literature review: - dynamic safety barriers related to motion or physical force - dynamic safety barriers as updated barriers from dynamic risk analysis - dynamic safety ...

  19. Barrier performance researches for the safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niibori, Yuichi

    2004-01-01

    So far, many researches were conducted to propose a scientific evidence (a safety case) for the realization of geological disposal in Japan. In order to regulate the geological disposal system of radioactive wastes, on the other hand, we need also a holistic approach to integrate various data related for the performance evaluations of the engineered barrier system and the natural barrier system. However, the scientific bases are not sufficient to establish the safety regulation for such a natural system. For example, we often apply the specific probability density function (PDF) to the uncertainty of barrier system due to the essential heterogeneity. However, the applicability is not clear in the regulation point of view. A viewpoint to understand such an applicability of PDFs has been presented. (author)

  20. Predicting psychopharmacological drug effects on actual driving performance (SDLP) from psychometric tests measuring driving-related skills

    OpenAIRE

    Verster, Joris C.; Roth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Rationale There are various methods to examine driving ability. Comparisons between these methods and their relationship with actual on-road driving is often not determined. Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether laboratory tests measuring driving-related skills could adequately predict on-the-road driving performance during normal traffic. Methods Ninety-six healthy volunteers performed a standardized on-the-road driving test. Subjects were instructed to drive with a ...

  1. A Study on the Propulsion Performance in the Actual Sea by means of Full-scale Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kayano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The IMO has adopted Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI, Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP and Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI in order to reduce GHG emissions from international shipping. And, the shipping industry is required to develop and improve the energy saving ship operation technologies to meet the above IMO guideline. The weather routing is one of the energy saving navigation technologies and widely adopted by oceangoing merchant ships. The effectiveness of the weather routing mainly depends on the accuracy of weather forecast data and the ship’s propulsion performance prediction. The propulsion performance in the actual sea is usually predicted using the Self Propulsion Factors obtained by model tests. It is necessary to understand the propulsion performance characteristics in the actual sea conditions for the improvement of propulsion performance prediction. From the above points of view, the authors performed full-scale experiments using a training ship in order to investigate the propulsion performance characteristics in the actual sea. This paper describes the analysis results on the characteristics of Power Curves and Self Propulsion Factors under various weather and sea conditions.

  2. Operational Safety Performance Indicators and Balanced Scorecard in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jong-Sup; Jung, Hoan-Sung; Ahn, Guk-Hoon; Lee, Kye-Hong; Lim, In-Cheol; Kim, Hark-Rho

    2007-01-01

    Research reactors need an extensive basis for ensuring their safety. The importance of a safety management in nuclear facilities and activities has been emphasized. The safety activities in HANARO have been continuously conducted to enhance its safe operation. Last year, HANARO prepared two indicator sets to measure and assess the safety status of the reactor's operation and utilization. One is Safety Performance Indicators (SPI) and the other is Balanced Scorecard (BSC). Through reviewing these indicators, we can obtain the following information; - Plant safety status - Safety parameter trends - Safety information, for example, reactor operation status and radiation safety HANARO will continuously pursue the trends of SPI and BSC

  3. What determines whether top public sector executives actually use performance information?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Hammerschmid (Gerhard); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); V. Štimac (Vid)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Performance management has permeated public sector organizations worldwide over the last decades. At its core is the idea of using such information for decision making in a systematic form. Externally, performance information can be used to showcase performance, to

  4. Online physician ratings fail to predict actual performance on measures of quality, value, and peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskivich, Timothy J; Houman, Justin; Fuller, Garth; Black, Jeanne T; Kim, Hyung L; Spiegel, Brennan

    2018-04-01

    Patients use online consumer ratings to identify high-performing physicians, but it is unclear if ratings are valid measures of clinical performance. We sought to determine whether online ratings of specialist physicians from 5 platforms predict quality of care, value of care, and peer-assessed physician performance. We conducted an observational study of 78 physicians representing 8 medical and surgical specialties. We assessed the association of consumer ratings with specialty-specific performance scores (metrics including adherence to Choosing Wisely measures, 30-day readmissions, length of stay, and adjusted cost of care), primary care physician peer-review scores, and administrator peer-review scores. Across ratings platforms, multivariable models showed no significant association between mean consumer ratings and specialty-specific performance scores (β-coefficient range, -0.04, 0.04), primary care physician scores (β-coefficient range, -0.01, 0.3), and administrator scores (β-coefficient range, -0.2, 0.1). There was no association between ratings and score subdomains addressing quality or value-based care. Among physicians in the lowest quartile of specialty-specific performance scores, only 5%-32% had consumer ratings in the lowest quartile across platforms. Ratings were consistent across platforms; a physician's score on one platform significantly predicted his/her score on another in 5 of 10 comparisons. Online ratings of specialist physicians do not predict objective measures of quality of care or peer assessment of clinical performance. Scores are consistent across platforms, suggesting that they jointly measure a latent construct that is unrelated to performance. Online consumer ratings should not be used in isolation to select physicians, given their poor association with clinical performance.

  5. Application of Partial Safety Factorsin Building Energy Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Heiselberg, Per; Hesselholt, A.

    2009-01-01

    is evaluated by sensitivity and uncertainty analysis to develop a significantly reduced set of stochastic input parameters. The safety factor approach provides a means of enforcing the maximum allowed energy consumption in the building code by multiplying the maximum limit by a partial safety factor to obtain......In practise many buildings show significant deviation between the predicted annual energy consumption and the actual energy consumption. One of the main reasons for the discrepancy is the difference between the assumptions made during the calculations and the actual conditions including occupants...

  6. Actual energy consumption in dwellings. The effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Santin, O.

    2010-10-19

    Residential buildings have continuously improved in energy efficiency, partly as a consequence of the introduction of energy regulations in many countries. Although better thermal properties and systems efficiency have lowered energy consumption for space heating in recent decades, substantial differences in energy consumption in similar dwellings are still being observed. These differences in consumption are thought to be caused by differences in occupancy patterns, by quality of construction and by rebound effects. This research addresses the effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behavior on energy consumption for space and water heating in dwellings built after the introduction of the energy performance regulations in the Netherlands. The results of this research show that improving the energy efficiency of buildings alone is not enough to decrease that energy consumption. The large differences found in the use of dwellings indicate that, especially in energy efficient houses, occupant behavior provides an opportunity for further reductions in the energy consumption for space heating which could boost the efforts to conserve energy worldwide.

  7. GT-MHR design, performance, and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neylan, A.J.; Shenoy, A.; Silady, F.A.; Dunn, T.D.

    1994-11-01

    The Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is the result of coupling the evolution of a low power density passively safe modular reactor with key technology developments in the U.S. during the last decade: large industrial gas turbines; large active magnetic bearings; and compact, highly effective plate-fin heat exchangers. This is accomplished through the unique use of the Brayton cycle to produce electricity with the helium as primary coolant from the reactor directly driving the gas turbine electrical generator. This cycle can achieve a high net efficiency in the range of 45% to 48%. In the design of the GT-MHR the desirable inherent characteristics of the inert helium coolant, graphite core, and the coated fuel particles are supplemented with specific design features such as passive heat removal to achieve the safety objective of not disturbing the normal day-to-day activities of the public even for beyond design basis rare accidents. Each GT-MHR plant consists of four modules. The GT-MHR module components are contained within steel pressure vessels: a reactor vessel, a power conversion vessel, and a connecting cross vessel. All vessels are sited underground in a concrete silo, which serves as an independent vented low pressure containment structure. By capitalizing on industrial and aerospace gas turbine development, highly effective heat exchanger designs, and inherent gas cooled reactor temperature characteristics, the passively safe GT-MHR provides a sound technical, monetary, and environmental basis for new nuclear power generating capacity. This paper provides an update on the status of the design, which has been under development on the US-DOE program since February 1993. An assessment of plant performance and safety is also included

  8. Safety Injection Tank Performance Analysis Using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Oan; Lee, Jeong Ik; Nietiadi Yohanes Setiawan [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Addad Yacine [KUSTAR, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Bang, Young Seok; Yoo, Seung Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This may affect the core cooling capability and threaten the fuel integrity during LOCA situations. However, information on the nitrogen flow rate during discharge is very limited due to the associated experimental measurement difficulties, and these phenomena are hardly reflected in current 1D system codes. In the current study, a CFD analysis is presented which hopefully should allow obtaining a more realistic prediction of the SIT performance which can then be reflected on 1D system codes to simulate various accident scenarios. Current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have had limited success in predicting the fluid flow accurately. This study aims to find a better CFD prediction and more accurate modeling to predict the system performance during accident scenarios. The safety injection tank with fluidic device was analyzed using commercial CFD. A fine resolution grid was used to capture the vortex of the fluidic device. The calculation so far has shown good consistency with the experiment. Calculation should complete by the conference date and will be thoroughly analyzed to be discussed. Once a detailed CFD computation is finished, a small-scale experiment will be conducted for the given conditions. Using the experimental results and the CFD model, physical models can be validated to give more reliable results. The data from CFD and experiments will provide a more accurate K-factor of the fluidic device which can later be applied in system code inputs.

  9. Perceptions of inpatient rehabilitation changes after the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service 2010 regulatory updates contrasted with actual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Richard V; Roberts, Pamela S; DiVita, Margaret A; Niewczyk, Paulette; Granger, Carl V

    2014-01-01

    To compare and contrast subjective perceptions with objective compliance of the impact of the 2010 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service updates of the Medicare Benefit Policy Manual. Cross-sectional survey. An electronic survey was sent by the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation to all enrolled inpatient rehabilitation facility subscribers (n = 817). The survey was sent April 15, 2011, and responses were tabulated if they were received by May 15, 2011. Comparing and contrasting of the subjective perception to objective evaluation and/or compliance with the Medicare Benefit Policy Manual on case mix index, length of stay, admissions by diagnostic category as well as perception of preadmission screening, postadmission evaluation, plan of care, and interdisciplinary conferencing. Twenty-five percent of the 817 facilities responded, for a total of 209 responses. Complete data were present in 148 of the respondents. For most diagnostic categories, perception of change did not mirror reality of change; neither did the perception between change in case mix index and length of stay. Perception did match reality in stroke and multiple trauma cases; respondents perceived an increase in admissions for the 2 impairments, and there was an overall increase in reality. Comparison with actual data identified that gaps exist between diagnostic category perceptions and actual diagnostic category admission performance. Regulations such as the 75%-60% rule and audit focus on non-neurologic conditions as well as actual inpatient rehabilitation facility program payment reports may have influenced respondents perceptions to change associated with the Medicare Benefit Policy Manual modifications. This disparity between perception and actual data may have implications for programmatic planning, forecasting, and resource allocation. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Safety performance evaluation of converging chevron pavement markings : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to perform a detailed safety analysis of converging chevron : pavement markings, quantifying the potential safety benefits and developing an understanding of the : incident types addressed by the treatment, and (...

  11. Communication's Role in Safety Management and Performance for the Road Safety Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Salim Keffane (s)

    2014-01-01

    Communication among organizations could play an important role in increasing road safety. To get in-depth knowledge of its role, this study measured managers' and employees' perceptions of the communication's role on six safety management and performance criteria for road safety practices by conducting a survey using a questionnaire among 165 employees and 135 managers. Path analysis using AMOS-19 software shows that some of the safety management road safety practices have high correlation wi...

  12. Characterising the Actual Thermal Performance of Buildings: Current Results of Common Exercises Performed in the Framework of the IEA EBC Annex 58-Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roels, Staf; Bacher, Peder; Bauwens, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that actual thermal performance of buildings after construction may deviate significantly from that anticipated at design stage. As a result, there is growing interest in full scale testing of components and whole buildings. The IEA EBC Annex 58-project ‘Reliable Building...... Energy Performance Characterisation Based on Full Scale Dynamic Measurements’ is developing the necessary knowledge and tools to achieve reliable in-situ dynamic testing and data analysis methods that can be used to characterise the actual thermal performance and energy efficiency of building components...... and whole buildings. The research within this project is driven by case studies. As a first simple case, an experiment on testing and data analysis is performed on a round robin test box. This test box can be seen as a scale model of a building, built by one of the participants, with fabric properties...

  13. Benchmarking road safety performances of countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Oppe, S.

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain political interest in road safety problems and to learn from other countries’ ‘good practices’, it is often helpful to compare one’s own safety situation with that of other countries. In a number of projects tools have been developed for such comparisons. These tools range from

  14. A study on method to identify actual causes and conditions of safety rule deviations through analyzing events due to unsafe acts of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Yuko; Takeda, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a method to understand actual causes and condition of intentional deviation from safety rules (including norm and written rules that has developed to anticipate, prevent, detect and recover human errors) in an organization by analyzing events due to unsafe acts of workers (human factor events) and to propose effective measures. Firstly, by reviewing literature regarding safety violations, the following two advantages of investigating actual condition of safety rule deviation through human factor event analysis were extracted, such as (a) being able to clarify relationships between deviations, human errors, and events, and (b) being able to identify specific causal factors that influenced the decision to deviate, including acts of people concerned, problems with rules, task demands, environment and management. Next, through the analysis of human factor event data in accordance with existing human error analysis method on the basis of advantages above, the following three requirements for analyzing event data were extracted, such as (a) gathering information such as rules concerning to the work activities related to the human factor events, and whether there are intentional deviations of the rules, (b) gathering information and identify interrelations among causal factors of the intentional deviations, and (c) gathering information on general condition of deviations and the causal factors. (author)

  15. Safety performance indicators used by the Russian Safety Regulatory Authority in its practical activities on nuclear power plant safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazanov, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    The Sixth Department of the Nuclear, Industrial and Environmental Regulatory Authority of Russia, Scientific and Engineering Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety process, analyse and use the information on nuclear power plants (NPPs) operational experience or NPPs safety improvement. Safety performance indicators (SPIs), derived from processing of information on operational violations and analysis of annual NPP Safety Reports, are used as tools to determination of trends towards changing of characteristics of operational safety, to assess the effectiveness of corrective measures, to monitor and evaluate the current operational safety level of NPPs, to regulate NPP safety. This report includes a list of the basic SPIs, those used by the Russian safety regulatory authority in regulatory activity. Some of them are absent in list of IAEA-TECDOC-1141 ('Operational safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants'). (author)

  16. Indicators of safety culture - selection and utilization of leading safety performance indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, Teemu; Pietikaeinen, Elina (VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland))

    2010-03-15

    Safety indicators play a role in providing information on organizational performance, motivating people to work on safety and increasing organizational potential for safety. The aim of this report is to provide an overview on leading safety indicators in the domain of nuclear safety. The report explains the distinction between lead and lag indicators and proposes a framework of three types of safety performance indicators - feedback, monitor and drive indicators. Finally the report provides guidance for nuclear energy organizations for selecting and interpreting safety indicators. It proposes the use of safety culture as a leading safety performance indicator and offers an example list of potential indicators in all three categories. The report concludes that monitor and drive indicators are so called lead indicators. Drive indicators are chosen priority areas of organizational safety activity. They are based on the underlying safety model and potential safety activities and safety policy derived from it. Drive indicators influence control measures that manage the socio technical system; change, maintain, reinforce, or reduce something. Monitor indicators provide a view on the dynamics of the system in question; the activities taking place, abilities, skills and motivation of the personnel, routines and practices - the organizational potential for safety. They also monitor the efficacy of the control measures that are used to manage the socio technical system. Typically the safety performance indicators that are used are lagging (feedback) indicators that measure the outcomes of the socio technical system. Besides feedback indicators, organizations should also acknowledge the important role of monitor and drive indicators in managing safety. The selection and use of safety performance indicators is always based on an understanding (a model) of the socio technical system and safety. The safety model defines what risks are perceived. It is important that the safety

  17. Indicators of safety culture - selection and utilization of leading safety performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, Teemu; Pietikaeinen, Elina

    2010-03-01

    Safety indicators play a role in providing information on organizational performance, motivating people to work on safety and increasing organizational potential for safety. The aim of this report is to provide an overview on leading safety indicators in the domain of nuclear safety. The report explains the distinction between lead and lag indicators and proposes a framework of three types of safety performance indicators - feedback, monitor and drive indicators. Finally the report provides guidance for nuclear energy organizations for selecting and interpreting safety indicators. It proposes the use of safety culture as a leading safety performance indicator and offers an example list of potential indicators in all three categories. The report concludes that monitor and drive indicators are so called lead indicators. Drive indicators are chosen priority areas of organizational safety activity. They are based on the underlying safety model and potential safety activities and safety policy derived from it. Drive indicators influence control measures that manage the socio technical system; change, maintain, reinforce, or reduce something. Monitor indicators provide a view on the dynamics of the system in question; the activities taking place, abilities, skills and motivation of the personnel, routines and practices - the organizational potential for safety. They also monitor the efficacy of the control measures that are used to manage the socio technical system. Typically the safety performance indicators that are used are lagging (feedback) indicators that measure the outcomes of the socio technical system. Besides feedback indicators, organizations should also acknowledge the important role of monitor and drive indicators in managing safety. The selection and use of safety performance indicators is always based on an understanding (a model) of the socio technical system and safety. The safety model defines what risks are perceived. It is important that the safety

  18. Estimations of actual availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molan, M.; Molan, G.

    2001-01-01

    Adaptation of working environment (social, organizational, physical and physical) should assure higher level of workers' availability and consequently higher level of workers' performance. A special theoretical model for description of connections between environmental factors, human availability and performance was developed and validated. The central part of the model is evaluations of human actual availability in the real working situation or fitness for duties self-estimation. The model was tested in different working environments. On the numerous (2000) workers, standardized values and critical limits for an availability questionnaire were defined. Standardized method was used in identification of the most important impact of environmental factors. Identified problems were eliminated by investments in the organization in modification of selection and training procedures in humanization of working .environment. For workers with behavioural and health problems individual consultancy was offered. The described method is a tool for identification of impacts. In combination with behavioural analyses and mathematical analyses of connections, it offers possibilities to keep adequate level of human availability and fitness for duty in each real working situation. The model should be a tool for achieving adequate level of nuclear safety by keeping the adequate level of workers' availability and fitness for duty. For each individual worker possibility for estimation of level of actual fitness for duty is possible. Effects of prolonged work and additional tasks should be evaluated. Evaluations of health status effects and ageing are possible on the individual level. (author)

  19. Comparing identically designed grayscale (50 phase level) and binary (5 phase levels) splitters: actual versus modeled performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2006-04-01

    Performance of diffractive optics is determined by high-quality design and a suitable fabrication process that can actually realize the design. Engineers who are tasked with developing or implementing a diffractive optic solution into a product need to take into consideration the risks of using grayscale versus binary fabrication processes. In many cases, grayscale design doesn't always provide the best solution or cost benefit during product development. This fabrication dilemma arises when the engineer has to select a source for design and/or fabrication. Engineers come face to face with reality in view of the fact that diffractive optic suppliers tend to provide their services on a "best effort basis". This can be very disheartening to an engineer who is trying to implement diffractive optics. This paper will compare and contrast the design and performance of a 1 to 24 beam, two dimensional; beam splitter fabricated using a fifty (50) phase level grayscale and a five (5) phase level binary fabrication methods. Optical modeling data will be presented showing both designs and the performance expected prior to fabrication. An overview of the optical testing methods used will be discussed including the specific test equipment and metrology techniques used to verify actual optical performance and fabricated dimensional stability of each optical element. Presentation of the two versions of the splitter will include data on fabrication dimensional errors, split beam-to-beam uniformity, split beam-to-beam spatial size uniformity and splitter efficiency as compared to the original intended design performance and models. This is a continuation of work from 2005, Laser Beam Shaping VI.

  20. Performance of balanced bellows safety relief valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y.S.

    1992-01-01

    By the nature of its design, the set point and lift of a conventional spring loaded safety relief valve are sensitive to back pressure. One way to reduce the adverse effects of the back pressure on the safety relief valve function is to install a balanced bellows in a safety relief valve. The metallic bellows has a rather wide range of manufacturing tolerance which makes the design of the bellows safety relief valve very complicated. The state-of-the-art balanced bellows safety relief valve can only substantially minimize, but cannot totally eliminate the back pressure effects on its set point and relieving capacity. Set point change is a linear function of the back pressure to the set pressure ratio. Depending on the valve design, the set point correction factor can be either greater or smaller than unity. There exists an allowable back pressure and critical back pressure for each safety relief valve. When total back pressure exceeds the R a , the relieving capacity will be reduced mainly resulting from the valve lift being reduced by the back pressure and the capacity reduction factor should be applied in valve sizing. Once the R c is exceeded, the safety relief valve becomes unstable and loses its over pressure protection capability. The capacity reduction factor is a function of system overpressure, but their relationship is non-linear in nature. (orig.)

  1. Benchmarking Global Food Safety Performances: The Era of Risk Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleé, Jean-Charles Le; Charlebois, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    Food safety data segmentation and limitations hamper the world's ability to select, build up, monitor, and evaluate food safety performance. Currently, there is no metric that captures the entire food safety system, and performance data are not collected strategically on a global scale. Therefore, food safety benchmarking is essential not only to help monitor ongoing performance but also to inform continued food safety system design, adoption, and implementation toward more efficient and effective food safety preparedness, responsiveness, and accountability. This comparative study identifies and evaluates common elements among global food safety systems. It provides an overall world ranking of food safety performance for 17 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries, illustrated by 10 indicators organized across three food safety risk governance domains: risk assessment (chemical risks, microbial risks, and national reporting on food consumption), risk management (national food safety capacities, food recalls, food traceability, and radionuclides standards), and risk communication (allergenic risks, labeling, and public trust). Results show all countries have very high food safety standards, but Canada and Ireland, followed by France, earned excellent grades relative to their peers. However, any subsequent global ranking study should consider the development of survey instruments to gather adequate and comparable national evidence on food safety.

  2. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The

  3. Cooling Performance Characteristics of the Stack Thermal Management System for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles under Actual Driving Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Seong Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cooling performance of the stack radiator of a fuel cell electric vehicle was evaluated under various actual road driving conditions, such as highway and uphill travel. The thermal stability was then optimized, thereby ensuring stable operation of the stack thermal management system. The coolant inlet temperature of the radiator in the highway mode was lower than that associated with the uphill mode because the corresponding frontal air velocity was higher than obtained in the uphill mode. In both the highway and uphill modes, the coolant temperatures of the radiator, operated under actual road driving conditions, were lower than the allowable limit (80 °C; this is the maximum temperature at which stable operation of the stack thermal management system of the fuel cell electric vehicle could be maintained. Furthermore, under actual road driving conditions in uphill mode, the initial temperature difference (ITD between the coolant temperature and air temperature of the system was higher than that associated with the highway mode; this higher ITD occurred even though the thermal load of the system in uphill mode was greater than that corresponding to the highway mode. Since the coolant inlet temperature is expected to exceed the allowable limit (80 °C in uphill mode under higher ambient temperature with air conditioning system operation, the FEM design layout should be modified to improve the heat capacity. In addition, the overall volume of the stack cooling radiator is 52.2% higher than that of the present model and the coolant inlet temperature of the improved radiator is 22.7% lower than that of the present model.

  4. Use of safety management practices for improving project performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eddie W L; Kelly, Stephen; Ryan, Neal

    2015-01-01

    Although site safety has long been a key research topic in the construction field, there is a lack of literature studying safety management practices (SMPs). The current research, therefore, aims to test the effect of SMPs on project performance. An empirical study was conducted in Hong Kong and the data collected were analysed with multiple regression analysis. Results suggest that 3 of the 15 SMPs, which were 'safety committee at project/site level', 'written safety policy', and 'safety training scheme' explained the variance in project performance significantly. Discussion about the impact of these three SMPs on construction was provided. Assuring safe construction should be an integral part of a construction project plan.

  5. Job Demands-Control-Support model and employee safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nick; Stride, Chris B; Carter, Angela J; McCaughey, Deirdre; Carroll, Anthony E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether work characteristics (job demands, job control, social support) comprising Karasek and Theorell's (1990) Job Demands-Control-Support framework predict employee safety performance (safety compliance and safety participation; Neal and Griffin, 2006). We used cross-sectional data of self-reported work characteristics and employee safety performance from 280 healthcare staff (doctors, nurses, and administrative staff) from Emergency Departments of seven hospitals in the United Kingdom. We analyzed these data using a structural equation model that simultaneously regressed safety compliance and safety participation on the main effects of each of the aforementioned work characteristics, their two-way interactions, and the three-way interaction among them, while controlling for demographic, occupational, and organizational characteristics. Social support was positively related to safety compliance, and both job control and the two-way interaction between job control and social support were positively related to safety participation. How work design is related to employee safety performance remains an important area for research and provides insight into how organizations can improve workplace safety. The current findings emphasize the importance of the co-worker in promoting both safety compliance and safety participation. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongzhi Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic control and safety hardware such as traffic signs, lighting, signals, pavement markings, guardrails, barriers, and crash cushions form an important and inseparable part of highway infrastructure affecting safety performance. Significant progress has been made in recent decades to develop safety performance functions and crash modification factors for site-specific crash predictions. However, the existing models and methods lack rigorous treatments of safety impacts of time-deteriorating conditions of traffic control and safety hardware. This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis. The proposed method is applied in a computation experiment using five-year data on nearly two hundred rural and urban highway segments. The root-mean square error (RMSE, Chi-square, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests are employed for validation.

  7. Operational safety performance of Slovak NPPs in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomek, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this presentation author presents operational safety performance of Slovak NPPs in 2005. Operation of Slovak NPPs in 2005 was safe and reliable, with: - high level of performance low risk; - minimal impact on the personnel, environment and public; - positive attitude to safety.

  8. Predicting psychopharmacological drug effects on actual driving performance (SDLP) from psychometric tests measuring driving-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    There are various methods to examine driving ability. Comparisons between these methods and their relationship with actual on-road driving is often not determined. The objective of this study was to determine whether laboratory tests measuring driving-related skills could adequately predict on-the-road driving performance during normal traffic. Ninety-six healthy volunteers performed a standardized on-the-road driving test. Subjects were instructed to drive with a constant speed and steady lateral position within the right traffic lane. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), i.e., the weaving of the car, was determined. The subjects also performed a psychometric test battery including the DSST, Sternberg memory scanning test, a tracking test, and a divided attention test. Difference scores from placebo for parameters of the psychometric tests and SDLP were computed and correlated with each other. A stepwise linear regression analysis determined the predictive validity of the laboratory test battery to SDLP. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that the combination of five parameters, hard tracking, tracking and reaction time of the divided attention test, and reaction time and percentage of errors of the Sternberg memory scanning test, together had a predictive validity of 33.4%. The psychometric tests in this test battery showed insufficient predictive validity to replace the on-the-road driving test during normal traffic.

  9. When Vacant Lots Become Urban Gardens: Characterizing the Perceived and Actual Food Safety Concerns of Urban Agriculture in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Michelle L; Williams, Michele L; Basta, Nicholas; Hand, Michelle; Huber, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This study was intended to characterize the perceived risks of urban agriculture by residents of four low-income neighborhoods in which the potential exists for further urban agriculture development and to provide data to support whether any chemical hazards and foodborne pathogens as potential food safety hazards were present. Sixty-seven residents participated in focus groups related to environmental health, food security, and urban gardening. In addition, soils from six locations were tested. Residents expressed interest in the development of urban gardens to improve access to healthy, fresh produce, but they had concerns about soil quality. Soils were contaminated with lead (Pb), zinc, cadmium (Cd), and copper, but not arsenic or chromium. Results from our study suggest paint was the main source of soil contamination. Detectable polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in urban soils were well below levels of concern. These urban soils will require further management to reduce Pb and possibly Cd bioavailability to decrease the potential for uptake into food crops. Although the number of locations in this study is limited, results suggest lower levels of soil contaminants at well-established gardens. Soil tillage associated with long-term gardening could have diluted the soil metal contaminants by mixing the contaminants with clean soil. Also, lower PAH levels in long-term gardening could be due to enhanced microbial activity and PAH degradation, dilution, or both due to mixing, similar to metals. No foodborne pathogen targets were detected by PCR from any of the soils. Residents expressed the need for clearness regarding soil quality and gardening practices in their neighborhoods to consume food grown in these urban areas. Results from this study suggest long-term gardening has the potential to reduce soil contaminants and their potential threat to food quality and human health and to improve access to fresh produce in low-income urban communities.

  10. Performance Testing Methodology for Safety-Critical Programmable Logic Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Ho; Oh, Do Young; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Sung Ho; Sohn, Se Do

    2009-01-01

    The Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) for use in Nuclear Power Plant safety-related applications is being developed and tested first time in Korea. This safety-related PLC is being developed with requirements of regulatory guideline and industry standards for safety system. To test that the quality of the developed PLC is sufficient to be used in safety critical system, document review and various product testings were performed over the development documents for S/W, H/W, and V/V. This paper provides the performance testing methodology and its effectiveness for PLC platform conducted by KOPEC

  11. Performance changes and relationship between vertical jump measures and actual sprint performance in elite sprinters with visual impairment throughout a Parapan American games training season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loturco, Irineu; Winckler, Ciro; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar C.; Kitamura, Katia; Veríssimo, Amaury W.; Pereira, Lucas A.; Nakamura, Fábio Y.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the magnitude of variability and progression in actual competitive and field vertical jump test performances in elite Paralympic sprinters with visual impairment in the year leading up to the 2015 Parapan American Games, and to investigate the relationships between loaded and unloaded vertical jumping test results and actual competitive sprinting performance. Fifteen Brazilian Paralympic sprinters with visual impairment attended seven official competitions (four national, two international and the Parapan American Games 2015) between April 2014 and August 2015, in the 100- and 200-m dash. In addition, they were tested in five different periods using loaded (mean propulsive power [MPP] in jump squat [JS] exercise) and unloaded (squat jump [SJ] height) vertical jumps within the 3 weeks immediately prior to the main competitions. The smallest important effect on performances was calculated as half of the within-athlete race-to-race (or test-to-test) variability and a multiple regression analysis was performed to predict the 100- and 200-m dash performances using the vertical jump test results. Competitive performance was enhanced during the Parapan American Games in comparison to the previous competition averages, overcoming the smallest worthwhile enhancement in both the 100- (0.9%) and 200-m dash (1.43%). In addition, The SJ and JS explained 66% of the performance variance in the competitive results. This study showed that vertical jump tests, in loaded and unloaded conditions, could be good predictors of the athletes' sprinting performance, and that during the Parapan American Games the Brazilian team reached its peak competitive performance. PMID:26594181

  12. Performance changes and relationship between vertical jump measures and actual sprint performance in elite sprinters with visual impairment throughout a Parapan American games training season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineu eLoturco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to estimate the magnitude of variability and progression in actual competitive and field vertical jump test performances in elite Paralympic sprinters with visual impairment in the year leading up to the 2015 Parapan American Games, and to investigate the relationships between loaded and unloaded vertical jumping test results and actual competitive sprinting performance. Fifteen Brazilian Paralympic sprinters with visual impairment attended seven official competitions (four national, two international and the Parapan American Games 2015 between April 2014 and August 2015, in the 100- and 200-m dash. In addition, they were tested in five different periods using loaded (mean propulsive power [MPP] in jump squat [JS] exercise and unloaded (squat jump [SJ] height vertical jumps within the 3 weeks immediately prior to the main competitions. The smallest important effect on performances was calculated as half of the within-athlete race-to-race (or test-to-test variability and a multiple regression analysis was performed to predict the 100- and 200-m dash performances using the vertical jump test results. Competitive performance was enhanced during the Parapan American Games in comparison to the previous competition averages, overcoming the smallest worthwhile enhancement in both the 100- (0.9% and 200-m dash (1.43%. In addition, The SJ and JS explained 66% of the performance variance in the competitive results. This study showed that vertical jump tests, in loaded and unloaded conditions, could be good predictors of the athletes’ sprinting performance, and that during the Parapan American Games the Brazilian team reached its peak competitive performance.

  13. Study on real working performance and overload safety factor of high arch dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Considering the fact that high arch dams have problems such as complicated stress,high cost,and hazards after being damaged,this paper intends to study the effects of load,material strength,and safety analysis method on dam safety and working performance of arch dams.In this article,the effects of temperature,self weight exaction way and water loading on structure response are first discussed,and a more reasonable way of considering is then put forward.By taking into consideration the mechanical property of materials and comparing the effects of different yield criteria on overloading safety of high arch dams,this paper concludes that brittle characteristics of concrete should be fully considered when conducting safety assessment for high arch dams to avoid overestimating the bearing capacity of the dams.By comparing several typical projects,this paper works out a safety assessment system of multiple safety and relevant engineering analogical analysis methods,which is closer to the actual situation,and thus is able to assess the response of high arch dam structure in a more comprehensive way,elicit the safety coefficients in different situations,and provide a new way of considering the safety assessment of high arch dams.

  14. Research on Integration of NPP Operational Safety Management Performance Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Miao; Shi, Liping

    2014-01-01

    The operational safety management of Nuclear Power Plants demands systematic planning and integrated control. NPPs are following the well-developed safety indicator systems proposed by IAEA Operational Safety Performance Indicator Programme, NRC Reactor Oversight Process or the other institutions. Integration of the systems is proposed to benefiting from the advantages of both systems and avoiding improper application into the real world. The authors analyzed the possibility and necessity for system integration, and propose an indicator system integrating method

  15. Toward an understanding of the impact of production pressure on safety performance in construction operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sanguk; Saba, Farzaneh; Lee, Sanghyun; Mohamed, Yasser; Peña-Mora, Feniosky

    2014-07-01

    It is not unusual to observe that actual schedule and quality performances are different from planned performances (e.g., schedule delay and rework) during a construction project. Such differences often result in production pressure (e.g., being pressed to work faster). Previous studies demonstrated that such production pressure negatively affects safety performance. However, the process by which production pressure influences safety performance, and to what extent, has not been fully investigated. As a result, the impact of production pressure has not been incorporated much into safety management in practice. In an effort to address this issue, this paper examines how production pressure relates to safety performance over time by identifying their feedback processes. A conceptual causal loop diagram is created to identify the relationship between schedule and quality performances (e.g., schedule delays and rework) and the components related to a safety program (e.g., workers' perceptions of safety, safety training, safety supervision, and crew size). A case study is then experimentally undertaken to investigate this relationship with accident occurrence with the use of data collected from a construction site; the case study is used to build a System Dynamics (SD) model. The SD model, then, is validated through inequality statistics analysis. Sensitivity analysis and statistical screening techniques further permit an evaluation of the impact of the managerial components on accident occurrence. The results of the case study indicate that schedule delays and rework are the critical factors affecting accident occurrence for the monitored project. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Applying importance-performance analysis to patient safety culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yii-Ching; Wu, Hsin-Hung; Hsieh, Wan-Lin; Weng, Shao-Jen; Hsieh, Liang-Po; Huang, Chih-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    The Sexton et al.'s (2006) safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ) has been widely used to assess staff's attitudes towards patient safety in healthcare organizations. However, to date there have been few studies that discuss the perceptions of patient safety both from hospital staff and upper management. The purpose of this paper is to improve and to develop better strategies regarding patient safety in healthcare organizations. The Chinese version of SAQ based on the Taiwan Joint Commission on Hospital Accreditation is used to evaluate the perceptions of hospital staff. The current study then lies in applying importance-performance analysis technique to identify the major strengths and weaknesses of the safety culture. The results show that teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, stress recognition and working conditions are major strengths and should be maintained in order to provide a better patient safety culture. On the contrary, perceptions of management and hospital handoffs and transitions are important weaknesses and should be improved immediately. Research limitations/implications - The research is restricted in generalizability. The assessment of hospital staff in patient safety culture is physicians and registered nurses. It would be interesting to further evaluate other staff's (e.g. technicians, pharmacists and others) opinions regarding patient safety culture in the hospital. Few studies have clearly evaluated the perceptions of healthcare organization management regarding patient safety culture. Healthcare managers enable to take more effective actions to improve the level of patient safety by investigating key characteristics (either strengths or weaknesses) that healthcare organizations should focus on.

  17. An Empirical Analysis of Human Performance and Nuclear Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey Joe; Larry G. Blackwood

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis, which was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), was to test whether an empirical connection exists between human performance and nuclear power plant safety culture. This was accomplished through analyzing the relationship between a measure of human performance and a plant's Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE). SCWE is an important component of safety culture the NRC has developed, but it is not synonymous with it. SCWE is an environment in which employees are encouraged to raise safety concerns both to their own management and to the NRC without fear of harassment, intimidation, retaliation, or discrimination. Because the relationship between human performance and allegations is intuitively reciprocal and both relationship directions need exploration, two series of analyses were performed. First, human performance data could be indicative of safety culture, so regression analyses were performed using human performance data to predict SCWE. It also is likely that safety culture contributes to human performance issues at a plant, so a second set of regressions were performed using allegations to predict HFIS results

  18. Plant safety and performance indicators for regulatory use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferjancic, M.; Nemec, T.; Cimesa, S.

    2004-01-01

    Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) supervises nuclear and radiological safety of Krsko NPP. This SNSA supervision is performed through inspections, safety evaluations of plant modifications and event analyses as well as with the safety and performance indicators (SPI) which are a valuable data source for plant safety monitoring. In the past SNSA relied on the SPI provided by Krsko NPP and did not have a set of SPI which would be more appropriate for regulatory use. In 2003 SNSA started with preparation of a new set of SPI which would be more suitable for performing the regulatory oversight of the plant. New internal SNSA procedure which is under preparation will define use and evaluation of SPI and will include definitions for the proposed set of SPI. According to the evaluation of SPI values in comparison with the limiting values and/or trending, the procedure will define SNSA response and actions. (author)

  19. Evaluation of safety practices and performance in a brewery industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of safety practices and performance in a brewery industry in Nigeria between 2000 – 2007. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The study revealed that a total of 156 accidents were prevented in the period of the safety programme which translates to an average of 19.45 per year.

  20. On the safety performance of the advanced nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shounan

    1999-01-01

    Some features on the safety performances of the Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems are discussed. The advantages and some peculiar problems on the safety of Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems with subcritical nuclear reactor driven by external neutron sources are also pointed out in comparison with conventional nuclear reactors

  1. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Vis, M.A. Rackliff, L. & Stipdonk, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the ‘relative severity’ of individual collisions between different vehicle

  2. Strengthening the culture of safety and performance in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briant, V.S.; Germann, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    In mid-1995, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna brought together a group of safety culture experts from around the world to explore and summarize those practices they viewed as important in establishing sound safety cultures in nuclear installations. This paper will summarize key findings of the Vienna team and also expand those ideas based on related work in which the authors are engaged. The paper includes a definition of safety culture, a description of three stages of safety culture, and five key practices essential to establishing and maintaining a sound safety culture. Additionally, the authors contradicts the conventional view of safety and production as trade-offs, supporting the Vienna team's conclusion that the principles, attitudes, and practices which bring about sustained levels of high performance are the same as those which enhance safety. Based on input from colleagues in several countries, this appears to hold true across geographical and ethnic boundaries. The authors also discuss how this information can be put to practical use to obtain an objective, measurable, and repeated assessment of the current state of the safety culture within a company, plant or work unit. With that information, leaders are then in the position to act on any of the several parameters which affect both safety and performance effectiveness. (author)

  3. Strengthening the culture of safety and performance in nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briant, V S [GPU Nuclear, Parsippany (United States); Germann, R P [Aberdeen Center for Team Learning, Matawan (United States)

    1997-07-01

    In mid-1995, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna brought together a group of safety culture experts from around the world to explore and summarize those practices they viewed as important in establishing sound safety cultures in nuclear installations. This paper will summarize key findings of the Vienna team and also expand those ideas based on related work in which the authors are engaged. The paper includes a definition of safety culture, a description of three stages of safety culture, and five key practices essential to establishing and maintaining a sound safety culture. Additionally, the authors contradicts the conventional view of safety and production as trade-offs, supporting the Vienna team`s conclusion that the principles, attitudes, and practices which bring about sustained levels of high performance are the same as those which enhance safety. Based on input from colleagues in several countries, this appears to hold true across geographical and ethnic boundaries. The authors also discuss how this information can be put to practical use to obtain an objective, measurable, and repeated assessment of the current state of the safety culture within a company, plant or work unit. With that information, leaders are then in the position to act on any of the several parameters which affect both safety and performance effectiveness. (author) 9 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. Managing patient safety through NPSGs and employee performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Liberty

    2010-01-01

    Patient safety can only exist in a culture of patient safety, which implies it is a value perceived by all. Culture predicts safety outcomes and leadership predicts the culture. Leaders are obligated to continually mitigate hazard and take action consciously. Healthcare workers should focus on preventing and reporting mistakes with the National Patient Safety Goals (NPSGs) in mind. These include: accuracy of patient identification, effectiveness of communication among caregivers, improving safety of medications, reducing infections, reducing risk of falls, and encouraging patients to be involved in care. Poor performers and reckless behavior need to be mitigated. If employees recognize their roles in the process, feel empowered,and have appropriate tools, resources,and data to implement solutions, errors can be avoided and patient safety becomes paramount.

  5. Experience with performance based training of nuclear criticality safety engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    For non-reactor nuclear facilities, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) does not require that nuclear criticality safety engineers demonstrate qualification for their job. It is likely, however, that more formalism will be required in the future. Current DOE requirements for those positions which do have to demonstrate qualification indicate that qualification should be achieved by using a systematic approach such as performance based training (PBT). Assuming that PBT would be an acceptable mechanism for nuclear criticality safety engineer training in a more formal environment, a site-specific analysis of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job was performed. Based on this analysis, classes are being developed and delivered to a target audience of newer nuclear criticality safety engineers. Because current interest is in developing training for selected aspects of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job, the analysis is incompletely developed in some areas

  6. Occupational safety of different industrial sectors in Khartoum State, Sudan. Part 1: Safety performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Gehan R; El-Marakby, Fadia A; H Deign El-Nor, Yasser; Nofal, Faten H; Zakaria, Adel M

    2012-12-01

    Safety performance evaluation enables decision makers improve safety acts. In Sudan, accident records, statistics, and safety performance were not evaluated before maintenance of accident records became mandatory in 2005. This study aimed at evaluating and comparing safety performance by accident records among different cities and industrial sectors in Khartoum state, Sudan, during the period from 2005 to 2007. This was a retrospective study, the sample in which represented all industrial enterprises in Khartoum state employing 50 workers or more. All industrial accident records of the Ministry of Manpower and Health and those of different enterprises during the period from 2005 to 2007 were reviewed. The safety performance indicators used within this study were the frequency-severity index (FSI) and fatal and disabling accident frequency rates (DAFR). In Khartoum city, the FSI [0.10 (0.17)] was lower than that in Bahari [0.11 (0.21)] and Omdurman [0.84 (0.34)]. It was the maximum in the chemical sector [0.33 (0.64)] and minimum in the metallurgic sector [0.09 (0.19)]. The highest DAFR was observed in Omdurman [5.6 (3.5)] and in the chemical sector [2.5 (4.0)]. The fatal accident frequency rate in the mechanical and electrical engineering industry was the highest [0.0 (0.69)]. Male workers who were older, divorced, and had lower levels of education had the lowest safety performance indicators. The safety performance of the industrial enterprises in Khartoum city was the best. The safety performance in the chemical sector was the worst with regard to FSI and DAFR. The age, sex, and educational level of injured workers greatly affect safety performance.

  7. Experience of safety and performance improvement for fuel handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoon Chang, Sang; Hee Lee, Dae

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide experience of safety and performance improvement of fuel handling equipment for nuclear power plants in Korea. The fuel handling equipment, which is used as an important part of critical processes during the refueling outage, has been improved to enhance safety and to optimize fuel handling procedures. Results of data measured during the fuel reloading are incorporated into design changes. The safety and performance improvement for fuel handling equipment could be achieved by simply modifying the components and improving the interlock system. The experience provided in this study can be useful lessons for further improvement of the fuel handling equipment. (authors)

  8. Regulatory supervision of safety indicators; experience with radiation safety indicators in Dukovany nuclear power plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbancik, L.; Kulich, V.

    2004-01-01

    The State Office for Nuclear Safety uses three sets of indicators describing the following aspects of a favourable nuclear power plant operation: smooth operation in normal circumstances, low risk to the population, and operation with a positive safety attitude. These are three safety-related areas for assessment. Each area has its own set of indicators. Overall operational safety performance indicators were identified for each attribute. From this point, a level of strategic indicators was developed, and finally, a set of specific indicators was set up. While neither the overall indicators nor the strategic indicators are directly measurable, the specific indicators are directly measurable and are targeted during inspection. (author)

  9. Safety investigation of team performance in accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, G.; Todorov, V.; Takov, T.; Petrov, V.; Stoychev, K.; Vladimirov, V.; Chukov, I.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the capacities of the performance evaluation of teamwork (PET) method. Its practicability and efficiency are illustrated by retrospective human reliability analyse of the famous nuclear and maritime accidents. A quantitative assessment of operators' performance on the base of thermo-hydraulic (T/H) calculations and full-scope simulator data for set of NPP design basic accidents with WWER is demonstrated. The last data are obtained on the 'WWER-1000' full-scope simulator of Kozloduy NPP during the regular practical training of the operators' teams. An outlook on the 'evaluation system of main control room (MCR) operators' reliability' project, based on simulator data of operators' training is given

  10. Safety performance evaluation using proactive indicators in a selected industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Barkhordari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Quality and effectiveness of safety systems are critical factors in achieving their goals. This study was aimed to represent a method for performance evaluation of safety systems by proactive indicators using different updated models in the field of safety which will be tested in a selected industry. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. Proactive indicators used in this study were: Unsafe acts rate, Safety Climate, Accident Proneness, and Near-miss incident rate. The number of in 1473 safety climate questionnaires and 543 Accident Proneness questionnaires was completed. Results: The minimum and maximum safety climate score were 56.88 and 58.2, respectively, and the minimum and maximum scores of Accident Proneness were 98.2 and 140.7, respectively. The maximum number of Near-miss incident rate were 408 and the minimum of that was 196. The maximum number of unsafe acts rate was 43.8 percent and the minimum of that was 27.2 percent. In nine dimensions of Safety climate the eighth dimension (personal perception of risk with the score of 4.07 has the lowest score and the fourth (laws and safety regulations dimension with 8.05 has the highest score. According to expert opinions, the most important indicator in the assessment of safety performance was unsafe acts rate, while near-miss incident rate was the least important one. Conclusion: The results of this survey reveal that using proactive (Prospective indicators could be an appropriate method in organizations safety performance evaluation.

  11. Actual distribution of Cronobacter spp. in industrial batches of powdered infant formula and consequences for performance of sampling strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongenburger, I; Reij, M W; Boer, E P J; Gorris, L G M; Zwietering, M H

    2011-11-15

    The actual spatial distribution of microorganisms within a batch of food influences the results of sampling for microbiological testing when this distribution is non-homogeneous. In the case of pathogens being non-homogeneously distributed, it markedly influences public health risk. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Cronobacter spp. in powdered infant formula (PIF) on industrial batch-scale for both a recalled batch as well a reference batch. Additionally, local spatial occurrence of clusters of Cronobacter cells was assessed, as well as the performance of typical sampling strategies to determine the presence of the microorganisms. The concentration of Cronobacter spp. was assessed in the course of the filling time of each batch, by taking samples of 333 g using the most probable number (MPN) enrichment technique. The occurrence of clusters of Cronobacter spp. cells was investigated by plate counting. From the recalled batch, 415 MPN samples were drawn. The expected heterogeneous distribution of Cronobacter spp. could be quantified from these samples, which showed no detectable level (detection limit of -2.52 log CFU/g) in 58% of samples, whilst in the remainder concentrations were found to be between -2.52 and 2.75 log CFU/g. The estimated average concentration in the recalled batch was -2.78 log CFU/g and a standard deviation of 1.10 log CFU/g. The estimated average concentration in the reference batch was -4.41 log CFU/g, with 99% of the 93 samples being below the detection limit. In the recalled batch, clusters of cells occurred sporadically in 8 out of 2290 samples of 1g taken. The two largest clusters contained 123 (2.09 log CFU/g) and 560 (2.75 log CFU/g) cells. Various sampling strategies were evaluated for the recalled batch. Taking more and smaller samples and keeping the total sampling weight constant, considerably improved the performance of the sampling plans to detect such a type of contaminated batch. Compared to random sampling

  12. Artificial neural network model for prediction of safety performance indicators goals in nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souto, Kelling C.; Nunes, Wallace W. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Aplicacoes Computacionais; Machado, Marcelo D., E-mail: dornemd@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Combustivel Nuclear - GCN.T

    2011-07-01

    Safety performance indicators have been developed to provide a quantitative indication of the performance and safety in various industry sectors. These indexes can provide assess to aspects ranging from production, design, and human performance up to management issues in accordance with policy, objectives and goals of the company. The use of safety performance indicators in nuclear power plants around the world is a reality. However, it is necessary to periodically set goal values. Such goals are targets relating to each of the indicators to be achieved by the plant over a predetermined period of operation. The current process of defining these goals is carried out by experts in a subjective way, based on actual data from the plant, and comparison with global indices. Artificial neural networks are computational techniques that present a mathematical model inspired by the neural structure of intelligent organisms that acquire knowledge through experience. This paper proposes an artificial neural network model aimed at predicting values of goals to be used in the evaluation of safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants. (author)

  13. Artificial neural network model for prediction of safety performance indicators goals in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, Kelling C.; Nunes, Wallace W.; Machado, Marcelo D.

    2011-01-01

    Safety performance indicators have been developed to provide a quantitative indication of the performance and safety in various industry sectors. These indexes can provide assess to aspects ranging from production, design, and human performance up to management issues in accordance with policy, objectives and goals of the company. The use of safety performance indicators in nuclear power plants around the world is a reality. However, it is necessary to periodically set goal values. Such goals are targets relating to each of the indicators to be achieved by the plant over a predetermined period of operation. The current process of defining these goals is carried out by experts in a subjective way, based on actual data from the plant, and comparison with global indices. Artificial neural networks are computational techniques that present a mathematical model inspired by the neural structure of intelligent organisms that acquire knowledge through experience. This paper proposes an artificial neural network model aimed at predicting values of goals to be used in the evaluation of safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants. (author)

  14. Nuclear power performance and safety. V.3. Safety and international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The International Conference on Nuclear Power Performance and Safety, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, was held at the Austria Centre Vienna (ACV) in Vienna, Austria, from 28 September to 2 October 1987. The objective of the Conference was to promote an exchange of worldwide information on the current trends in the performance and safety of nuclear power and its fuel cycle, and to take a forward look at the expectations and objectives for the 1990s. This objective was accomplished through presentation and discussion of about 200 papers at the Conference. Almost 500 participants and observers from 40 countries and 12 organizations discussed three major questions which were posed as the focus of this Conference: (1) What are the current trends and major issues with regard to performance and safety of nuclear power, the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management? (2) What steps are being taken or need to be taken to resolve outstanding issues in order to improve the performance of nuclear power with assured safety? (3) What performance objectives and achievements can be anticipated for the 1990s? All presentations of this Conference were divided into six volumes. This is Volume 3 which is devoted to the problems of safety and international cooperation. All presentations of Volume 3 were divided into four sessions as follows: the need for safety in nuclear power programmes (4 papers); international cooperation in nuclear safety (6 papers); technical aspects in plant safety (7 papers); approaches to safety (3 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 20 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Developing Probabilistic Safety Performance Margins for Unknown and Underappreciated Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Allan; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Everett, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic safety requirements currently formulated or proposed for space systems, nuclear reactor systems, nuclear weapon systems, and other types of systems that have a low-probability potential for high-consequence accidents depend on showing that the probability of such accidents is below a specified safety threshold or goal. Verification of compliance depends heavily upon synthetic modeling techniques such as PRA. To determine whether or not a system meets its probabilistic requirements, it is necessary to consider whether there are significant risks that are not fully considered in the PRA either because they are not known at the time or because their importance is not fully understood. The ultimate objective is to establish a reasonable margin to account for the difference between known risks and actual risks in attempting to validate compliance with a probabilistic safety threshold or goal. In this paper, we examine data accumulated over the past 60 years from the space program, from nuclear reactor experience, from aircraft systems, and from human reliability experience to formulate guidelines for estimating probabilistic margins to account for risks that are initially unknown or underappreciated. The formulation includes a review of the safety literature to identify the principal causes of such risks.

  16. Actual distribution of Cronobacter spp. in industrial batches of powdered infant formula and consequences for performance of sampling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenburger, I.; Reij, M.W.; Boer, E.P.J.; Gorris, L.G.M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The actual spatial distribution of microorganisms within a batch of food influences the results of sampling for microbiological testing when this distribution is non-homogeneous. In the case of pathogens being non-homogeneously distributed, it markedly influences public health risk. This study

  17. SAFETY PERFORMANCE OF SUBCONTRACTORS IN THE PALESTINIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Enshassi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Subcontractors perform most of the construction works and their effect on industry are apparent in different activities of construction. Therefore, subcontractors need more attention from government and contractors union. The aim of this paper is to identify, evaluate, and rank factors that influence safety performance of subcontractors in the Gaza Strip (Palestine according to their relative importance. The study concluded that reported accident rates will decrease among subcontractors and their workers if new workers are trained well in the work site and they are informed about dangerous places, and if a workable safety plan is well preplanned. The results also showed that reported accident rates increased among subcontractors when using old, unsafe equipment and due to the complexity or difficulty in the construction sites features. Owners and general contractors need to stipulate strict clauses for safety in the contract for improving safety record of subcontractors. Construction workers must receive proper job related safety and health training with a safety logbook. It is recommended that the subcontractors and workers should attend continuing safety programs on regular basis as part of their perquisite to work in construction sites.

  18. Design and cost analysis of 1 kW photovoltaic system based on actual performance in Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Ahsan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The exhaustion of conventional resources and its effect on climate requires an urgent call for the substitute power resources to convene up the current power requirement. Solar energy is an endless, unsoiled and prospective energy source among all other nonconventional energy options. As more concentration is being done on focal point for the development of renewable energy capital globally. To ascertain their viability it is necessary to do the economic and technical assessments of these resources. This paper presents designing aspects and assessments of solar PV system based on field and actual performance. The study is based on design of solar PV system and a case study based on cost analysis of 1.0 kW off-grid photovoltaic energy system installed at Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (28.5616° N, 77.2802° E, and about 293 m above sea level India. Both monthly and weekly costs of energy produced by the 1 kW PV system have been calculated. In addition, the solar PV 1 kW system can give internal rate of return of about 1.714% on investment. Based on assumptions used in this study, solar 1 kW PV system of Rs. 0.9724/kWh is estimated for a project with profitable life of 25 years with no other financial support. This translates to Rs. 80,000 payment over the livelier cost of energy of 1 kWh generated by the system. However, if the financial support is more than 50% of the initial investment cost, no further payment fee is necessary to support this type of system. Basically this system has been designed for small home located at the place of availability of grid power is rare. 1 kW PV solar system is also very useful in rural areas of India. India as a subcontinent receives great amounts of solar radiation annually.

  19. Annual health, safety and environmental performance report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orman, R.F.; Richards, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the safety and environmental record of the operations of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) during 1992. An introduction highlights the results and describes the facilities and organizational systems. Subsequent sections indicate the performance of the company with respect to personnel radiation exposures, occupational injuries, the handling of wastes and the release of materials into the environment. Programs in health, safety and environmental protection are presented, along with site remediation and emergency preparedness practices

  20. Annual health, safety and environmental performance report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orman, R.F.; Richards, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the safety and environmental record of the operations of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) during 1992. an introduction highlights the results and describes the facilities and organizational systems. Subsequent sections indicate the performance of the company with respect to personnel radiation exposures, occupational injuries, the handling of wastes and the release of materials into the environment. Programs in health, safety and environmental protection are presented, along with site remediation and emergency preparedness practices

  1. Improvement programme of safety performance indicators (SPIs) in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    2001-01-01

    KINS has developed and used Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs), which are count based and composed of 10 indicators in 8 areas, to monitor the trend of performance of NPPs in Korea since 1997. However, the limited usage of SPIs and the increasing worldwide interest on SPIs became the motivation of the SPI improvement programme in Korea. Korea is planning to establish plant performance evaluation programme through analysis of SPI and result of inspection. The SPI improvement programme is a part of the plant performance evaluation programme and includes study on performance evaluation areas, indicator categories, selection and development of indicators, redefinition of indicators and introduction of graphical display system. The selected performance evaluation areas are general performance, reactor safety and radiation safety. Each area will have categories as sub-areas and a total of six categories are selected. One or two indicators for each category are determined or will be developed to make a set of Safety Performance Indicators. Also, a graphic display system will be introduced to extend the usage of SPIs. (author)

  2. Performance scorecard for occupational safety and health management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernâni Veloso Neto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pro-active and systematic search for best performances should be the two assumptions of any management system, so safety and health management in organizations must also be guided by these same precepts. However, the scientific production evidences that the performance evaluation processes in safety and health continue to be guided, in their essence, by intermittency, reactivity and negativity, which are not consistent with the assumptions referenced above. Therefore, it is essential that health and safety at work management systems (HSW MS are structured from an active and positive viewpoint, focusing on continuous improvement. This implies considering performance evaluation processes that incorporate, on the one hand, monitoring, measuring and verification procedures, and on the other hand, structured matrixes of results that capture the key factors of success, by mobilizing both reactive and proactive indicators. One of the instruments that can fulfill these precepts of health and safety performance evaluation is the SafetyCard, a performance scorecard for HSW MS that we developed and will seek to outline and demonstrate over this paper.

  3. Experience with performance based training of nuclear criticality safety engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, new entrants to the practice of nuclear criticality safety have learned their job primarily by on-the-job training (OJT) often by association with an experienced nuclear criticality safety engineer who probably also learned their job by OJT. Typically, the new entrant learned what he/she needed to know to solve a particular problem and accumulated experience as more problems were solved. It is likely that more formalism will be required in the future. Current US Department of Energy requirements for those positions which have to demonstrate qualification indicate that it should be achieved by using a systematic approach such as performance based training (PBT). Assuming that PBT would be an acceptable mechanism for nuclear criticality safety engineer training in a more formal environment, a site-specific analysis of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job was performed. Based on this analysis, classes are being developed and delivered to a target audience of newer nuclear criticality safety engineers. Because current interest is in developing training for selected aspects of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job, the analysis i's incompletely developed in some areas. Details of this analysis are provided in this report

  4. Building quality into performance and safety assessment software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Quality assurance is integrated throughout the development lifecycle for performance and safety assessment software. The software used in the performance and safety assessment of a Canadian deep geological repository (DGR) follows the CSA quality assurance standard CSA-N286.7 [1], Quality Assurance of Analytical, Scientific and Design Computer Programs for Nuclear Power Plants. Quality assurance activities in this standard include tasks such as verification and inspection; however, much more is involved in producing a quality software computer program. The types of errors found with different verification methods are described. The integrated quality process ensures that defects are found and corrected as early as possible. (author)

  5. Improvements in operational safety performance of the Magnox power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchese, C.J. [BNFL Magnox Generation, Berkeley (United Kingdom)

    2000-10-01

    In the 43 years since commencement of operation of Calder Hall, the first Magnox power station, there remain eight Magnox stations and 20 reactors still in operation, owned by BNFL Magnox Generation. This paper describes how the operational safety performance of these stations has significantly improved over the last ten years. This has been achieved against a background of commercial competition introduced by privatization and despite the fact that the Magnox base design belongs to the past. Finally, the company's future plans for continued improvements in operational safety performance are discussed. (author)

  6. Implications of Self-Deception for Self-Reported Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Dispositions and Actual Learning Performance: A Higher Order Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Robert R.; Thomas, Christopher H.; McNatt, D. Brian

    2008-01-01

    The authors explored implications of individuals' self-deception (a trait) for their self-reported intrinsic and extrinsic motivational dispositions and their actual learning performance. In doing so, a higher order structural model was developed and tested in which intrinsic and extrinsic motivational dispositions were underlying factors that…

  7. Evaluating Models of Human Performance: Safety-Critical Systems Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Evaluating Models of Human Performance. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the increasing use of models in the world today and specifically focus on how to describe and evaluate models of human performance. My presentation will focus on discussions of generating distributions of performance, and the evaluation of different strategies for humans performing tasks with mixed initiative (Human-Automation) systems. I will also discuss issues with how to provide Human Performance modeling data to support decisions on acceptability and tradeoffs in the design of safety critical systems. I will conclude with challenges for the future.

  8. Performance Analysis of Multi Stage Safety Injection Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Soo Jai; Kim, Young In; Bae, Youngmin; Kang, Han-Ok; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    In general the integral reactor has such characteristics, the integral reactor requires a high flow rate of coolant safety injection at the initial stage of the accident in which the core level is relatively fast decreased, A medium flow rate of coolant safety injection at the early and middle stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is relatively large due to a high internal pressure of the reactor vessel, and a low flow rate of coolant safety injection is required at the middle and late stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is greatly reduced due to a decreased pressure of the reactor vessel. It is noted that a high flow rate of the integral reactor is quite smaller compared to a flow rate required in the commercial loop type reactor. However, a nitrogen pressurized safety injection tank has been typically designed to quickly inject a high flow rate of coolant when the internal pressure of the reactor vessel is rapidly decreased, and a core makeup tank has been designed to safely inject at a single mode flow rate due to a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor vessel and core makeup tank. As a result, in order to compensate such a disadvantage, various type systems are used in a complicated manner in a reactor according to the required characteristic of safety injection during an accident. In the present study, we have investigated numerically the performance of the multi stage safety injection tank. A parameter study has performed to understand the characteristics of the multi stage safety injection tank. The performance of the multi stage safety injection tank has been investigated numerically. When an accident occurs, the coolant in the multi stage safety injection tank is injected into a reactor vessel by a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor and tank. At the early stages of the accident, the high flow rate of

  9. Performance Analysis of Multi Stage Safety Injection Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Soo Jai; Kim, Young In; Bae, Youngmin; Kang, Han-Ok; Kim, Keung Koo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In general the integral reactor has such characteristics, the integral reactor requires a high flow rate of coolant safety injection at the initial stage of the accident in which the core level is relatively fast decreased, A medium flow rate of coolant safety injection at the early and middle stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is relatively large due to a high internal pressure of the reactor vessel, and a low flow rate of coolant safety injection is required at the middle and late stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is greatly reduced due to a decreased pressure of the reactor vessel. It is noted that a high flow rate of the integral reactor is quite smaller compared to a flow rate required in the commercial loop type reactor. However, a nitrogen pressurized safety injection tank has been typically designed to quickly inject a high flow rate of coolant when the internal pressure of the reactor vessel is rapidly decreased, and a core makeup tank has been designed to safely inject at a single mode flow rate due to a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor vessel and core makeup tank. As a result, in order to compensate such a disadvantage, various type systems are used in a complicated manner in a reactor according to the required characteristic of safety injection during an accident. In the present study, we have investigated numerically the performance of the multi stage safety injection tank. A parameter study has performed to understand the characteristics of the multi stage safety injection tank. The performance of the multi stage safety injection tank has been investigated numerically. When an accident occurs, the coolant in the multi stage safety injection tank is injected into a reactor vessel by a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor and tank. At the early stages of the accident, the high flow rate of

  10. Core size effects on safety performances of LMRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Byung Chan; Hahn, Do Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    An oxide fuel small size core (1200 MWt) was analyzed in comparison with a large size core (3600 MWt) in order to evaluate the size effects on transient safety performances of liquid-metal reactors (LMRs). In the first part of the study, main static safety parameters (i.e., Doppler coefficient, sodium void effect, etc.) of the two cores were characterized, and the second part of the study was focused on the dynamic behavior of the cores in two representative transient events: the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) and the unprotected transient overpower (UTOP). Margins to fuel melting and sodium boiling have been evaluated for these representative transients. Results show that the small core has a generally better or equivalent level of safety performances during these events. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  11. Core size effects on safety performances of LMRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Byung Chan; Hahn, Do Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    An oxide fuel small size core (1200 MWt) was analyzed in comparison with a large size core (3600 MWt) in order to evaluate the size effects on transient safety performances of liquid-metal reactors (LMRs). In the first part of the study, main static safety parameters (i.e., Doppler coefficient, sodium void effect, etc.) of the two cores were characterized, and the second part of the study was focused on the dynamic behavior of the cores in two representative transient events: the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) and the unprotected transient overpower (UTOP). Margins to fuel melting and sodium boiling have been evaluated for these representative transients. Results show that the small core has a generally better or equivalent level of safety performances during these events. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  12. Indicators to monitor NPP safety performance. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Numerical indicators to monitor safety status and overall safety performance of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are used by operators and some regulators worldwide. During the last few years, the IAEA, through Technical Committee Meetings and Consultants' Meetings has worked on this area. This report presents a framework for nuclear power plant safety performance indicators that was developed during two consultant meetings held at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna in December 1995 and November 1996. Annex 2 on risk based indicators was prepared during a consultants' meeting held in Vienna in July 1996. An additional outcome from these activities, was the recommendation that the IAEA conduce pilot exercises at several nuclear power plants that might be interested to participate, in order to test the validity of the concept and its usefulness. 6 figs

  13. Transient safety performance of the PRISM innovative liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Dubberley, A.E.; Rhow, S.K.; Wu, T.

    1988-01-01

    The PRISM sodium-cooled reactor concept utilizes passive safety characteristics and modularity to increase performance margins, improve licensability, reduce owner's risk and reduce costs. The relatively small size of each reactor module (471 MWt) facilitates the use of passive self-shutdown and shutdown heat removal features, which permit design simplification and reduction of safety-related systems. Key to the transient performance is the inherent negative reactivity feedback characteristics of the core design resulting from the use of metal (U-Pu-Zr) swing, and very low control rod runout worth. Selected beyond design basis events relying only on these core design features are analyzed and the design margins summarized to demonstrate the advancement in reactor safety achieved with the PRISM design concept

  14. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Food safety management systems performance in the lamb production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oses, S.M.; Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Jaime, I.; Rovira, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a performance measurement of implemented food safety management system (FSMS) along the lamb chain using an FSMS-diagnostic instrument (FSMS-DI) and a Microbiological Assessment Scheme (MAS). Three slaughterhouses, 1 processing plant and 5 butcher shops were evaluated. All the

  16. Operational safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    Since the late 1980s, the IAEA has been actively sponsoring work in the area of indicators to monitor nuclear power plant (NPP) operational safety performance. The early activities were mainly focused on exchanging ideas and good practices in the development and use of these indicators at nuclear power plants. Since 1995 efforts have been directed towards the elaboration of a framework for the establishment of an operational safety performance indicator programme. The result of this work, compiled in this publication, is intended to assist NPPs in developing and implementing a monitoring programme, without overlooking the critical aspects related to operational safety performance. The framework proposed in this report was presented at two IAEA workshops on operational safety performance indicators held in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in September 1998 and at the Daya Bay NPP, Szenzhen, China, in December 1998. During these two workshops, the participants discussed and brainstormed on the indicator framework presented. These working sessions provided very useful insights and ideas which where used for the enhancement of the framework proposed. The IAEA is acknowledging the support and contribution of all the participants in these two activities. The programme development was enhanced by pilot plant studies. Four plants from different countries with different designs participated in this study with the objective of testing the applicability, usefulness and viability of this approach

  17. Evaluating Performance of Safety Management and Occupational Health Using Total Quality Safety Management Model (TQSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mohammadfam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: All organizations, whether public or private, necessitate performance evaluation systems in regard with growth, stability, and development in the competitive fields. One of the existing models for performance evaluation of occupational health and safety management is Total Quality Safety Management model (TQSM. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate performance of safety management and occupational health utilizing TQSM model. Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, the population consisted of 16 individuals, including managers, supervisors, and members of technical protection and work health committee. Then the participants were asked to respond to TQSM questionnaire before and after the implementation of Occupational Health & Safety Advisory Services 18001 (OHSAS18001. Ultimately, the level of each program as well as the TQSM status were determined before and after the implementation of OHSAS18001. Results: The study results showed that the scores obtained by the company before OHSAS 18001’s implementation, was 43.7 out of 312. After implementing OHSAS 18001 in the company and receiving the related certificate, the total score of safety program that company could obtain was 127.12 out of 312 demonstrating a rise of 83.42 scores (26.8%. The paired t-test revealed that mean difference of TQSM scores before and after OHSAS 18001 implementation was proved to be significant (p> 0.05. Conclusion: The study findings demonstrated that TQSM can be regarded as an appropriate model in order to monitor the performance of safety management system and occupational health, since it possesses the ability to quantitatively evaluate the system performance.

  18. Annual health, safety and environmental performance report for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallapher, J D; Wright, M G

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the occupational health and safety and the environmental protection record of the operations of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) during 1993. An introduction highlights the results and describes the facilities and organizational systems. Subsequent sections indicate the performance of the company with respect to personnel radiation exposures, occupational injuries, the handling of wastes, and the release of materials into the environment. Programs in health, safety and environmental protection are presented, along with site remediation and emergency preparedness practices. (author). 14 figs.

  19. Annual health, safety and environmental performance report for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallapher, J.D.; Wright, M.G.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the occupational health and safety and the environmental protection record of the operations of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) during 1993. An introduction highlights the results and describes the facilities and organizational systems. Subsequent sections indicate the performance of the company with respect to personnel radiation exposures, occupational injuries, the handling of wastes, and the release of materials into the environment. Programs in health, safety and environmental protection are presented, along with site remediation and emergency preparedness practices. (author). 14 figs

  20. Performance and safety design of the advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, R.C.; Magee, P.M.; Boardman, C.E.; Gyorey, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program led by General Electric is developing, under U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship, a conceptual design for an advanced sodium-cooled liquid metal reactor plant. This design is intended to improve the already excellent level of plant safety achieved by the nuclear power industry while at the same time providing significant reductions in plant construction and operating costs. In this paper, the plant design and performance are reviewed, with emphasis on the ALMR's unique passive design safety features and its capability to utilize as fuel the actinides in LWR spent fuel

  1. New safety performance indicators for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta Vital, J.L.; Castillo, R.G.; Olivera, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper shows the Cuban experience on implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste and the necessity for identifying new safety performance indicators for the safety assessment (SA) of radioactive waste disposal facilities. The selected indicator was the concentration of natural radioactive elements (U, Ra, Th, K) in the Cuban geologic environment. We have carried out a group of investigations, which have allowed characterising the concentration for the whole Country, creating a wide database where this indicator is associated with the lithology. The main lithologies in Cuba are: the sedimentary rocks (70 percent of national occurrence), which are present in the three regions (limestone and lutite), and finally the igneous and metamorphic rocks. The results show the concentrations ranges of the natural radionuclides associated fundamentally to the variation in the lithology and geographical area of the Country. In Cuba, the higher concentration (ppm) of Uranium and Radium are referenced to the Central region associated to Skarn, while for Thorium (ppm) and Potassium (%), in the East region the concentration peaks in Tuffs have been found. The concentrations ranges obtained are preliminary, they characterise the behaviour of this parameter for the Cuban geology, but they do not represent limits for safety assessment purposes yet. Also other factors should be taken into account as the assessment context, time scales and others assumptions before establishing the final concentration limits for the natural radionuclides as a radiological and nuclear safety performance indicator complementary to dose and risk for safety assessment for radiological and nuclear facilities. (author)

  2. Operational safety system performance alternative to the WANO's indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyra, Moacir

    2002-01-01

    One of the operational safety performance indicators recommended by the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) and adopted by Electronuclear is the reliability of the safety systems. The parameter selected to represent this indicator is the average unavailability of the trains of the concerned system. This parameter would be universally representative of the reliability for comparison purpose only if all nuclear power plants were designed within the same redundancy criteria. Considering the diversity of design criteria of the power plants in operation and based on a probabilistic approach, this paper proposes new performance indicators which are comparable regardless the redundancy criteria of the system. A case example applied to a system of the Angra 2 nuclear power plant shows that, even though with the plant in the infancy phase, the performance of the system in the period is very good. (author)

  3. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Leadership in Safety Performance and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravello, Halina E.

    Employee injury rates in U.S. land-based operations in the energy industry are 2 to 3 times higher relative to other regions in the world. Although a rich literature exists on drivers of safety performance, no previous studies investigated factors influencing this elevated rate. Leadership has been identified as a key contributor to safety outcomes and this grounded theory study drew upon the full range leadership model, situational leadership, and leader-member exchange theories for the conceptual framework. Leadership aspects influencing safety performance were investigated through guided interviews of 27 study participants; data analyses included open and axial coding, and constant comparisons identified higher-level categories. Selective coding integrated categories into the theoretical framework that developed the idealized, transformational leader traits motivating safe behaviors of leading by example, expressing care and concern for employees' well-being, celebrating successes, and communicating the importance of safety (other elements included visibility and commitment). Employee and supervisor participants reported similar views on the idealized leader traits, but low levels of these qualities may be driving elevated injury rates. Identifying these key elements provides the foundation to creating strategies and action plans enabling energy sector companies to prevent employee injuries and fatalities in an industry where tens of thousands of employees are subjected to significant hazards and elevated risks. Creating safer workplaces for U.S. employees by enhancing leaders' skills, building knowledge, and improving behaviors will improve the employees' and their families' lives by reducing the pain and suffering resulting from injuries and fatalities.

  5. Continuous improvement of the MHTGR safety and competitive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichenberg, T.W.; Etzel, K.T.; Mascaro, L.L.; Rucker, R.A.

    1992-05-01

    An increase in reactor module power from 350 to 450 MW(t) would markedly improve the economics of the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The higher power level was recommended as the result of an in-depth cost reduction study undertaken to compete with the declining price of fossil fuel. The safety assessment confirms that the high level of safety, which relies on inherent characteristics and passive features, is maintained at the elevated power level. Preliminary systems, nuclear, and safety performance results are discussed for the recommended 450 MW(t) design. Optimization of plant parameters and design modifications accommodated the operation of the steam generator and circulator at the higher power level. Events in which forced cooling is lost, designated as conduction cooldowns are described in detail. For the depressurized conduction cooldown, without full helium inventory, peak fuel temperatures are significantly lowered. A more negative temperature coefficient of reactivity was achieved while maintaining an adequate fuel cycle and reactivity control. Continual improvement of the MHTGR delivers competitive performance without relinquishing the high safety margins demanded of the next generation of power plants

  6. Safety Performance Index Industri Batik Tulis Berdasarkan Kriteria Majemuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachnul Ansori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accident generally occurs due to the activities which is done in unsafe conditions or even unsafe behavior. These conditions can influence workers productivity. In batik industries, those workers use toxic material and work in non ergonomic atmosphere. Moreover, they also do not take care of the environment and do not use personal protective equipments (PPE. Workers at Madura batik SMEs have not fully realized the significance of occupational health and safety (OHS in their working areas. The aims of this research is to evaluate OHS performance based on the indicators of safety performance index (SPI, which is multicriteria, in that industri. The safety performance attributes were obtained from factor analysis from the previous study. The index is calculated based on the weighted evaluation results of critical behavior checklist (CBC, integrated with analytical hierarchy process (AHP. As the results, we should give priority to improve the knowledge and experience toward OHS of the workers and also improve the working environment of the Madura’s batik industries. Additionally, the performance of OHS in coloring process is also on the threshold of unsafe condition, further development on the coloring process is needed.

  7. Focus on safety : a comparative analysis of pipeline safety performance 2000-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) is responsible for the promotion of safety, environmental protection and economic efficiency in the Canadian public interest in regulating the design, construction, operation and abandonment of interprovincial and international pipelines within Canada. This second annual report provides a review of the safety performance of oil and gas pipeline companies that are regulated by the NEB. The data used to prepare this report originates from two sources: incident reports submitted under the Onshore Pipeline Regulations, 1999, and from information voluntarily provided by pipeline companies under the Safety Performance Indicators (SPI) initiative. Data comparisons with external reference organizations were included. Six key indicators have been identified to provide comprehensive measures of safety performance for pipeline companies: fatalities, ruptures, injury frequencies, liquid releases, gas releases, and unauthorized activities on the right of way. The safety performance of the federally regulated pipeline industry within Canada was satisfactory during this reporting period (2000-2002). The contractor injury frequency rates reported in 2002 were lower than those reported in 2001, and exhibited more consistency with the levels reported in 2000. The NEB is of the opinion that the elevated number of liquid hydrocarbon spills reported in 2000 were a result of elevated construction levels. No fatalities were reported. There was an increase to three from two in the number of ruptures, due in large part to metal loss (corrosion) and cracking, and external interference (third party damage). The number of spills increased to 76 in 2002 from 55 in 2001, which appears to be more in line with industry averages. The volume of hydrocarbon liquid released in 2002 represented one third the volume released in 2001. refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs

  8. Regulatory activities in the area of fuel safety and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorov, A.; Couture, M.

    2005-01-01

    Generic Action Item 94G02 'Impact of Fuel Bundle Condition on Reactor Safety' in many ways determined the present priorities in regulatory activities related to fuel performance. As one of the closure criteria it required that all licensees establish 'an effective formal and systematic process for integrating fuel design, fuel and channel inspection, laboratory examination, research, operating limits and safety analysis'. To date, such a process has been, to a large extent, put in place by all licensees. To assure that such processes remain operational and effective after the GAI closure, CNSC required, through S-99, to report annually on fuel performance and major activities in the fuel safety area. The scope of reported information has been defined to allow CNSC staff evaluation of key events and trends in fuel performance. To compliment reporting by the industry, CNSC staff has conducted targeted inspections of fuel compliance programs at all sites. Combined together, these activities provide the regulator with the confidence that CANDU fuel is robust and operates with safety margins. The scrutiny, to which fuel performance has been subjected lately, has allowed identification of certain programmatic weaknesses and gaps in the knowledge concerning the fuel behaviour under various conditions. It has become apparent that top-level strategies for assessment of fuel performance may have been inadequate and far from systematic; fuel inspection practices and capabilities have varied significantly from site to site; certain issues were identified but remained unaddressed for significant time; priorities in experimental or design support activities were not assigned consistently. The presentation gives examples of areas where, in the opinion of the CNSC staff, further work is required to support fuel design and safety envelopes. The implementation of new CANFLEX fuel designs is currently being considered by the industry and CNSC staff has been engaged in the review

  9. Decision-making as performative struggle: Strategic political-executive practices influencing the actualization of an infrastructural development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkus, S.; de Heer, J.M.; Veenswijk, M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of performative struggle through the use of an interpretative case story focussed on a strategic decision-making process concerning infrastructural development. Performativity is about “world-making” (Carter et al., 2010), based on the

  10. Potential safety features and safety analysis aspects for high performance light water reactor (HPLWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksan, N.; Schulenberg, T.; Squarer, D.

    2003-01-01

    Research Activities are ongoing worldwide to develop advanced nuclear power plants with high thermal efficiency for the purpose to improve their economical competitiveness. Within the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission, a project has been launched with the main objective to assess the technical and economical feasibility of a high efficiency LWR operating at super critical pressure conditions. Several European research institutions, industrial partners and the University of Tokyo participated and worked in this common research project. Within the aims of the development of the HPLWR is to use both passive and active safety systems for performing safety related functions in the event of transients or accidents. Consequently substantial effort has been invested in order to define the safety features of the plant in a European environment, as well as to incorporate passive safety features into the design. Throughout this process, the European Utility Requirements (EUR) and requirements known from Generation IV initiative were considered as a guideline in general terms in order to include further advanced ideas. The HPLWR general features were compared to both requirements, indicating a potential to meet these. Since, the supercritical HPLWR represents a challenge for best-estimate safety codes like RELAP5, CATHARE and TRAB due to the fact that these codes were developed for two-phase or single-phase coolant at pressures far below critical point, work on the preliminary assessment of the appropriateness of these codes have been performed for selected relevant phenomena, and application of the codes to the selected transients on the basis of defined 'reference design'. An overview on their successful upgrade to supercritical pressures and application to some plant safety analysis are provided in the paper. Further elaborations in relation to future needs are also discussed. (author)

  11. Nuclear power performance and safety. V.6.: Indexes and lists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The sixth volume of the proceedings of the international conference on nuclear power performance and safety organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna between 28 September and 2 October 1987 presents the contents of volumes 1-5, the list of Chairmen of Sessions and the Secretariat of the Conference, the list of participants, the author and transliteration indexes, the index of papers and posters by number

  12. Examination on the actual situation of safety measures for the gas used in semiconductor industry of U. S. A. Amerika no handotai kogyoyo gas no anzen taisaku no jitsujo wo mite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, S [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-06-15

    In compliance with the request of the Compressed Gas Safety Association of Japan, the visits to the Department of Transportation (DOT), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Department of Labor (OSHA), which are the apparatus of government, the Compressed Gas Association (CGA), the makers of gas used in the semiconductor industry, the makers of cylinder cabinet, and the semiconductor manufacturing factories run by Japanese were made by the present authors in order to examine the actual situations of the safety measure to the gas used in semiconductor industry of U.S.A. In this paper, the viewpoints as well as the actual situation relating to the safety measure to the compressed gas in said visited apparatus and enterprises are introduced. Especially, a number of points which should be referred to are indicated that recently in America, the control of the dangerous materials are regulated rigorously due to the environmental problems, and additionally the files of material safety data sheet based on Hazard communication of OSHA are ranged in the passageways for being read freely, the certain safety educations are given to the employees in offices and the visiting traders or marketers concerned as the duty. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Teamwork skills in actual, in situ, and in-center pediatric emergencies: performance levels across settings and perceptions of comparative educational impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Thomaz Bittencourt; Kerrey, Benjamin T; Taylor, Regina G; FitzGerald, Michael; Geis, Gary L

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric emergencies require effective teamwork. These skills are developed and demonstrated in actual emergencies and in simulated environments, including simulation centers (in center) and the real care environment (in situ). Our aims were to compare teamwork performance across these settings and to identify perceived educational strengths and weaknesses between simulated settings. We hypothesized that teamwork performance in actual emergencies and in situ simulations would be higher than for in-center simulations. A retrospective, video-based assessment of teamwork was performed in an academic, pediatric level 1 trauma center, using the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) tool (range, 0-44) among emergency department providers (physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, paramedics, patient care assistants, and pharmacists). A survey-based, cross-sectional assessment was conducted to determine provider perceptions regarding simulation training. One hundred thirty-two videos, 44 from each setting, were reviewed. Mean total TEAM scores were similar and high in all settings (31.2 actual, 31.1 in situ, and 32.3 in-center, P = 0.39). Of 236 providers, 154 (65%) responded to the survey. For teamwork training, in situ simulation was considered more realistic (59% vs. 10%) and more effective (45% vs. 15%) than in-center simulation. In a video-based study in an academic pediatric institution, ratings of teamwork were relatively high among actual resuscitations and 2 simulation settings, substantiating the influence of simulation-based training on instilling a culture of communication and teamwork. On the basis of survey results, providers favored the in situ setting for teamwork training and suggested an expansion of our existing in situ program.

  14. Numerical indicators of nuclear power plant safety performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The workshop was attended by representatives from twenty-two Member States operating nuclear power plants (NPP). The current status of the development and use of numerical indicators of NPP safety performance was presented. A consensus on the benefits of use of numerical indicators was reached. The Technical Committee Meeting reviewed the progress in the development and use of performance indicators and identified them as the most appropriate ones for international use. The purpose of this document is to summarize the discussions held and conclusions reached in both meetings. Lists of participants and all the papers of both meetings are presented

  15. Is less really more: Does a prefrontal efficiency genotype actually confer better performance when working memory becomes difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihne, Jessica L; Gallagher, Natalie M; Sullivan, Marie; Callicott, Joseph H; Green, Adam E

    2016-01-01

    Perhaps the most widely studied effect to emerge from the combination of neuroimaging and human genetics is the association of the COMT-Val(108/158)Met polymorphism with prefrontal activity during working memory. COMT-Val is a putative risk factor in schizophrenia, which is characterized by disordered prefrontal function. Work in healthy populations has sought to characterize mechanisms by which the valine (Val) allele may lead to disadvantaged prefrontal cognition. Lower activity in methionine (Met) carriers has been interpreted as advantageous neural efficiency. Notably, however, studies reporting COMT effects on neural efficiency have generally not reported working memory performance effects. Those studies have employed relatively low/easy working memory loads. Higher loads are known to elicit individual differences in working memory performance that are not visible at lower loads. If COMT-Met confers greater neural efficiency when working memory is easy, a reasonable prediction is that Met carriers will be better able to cope with increasing demand for neural resources when working memory becomes difficult. To our knowledge, this prediction has thus far gone untested. Here, we tested performance on three working memory tasks. Performance on each task was measured at multiple levels of load/difficulty, including loads more demanding than those used in prior studies. We found no genotype-by-load interactions or main effects of COMT genotype on accuracy or reaction time. Indeed, even testing for performance differences at each load of each task failed to find a single significant effect of COMT genotype. Thus, even if COMT genotype has the effects on prefrontal efficiency that prior work has suggested, such effects may not directly impact high-load working memory ability. The present findings accord with previous evidence that behavioral effects of COMT are small or nonexistent and, more broadly, with a growing consensus that substantial effects on phenotype will

  16. Proceedings of the specialist meeting on safety performance indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-28

    In 1998, the OECD/NEA committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) initiated an activity with the objective of advancing the discussion on how to enhance and measure regulatory effectiveness in relation to nuclear installations. One of the outcome of this activity was to establish a Task group to develop internal (direct) performance indicators which would be used to monitor regulatory efficiency. On the initiative of the NEA/CSNI Working Group on Operating Experience the Spanish CSN hosted a workshop (Madrid, 2000) to review the state of the art on Safety Performance Indicators. This workshop, which was co-sponsored by the IAEA and WANO was attended by 73 participants from 19 countries, representing the industry, regulators, service companies as well as international organisations. The conclusions were: 1. there is considerable development effort on performance indicators in many countries; 2. utilities continue to rely on the WANO Performance indicators system which consists of indicators in 8 key areas and receives data from virtually all commercial NPP's in the world; 3. Regulators do not have a common set of performance indicators. This document gathers the 25 presentations given during this workshop. After this workshop, a joint CNRA/CSNI task group was launched in December 2000 to exchange information and develop external (indirect) indicators to measure regulatory effectiveness, i.e. impact on licensee's safety performance. These external indicators are, in other words, the traditional plant performance indicators (PI's). The task force consisted of regulators, organisations which have a performance indicators system in operation or under testing. The task force met in Paris on February 19-20, 2001 and the work performed by the group is summarized in a report (NEA-CSNI-R--2001-11) attached in appendix to these proceedings.

  17. Proceedings of the specialist meeting on safety performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, the OECD/NEA committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) initiated an activity with the objective of advancing the discussion on how to enhance and measure regulatory effectiveness in relation to nuclear installations. One of the outcome of this activity was to establish a Task group to develop internal (direct) performance indicators which would be used to monitor regulatory efficiency. On the initiative of the NEA/CSNI Working Group on Operating Experience the Spanish CSN hosted a workshop (Madrid, 2000) to review the state of the art on Safety Performance Indicators. This workshop, which was co-sponsored by the IAEA and WANO was attended by 73 participants from 19 countries, representing the industry, regulators, service companies as well as international organisations. The conclusions were: 1. there is considerable development effort on performance indicators in many countries; 2. utilities continue to rely on the WANO Performance indicators system which consists of indicators in 8 key areas and receives data from virtually all commercial NPP's in the world; 3. Regulators do not have a common set of performance indicators. This document gathers the 25 presentations given during this workshop. After this workshop, a joint CNRA/CSNI task group was launched in December 2000 to exchange information and develop external (indirect) indicators to measure regulatory effectiveness, i.e. impact on licensee's safety performance. These external indicators are, in other words, the traditional plant performance indicators (PI's). The task force consisted of regulators, organisations which have a performance indicators system in operation or under testing. The task force met in Paris on February 19-20, 2001 and the work performed by the group is summarized in a report (NEA-CSNI-R--2001-11) attached in appendix to these proceedings

  18. Westinghouse Hanford Company health and safety performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.

    1996-05-15

    Topping the list of WHC Safety recognition during this reporting period is a commendation received from the National Safety Council (NSC). The NSC bestowed their Award of Honor upon WHC for significant reduction of incidence rates during CY 1995. The award is based upon a reduction of 48 % or greater in cases involving days away from work, a 30 % or greater reduction in the number of days away, and a 15% or greater reduction in the total number of occupational injuries and illnesses. (page 2-1). A DOE-HQ review team representing the Office of Envirorunent, Safety and Health (EH), visited the Hanford Site during several weeks of the quarter. Ile 40-member Safety Management Evaluation Team (SMET) assessed WHC in the areas of management responsibility, comprehensive requirements, and competence commensurate with responsibility. As part of their new approach to oversight, they focused on the existence of management systems and programs (comparable approach to VPP). Plant/project areas selected for review within WHC were PFP, B Plant/WESF, Tank Farms, and K-Basins (page 2-2). Effective safety meetings, prejob safety meetings, etc., are a cornerstone of any successful safety program. In an effort to improve the reporting of safety meetings, the Safety/Security Meeting Report form was revised. It now provides a mechanism for recording and tracking safety issues (page 2-4). WHC has experienced an increase in the occupational injury and illness incidence rates during the first quarter of CY 1996. Trends show this increase can be partially attributed to inattention to workplace activities due 0999to the uncertainty Hanford employees currently face with recent reduction of force, reorganization, and reengineering efforts (page 2-7). The cumulative CY 1995 lost/restricted workday case incidence rate for the first quarter of CY 1996 (1.28) is 25% below the DOE CY 1991-93 average (1.70). However, the incidence rate increased 24% from the CY 1995 rate of 1.03 (page 2-8). The

  19. Westinghouse Hanford Company health and safety performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.

    1996-01-01

    Topping the list of WHC Safety recognition during this reporting period is a commendation received from the National Safety Council (NSC). The NSC bestowed their Award of Honor upon WHC for significant reduction of incidence rates during CY 1995. The award is based upon a reduction of 48 % or greater in cases involving days away from work, a 30 % or greater reduction in the number of days away, and a 15% or greater reduction in the total number of occupational injuries and illnesses. (page 2-1). A DOE-HQ review team representing the Office of Envirorunent, Safety and Health (EH), visited the Hanford Site during several weeks of the quarter. Ile 40-member Safety Management Evaluation Team (SMET) assessed WHC in the areas of management responsibility, comprehensive requirements, and competence commensurate with responsibility. As part of their new approach to oversight, they focused on the existence of management systems and programs (comparable approach to VPP). Plant/project areas selected for review within WHC were PFP, B Plant/WESF, Tank Farms, and K-Basins (page 2-2). Effective safety meetings, prejob safety meetings, etc., are a cornerstone of any successful safety program. In an effort to improve the reporting of safety meetings, the Safety/Security Meeting Report form was revised. It now provides a mechanism for recording and tracking safety issues (page 2-4). WHC has experienced an increase in the occupational injury and illness incidence rates during the first quarter of CY 1996. Trends show this increase can be partially attributed to inattention to workplace activities due 0999to the uncertainty Hanford employees currently face with recent reduction of force, reorganization, and reengineering efforts (page 2-7). The cumulative CY 1995 lost/restricted workday case incidence rate for the first quarter of CY 1996 (1.28) is 25% below the DOE CY 1991-93 average (1.70). However, the incidence rate increased 24% from the CY 1995 rate of 1.03 (page 2-8). The

  20. Performance and safety analysis of WP-cave concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, K.; Svemar, C.

    1989-08-01

    The report presents a performance safety, and cost analysis of the WP-cave, WPC, concept. In the performance analysis, questions specific to the WPC have been addressed which have been identified to require more detailed studies. Based on the outcome of this analysis, a safety analysis has been made which comprises of the modeling and calculation of radionuclide transport from the repository to the biosphere and the resulting dose exposure to man. The result of the safety analysis indicates that the present design of a WPC repository may give unacceptably high doses. By improving the properties of the bentonite/sand barrier such that the hydraulic conductivity is reduced, or by changing the short-lived steel canisters to more long-lived canisters, e.g. copper canisters, it is judged possible to achieve a sufficiently low level of dose exposure rates to man. The cost for a WPC repository of the studied design is significantly higher than for a KBS-3 repository considering the Swedish conditions and the Swedish amount of spent fuel. The major costs are connected to the excavation and backfilling of the bentonite/sand barrier. The potential for cost savings is high but it is not judged possible to account for savings in such a way that the WPC concept shows lower cost than the KBS-3 concept. (34 figs., 33 tabs., 29 refs.)

  1. Investigation of road network features and safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Wu, Xingwei; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Tremont, Paul J

    2013-07-01

    The analysis of road network designs can provide useful information to transportation planners as they seek to improve the safety of road networks. The objectives of this study were to compare and define the effective road network indices and to analyze the relationship between road network structure and traffic safety at the level of the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ). One problem in comparing different road networks is establishing criteria that can be used to scale networks in terms of their structures. Based on data from Orange and Hillsborough Counties in Florida, road network structural properties within TAZs were scaled using 3 indices: Closeness Centrality, Betweenness Centrality, and Meshedness Coefficient. The Meshedness Coefficient performed best in capturing the structural features of the road network. Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) models were developed to assess the safety of various network configurations as measured by total crashes, crashes on state roads, and crashes on local roads. The models' results showed that crash frequencies on local roads were closely related to factors within the TAZs (e.g., zonal network structure, TAZ population), while crash frequencies on state roads were closely related to the road and traffic features of state roads. For the safety effects of different networks, the Grid type was associated with the highest frequency of crashes, followed by the Mixed type, the Loops & Lollipops type, and the Sparse type. This study shows that it is possible to develop a quantitative scale for structural properties of a road network, and to use that scale to calculate the relationships between network structural properties and safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Developing safety performance functions incorporating reliability-based risk measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar El-Bassiouni; Sayed, Tarek

    2011-11-01

    Current geometric design guides provide deterministic standards where the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from these standards. Several studies have advocated probabilistic geometric design where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a risk measure of the implication of deviation from design standards. However, there is currently no link between measures of design reliability and the quantification of safety using collision frequency. The analysis presented in this paper attempts to bridge this gap by incorporating a reliability-based quantitative risk measure such as the probability of non-compliance (P(nc)) in safety performance functions (SPFs). Establishing this link will allow admitting reliability-based design into traditional benefit-cost analysis and should lead to a wider application of the reliability technique in road design. The present application is concerned with the design of horizontal curves, where the limit state function is defined in terms of the available (supply) and stopping (demand) sight distances. A comprehensive collision and geometric design database of two-lane rural highways is used to investigate the effect of the probability of non-compliance on safety. The reliability analysis was carried out using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Two Negative Binomial (NB) SPFs were developed to compare models with and without the reliability-based risk measures. It was found that models incorporating the P(nc) provided a better fit to the data set than the traditional (without risk) NB SPFs for total, injury and fatality (I+F) and property damage only (PDO) collisions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-evaluation Maintenance in Actual School Performance and School Morale among Elementary Schoolchildren(Educational Psychology)

    OpenAIRE

    磯崎, 三喜年; イソザキ, ミキトシ; Mikitoshi, ISOZAKI

    2001-01-01

    The relation between self-evaluation maintenance in school performance and school morale among elementary school children was examined. Questionnaires were administered to two hundred and fifteen (113 male, 102 female) elementary schoolchildren. They were asked to name their close classmates and school subjects which they considered both relevant and not relevant to their self-definition. They were also asked to complete the School Morale Test (SMT, Nihon Bunka Kagakusha). The SMT consists of...

  4. A proposal for performing software safety hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Gallagher, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper. The method concentrates on finding hazards during the early stages of the software life cycle, using an extension of HAZOP

  5. Fire-safety engineering and performance-based codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    project administrators, etc. The book deals with the following topics: • Historical presentation on the subject of fire • Legislation and building project administration • European fire standardization • Passive and active fire protection • Performance-based Codes • Fire-safety Engineering • Fundamental......Fire-safety Engineering is written as a textbook for Engineering students at universities and other institutions of higher education that teach in the area of fire. The book can also be used as a work of reference for consulting engineers, Building product manufacturers, contractors, building...... thermodynamics • Heat exchange during the fire process • Skin burns • Burning rate, energy release rate and design fires • Proposal to Risk-based design fires • Proposal to a Fire scale • Material ignition and flame spread • Fire dynamics in buildings • Combustion products and toxic gases • Smoke inhalation...

  6. Modern diaper performance: construction, materials, and safety review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Swatee; Kenneally, Dianna; Odio, Mauricio; Hatzopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-07-01

    A review of the literature on diapers and diaper rash reveals that many clinicians are unfamiliar with modern diaper construction and materials as well as diaper safety testing methods. Typical modern diapers do not contain ingredients of concern such as latex and disperse dyes, but use ingredients such as spandex and pigments with a favorable safety profile. Today's disposable diaper is a high performance product whose carefully designed layers and liners provide optimal urine and feces absorption and an ever more clothing-like and comfortable fit. This is possible due to a variety of specialized polymer materials that provide optimal absorption of urine and feces, thereby minimizing skin exposure. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Lean Six-Sigma in Aviation Safety: An implementation guide for measuring aviation system’s safety performance

    OpenAIRE

    Panagopoulos, I.; Atkin, C.J.; Sikora, I.

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduces a conceptual framework that could improve the safety performance measurement process and ultimately the aviation system safety performance. The framework provides an implementation guide on how organisations could design and develop a proactive, measurement tool for assessing and measuring the Acceptable Level of Safety Performance (ALoSP) at sigma (σ) level, a statistical measurement unit. In fact, the methodology adapts and combines quality management tools, a leading i...

  8. Nuclear power performance and safety. V.5. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The International Conference on Nuclear Power Performance and Safety, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, was held at the Austria Centre Vienna (ACV) in Vienna, Austria, from 28 September to 2 October 1987. The objective of the Conference was to promote an exchange of worldwide information on the current trends in the performance and safety of nuclear power and its fuel cycle, and to take a forward look at the expectations and objectives for the 1990s. Policy decisions for waste management have already been taken in many countries and the 1990s should be a period of demonstration and implementation of these policies. As ilustrated by data presented from a number of countries, many years of experience in radioactive waste management have been achieved and the technology exists to implement the national plans and policies that have been developed. The establishment of criteria, the development of safety performance methodology and site investigation work are key activities essential to the successful selection, characterization and construction of geological repositories for the final disposal of radioactive waste. Considerable work has been done in these areas over the last ten years and will continue into the 1990s. However, countries that are considering geological disposal for high level waste now recognize the need for relating the technical aspects to public understanding and acceptance of the concept and decision making activities. The real challenge for the 1990s in waste disposal will be successfully to integrate technological activities within a process which responds to institutional and public concern. Volume 5 of the Proceedings comprehends the contributions on waste management in the 1990s. Decontamination and decommissioning, waste management, treatment and disposal, nuclear fuel cycle - present and future. Enrichment services and advanced reactor fuels, improvements in reactor fuel utilization and performance, spent fuel management

  9. Multilevel Safety Climate and Safety Performance in the Construction Industry: Development and Validation of a Top-Down Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The character of construction projects exposes front-line workers to dangers and accidents. Safety climate has been confirmed to be a predictor of safety performance in the construction industry. This study aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between multilevel safety climate and safety performance. An integrated model was developed to study how particular safety climate factors of one level affect those of other levels, and then affect safety performance from the top down. A questionnaire survey was administered on six construction sites in Vietnam. A total of 1030 valid questionnaires were collected from this survey. Approximately half of the data were used to conduct exploratory factor analysis (EFA and the remaining data were submitted to structural equation modeling (SEM. Top management commitment (TMC and supervisors’ expectation (SE were identified as factors to represent organizational safety climate (OSC and supervisor safety climate (SSC, respectively, and coworkers’ caring and communication (CCC and coworkers’ role models (CRM were identified as factors to denote coworker safety climate (CSC. SEM results show that OSC factor is positively related to SSC factor and CSC factors significantly. SSC factor could partially mediate the relationship between OSC factor and CSC factors, as well as the relationship between OSC factor and safety performance. CSC factors partially mediate the relationship between OSC factor and safety performance, and the relationship between SSC factor and safety performance. The findings imply that a positive safety culture should be established both at the organizational level and the group level. Efforts from all top management, supervisors, and coworkers should be provided to improve safety performance in the construction industry.

  10. Multilevel Safety Climate and Safety Performance in the Construction Industry: Development and Validation of a Top-Down Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ran; Chan, Albert P C; Utama, Wahyudi P; Zahoor, Hafiz

    2016-11-08

    The character of construction projects exposes front-line workers to dangers and accidents. Safety climate has been confirmed to be a predictor of safety performance in the construction industry. This study aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between multilevel safety climate and safety performance. An integrated model was developed to study how particular safety climate factors of one level affect those of other levels, and then affect safety performance from the top down. A questionnaire survey was administered on six construction sites in Vietnam. A total of 1030 valid questionnaires were collected from this survey. Approximately half of the data were used to conduct exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the remaining data were submitted to structural equation modeling (SEM). Top management commitment (TMC) and supervisors' expectation (SE) were identified as factors to represent organizational safety climate (OSC) and supervisor safety climate (SSC), respectively, and coworkers' caring and communication (CCC) and coworkers' role models (CRM) were identified as factors to denote coworker safety climate (CSC). SEM results show that OSC factor is positively related to SSC factor and CSC factors significantly. SSC factor could partially mediate the relationship between OSC factor and CSC factors, as well as the relationship between OSC factor and safety performance. CSC factors partially mediate the relationship between OSC factor and safety performance, and the relationship between SSC factor and safety performance. The findings imply that a positive safety culture should be established both at the organizational level and the group level. Efforts from all top management, supervisors, and coworkers should be provided to improve safety performance in the construction industry.

  11. A dose-ranging study of the effects of mequitazine on actual driving, memory and psychomotor performance as compared to dexchlorpheniramine, cetirizine and placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, E L; Vermeeren, A; van Oers, A C M; van Maris, I; Ramaekers, J G

    2004-02-01

    Mequitazine is a so-called 'non-sedative' second-generation antihistamine even though it has never been firmly established that this drug's sedative potential actually differs from that of the 'sedative' first-generation antihistamines. The present study compares the sedative effects of three doses of mequitazine on actual driving, psychomotor performance and memory with those of a first- and a second-generation antihistamine. Eighteen healthy volunteers received on separate days a single dose of 5, 10 and 15 mg mequitazine, 10 mg cetirizine, 6 mg dexchlorpheniramine and placebo. Drug effects were assessed using two actual driving tests (highway-driving test and car-following test), cognitive and psychometric tests (tracking, divided attention, memory, reasoning and critical flicker fusion), pupil size and questionnaires. Highway-driving data revealed an overall effect of Treatment on the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). Dexchlorpheniramine impaired driving performance as indicated by a significant rise in SDLP. Mequitazine significantly increased SDLP in a dose-related manner, but the separate dose effects failed to reach statistical significance. Divided attention performance was also affected by Treatment. Reaction time (RT) during mequitazine treatments increased in a dose-related manner and significantly differed from placebo at the highest dose. Subjects reported to be less alert after treatment with dexchlorpheniramine. Cetirizine did not affect performance in any of the tasks. It was concluded that mequitazine is mildly sedating. The effects of mequitazine are comparable to those of other second-generation antihistamines, in that it causes mild driving impairment, particularly at higher doses.

  12. Safety analysis of MOX fuels by fuel performance code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    Performance of plutonium rick mixed oxide fuels specified for the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has been analysed by modified fuel performance code. Thermodynamic properties of these fuels up to 120 GWd/t burnup have not been measured and estimated using existing uranium fuel models. Fission product release, pressure rise inside fuel rods and mechanical loads of fuel cans due to internal pressure have been preliminarily assessed based on assumed axial power distribution history, which show the integrity of fuel performance. Detailed evaluation of fuel-cladding interactions due to thermal expansion or swelling of fuel pellets due to high burnup will be required for safety analysis of mixed oxide fuels. Thermal conductivity and swelling of plutonium rich mixed oxide fuels shall be taken into consideration. (T. Tanaka)

  13. Special report. New products that improve officer performance, safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The need for products that improve performance of security officers is counterbalanced these days by budgetary constraints. While this may limit major investments in security systems and personnel, less costly improvements or innovations might be worth considering. In this report, we will discuss four advances that may be valuable not only in hospital security, but in other industries as well. One of them, a smoke filter, was originally developed for the hotel industry. Another, a drug detection device, may replace the use of undercover agents or drug-sniffing' dogs in certain circumstances. The third new product is an economical patrol vehicle for parking facilities which might replace more costly vehicles such as golf carts or cars. The fourth product, a roving CCTV camera, is actually being tested at a Midwest medical center and may allow you to monitor areas of parking garages with cameras instead of officers on patrol.

  14. Evaluating a nursing communication skills training course: The relationships between self-rated ability, satisfaction, and actual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Barbara A; Kothe, Emily J

    2010-11-01

    Effective communication is a vital component of nursing care, however, nurses often lack the skills to communicate with patients, carers and other health care professionals. Communication skills training programs are frequently used to develop these skills. However, there is a paucity of data on how best to evaluate such courses. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between student self rating of their own ability and their satisfaction with a nurse training course as compared with an objective measure of communication skills. 209 first year nursing students completed a communication skills program. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and associations between measures were investigated. Paired samples t-tests showed significant improvement in self-rated ability over the course of the program. Students generally were very satisfied with the course which was reflected in both qualitative and quantitative measures. However, neither self-rated ability nor satisfaction was significantly correlated with the objective measure of performance, but self-rated ability and satisfaction were highly correlated with one another. The importance of these findings is discussed and implications for nurse education are proposed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Breeder design for enhanced performance and safety characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.J.; Atefi, B.; Yang, J.W.; Galperin, A.; Segev, M.

    1980-01-01

    A fast breeder reactor design has been created which offers a considerably extended fuel cycle and excellent performance characteristics. An example of a core designed to operate on a ten-year fuel cycle is described in some detail. Use of metal fuel along with a moderator such as beryllium oxide dispersed throughout the core provides both design flexibility and safety advantages such as a strong Doppler feedback and limited sodium void reactivity gain. Local power variations are small for the entire cycle; control requirements are also modest, and fuel cycle costs are low

  16. Analytical computation of thermodynamic performance parameters of actual vapour compression refrigeration system with R22, R32, R134a, R152a, R290 and R1270

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali Shaik Sharmas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on analytical computation of thermodynamic performance of actual vapour compression refrigeration system by using six pure refrigerants. The refrigerants are namely R22, R32, R134a, R152a, R290 and R1270 respectively. A MATLAB code is developed to compute the thermodynamic performance parameters of actual vapour compression system such as refrigeration effect, compressor work, COP, power per ton of refrigeration, compressor discharge temperature and volumetric refrigeration capacity at condensing and evaporating temperatures of 54.4oC and 7.2oC respectively. Analytical results exhibited that COP of both R32 and R134a are 15.95% and 11.71% higher among the six investigated refrigerants. However R32 and R134a cannot be replaced directly into R22 system. This is due to their higher compressor discharge temperature and poor volumetric capacity respectively. The discharge temperature of both R1270 and R290 are lower than R22 by 20-26oC. Volumetric refrigeration capacity of R1270 (3197 kJ/m3 is very close to that of volumetric capacity of R22 (3251 kJ/m3. Both R1270 and R290 shows good miscibility with R22 mineral oil. Overall R1270 would be a suitable ecofriendly refrigerant to replace R22 from the stand point of ODP, GWP, volumetric capacity, discharge temperature and miscibility with mineral oil although its COP is lower.

  17. A structural equation modelling approach examining the pathways between safety climate, behaviour performance and workplace slipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Verma, Santosh K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melayne; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-01-01

    Objective Safety climate has previously been associated with increasing safe workplace behaviours and decreasing occupational injuries. This study seeks to understand the structural relationship between employees’ perceptions of safety climate, performing a safety behaviour (ie, wearing slip-resistant shoes) and risk of slipping in the setting of limited-service restaurants. Methods At baseline, we surveyed 349 employees at 30 restaurants for their perceptions of their safety training and management commitment to safety as well as demographic data. Safety performance was identified as wearing slip-resistant shoes, as measured by direct observation by the study team. We then prospectively collected participants’ hours worked and number of slips weekly for the next 12 weeks. Using a confirmatory factor analysis, we modelled safety climate as a higher order factor composed of previously identified training and management commitment factors. Results The 349 study participants experienced 1075 slips during the 12-week follow-up. Confirmatory factor analysis supported modelling safety climate as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. In a structural equation model, safety climate indirectly affected prospective risk of slipping through safety performance, but no direct relationship between safety climate and slips was evident. Conclusions Results suggest that safety climate can reduce workplace slips through performance of a safety behaviour as well as suggesting a potential causal mechanism through which safety climate can reduce workplace injuries. Safety climate can be modelled as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. PMID:25710968

  18. Exploiting data from safety investigations and processes to assess performance of safety management aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative way to use records from safety investigations as a means to support the evaluation of safety management (SM) aspects. Datasets from safety investigation reports and progress records of an aviation organization were analyzed with the scope of assessing safety

  19. Actual motor performance and self-perceived motor competence in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy siblings and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliers, Ellen A; de Hoog, Marieke L A; Franke, Barbara; Faraone, Stephen V; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Buitelaar, Jan K; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2010-01-01

    : Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently experience comorbid motor problems, developmental coordination disorder. Also, children with ADHD are said to overestimate their abilities in the cognitive and social domain, the so-called "Positive Illusory Bias." In this cross-sectional study, the relationship between actual motor performance and perceived motor competence was examined. Motor performance was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children in 100 children and adolescents (age 6-17 years), including 32 children with ADHD combined type, 18 unaffected siblings, and 50 healthy control children. ADHD was diagnosed using Parent and Teacher questionnaires and a clinical interview. Perceived motor competence and interest in the motor domain were rated with the Dutch supplement scale to Harters' Self-Perception Profile for Children, especially focusing on the motor domain (m-CBSK). Children with ADHD had poorer motor performance than unaffected siblings and control children, especially in the field of manual dexterity. However, no relationship was found between motor performance and perceived motor competence. Only children with the very lowest motor performance had a significantly lowered perception of their motor competence. Interest in the motor domain and motor self-perception was positively correlated. Children with ADHD performed poorer on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, but generally overestimated their own motor competence.

  20. Lithium alloy-thionyl chloride cells - Performance and safety aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, E.; Lombardi, A.; Schlaikjer, C. R.

    1983-06-01

    It is pointed out that the lithium-thionyl chloride cell has the highest energy density among all the commercially available batteries. The low rate, AA-bobbin cathode cell has been in the marketplace for several years, while the wound or spiral electrode cell is still in the stage of development. The main reason for this are safety problems. These problems are related to the very high reactivity of lithium toward thionyl chloride and the rather low melting point of lithium (180.5 C). The practical stability of the system depends on an LiCl-passivating layer which forms spontaneously on the immersion of the lithium in the electrolyte. This layer serves as a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). Under certain extreme conditions, however, the SEI can be damaged in such a way that an explosion of the cell occurs. The present investigation is concerned with the reduction of the short-circuit current and the improvement of the safety performance of the cell by the use of special, treated lithium alloys.

  1. Determining the causal relationships among balanced scorecard perspectives on school safety performance: case of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alolah, Turki; Stewart, Rodney A; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Mohamed, Sherif

    2014-07-01

    In the public schools of many developing countries, numerous accidents and incidents occur because of poor safety regulations and management systems. To improve the educational environment in Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Education seeks novel approaches to measure school safety performance in order to decrease incidents and accidents. The main objective of this research was to develop a systematic approach for measuring Saudi school safety performance using the balanced scorecard framework philosophy. The evolved third generation balanced scorecard framework is considered to be a suitable and robust framework that captures the system-wide leading and lagging indicators of business performance. The balanced scorecard architecture is ideal for adaptation to complex areas such as safety management where a holistic system evaluation is more effective than traditional compartmentalised approaches. In developing the safety performance balanced scorecard for Saudi schools, the conceptual framework was first developed and peer-reviewed by eighteen Saudi education experts. Next, 200 participants, including teachers, school executives, and Ministry of Education officers, were recruited to rate both the importance and the performance of 79 measurement items used in the framework. Exploratory factor analysis, followed by the confirmatory partial least squares method, was then conducted in order to operationalise the safety performance balanced scorecard, which encapsulates the following five salient perspectives: safety management and leadership; safety learning and training; safety policy, procedures and processes; workforce safety culture; and safety performance. Partial least squares based structural equation modelling was then conducted to reveal five significant relationships between perspectives, namely, safety management and leadership had a significant effect on safety learning and training and safety policy, procedures and processes, both safety learning and training

  2. The Dread Factor: How Hazards and Safety Training Influence Learning and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael J.; Salvador, Rommel O.; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Chan-Serafin, Suzanne; Smith, Alexis; Sonesh, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of hypotheses derived from social and experiential learning theories, we meta-analytically investigated how safety training and workplace hazards impact the development of safety knowledge and safety performance. The results were consistent with an expected interaction between the level of engagement of safety training and hazardous…

  3. Analysis of international approaches which are used at development of theoperational safety performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyigots'kij, O.Yi.; Nosovs'kij, A.V.; Chemeris, Yi.O.

    2009-01-01

    Description of international approaches and experience of the use of theoperational safety performance indicators system is provided for estimationof current status and making a decision on corrections in the operationpractice. The state of development of the operational safety performanceindicators system by the operating organization is overviewed. Thepossibility of application of international approaches during development ofthe integral safety performance indicators system is analyzed. Aims and tasksof future researches are formulated in relation to development of theintegral safety performance indicators system.

  4. Construct validity of tests that measure kick performance for young soccer players based on cluster analysis: exploring the relationship between coaches rating and actual measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palucci Vieira, Luiz H; de Andrade, Vitor L; Aquino, Rodrigo L; Moraes, Renato; Barbieri, Fabio A; Cunha, Sérgio A; Bedo, Bruno L; Santiago, Paulo R

    2017-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to verify the relationship between the classification of coaches and actual performance in field tests that measure the kicking performance in young soccer players, using the K-means clustering technique. Twenty-three U-14 players performed 8 tests to measure their kicking performance. Four experienced coaches provided a rating for each player as follows: 1: poor; 2: below average; 3: average; 4: very good; 5: excellent as related to three parameters (i.e. accuracy, power and ability to put spin on the ball). The scores interval established from k-means cluster metric was useful to originating five groups of performance level, since ANOVA revealed significant differences between clusters generated (Pperformance. The Wall Volley Test seems to be a good predictor of other tests. Five tests showed reasonable construct validity and can be used to predict the accuracy (penalty kick, free kick, kicking a rolling ball and Wall Volley Test) and ability to put spin on the ball (free kick and corner kick tests) when kicking in soccer. In contrast, the goal kick, kicking the ball when airborne and the vertical kick tests exhibited low power of discrimination and using them should be viewed with caution.

  5. Safety parameter display systems' effect on operator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerven, F.; Ford, R.E.; Blackman, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Computer generated displays are a powerful and flexible tool for presenting data to the operators of nuclear power plants. Such displays are currently being developed in industry for use as safety parameter displays and for use in advanced control rooms. There exists a need for methods to objectively evaluate the effect of these displays, positive or negative, on the performance of control room personnel. Results of developing one such method, noninteractive simulation, and the two experiments that were performed to determine if it can be used as a method for evaluating computer displays are presented. This method is more objective and powerful than pencil and paper methods because it measures human performance rather than opinion or perference, has excellent control of the experimental variables, and has a higher fidelity to the control room environment. The results of these experiments indicates that the present methodology does not differentiate among the display types tested at a statistically significant level. In other words, all display types tested worked equally well in providing operators needed information

  6. Evaluation of safety practices and performance in a brewery industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    prevented in the period of the safety programme which translates to an average of 19.45 per year. The safety programme ... due to “weak safeguards against occupational and .... outputs within such a system. In this ..... Journal of Disaster Prevention and Management: ... Duignan, T. (2003), “Good health and safety is good.

  7. Evolution and current situation of the quality and industrial safety. Concepts, laws and regulations; Evolucion y situacion actual de la calidad y seguridad industrial. Conceptos, leyes y reglamentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this article is to show the difference between the concepts of quality and industrial safety and how in the legislation of products and industrial installation there is a very close relationship between both concepts. So, that Spanish companies could place in the market not only safe products but also reliable ones that meet the society's demand regarding quality. (Author)

  8. Actual driving performance and psychomotor function in healthy subjects after acute and subchronic treatment with escitalopram, mirtazapine, and placebo: a crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingen, Marleen; Bothmer, John; Langer, Stefan; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2005-04-01

    The effects of escitalopram 10 to 20 mg/day and mirtazapine 30 to 45 mg/day on actual driving and psychomotor performance of 18 healthy subjects were determined in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, 3-way crossover trial. Each treatment period lasted for 15 days and was separated from the next period by a washout period of at least 13 days. Subjects received an evening dose of escitalopram 10 mg, mirtazapine 30 mg, or placebo from days 1 to 7 and an evening dose of escitalopram 20 mg, mirtazapine 45 mg, or placebo from days 8 to 15. On days 2, 9, and 16, reflecting acute period, dose increase, and steady state, respectively, the Road Tracking Test was performed. The main parameter was standard deviation of lateral position. Psychomotor performance was also assessed on days 2, 9, and 16 by laboratory computer tasks. Subjective sleep quality was measured with the Groninger Sleep Quality Scale, and mood was measured by visual analogue scales. Treatment differences were apparent during the acute treatment period, in which subjects treated with mirtazapine 30 mg performed less well on the driving test as compared to placebo. The Divided Attention Task results also revealed a significant increase in tracking error after a single dose of mirtazapine 30 mg as compared to placebo. Mirtazapine decreased feelings of alertness and contentedness. Mirtazapine did not affect performance on days 9 and 16 of treatment. Escitalopram did not affect driving, psychomotor performance, or subjective mood throughout treatment. Driving performance, as well as psychomotor functioning, was not affected by escitalopram treatment in healthy subjects. Driving performance was significantly impaired after ingestion of mirtazapine 30 mg during the acute treatment period.

  9. Techno-economic analysis of a 2.1 kW rooftop photovoltaic-grid-tied system based on actual performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaramola, Muyiwa S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The economic analysis of rooftop PV grid-tied installation is examined. • Based on actual performance, the LCOE of the system is estimated as US$0.246/kW h. • Feed-in-tariff of US$0.356/kW h is estimated with no financial support. • To encourage installation of PV system, financial support of up to 40% of the investment is suggested. - Abstract: As more attention is being focus on the development of renewable energy resources globally, technical and economic assessments of these resources are crucial to ascertain their viability. These assessments can be more meaningful, if they are based on field and actual performance of the renewable energy conversion systems. This study presents the economic analysis of a rooftop 2.07 kW grid-connected photovoltaic energy system installation located in Ås (59.65°N and longitude 10.76°E, and about 105 m above sea level), Norway. Both the annual and monthly costs of energy produced by the system are determined. In addition, the feed-in tariff that can give internal rate of return of about 7.5% on investment on this installation was examined. Based on assumptions used in this study, feed-in-tariff of US$0.356/kW h is estimated for a project with economic life of 25 years with no other financial support. This translates to US$0.110/kW h premium over the levelized cost of energy of US$0.246/kW h generated by the system. However, if the financial support is more than 45% of the initial investment cost, no further premium fee is necessary to support this type of system

  10. Organizational Culture and Safety Performance in the Manufacturing Companies in Malaysia: A Conceptual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ong Choon Hee; Lim Lee Ping

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual analysis of organizational culture and safety performance in the manufacturing companies in Malaysia. Our conceptual analysis suggests that manufacturing companies that adopt group culture or hierarchical culture are more likely to demonstrate safety compliance and safety participation. Manufacturing companies that adopt rational culture or developmental culture are less likely to demonstrate safety compliance and safety participation. Give...

  11. Hydrogen Safety Sensor Performance and Use Gap Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schmidt, Kara [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartmann, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Hannah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weidner, Eveline [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Cebolla, Rafael O. [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Bonato, Christian [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Moretto, Pietro [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands

    2017-11-15

    Hydrogen sensors are recognized as an important technology for facilitating the safe implementation of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and there are numerous reports of a sensor alarm successfully preventing a potentially serious event. However, gaps in sensor metrological specifications, as well as in their performance for some applications, exist.The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technology Office published a short list of critical gaps in the 2007 and 2012 multiyear project plans; more detailed gap analyses were independently performed by the JRC and NREL. There have been, however, some significant advances in sensor technologies since these assessments, including the commercial availability of hydrogen sensors with fast response times (t90 less than 1 s, which had been an elusive DOE target since 2007), improved robustness to chemical poisons, improved selectivity, and improved lifetime and stability. These improvements, however, have not been universal and typically pertain to select platforms or models. Moreover, as hydrogen markets grow and new applications are being explored, more demands will be imposed on sensor performance. The hydrogen sensor laboratories at NREL and JRC are currently updating the hydrogen safety sensor gap analysis through direct interaction with international stakeholders in the hydrogen community, especially end-users. NREL and the JRC are currently organizing a series of workshops (in Europe and the U.S.) with sensor developers, end-users, and other stakeholders in 2017 to identify technology gaps and to develop a path forward to address them. One workshop is scheduled for May 10 in Brussels, Belgium at the Headquarters of the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking. A second workshop is planned at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, CO, USA. This presentation will review improvements in sensor technologies in the past 5 to 10 years, identify gaps in sensor performance and use requirements, and identify

  12. Health and Safety Guide for Home Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-15

    This report is intended to provide home performance contractor trainers with a resource to keep both their workers and home residents safe and healthy. This document is an attempt to describe what we currently believe is safe, what we believe is unsafe, and what we’re unsure about. It is intended to identify health and safety issues and provide historical context and current understanding of both risks and mitigation strategies. In addition, it provides links to more in-depth resources for each issue. When we tighten the thermal envelope of a house to improve comfort and reduce energy use, we have to be sure that we are not compromising the indoor air quality of the home. This means identifying and mitigating or eliminating pollution sources before and after you make changes to the home. These sources can include materials and finishes in the home, exhaust gasses from combustion appliances, soil gasses such as radon, and moisture from a bathroom, kitchen, or unvented clothes dryer. Our first responsibility is to do no harm — this applies both to our clients and to our employees. Currently, there are many new products that are widely used but whose health effects are not well understood. Our in ability to have perfect information means the directive to do no harm can be difficult to obey. Each home is a little bit different, and in the face of a situation you’ve never encountered, it’s important to have a solid grasp of the fundamental concepts of building science when the hard and fast rules don’t apply . The home performance industry is gaining momentum, and has the potential to expand greatly as energy costs continue to rise. It is imperative that we remain vigilant about protecting the health and safety of our workers and our customers. It only takes a few news stories about a family that got sick after their home was tightened by a home performance contractor to scare off potential customers and taint the reputation of the entire industry. Good

  13. Risk-informed, performance-based safety-security interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrowca, B.; Eltawila, F.

    2012-01-01

    Safety-security interface is a term that is used as part of the commercial nuclear power security framework to promote coordination of the many potentially adverse interactions between plant security and plant safety. Its object is to prevent the compromise of either. It is also used to describe the concept of building security into a plant's design similar to the long standing practices used for safety therefore reducing the complexity of the operational security while maintaining or enhancing overall security. With this in mind, the concept of safety-security interface, when fully implemented, can influence a plant's design, operation and maintenance. It brings the approach use for plant security to one that is similar to that used for safety. Also, as with safety, the application of risk-informed techniques to fully implement and integrate safety and security is important. Just as designers and operators have applied these techniques to enhance and focus safety, these same techniques can be applied to security to not only enhance and focus the security but also to aid in the implementation of effective techniques to address the safety-security interfaces. Implementing this safety-security concept early within the design process can prevent or reduce security vulnerabilities through low cost solutions that often become difficult and expensive to retrofit later in the design and/or post construction period. These security considerations address many of the same issues as safety in ensuring that the response of equipment and plant personnel are adequate. That is, both safety and security are focused on reaching safe shutdown and preventing radiological release. However, the initiation of challenges and the progression of actions in response these challenges and even the definitions of safe shutdown can be considerably different. This paper explores the techniques and limitations that are employed to fully implement a risk-informed, safety-security interface

  14. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford's underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford's organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes' future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as at sign ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures

  15. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  16. Summary report on the use of plant safety performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    In 1998, the OECD/NEA committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) initiated an activity with the objective of advancing the discussion on how to enhance and measure regulatory effectiveness in relation to nuclear installations. One of the outcome of this activity was to establish a Task group to develop internal (direct) performance indicators which would be used to monitor regulatory efficiency. In parallel, a joint CNRA/CSNI group was launched in December 2000 to exchange information and develop external (indirect) indicators to measure regulatory effectiveness, i.e. impact on licensee's safety performance. These external indicators are, in other words, the traditional plant performance indicators (PI's) and these are the ones that this report deals with. This report presents the work performed by the joint CNRA/CSNI task group mentioned above. It provides a summary of the sets of PI's being used by different regulatory bodies and WANO, it describes the national practices on the use of PI's and proposes a set of PI's that could be used nationally describing regulatory effectiveness and also as a basis for an international system. The task force consisted of regulators, organisations which have a performance indicators system in operation or under testing. The task force met in Paris on February 19-20, 2001. Each participant provided a brief description of the PI System at his organisation and its usage. The group identified a list of PI's that are recommended to be used nationally by regulators. This paper has been elaborated based on the information exchanged and discussions held in the February meeting. The participating countries (Spain, Finland, US, Sweden) and WANO were asked to provide an overview of systems in use. The presently used Performance Indicators were reviewed in a three steps process. 1. First indicators used in at least two agencies were identified. 2. The second step was to identify the most used indicators. 3. The third step was to

  17. Performance indicators and combining assessments to evaluate the safety performance of licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubrey, Richard; Van Binnebeek, J.J.; Warren, T.F.H.

    1998-01-01

    The CNRA believes that safety inspections are a major element in the regulatory authority's efforts to ensure the safe operation of nuclear facilities. Considering the importance of these issues, the Committee has established a special Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP). The purpose of WGIP, is to facilitate the exchange of information and experience related to regulatory safety inspections between CNRA Member countries. As a follow-up to the 1995 document on Compilation of Responses to a Questionnaire on the Evaluation of the Safety Performance of Licensees, WGIP members identified several issues where additional information would be useful in future meetings and discussions. The consensus of the Group was that performance indicators (PIs) and how assessments are combined were the two issues that should be addressed first. It was noted also that in addition to information in obtained through the questionnaire, results from the workshop in May 1996 may provide valuable input to the endeavour. This report summarises a review conducted of the PI-related information provided by the questionnaire, the workshop, and responses from WGIP members to a request for specific information not addressed previously

  18. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Electrosurgical Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Golpaygani, A; Movahedi, M M; Reza, M

    2016-09-01

    Modern medicine employs a wide variety of instruments with different physiological effects and measurements. Periodic verifications are routinely used in legal metrology for industrial measuring instruments. The correct operation of electrosurgical generators is essential to ensure patient's safety and management of the risks associated with the use of high and low frequency electrical currents on human body. The metrological reliability of 20 electrosurgical equipment in six hospitals (3 private and 3 public) was evaluated in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards. The achieved results show that HF leakage current of ground-referenced generators are more than isolated generators and the power analysis of only eight units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output power measurements was low. Results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially in high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses for operating staff in the field of meterology in medicine to be acquianted with critical parameters to get accuracy results with operation room equipment.

  19. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Electrosurgical Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakoli Golpaygani A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modern medicine employs a wide variety of instruments with different physiological effects and measurements. Periodic verifications are routinely used in legal metrology for industrial measuring instruments. The correct operation of electrosurgical generators is essential to ensure patient’s safety and management of the risks associated with the use of high and low frequency electrical currents on human body. Material and Methods: The metrological reliability of 20 electrosurgical equipment in six hospitals (3 private and 3 public was evaluated in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards. Results: The achieved results show that HF leakage current of ground-referenced generators are more than isolated generators and the power analysis of only eight units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output power measurements was low. Conclusion: Results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially in high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses for operating staff in the field of meterology in medicine to be acquianted with critical parameters to get accuracy results with operation room equipment.

  20. The role of visual perception measures used in sports vision programmes in predicting actual game performance in Division I collegiate hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavski, Dmitri; Biberdorf, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the growing field of sports vision little is still known about unique attributes of visual processing in ice hockey and what role visual processing plays in the overall athlete's performance. In the present study we evaluated whether visual, perceptual and cognitive/motor variables collected using the Nike SPARQ Sensory Training Station have significant relevance to the real game statistics of 38 Division I collegiate male and female hockey players. The results demonstrated that 69% of variance in the goals made by forwards in 2011-2013 could be predicted by their faster reaction time to a visual stimulus, better visual memory, better visual discrimination and a faster ability to shift focus between near and far objects. Approximately 33% of variance in game points was significantly related to better discrimination among competing visual stimuli. In addition, reaction time to a visual stimulus as well as stereoptic quickness significantly accounted for 24% of variance in the mean duration of the player's penalty time. This is one of the first studies to show that some of the visual skills that state-of-the-art generalised sports vision programmes are purported to target may indeed be important for hockey players' actual performance on the ice.

  1. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Defibrillator Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakoli Golpaygani A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, more than 10,000 different types of medical devices can be found in hospitals. This way, medical electrical equipment is being employed in a wide variety of fields in medical sciences with different physiological effects and measurements. Hospitals and medical centers must ensure that their critical medical devices are safe, accurate, reliable and operational at the required level of performance. Defibrillators are critical resuscitation devices. The use of reliable defibirillators has led to more effective treatments and improved patient safety through better control and management of complications during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR. Materials and Methods: The metrological reliability of twenty frequent use, manual defibrillators in use ten hospitals (4 private and 6 public in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards was evaluated. Results: Quantitative analysis of control and instrument accuracy showed the amount of the obtained results in many units are critical which had less value over the standard limitations especially in devices with poor battery. For the accuracy of delivered energy analysis, only twelve units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output energy measurements especialy in weak battry condition, after activation of discharge alarm, were low. Conclusion: Obtained results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially for high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses on the fundumentals of operation and performane parameters for medical staff in the field of meterology in medicine and how one can get good accuracy results especially in high risk medical devices.

  2. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Defibrillator Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Golpaygani, A; Movahedi, M M; Reza, M

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, more than 10,000 different types of medical devices can be found in hospitals. This way, medical electrical equipment is being employed in a wide variety of fields in medical sciences with different physiological effects and measurements. Hospitals and medical centers must ensure that their critical medical devices are safe, accurate, reliable and operational at the required level of performance. Defibrillators are critical resuscitation devices. The use of reliable defibirillators has led to more effective treatments and improved patient safety through better control and management of complications during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). The metrological reliability of twenty frequent use, manual defibrillators in use ten hospitals (4 private and 6 public) in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards was evaluated. Quantitative analysis of control and instrument accuracy showed the amount of the obtained results in many units are critical which had less value over the standard limitations especially in devices with poor battery. For the accuracy of delivered energy analysis, only twelve units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output energy measurements especialy in weak battry condition, after activation of discharge alarm, were low. Obtained results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially for high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses on the fundumentals of operation and performane parameters for medical staff in the field of meterology in medicine and how one can get good accuracy results especially in high risk medical devices.

  3. Performance and safety of holmium: YAG laser optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Bodo E; Glickman, Randolph D; Stallman, Kenneth J; Maswadi, Saher; Chew, Ben H; Beiko, Darren T; Denstedt, John D; Teichman, Joel M H

    2005-11-01

    Lower-pole ureteronephroscopy requires transmission of holmium:YAG energy along a deflected fiber. Current ureteroscopes are capable of high degrees of deflection, which may stress laser fibers beyond safe limits during lower-pole use. We hypothesized that optical fiber and safety measures differ among manufacturers. Small (200-273-microm) and medium-diameter (300-400-microm) Ho:YAG fibers were tested in a straight and 180 degrees bent configuration. Energy transmission was measured by an energy detector. Fiber durability was assessed by firing the laser in sequentially tighter bending diameters. The fibers were bent to 180 degrees with a diameter of 6 cm and run at 200- to 4000-mJ pulse energy to determine the minimum energy required to fracture the fiber. The bending diameter was decreased by 1-cm increments and testing repeated until a bending diameter of 1 cm was reached. The maximum deflection of the ACMI DUR-8E ureteroscope with each fiber in the working channel was recorded. The flow rate through the working channel of the DUR-8E was measured for each fiber. The mean energy transmission differed among fibers (P < 0.001). The Lumenis SL 200 and the InnovaQuartz 400 were the best small and medium-diameter fibers, respectively, in resisting thermal breakdown (P < 0.01). The Dornier Lightguide Super 200 fractured repeatedly at a bend diameter of 2 cm and with the lowest energy (200 mJ). The other small fibers fractured only at a bend diameter of 1 cm. The Sharplan 200 and InnovaQuartz Sureflex 273T were the most flexible fibers, the Lumenis SL 365 the least. The flow rate was inversely proportional to four times the power of the diameter of the fiber. Optical performance and safety differ among fibers. Fibers transmit various amounts of energy to their cladding when bent. During lower-pole nephroscopy with the fiber deflected, there is a risk of fiber fracture from thermal breakdown and laser-energy transmission to the endoscope. Some available laser fibers

  4. Actual imaging time in fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, Peter C.; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Safety issues in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are important, especially in fetal MRI. However, since basic data with respect of the effective exposure time in fetal MRI are not available, this study aimed to determine the actual imaging time during a fetal MRI study. Methods: 100 fetal MRI studies of singleton pregnancies performed on a 1.5 T system were analysed with respect to study duration (from starting the survey scan until the end of study), the number of sequences acquired, and the actual imaging time, which was calculated by adding up scan time of each sequence. Furthermore, each sequence type was analysed regarding the number of acquisitions, specific absorption rates (SAR), and duration. Results: Mean study duration was 34.6 min (range: 14–58 min; standard deviation (SD): 9.7 min), the average number of sequences acquired was 26.6 (range: 11–44, SD: 6.6). Actual scan time averaged 11.4 min (range: 4–19 min, SD: 4.0 min). Ultrafast T2-weighted and steady-state free-precession sequences accounted for 62.3% of actual scan time, and were distributed over the whole duration of the study. Conclusion: Actual imaging time only accounts for 33% of total study time and is not continuous. The remaining time is consumed by the preparation phases of the scanner, and is spent with planning sequences and the eventual repositioning of the coil and/or pregnant woman. These data may help to more accurately estimate the exposure to radiofrequency deposition and noise during fetal MRI studies.

  5. Transformational leadership and safety performance among nurses: the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Ilse; Vlerick, Peter

    2014-03-01

    To report the impact of transformational leadership on two dimensions of nurses' safety performance (i.e. safety compliance and safety participation) and to study the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics in this relationship. Safety performance refers to the behaviours that employees exhibit to adhere to safety guidelines and to promote health and safety at their workplace. Nurses' safety performance is a major challenge for healthcare settings, urging the need to identify the key determinants and psychological mechanisms that influence it. A cross-sectional survey study. The study was carried out in September 2010 in a large Belgian hospital. We used self-administered questionnaires; 152 nurses participated. The hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. In line with our first hypothesis, the results show that transformational leadership exerted a significant positive impact on both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This positive relation was mediated by knowledge-related job characteristics, supporting our second hypothesis. Head nurses' transformational leadership can enhance nurses' compliance with and participation in safety. Furthermore, transformational head nurses are able to influence the perception that their nurses have about the kind and amount of knowledge in their job, which can also lead to increases in both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This study therefore demonstrates the key impact that transformational head nurses have, both directly and indirectly, on the safety performance of their nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A structural equation modelling approach examining the pathways between safety climate, behaviour performance and workplace slipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Verma, Santosh K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melayne; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-07-01

    Safety climate has previously been associated with increasing safe workplace behaviours and decreasing occupational injuries. This study seeks to understand the structural relationship between employees' perceptions of safety climate, performing a safety behaviour (ie, wearing slip-resistant shoes) and risk of slipping in the setting of limited-service restaurants. At baseline, we surveyed 349 employees at 30 restaurants for their perceptions of their safety training and management commitment to safety as well as demographic data. Safety performance was identified as wearing slip-resistant shoes, as measured by direct observation by the study team. We then prospectively collected participants' hours worked and number of slips weekly for the next 12 weeks. Using a confirmatory factor analysis, we modelled safety climate as a higher order factor composed of previously identified training and management commitment factors. The 349 study participants experienced 1075 slips during the 12-week follow-up. Confirmatory factor analysis supported modelling safety climate as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. In a structural equation model, safety climate indirectly affected prospective risk of slipping through safety performance, but no direct relationship between safety climate and slips was evident. Results suggest that safety climate can reduce workplace slips through performance of a safety behaviour as well as suggesting a potential causal mechanism through which safety climate can reduce workplace injuries. Safety climate can be modelled as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Understanding the relationship between safety culture dimensions and safety performance of construction projects through partial least square method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Yusuf; Machfudiyanto, Rossy A.; Arifuddin, Rosmariani; Yogiswara, Yoko

    2017-03-01

    Based on the data, 32% of accidental cases in Indonesia occurs on constructional sectors. It is supported by the data from Public Work and Housing Department that 27.43% of the implementation level of Safety Management System policy at construction companies in Indonesia remains unsafe categories. Moreover, there are dimensions of occupational safety culture formed including leadership, behavior, strategy, policy, process, people, safety cost, value and contract system. The aim of this study is to determine the model of an effective safety culture and know the relationship between dimensions in construction industry. The method used in this research was questionnaire survey which was distributed to the sample of construction companies either in a national private one in Indonesia. The result of this research is supposed to be able to illustrate the development of the relationship among occupational safety culture dimensions which have influences to the performances of constructional companies in Indonesia.

  8. Work support, psychological well-being and safety performance among nurses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenchi C K

    2018-02-06

    This study investigated the mediating role of psychological well-being between work support and safety performance of 314 Hong Kong nurses, using self-reported questionnaires. Results showed that psychological well-being mediated the effects of work support on safety performance. The findings illustrate that work support was an important element to improve psychological well-being. This could generate better safety performance of the nurses. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  9. 29 CFR 1960.11 - Evaluation of occupational safety and health performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation of occupational safety and health performance. 1960.11 Section 1960.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Administration § 1960.11 Evaluation of occupational safety and...

  10. Health and safety plan for operations performed for the Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trippet, W.A. II; Reneau, M.; Morton, S.L.

    1992-04-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the EPR. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP

  11. Health and safety plan for operations performed for the Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippet, W.A. II (IT Corp., (United States)); Reneau, M.; Morton, S.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the EPR. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  12. Modeling the Relationship between Safety Climate and Safety Performance in a Developing Construction Industry: A Cross-Cultural Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Hafiz; Chan, Albert P C; Utama, Wahyudi P; Gao, Ran; Zafar, Irfan

    2017-03-28

    This study attempts to validate a safety performance (SP) measurement model in the cross-cultural setting of a developing country. In addition, it highlights the variations in investigating the relationship between safety climate (SC) factors and SP indicators. The data were collected from forty under-construction multi-storey building projects in Pakistan. Based on the results of exploratory factor analysis, a SP measurement model was hypothesized. It was tested and validated by conducting confirmatory factor analysis on calibration and validation sub-samples respectively. The study confirmed the significant positive impact of SC on safety compliance and safety participation , and negative impact on number of self-reported accidents/injuries . However, number of near-misses could not be retained in the final SP model because it attained a lower standardized path coefficient value. Moreover, instead of safety participation , safety compliance established a stronger impact on SP. The study uncovered safety enforcement and promotion as a novel SC factor, whereas safety rules and work practices was identified as the most neglected factor. The study contributed to the body of knowledge by unveiling the deviations in existing dimensions of SC and SP. The refined model is expected to concisely measure the SP in the Pakistani construction industry, however, caution must be exercised while generalizing the study results to other developing countries.

  13. A performance improvement plan to increase nurse adherence to use of medication safety software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriloff, Carrie

    2012-08-01

    Nurses can protect patients receiving intravenous (IV) medication by using medication safety software to program "smart" pumps to administer IV medications. After a patient safety event identified inconsistent use of medication safety software by nurses, a performance improvement team implemented the Deming Cycle performance improvement methodology. The combined use of improved direct care nurse communication, programming strategies, staff education, medication safety champions, adherence monitoring, and technology acquisition resulted in a statistically significant (p < .001) increase in nurse adherence to using medication safety software from 28% to above 85%, exceeding national benchmark adherence rates (Cohen, Cooke, Husch & Woodley, 2007; Carefusion, 2011). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Introduction of Autonomous Vehicles: Roundabouts Design and Safety Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Deluka Tibljaš

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving experiences provided by the introduction of new vehicle technologies are directly impacting the criteria for road network design. New criteria should be taken into consideration by designers, researchers and car owners in order to assure traffic safety in changed conditions that will appear with, for example, introduction of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs in everyday traffic. In this paper, roundabout safety level is analysed on the originally developed microsimulation model in circumstances where different numbers of AVs vehicles are mixed with Conventional Vehicles (CVs. Field data about speed and traffic volumes from existing roundabouts in Croatia were used for development of the model. The simulations done with the Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM give some relevant highlights on how the introduction of AVs could change both operational and safety parameters at roundabouts. To further explore the effects on safety of roundabouts with the introduction of different shares of AVs, hypothetical safety treatments could be tested to explore whether their effects may change, leading to the estimation of a new set of Crash Modification Factors.

  15. A structural equation modelling approach examining the pathways between safety climate, behaviour performance and workplace slipping

    OpenAIRE

    Swedler, David I; Verma, Santosh K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melayne; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Safety climate has previously been associated with increasing safe workplace behaviours and decreasing occupational injuries. This study seeks to understand the structural relationship between employees’ perceptions of safety climate, performing a safety behaviour (ie, wearing slip-resistant shoes) and risk of slipping in the setting of limited-service restaurants. Methods: At baseline, we surveyed 349 employees at 30 restaurants for their perceptions of their safety training and m...

  16. Building patient safety in intensive care nursing : Patient safety culture, team performance and simulation-based training

    OpenAIRE

    Ballangrud, Randi

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The overall aim of the thesis was to investigate patient safety culture, team performance and the use of simulation-based team training for building patient safety in intensive care nursing. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. In Study I, 220 RNs from ten ICUs responded to a patient safety culture questionnaire analysed with statistics. Studies II-IV were based on an evaluation of a simulation-based team training programme. Studies II-III included 53 RNs from seven I...

  17. Study on seismic stability of seawall in man-made island. Pt. 5. Deformation of actual seawall during earthquake and estimation of seismic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanatani, Mamoru; Tochigi, Hitoshi; Kawai, Tadashi; Sakakiyama, Tsutomu; Kudo, Koji

    1999-01-01

    In the development of the man-made island siting technology of nuclear power plants, assessing the stability of the seawall against large ocean waves and earthquakes is indispensable. Concerning the seismic stability of the seawall, prediction of the deformation of the seawall during earthquake is important to evaluate the seismic performance of the seawall after the earthquake. In the this report, the deformation of the actual seawall was predicted from the results of the centrifuge model tests and the case studies by the numerical analyses. Furthermore, wave flume model tests of the seawall with the deformed armour embankment by the earthquake shaking were conducted to investigate the effects of the deformation of the armoured embankment to the overtopping discharge by the waves. Obtained results were as follows: (1) It was experimentally confirmed that the slope gentleness and the decrease of the top elevation of the armoured embankment induced by the earthquake did not lead to the increase of the overtopping discharge by the waves after the earthquake. (2) Subsidence and lateral displacement at the top of the parapet of the seawall caused by the S2 scale earthquake were approximately 0.12 m-0.2 m and 0.18 m-0.6 m respectively under the condition that the thickness of the sand seabed was 10 m and relative density was 60%. (3) Even though such displacements were induced at the top of the parapet of the seawall, seismic performance of the seawall against the large waves was kept after the earthquake. (author)

  18. Application of Advanced Technology to Improve Plant Performance. Safety and Performance in Current NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in computer technologies, signal processing, analytical modeling, and the advent of wireless sensors have provided the nuclear industry with ample means to automate and optimize maintenance activities and improve safety, efficiency, and availability, while reducing costs and radiation exposure to maintenance personnel. This paper provides a review of these developments and presents examples of their use in the nuclear power industry and the financial and safety benefits that they have produced. As the current generation of nuclear power plants have passed their mid-life, increased monitoring of their health is critical to their safe operation. This is especially true now that license renewal of nuclear power plants has accelerated, allowing some plants to operate up to 60 years or more. Furthermore, many utilities are maximizing their power output through uprating projects and retrofits. This puts additional demand and more stress on the plant equipment such as the instrumentation and control (I and C) systems and the reactor internal components making them more vulnerable to the effects of aging, degradation, and failure. In the meantime, the nuclear power industry is working to reduce generation costs by adopting condition-based maintenance strategies and automation of testing activities. These developments have stimulated great interest in on-line monitoring (OLM) technologies and new diagnostic and prognostic methods to anticipate, identify, and resolve equipment and process problems and ensure plant safety, efficiency, and immunity to accidents. The foundation for much of the required technologies has already been established through 40 years of research and development (R and D) efforts performed by numerous organizations, scientists, and engineers around the world including the author. This paper provides examples of these technologies and demonstrates how the gap between some of the more important R and D efforts and end users have been filled

  19. Incorporating Workplace Injury to Measure the Safety Performance of Industrial Sectors in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ting Yeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The severity of workplace injuries varies by industry. Information on workplace injuries can enable firms and governments to effectively improve their safety performance based on the specific contexts of each industry. Incorporating the three workplace injury rates (being wounded or ill, disability, and death, a data envelopment analysis (DEA model is developed to evaluate the safety performance of 17 industrial sectors in Taiwan. The results suggest that the Taiwanese government should pay particular attention to the mining and quarrying industry, which has the lowest safety performance. Additionally, the results provide abundant information for the Taiwanese government to design industry safety regulations in a way that may prompt firms to develop a sustainable economy by improving their health and safety practices and enhancing their overall safety performance.

  20. Mixed results in the safety performance of computerized physician order entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jane; Welebob, Emily; Bates, David W; Lipsitz, Stuart; Classen, David C

    2010-04-01

    Computerized physician order entry is a required feature for hospitals seeking to demonstrate meaningful use of electronic medical record systems and qualify for federal financial incentives. A national sample of sixty-two hospitals voluntarily used a simulation tool designed to assess how well safety decision support worked when applied to medication orders in computerized order entry. The simulation detected only 53 percent of the medication orders that would have resulted in fatalities and 10-82 percent of the test orders that would have caused serious adverse drug events. It is important to ascertain whether actual implementations of computerized physician order entry are achieving goals such as improved patient safety.

  1. Impact of individual resilience and safety climate on safety performance and psychological stress of construction workers: A case study of the Ontario construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuting; McCabe, Brenda; Hyatt, Douglas

    2017-06-01

    The construction industry has hit a plateau in terms of safety performance. Safety climate is regarded as a leading indicator of safety performance; however, relatively little safety climate research has been done in the Canadian construction industry. Safety climate may be geographically sensitive, thus it is necessary to examine how the construct of safety climate is defined and used to improve safety performance in different regions. On the other hand, more and more attention has been paid to job related stress in the construction industry. Previous research proposed that individual resilience may be associated with a better safety performance and may help employees manage stress. Unfortunately, few empirical research studies have examined this hypothesis. This paper aims to examine the role of safety climate and individual resilience in safety performance and job stress in the Canadian construction industry. The research was based on 837 surveys collected in Ontario between June 2015 and June 2016. Structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques were used to explore the impact of individual resilience and safety climate on physical safety outcomes and on psychological stress among construction workers. The results show that safety climate not only affected construction workers' safety performance but also indirectly affected their psychological stress. In addition, it was found that individual resilience had a direct negative impact on psychological stress but had no impact on physical safety outcomes. These findings highlight the roles of both organizational and individual factors in individual safety performance and in psychological well-being. Construction organizations need to not only monitor employees' safety performance, but also to assess their employees' psychological well-being. Promoting a positive safety climate together with developing training programs focusing on improving employees' psychological health - especially post-trauma psychological

  2. Can Leader–Member Exchange Contribute to Safety Performance in An Italian Warehouse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco G. Mariani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The research considers safety climate in a warehouse and wants to analyze the Leader–Member Exchange (LMX role in respect to safety performance. Griffin and Neal’s safety model was adopted and Leader-Member Exchange was inserted as moderator in the relationships between safety climate and proximal antecedents (motivation and knowledge of safety performance constructs (compliance and participation.Materials and Methods: Survey data were collected from a sample of 133 full-time employees in an Italian warehouse. The statistical framework of Hayes (2013 was adopted for moderated mediation analysis.Results: Proximal antecedents partially mediated the relationship between Safety climate and safety participation, but not safety compliance. Moreover, the results from the moderation analysis showed that the Leader–Member Exchange moderated the influence of safety climate on proximal antecedents and the mediation exist only at the higher level of LMX.Conclusion: The study shows that the different aspects of leadership processes interact in explaining individual proficiency in safety practices.Practical Implications: Organizations as warehouses should improve the quality of the relationship between a leader and a subordinate based upon the dimensions of respect, trust, and obligation for high level of safety performance.

  3. Containment-emergency-sump performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance, and provides recommendations for resolution of attendant safety issues. The key safety questions relate to: (a) effects of insulation debris on sump performance; (b) sump hydraulic performance as determined by design features, submergence, and plant induced effects, and (c) recirculation pump performance wherein air and/or particulate ingestion can occur. The technical findings presented in this report provide information relevant to the design and performance evaluation of the containment emergency sump

  4. Performance Evaluation of SMART Passive Safety System for Small Break LOCA Using MARS Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Ji Han; Lee, Guy Hyung; Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Young Jong; Kim, Keung Koo

    2013-01-01

    SMART has significantly enhanced safety by reducing its core damage frequency to 1/10 that of a conventional nuclear power plant. KAERI is developing a passive safety injection system to replace the active safety injection pump in SMART. It consists of four trains, each of which includes gravity-driven core makeup tank (CMT) and safety injection tank (SIT). This system is required to meet the passive safety performance requirements, i.e., the capability to maintain a safe shutdown condition for a minimum of 72 hours without an AC power supply or operator action in the case of design basis accidents (DBAs). The CMT isolation valve is opened by the low pressurizer pressure signal, and the SIT isolation valve is opened at 2 MPa. Additionally, two stages of automatic depressurization systems are used for rapid depressurization. Preliminary safety analysis of SMART passive safety system in the event of a small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) was performed using MARS code. In this study, the safety analysis results of a guillotine break of safety injection line which was identified as the limiting SBLOCA in SMART are given. The preliminary safety analysis of a SBLOCA for the SMART passive safety system was performed using the MARS code. The analysis results of the most limiting SI line guillotine break showed that the collapsed liquid level inside the core support barrel was maintained sufficiently high above the top of core throughout the transient. This means that the passive safety injection flow from the CMT and SIT causes no core uncovery during the 72 hours following the break with no AC power supply or operator action, which in turn results in a consistent decrease in the fuel cladding temperature. Therefore, the SMART passive safety system can meet the passive safety performance requirement of maintaining the plant at a safe shutdown condition for a minimum of 72 hours without AC power or operator action for a representing accident of SBLOCA

  5. Quantitative assessment of safety barrier performance in the prevention of domino scenarios triggered by fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landucci, Gabriele; Argenti, Francesca; Tugnoli, Alessandro; Cozzani, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of domino scenarios triggered by fire critically depends on the presence and the performance of safety barriers that may have the potential to prevent escalation, delaying or avoiding the heat-up of secondary targets. The aim of the present study is the quantitative assessment of safety barrier performance in preventing the escalation of fired domino scenarios. A LOPA (layer of protection analysis) based methodology, aimed at the definition and quantification of safety barrier performance in the prevention of escalation was developed. Data on the more common types of safety barriers were obtained in order to characterize the effectiveness and probability of failure on demand of relevant safety barriers. The methodology was exemplified with a case study. The results obtained define a procedure for the estimation of safety barrier performance in the prevention of fire escalation in domino scenarios. - Highlights: • We developed a methodology for the quantitative assessment of safety barriers. • We focused on safety barriers aimed at preventing domino effect triggered by fire. • We obtained data on effectiveness and availability of the safety barriers. • The methodology was exemplified with a case study of industrial interest. • The results showed the role of safety barriers in preventing fired domino escalation

  6. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  7. The safety culture change process performed in Polish research reactor MARIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golab, Andrzej

    2002-01-01

    The Safety Culture Change Process Performed in research reactor MARIA is described in this paper. The essential issues fulfilled in realization of the Safety Culture Enhancement Programme are related to the attitude and behaviour of top management, co-operating groups, operational personnel, relations between the operating organization and the supervising and advising organizations. Realization of this programme is based on changing the employees understanding of safety, changing their attitudes and behaviours by means of adequate training, requalification process and performing the broad self-assessment programme. Also a high level Quality Assurance Programme helps in development of the Safety Culture. (author)

  8. Space Biology and Medicine. Volume 4; Health, Performance, and Safety of Space Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietlein, Lawrence F. (Editor); Pestov, Igor D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Volume IV is devoted to examining the medical and associated organizational measures used to maintain the health of space crews and to support their performance before, during, and after space flight. These measures, collectively known as the medical flight support system, are important contributors to the safety and success of space flight. The contributions of space hardware and the spacecraft environment to flight safety and mission success are covered in previous volumes of the Space Biology and Medicine series. In Volume IV, we address means of improving the reliability of people who are required to function in the unfamiliar environment of space flight as well as the importance of those who support the crew. Please note that the extensive collaboration between Russian and American teams for this volume of work resulted in a timeframe of publication longer than originally anticipated. Therefore, new research or insights may have emerged since the authors composed their chapters and references. This volume includes a list of authors' names and addresses should readers seek specifics on new information. At least three groups of factors act to perturb human physiological homeostasis during space flight. All have significant influence on health, psychological, and emotional status, tolerance, and work capacity. The first and most important of these factors is weightlessness, the most specific and radical change in the ambient environment; it causes a variety of functional and structural changes in human physiology. The second group of factors precludes the constraints associated with living in the sealed, confined environment of spacecraft. Although these factors are not unique to space flight, the limitations they entail in terms of an uncomfortable environment can diminish the well-being and performance of crewmembers in space. The third group of factors includes the occupational and social factors associated with the difficult, critical nature of the

  9. Budget and Actuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This dataset contains the Town's Year-to-Date Budget and Actuals for Fiscal Years 2016, 2017, and 2018. Fiscal years run from July 1 to June 30. The data comes from...

  10. Ranking EU progress on road safety : 11th road safety Performance Index (PIN) report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2017-01-01

    In 2010, the European Union renewed its commitment to improve road safety by setting a target of reducing road deaths by 50% by 2020, compared to 2010 levels. This target followed an earlier target set in 2001 to halve road deaths by 2010. Since 2014, progress has virtually ground to a halt. 2016

  11. A review on the benchmarking concept in Malaysian construction safety performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Nurfadzillah; Azizan, Muhammad Azizi

    2018-02-01

    Construction industry is one of the major industries that propels Malaysia's economy in highly contributes to our nation's GDP growth, yet the high fatality rates on construction sites have caused concern among safety practitioners and the stakeholders. Hence, there is a need of benchmarking in performance of Malaysia's construction industry especially in terms of safety. This concept can create a fertile ground for ideas, but only in a receptive environment, organization that share good practices and compare their safety performance against other benefit most to establish improvement in safety culture. This research was conducted to study the awareness important, evaluate current practice and improvement, and also identify the constraint in implement of benchmarking on safety performance in our industry. Additionally, interviews with construction professionals were come out with different views on this concept. Comparison has been done to show the different understanding of benchmarking approach and how safety performance can be benchmarked. But, it's viewed as one mission, which to evaluate objectives identified through benchmarking that will improve the organization's safety performance. Finally, the expected result from this research is to help Malaysia's construction industry implement best practice in safety performance management through the concept of benchmarking.

  12. The relationships between OHS prevention costs, safety performance, employee satisfaction and accident costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Metin; Ünğan, Mustafa C; Ardıç, Kadir

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the costs of safety. A literature review conducted for this study indicates there is a lack of survey-based research dealing with the effects of occupational health and safety (OHS) prevention costs. To close this gap in the literature, this study investigates the interwoven relationships between OHS prevention costs, employee satisfaction, OHS performance and accident costs. Data were collected from 159 OHS management system 18001-certified firms operating in Turkey and analyzed through structural equation modeling. The findings indicate that OHS prevention costs have a significant positive effect on safety performance, employee satisfaction and accident costs savings; employee satisfaction has a significant positive effect on accident costs savings; and occupational safety performance has a significant positive effect on employee satisfaction and accident costs savings. Also, the results indicate that safety performance and employee satisfaction leverage the relationship between prevention costs and accident costs.

  13. Contractors’ Attitude towards Enhancing Safety Performance: Case Study on Construction Firms in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulang N. Md

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative study was conducted to investigate the contractors’ attitude towards enhancing the safety performance in construction site. Despite the fact that there are many safety initiatives established by the government, the rates of accidents are still in a critically high condition. Thus the purpose of this research is to study the contractors’ attitude towards enhancing the implementation of safety management system in construction site in order to increase the safety awareness of construction practitioners in construction site and improve the safety condition of construction sites. This study is conducted through oral interviews with the construction practitioners, and visual inspection of construction sites. The attitudes of contractors are evaluated from 3 aspects: Contractors’ efforts in implement and enforce the safety rules, Contractors efforts in overcoming the rate of accidents, and Reasons given by the contractors for not implement safety law.

  14. Preliminary study on functional performance of compound type multistage safety injection tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Functional performance of compound type multistage safety injection tanks is studied. • Effects of key design parameters are scrutinized. • Distinctive flow features in compound type safety injection tanks are explored. - Abstract: A parametric study is carried out to evaluate the functional performance of a compound type multistage safety injection tank that would be considered one of the components for the passive safety injection systems in nuclear power plants. The effects of key design parameters such as the initial volume fraction and charging pressure of gas, tank elevation, vertical location of a sparger, resistance coefficient, and operating condition on the injection flow rate are scrutinized along with a discussion of the relevant flow features. The obtained results indicate that the compound type multistage safety injection tank can effectively control the injection flow rate in a passive manner, by switching the driving force for the safety injection from gas pressure to gravity during the refill and reflood phases, respectively

  15. Key Factors Affecting Construction Safety Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Durdyev, Serdar; Mohamed, Sherif; Lay, Meng Leang; Ismail, Syuhaida

    2017-01-01

    Although proper safety management in construction is of utmost importance; anecdotal evidence suggests that safety is not adequately considered in many developing countries. This paper considers the key variables affecting construction safety performance in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate the level of importance of 30 variables identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to f...

  16. The Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS): An Integrated Suite of Tools for Measuring Performance and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, Irving C.; Connor, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This is a report of work in progress. In it, I summarize the status of the research and development of the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) for managing, processing, and analyzing digital flight-recorded data, The objectives of the NASA-FAA APMS research project are to establish a sound scientific and technological basis for flight-data analysis, to define an open and flexible architecture for flight-data analysis systems, and to articulate guidelines for a standardized database structure on which to continue to build future flight-data-analysis extensions. APMS offers to the air transport community an open, voluntary standard for flight-data-analysis software; a standard that will help to ensure suitable functionality and data interchangeability among competing software programs. APMS will develop and document the methodologies, algorithms, and procedures for data management and analyses to enable users to easily interpret the implications regarding safety and efficiency of operations. APMS does not entail the implementation of a nationwide flight-data-collection system. It is intended to provide technical tools to ease the large-scale implementation of flight-data analyses at both the air-carrier and the national-airspace levels in support of their Flight Operations and Quality Assurance (FOQA) Programs and Advanced Qualifications Programs (AQP). APMS cannot meet its objectives unless it develops tools that go substantially beyond the capabilities of the current commercially available software and supporting analytic methods that are mainly designed to count special events. These existing capabilities, while of proven value, were created primarily with the needs-of aircrews in mind. APMS tools must serve the needs of the government and air carriers, as well as aircrews, to fully support the FOQA and AQP programs. They must be able to derive knowledge not only through the analysis of single flights (special-event detection), but also through

  17. Evacuation routes performances and fire safety of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Mirjana Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential buildings, public and business facilities with large number of occupants are particularly exposed to the risk of event with catastrophic consequences, especially in case of fire. Evacuation routes must be separated fire compartments with surfaces made of non-combustible materials. Safe evacuation of building occupants in case of fire is a crucial requirement for the preservation of human life in building. In our engineering practice, calculation model is usually applied in order to determine the time required for evacuation (SRPS TP 21. However, evacuation simulation models are more present in research papers, contributing to better assessment of flow of evacuation in the real time. These models could provide an efficient way of testing the safety of a building in the face of fire and indicate critical points at the evacuation paths. Computer models enable the development and analysis of multiple various scenarios during a fire event, contributing to defining the measures for improving the safety of the building in case of fire. This paper analyses the fulfilment of technical requirements for the safe evacuation and proposes improvement measures based on a comparative analysis of the time required for occupants' evacuation from the building (Department of Civil Engineering and Geodesy in Novi Sad, obtained by calculation model and by using evacuation simulation software.

  18. Development of Safety Grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) and Performance Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hwoi; Park, Won Man; Choi, Jong Gyun; Lee, Dong Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); No, Young Hun; Song, Seung Hwan [POSCON, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The safety grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) is being developed in the Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) R and D project. The PLC satisfies Safety Class 1E, Quality Class 1, and Seismic Category I. The software such as the RTOS and firmware are being developed according to the safety critical software life cycle. Especially, the formal method is applied to design the SRS (Software Requirement Spec.) and the SDS (Software Design Specification.) to be error-free. The POSAFE-Q has several modules such as processor module, input and output modules, communication modules, redundant processor module, redundant power modules, etc,. To verify the function and performance, several tests such as CT, IT and ST were performed. And also, the equipment qualification test for environment, EMI and EMC, and seismic ware performed. All tests are satisfied with the requirements and specification for safety grade PLC, and the criteria for safety system in nuclear power plants.

  19. Development of Safety Grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) and Performance Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hwoi; Park, Won Man; Choi, Jong Gyun; Lee, Dong Young; No, Young Hun; Song, Seung Hwan

    2006-01-01

    The safety grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) is being developed in the Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) R and D project. The PLC satisfies Safety Class 1E, Quality Class 1, and Seismic Category I. The software such as the RTOS and firmware are being developed according to the safety critical software life cycle. Especially, the formal method is applied to design the SRS (Software Requirement Spec.) and the SDS (Software Design Specification.) to be error-free. The POSAFE-Q has several modules such as processor module, input and output modules, communication modules, redundant processor module, redundant power modules, etc,. To verify the function and performance, several tests such as CT, IT and ST were performed. And also, the equipment qualification test for environment, EMI and EMC, and seismic ware performed. All tests are satisfied with the requirements and specification for safety grade PLC, and the criteria for safety system in nuclear power plants

  20. Operational safety performance indicator system - a management tool for the self assessment of safety and reliability of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anil Kumar; Mandowara, S.L.; Mittal, S.

    2006-01-01

    Operational Safety Performance Indicator system is one of the self assessment tools for station management to monitor safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. It provides information to station management about the performance of various areas of the plants by means of different colours of relevant performance indicators. Such systems have been implemented at many nuclear power plants in the world and have been considered as strength during WANO Peer Review. IAEA had a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on this with several countries participating including India. In NPCIL this system has been implemented in KAPS about a year back and found very useful in identifying areas which needs to be given more attention. Based on the KAPS feedback Implementation of this system has been taken up in RAPS-3 and 4 and KGS-l and 2. (author)

  1. The safety performance management system: A tool for diagnosis, intervention and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Many organizations depend on human performance to avoid incidents involving significant adverse consequences. Such organizations are typically termed high reliability organizations (HROs). While heavy emphasis has been placed on designing system hardware and software to intercept and mitigate events that could cause adverse consequences, dealing with the design of the human component has proven to be more complicated. Examination of various safety-related incidents makes it clear that human performance, and in particular organizational processes, plays a dominant role. The human errors are of various origins and are typically part of larger organizational processes that encourage unsafe acts that ultimately produce system failures. It is generally postulated that without an effective organizational safety culture, a safe working environment is impossible. While many different perspectives exist from which safety issues might be addressed, a method that allows the quantitative measurement of organizational processes deemed to impact overall safety performance is considered useful to understand the potential for future inadequate safety performance. This paper describes the Safety Performance Management System, a method useful for diagnosis, subsequent intervention and follow-on measurement. Implications for use of this method are presented and the concluding discussion includes insights regarding the general application of the method to improved facility safety performance. (author)

  2. Development of safety performance indicators of regulatory interest (SAFPER) in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatoon, Abida

    2002-01-01

    Safety performance indicators provide a very useful tool for monitoring operational safety of a nuclear power plant. Utilities in many countries have developed plant specific indicators for the assessment of their performance and safety. Regulators can make use of some of these indicators for their regulatory assessment. In addition to these regulatory bodies in some countries have also developed programs for the formulation of safety performance indicators which are used in monitoring operational safety and regulatory decision making. Realizing its usefulness Directorate of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (DNSRP-the regulatory body in Pakistan) has also initiated a country specific program for the development of Safety Performance Indicators (SAFPER) based on data provided by the utility and that collected during the course of regulatory inspections. Selected areas of NPP operation to be monitored are: - Significant events; - Safety systems performance; - Barriers integrity; - Environment protection; - Workers radiation safety; and - Emergency Preparedness. One of the objectives of this program is also to monitor the effectiveness of DNSRP regulatory activities. IAEA framework is taken as one of the bases for our program. Safety performance will be assessed on the basis of Performance Indicators and inspection findings. DNSRP program as shown in Appendix includes the indicators in use and under development. It is felt that the term Safety Performance Indicators may be termed as 'SAFPER Indicators' to be used by the Regulators, as it is clear from this presentation that utility safety performance indicators together with the regulatory effectiveness indicators constitute the measure for the adequate safety to the public and the environment. Additional research is still necessary for: - indicator definition for the proposed and under developed indicators; - data collection systems; - thresholds; - trend analysis; - goal setting (benefit from the trend can be

  3. International conference on the operational safety performance in nuclear installations. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the IAEA organized an 'International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Safety'. The issues discussed during the conference were: (1) risk- informed decision-making; (2) influence of external factors on safety; (3) safety of fuel cycle facilities; (4) safety of research reactors; and (5) safety performance indicators. Senior nuclear safety decision makers reviewed the issues and formulated recommendations for future actions by national and international organizations. In 2004, the IAEA organized an 'International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Safety' in Beijing China. The issues discussed during the conference were: (1) changing environment - coping with diversity and globalization; (2) operating experience - managing changes effectively; (3) regulatory management systems - adapting to changes in the environment; and (4) long term operations - maintaining safety margins while extending plant lifetimes. The results of this conference confirmed the importance of operators and regulators of nuclear facilities meeting periodically to share experience and opinion on emerging issues and future challenges of the nuclear industry. Substantial progress has been made, and continues to be made by Member States in enhancing the safety of nuclear installations worldwide. At the same time, more attention is being given to other areas of nuclear safety. The safety standards for research reactors are being updated and new standards are planned on the safety of other facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. The Agency has taken a lead role in this effort and is receiving much support from its Member States to gain international consensus in these areas. The objective of the conference is to foster the exchange of information on operational safety performance and operating experience in nuclear installations, with the aim of consolidating an international consensus on: - the present status of these issues; - emerging issues with international implications

  4. Validation of Fuel Performance Uncertainty for RIA Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Nam-Gyu; Yoo, Jong-Sung; Jung, Yil-Sup [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To achieve this the computer code performance has to be validated based on the experimental results. And for the uncertainty quantification, important uncertainty parameters need to be selected, and combined uncertainty has to be evaluated with an acceptable statistical treatment. And important uncertainty parameters to the rod performance such as fuel enthalpy, fission gas release, cladding hoop strain etc. were chosen through the rigorous sensitivity studies. And their validity has been assessed by utilizing the experimental results, which were tested in CABRI and NSRR. Analysis results revealed that several tested rods were not bounded within combined fuel performance uncertainty. Assessment of fuel performance with an extended fuel power uncertainty on tested rods in NSRR and CABRI has been done. Analysis results showed that several tested rods were not bounded within calculated fuel performance uncertainty. This implies that the currently considered uncertainty range of the parameters is not enough to cover the fuel performance sufficiently.

  5. Performance of safety management systems in Spanish food service establishments in view of their context characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Chinchilla, A.C.; Jacxsens, L.; Kirezieva, K.K.; Rovira, J.

    2013-01-01

    Food service establishments (FSE) operate under restricted technological and organisational circumstances, making them susceptible to food safety problems as reported frequently. Aim of this study was to get insight in Food Safety Management System (FSMS) performance in different types of FSE in

  6. Benchmarking road safety performance by grouping local territories : a study in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L.T. & Houwing, S.

    2015-01-01

    The method of benchmarking provides an opportunity to learn from better performing territories to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of activities in a particular field of interest. Such a field of interest could be road safety. Road safety benchmarking can include several indicators, ranging

  7. Safety Performance Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants Utilizing THOMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won June; Ryu, Jung Uk; Suh, Kune Y.

    2005-01-01

    THOMAS (Thermal Hydraulics Online Monitoring Advisory System) is equipped with a couple of salient features compared with existing monitoring systems. The first has to do with the three-dimensional (3D) visualization technique to support the nuclear power plant (NPP) operators and personnel using the virtual reality (VR) technology. VR depicts an environment simulated by a computer. Most of the VR environments primarily include visual experiences, displayed either on a monitor or though special stereoscopic goggles. Users can often interactively manipulate a VR environment, either through standard input devices like a keyboard, or through specially designed devices like a cybergloves. Additional devices were not applied the in THOMAS. The visualized model file is brought to the VR space from the computer-aided design (CAD) tool. In the VR space, using mapping, the component color is changed with linked value of the safety variables. Operators thus can easily recognize the plant condition. This is related with the human factor engineering. The second is the function of decision making using the influence diagram logic. The influence diagram logic is based on the total probability and Bayesian theory. The accident modeling is rooted in the emergency operating procedure (EOP). The final goal of this system is, in the accident situation, to present a success path to the operator for the recovery of the NPP system. At the current developing level, the database signals THOMAS. In other words, a spectrum of system analysis codes provides the safety parameter values to the database, which are subsequently supplied to THOMAS through the network

  8. The roles of emotional intelligence, interpersonal skill, and transformational leadership on improving construction safety performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Yosia Sunindijo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the characteristics of the constructionindustry, human skills are essential for working with and through others inmanaging safety. Research has shown that emotional intelligence, interpersonalskill, and transformational leadership are human skill components that generatesuperior performance in today’s workplace. The aim of this research is toinvestigate the influence of project management personnel’s human skills on theimplementation of safety management tasks and development of safety climate inconstruction projects. The structural equation modelling (SEM method wasapplied to analyse the quantitative data collected and establishinterrelationship among the research variables. The results indicate thatemotional intelligence is a key factor for developing interpersonal skill andtransformational leadership, and for implementing safety management tasks whichleads to the development of safety climate. This research also found thatinterpersonal skill is needed for becoming transformational leaders whocontribute to the development of safety climate.

  9. Electrochemical performance and safety features of high-safety lithium ion battery using novel branched additive for internal short protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuhan; Lee, Meng-Lun; Wang Fuming; Yang, Chang-Rung; Chu, Peter P.J.; Yau, Shueh-Lin; Pan, Jing-Pin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► N-phenylmaleimide-containing branched oligomer has been employed as an additive in lithium cells. ► The branched oligomer additive enhances safety and cycling performance of Li ion battery. ► The highest temperature of branched oligomer-containing battery was only 85 °C in the nail penetration test. - Abstract: In this study, we have investigated N-phenylmaleimide/bismaleimide-containing branched oligomer (BO1) as additive in Li-ion batteries to increase the safety performance by reducing the probability of batteries suffering an internal short circuit. In the nail penetration test, a LiCoO 2 /MCMB full battery with N-phenylmaleimide/bismaleimide-containing branched oligomer (BO1) showed a significant improvement in thermal stability and was able to restrain the temperature of the battery at about 85 °C. Furthermore, we found that N-phenylmaleimide/bismaleimide-containing branched oligomer (BO1) contained battery revealed better cycling and electrochemical performance, compared with the battery with bismaleimide-containing branched oligomer (BO3) in the electrolyte. The improvement might result from the favorable ionic conductivity, Li ion mobility and lower resistance in the battery. This additive can meet the cycling performance and safety requirements for Li-ion batteries.

  10. INPO Perspectives and Activities to Enhance Supplier Human Performance and Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Within their own organizations, utilities have made significant improvements in human performance and safety culture, supported by a strong community of practice through INPO and WANO. In recent years, utilities have been making increasing use of suppliers for design, construction, inspection and maintenance services in support of their NPPs. Many of these suppliers do not have the benefit of being members of a community of practice when it comes to human performance and safety culture. To help the supplier community make improvements similar to what the utilities have achieved, INPO has recently expanded its Supplier Participant program to address the issue of human performance and safety culture in the supplier community. The intent of this paper will be to share the INPO’s perspectives and activities in helping suppliers of services and products to NPPs enhance their human performance and safety culture. (author)

  11. Linac project - actual stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin Filho, N.

    1990-01-01

    The actual development stage of Pelletron accelerator to study heavy ion reactions, nuclear structures and applied nuclear physics is presented. The construction of acceleration systems able to provide beams of several mass and energies up to 20 MeV/A, is discussed, describing acceleration structures and implemented systems. (M.C.K.)

  12. Key Factors Affecting Construction Safety Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Durdyev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although proper safety management in construction is of utmost importance; anecdotal evidence suggests that safety is not adequately considered in many developing countries. This paper considers the key variables affecting construction safety performance in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate the level of importance of 30 variables identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to factor analysis. Correlations between the variables show that five key factors underlie the challenges facing the local industry; management and organisation, resources, site management, cosmetic and workforce. It is found that the forefront construction professionals (top management and government authorities should take more responsibilities for further improvements in safety performance on project sites. Findings and recommendations of this study may be useful to construction professional who are seeking ways to improve safety records in developing countries.

  13. Assessment of Human Performance and Safety Culture at the Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Janos; Hadnagy, Lajos

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of human performance and safety culture of the personnel at a Nuclear Power Plant is a very important element of the self assessment process. At the Paks NPP a systematic approach to this problem started in the early 90's. The first comprehensive analysis of the human performance of the personnel was performed by the Hungarian Research Institute for Electric Power (VEIKI). The analysis of human failures is also a part of the investigation and analysis of safety related reported events. This human performance analysis of events is carried out by the Laboratory of Psychology of the plant and a supporting organisation namely the Department of Ergonomics and Psychology of the Budapest University of Technical and Economical Sciences. The analysis of safety culture at the Paks NPP has been in the focus of attention since the implementation of the INSAG-4 document started world-wide. In 1993 an IAEA model project namely 'Strengthening Training for Operational Safety' was initiated with a sub-project called 'Enhancement of Safety Culture'. Within this project the first step was the initial assessment of the safety culture level at the Paks NPP. It was followed by some corrective actions and safety culture improvement programme. In 1999 the second assessment was performed in order to evaluate the progress as a result of the improvement programme. A few indicators reflecting the elements of safety culture were defined and compared. The assessment of the safety culture with a survey among the managers was performed in September 2000 and the results are being evaluated at the moment. The intention of the plant management is to repeat the assessment every 2-3 years and evaluate the trend of the indicator. (authors)

  14. Actualism and Fictional Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leclerc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n1p61 In what follows, I present only part of a program that consists in developing a version of actualism as an adequate framework for the metaphysics of intentionality. I will try to accommodate in that framework suggestions found in Kripke’s works and some positions developed by Amie Thomasson. What should we change if we accept “fictional entities” in the domain of the actual world? Actualism is the thesis that everything that exists belongs to the domain of the actual world and that there are no possibilia. I shall defend that there are abstract artefacts, like fictional characters, and institutions. My argument could be seen as a version of Moore’s paradox: it is paradoxical to say: “I made (created it, but I do not believe it exists”. Moreover, there are true sentences about them. I will examine what it means to include abstract artefacts in the domain of the actual world. I favour a use of “exist” that includes beings with no concrete occupation of tri-dimensional space; to exist, it is enough to have been introduced at some moment in history. Abstract artefacts, like fictional characters, exist in that sense. I argue that it is important to distinguish two perspectives (internal and external in order to clarify the kind of knowledge we have of fictional characters. However, their existence presupposes a relation of dependence to a material basis and the mental activities of many people.

  15. The Perform Codesign Experiment – on what people actually do and the relation between program and experiment in research through design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva; Eriksen, Mette Agger; Binder, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    expose how they become knowledgeable in what they collaboratively make. However, working with codesign as an integral part of knowledge production poses challenges to how we conceive of such inquiries in the practices of research through design. This paper reports from collaborative research where fellow...... researchers and PhD students carry out a codesign experiment (in the Xlab meta-project). The intention of the paper is twofold but intertwined: to get closer at what it is that people actually do in a codesign experiment situation; and to further investigate the relationship between program and experiments...

  16. Performance evaluation of 24 ion exchange materials for removing cesium and strontium from actual and simulated N-Reactor storage basin water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the evaluation of 24 organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removing cesium and strontium from actual and simulated waters from the 100 Area 105 N-Reactor fuel storage basin. The data described in this report can be applied for developing and evaluating ion exchange pre-treatment process flowsheets. Cesium and strontium batch distribution ratios (K{sub d}`s), decontamination factors (DF), and material loadings (mmol g{sup -1}) are compared as a function of ion exchange material and initial cesium concentration. The actual and simulated N-Basin waters contain relatively low levels of aluminum, barium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium (ranging from 8.33E-04 to 6.40E-05 M), with slightly higher levels of boron (6.63E-03 M) and sodium (1.62E-03 M). The {sup 137}Cs level is 1.74E-06 Ci L-{sup 1} which corresponds to approximately 4.87E-10 M Cs. The initial Na/Cs ratio was 3.33E+06. The concentration of total strontium is 4.45E-06 M, while the {sup 90}Sr radioactive component was measured to be 6.13E-06 Ci L{sup -1}. Simulant tests were conducted by contacting 0.067 g or each ion exchange material with approximately 100 mL of either the actual or simulated N-Basin water. The simulants contained variable initial cesium concentrations ranging from 1.00E-04 to 2.57E- 10 M Cs while all other components were held constant. For all materials, the average cesium K{sub d} was independent of cesium concentration below approximately 1.0E-06 M. Above this level, the average cesium K{sub d} values decreased significantly. Cesium K{sub d} values exceeding 1.0E+07 mL g{sup -1} were measured in the simulated N-Basin water. However, when measured in the actual N-Basin water the values were several orders of magnitude lower, with a maximum of 1.24E+05 mL g{sup -1} observed.

  17. Job hindrances, job resources, and safety performance: The mediating role of job engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhenyu; Li, Yongjuan; Tetrick, Lois E

    2015-11-01

    Job engagement has received widespread attention in organizational research but has rarely been empirically investigated in the context of safety. In the present study, we examined the mediating role of job engagement in the relationships between job characteristics and safety performance using self-reported data collected at a coal mining company in China. Most of our study hypotheses were supported. Job engagement partially mediated the relationships between job resources and safety performance dimensions. Theoretical and practical implications and directions for future research are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance Monitoring for Nuclear Safety Related Instrumentation at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Mohd Sabri Minhat

    2015-01-01

    The Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) at Malaysia Nuclear Agency is a TRIGA Mark II type reactor and pool type cooled by natural circulation of light water. This paper describe on performance monitoring for nuclear safety related instrumentation in TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor (RTP) of based on various parameter of reactor safety instrument channel such as log power, linear power, Fuel temperature, coolant temperature will take into consideration. Methodology of performance on estimation and monitoring is to evaluate and analysis of reactor parameters which is important of reactor safety and control. And also to estimate power measurement, differential of log and linear power and fuel temperature during reactor start-up, operation and shutdown .This study also focus on neutron power fluctuation from fission chamber during reactor start-up and operation. This work will present result of performance monitoring from RTP which indicated the safety parameter identification and initiate safety action on crossing the threshold set point trip. Conclude that performance of nuclear safety related instrumentation will improved the reactor control and safety parameter during reactor start-up, operation and shutdown. (author)

  19. Transformational leadership and employee safety performance: a within-person, between-jobs design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inness, Michelle; Turner, Nick; Barling, Julian; Stride, Chris B

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the extent to which the safety performance (i.e., self-reported safety compliance and safety participation) of employees with 2 jobs was predicted by their respective supervisors' transformational leadership behaviors. We compared 2 within-person models: a context-specific model (i.e., transformational leadership experienced by employees in 1 context related to those same employees' safety performance only in that context) and a context-spillover model (i.e., transformational leadership experienced by employees in 1 context related to those same employees' safety performance in the same and other contexts). Our sample comprised 159 "moonlighters" (73 men, 86 women): employees who simultaneously hold 2 different jobs, each with a different supervisor, providing within-person data on the influence of different supervisors on employee safety performance across 2 job contexts. Having controlled for individual differences (negative affectivity and conscientiousness) and work characteristics (e.g., hours worked and length of relationship with supervisor), the context-specific model provided the best fit to the data among alternative nested models. Implications for the role of transformational leadership in promoting workplace safety are discussed.

  20. Performance of Compiler-Assisted Memory Safety Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    version for which both SAFECode and Soft- Bound were available. 401.bzip2 458.sjeng 464.h264ref 433.milc 470. lbm As distributed at the time of...milc 37.69 5.25 470. lbm 12.23 1.86 Average 41.72 5.36 4.2 Performance Enhancements The first two bars of each group in Figure 4 show the slowdown for...3.15 433.milc 1.01 1.88 470. lbm 1.00 0.97 Average 3.02 2.07 The most striking result in comparison with the initial performance measurements in

  1. Simplicity: the key to improved safety, performance and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCandless, R.J.; Redding, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    In General Electric's Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) design every feature, every system, every piece of equipment must justify its existence - or it must go. Each must perform a needed function in the simplest way because simplification is the key to high performance and competitive economics. The SBWR has the potential to become a safe, economical and environmentally sound energy source for the 1990s, GE believes. The distinctive features of the reactor are described. It is illustrated on a wall chart which also gives its main specifications

  2. Utility Expectations for Human Performance and Safety Culture in the Supplier Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clewett, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    Canadian NPPs, like many others around the world, make use of suppliers for the design and execution of major projects, and to support on-going inspection and maintenance activities. The work performed by suppliers today represents a significant portion of the work performed at utility NPPs, and, at times, can even exceed the work performed by utility staff. It is imperative for both the utility and the supplier work forces to work in collaboration to ensure that the probability of consequential errors impacting plant safety or contributing to broader enterprise risk is kept very low. An important element for keeping the risk low is for utilities to work with their suppliers to develop a high degree of confidence that the supplier workforce is performing to the same standards of human performance and safety culture as its own staff. This paper will provide a senior utility executive’s expectations and perspective on achieving excellence in supplier human performance and safety culture. (author)

  3. Benchmarking road safety performance: Identifying a meaningful reference (best-in-class).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Faan; Wu, Jiaorong; Chen, Xiaohong; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Di

    2016-01-01

    For road safety improvement, comparing and benchmarking performance are widely advocated as the emerging and preferred approaches. However, there is currently no universally agreed upon approach for the process of road safety benchmarking, and performing the practice successfully is by no means easy. This is especially true for the two core activities of which: (1) developing a set of road safety performance indicators (SPIs) and combining them into a composite index; and (2) identifying a meaningful reference (best-in-class), one which has already obtained outstanding road safety practices. To this end, a scientific technique that can combine the multi-dimensional safety performance indicators (SPIs) into an overall index, and subsequently can identify the 'best-in-class' is urgently required. In this paper, the Entropy-embedded RSR (Rank-sum ratio), an innovative, scientific and systematic methodology is investigated with the aim of conducting the above two core tasks in an integrative and concise procedure, more specifically in a 'one-stop' way. Using a combination of results from other methods (e.g. the SUNflower approach) and other measures (e.g. Human Development Index) as a relevant reference, a given set of European countries are robustly ranked and grouped into several classes based on the composite Road Safety Index. Within each class the 'best-in-class' is then identified. By benchmarking road safety performance, the results serve to promote best practice, encourage the adoption of successful road safety strategies and measures and, more importantly, inspire the kind of political leadership needed to create a road transport system that maximizes safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance Verification for Safety Injection Tank with Fluidic Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, Seok Jeong; Kim, Da Yong

    2014-01-01

    In LBLOCA, the SITs of a conventional nuclear power plant deliver excessive cooling water to the reactor vessel causing the water to flow into the containment atmosphere. In an effort to make it more efficient, Fluidic Device (FD) is installed inside a SIT of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR 1400). FD, a complete passive controller which doesn't require actuating power, controls injection flow rates which are susceptible to a change in the flow resistance inside a vortex chamber of FD. When SIT Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) water level is above the top of the stand pipe, the water enters the vortex chamber through both the top of the stand pipe and the control ports resulting in injection of the water at a large flow rate. When the water level drops below the top of the stand pipe, the water only enters the vortex chamber through the control ports resulting in vortex formation in the vortex chamber and a relatively small flow injection. Performance verification of SIT shall be carried out because SITs play an integral role to mitigate accidents. In this paper, the performance verification method of SIT with FD is presented. In this paper, the equations for calculation of flow resistance coefficient (K) are induced to evaluate on-site performance of APR 1400 SIT with FD. Then, the equations are applied to the performance verification of SIT with FD and good results are obtained

  5. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  6. The effect of Health, Safety and Environment Management System (HSE-MS on the improvement of safety performance indices in Urea and Ammonia Kermanshah Petrochemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Poursoleiman

    2015-09-01

    .Conclusion: The implementation of Health, Safety and the Environment Management System caused a reduction in accidents and its consequences and most of the safety performance indices in the entire process cycle of Kermanshah Petrochemical Company. Overall, safety condition has been improved considerably.

  7. Safety and performance indicators for the assessment of long-term safety of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugi, M.; Schneider, J.W.; Dorp, F. van; Zuidema, P.

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of the ability to isolate radioactive waste and the assessment of the long-term safety of a deep geological repository is usually done in terms of the calculated dose and/or risk for an average individual of the population which is potentially most affected by the potential impacts of the repository. At present, various countries and international organisations are developing so-called complementary indicators to supplement such calculations. These indicators are called ''safety indicators'' if they refer to the safety of the whole repository system; if they address the isolation capability of individual system components or the whole system from a more technical perspective, they are called ''performance indicators''. The need for complementary indicators follows from the long time frames which characterise the safety assessment of a geological repository, and the corresponding uncertainty of the calculated radiation dose. The main reason for these uncertainties is associated with the uncertain long-term prognosis of the surface environment and the related human behaviour. (orig.)

  8. Opportunities for Using Building Information Modeling to Improve Worker Safety Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Alomari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Building information modelling (BIM enables the creation of a digital representation of a designed facility combined with additional information about the project attributes, performance criteria, and construction process. Users of BIM tools point to the ability to visualize the final design along with the construction process as a beneficial feature of using BIM. Knowing the construction process in relationship to a facility’s design benefits both safety professionals when planning worker safety measures for a project and designers when creating a project’s design. Success in using BIM to enhance safety partly depends on the familiarity of project personnel with BIM tools and the extent to which the tools can be used to identify and eliminate safety hazards. In a separate, ongoing study, the authors investigated the connection between BIM and safety to document the opportunities, barriers, and impacts. Utilizing an on-line survey of project engineers who work for construction firms together with a comprehensive literature review, the study found those who use BIM feel that it aids in communication of project information and project delivery, both of which have been found to have positive impacts on construction site safety. Further, utilizing the survey results, the authors apply the binary logistic regression econometric framework to better understand the factors that lead to safety professionals believing that BIM increases safety in the work place. In addition, according to the survey results, a large percentage of the engineers who use BIM feel that ultimately it helps to eliminate safety hazards and improve worker safety. The study findings suggest that improvements in safety performance across the construction industry may be due in part to increased use of BIM in the construction industry.

  9. Scientific Approach for Optimising Performance, Health and Safety in High-Altitude Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Michael; Vogy, Joachim; Nolle-Gösser, Tanja

    2008-09-01

    The ESO coordinated study “Optimising Performance, Health and Safety in High-Altitude Observatories” is based on a psychological approach using a questionnaire for data collection and assessment of high-altitude effects. During 2007 and 2008, data from 28 staff and visitors involved in APEX and ALMA were collected and analysed and the first results of the study are summarised. While there is a lot of information about biomedical changes at high altitude, relatively few studies have focussed on psychological changes, for example with respect to performance of mental tasks, safety consciousness and emotions. Both, biomedical and psychological changes are relevant factors in occupational safety and health. The results of the questionnaire on safety, health and performance issues demonstrate that the working conditions at high altitude are less detrimental than expected.

  10. Operational safety performance indicator system at the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant - Experience with indicator aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandula, J.

    2001-01-01

    The operational safety performance indicators serve as an important tool of performance monitoring and management at the Dukovany NPP. A software-supported system has been developed, which has included: data collection, central data storage, graphic output production and periodical report generation. Analyses of performance indicator trends together with evaluation in respect of annually updated target values and acceptance criteria are used for operational safety reviews forming an integral part of continual self-assessment process. This contribution has been focused on experience obtained during development of the operational safety assessment model using indicator aggregation. It summarises problems that had to be paid specific attention in the development process. Thanks to their solution, the model has become a synoptic monitor and a useful tool for operational safety assessment. (author)

  11. Tracing Actual Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-08

    produce a full explanation. While related, this problem dif- fers from the problem of determining actual causes where the focus is on identifying...1987]. We prove that the decision problem for causal slices is DP1 - complete. DP1 is the class of computational problems that can be solved using an NP ...machine and a co- NP machine simultaneously. Based on this result, we further show that the decision problem for causal histories is in ΠP2 . Closely

  12. Vehicle safety performance improvements using a performance-based standards approach: four case studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available programme is to gain practical experience in the PBS approach and to quantify and evaluate the potential infrastructure preservation, safety and productivity benefits for road freight transport. The Smart Truck demonstration vehicles have been designed...

  13. Engineering Solutions to Enhance Traffic Safety Performance on Two-Lane Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving two-lane highway traffic safety conditions is of practical importance to the traffic system, which has attracted significant research attention within the last decade. Many cost-effective and proactive solutions such as low-cost treatments and roadway safety monitoring programs have been developed to enhance traffic safety performance under prevailing conditions. This study presents research perspectives achieved from the Highway Safety Enhancement Project (HSEP that assessed safety performance on two-lane highways in Beijing, China. Potential causal factors are identified based on proposed evaluation criteria, and primary countermeasures are developed against inferior driving conditions such as sharp curves, heavy gradients, continuous downgrades, poor sight distance, and poor clear zones. Six cost-effective engineering solutions were specifically implemented to improve two-lane highway safety conditions, including (1 traffic sign replacement, (2 repainting pavement markings, (3 roadside barrier installation, (4 intersection channelization, (5 drainage optimization, and (6 sight distance improvement. The effectiveness of these solutions was examined and evaluated based on Empirical Bayes (EB models. The results indicate that the proposed engineering solutions effectively improved traffic safety performance by significantly reducing crash occurrence risks and crash severities.

  14. Diagnosis of current state of the radiological safety system in the radiotherapy services of CCSS; Diagnostico del estado actual del sistema de seguridad radiologica en los servicios de radioterapia de la CCSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Carolina Masis, E-mail: ccalvoma@ccss.sa.cr [Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (ACCPR-SAPR/CCSS), San Jose (Costa Rica). Area de Control de Calidad y Proteccion Radiologica

    2013-07-01

    This article presents an analysis of evaluation reports issued by the Area of Control of Quality and Radiation Protection (ACCPR) of the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, unit responsible for monitoring and auditing the System of Institutional Radiation Safety of the Costa Rica. In addition, were conducted a series of interviews to the radiotherapy services and authorities of the services to determine the internal perception on the performance and suitability of these programs.The results of this research have allowed identifying an improvement in the level of compliments of the current legislation on protection and radiation safety in these services through the previous five years; and how internally there is a positive perception of the officials, confirming the suitability of Radiological Protection and Quality Control Programs local. As a result of the analysis of the information gathered, we propose a series of actions and recommendations, that will allow improvements in the System of Institutional Radiation Safety, as the implementation of evaluations type QUATRO and the improvement of the local training programs.

  15. Corrosion performance of Cr3C2-NiCr+0.2%Zr coated super alloys under actual medical waste incinerator environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Lalit; Mudgal, Deepa; Singh, Surendra; Prakash, Satya

    2018-03-01

    Incineration techniques are widely used to dispose of various types of waste which lead to formation of very corrosive environment. Such corrosive environment leads to the degradation of the alloys used in these areas. To obviate this problem, zirconium modified Cr3C2-(NiCr) coating powder has been deposited on three superalloys namely Superni 718, Superni 600 and Superco 605 using Detonation gun technique. Corrosion test was conducted in actual medical waste incinerator environment. The samples were hung inside the secondary chamber operated at 1050°C for 1000h under cyclic condition. Corrosion kinetics was monitored using the weight gain measurements and thickness loss. Corrosion products were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction technique. It was observed that coating is found to be successful in impeding the corrosion problem in superalloys.

  16. Performance of SPNDs used in control and safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, M.P.S.; Raj, Manish; Kumar, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Large sized reactor such as 540 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) requires continuous in core monitoring of local flux in order to provide effective control and protection. About 198 self powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) of the straight individually replaceable type are distributed in the reactor core. For purposes of reactor regulation, 42 prompt responding cobalt SPNDs called zone control detectors (ZCDs) are housed in vertical flux units (VFUs) and these are uniformly distributed in 14 power zones. The in core detectors used for spatial control by ZCCs do not accurately represent average zone power as they sense the flux over a small volume. Flux mapping system (FMS) comprising of 102 vanadium SPNDs in 26 VFUs, provide accurate measure of neutron flux, even though they have slow response to change in neutron flux levels. For reactor protection system-1 (RPS-1), 36 cobalt SPNDs are placed in VFUs and become part of core overpower protection system-1 (COPPS-1). Similarly, for RPS-2, 18 cobalt SPNDs are placed in horizontal flux units (HFUs) and become part of the COPPS-2. The present study discusses the performance of in core SPNDs used in TAPP-4 by comparing the measured fluxes with detailed simulations. The performances of SPNDs are evaluated at different power levels and several full power day of reactor operation. (author)

  17. SafetyBarrierManager, a software tool to perform risk analysis using ARAMIS's principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2017-01-01

    of the ARAMIS project, Risø National Laboratory started developing a tool that could implement these methodologies, leading to SafetyBarrierManager. The tool is based on the principles of “safety‐barrier diagrams”, which are very similar to “bowties”, with the possibility of performing quantitative analysis......The ARAMIS project resulted in a number of methodologies, dealing with among others: the development of standard fault trees and “bowties”; the identification and classification of safety barriers; and including the quality of safety management into the quantified risk assessment. After conclusion....... The tool allows constructing comprehensive fault trees, event trees and safety‐barrier diagrams. The tool implements the ARAMIS idea of a set of safety barrier types, to which a number of safety management issues can be linked. By rating the quality of these management issues, the operational probability...

  18. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  19. Effects of alcohol (BAC 0.5‰) and ecstasy (MDMA 100 mg) on simulated driving performance and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldstra, Janet L; Brookhuis, Karel A; de Waard, Dick; Molmans, Barbara H W; Verstraete, Alain G; Skopp, Gisela; Jantos, Ricarda

    2012-08-01

    An increasing number of fatal road-accidents have been reported in which ecstasy was found in the blood of drivers. Although, ecstasy is frequently found to have been used in combination with alcohol, studies on the acute effects of ecstasy co-administered with alcohol on driving performance are relatively rare. The present study was designed to establish the extent of driver impairment as a consequence of ecstasy or combined ecstasy and alcohol use as compared to driving under the influence of 0.3‰, 0.5‰ and 0.8‰ alcohol. Furthermore, subjective performance was also assessed. Alcohol and ecstasy mainly influenced automated driving performance such as lateral and speed control. However, small to no effects of the substances were found on more complex driving behaviour. Overall, variance within the different driving measures was high especially when participants were treated with 3.4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and alcohol. Furthermore, equivalence testing showed that combined use may lead to impaired driving for some, but not all, drivers. Participants rated their own performance to be slightly worse than normal in both studies. Since driving was actually seriously deteriorated, this was a falsely positive assessment of their condition. The dissociation between subjective perceptions and objective performance decrements are important notions for traffic safety since this may affect a driver's judgement of whether or not it is safe to drive. For example, an intoxicated individual might decide to drive because the feelings of alertness caused by MDMA cloud the impairing effects of other drugs such as alcohol, thereby creating a potentially serious risk for traffic safety.

  20. The spin project: safety and performance indicators in different time frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storck, R.; Becker, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Safety and performance indicators have been under discussion for many years in several countries and international organisations. If those indicators refer to the long term safety of the total disposal system, they are often called safety indicators. If they refer to the performance of subsystems or the total system from a more technical point of view, they are sometimes called performance indicators. The need for indicators other than dose rates derives e.g. from the long time frames involved in safety assessments of waste disposal systems and the increasing uncertainty in dose rate calculations over time due to uncertainty in evolution of the surface environment and of behaviour of man. Before introducing additional indicators into a safety case of a potential repository site, the applicability and usefulness of different indicators have to be investigated and evaluated. The systematic analysis and testing of safety and performance indicators for use in different time horizons after closure of the disposal facility is the task of the SPIN project. This is done by re-calculating four recent studies concerning repository projects in granite formations. (authors)

  1. Key Element Performance In Occupational Safety And Health Management System In Organization (A Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Salim Nuzaihan Aras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting an effective safety and health management system is crucial in order to reduce problem relating to accident and ill in management organizational. It is involve with multiple level of management and stakeholders who empower the organization to the management in handling the safety and health cases and issues in organizational. It is necessary to prepare a well knowledge about safety and health management systems and preparing the framework for setting a certain scale in measuring its performance in this area. The successful or failure of management does showing the capability of the organization in delivering the responsible to management levels [1]. The problem in safe work issues and practices cause by the management commitment and involvement that create improper safety program and procedures, and this crisis keep continuing till present [2]. This paper describes about key element of safety and health management system and measuring the performance in order to get an effective management system in organization that describes the process in achieving effectiveness in management. The literature review will be conducted through the data collection from research findings and defined the strong character of key element in which focusing on measuring performance. A guide on key element performance in occupational safety and health management system is specifically drawn to prepare for a future research.

  2. A study on periodic safety verification on MOV performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Du Eon; Park, Jong Ho; Han, Jae Seob; Kang, Hyeon Taek; Lee, Jeong Min; Song, Kyu Jo; Shin, Wan Sun; Lee, Taek Sang [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The objectives of this study, therefore, are to define the optimized valve diagnostic variances which early detect the abnormal conditions during the surveillance of the valve and consequently reduce the radiation exposure. The major direction of the development is to detect in advance the valve degradation by monitoring the motor current and power signals which can be obtained remotely at Motor Control Center (MCC). A series of valve operation experiments have been performed under several kinds of abnormal conditions by using the test apparatus which consists of a 3-inch gate valve, a motor(0.33 Hp, 460V, 0.8A, 1560rpm), actuator(SMB-000-2 type), some measuring devices(power analyzer, oscilloscope, data recorder and current transformer, AC current and voltage transducer) and connection cables.

  3. Occupational driver safety: conceptualising a leadership-based intervention to improve safe driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnam, Sharon; Lewis, Ioni; Watson, Barry

    2012-03-01

    Occupational driving crashes are the most common cause of death and injury in the workplace. The physical and psychological outcomes following injury are also very costly to organizations. Thus, safe driving poses a managerial challenge. Some research has attempted to address this issue through modifying discrete and often simple target behaviours (e.g., driver training programs). However, current intervention approaches in the occupational driving field generally consider the role of organizational factors in workplace safety. This study adopts the A-B-C framework to identify the contingencies associated with an effective exchange of safety information within the occupational driving context. Utilizing a sample of occupational drivers and their supervisors, this multi-level study examines the contingencies associated with the exchange of safety information within the supervisor-driver relationship. Safety values are identified as an antecedent of the safety information exchange, and the quality of the leader-member exchange relationship and safe driving performance is identified as the behavioural consequences. We also examine the function of role overload as a factor influencing the relationship between safety values and the safety information exchange. Hierarchical linear modelling found that role overload moderated the relationship between supervisors' perceptions of the value given to safety and the safety information exchange. A significant relationship was also found between the safety information exchange and the subsequent quality of the leader-member exchange relationship. Finally, the quality of the leader-member exchange relationship was found to be significantly associated with safe driving performance. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Una mirada actual de la cultura de seguridad del paciente Uma olhada atual da cultura da segurança do paciente A current description of the patient safety culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Janneth Gómez Ramírez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La seguridad del paciente es un tema vigente y de obligatoria documentación para todos los trabajadores del área de la salud. Este asunto se documentó a partir del año 2000 con la publicación del libro Errar es humano, del Instituto de Medicina de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias de los Estados Unidos de América, con el cual se produjo un profundo impacto mundial, pues concluyó que cada año ocurren entre 44.000 y 98.000 muertes como resultado de los errores en los procesos de atención en los hospitales de Norteamérica. Es por esto que la investigación actual examina tanto el conocimiento como la aplicación de los conceptos relacionados con la seguridad del paciente, determinando con particular interés las actitudes y percepciones de los trabajadores de la salud, que en últimas constituye la cultura de seguridad del paciente como determinante para una atención segura. Esta revisión del estado del arte analiza estudios previos en el ámbito de la cultura de seguridad del paciente y presenta las conclusiones y recomendaciones que a este respecto se pueden hacer.Asegurança do paciente é um tema vigente e de conhecimento obrigatória para todos os trabalhadores da área da saúde. Este tema foi documentado a partir do ano 2000, com a publicação do livro Errar es humano, do Instituto de Medicina da Academia Nacional de Ciências dos Estados Unidos da América, o que produz um impacto mundial profundo visto que concluiu que anualmente sobrevêm entre 44.000 e 98.000 mortes por causa de erros no processo de atenção nos hospitais de América do Norte. Por isso, a pesquisa atual examina tanto o conhecimento quanto a aplicação dos conceitos relacionados à segurança do paciente, determinando particularmente as atitudes e percepções dos trabalhadores da saúde, o que constitui a cultura de segurança do paciente como elemento determinante para uma atenção segura. Esta revisão do estado da arte analisa estudos prévios feitos no

  5. Actual global problems of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.

    1995-01-01

    Personal views on some actual problems in radiation protection are given in this paper. Among these problems are: evolution methodology used in radiation protection regulations; radiation protection, nuclear energy and safety, and new approaches to the process of the hazardous substances management. An interesting fact relating to the X-ray, radiation protection and Nikola Tesla are given also. (author)

  6. Comparing performance level estimation of safety functions in three distributed structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietikko, Marita; Malm, Timo; Saha, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    The capability of a machine control system to perform a safety function is expressed using performance levels (PL). This paper presents the results of a study where PL estimation was carried out for a safety function implemented using three different distributed control system structures. Challenges relating to the process of estimating PLs for safety related distributed machine control functions are highlighted. One of these examines the use of different cabling schemes in the implementation of a safety function and its effect on the PL evaluation. The safety function used as a generic example in PL calculations relates to a mobile work machine. It is a safety stop function where different technologies (electrical, hydraulic and pneumatic) can be utilized. It was detected that by replacing analogue cables with digital communication the system structure becomes simpler with less number of failing components, which can better the PL of the safety function. - Highlights: • Integration in distributed systems enables systems with less components. • It offers high reliability and diagnostic properties. • Analogue signals create uncertainty in signal reliability and difficult diagnostics

  7. Guidance on the implementation of a risk based safety performance monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, R.T.; Kuritzky, A.S.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1997-05-01

    The principal objective of the present study is to review and evaluate existing Performance Indicator (PI) monitoring programs, and to develop and demonstrate an overall PSA-based methodology and framework for the monitoring and use of risk-based PIs and SIs (Safety Indicator), that would enable: Identification of trends and patterns in safety performance at a specific plant and a population of plants; Assessment of the significance of the trends and patterns; Identification of precursors of accident sequences and safety reductions; Identification of the most critical functional areas of concern, especially as they relate to a defense-in-depth safety philosophy; Comparison of safety performance trends at a plant with those at comparable plants; Incorporation of the PIs and SIs into a risk- and performance-based decision process. To support the overall project objective, it is important that information needs and data collection procedures are clearly outlined. Of key significance in this regard is the premise that a performance monitoring system should not be burdened by an excessive number of low-level PIs that may have only a peripheral relationship to safety. Other supporting objectives of the study include: To identify and discuss other issues pertaining to the practical implementation of a safety performance monitoring system (outlining the databases and algorithms needed); and to demonstrate implementation of the preliminary guidance for monitoring and use of the selected set of PIs and SIs, within the proposed framework, via application to the operating history of a NPP having a PSA and readily available event data

  8. Study on safety performance evaluation system of nuclear engineering construction units based on AHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yulin; Sun Jian; Shi Xiaofan

    2012-01-01

    As a very effectual management mean, the performance management has extensively used by many companies of China for staff assessment. The author explored the establishment of the 'Safety Performance Evaluation System' by finding out the similarities in operation between a company and a team of nuclear power projects. Then the author analyzed the principles of the performance management and good practices and summarized safety management experiences. The weight of the system index by using AHP method was calculated in this article. (authors)

  9. Acute and chronic safety and efficacy of dose dependent creatine nitrate supplementation and exercise performance

    OpenAIRE

    Galvan, Elfego; Walker, Dillon K.; Simbo, Sunday Y.; Dalton, Ryan; Levers, Kyle; O?Connor, Abigail; Goodenough, Chelsea; Barringer, Nicholas D.; Greenwood, Mike; Rasmussen, Christopher; Smith, Stephen B.; Riechman, Steven E.; Fluckey, James D.; Murano, Peter S.; Earnest, Conrad P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Creatine monohydrate (CrM) and nitrate are popular supplements for improving exercise performance; yet have not been investigated in combination. We performed two studies to determine the safety and exercise performance-characteristics of creatine nitrate (CrN) supplementation. Methods Study 1 participants (N?=?13) ingested 1.5?g CrN (CrN-Low), 3?g CrN (CrN-High), 5?g CrM or a placebo in a randomized, crossover study (7d washout) to determine supplement safety (hepatorenal and musc...

  10. Experience of Tecnatom in Developing a Strong Leadership for Safety and Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, F.; Villadóniga, J. I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents experience and insights of Tecnatom in the support of internal and external clients to develop a strong Leadership for Safety. Several cases are presented briefly: (a) The leadership and culture change activities for a utility, a radwaste company, and for Tecnatom itself. One important characteristic of the work performed is the detailed consideration of the underlying organizational culture that underpins the safety culture. Measurable improvements have been achieved and some of the key insights are shared in this paper. (b) The development and implementation of a leadership model with 17 competencies, including safety explicitly. One benefit of this model is that allows to perform a quantitative assessment of leadership effectiveness, something vital to be able to ensure that leadership development actions are truly supporting safety. The model uses an approach to development oriented to strengths and the use of companion competencies to further develop leadership. Moreover it aims to produce significant improvements on safety but also on performance, since both are not competing goals when the proper leadership model is selected. The training material prepared was shortlisted in the 2014 Nuclear Training Awards. (c) The design and implementation of a training development program on Safety Culture, and required competencies of Leadership, for Top Managers of the nuclear industry, as part of the project NUSHARE of the European Commission’s 7th research framework program. The program is sensible to the reduced time availability of Top Managers and uses a combination of learning approaches (webinars, micro-elearnings, web meetings) that provide higher flexibility for the learner, but complemented with other proven methods (group dialog, journaling, mentoring, etc.) to ensure that the program is effective. All these experiences reveal that to improve the organizational Safety Culture we need to enhance Leadership for Safety and Performance

  11. NAVFAC Safety performance and the use of best practices to reduce lost workhours and accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, James Treacy.

    1998-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document This thesis analyzes the safety performance of several U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) projects as they compare to the construction industry as a whole and to the Construction Industry Institute (CII) Member companies. Safety success on a construction project is measured by examining the Lost Workday Case Incident Rate (LWCIR), Recordable Incident Rate (RIR), and the Fatality Incident Rate (FIR). This thesis will endeavor to...

  12. Impact of changed fuel performances on safety barrier effectiveness at normal operation of NPP with WWER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhurbenko, A. V.; Semchenkov, Y. M.; Slavyagin, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of adopted safety barriers against propagation of fission product released from WWER core of active power plants. Relationship between system and equipment performances and safety barriers is demonstrated. The fundamental principles of methodological approach to the operational limit determination based on the assessment of iodine-131 specific activity in the primary circuit are discussed. Problems of substantiating the operational limit for primary coolant activity are analyzed for conditions of growing burnup (Authors)

  13. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA. 165.1319 Section 165.1319 Navigation and Navigable... Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1319 Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance... Peninsula; thence northerly along the shore of Mercer Island to the point of origin. [Datum: NAD 1983] (c...

  14. Evaluation of safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends in a Cessna Citation II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to being used in aviation, alternative fuels have to be tested thoroughly to ensure safe operation. At Delft University of Technology, a test programme was performed to evaluate the safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends. During test preparations, compatibility of the

  15. Challenges in Performance of Food Safety Management Systems: A Case of Fish Processing Companies in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kussaga, J.B.; Luning, P.A.; Tiisekwa, B.P.M.; Jacxsens, L.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides insight for food safety (FS) performance in light of the current performance of core FS management system (FSMS) activities and context riskiness of these systems to identify the opportunities for improvement of the FSMS. A FSMS diagnostic instrument was applied to assess the

  16. The actual technological progress of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florescu, Gheorghe; Popa, Adrian; Panaitescu, Valeriu

    2010-01-01

    The actual nuclear R and D issues require new technologies and continuous progress in order to find adequate and effective solutions in sustained and increasing energy demand. The current tendency in energy consumption and occurring of large consumers, especially from Asian countries, imposes finding new means for energy clean, large scale and sustained production. NPPs reliability and availability were permanently monitored and improved; in the mean time the safety of the nuclear energy production was under surveillance. Corresponding development of the new technologies and discovery of improved materials and adequate technological processes offers the possibilities for appropriate implementation and use of them in the NPPs systems configuration and functioning/operation. The modern technologies and scientific discoveries, also the international cooperation, offer the opportunities to brake the actual barriers in order to cumulate and use advanced energy production processes in finding new energy sources and to build improved, reliable and safety power plants. The monitoring systems, intelligent sensors and intelligent SSCs, nanotechnologies and and modern and intelligent materials constitute the main reasons in improvement of the NPPs systems configuration and processes. The paper presents: - The state of the art in the level of actual and useful technologies for nuclear power systems development; - The actual technological limits that need to be over passed for NPPs systems improvements; - The main systems that need improvement and reconfiguration for actual NPPs development and increase in efficient operation, appropriate availability and total safety; - The actual energy production issues; - The key arguments in sustaining the R and D new NPPs systems development; - Future trends in NPPs development; - The limitations in industrial processes knowledge and use. Appropriate R and D in the field of NPPs systems has a specific characteristic that is highlighted in

  17. Analysis on Occupants’ Satisfaction for Safety Performance Assessment in Low Cost Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husin Husrul Nizam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery performance of the low cost housing is questioned since the occupants are prone towards safety hazards in the housing complex, such as structural instability and falling building fragments. Without defining the occupants’ requirements for the development of low cost housing, the prevailing safety factors are hard to be determined. This paper explores the rationale of safety performance assessment in the low cost housing by considering the occupants’ participation to achieve a better safety provision during occupancy period. Questionnaire survey was distributed to 380 occupants of the low cost housing in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia. The result shows that 80.8% of the respondents had expressed their dissatisfaction with the safety performance of the lift. By referring to the mode of ranking level, the most significant aspect rated by the respondents is Building Safety Features, with 51.6% respondents. The attained aspects can be fundamental parameters which can be considered in the future development of low cost housing.

  18. Transient performance analysis of pressurized safety injection tank with a partition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Functional performance of safety injection tanks with a partition is evaluated. • Effects of key design parameters are scrutinized. • Distinctive features of the flow in multi-unit safety injection tanks are explored. - Abstract: A parametric study has been performed to evaluate the functional performance of a pressurized multi-unit safety injection tank, which would be considered as one of the candidates for a passive safety injection system in a nuclear power plant. The influences of key design parameters including the orifice size, initial gas fraction, and resistance coefficients and operating condition on the injection flow rate are scrutinized with a discussion of the relevant flow features such as the choked flow of gas through an orifice and two interconnected regions of differing gaseous pressure. The obtained results indicate that a multi-unit safety injection tank can passively control the injection flow rate and provide a stable safety injection over a relatively long period even in the case of drastic depressurization of a reactor coolant system

  19. Current approaches to performance analysis in team sports. [Enfoques actuales para el análisis de rendimiento en deportes de equipo].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Gómez-Ruano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance analysis in sport is considered a research area that has grown rapidly in the last two decades (O’Donoghue, 2014. One of the most important reasons of this fact is the interest of sport stakeholders (i.e., coaches, players, managers, fans and performance analysist regarding to improve the training processes and the management and control of competition (O’Donoghue, 2014; O’Donoghue, Holmes, & Robinson, 2017. Accordingly, performance analysis has evolved including different topics and issues to be studied such as: critical moments and perturbations in sport, coaches’ behaviours, performance indicators in sport, injuries incidence and physical analysis, movement analysis during competitions, reliability and validity of sport behaviours, analysis of technique and tactics in sport, normative profilings, analysis of effectiveness of performance analysis or the analysis of referees’ performance (O’Donoghue, 2014.

  20. Comparison between design and actual energy performance of a HVAC-ground coupled heat pump system in cooling and heating operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, T.; Quilis, S. [Energesis Ingenieria S.L., Ciudad Politecnica de la Innovacion, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montero, A. [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Urchueguia, J.F. [Instituto Universitario de Matematica Pura y Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This work compares the experimental results obtained for the energy performance study of a ground coupled heat pump system with the design values predicted by means of standard methodology. The system energy performance of a monitored ground coupled heat pump system is calculated using the instantaneous measurements of temperature, flow and power consumption and these values are compared with the numerical predictions. These predictions are performed with the TRNSYS software tool following standard procedures taking the experimental thermal loads as input values. The main result of this work is that simulation results solely based on nominal heat pump capacities and performances overestimate the measured overall energy performance by a percentage between 15% and 20%. A sensitivity analysis of the simulation results to changes in percentage of its input parameters showed that the heat pump nominal coefficient of performance is the parameter that mostly affects the energy performance predictions. This analysis supports the idea that the discrepancies between experimental results and simulation outputs for this ground coupled system are mainly due to heat pump performance degradation for being used at partial load. An estimation of the impact of this effect in energy performance predictions reduces the discrepancies to values around 5%. (author)

  1. Evaluation of operating experience for early recognition of deteriorating safety performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmerhagen, I.A.; Berg, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most difficult challenges facing nuclear power plants is to recognize the early signs of degrading safety performance before regulatory requirements are imposed or serious incidents or accidents occur. Today, the nuclear industry is striving for collecting more information on occurrences that could improve the operational safety performance. To achieve this, the reporting threshold has been lowered from incidents to anomalies with minor or no impact to safety. Industry experience (also outside nuclear industry) has shown that these are typical issues which should be considered when looking for such early warning signs. Therefore, it is important that nuclear power plant operators have the capability to trend, analyse and recognize early warning signs of deteriorating performance. It is necessary that plant operators are sensitive to these warning signs which may not be immediately evident. Reviewing operating experience is one of the main tasks for plant operators in their daily activities. Therefore, self assessment should be at the centre of any operational safety performance programme. One way of applying a self assessment program is through the following four basic elements: operational data, events, safety basis, and related experience. This approach will be described in the paper in more details. (authors)

  2. Performance Test Results of Safety I and C Systems of SMART MMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Yong Suk; Keum, Jong Yong; Jeong, Kwang Il; Lee, Joon Ku; Lee, Sang Seok; Kim, Kwan Woong

    2011-01-01

    KAERI has developed SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), a 330MWt integral pressurized light water reactor that integrates four reactor coolant pumps, one pressurizer, eight steam generators, and one reactor core into a reactor vessel, since 1997 and submitted a SSAR (Standard design Safety Analysis Report) to Korea institute of nuclear safety (KINS) at the end of 2010 for the purpose of achieving the standard design approval (SDA) by the end of 2011. SMART MMIS has been designed with fully digitalized systems. Non-safety instrumentation and control (I and C) systems are designed based on the commercial distributed control systems. The safety I and C systems are designed using a new platform that was developed and validated by KAERI. Safety I and C systems are modularized using the platform. In the protection systems (PSs), datalinks are used to transmit data in a one-way direction in order to meet the independency requirement. In the engineered safety features-component control system (ESF-CCS), network switch devices (NSDs) are used to connect the group and loop controllers. The NSD was also newly developed and validated by KAERI. After validating the platform and NSD, a test facility was developed using the platform and NSDs to validate the performance of safety I and C systems. This paper presents the development and test results from the test facility

  3. Engaging Employees: The Importance of High-Performance Work Systems for Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegaray, Jason M; Thomas, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    To develop and test survey items that measure high-performance work systems (HPWSs), report psychometric characteristics of the survey, and examine associations between HPWSs and teamwork culture, safety culture, and overall patient safety grade. We reviewed literature to determine dimensions of HPWSs and then asked executives to tell us which dimensions they viewed as most important for safety and quality. We then created a HPWSs survey to measure the most important HPWSs dimensions. We administered an anonymous, electronic survey to employees with direct patient care working at a large hospital system in the Southern United States and looked for linkages between HPWSs, culture, and outcomes. Similarities existed for the HPWS practices viewed as most important by previous researchers and health-care executives. The HPWSs survey was found to be reliable, distinct from safety culture and teamwork culture based on a confirmatory factor analysis, and was the strongest predictor of the extent to which employees felt comfortable speaking up about patient safety problems as well as patient safety grade. We used information from a literature review and executive input to create a reliable and valid HPWSs survey. Future research needs to examine whether HPWSs is associated with additional safety and quality outcomes.

  4. Study on the operational safety performance indicator of nuclear power plants in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shirong

    2005-01-01

    The operational Safety Performance Indicator system (SPI) has been more and more regarded recently for their clear and effective characteristic in safety assessment for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). A large developing plan for NPPs construction is being discussed and considered in P.R. China. As one of important nuclear country, China expects to ensure the normal operation of NPPs and improve the safety level. National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA), National Nuclear Regulatory Agency of China, has put high attention on safety and SPI area, and many endeavours and attempts have been done or being carried out for an establishment of SPI system in China. NNSA intends to build an integrated SPI system to monitor all of the NPPs operation in China, based on the SPI system currently used in the world. NNSA believes that the SPI system will help to more effectively enforce the function of surveillance and management. The paper will introduces the status of study on the operational safety performance indicator of Nuclear Power Plants in China. (author)

  5. Validation of risk-based performance indicators: Safety system function trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccio, J.L.; Vesely, W.E.; Azarm, M.A.; Carbonaro, J.F.; Usher, J.L.; Oden, N.

    1989-10-01

    This report describes and applies a process for validating a model for a risk-based performance indicator. The purpose of the risk-based indicator evaluated, Safety System Function Trend (SSFT), is to monitor the unavailability of selected safety systems. Interim validation of this indicator is based on three aspects: a theoretical basis, an empirical basis relying on statistical correlations, and case studies employing 25 plant years of historical data collected from five plants for a number of safety systems. Results using the SSFT model are encouraging. Application of the model through case studies dealing with the performance of important safety systems shows that statistically significant trends in, and levels of, system performance can be discerned which thereby can provide leading indications of degrading and/or improving performances. Methods for developing system performance tolerance bounds are discussed and applied to aid in the interpretation of the trends in this risk-based indicator. Some additional characteristics of the SSFT indicator, learned through the data-collection efforts and subsequent data analyses performed, are also discussed. The usefulness and practicality of other data sources for validation purposes are explored. Further validation of this indicator is noted. Also, additional research is underway in developing a more detailed estimator of system unavailability. 9 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  6. The performance regulatory approach in quality assurance: Its application to safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajaroff, Pedro M.

    2000-01-01

    In early 1991, the IAEA assembled an Advisory Group on the Comprehensive Revision of the Code and the Safety on Quality Assurance of the NUSS Programme. The Group was made up by specialists from a number of countries and from ISO, FORATOM, the EC and the IAEA itself, and its objective was completed in June 1995. This paper is aimed at describing the conceptual contents of the final draft of the revision 2 of the 50-C-QA Code 'Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and other Nuclear Facilities' (hereinafter, the Code) which is essentially based on performance. Although the performance regulatory approach is not new in Argentina and in other countries, what is indeed novel is applying performance based QA. In such a way the Code will contribute to preventing both QA misinterpretations (i.e., a formalistic regulatory requirement) and the execution of non-effective work without attaining the needed quality level (what may be seen as a pathological deviation of QA). The Code contains ten basic requirements to be adopted when QA programmes are established and implemented in nuclear power plants. The goal is improving safety through an improvement in the methods applied for attaining quality. In line with the current developments in quality management techniques, priority is given to effectiveness of the QA programme. All the involved individuals (that is those in the managerial level, those performing the work and those assessing the work performed) must contribute to quality in a co-ordinated manner. The revised Safety Guides are being introduced, standing out those non existing before. Interrelation between quality assurance, safety culture and quality culture is to be noted. Besides QA for safety-related software mentioned as an issue to be considered by the IAEA. (author)

  7. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training, safety incentivisation, and vehicle roadworthy modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A van Niekerk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa (SA, the school transport industry provides millions of children with a means of travelling to and from school. The industry has, however, been reported to be plagued by widespread safety concerns. The consequent road traffic incidents have often been attributed to driver factors, including driving in excess of legal speeds or at inappropriate speeds; driving while under the influence of alcohol, while sleepy or fatigued; or driving without using protective equipment for vehicle occupants. There are currently very few SA interventions that specifically target this important industry role-player. The Safe Travel to School Programme was recently implemented by a national child safety agency, with a focus on driver road safety awareness, defensive driver training, eye- testing, vehicle roadworthy inspections with selected upgrades, incentives for safe performance, and implementation of a vehicle telematics tracking system with regular, individual driving behaviour information updates. This quasi-experimental study offers an evaluation of the initial impact on safety performance of this telematics-based driver and vehicle safety intervention in terms of speeding, acceleration, braking, cornering, and time-of-day driving, and compares the school transport driver performance with that of general motorists. Despite concerns that some school transport vehicles are used for multiple purposes outside of school transport duties, at night, and for longer distances, overall these vehicles recorded lower percentages of speeding, lower harsh braking, and lower average harsh cornering and acceleration than general drivers.

  8. Numerical and experimental investigation on the performance of safety valves operating with different gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossena, V.; Marinoni, F.; Bassi, F.; Franchina, N.; Savini, M.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the effect related to the expansion of different gases throughout safety relief valves is carried out both numerically and experimentally. The considered gases are air, argon and ethylene, representative of a wide range of specific heat ratios. A first experimental campaign performed in air and argon on a safety relief valve characterized by connection 1/2″ × 1″ and orifice designation D (diameter 10 mm) according to API 526 showed significant reduction both in disc lift and in exhausted mass flow rate, at the nominal overpressure, when operating with argon. In order to gain a deeper insight into the physics involved and to evaluate the valve behavior with other gases, an extensive numerical testing has been performed by means of an accurate CFD code based on discontinuous Galerkin formulation. Numerical results are at first validated against measurements obtained in air on a 2″ J 3″ safety relief valve proving a remarkable accuracy of the computational method. Then the validated solver is applied on the same computational grid using argon and ethylene as working fluids. The three gases are considered as thermally perfect gases. A critical discussion based on the numerical results allows to clarify the fluid dynamic and physical reasons causing the observed trends both in the opening force and in the discharge coefficient. The main conclusion is that particular care must be taken when a safety valve operates with a fluid characterized by a specific heat ratio greater than the one of the gas used during type testing. -- Highlights: ► Effects of different gases on the discharge capacity and operational characteristics on safety relief valves. ► Influence of different specific heat ratio on safety relief valves discharge coefficient. ► Skilful application of Discontinuous Galerkin CFD solver to safety valves performances prediction

  9. Exploring the Effects of Multimedia Learning on Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived and Actual Learning Performance: The Use of Embedded Summarized Texts in Educational Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Leon Yufeng; Yamanaka, Akio

    2013-01-01

    In light of the increased usage of instructional media for teaching and learning, the design of these media as aids to convey the content for learning can be crucial for effective learning outcomes. In this vein, the literature has given attention to how concurrent on-screen text can be designed using these media to enhance learning performance.…

  10. Assessment of softball bat safety performance using mid-compression polyurethane softballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Mark

    2004-07-01

    There is currently much debate about the safety of the sport of softball. Batted-ball speed and average pitcher reaction time are factors often used to determine safe performance. Batted-ball speed is shown to be the most important factor to consider when determining safe play. Average pitcher reaction time is explained and directly correlated to batted-ball speed. Eleven aluminum multi-wall, three aluminum single-wall and two composite softball bats were tested with mid-compression polyurethane softballs averaging 1721+/-62 N/6.4 mm to represent the relative bat-ball performance for the sport of slowpitch softball. Nine men and six women were chosen for this study out of a test group of over three hundred slowpitch softball players. On average, aluminum bat performance results were within the recommended safety limits established by the national softball associations. However, when composite bats were used, their performance results exceeded the recommended safety limits which can pose a significant safety risk. Using aluminum softball bats, batted-ball speeds ranged from 80 to 145km x h(-1) Using composite softball bats, batted-ball speeds ranged from 146 to 161 km x h(-1). The scientific relevance of this study is to provide performance information that can lead to injury prevention in the sport of softball.

  11. Key performance outcomes of patient safety curricula: root cause analysis, failure mode and effects analysis, and structured communications skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, William E

    2011-10-10

    As colleges and schools of pharmacy develop core courses related to patient safety, course-level outcomes will need to include both knowledge and performance measures. Three key performance outcomes for patient safety coursework, measured at the course level, are the ability to perform root cause analyses and healthcare failure mode effects analyses, and the ability to generate effective safety communications using structured formats such as the Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation (SBAR) situational briefing model. Each of these skills is widely used in patient safety work and competence in their use is essential for a pharmacist's ability to contribute as a member of a patient safety team.

  12. Safety and performance indicators for repositories in salt and clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Jens; Ruebel, Andre; Noseck, Ulrich; Becker, Dirk

    2008-07-01

    The GRS (Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit) study aims to the identification of suitable indicators for repositories in salt and clay formation. It is not intended to compare the two formations with respect to the safe disposal of radioactive waste. A first set of safety and performance indicators for both host rocks has been derived on the basis of results of the SPIN project. Reference values for the safety indicators have been determined. The suitability of the indicators and their significance for different time frames Is demonstrated by means of deterministic model calculations and external parameter variations of previous studies. The safety indicators considered in the report are the effective dose rate (Sv/a), the radiotoxicity concentration in the biosphere water (Sv/m 3 ) and the radiotoxicity flux from the geosphere (overlying rock) (Sv/a). The performance indicators considered in the study are the radiotoxicity inventory in different compartments (S), radiotoxicity fluxes from compartments and the integrated radiotoxicity fluxes from compartments (Sv).

  13. Health, safety and environmental unit performance assessment model under uncertainty (case study: steel industry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaii, Azin; Omidvari, Manouchehr; Lotfi, Farhad Hosseinzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Performance assessment is a critical objective of management systems. As a result of the non-deterministic and qualitative nature of performance indicators, assessments are likely to be influenced by evaluators' personal judgments. Furthermore, in developing countries, performance assessments by the Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) department are based solely on the number of accidents. A questionnaire is used to conduct the study in one of the largest steel production companies in Iran. With respect to health, safety, and environment, the results revealed that control of disease, fire hazards, and air pollution are of paramount importance, with coefficients of 0.057, 0.062, and 0.054, respectively. Furthermore, health and environment indicators were found to be the most common causes of poor performance. Finally, it was shown that HSE management systems can affect the majority of performance safety indicators in the short run, whereas health and environment indicators require longer periods of time. The objective of this study is to present an HSE-MS unit performance assessment model in steel industries. Moreover, we seek to answer the following question: what are the factors that affect HSE unit system in the steel industry? Also, for each factor, the extent of impact on the performance of the HSE management system in the organization is determined.

  14. Application of feedback system in optimizing safety performance of "6"0Co radiation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shishi; Wang Zegang; Ge Cailin; Ma Fei; Gong Zheng

    2001-01-01

    To ensure "6"0Co apparatus runs safely applying the basic principle of cybernetics to optimizing safety performance was studied. Through several decades of practice the cybernetic system is shown to be safe and effective, and it will be an example for small and middle "6"0Co radiation apparatus to rebuild the cybernetic system. (authors)

  15. Toward a sustainable cement industry in 2020 : improvement of the environmental, health & safety performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    This background document concentrates on technical and managerial aspects of Environmental, Health & Safety Performance (EHS) control in the cement industry. It gives an overview of options for improvement toward a sustainable cement production in 2020. Energy consumption and use of alternative

  16. Designing sustainable concrete on the basis of equivalence performance: assessment criteria for safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.M.; Bigaj, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    In order not to hampers innovations, the Dutch National Building Regulations (NBR), allow an alternative approval route for new building materials. It is based on the principles of equivalent performance which states that if the solution proposed can be proven to have the same level of safety,

  17. Exposure data and risk indicators for safety performance assessment in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Bijleveld, F.D. & Cardoso, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk indicators and exposure data for safety performance assessment in Europe, in terms of data availability, collection methodologies and use. More specifically, the concepts of exposure and risk are explored, as well as the

  18. Performance and Safety Tests on Samsung 18650 Li-ion Cells with Two Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Jeevarajan, Judith; Rehm, Raymond; Bragg, Bobby; Zhang, Wenlin

    2001-01-01

    In order to meet the applications for Space Shuttle in the future, Samsung 18650 cylindrical Li-ion cells with two different capacities have been evaluated. The capacities are 1800 mAh, and 2000 mAh. The studies focused on the performance and safety tests of the cells.

  19. Surprising Incentive: An Instrument for Promoting Safety Performance of Construction Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhradin Ghasemi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study proved that the surprising incentive would improve the employees' safety performance just in the short term because the surprising value of the incentives dwindle over time. For this reason and to maintain the surprising value of the incentive system, the amount and types of incentives need to be evaluated and modified annually or biannually.

  20. Barrier and system performances within a safety case: their functioning and evolution with time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, A.; Voinis, S.; Fillion, E.; Keller, S.; Lalieux, Ph.; Nachmilner, L.; Nys, V.; Rodriguez, J.; Sevougian, D.; Wollrath, J.

    2002-01-01

    The following six questions were used as the basis for the discussions in a Working Group: - What is the role of each barrier as a function of time or in the different time frames? What is its contribution to the overall system performance or safety as a function of time? - Which are the main uncertainties on the performance of barriers in the timescales? To what extent should we enhance the robustness of barriers because of the uncertainties of some component behaviour with time? - What is the requested or required performance versus the expected realistic or conservative behaviour with time? How are these safety margins used as arguments in a safety case? - What is the issue associated with the geosphere stability for different geological systems? - How are barriers and system performances, as a function of time, evaluated (presented and communicated) in a safety case? - What kind of measures are used for siting, designing and optimising robust barriers corresponding to situations that can vary with time? Are human actions considered to be relevant? (authors)

  1. Drug Safety Monitoring in Children: Performance of Signal Detection Algorithms and Impact of Age Stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.U. Osokogu (Osemeke); C. Dodd (Caitlin); A.C. Pacurariu (Alexandra C.); F. Kaguelidou (Florentia); D.M. Weibel (Daniel); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Spontaneous reports of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can be analyzed to yield additional drug safety evidence for the pediatric population. Signal detection algorithms (SDAs) are required for these analyses; however, the performance of SDAs in the pediatric

  2. Combined leadless pacemaker and subcutaneous implantable defibrillator therapy: feasibility, safety, and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong, F. V. Y.; Brouwer, T. F.; Smeding, L.; Kooiman, K. M.; de Groot, J. R.; Ligon, D.; Sanghera, R.; Schalij, M. J.; Wilde, A. A. M.; Knops, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) and leadless pacemaker (LP) are evolving technologies that do not require intracardiac leads. However, interactions between these two devices are unexplored. We investigated the feasibility, safety, and performance of combined LP and

  3. Tools for the performance assessment and improvement of food safety management systems ; review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Rovira, J.; Oses Gomez, S.; Kousta, M.; Drosinos, E.H.; Jasson, V.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2011-01-01

    Food business operators are challenged to combine requirements from different stakeholders (e.g. government, retailers) into a company specific Food Safety Management System (FSMS). Tools to diagnose the performance of an implemented FSMS (diagnostic tools), tools to help a selection process

  4. Safety performance assessment of food industry facilities using a fuzzy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Barreca

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The latest EU policies focus on the issue of food safety with a view to assuring adequate and standard quality levels for the food produced and/or consumed within the EC. To that purpose, the environment where agricultural products are manufactured and processed plays a crucial role in achieving food hygiene. As a consequence, it is of the utmost importance to adopt proper building solutions which meet health and hygiene requirements and to use suitable tools to measure the levels achieved. Similarly, it is necessary to verify and evaluate the level of safety and welfare of the workers in their working environment. The safety of the workers has not only an ethical and social value but also an economic implication, since possible accidents or environmental stressors are the major causes of the lower efficiency and productivity of workers. However, the technical solutions adopted in the manufacturing facilities in order to achieve adequate levels of safety and welfare of the workers are not always consistent with the solutions aimed at achieving adequate levels of food hygiene, even if both of them comply with sectoral rules which are often unconnected with each other. Therefore, it is fundamental to design suitable models of analysis that allow assessing buildings as a whole, taking into account both health and hygiene safety as well as the safety and welfare of workers. Hence, this paper proposes an evaluation model that, based on an established study protocol and on the application of a fuzzy logic procedure, allows evaluating the global safety level of a building. The proposed model allows to obtain a synthetic and global value of the building performance in terms of food hygiene and safety and welfare of the workers as well as to highlight possible weaknesses. Though the model may be applied in either the design or the operational phase of a building, this paper focuses on its application to certain buildings already operational in a specific

  5. Contribution of materials investigations and operating experience of reactor vessel internals to PWRs' safety, performance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, E.; Monteil, N.; Jardin, N.; Doll, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel Internals (RVI) include all the components inside the pressure vessel, except the nuclear fuel, the rod cluster assemblies and the instrumentation. The RVI consist of bolted and welded structures that are divided into two sub-assemblies: the upper internals which are removed at every refueling outage and the lower internals which are systematically removed for inspection at every 10-year outage. The main functions of the RVI are to position the core, to support it, and to provide a coolant flow by channeling the fluid. Moreover, the lower internals contribute to a neutron protection of the reactor pressure vessel by absorbing most of the neutron flux from the core. Depending on their location and material composition, the RVI components can face different ageing phenomena, that are actual or potential (such as wear, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking, hardening and loss of ductility due to neutron irradiation, irradiation creep and irradiation swelling). EDF has developed a strategy for managing ageing and demonstrating the capacity of the RVI to perform their design functions over 40 years of operation. This overall approach is periodically revisited to take into account the most recent knowledge obtained from the following main topics: Safety Analyses, Research-Development programs, In-Service Inspection (ISI) results, Maintenance programs and Metallurgical Examinations. Based on continuous improvements in those fields, the goal of this paper is to present the way that materials investigations and operating experience obtained on RVI are managed by EDF to improve RVI safety, performance and reliability. It is shown that a perspective of 60 years of operation of RVI components is supported by large Research-Development efforts combined with field experience. (authors)

  6. A Microbial Assessment Scheme to measure microbial performance of Food Safety Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Kussaga, J; Luning, P A; Van der Spiegel, M; Devlieghere, F; Uyttendaele, M

    2009-08-31

    A Food Safety Management System (FSMS) implemented in a food processing industry is based on Good Hygienic Practices (GHP), Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles and should address both food safety control and assurance activities in order to guarantee food safety. One of the most emerging challenges is to assess the performance of a present FSMS. The objective of this work is to explain the development of a Microbial Assessment Scheme (MAS) as a tool for a systematic analysis of microbial counts in order to assess the current microbial performance of an implemented FSMS. It is assumed that low numbers of microorganisms and small variations in microbial counts indicate an effective FSMS. The MAS is a procedure that defines the identification of critical sampling locations, the selection of microbiological parameters, the assessment of sampling frequency, the selection of sampling method and method of analysis, and finally data processing and interpretation. Based on the MAS assessment, microbial safety level profiles can be derived, indicating which microorganisms and to what extent they contribute to food safety for a specific food processing company. The MAS concept is illustrated with a case study in the pork processing industry, where ready-to-eat meat products are produced (cured, cooked ham and cured, dried bacon).

  7. Technical difficulties and challenges for performing safety analysis on digital I and C systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yih, Swu

    1996-01-01

    Performing safety analysis on digital I and C systems is an important task for nuclear safety analysts. The analysis results can not only confirm that the system is well-developed but also provide crucial evidence for licensing process. However, currently both I and C developers and regulators have difficulties in evaluating the safety of digital I and C systems. To investigate this problem, this paper propose a frame-based model to analyze the working and failure mechanisms of software and its interaction with the environment. Valid isomorphic relationship between the logical (software) and the physical (hardware environment) frame is identified as a major factor that determines the safe behavior of the software. The failures that may potentially cause the violation of isomorphic relations are also discussed. To perform safety analysis on digital I and C systems, analysts need to predict the effects incurred by such failures. However, due to lack of continuity, regularity, integrity, and high complexity of software structure, software does not have a stable and predictable pattern of behavior, which in turn makes the trustworthiness of results of software safety analysis susceptible. Our model can explain many troublesome events experienced by computer controlled systems. Implications and possible directions for improvement are also discussed. (author)

  8. Self-employed individuals performing different types of work have different occupational safety and health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsun; Han, Boyoung; Kim, Yangho

    2018-05-22

    We assessed the occupational safety and health (OSH) issues of self-employed individuals in Korea. The working conditions and OSH issues in three groups were analyzed using the Korean Working Conditions Survey of 2014. Among self-employed individuals, "Physical work" was more common among males, whereas "Emotional work" was more common among females. Self-employed individuals performing "Mental work" had more education, higher incomes, and the lowest exposure to physical/chemical and ergonomic hazards in the workplace. In contrast, those performing "Physical work" were older, had less education, lower incomes, greater exposure to physical/chemical and ergonomic hazards in the workplace, and more health problems. Individuals performing "Physical work" were most vulnerable to OSH problems. The self-employed are a heterogeneous group of individuals. We suggest development of specific strategies that focus on workers performing "Physical work" to improve the health and safety of self-employed workers in Korea. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Relationship between Management Team Size and Team Performance: The Mediating Effect of Team Psychological Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Midthaug, Mari Bratterud

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore the relationship between team size (number of team members) and team performance in management teams. There is a lack of empirical research exploring the potential links between these two elements within management teams. Further, little attention has been paid to potential mechanisms affecting this relationship. In this study, team psychological safety has been examined as a potential mediator in the size-performance relationship, hypothesizing that t...

  10. Road safety performance indicators : country profiles. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 3, Deliverable 3.7b.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riguelle, F. Eksler, V. Holló, P. Morsink, P. Gent, A. van Gitelman, V. Assum, T. & Rackliff, L.

    2009-01-01

    The EC 6th Framework Integrated Project SafetyNet aims to accelerate the availability and use of harmonised road safety data in Europe. Having such data available throughout Europe would be tremendously beneficial for road safety, since it would enable the evaluation of road safety measures, the

  11. Exploring the state of health and safety management system performance measurement in mining organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Emily Joy; Yorio, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Complex arguments continue to be articulated regarding the theoretical foundation of health and safety management system (HSMS) performance measurement. The culmination of these efforts has begun to enhance a collective understanding. Despite this enhanced theoretical understanding, however, there are still continuing debates and little consensus. The goal of the current research effort was to empirically explore common methods to HSMS performance measurement in mining organizations. The purpose was to determine if value and insight could be added into the ongoing approaches of the best ways to engage in health and safety performance measurement. Nine site-level health and safety management professionals were provided with 133 practices corresponding to 20 HSMS elements, each fitting into the plan, do, check, act phases common to most HSMS. Participants were asked to supply detailed information as to how they (1) assess the performance of each practice in their organization, or (2) would assess each practice if it were an identified strategic imperative. Qualitative content analysis indicated that the approximately 1200 responses provided could be described and categorized into interventions , organizational performance , and worker performance . A discussion of how these categories relate to existing indicator frameworks is provided. The analysis also revealed divergence in two important measurement issues; (1) quantitative vs qualitative measurement and reporting; and (2) the primary use of objective or subjective metrics. In lieu of these findings we ultimately recommend a balanced measurement and reporting approach within the three metric categories and conclude with suggestions for future research.

  12. Leading safety performance indicators for resilience assessment of radiopharmaceuticals production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R., E-mail: grecco@ien.gov.b, E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.b, E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Instrumentacao e Confiabilidade Humana; Vidal, Mario C.R., E-mail: mvidal@ergonomia.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEP/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia de Producao. Grupo de Ergonomia e Novas Tecnologias (GENTE)

    2011-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radiation-emitting substances used in medicine for radiotherapy and imaging diagnosis. A Research Institute, located in Rio de Janeiro, produces three radiopharmaceuticals: the sodium iodate is used in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunctions, the meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine is used in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases, and the fluorodeoxyglucose is used in diagnosis in cardiology, oncology, neurology and neuro psychiatry. This paper presents a leading safety performance indicators framework to assess the resilience of radiopharmaceuticals production processes. The organizations that use resilience indicators will be able to pro actively evaluate and manage safety. (author)

  13. Leading safety performance indicators for resilience assessment of radiopharmaceuticals production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.

    2011-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radiation-emitting substances used in medicine for radiotherapy and imaging diagnosis. A Research Institute, located in Rio de Janeiro, produces three radiopharmaceuticals: the sodium iodate is used in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunctions, the meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine is used in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases, and the fluorodeoxyglucose is used in diagnosis in cardiology, oncology, neurology and neuro psychiatry. This paper presents a leading safety performance indicators framework to assess the resilience of radiopharmaceuticals production processes. The organizations that use resilience indicators will be able to pro actively evaluate and manage safety. (author)

  14. The Tiotropium Safety and Performance in Respimat® (TIOSPIR®) Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anzueto, Antonio; Wise, Robert; Calverley, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ). The rate of FEV1 decline in GOLD I + II patients was greater than in GOLD III + IV patients (46 vs. 23 mL/year); as well as in current versus ex-smokers, in patients receiving combination therapies at baseline versus not, and in those experiencing an exacerbation during the study versus not. CONCLUSIONS......BACKGROUND: Tiotropium Safety and Performance in Respimat® (TIOSPIR®) compared the safety and efficacy of tiotropium Respimat® and tiotropium HandiHaler® in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A prespecified spirometry substudy compared the lung function efficacy between...

  15. Determinants of safety outcomes and performance: A systematic literature review of research in four high-risk industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Pieter A; Van Hoof, Joris J; De Jong, Menno D T

    2017-09-01

    In spite of increasing governmental and organizational efforts, organizations still struggle to improve the safety of their employees as evidenced by the yearly 2.3 million work-related deaths worldwide. Occupational safety research is scattered and inaccessible, especially for practitioners. Through systematically reviewing the safety literature, this study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of behavioral and circumstantial factors that endanger or support employee safety. A broad search on occupational safety literature using four online bibliographical databases yielded 27.527 articles. Through a systematic reviewing process 176 online articles were identified that met the inclusion criteria (e.g., original peer-reviewed research; conducted in selected high-risk industries; published between 1980-2016). Variables and the nature of their interrelationships (i.e., positive, negative, or nonsignificant) were extracted, and then grouped and classified through a process of bottom-up coding. The results indicate that safety outcomes and performance prevail as dependent research areas, dependent on variables related to management & colleagues, work(place) characteristics & circumstances, employee demographics, climate & culture, and external factors. Consensus was found for five variables related to safety outcomes and seven variables related to performance, while there is debate about 31 other relationships. Last, 21 variables related to safety outcomes and performance appear understudied. The majority of safety research has focused on addressing negative safety outcomes and performance through variables related to others within the organization, the work(place) itself, employee demographics, and-to a lesser extent-climate & culture and external factors. This systematic literature review provides both scientists and safety practitioners an overview of the (under)studied behavioral and circumstantial factors related to occupational safety behavior. Scientists

  16. Who is Self-Actualized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roweton, William E.

    1981-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify Maslow's concept of self-actualization as it relates to human motivation, a class of educational psychology students wrote essays describing a self-actualized person and then attempted to decide whether public schools contribute to the production of self-actualized persons. Two-thirds of the students decided that schools…

  17. Assessing the performance of two models on calculating maize actual evapotranspiration in a semi-humid and drought-prone region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Wang, J. L.; Zhao, C. X.; McGiffen, M. E.; Liu, J. B.; Wang, G. D.

    2018-02-01

    The two-step and one-step models for calculating evapotranspiration of maize were evaluated in a semi-humid and drought-prone region of northern China. Data were collected in the summers of 2013 and 2014 to determine relative model accuracy in calculating maize evaopotranspiration. The two-step model predicted daily evaoptranspiration with crop coefficients proposed by FAO and crop coefficient calibrated by local field data; the one-step model predicted daily evapotranspiration with coefficients derived by other researcher and coefficients calibrated by local field data. The predicted daily evapotranspiration in 2013 and 2014 growing seasons with the above two different models was both compared with the observed evapotranspiration with eddy covariance method. Furthermore, evapotranspiration in different growth stages of 2013 and 2014 maize growing seasons was predicted using the models with the local calibrated coefficients. The results indicated that calibration of models was necessary before using them to predict daily evapotranspiration. The model with the calibrated coefficients performed better with higher coefficient of determination and index of agreement and lower mean absolute error and root mean square error than before. And the two-step model better predicted daily evapotranspiration than the one-step model in our experimental field. Nevertheless, as to prediction ET of different growth stages, there still had some uncertainty when predicting evapotranspiration in different year. So the comparisons suggested that model prediction of crop evapotranspiration was practical, but requires calibration and validation with more data. Thus, considerable improvement is needed for these two models to be practical in predicting evapotranspiration for maize and other crops, more field data need to be measured, and an in-depth study still needs to be continued.

  18. Recent performance experience with US light water reactor self-actuating safety and relief valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, C.G.

    1996-12-01

    Over the past several years, there have been a number of operating reactor events involving performance of primary and secondary safety and relief valves in U.S. Light Water Reactors. There are several different types of safety and relief valves installed for overpressure protection of various safety systems throughout a typical nuclear power plant. The following discussion is limited to those valves in the reactor coolant systems (RCS) and main steam systems of pressurized water reactors (PWR) and in the RCS of boiling water reactors (BWR), all of which are self-actuating having a setpoint controlled by a spring-loaded disk acting against system fluid pressure. The following discussion relates some of the significant recent experience involving operating reactor events or various testing data. Some of the more unusual and interesting operating events or test data involving some of these designs are included, in addition to some involving a number of similar events and those which have generic applicability.

  19. Safety Performance Evaluations for the Vehicle Based Movable Barriers Using Full Scale Crash Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Minsoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to develop a prototype of large-size movable barriers to protect roadside workers from incoming vehicles to the road work area with the following functions: maximization of work space in the right and left directions, convenient mobility, and minimization of impact without modification of the inside of movable barriers into traffic lanes and perform safety performance assessment on passengers through full scale crash tests. The large movable barrier was divided into folder type and telescope type and the development stage was now at the prototype phase. A full scale crash test was conducted prior to certification test at a level of 90%. The full scale crash test result showed that both types of folder type movable barrier and telescope type movable barrier satisfied the standard of the passenger safety performance evaluation at a level of 90%.

  20. Caffeine-based food supplements and beverages: Trends of consumption for performance purposes and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessada, Sílvia M F; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2018-07-01

    Nowadays, daily food supplementation regarding the improvement of physical and mental performance is a growing trend in sport practitioners, young students and active people. Food supplements are foodstuffs, labeled under food law and not obliged to safety assessments before their commercialization. Several products are commercialized claiming ergogenic effects as marketing strategies. Caffeine is often one of their main ingredients, as it increases both physical performance and concentration. This manuscript presents a general overview of the current caffeine-based food supplements and energy drinks available in the Portuguese market, as well as the consuming trends regarding their ergogenic effects, performance purposes, and active ingredients. Product claims, recommended daily intakes, caffeine pharmacology, and safety concerns aspects are also discussed aspects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human performance analysis in the frame of probabilistic safety assessment of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcasiu, Mita; Nitoi, Mirela; Apostol, Minodora; Turcu, I.; Florescu, Gh.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The analysis of operating experience has identified the importance of human performance in reliability and safety of research reactors. In Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of nuclear facilities, human performance analysis (HPA) is used in order to estimate human error contribution to the failure of system components or functions. HPA is a qualitative and quantitative analysis of human actions identified for error-likely situations or accident-prone situations. Qualitative analysis is used to identify all man-machine interfaces that can lead to an accident, types of human interactions which may mitigate or exacerbate the accident, types of human errors and performance shaping factors. Quantitative analysis is used to develop estimates of human error probability as effects of human performance in reliability and safety. The goal of this paper is to accomplish a HPA in the PSA frame for research reactors. Human error probabilities estimated as results of human actions analysis could be included in system event tree and/or system fault tree. The achieved sensitivity analyses determine human performance sensibility at systematically variations both for dependencies level between human actions and for operator stress level. The necessary information was obtained from operating experience of research reactor TRIGA from INR Pitesti. The required data were obtained from generic data bases. (authors)

  2. Safety and performance of a long life lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, W. R.; Street, H. K.

    A Li/SOCl2 'D' cell for applications requiring 10 to 15 years life at very low drain rates, typically less than 150 microA, were developed. Maximizing cell safety and reliability, while delivering very good energy density, were the goals. These goals were achieved by designing the cell to be application specific. The low-rate cell was optimized to deliver up to 16 Ah at drain rates of less than 70 mA. By virtue of its low surface area, 145 cm(sup 2), the cell demonstrated excellent safety behavior. Safety testing was performed on individual cells as well as on two-cell and four-cell batteries. Single cells did not vent when short-circuited. Benign venting in a two cell string was produced, but only when the string was partially discharged before shorting. The vent mechanism is a 300 psi rupture pressure burst disc manufactured by BS&B Safety Systems. Benign venting is defined as full opening of the 3/8 in. dia vent hole without deformation of the case. Material is expelled from the cell without flame, and the cell stack remains largely intact. Venting of the Sandia-designed low rate cell was not produced under any other abuse test conditions. The vent functions as an ultimate safety mechanism in the case of severe abuse, but resistance to venting under normal use and mild abuse conditions is key to the achievement of high reliability.

  3. Preliminary Performance Analysis Program Development for Safety System with Safeguard Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Han-Ok; Lee, Jun; Park, Cheon-Tae; Yoon, Ju-Hyeon; Park, Keun-Bae

    2007-01-01

    SMART is an advanced modular integral type pressurized water reactor for a seawater desalination and an electricity production. Major components of the reactor coolant system such as the pressurizer, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP), and steam generators are located inside the reactor vessel. The SMART can fundamentally eliminate the possibility of large break loss of coolant accidents (LBLOCAs), improve the natural circulation capability, and better accommodate and thus enhance a resistance to a wide range of transients and accidents. The safety goals of the SMART are enhanced through highly reliable safety systems such as the passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) and the safeguard vessel coupled with the passive safety injection feature. The safeguard vessel is a steel-made, leak-tight pressure vessel housing the RPV, SIT, and the associated valves and pipelines. A primary function of the safeguard vessel is to confine any radioactive release from the primary circuit within the vessel under DBAs related to loss of the integrity of the primary system. A preliminary performance analysis program for a safety system using the safeguard vessel is developed in this study. The developed program is composed of several subroutines for the reactor coolant system, passive safety injection system, safeguard vessel including the pressure suppression pool, and PRHRS. A small break loss of coolant accident at the upper part of a reactor is analyzed and the results are discussed

  4. 49 CFR 385.337 - What happens if a new entrant refuses to permit a safety audit to be performed on its operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... safety audit to be performed on its operations? 385.337 Section 385.337 Transportation Other Regulations... TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.337 What happens if a new entrant refuses to permit a safety audit to be performed on its...

  5. The effect of Health, Safety and Environment Management System (HSE-MS on the improvement of safety performance indices in Urea and Ammonia Kermanshah Petrochemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Poursoleiman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related accidents may cause damage to people, environment and lead to waste of time and money. Health, Safety and Environment Management System has been developed in order to reduce accidents. This study aimed to investigate the effect of implementation of this system on reduction of the accidents and its consequences and also on the safety performance indices in Kermanshah Petrochemical Company. Material and Method: In this study, records of accidents were collected by OSHA incident report form 301 over 4 years. Following, the mean annual accidents and its consequences and safety performance indices were calculated and reported. Then, using statistical analysis, the impacts of two years implementation of this system on the accidents and its consequences and safety performance indices were evaluated. Result: The results showed that the implementation of HSE system was significantly correlated with Frequency Severity Indicator, Accident Severity Rate, lost days, minor accidents and total incidents (P-value 0.05. Conclusion: The implementation of Health, Safety and the Environment Management System caused a reduction in accidents and its consequences and most of the safety performance indices in the entire process cycle of Kermanshah Petrochemical Company. Overall, safety condition has been improved considerably.

  6. Key Performance Indicators in the Evaluation of the Quality of Radiation Safety Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Cheryl Culver; Shaffer, Sheila; Fink-Bennett, Darlene; Winokur, Kay

    2016-08-01

    Beaumont is a multiple hospital health care system with a centralized radiation safety department. The health system operates under a broad scope Nuclear Regulatory Commission license but also maintains several other limited use NRC licenses in off-site facilities and clinics. The hospital-based program is expansive including diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine (molecular imaging), interventional radiology, a comprehensive cardiovascular program, multiple forms of radiation therapy (low dose rate brachytherapy, high dose rate brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy, and gamma knife), and the Research Institute (including basic bench top, human and animal). Each year, in the annual report, data is analyzed and then tracked and trended. While any summary report will, by nature, include items such as the number of pieces of equipment, inspections performed, staff monitored and educated and other similar parameters, not all include an objective review of the quality and effectiveness of the program. Through objective numerical data Beaumont adopted seven key performance indicators. The assertion made is that key performance indicators can be used to establish benchmarks for evaluation and comparison of the effectiveness and quality of radiation safety programs. Based on over a decade of data collection, and adoption of key performance indicators, this paper demonstrates one way to establish objective benchmarking for radiation safety programs in the health care environment.

  7. Stereotactic Target point Verification in Actual Treatment Position of Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyong Geun; Lee, Hyun Koo

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : Authors tried to enhance the safety and accuracy of radiosurgery by verifying stereotactic target point in actual treatment position prior to irradiation. Materials and Methods : Before the actual treatment, several sections of anthropomorphic head phantom were used to create a condition of unknown coordinated of the target point. A film was sand witched between the phantom sections and punctured by sharp needle tip. The tip of the needle represented the target point. The head phantom was fixed to the stereotactic ring and CT scan was done with CT localizer attached to the ring. After the CT scanning, the stereotactic coordinates of the target point were determined. The head phantom was secured to accelerator's treatment couch and the movement of laser isocenter to the stereotactic coordinates determined by CT scanning was performed using target positioner. Accelerator's anteroposterior and lateral portal films were taken using angiographic localizers. The stereotactic coordinates determined by analysis of portal films were compared with the stereotactic coordinates previously determined by CT scanning. Following the correction of discrepancy, the head phantom was irradiated using a stereotactic technique of several arcs. After the irradiation, the film which was sand witched between the phantom sections was developed and the degree of coincidence between the center of the radiation distribution with the target point represented by the hole in the film was measured. In the treatment of actual patients, the way of determining the stereotactic coordinates with CT localizers and angiographic localizers between two sets of coordinates, we proceeded to the irradiation of the actual patient. Results : In the phantom study, the agreement between the center of the radiation distribution and the localized target point was very good. By measuring optical density profiles of the sand witched film along axes that intersected the target point, authors could confirm

  8. Identifying the most significant indicators of the total road safety performance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tešić, Milan; Hermans, Elke; Lipovac, Krsto; Pešić, Dalibor

    2018-04-01

    The review of the national and international literature dealing with the assessment of the road safety level has shown great efforts of the authors who tried to define the methodology for calculating the composite road safety index on a territory (region, state, etc.). The procedure for obtaining a road safety composite index of an area has been largely harmonized. The question that has not been fully resolved yet concerns the selection of indicators. There is a wide range of road safety indicators used to show a road safety situation on a territory. Road safety performance index (RSPI) obtained on the basis of a larger number of safety performance indicators (SPIs) enable decision makers to more precisely define the earlier goal- oriented actions. However, recording a broader comprehensive set of SPIs helps identify the strengths and weaknesses of a country's road safety system. Providing high quality national and international databases that would include comparable SPIs seems to be difficult since a larger number of countries dispose of a small number of identical indicators available for use. Therefore, there is a need for calculating a road safety performance index with a limited number of indicators (RSPI ln n ) which will provide a comparison of a sufficient quality, of as many countries as possible. The application of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method and correlative analysis has helped to check if the RSPI ln n is likely to be of sufficient quality. A strong correlation between the RSPI ln n and the RSPI has been identified using the proposed methodology. Based on this, the most contributing indicators and methodologies for gradual monitoring of SPIs, have been defined for each country analyzed. The indicator monitoring phases in the analyzed countries have been defined in the following way: Phase 1- the indicators relating to alcohol, speed and protective systems; Phase 2- the indicators relating to roads and Phase 3- the indicators relating to

  9. W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility experiment centerline fuel thermocouple performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, S.C.; Henderson, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    The W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) experiment is the fifth in a series of experiments sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the National Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) Safety Assurance Program. The experiments are being conducted under the direction of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). The irradiation phase of the W-1 SLSF experiment was conducted between May 27 and July 20, 1979, and terminated with incipient fuel pin cladding failure during the final boiling transient. Experimental hardware and facility performed as designed, allowing completion of all planned tests and test objectives. This paper focuses on high temperature in-fuel thermocouples and discusses their development, fabrication, and performance in the W-1 experiment

  10. Dry critical experiments and analyses performed in support of the Topaz-2 Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelowitz, D.B.; Sapir, J.; Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Kompanietz, G.B.; Krutov, A.M.; Polyakov, D.N.; Loynstev, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz-2 space nuclear power system. Functional safety requirements developed for the Topaz mission mandated that the reactor remain subcritical when flooded and immersed in water. Initial experiments and analyses performed in Russia and the United States indicated that the reactor could potentially become supercritical in several water- or sand-immersion scenarios. Consequently, a series of critical experiments was performed on the Narciss M-II facility at the Kurchatov Institute to measure the reactivity effects of water and sand immersion, to quantify the effectiveness of reactor modifications proposed to preclude criticality, and to benchmark the calculational methods and nuclear data used in the Topaz-2 safety analyses. In this paper we describe the Narciss M-II experimental configurations along with the associated calculational models and methods. We also present and compare the measured and calculated results for the dry experimental configurations

  11. An empirical analysis of nuclear power plant organization and its effect on safety performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The paper documents work performed on three tasks. The first task concerned the creation of measures of organizational structure. An earlier review of the literature supported the position that organizational structure (e.g., the way the work of the organization is divided, administered, and coordinated) is a likely determinant of plant safety performance. While data were not available on some salient dimensions of organizational structure, Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARs), Technical Specifications, and a survey of plant technical resources allowed for measurement on three primary dimensions. These are the vertical structure of the plant (e.g., the number of ranks and the ratio of supervisors to subordinates), the horizontal structure of the plant (e.g., the way the organization is divided into administrative and work units), and the coordinative structure of the plant (e.g., the ways that work units are linked)

  12. Chronic Conditions, Workplace Safety, And Job Demands Contribute To Absenteeism And Job Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnett, Kimberly; Schwatka, Natalie; Tenney, Liliana; Brockbank, Claire V S; Newman, Lee S

    2017-02-01

    An aging workforce, increased prevalence of chronic health conditions, and the potential for longer working lives have both societal and economic implications. We analyzed the combined impact of workplace safety, employee health, and job demands (work task difficulty) on worker absence and job performance. The study sample consisted of 16,926 employees who participated in a worksite wellness program offered by a workers' compensation insurer to their employers-314 large, midsize, and small businesses in Colorado across multiple industries. We found that both workplace safety and employees' chronic health conditions contributed to absenteeism and job performance, but their impact was influenced by the physical and cognitive difficulty of the job. If employers want to reduce health-related productivity losses, they should take an integrated approach to mitigate job-related injuries, promote employee health, and improve the fit between a worker's duties and abilities. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. New design of engineered safety features-component control system to improve performance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.T.; Jung, H.W.; Lee, S.J.; Cho, C.H.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The Engineered Safety Features-Component Control System (ESF-CCS) controls the engineered safety features of a Nuclear Power Plant such as Solenoid Operated Valves (SOV), Motor Operated Valves (MOV), pumps, dampers, etc. to mitigate the effects of a Design Basis Accident (DBA) or an abnormal operation. ESF-CCS serves as an interface system between the Plant Protection System (PPS) and remote actuation devices. ESF-CCS is composed of fault tolerant Group Controllers GC, Loop Controllers (LC), ESF-CCS Test and Interface Processor (ETIP) and Cabinet Operator Module (COM) and Control Channel Gateway (CCG) etc. GCs in each division are designed to be fully independent triple configuration, which perform system level NSSS and BOP ESFAS logic (2-out-of-4 logic and l-out-of-2 logic, respectively) making it possible to test each GC individually during normal operation. In the existing configuration, the safety-related plant component control is part of the Plant Control System (PCS) non-safety system. For increased safety and reliability, this design change incorporates this part into the LCs, and is therefore designed according to the safety-critical system procedures. The test and diagnosis capabilities of ETIP and COM are reinforced. By means of an automatic periodic test for all main functions of the system, it is possible to quickly determine an abnormal status of the system, and to decrease the elapsed time for tests, thus effectively increasing availability. ESF-CCS consists of four independent divisions (A, B, C, and D) in the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400). One prototype division is being manufactured and will be tested

  14. Performance and safety to NAVSEA instruction 9310.1A of lithium-thionyl chloride reserve batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. C.

    1984-09-01

    The design, performance and safety of a fully engineered, selfcontained Li/SOCl2 battery as the power source for underwater applications. In addition to meeting the performance standards of the end user this battery is successfully tested under the rigorous safety conditions of NAVSEA Instruction 9310.1A for use on land, aircraft and surface ships.

  15. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  16. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  17. FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] performance measurements for safety, productivity and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newland, D.J.; Praetorius, P.R.; Tomaszewski, T.A.

    1987-05-01

    A useful set of performance measurements for Safety, Productivity and Control has evolved at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). In response to declining budgets and the resulting need to safely manage a manpower rampdown, an ''Early Warning System'' was developed in 1984. Its purpose was to monitor the effects of the staffing rampdown such that appropriate remedial action could be taken to correct adverse trends before a significant problem occurred. 1 tab

  18. Performance and Safety Tests on Samsung 18650 Li-ion Cells: Two Cell Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Jeevarajan, Judith; Rehm, Raymond; Bragg, Bobby; Zhang, Wenlin

    2002-01-01

    In order to meet the applications for space shuttle in future, two types of Samsung cells, with capacity 1800 mAh and 2000 mAh, have been investigated. The studies focused on: (1) Performance tests: completed 250 cycles at various combinations of charge/discharge C rates and discharge capacity measurements at various temperatures; and (2) Safety tests: overcharge and overdischarge, heat abuse, short circuit, internal and external short, and vibration, vacuum, and drop tests

  19. Modeling the Non-functional Requirements in the Context of Usability, Performance, Safety and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Mazhar

    2007-01-01

    Requirement engineering is the most significant part of the software development life cycle. Until now great emphasis has been put on the maturity of the functional requirements. But with the passage of time it reveals that the success of software development does not only pertain to the functional requirements rather non-functional requirements should also be taken into consideration. Among the non-functional requirements usability, performance, safety and security are considered important. ...

  20. Do clinical safety charts improve paramedic key performance indicator results? (A clinical improvement programme evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Phillip; Middleton, Paul M; Bonner, Ann; Loudfoot, Allan; Elliott, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Is the Clinical Safety Chart clinical improvement programme (CIP) effective at improving paramedic key performance indicator (KPI) results within the Ambulance Service of New South Wales? The CIP intervention area was compared with the non-intervention area in order to determine whether there was a statistically significant improvement in KPI results. The CIP was associated with a statistically significant improvement in paramedic KPI results within the intervention area. The strategies used within this CIP are recommended for further consideration.

  1. Safety Performance Indicator for alcohol in road accidents--international comparison, validity and data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assum, Terje; Sørensen, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Safety Performance Indicators, SPIs, are developed for various areas within road safety such as speed, car occupant protection, alcohol and drugs, vehicle safety, etc. SPIs can be used to indicate the road safety situation and to compare road safety performance between countries and over time and to understand the process leading to accidents, helping to select the measures to reduce them. This article describes an alcohol SPI defined as the percentage of fatalities resulting from accidents involving at least one driver impaired by alcohol. The calculation of the alcohol SPI for 26 European countries shows that the SPI varies from 4.4% in Bulgaria to 72.2% in Italy. These results raise the question if the results reflect the real situation or if there is a methodological explanation. To answer this question three different studies were carried out: comparison with other alcohol SPIs, in-depth studies of data quality in seven selected countries, and a study of correlations between the SPI and influencing factors. These studies indicate clearly that there is a need to improve quality of the data used for the alcohol SPI. Most importantly, the total number of drivers involved in fatal accidents, the number tested for alcohol and the number not tested, should be reported, in addition to the number of alcohol positive and negative drivers among those tested. Until these improvements are made, the validity of this SPI seems poor and comparison of the alcohol SPI results across countries should be made with caution. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Construction products performances and basic requirements for fire safety of facades in energy rehabilitation of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Mirjana Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction product means any product or kit which is produced and placed on the market for incorporation in a permanent manner in construction works, or parts thereof, and the performance of which has an effect on the performance of the construction works with respect to the basic requirements for construction works. Safety in case of fire and Energy economy and heat retention represent two among seven basic requirements which building has to meet according to contemporary technical rules on planning and construction. Performances of external walls building materials (particularly reaction to fire could significantly affect to fire spread on the façade and other building parts. Therefore, façade shaping and materialization in building renewal process, has to meet the fire safety requirement, as well as the energy requirement. Brief survey of fire protection regulations development in Serbia is presented in the paper. Preventive measures for fire risk reduction in building façade energy renewal are proposed according to contemporary fire safety requirements.

  3. Seismic performance assessment of base-isolated safety-related nuclear structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2010-01-01

    Seismic or base isolation is a proven technology for reducing the effects of earthquake shaking on buildings, bridges and infrastructure. The benefit of base isolation has been presented in terms of reduced accelerations and drifts on superstructure components but never quantified in terms of either a percentage reduction in seismic loss (or percentage increase in safety) or the probability of an unacceptable performance. Herein, we quantify the benefits of base isolation in terms of increased safety (or smaller loss) by comparing the safety of a sample conventional and base-isolated nuclear power plant (NPP) located in the Eastern U.S. Scenario- and time-based assessments are performed using a new methodology. Three base isolation systems are considered, namely, (1) Friction Pendulum??? bearings, (2) lead-rubber bearings and (3) low-damping rubber bearings together with linear viscous dampers. Unacceptable performance is defined by the failure of key secondary systems because these systems represent much of the investment in a new build power plant and ensure the safe operation of the plant. For the scenario-based assessments, the probability of unacceptable performance is computed for an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.3 at a distance 7.5 km from the plant. For the time-based assessments, the annual frequency of unacceptable performance is computed considering all potential earthquakes that may occur. For both assessments, the implementation of base isolation reduces the probability of unacceptable performance by approximately four orders of magnitude for the same NPP superstructure and secondary systems. The increase in NPP construction cost associated with the installation of seismic isolators can be offset by substantially reducing the required seismic strength of secondary components and systems and potentially eliminating the need to seismically qualify many secondary components and systems. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Performance improvement of the Annular Core Pulse Reactor for reactor safety experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuscher, J.A.; Pickard, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    The Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) is a TRIGA type reactor which has been in operation at Sandia Laboratories since 1967. The reactor is utilized in a wide variety of experimental programs which include radiation effects, neutron radiography, activation analysis, and fast reactor safety. During the past several years, the ACPR has become an important experimental facility for the United States Fast Reactor Safety Research Program and questions of interest to the safety of the LMFBR are being addressed. In order to enhance the capabilities of the ACPR for reactor safety experiments, a project to improve the performance of the reactor was initiated. It is anticipated that the pulse fluence can be increased by a factor of 2.0 to 2.5 utilizing a two-region core concept with high heat capacity fuel elements around the central irradiation cavity. In addition, the steady-state power of the reactor will be increased by about a factor of two. The new features of the improvements are described

  5. Microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahou, E; Jacxsens, L; Daelman, J; Van Landeghem, F; Uyttendaele, M

    2012-04-01

    The microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation was measured using a microbiological assessment scheme as a vertical sampling plan throughout the production process, from raw materials to final product. The assessment scheme can give insight into the microbiological contamination and the variability of a production process and pinpoint bottlenecks in the food safety management system. Three production processes were evaluated: a high-risk sandwich production process (involving raw meat preparation), a medium-risk hot meal production process (starting from undercooked raw materials), and a low-risk hot meal production process (reheating in a bag). Microbial quality parameters, hygiene indicators, and relevant pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli O157) were in accordance with legal criteria and/or microbiological guidelines, suggesting that the food safety management system was effective. High levels of total aerobic bacteria (>3.9 log CFU/50 cm(2)) were noted occasionally on gloves of food handlers and on food contact surfaces, especially in high contamination areas (e.g., during handling of raw material, preparation room). Core control activities such as hand hygiene of personnel and cleaning and disinfection (especially in highly contaminated areas) were considered points of attention. The present sampling plan was used to produce an overall microbiological profile (snapshot) to validate the food safety management system in place.

  6. Performance and Reliability of DSRC Vehicular Safety Communication: A Formal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available IEEE- and ASTM-adopted dedicated short range communications (DSRC standard toward 802.11p is a key enabling technology for the next generation of vehicular safety communication. Broadcasting of safety messages is one of the fundamental services in DSRC. There have been numerous publications addressing design and analysis of such broadcast ad hoc system based on the simulations. For the first time, an analytical model is proposed in this paper to evaluate performance and reliability of IEEE 802.11a-based vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V safety-related broadcast services in DSRC system on highway. The proposed model takes two safety services with different priorities, nonsaturated message arrival, hidden terminal problem, fading transmission channel, transmission range, IEEE 802.11 backoff counter process, and highly mobile vehicles on highway into account. Based on the solutions to the proposed analytic model, closed-form expressions of channel throughput, transmission delay, and packet reception rates are derived. From the obtained numerical results under various offered traffic and network parameters, new insights and enhancement suggestions are given.

  7. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  8. A Regulatory Perspective on the Performance and Reliability of Nuclear Passive Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Pham Trung; Lee, Sukho

    2016-01-01

    Passive safety systems have been proven to enhance the safety of NPPs. When an accident such as station blackout occurs, these systems can perform the following functions: the decay heat removal, passive safety injection, containment cooling, and the retention of radioactive materials. Following the IAEA definitions, using passive safety systems reduces reliance on active components to achieve proper actuation and not requiring operator intervention in accident conditions. That leads to the deviations in boundary conditions of the critical process or geometric parameters, which activate and operate the system to perform accident prevention and mitigation functions. The main difficulties in evaluation of functional failure of passive systems arise because of (a) lack of plant operational experience; (b) scarcity of adequate experimental data from integral test facilities or from separate effect tests in order to understand the performance characteristics of these passive systems, not only at normal operation but also during accidents and transients; (c) lack of accepted definitions of failure modes for these systems; and (d) difficulty in modeling certain physical behavior of these systems. Reliability assessment of the PSS is still one of the important issues. Several reliability methodologies such as REPAS, RMPS and ASPRA have been applied to the reliability assessments. However, some issues are remained unresolved due to lack of understanding of the treatment of dynamic failure characteristics of components of the PSS, the treatment of dynamic variation of independence process parameters such as ambient temperature and the functional failure criteria of the PSS. Dynamic reliability methodologies should be integrated in the PSS reliability analysis to have a true estimate of system failure probability. The methodology should estimate the physical variation of the parameters and the frequency of the accident sequences when the dynamic effects are considered

  9. Seismic design and performance of nuclear safety related RC structures based on new seismic design principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugan, R.; Sivathanu Pillai, C.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Sundaramurthy, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Seismic design of safety related Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures of Nuclear power plants (NPP) in India as per the present AERB codal procedures tries to ensure predominantly elastic behaviour under OBE so that the features of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) necessary for continued safe operation are designed to remain functional and prevent accident (collapse) of NPP under SSE for which certain Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) those are necessary to ensure the capability to shut down the reactor safely, are designed to remain functional. While the seismic design principles of non safety related structures as per Indian code (IS 1893-2002) are ensuring elastic behaviour under DBE and inelastic behaviour under MCE by utilizing ductility and energy dissipation capacity of the structure effectively. The design principle of AERB code is ensuring elastic behaviour under OBE and is not enlightening much inference about the overall structural behaviour under SSE (only ensuring the capability of certain SSCs required for safe shutdown of reactor). Various buildings and structures of Indian Nuclear power plant are classified from the basis of associated safety functions in a descending order in according with their roles in preventions and mitigation of an accident or support functions for prevention. This paper covers a comprehensive seismic analysis and design methodology based on the AERB codal provisions followed for safety related RC structure taking Diesel Generator Building of PFBR as a case study and study and investigates its performance under OBE and SSE by carrying out Non-linear static Pushover analysis. Based on the analysis, observed variations, recommendations are given for getting the desired performance level so as to implement performance based design in the future NPP design

  10. Correspondence between Simulator and On-Road Drive Performance: Implications for Assessment of Driving Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Hacker, Sarah D; Sager, Lauren; Dawson, Jeffrey; Anderson, Steven; Rizzo, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Forty-two younger (Mean age = 35) and 37 older drivers (Mean age = 77) completed four similar simulated drives. In addition, 32 younger and 30 older drivers completed a standard on-road drive in an instrumented vehicle. Performance in the simulated drives was evaluated using both electronic drive data and video-review of errors. Safety errors during the on-road drive were evaluated by a certified driving instructor blind to simulator performance, using state Department of Transportation criteria. We examined the degree of convergence in performance across the two platforms on various driving tasks including lane change, lane keeping, speed control, stopping, turns, and overall performance. Differences based on age group indicated a pattern of strong relative validity for simulator measures. However, relative rank-order in specific metrics of performance suggested a pattern of moderate relative validity. The findings have implications for the use of simulators in assessments of driving safety as well as its use in training and/or rehabilitation settings.

  11. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannala, S.; Turner, J. A.; Allu, S.; Elwasif, W. R.; Kalnaus, S.; Simunovic, S.; Kumar, A.; Billings, J. J.; Wang, H.; Nanda, J.

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. Gaining an understanding of the role of these processes as well as development of predictive capabilities for design of better performing batteries requires synergy between theory, modeling, and simulation, and fundamental experimental work to support the models. This paper presents the overview of the work performed by the authors aligned with both experimental and computational efforts. In this paper, we describe a new, open source computational environment for battery simulations with an initial focus on lithium-ion systems but designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This system has been used to create a three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. This paper also provides an overview of the experimental techniques to obtain crucial validation data to benchmark the simulations at various scales for performance as well as abuse. We detail some initial validation using characterization experiments such as infrared and neutron imaging and micro-Raman mapping. In addition, we identify opportunities for future integration of theory, modeling, and experiments

  12. An innovative fuel design concept for improved Light Water Reactor performance and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulenko, J.S.; Connell, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of this research is to develop a new fuel design which will have improved thermal/mechanical performance characteristics greatly superior to current thermal and mechanical design performance. The mechanical/thermal constraints define the lifetime of the fuel, the maximum power at which the fuel can be operated, the probability of fuel failure over core lifetime, and the integrity of a core during a transient excursion. The thermal/mechanical limits act to degrade fuel integrity when they are violated. The purpose of this project is to investigate a novel design for light water reactor fuel which will extend fuel performance limits and improve reactor safety even further than is currently achieved. This project is investigating liquid metal bonding of LWR fuel in order to radically decrease fuel centerline temperatures which has major performance and safety benefits. The project will verify the compatibility of the liquid metal bond with both the fuel pellets and cladding material, verify the performance enhancement features of the new design over the fuel lifetime, and verify the economic fabricability of the concept and will show how this concept will benefit the LWR nuclear industry

  13. Project Alternative Systems Study - PASS. Analysis of performance and long-term safety of repository concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, L.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M.; Widen, H.

    1992-09-01

    This study is part of the Project on Alternative Systems Study, PASS, with the overall aim to perform a technical/economical ranking of alternative repository concepts and canisters for the final storage of spent nuclear fuel. The comparison should in the first stage separately assess technology in construction and operation, long-term performance and safety, and costs. Three of the repository concepts are assumed to be located at a depth of approximately 500 m in the host rock, KBS-3, Very Long Holes (VLH) and Medium Long Holes (MLH). In the KBS-3 concept the canisters are deposited in vertical deposition holes in a system of parallel storage tunnels. In the VLH concept larger canisters are deposited in long horizontal tunnels. The MLH concept, is an evolution of the two other concepts, with KBS-3 type canisters deposited in horizontal tunnels. Smaller canisters are to be deposited in deep bore holes at a depth between 2000 to 4000 m in the Very Deep Holes (VDH) concept. In all concepts the canisters will be surrounded by a bentonite buffer. The aim of the present study is to analyze and compare the performance and long-term safety of the repository concepts. Only a qualitative comparison of the concepts is made as no calculations of radionuclide releases or dose to man have been performed. The ranking of the repository concepts was carried out by comparing the VDH, VLH and MLH concept with the KBS-3 concept. The performance and long-term safety of the repositories located at 500 m level will be based on a multiple barrier system and the predictions for the concepts will involve similar uncertainties. (54 refs.)

  14. Performance indicators at Embalse NPP: PSA and safety system indicators based on PSA models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornero, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Several indicators have been implemented at Embalse NPP. The objective was selecting some representative parameters to evaluate the performance of both the plant and the personnel activities, important for safety. A first set of indicators was defined in accordance with plant technical staff criteria. A complementary set of them was addressed later based on WANO guidance. This report presents the set of indicators used at Embalse NPP, centering the description to related to safety systems performance indicators (SSPI). Some considerations are done about the calculation methods, the need for aligning and updating their values following Embalse Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) development, and some pros and cons of using the PSA model for getting systems indicators. Owing to the fact that PSA ownership by utilities is also a subject of the meeting, some characteristics of the organization of the PSA Project are described at the beginning of the report. At Embalse NPP a Level 1 PSA has been developed under the responsibility of its own plant and with an important contribution from the IAEA. PSA was developed at the site, conducting this to a study strongly interactive with the station staff. (author)

  15. Improved nuclear power plant operations through performance-based safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golay, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has recently instituted use of Risk-Informed, Performance-Based Regulation (RIPBR) for protecting public safety in the use of nuclear power. This was done most importantly during June 1997 in issuance of revised Regulatory Guides and Standard Review Plan (SRP) guidance to licensees and the NRC staff. The propose of RIPBR is to replace the previously-used system of prescriptive regulation, which focuses upon what licensees must do, to a system which focuses upon what they must achieve. RIPBR is goals-oriented and the previous system is means-oriented. This regulatory change is potentially revolutionary, and offers many opportunities for improving the efficiency of improving both nuclear power operations and safety. However, it must be nurtured carefully if is to be successful. The work reported in this paper is concerned with showing how RIPBR can be implemented successfully, with benefits in both areas being attained. It is also concerned with how several of the practical barriers to establishing a workable new regulatory system can be overcome. This work, sponsored by the US Dept. of Energy, is being performed in collaboration with Northeast Utilities Services Crop. and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In our work we have examined a practical safety-related example at the Millstone 3 nuclear power station for implementation of RIPBR. In this examination we have formulated a set of modifications to the plant's technical specifications, and are in the process of investigating their bases and refining the modifications. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Four Bedside Test Systems for Card Performance, Handling and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Felix; Picker, Susanne M; Gathof, Birgit S

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY: OBJECTIVE: Pretransfusion ABO compatibility testing is a simple and required precaution against ABO-incompatible transfusion, which is one of the greatest threats in transfusion medicine. While distinct agglutination is most important for correct test interpretation, protection against infectious diseases and ease of handling are crucial for accurate test performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate differences in test card design, handling, and user safety. DESIGN: Four different bedside test cards with pre-applied antibodies were evaluated by 100 medical students using packed red blood cells of different ABO blood groups. Criteria of evaluation were: agglutination, labelling, handling, and safety regarding possible user injuries. Criteria were rated subjectively according to German school notes ranging from 1 = very good to 6 = very bad/insufficient. RESULTS: Overall, all cards received very good/good marks. The ABO blood group was identified correctly in all cases. Three cards (no. 1, no. 3, no. 4) received statistically significant (p labelling (1.5 vs. 2.2-2.4), handling (1.9-2.0 vs. 2.5), and user safety (2.5 vs. 3.4). Analysis of card self-explanation revealed no remarkable differences. CONCLUSION: Despite good performance of all card systems tested, the best results when including all criteria evaluated were obtained with card no. 4 (particularly concerning clear agglutination), followed by cards no. 2, no. 1, and no. 3.

  17. How the choice of safety performance function affects the identification of important crash prediction variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ketong; Simandl, Jenna K; Porter, Michael D; Graettinger, Andrew J; Smith, Randy K

    2016-03-01

    Across the nation, researchers and transportation engineers are developing safety performance functions (SPFs) to predict crash rates and develop crash modification factors to improve traffic safety at roadway segments and intersections. Generalized linear models (GLMs), such as Poisson or negative binomial regression, are most commonly used to develop SPFs with annual average daily traffic as the primary roadway characteristic to predict crashes. However, while more complex to interpret, data mining models such as boosted regression trees have improved upon GLMs crash prediction performance due to their ability to handle more data characteristics, accommodate non-linearities, and include interaction effects between the characteristics. An intersection data inventory of 36 safety relevant parameters for three- and four-legged non-signalized intersections along state routes in Alabama was used to study the importance of intersection characteristics on crash rate and the interaction effects between key characteristics. Four different SPFs were investigated and compared: Poisson regression, negative binomial regression, regularized generalized linear model, and boosted regression trees. The models did not agree on which intersection characteristics were most related to the crash rate. The boosted regression tree model significantly outperformed the other models and identified several intersection characteristics as having strong interaction effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamics of safety performance and culture: a group model building approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Love, Peter E D; Stagbouer, Greg; Annesley, Chris

    2012-09-01

    The management of occupational health and safety (OHS) including safety culture interventions is comprised of complex problems that are often hard to scope and define. Due to the dynamic nature and complexity of OHS management, the concept of system dynamics (SD) is used to analyze accident prevention. In this paper, a system dynamics group model building (GMB) approach is used to create a causal loop diagram of the underlying factors influencing the OHS performance of a major drilling and mining contractor in Australia. While the organization has invested considerable resources into OHS their disabling injury frequency rate (DIFR) has not been decreasing. With this in mind, rich individualistic knowledge about the dynamics influencing the DIFR was acquired from experienced employees with operations, health and safety and training background using a GMB workshop. Findings derived from the workshop were used to develop a series of causal loop diagrams that includes a wide range of dynamics that can assist in better understanding the causal influences OHS performance. The causal loop diagram provides a tool for organizations to hypothesize the dynamics influencing effectiveness of OHS management, particularly the impact on DIFR. In addition the paper demonstrates that the SD GMB approach has significant potential in understanding and improving OHS management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance assessment and the safety case: Lessons from recent international projects and areas for further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galson, Daniel A.; Bailey, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) PAMINA project - Performance Assessment Methodologies in Application to Guide the Development of the Safety Case - was conducted over the period 2006-2009 and brought together 27 organisations from 10 countries. PAMINA had the aim of improving and developing a common understanding of performance assessment (PA) methodologies for disposal concepts for spent fuel and other long-lived radioactive wastes in a range of geological environments. This was followed by a Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) sponsored project on Methods for Safety Assessment of Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste (MeSA), which was completed in 2012. This paper presents a selection of conclusions from these projects, in the context of general understanding developed on what would constitute an acceptable safety case for a geological disposal facility, and outlines areas for further development. The paper also introduces a new project on PA that is under consideration within the context of the EC Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP). (authors)

  20. Safety and performance of a long life lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, W.R.; Street, H.K.

    1992-12-31

    We have developed a Li/SOCl{sub 2} ``D`` cell for applications requiring 10 to 15 years life at very low drain rates, typically less than 150 {mu}A. Maximizing cell safety and reliability, while delivering very good energy density, have been the goals of our study. We have achieved these goals by designing the cell to be application specific. The low-rate cell has been optimized to deliver up to 16 Ah at drain rates of less than 70 mA. By virtue of its low surface area, 145 cm{sub 2}, the cell has demonstrated excellent safety behavior. Safety testing has been performed on individual cells as well as on two-cell and four-cell batteries. Single cells did not vent when short-circuited. We were able to produce benign venting in a two cell string, but only when the string was partially discharged before shorting. The vent mechanism is a 300 psi rupture pressure burst disc manufactured by BS&B Safety Systems. We define benign venting as full opening of the 3/8 in. dia vent hole without deformation of the case. Material is expelled from the cell without flame, and the cell stack remains largely intact. We have not produced venting of the Sandia-designed low rate cell under any other abuse test conditions. The vent functions as an ultimate safety mechanism in the case of severe abuse, but resistance to venting under normal use and mild abuse conditions is key to the achievement of high reliability.

  1. Safety and performance of a long life lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, W.R.; Street, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a Li/SOCl[sub 2] D'' cell for applications requiring 10 to 15 years life at very low drain rates, typically less than 150 [mu]A. Maximizing cell safety and reliability, while delivering very good energy density, have been the goals of our study. We have achieved these goals by designing the cell to be application specific. The low-rate cell has been optimized to deliver up to 16 Ah at drain rates of less than 70 mA. By virtue of its low surface area, 145 cm[sub 2], the cell has demonstrated excellent safety behavior. Safety testing has been performed on individual cells as well as on two-cell and four-cell batteries. Single cells did not vent when short-circuited. We were able to produce benign venting in a two cell string, but only when the string was partially discharged before shorting. The vent mechanism is a 300 psi rupture pressure burst disc manufactured by BS B Safety Systems. We define benign venting as full opening of the 3/8 in. dia vent hole without deformation of the case. Material is expelled from the cell without flame, and the cell stack remains largely intact. We have not produced venting of the Sandia-designed low rate cell under any other abuse test conditions. The vent functions as an ultimate safety mechanism in the case of severe abuse, but resistance to venting under normal use and mild abuse conditions is key to the achievement of high reliability.

  2. Commercial Truck Driver Health and Safety: Exploring Distracted Driving Performance and Self-Reported Driving Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Heaton, Karen; Welburn, Sharon C; McManus, Benjamin; Griffin, Russell; Fine, Philip R

    2016-08-01

    Reducing distracters detrimental to commercial truck driving is a critical component of improving the safety performance of commercial drivers, and makes the highways safer for all drivers. This study used a driving simulator to examine effects of cell phone, texting, and email distractions as well as self-reported driver optimism bias on the driving performance of commercial truck drivers. Results revealed that more visually demanding tasks were related to poorer driving performance. However, the cell phone task resulted in less off-the-road eye glances. Drivers reporting being "very skilled" displayed poorer driving performance than those reporting being "skilled." Onboard communication devices provide a practical, yet visually and manually demanding, solution for connecting drivers and dispatchers. Trucking company policies should minimize interaction between dispatchers and drivers when the truck is in motion. Training facilities should integrate driving simulators into the instruction of commercial drivers, targeting over-confident drivers. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Recolecta: estado actual y perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    López Medina, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    Estado actual del Recolector de ciencia abierta español: Recolecta y proyectos de futuro. López Medina, A. (2010). Recolecta: estado actual y perspectivas. X Workshop Rebiun sobre proyectos digitales. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/8710.

  4. Safety evaluation report on Tennessee Valley Authority: Watts Bar Nuclear Performance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This safety evaluation report on the information submitted by the Tennessee Valley Authority in its Nuclear Performance Plan for the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant and in supporting documents has been prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff. The plan addresses the plant-specific corrective actions as part of the recovery program for licensing of Unit 1. The staff will be monitoring and inspecting the implementation of the programs. The plan does not address all licensing matters that will be required for fuel load and operation of Unit 1. Those remaining licensing matters have been addressed in previous safety evaluations or will be addressed in accordance with routing NRC licensing practices. 97 refs

  5. Safety evaluation report on Tennessee Valley Authority: Browns Ferry nuclear performance plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) on the information submitted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in its Nuclear Performance Plan, through Revision 2, for the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant and in supporting documents has been prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory commission staff. The Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant consists of three boiling-water reactors at a site in Limestone County, Alabama. The plan addresses the plant-specific concerns requiring resolution before the startup of Unit 2. The staff will inspect implementation of those TVA programs that address these concerns. Where systems are common to Units 1 and 2 or to Units 2 and 3, the staff safety evaluations of those systems are included herein. 85 refs

  6. Good performance in Japan is proof of continuing safety and reliability improvement practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power is a vital energy supply source for both security and economy for such countries as Japan whose sources of energy are dependent on imported materials. This is the very reason why Japan gives her national priority to the improvement of nuclear power safety and reliability. As of the end of 1986, total nuclear power capacity owned and operated by private utility companies in Japan amounted to 24521 MW with 32 units sharing -- 19% of the total generating capacity. Moreover, during 1986 these units scored a remarkably high capacity factor of 76.2% and shared almost 28% of the nationwide electric power production, thereby contributing to a considerable saving of imported sources of energy. This outstanding record has been achieved by the parties concerned who dedicated themselves to furthering nuclear plant safety and reliability improvement. In this connection, this paper summarizes those key factors contributing to the good nuclear power plant performance of the Kansai Electric Power Company

  7. The antecedents of herbal product actual purchase in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina Ismail

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is meant to examine the relationships of several antecedents of actual purchase of herbal product in Malaysia. Actual purchase is considered to have a vital link to a business success. The study identified eight antecedents of consumer actual purchase such as intention, attitude, social influence, product safety and culture belief. A total of 473 respondents (about 82% completed and returned the questionnaire. A seven point Likert scale was used to measure responses. The data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares (PLS path modeling. The path coefficient results supported the direct influence of intention, attitude, social influence and product safety on actual buying. Moreover, the findings reveal that attitude, social influence, product safety, and culture belief also influenced buying intention.

  8. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) transuranic performance demonstration program sample packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccoy, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Transuranic Performance Demonstration Program (TPDP) sample packaging is used to transport highway route controlled quantities of weapons grade (WG) plutonium samples from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) to the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility and back. The purpose of these shipments is to test the nondestructive assay equipment in the WRAP facility as part of the Nondestructive Waste Assay PDP. The PDP is part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National TRU Program managed by the U. S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office, Carlsbad, New Mexico. Details of this program are found in CAO-94-1045, Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay for the TRU Waste Characterization Program (CAO 1994); INEL-96/0129, Design of Benign Matrix Drums for the Non-Destructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program for the National TRU Program (INEL 1996a); and INEL-96/0245, Design of Phase 1 Radioactive Working Reference Materials for the Nondestructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program for the National TRU Program (INEL 1996b). Other program documentation is maintained by the national TRU program and each DOE site participating in the program. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the TRU PDP sample packaging meets the onsite transportation safety requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for an onsite Transportation Hazard Indicator (THI) 2 packaging. This SARP, however, does not include evaluation of any operations within the PFP or WRAP facilities, including handling, maintenance, storage, or operating requirements, except as they apply directly to transportation between the gate of PFP and the gate of the WRAP facility. All other activities are subject to the requirements of the facility safety analysis reports (FSAR) of the PFP or WRAP facility and requirements of the PDP

  9. Actualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the Cedigaz annual report about the economic analysis of the worldwide natural gas statistical data for the year 1994. This report gives an up-to-date balance sheet of: the proved reserves, the production and consumption rates, the evolutions and tendencies of the international trade, the retail prices on the international market. (J.S.). 2 tabs

  10. A tool to diagnose context riskiness in view of food safety activities and microbiological safety output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Rovira, J.; Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.

    2011-01-01

    Stakeholders entail increasing demands on food safety management systems (FSMS) stimulating ongoing efforts of companies to progress to more advanced systems. However, the actual microbiological food safety (FS) output is not only a result of the performance of an FSMS, but it also depends on the

  11. Methods and Effects of Safety Enhancement in Korean PSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Gab; Park, Jong Woon

    2009-01-01

    Periodic Safety Review (PSR) is a comprehensive study on a nuclear power plant safety, taking into account aspects such as operational history, ageing, safety analyses and advances in code and standards since the time of construction. In Korea, PSRs have been performed for 20 units and have been effectively used to obtain an overall view of actual plant safety to determine reasonable and practical modifications that should be made in order to obtain a higher level of safety approaching that of modern plants. Among many safety enhancements achieved from Korean PSRs, new safety analyses are the important methods to confirm plant safety by increasing safety margin for specific safety issues. Methods and effects of safety enhancements applied in Korean PSRs are reviewed in this paper in light of new safety analyses to obtain additional safety margins

  12. The influence of organisational and management factors on safety performance in NNPPS. Rand D project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cal, C. de la; Gil, B.; Sola, R.; Vaquero, C.; Garces, M. I.

    2002-01-01

    The direct influence of organisational and managerial factors on safety performance in nuclear power plants has been widely proved by two findings, the analysis of their operating experience and the differences in safety levels reached by similar installations. Specially, the study of majors accidents such as TMI-2 and Chernobyl have demonstrated that the technical deficiencies are not the only root causes, but there are a whole set of human, organisational, managerial and social factors which are the origin from most of these deficiencies. In recent years, this fact is emphasised with the nuclear industry involved a process of change. The deregulation of the electricity market, which has increased the economic pressures to the companies and has driven in many cases to restructures in ownership (mergers, acquisitions), downsizing processes and outsourcing parts of the work, jointly with the development of information technologies and computer networks and with a change in the regulatory and social climates are some of the nre factors affecting the performance of nuclear power plants that have addressed, even more, to the need of re-viewing and assessing the impact of organisational aspects on their safe performance. There have been international efforts to analyse the influence of organisational factors in the safety of nuclear power plants following different approaches. Research institutions, utilities and regulatory bodies. individually or in co-operation, have tried to develop practical tools for taking into account the organisation. According to these international efforts the Association of Spanish Utilities, UNESA, and the Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Body, CSN, have included in 1998, for the first time in their Co-ordinated Plan for Research, an innovative five years R and D project entitled Development of methods to evaluate and model the impact of organisation on nuclear poer plants safety whose main objectives are to analyse the impact of organisation and

  13. An innovative fuel design concept for improved light water reactor performance and safety. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulenko, J.S.; Connell, R.G.

    1995-07-01

    Light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance is limited by thermal and mechanical constraints associated with the design, fabrication, and operation of fuel in a nuclear reactor. The purpose of this research was to explore a technique for extending fuel performance by thermally bonding LWR fuel with a non-alkaline liquid metal alloy. Current LWR fuel rod designs consist of enriched uranium oxide (UO 2 ) fuel pellets enclosed in a zirconium alloy cylindrical clad. The space between the pellets and the clad is filled by an inert gas. Due to the thermal conductivity of the gas, the gas space thermally insulates the fuel pellets from the reactor coolant outside the fuel rod, elevating the fuel temperatures. Filling the gap between the fuel and clad with a high conductivity liquid metal thermally bonds the fuel to the cladding, and eliminates the large temperature change across the gap, while preserving the expansion and pellet loading capabilities. The resultant lower fuel temperature directly impacts fuel performance limit margins and also core transient performance. The application of liquid bonding techniques to LWR fuel was explored for the purposes of increasing LWR fuel performance and safety. A modified version of the ESCORE fuel performance code (ESBOND) has been developed under the program to analyze the in-reactor performance of the liquid metal bonded fuel. An assessment of the technical feasibility of this concept for LWR fuel is presented, including the results of research into materials compatibility testing and the predicted lifetime performance of Liquid Metal Bonded LWR fuel

  14. Driver Performance Problems of Intercity Bus Public Transportation Safety in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraji, A.; Harnen, S.; Wicaksono, A.; Djakfar, L.

    2017-11-01

    The risk of an inter-city bus public accident can be influenced by various factors such as the driver’s performance. Therefore, knowing the various influential factors related to driver’s performance is very necessary as an effort to realize road traffic safety. This study aims to determine the factors that fall on the accident associated with the driver’s performance and make mathematical modeling factors that affect the accident. Methods of data retrieval were obtained from NTSC secondary data. The data was processed by identifying factors that cause the accident. Furthermore data processing and analysis used the PCA method to obtain mathematical modeling of factors influencing the inter-city bus accidents. The results showed that the main factors that cause accidents are health, discipline, and driver competence.

  15. Identifying performance gaps in hydrogen safety sensor technology for automotive and stationary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boon-Brett, L.; Bousek, J.; Black, G.; Moretto, P.; Castello, P.; Huebert, T.; Banach, U.

    2010-01-01

    A market survey has been performed of commercially available hydrogen safety sensors, resulting in a total sample size of 53 sensors from 21 manufacturers. The technical specifications, as provided by the manufacturer, have been collated and are displayed herein as a function of sensor working principle. These specifications comprise measuring range, response and recovery times, ambient temperature, pressure and relative humidity, power consumption and lifetime. These are then compared against known performance targets for both automotive and stationary applications in order to establish in how far current technology satisfies current requirements of sensor end users. Gaps in the performance of hydrogen sensing technologies are thus identified and areas recommended for future research and development. (author)

  16. Study of In-Pile test facility for fast reactor safety research: performance requirements and design features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, N.; Kawatta, N.; Niwa, H.; Kondo, S.; Maeda, K

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a program and the main design features of a new in-pile safety facility SERAPH planned for future fast reactor safety research. The current status of R and D on technical developments in relation to the research objectives and performance requirements to the facility design is given.

  17. Safety and performance assessment of geologic disposal systems for nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltonen, E.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis presents a methodology for the safety and performance assesment of final disposal of nuclear wastes into crystalline bedrock. The applicability of radiation protection objectives is discussed, as well as the goals of the assessment in the various repository system development phases. Due consideration is given to the description of the pertinent analysis methods and to the comprehensive model system. The methodology has been applied to assess the acceptability of the basic disposal concepts and to study the possibilities for the optimization of protection. Furthermore, performance of different components in the multiple barrier disposal systems is estimated. The waste types dealt with are low- and intermediate-level waste as well as high-level spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear power plant. In addition, an option of high-level vitrified waste from reprocessing of spent fuel is taken into account. On the basis of the various analyses carried out it can be concluded that the disposal of different nuclear wastes in the Finnish bedrock in properly designed repositories meets the radiation protection objectives with good confidence. In addition, the studies indicate that the safety margins are considerable. This is due to the fact that the overall performance of the multiple barrier disposal systems analysed is not sensitive to possible unfavourable changes in barrier properties. From the optimization of protection point of view it can be concluded that there is no need to develop more effective repository designs than those analysed in this thesis. In fact, the results indicate that the most sophisticated designs have already gone beyond an optimal level of safety

  18. Improvement of operational performance and increase of safety of WWER-1000/V-392

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakov, Y.A.; Dragunov, Y.G.; Podshibiakin, A.K.; Fil, N.S.; Krushelnitsky, V.N.; Berkovich, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    The national programme of nuclear power development approved by the Russian Federation Government in 1998 considers the design of WWER-1000/V-392 power unit as a priority project of the new generation NPP with improved operational performances and increased safety. The pilot unit of this design (NVAES-2) is licensed for construction at the Novovoronezh NPP site. The NVAES-2 design is developed on the basis of standard power unit with reactor plant V-320. Twenty units of this type are in operation at the nuclear power plants in Russia, Ukraine and Bulgaria having totally about 270 reactor-years of operation. Two more V-320 units are being commissioned this year at Rostov NPP and Temelin NPP. So, the WWER-1000/V-392 design is as a whole an evolutionary development of the operating standard unit WWER-1000/V-320. Many technical solutions aimed at increase of safety and improvement of operational performance of the plant are implemented in the NVAES-2 design, such as advanced reactor WWER-1000, passive system of residual power removal, passive system of the core flooding under loss-of-coolant accidents, and others. NVAES-2 design refers to a class of advanced light water reactors and corresponds to the international requirements imposed to the nuclear power plants to be put into operation after the year 2000. New V-392 power unit has a good perspective from the view point of extensive implementation in the framework of the nuclear electricity production in Russia. Design decisions on NVAES-2 power unit with WWER-1000/V-392 reactor plant which assure significantly higher safety level and improve economical performance as compared to the operating WWER-1000 units are briefly considered in the present paper. (author)

  19. Regulatory Aspect of Periodic Safety Review Performed in Nuclear Power Plants in the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baszo, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the regulatory aspect of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Periodic Safety Review (PSR) as a part of license renewal process in the Slovak Republic. It summarizes the history of activities similar to PSR performed in the past for NPPs operated in the Slovak Republic. Furthermore, it describes both the requirements involved in the current Slovak legislation to be met by licensee in the Slovak Republic in this field and the procedures concerning the PSR as well. The objective and rules of PSR to be performed for NPPs in the Slovak Republic were derived from the internationally accepted International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) document and have been implemented into national legislation. PSR of two twin units located in Bohunice NPP and Mochovce NPP, respectively, has been initiated in the Slovak Republic based on evaluation of each area to be reviewed (safety factors) using recent methodology and practice. Other significant factors, such as ageing, modifications of NPP and the safe operation for a specified future period, have to be assessed in the frame of PSR. Report on performed PSR outlines the results of review for each area, the corrective plan, which considering mutual relations between assessed areas specifies the issues to be solved with the aim to eliminate shortcomings identified in the frame of PSR and to adopt safety improvements. The findings from PSR in the evaluated areas also serve as a source of information for updating of all documents to be attached to the written application of licensee for renewal of a nuclear power plant operating license. The presented procedure describes how the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD SR) has reviewed the documents submitted during PSR. Based on results of submitted documents evaluation and licensee application for license renewal the license for next 10 years operation has been issued for Bohunice NPP. At present, similar procedure for Mochovce NPP unit 1 and 2 is underway.(author).

  20. Safety evaluation report on Tennessee Valley Authority: Browns Ferry Nuclear Performance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) was prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and represents the second and last supplement (SSER 2) to the staff's original SER published as Volume 3 of NUREG-1232 in April 1989. Supplement 1 of Volume 3 of NUREG-1232 (SSER 1) was published in October 1989. Like its predecessors, SSER 2 is composed of numerous safety evaluations by the staff regarding specific elements contained in the Browns Ferry Nuclear Performance Plan (BFNPP), Volume 3 (up to and including Revision 2), submitted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFN). The Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant consists of three boiling-water reactors (BWRs) at a site in Limestone County, Alabama. The BFNPP describes the corrective action plans and commitments made by TVA to resolve deficiencies with its nuclear programs before the startup of Unit 2. The staff has inspected and will continue to inspect TVA's implementation of these BFNPP corrective action plans that address staff concerns about TVA's nuclear program. SSER 2 documents the NRC staff's safety evaluations and conclusions for those elements of the BFNPP that were not previously addressed by the staff or that remained open as a result of unresolved issues identified by the staff in previous SERs and inspections

  1. The relative value of safety and performance indicators and qualitative arguments in different time frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.; Rohlig, K.J.; Batandjieva, B.; Griffault, L.; Regent, A.; Schneider, J.; Storck, R.; Umeki, H.

    2002-01-01

    Indicators complementary to dose or risk are of great importance for the provision of multiple lines of reasoning at different time frames and therefore for the building of confidence within a safety case and that regulations should acknowledge this fact. They are also of great value with regard to the understanding of the safety case by and the communication to different audiences. The relative value of such indicators changes with time. For longer timescales qualitative information becomes more important. The meaning of calculated dose or risk is different for different timescales (ranging from expected performance to illustration) but dose or risk remains a valuable and central information for any time considered in a Safety Assessment. Certain indicators (concentrations and fluxes) can provide information by avoiding certain uncertainties which increase remarkably with time (biosphere, dilution) but apart from that no generic opinion or recommendation can be derived since the value of specific indicators and the required degree of aggregation (over different nuclides or even of consequence and probability) strongly depends on the many parameter. (authors)

  2. Practical applications of safety culture concepts in human performance advances on Russian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.; Volkov, E.V.; Gordienko, O.V.; Melnitskaya, T.B.; Volkova, I.V.; Alexeev, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Sometimes, many from negative external factors can be compensated by human psychological readiness of worker. However there would be main worse to come: some cases of personnel activity and organisational factors, some person's peculiarities (attitudes, responsibility, etc.) add considerable number of the events at NPPs. A lot of aspects of Human Factor Reliability are united in Safety Culture concept. This paper presents some results of our recently research in that area. In 'proactive approach': Unique methods for measuring maturity and satisfaction of personnel motivation: comparative analysis of the labour and safety culture motivation from attitude; organization of the socio-psychological climate and safety attitude examining monitoring at all of Russia's NPPs; working-out recommendations for managers on improving human performance are presented. Besides, ergonomic research concerning work conditions at the NPP is displayed. In 'reactive approach': Analysis of the incorrect activity cases, which led to the breaches of work of the Russian NPPs, is shown. The special method to work-up is used. It was issue, that events caused by a human error, depends not only on the worker's professional competence, but on the attitude and motivation, some professionally important psychological and psycho-physiological quality data, the functional state, the group's socio-psychological climate, etc. (author)

  3. Westinghouse Hanford Company health and safety performance report. Fourth quarter calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, K.A.

    1995-03-01

    Detailed information pertaining to As Low As Reasonably Achievable/Contamination Control Improvement Project (ALARA/CCIP) activities are outlined. Improved commitment to the WHC ALARA/CCIP Program was experienced throughout FY 1994. During CY 1994, 17 of 19 sitewide ALARA performance goals were completed on or ahead of schedule. Estimated total exposure by facility for CY 1994 is listed in tables by organization code for each dosimeter frequency. Facilities/areas continue to utilize the capabilities of the RPR tracking system in conjunction with the present site management action-tracking system to manage deficiencies, trend performance, and develop improved preventive efforts. Detailed information pertaining to occupational injuries/illnesses are provided. The Industrial Safety and Hygiene programs are described which have generated several key initiatives that are believed responsible for improved safety performance. A breakdown of CY 1994 occupational injuries/illnesses by type, affected body group, cause, job type, age/gender, and facility is provided. The contributing experience of each WHC division/department in attaining this significant improvement is described along with tables charting specific trends. The Radiological Control Program is on schedule to meet all RL Site Management System milestones and program commitments.

  4. Operational safety performance and economical efficiency evaluation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yachun; Zou Shuliang

    2012-01-01

    The economical efficiency of nuclear power includes a series of environmental parameters, for example, cleanliness. Nuclear security is the precondition and guarantee for its economy, and both are the direct embodiment of the social benefits of nuclear power. Through analyzing the supervision and management system on the effective operation of nuclear power plants, which has been put forward by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and other organizations, a set of indexs on the safety performance and economical efficiency of nuclear power are explored and established; Based on data envelopment analysis, a DEA approach is employed to evaluate the efficiency of the operation performance of several nuclear power plants, Some primary conclusion are achieved on the basis of analyzing the threshold parameter's sensitivity and relativity which affected operational performance. To address the conflicts between certain security and economical indicators, a multi-objective programming model is established, where top priority is given to nuclear safety, and the investment behavior of nuclear power plant is thereby optimized. (authors)

  5. Westinghouse Hanford Company health and safety performance report. Fourth quarter calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, K.A.

    1996-03-01

    WHC once again achieved significant improvement in its Overall safety performance as reflected by the injury/illness incidence rates. Incidence rates with one exception (Restricted Work Cases Only Incidence Rate) reflect sharp reductions. The increase in the Restricted Work Case Incidence Rate appears to be the result of effective case management activity and the return to work in a partial duty capacity of employees who may otherwise have been off work due to a work-related injury/illness (Page 2--9).

  6. Westinghouse Hanford Company health and safety performance report. Fourth quarter calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansing, K.A.

    1996-03-01

    WHC once again achieved significant improvement in its Overall safety performance as reflected by the injury/illness incidence rates. Incidence rates with one exception (Restricted Work Cases Only Incidence Rate) reflect sharp reductions. The increase in the Restricted Work Case Incidence Rate appears to be the result of effective case management activity and the return to work in a partial duty capacity of employees who may otherwise have been off work due to a work-related injury/illness (Page 2--9)

  7. Development of a Test Equipment for Performance Evaluation of Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. J.; Kwon, S. M.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, C. K.; Cho, C. H.; Chun, J. H.; Park, M. K.

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a test equipment for performance evaluation of safety systems in nuclear power plants. First, we develop an input-output simulator for reactor protection systems, ESF component control systems, and a data acquisition system for these I/O simulators as a hardware for this equipment. Then, we develop a software for human-machine interface system, which is easy-to-use and easy-to-modify. In addition, a simulation tool for a reactor trip switch gear is developed

  8. European downstream oil industry safety performance. Statistical summary of reported incidents 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, A.; Den Haan, K.H.

    2010-10-01

    The sixteenth such report by CONCAWE, this issue includes statistics on workrelated personal injuries for the European downstream oil industry's own employees as well as contractors for the year 2009. Data were received from 33 companies representing more than 97% of the European refining capacity. Trends over the last sixteen years are highlighted and the data are also compared to similar statistics from related industries. In addition, this report presents the results of the first Process Safety Performance Indicator data gathering exercise amongst the CONCAWE membership.

  9. Road safety performance measures and AADT uncertainty from short-term counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Craig; Montufar, Jeannette; Regehr, Jonathan; Ghanney, Bartholomew

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to enable better risk analysis of road safety performance measures by creating the first knowledge base on uncertainty surrounding annual average daily traffic (AADT) estimates when the estimates are derived by expanding short-term counts with the individual permanent counter method. Many road safety performance measures and performance models use AADT as an input. While there is an awareness that the input suffers from uncertainty, the uncertainty is not well known or accounted for. The paper samples data from a set of 69 permanent automatic traffic recorders in Manitoba, Canada, to simulate almost 2 million short-term counts over a five year period. These short-term counts are expanded to AADT estimates by transferring temporal information from a directly linked nearby permanent count control station, and the resulting AADT values are compared to a known reference AADT to compute errors. The impacts of five factors on AADT error are considered: length of short-term count, number of short-term counts, use of weekday versus weekend counts, distance from a count to its expansion control station, and the AADT at the count site. The mean absolute transfer error for expanded AADT estimates is 6.7%, and this value varied by traffic pattern group from 5% to 10.5%. Reference percentiles of the error distribution show that almost all errors are between -20% and +30%. Error decreases substantially by using a 48-h count instead of a 24-h count, and only slightly by using two counts instead of one. Weekday counts are superior to weekend counts, especially if the count is only 24h. Mean absolute transfer error increases with distance to control station (elasticity 0.121, p=0.001), and increases with AADT (elasticity 0.857, proad safety performance measures that use AADT as inputs. Analytical frameworks for such analysis exist but are infrequently used in road safety because the evidence base on AADT uncertainty is not well developed. Copyright

  10. Performance Measurement and Target-Setting in California's Safety Net Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat, Shirin; Schillinger, Dean; Lyles, Courtney; Ackerman, Sara; Gourley, Gato; Vittinghoff, Eric; Handley, Margaret; Sarkar, Urmimala

    Health policies encourage implementing quality measurement with performance targets. The 2010-2015 California Medicaid waiver mandated quality measurement and reporting. In 2013, California safety net hospitals participating in the waiver set a voluntary performance target (the 90th percentile for Medicare preferred provider organization plans) for mammography screening and cholesterol control in diabetes. They did not reach the target, and the difference-in-differences analysis suggested that there was no difference for mammography ( P = .39) and low-density lipoprotein control ( P = .11) performance compared to measures for which no statewide quality improvement initiative existed. California's Medicaid waiver was associated with improved performance on a number of metrics, but this performance was not attributable to target setting on specific health conditions. Performance may have improved because of secular trends or systems improvements related to waiver funding. Relying on condition-specific targets to measure performance may underestimate improvements and disadvantage certain health systems. Achieving ambitious targets likely requires sustained fiscal, management, and workforce investments.

  11. Performance Evaluation and Analysis of Rural Drinking Water Safety Project——A Case Study in Jiangsu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaorong

    2017-04-01

    Water is the basic condition for human survival and development. As China is the most populous country, rural drinking water safety problems are most conspicuous. Therefore, the Chinese government keeps increasing investment and has built a large number of rural drinking water safety projects. Scientific evaluation of project performance is of great significance to promote the sustainable operation of the project and the sustainable development of rural economy. Previous studies mainly focus on the economic benefits of the project, while ignoring the fact that the rural drinking water safety project is quasi-public goods, which has economic, social and ecological benefits. This paper establishes a comprehensive evaluation model for rural drinking water safety performance, which adapts the rules of "5E" (economy, efficiency, effectiveness, equity and environment) as the value orientation, and selects a rural drinking water safety project as object in case study at K District, which is in the north of Jiangsu Province, China. The results shows: 1) the comprehensive performance of K project is in good condition; 2) The performance of every part shows that the scores of criteria "efficiency", "environment" and "effect" are higher than the mean performance, while the "economy" is slightly lower than the mean and the "equity" is the lowest. 3) The performance of indicator layer shows that: the planned completion rate of project, the reduction rate of project cost and the penetration rate of water-use population are significantly lower than other indicators. Based on the achievements of previous studies and the characteristics of rural drinking water safety project, this study integrates the evaluation dimensions of equity and environment, which can contribute to a more comprehensive and systematic assessment of project performance and provide empirical data for performance evaluation and management of rural drinking water safety project. Key Words: Rural drinking water

  12. Establishing Effective Environmental and Safety Performance Indicators: A Best Practice Approach in Uranium Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezansoff, D.; White, G.

    2010-01-01

    Cameco Corporation (Cameco), with headquarters in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, is the world's largest, low-cost uranium producer, currently supplying sufficient uranium to meet 20% of the world's demand. It is characterized by a diverse range of operations in Canada, the United States and Central Asia, for which Cameco is the majority owner and/or operator, including exploration, mining, milling, refining and conversion. Cameco had four business segments: Uranium; Conversion services; Nuclear energy generation; and Gold Also, in 2002, Cameco revised its vision statement to indicate, 'Cameco will be a dominant nuclear energy company producing uranium fuel and generating clean electricity'. Commensurate with this, Cameco has re-confirmed its overall measures of success as follows: A safe, healthy and rewarding workplace; A clean environment; Supportive communities; and Solid financial performance - all reflected in a growing return to shareholders. Like most organizations, Cameco recognizes the importance of conducting its operations in ways that promote continual improvement in environmental and safety performance. Demonstrating the environmental advantages of nuclear is a vital part of the overall best management practices approach. Detractors often try to point to the uranium production side of the nuclear fuel cycle in pursuit of trying to make the case that the nuclear option does not carry any special environmental advantage. These attempts are mostly based on performance from eras past, not modern performance. The uranium sector must be able to present its case in a modern context, which is largely based on sustainable development principles. This paper focuses on establishing environment and safety performance indicators for the uranium production and conversion aspects of Cameco's business, as well as in support of the environmental advantages of nuclear energy generation

  13. A strategic management model for evaluation of health, safety and environmental performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, Majid; Toutounchian, Solmaz; Roayaei, Emad; Nassiri, Parvin

    2012-05-01

    Strategic health, safety, and environmental management system (HSE-MS) involves systematic and cooperative planning in each phase of the lifecycle of a project to ensure that interaction among the industry group, client, contractor, stakeholder, and host community exists with the highest level of health, safety, and environmental standard performances. Therefore, it seems necessary to assess the HSE-MS performance of contractor(s) by a comparative strategic management model with the aim of continuous improvement. The present Strategic Management Model (SMM) has been illustrated by a case study and the results show that the model is a suitable management tool for decision making in a contract environment, especially in oil and gas fields and based on accepted international standards within the framework of management deming cycle. To develop this model, a data bank has been created, which includes the statistical data calculated by converting the HSE performance qualitative data into quantitative values. Based on this fact, the structure of the model has been formed by defining HSE performance indicators according to the HSE-MS model. Therefore, 178 indicators have been selected which have been grouped into four attributes. Model output provides quantitative measures of HSE-MS performance as a percentage of an ideal level with maximum possible score for each attribute. Defining the strengths and weaknesses of the contractor(s) is another capability of this model. On the other hand, this model provides a ranking that could be used as the basis for decision making at the contractors' pre-qualification phase or during the execution of the project.

  14. A firm size and safety performance profile of the U.S. motor carrier industry : [executive summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Motor carrier crashes continue to present a societal and public policy : problem. Large commercial truck crashes are a topic of serious concern : in Iowa. Statistics illustrate the need to make further progress on the : safety performance of motor ca...

  15. Quantifying and Maximizing Performance of a Human-Centric Robot under Precision, Safety, and Robot Specification Constraints

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The research project is an effort towards achieving 99.99% safety of mobile robots working alongside humans while matching the precision performance of industrial...

  16. Exposure data and risk indicators for safety performance assessment in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George; Bijleveld, Frits; Cardoso, João L

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this paper is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk indicators and exposure data for safety performance assessment in Europe, in terms of data availability, collection methodologies and use. More specifically, the concepts of exposure and risk are explored, as well as the theoretical properties of various exposure measures used in road safety research (e.g. vehicle- and person-kilometres of travel, vehicle fleet, road length, driver population, time spent in traffic, etc.). Moreover, the existing methods for collecting disaggregate exposure data for risk estimates at national level are presented and assessed, including survey methods (e.g. travel surveys, traffic counts) and databases (e.g. national registers). A detailed analysis of the availability and quality of existing risk exposure data is also carried out. More specifically, the results of a questionnaire survey in the European countries are presented, with detailed information on exposure measures available, their possible disaggregations (i.e. variables and values), their conformity to standard definitions and the characteristics of their national collection methods. Finally, the potential of international risk comparisons is investigated, mainly through the International Data Files with exposure data (e.g. Eurostat, IRTAD, ECMT, UNECE, IRF, etc.). The results of this review confirm that comparing risk rates at international level may be a complex task, as the availability and quality of exposure estimates in European countries varies significantly. The lack of a common framework for the collection and exploitation of exposure data limits significantly the comparability of the national data. On the other hand, the International Data Files containing exposure data provide useful statistics and estimates in a systematic way and are currently the only sources allowing international comparisons of road safety performance under certain conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  17. Five-year safety and performance results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Lyndon; Dorn, Jessy D.; Humayun, Mark S.; Dagnelie, Gislin; Handa, James; Barale, Pierre-Olivier; Sahel, José-Alain; Stanga, Paulo E.; Hafezi, Farhad; Safran, Avinoam B.; Salzmann, Joel; Santos, Arturo; Birch, David; Spencer, Rand; Cideciyan, Artur V.; de Juan, Eugene; Duncan, Jacque L.; Eliott, Dean; Fawzi, Amani; Olmos de Koo, Lisa C.; Ho, Allen C.; Brown, Gary; Haller, Julia; Regillo, Carl; Del Priore, Lucian V.; Arditi, Aries; Greenberg, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Argus® II Retinal Prosthesis System (Second Sight Medical Products, Inc., Sylmar, CA) was developed to restore some vision to patients blind from retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or outer retinal degeneration. A clinical trial was initiated in 2006 to study the long-term safety and efficacy of the Argus II System in patients with bare or no light perception due to end-stage RP. Design The study is a prospective, multicenter, single-arm, clinical trial. Within-patient controls included the non-implanted fellow eye and patients' native residual vision compared to their vision when using the System. Subjects There were 30 subjects in 10 centers in the U.S. and Europe. Methods The worse-seeing eye of blind patients was implanted with the Argus II System. Patients wore glasses mounted with a small camera and a video processor that converted images into stimulation patterns sent to the electrode array on the retina. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome measures were safety (the number, seriousness, and relatedness of adverse events) and visual function, as measured by three computer-based, objective tests. Secondary measures included functional vision performance on objectively-scored real-world tasks. Results Twenty-four out of 30 patients remained implanted with functioning Argus II Systems at 5 years post-implant. Only one additional serious adverse event was experienced since the 3-year time point. Patients performed significantly better with the System ON than OFF on all visual function tests and functional vision tasks. Conclusions The five-year results of the Argus II trial support the long-term safety profile and benefit of the Argus II System for patients blind from RP. The Argus II is the first and only retinal implant to have market approval in the European Economic Area, the United States, and Canada. PMID:27453256

  18. Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Lyndon; Dorn, Jessy D; Humayun, Mark S; Dagnelie, Gislin; Handa, James; Barale, Pierre-Olivier; Sahel, José-Alain; Stanga, Paulo E; Hafezi, Farhad; Safran, Avinoam B; Salzmann, Joel; Santos, Arturo; Birch, David; Spencer, Rand; Cideciyan, Artur V; de Juan, Eugene; Duncan, Jacque L; Eliott, Dean; Fawzi, Amani; Olmos de Koo, Lisa C; Ho, Allen C; Brown, Gary; Haller, Julia; Regillo, Carl; Del Priore, Lucian V; Arditi, Aries; Greenberg, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System (Second Sight Medical Products, Inc, Sylmar, CA) was developed to restore some vision to patients blind as a result of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or outer retinal degeneration. A clinical trial was initiated in 2006 to study the long-term safety and efficacy of the Argus II System in patients with bare or no light perception resulting from end-stage RP. Prospective, multicenter, single-arm clinical trial. Within-patient controls included the nonimplanted fellow eye and patients' native residual vision compared with their vision with the Argus II. Thirty participants in 10 centers in the United States and Europe. The worse-seeing eye of blind patients was implanted with the Argus II. Patients wore glasses mounted with a small camera and a video processor that converted images into stimulation patterns sent to the electrode array on the retina. The primary outcome measures were safety (the number, seriousness, and relatedness of adverse events) and visual function, as measured by 3 computer-based, objective tests. Secondary measures included functional vision performance on objectively scored real-world tasks. Twenty-four of 30 patients remained implanted with functioning Argus II Systems at 5 years after implantation. Only 1 additional serious adverse event was experienced after the 3-year time point. Patients performed significantly better with the Argus II on than off on all visual function tests and functional vision tasks. The 5-year results of the Argus II trial support the long-term safety profile and benefit of the Argus II System for patients blind as a result of RP. The Argus II is the first and only retinal implant to have market approval in the European Economic Area, the United States, and Canada. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Testing the performance of microbiological safety cabinets used in microbiology laboratories in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S H; Yi, T W; Cho, K H; Lee, I M; Yoon, C S

    2011-09-01

    To test a performance of the microbiological safety cabinets (MSCs) according to the type of MSCs in microbial laboratories. Tests were carried out to assess the performance of 31 MSCs in 14 different facilities, including six different biological test laboratories in six hospitals and eight different laboratories in three universities. The following tests were performed on the MSCs: the downflow test, intake velocity test, high-efficiency particulate air filter leak test and the airflow smoke pattern test. These performance tests were carried out in accordance with the standard procedures. Only 23% of Class II A1 (8), A2 (19) and unknown MSCs (4) passed these performance tests. The main reasons for the failure of MSCs were inappropriate intake velocity (65%), leakage in the HEPA filter sealing (50%), unbalanced airflow smoke pattern in the cabinets (39%) and inappropriate downflow (27%). This study showed that routine checks of MSCs are important to detect and strengthen the weak spots that frequently develop, as observed during the evaluation of the MSCs of various institutions. Routine evaluation and maintenance of MSCs are critical for optimizing performance. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Dry critical experiments and analyses performed in support of the TOPAZ-2 safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelowitz, D.B.; Sapir, J.; Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Kompanietz, G.B.; Krutov, A.M.; Polyakov, D.N.; Lobynstev, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz-2 space nuclear power system. Functional safety requirements developed for the Topaz mission mandated that the reactor remain subcritical when flooded and immersed in water. Initial experiments and analyses performed in Russia and the United States indicated that the reactor could potentially become supercritical in several water- or sand-immersion scenarios. Consequently, a series of critical experiments was performed on the Narciss M-II facility at the Kurchatov Institute to measure the reactivity effects of water and sand immersion, to quantify the effectiveness of reactor modifications proposed to preclude criticality, and to benchmark the calculational methods and nuclear data used in the Topaz-2 safety analyses. In this paper we describe the Narciss M-II experimental configurations along with the associated calculational models and methods. We also present and compare the measured and calculated results for the dry experimental configurations. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  1. Early Performance and Safety of the Micra Transcatheter Pacemaker in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Matthew; Eggen, Michael; Haddad, Tarek; Sheldon, Todd; Williams, Eric

    2015-11-01

    The Micra® Transcatheter Pacing System (TPS; Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) is a miniaturized single-chamber pacemaker system that is delivered via catheter through the femoral vein. In this study, the electrical performance was compared between the TPS and a traditional leaded pacemaker. In addition, the safety profile of the two systems was compared by thorough monitoring for a number of adverse events. The TPS was implanted in the right ventricular apex of 10 Yucatan mini pigs and a Medtronic single-lead pacemaker (SLP) was implanted in the right ventricular apex of another 10 pigs and connected to a traditional pacemaker. The electrical performance of all devices was monitored for 12 weeks. The safety profile of each system was characterized using x-ray, computed tomography, ultrasound, blood work, and necropsy to monitor for a variety of adverse events. At implant the mean pacing thresholds were 0.58 ± 0.17 V @0.24 ms and 0.75 ± 0.29 V @0.21 ms for the TPS and the SLP respectively. After 12 weeks, mean thresholds were 0.94 ± 0.46 V and 1.85 ± 0.75 V (P pacemaker system. © 2015 Medtronic PLC. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Overview of nuclear safety activities performed by JRC-IE on Gen IV fast reactor concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsige-Tamirat, H.; Ammirabile, L.; D' Agata, E.; Fuetterer, M.; Ranguelova, V. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Westerduinweg 3, 1755LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    The European Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan recognizes the need to develop new energy technologies, in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and secure energy supply in Europe. Besides renewable energy and improved energy efficiency, a new generation of nuclear power plants and innovative nuclear power applications can play a significant role to achieve this goal. The JRC Institute for Energy 'Safety of Future Nuclear Reactors' (SFNR) Unit is engaged in experimental research, numerical simulation and modelling, scientific, feasibility and engineering studies on innovative nuclear reactor systems. This also represents a significant EURATOM contribution to the Generation IV International Forum. Its activities deal with, among others, the performance assessment of innovative fuels and materials, development of new reactor core concepts and safety solutions, and knowledge management and preservation. Special attention is given to fast reactor concepts, namely the sodium (SFR) and lead (LFR) cooled reactors. Recognizing the maturity of the SFR technology, the European Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) considers a prototype SFR to be built as a next-step towards the deployment of a first-of-a-kind Gen IV SFR. This paper gives an overview of current research preformed at JRC-IE with emphasis on the work performed in the Collaborative Project on European Sodium Fast Reactor (CP-ESFR) within the European Commission's Seventh Framework Program. (authors)

  3. Overview of nuclear safety activities performed by JRC-IE on Gen IV fast reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsige-Tamirat, H.; Ammirabile, L.; D'Agata, E.; Fuetterer, M.; Ranguelova, V.

    2010-01-01

    The European Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan recognizes the need to develop new energy technologies, in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and secure energy supply in Europe. Besides renewable energy and improved energy efficiency, a new generation of nuclear power plants and innovative nuclear power applications can play a significant role to achieve this goal. The JRC Institute for Energy 'Safety of Future Nuclear Reactors' (SFNR) Unit is engaged in experimental research, numerical simulation and modelling, scientific, feasibility and engineering studies on innovative nuclear reactor systems. This also represents a significant EURATOM contribution to the Generation IV International Forum. Its activities deal with, among others, the performance assessment of innovative fuels and materials, development of new reactor core concepts and safety solutions, and knowledge management and preservation. Special attention is given to fast reactor concepts, namely the sodium (SFR) and lead (LFR) cooled reactors. Recognizing the maturity of the SFR technology, the European Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) considers a prototype SFR to be built as a next-step towards the deployment of a first-of-a-kind Gen IV SFR. This paper gives an overview of current research preformed at JRC-IE with emphasis on the work performed in the Collaborative Project on European Sodium Fast Reactor (CP-ESFR) within the European Commission's Seventh Framework Program. (authors)

  4. Do Performance-Safety Tradeoffs Cause Hypometric Metabolic Scaling in Animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jon F

    2017-09-01

    Hypometric scaling of aerobic metabolism in animals has been widely attributed to constraints on oxygen (O 2 ) supply in larger animals, but recent findings demonstrate that O 2 supply balances with need regardless of size. Larger animals also do not exhibit evidence of compensation for O 2 supply limitation. Because declining metabolic rates (MRs) are tightly linked to fitness, this provides significant evidence against the hypothesis that constraints on supply drive hypometric scaling. As an alternative, ATP demand might decline in larger animals because of performance-safety tradeoffs. Larger animals, which typically reproduce later, exhibit risk-reducing strategies that lower MR. Conversely, smaller animals are more strongly selected for growth and costly neurolocomotory performance, elevating metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards assuring the continued performance of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Mori, Y.; Arndt, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing improved technical bases for their continued service. Pertinent concrete structures are described in terms of their importance, design considerations, and materials of construction. Degradation factors which can potentially impact the ability of these structures to meet their functional and performance requirements are identified. A review of the performance history of the concrete components in nuclear power plants is provided. Accomplishments of the SLAG Program are summarized, i.e., development of the structural materials information center, development of a structural aging assessment methodology, evaluation of models for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete, review of in-service inspection methods, and development of a methodology for reliability-based condition assessment and life prediction of concrete structures. On-going activities are also described

  6. Psychological safety: The key to high performance in high stress, potentially traumatic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Saveland

    2011-01-01

    Safety is typically talked about in a context of the absence of injury. The field of resilience engineering has been advocating that we think about safety differently, by taking a systems view and begin to see how people create safety in unsafe systems by managing risk. There is growing recognition that safety is an emergent behavior of our complex system of human...

  7. Comparison of in-plant performance test data with analytic prediction of reactor safety system injection transient (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, B.N.; Neill, C.H. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This paper compares the performance test data from injection transients for both of the subsystems of the Supplementary Safety System of the Savannah River Site production reactor with analytical predictions from an in-house thermal hydraulic computer code. The code was initially developed for design validation of the new Supplementary Safety System subsystem, but is shown to be equally capable of predicting the performance of the Supplementary Safety System existing subsystem even though the two subsystem transient injections have marked differences. The code itself was discussed and its validation using prototypic tests with simulated fluids was reported in an earlier paper (Roy and Nomm 1991)

  8. Experience of RIA safety analyses performance for NPP Temelin core arranged with TVSA-T fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukov, S.A.; Lizorkin, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    The contents of the presentation are as follows: 1. Definition of categories for initiating events; 2. Acceptance criteria for safety assessment; 3. Main aspects of safety assessment methodology; 4. Main stages of calculation analysis; 5. Interface with other parts of the core design; 6. Codes used for calculation; 6.1 Main performances of code package TIGR-1; 6.2 Main performances of code BIPR-7A; 7. TIGR-1 accounting of design margins in calculation of fuel rod powers; 8. Peculiar features of Instrumentation and Control System for Temelin NPP; 9. Calculations; 10. Checklist of margin data important for reload safety assessment. (P.A.)

  9. Safety of performing a delayed anastomosis during damage control laparotomy in patients with destructive colon injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Carlos A; Pino, Luis F; Badiel, Marisol; Sánchez, Alvaro I; Loaiza, Jhon; Ballestas, Leonardo; Puyana, Juan Carlos

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies report the safety and feasibility of performing delayed anastomosis (DA) in patients undergoing damage control laparotomy (DCL) for destructive colon injuries (DCIs). Despite accumulating experience in both civilian and military trauma, questions regarding how to best identify high-risk patients and minimize the number of anastomosis-associated complications remain. Our current practice is to perform a definitive closure of the colon during DCL, unless there is persistent acidosis, bowel wall edema, or evidence of intra-abdominal abscess. In this study, we evaluated the safety of this approach by comparing outcomes of patients with DCI who underwent definitive closure of the colon during DCL versus patients managed with colostomy with or without DCL. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with penetrating DCI during 2003 to 2009. Severity of injury, surgical management, and clinical outcome were assessed. Sixty patients with severe gunshot wounds and three patients with stab wounds were included in the analysis. DCL was required in 30 patients, all with gunshot wounds. Three patients died within the first 48 hours, three underwent colostomy, and 24 were managed with DA. Thirty-three patients were managed with standard laparotomy: 26 patients with primary anastomosis and 7 with colostomy. Overall mortality rate was 9.5%. Three late deaths occurred in the DCL group, and only one death was associated with an anastomotic leak. Performing a DA in DCI during DCL is a reliable and feasible approach as long as severe acidosis, bowel wall edema, and/or persistent intra-abdominal infections are not present.

  10. Safety performance evaluation of cable median barriers on freeways in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluri, Priyanka; Haleem, Kirolos; Gan, Albert; Mauthner, John

    2016-07-03

    This article aims to evaluate the safety performance of cable median barriers on freeways in Florida. The safety performance evaluation was based on the percentages of barrier and median crossovers by vehicle type, crash severity, and cable median barrier type (Trinity Cable Safety System [CASS] and Gibraltar system). Twenty-three locations with cable median barriers totaling about 101 miles were identified. Police reports of 6,524 crashes from years 2005-2010 at these locations were reviewed to verify and obtain detailed crash information. A total of 549 crashes were determined to be barrier related (i.e., crashes involving vehicles hitting the cable median barrier) and were reviewed in further detail to identify crossover crashes and the manner in which the vehicles crossed the barriers; that is, by either overriding, underriding, or penetrating the barriers. Overall, 2.6% of vehicles that hit the cable median barrier crossed the median and traversed into the opposite travel lane. Overall, 98.1% of cars and 95.5% of light trucks that hit the barrier were prevented from crossing the median. In other words, 1.9% of cars and 4.5% of light trucks that hit the barrier had crossed the median and encroached on the opposite travel lanes. There is no significant difference in the performance of cable median barrier for cars versus light trucks in terms of crossover crashes. In terms of severity, overrides were more severe compared to underrides and penetrations. The statistics showed that the CASS and Gibraltar systems performed similarly in terms of crossover crashes. However, the Gibraltar system experienced a higher proportion of penetrations compared to the CASS system. The CASS system resulted in a slightly higher percentage of moderate and minor injury crashes compared to the Gibraltar system. Cable median barriers are successful in preventing median crossover crashes; 97.4% of the cable median barrier crashes were prevented from crossing over the median. Of all of

  11. Impact of Performance Obstacles on Intensive Care Nurses‘ Workload, Perceived Quality and Safety of Care, and Quality of Working Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, Ayse P; Carayon, Pascale; Wall, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the impact of performance obstacles on intensive care nurses‘ workload, quality and safety of care, and quality of working life (QWL). Performance obstacles are factors that hinder nurses‘ capacity to perform their job and that are closely associated with their immediate work system. Data Sources/Study Setting Data were collected from 265 nurses in 17 intensive care units (ICUs) between February and August 2004 via a structured questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 80 percent. Study Design A cross-sectional study design was used. Data were analyzed by correlation analyses and structural equation modeling. Principal Findings Performance obstacles were found to affect perceived quality and safety of care and QWL of ICU nurses. Workload mediated the impact of performance obstacles with the exception of equipment-related issues on perceived quality and safety of care as well as QWL. Conclusions Performance obstacles in ICUs are a major determinant of nursing workload, perceived quality and safety of care, and QWL. In general, performance obstacles increase nursing workload, which in turn negatively affect perceived quality and safety of care and QWL. Redesigning the ICU work system to reduce performance obstacles may improve nurses‘ work. PMID:19207589

  12. Comparison of lead and sodium-cooled reactors - Safety, fuel cycle performance and some economical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Johan; Tucek, Kamil; Wider, Hartmut [Joint Research Centre, EC-JRC, Westerduinweg 3, P.O. Box 2, NL-0 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    This paper compares the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) regarding different aspects of the coolant, safety and economics. A brief review of design and safety experience of an SFR (BN-600) and some safety philosophy of the most developed LFR (BREST) are presented as well. The pros and cons of the lead and the sodium coolants are discussed. This paper presents results concerning the coolant temperature evolution during three accident scenarios, i.e. Loss-Of- Flow (LOF), Loss-Of-Heat-Sink (LOHS), and Total-Loss-Of-Power (TLOP). It also studies possible moderators, like BeO and hydrides, for the core designs to have negative reactivity feedbacks and favorable reactivity swings. LFR seems to be able to accommodate more minor actinides than SFR at comparable coolant and Doppler feedbacks. We show that LFR can be designed both to breed and burn transuranics from LWRs. The hydrides lead to the most favorable reactivity feedbacks, but the poorest reactivity swing. It is shown that the LFR can handle the LOF transient better than the SFR. This is due to the much lower pressure drop in the LFR core. The coolant outlet temperatures stabilize at 2050 K and 940 K for SFR and LFR, respectively when no feedbacks are considered. Investigations also concern the SFR's performance when the pitch-to-diameter was increased from 1.2 to 1.4. For the LOHS and TLOP accidents their temperature evolutions are milder for the LFR since lead has a 50% larger volumetric heat capacity. For the TLOP the core outlet temperature of the LFR peaks at 1080 K after 2 days. Regarding economics it appears easier to avoid an intermediate cycle in an LFR than an SFR. (authors)

  13. Comparison of lead and sodium-cooled reactors - Safety, fuel cycle performance and some economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Johan; Tucek, Kamil; Wider, Hartmut

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) regarding different aspects of the coolant, safety and economics. A brief review of design and safety experience of an SFR (BN-600) and some safety philosophy of the most developed LFR (BREST) are presented as well. The pros and cons of the lead and the sodium coolants are discussed. This paper presents results concerning the coolant temperature evolution during three accident scenarios, i.e. Loss-Of- Flow (LOF), Loss-Of-Heat-Sink (LOHS), and Total-Loss-Of-Power (TLOP). It also studies possible moderators, like BeO and hydrides, for the core designs to have negative reactivity feedbacks and favorable reactivity swings. LFR seems to be able to accommodate more minor actinides than SFR at comparable coolant and Doppler feedbacks. We show that LFR can be designed both to breed and burn transuranics from LWRs. The hydrides lead to the most favorable reactivity feedbacks, but the poorest reactivity swing. It is shown that the LFR can handle the LOF transient better than the SFR. This is due to the much lower pressure drop in the LFR core. The coolant outlet temperatures stabilize at 2050 K and 940 K for SFR and LFR, respectively when no feedbacks are considered. Investigations also concern the SFR's performance when the pitch-to-diameter was increased from 1.2 to 1.4. For the LOHS and TLOP accidents their temperature evolutions are milder for the LFR since lead has a 50% larger volumetric heat capacity. For the TLOP the core outlet temperature of the LFR peaks at 1080 K after 2 days. Regarding economics it appears easier to avoid an intermediate cycle in an LFR than an SFR. (authors)

  14. Surgical procedures performed in the neonatal intensive care unit on critically ill neonates: feasibility and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, M.S.; Jado, A.M.; Al-Bassam, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Transferring unstable, ill neonates to and from the operating rooms carries significant risks and can lead to morbidity. We report on our experience in performing certain procedures in critically ill neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We examined the feasibility and safety for such an approach. All surgical procedures performed in the NICU between January 1999 and December 2005 were analyzed in terms of demographic data, diagnosis, preoperative stability of the patient, procedures performed, complications and outcome. Operations were performed at beside in the NICU in critically ill, unstable neonates who needed emergency surgery, in neonates of low birth weight (<1000 gm) and in neonates on special equipments like higher frequency ventilators and nitrous oxide. Thirty-seven surgical procedures were performed including 12 laparotomies, bowel resection and stomies, 7 repairs of congenital diaphragmatic hernias, 4 ligations of patent ductus arteriosus and various others. Birth weights ranged between 850 gm and 3500 gm (mean 2000 gm). Gestational age ranged between 25 to 42 weeks (mean, 33 weeks). Age at surgery was between 1 to 30 days (mean, 30 days). Preoperatively, 19 patients (51.3%) were on inotropic support and all were intubated and mechanically ventilated. There was no mortality related to surgical procedures. Postoperatively, one patient developed wound infection and disruption. Performing major surgical procedures in the NICU is both feasible and safe. It is useful in very low birth weight, critically ill neonates who have definite risk attached to transfer to the operating room. No special area is needed in the NICU to perform complication-free surgery, but designing an operating room within the NICU will be ideal. (author)

  15. Implementation of a novel taxonomy based on cognitive work analysis in the assessment of safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Toivo

    2017-12-12

    The aim of this study was to examine how the developed taxonomy of cognitive work analysis (CWA) can be applied in combination with statistical analysis regarding different sociotechnical categories. This study applied a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Workers (n = 120) and managers (n = 85) in the chemical industry were asked in a questionnaire how different occupational safety and health (OSH) measures were being implemented. The exploration of the qualitative CWA taxonomy consisted of an analysis of the following topics: (a) work domain; (b) control task; (c) strategies; (d) social organization and cooperation; (e) worker competencies. The following hypotheses were supported - activities of the management had positive impacts on the aggregated variables: near-accident investigation and instructions (H 1 ); OSH training (H 2 ); operations, technical processes and safe use of chemicals (H 3 ); use of personal protective equipment (H 4 ); measuring, follow-up and prevention of major accidents (H 5 ). The CWA taxonomy was applied in mixed methods when testing H 1 -H 5 . A special approach is to analyze the work demands of complex sociotechnical systems with the taxonomy of CWA. In problem-solving, the CWA taxonomy should seek to capitalize on the strengths and minimize the limitations of safety performance.

  16. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R and D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality

  17. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.

    2003-02-24

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R&D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality.

  18. A look at new key performance criteria that could most affect the safety of long term storage of nuclear waste. A case study commissioned by CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A.; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C

    2002-01-01

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R and D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting research work to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as a few centuries. This goal is a significant departure from current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study in which MUTADIS Consultants and CEPN were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods of time - one dating back to the end of the 18th century - and identified off the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behaviour and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were and are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result the study group obtained a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered when technical studies are conducted. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality. (author)

  19. Opinion and Special Articles: Stress when performing the first lumbar puncture may compromise patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Wienecke, Troels; Kristiansen, Jesper; Park, Yoon Soo; Ringsted, Charlotte; Konge, Lars

    2018-05-22

    To quantify physician stress levels when performing lumbar puncture (LP) and explore operator stress effect on patient outcomes. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study. Novices, intermediates, and experts in performing LP were recruited from 4 departments of neurology and emergency medicine. Stress was measured before and during performance of the LP using cognitive appraisal (CA), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Short (STAI-S) questionnaire, and the heart rate variability measure low frequency/high frequency index (LF/HF ratio). Patient-related outcomes were pain, confidence in the operator, and postdural puncture headache (PDPH). Forty-six physicians were included in the study: 22 novices, 12 intermediates, and 12 experts. Novices had the highest stress level and experts the lowest measured by cognitive appraisal and STAI-S before and during LP performance ( p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Novices had the highest sympathetic tonus indicated by the highest LF/HF ratio before ( p = 0.004) and during ( p = 0.056) LP performance. Physician stress level was not significantly related to patients' pain. However, there was a significant relationship between STAI-S during the procedure and patient confidence in the operator (regression coefficient = -0.034, p = 0.008). High physician heart rate during the procedure significantly increased the odds of PDPH (odds ratio = 1.17, p = 0.036). Novice stress levels were high before and during performance of LP. Stress was significantly related to patient confidence in the operator and risk of PDPH. Simulation-based training should be considered to reduce novice residents' stress levels and increase patient safety. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Challenges in performance of food safety management systems: a case of fish processing companies in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussaga, Jamal B; Luning, Pieternel A; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka P M; Jacxsens, Liesbeth

    2014-04-01

    This study provides insight for food safety (FS) performance in light of the current performance of core FS management system (FSMS) activities and context riskiness of these systems to identify the opportunities for improvement of the FSMS. A FSMS diagnostic instrument was applied to assess the performance levels of FSMS activities regarding context riskiness and FS performance in 14 fish processing companies in Tanzania. Two clusters (cluster I and II) with average FSMS (level 2) operating under moderate-risk context (score 2) were identified. Overall, cluster I had better (score 3) FS performance than cluster II (score 2 to 3). However, a majority of the fish companies need further improvement of their FSMS and reduction of context riskiness to assure good FS performance. The FSMS activity levels could be improved through hygienic design of equipment and facilities, strict raw material control, proper follow-up of critical control point analysis, developing specific sanitation procedures and company-specific sampling design and measuring plans, independent validation of preventive measures, and establishing comprehensive documentation and record-keeping systems. The risk level of the context could be reduced through automation of production processes (such as filleting, packaging, and sanitation) to restrict people's interference, recruitment of permanent high-skilled technological staff, and setting requirements on product use (storage and distribution conditions) on customers. However, such intervention measures for improvement could be taken in phases, starting with less expensive ones (such as sanitation procedures) that can be implemented in the short term to more expensive interventions (setting up assurance activities) to be adopted in the long term. These measures are essential for fish processing companies to move toward FSMS that are more effective.

  1. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1983-08-01

    The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m 2 , with 0.5 MW/m 2 as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state

  2. Safety Evaluation report on Tennessee Valley Authority: Sequoyah nuclear performance plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report (SER) on the information submitted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in its Sequoyah Nuclear Performance Plan, through Revision 2, and supporting documents has been prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff. The plan addresses the plant-specific concerns requiring resolution before startup of either of the Sequoyah units. In particular, the SER addresses required actions for Unit 2 restart. In many cases, the programmatic aspects for Unit 1 are identical to those for Unit 2; the staff will conduct inspections of implementation of those programs. Where the Unit 1 program is different, the staff evaluation will be provided in a supplement to this SER. On the basis of its review, the staff concludes that Sequoyah-specific issues have been resolved to the extent that would support restart of Sequoyah Unit 2

  3. ‘Speaking Truth’ Protects Underrepresented Minorities’ Intellectual Performance and Safety in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zeev, Avi; Paluy, Yula; Milless, Katlyn L.; Goldstein, Emily J.; Wallace, Lyndsey; Márquez-Magaña, Leticia; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Estrada, Mica

    2017-01-01

    We offer and test a brief psychosocial intervention, Speaking Truth to EmPower (STEP), designed to protect underrepresented minorities’ (URMs) intellectual performance and safety in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). STEP takes a ‘knowledge as power’ approach by: (a) providing a tutorial on stereotype threat (i.e., a social contextual phenomenon, implicated in underperformance and early exit) and (b) encouraging URMs to use lived experiences for generating be-prepared coping strategies. Participants were 670 STEM undergraduates [URMs (Black/African American and Latina/o) and non-URMs (White/European American and Asian/Asian American)]. STEP protected URMs’ abstract reasoning and class grades (adjusted for grade point average [GPA]) as well as decreased URMs’ worries about confirming ethnic/racial stereotypes. STEP’s two-pronged approach—explicating the effects of structural ‘isms’ while harnessing URMs’ existing assets—shows promise in increasing diversification and equity in STEM. PMID:28835879

  4. 'Speaking Truth' Protects Underrepresented Minorities' Intellectual Performance and Safety in STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zeev, Avi; Paluy, Yula; Milless, Katlyn L; Goldstein, Emily J; Wallace, Lyndsey; Márquez-Magaña, Leticia; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Estrada, Mica

    2017-06-01

    We offer and test a brief psychosocial intervention, Speaking Truth to EmPower (STEP), designed to protect underrepresented minorities' (URMs) intellectual performance and safety in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). STEP takes a 'knowledge as power' approach by: (a) providing a tutorial on stereotype threat (i.e., a social contextual phenomenon, implicated in underperformance and early exit) and (b) encouraging URMs to use lived experiences for generating be-prepared coping strategies. Participants were 670 STEM undergraduates [URMs (Black/African American and Latina/o) and non-URMs (White/European American and Asian/Asian American)]. STEP protected URMs' abstract reasoning and class grades (adjusted for grade point average [GPA]) as well as decreased URMs' worries about confirming ethnic/racial stereotypes. STEP's two-pronged approach-explicating the effects of structural 'isms' while harnessing URMs' existing assets-shows promise in increasing diversification and equity in STEM.

  5. Next generation safety performance monitoring at signalized intersections using connected vehicle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Crash-based safety evaluation is often hampered by randomness, lack of timeliness, and rarity of crash : occurrences. This is particularly the case for technology-driven safety improvement projects that are : frequently updated or replaced by newer o...

  6. Dust control products at Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge, Texas: environmental safety and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Bethany K.; Little, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling fugitive dust while protecting natural resources is a challenge faced by all managers of unpaved roads. Unfortunately, road managers choosing between dust control products often have little objective environmental information to aid their decisions. To address this information gap, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collaborated on a field test of three dust control products with the objectives of (a) evaluating product performance under real-world conditions, (b) verifying the environmental safety of products identified as practically nontoxic in laboratory tests, and (c) testing the feasibility of several environmental monitoring techniques for use in dust control tests. In cooperation with refuge staff and product vendors, three products (one magnesium chloride plus binder, one cellulose, and one synthetic fluid plus binder) were applied in July 2012 to replicated road sections at the Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge in Texas. These sections were monitored periodically for 12 months after application. Product performance was assessed by mobile-mounted particulate-matter meters measuring production of fugitive dust and by observations of road conditions. Environmental safety was evaluated through on-site biological observations and leaching tests with samples of treated aggregate. All products reduced dust and improved surface condition during those 12 months. Planned environmental measurements were not always compatible with day-to-day refuge management actions; this incompatibility highlighted the need for flexible biological monitoring plans. As one of the first field tests of dust suppressants that explicitly incorporated biological endpoints, this effort provides valuable information for improving field tests and for developing laboratory or semifield alternatives.

  7. Safety, efficacy, and performance of implanted recycled cardiac rhythm management (CRM) devices in underprivileged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Reema; Ghanbari, Hamid; Feldman, Dustin; Menesses, Daniel; Rivas, Daniel; Zakhem, Nicole C; Duarte, Carlos; Machado, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Patients in underdeveloped nations have limited access to life-saving medical technology including cardiac rhythm management (CRM) devices. We evaluated alternative means to provide such technology to this patient population while assessing the safety and efficacy of such a practice. Patients in the United States with clinical indications for extraction of CRM devices were consented. Antemortem CRM devices were cleaned and sterilized following a protocol established at our institution. Surveillance in vitro cultures were performed for quality assurance. The functional status of pulse generators was tested with a pacing system analyzer to confirm at least 70% battery life. Most generators were transported, in person, to an implanting institution in Nicaragua. Recipients with a Class I indication for CRM implantation, and meeting economical criteria set forth, were consented for implantation of a recycled device. Between 2003 and 2009, implantation was performed in 17 patients with an average age of 42.1 ± 20.3 years. Of the 17 patients, nine were male and eight were female. Mean follow-up was 68 ± 38 months. Device evaluation occurred prior to discharge, 4 weeks post implantation, and every 6 months thereafter. There were three deaths during the follow-up period secondary to myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. Hematoma formation occurred in one patient. No infections, early battery depletion, or device malfunction were identified during follow-up. Our case series is the longest follow-up of recipients of recycled antemortem CRM devices. Our findings support the feasibility and safety of this alternative acquisition of life-saving technology. ©2011, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Safety- and performance indicators for a generic deep geological repository in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resele, G.; Niemeyer, M.; Wilhelm, St.; Heimer, St.; Mohlfeld, M.; Eilers, G.; Preuss, J.; Wollrath, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. As a first step of an impartial survey for an optimal site selection for a deep geological repository in Germany, potentially suitable regions shall be identified and localised according to their suitability. During the early phases of such a site selection procedure the information about the properties of the host rock and the geological situation at the potential sites is not very precise. As site investigation procedures are both expensive and time-consuming, it is essential to identify those properties of the geological barrier system that are most relevant for long-term safety. Furthermore, adequate indicators have to be chosen that allow a simple but efficient assessment of the suitability of the potential regions. Definition and application of 'exclusion criteria' based on single parameter values, e.g. the hydraulic conductivity of the host rock, is inadequate because the long-term safety depends on the interaction of many features and properties of the barrier system. In a research project, indicators have been developed which depend on the most relevant properties of the geological barriers and estimate the overall performance of a repository system. The application of these indicators on the barrier properties which have been found during the investigations of potential repository sites in clay located in Germany, Switzerland and France demonstrates how, for instance, an unfavourably high hydraulic permeability of the clay can be compensated by a large vertical extension of the clay layer and small hydraulic gradients. Other indicators evaluate the importance of hydraulic discontinuities and define the minimal requirements on technical barriers like seals and backfill of emplacement tunnels. When the information of the radionuclide inventory and the biosphere, especially the diluting aquifer is included, the indicators allow the estimation of the resulting dose which matches the result of a

  9. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  10. The effect of occupational health and safety, work environment and discipline on employee performance in a consumer goods company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, D. O.; Triatmanto, B.; Setiyadi, S.

    2018-04-01

    Employee performance can be the supporting factor of company performance. However, employee performance can be affected by several factors. Employees can have optimal performance if they feel safe, have good working environment and have discipline. The purposes of this research are to analyze the effect of occupational health and safety, work environment and discipline on the employee performance in PPIC Thermo section in a consumer goods company and to find the dominant variable which primarily affects employee performance. This research was conducted by taking data from 47 respondents. The data were collected using questionnaire. The techniques in data analysis is multiple linear regression with SPSS software. The result shows that occupational health and safety, work environment and discipline are simultaneously significant to the employee performance. Discipline holds the dominant factor which affects employee performance.

  11. Assessing Risk-Based Performance Indicators in Safety-Critical Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    TONT Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes framework for a multidisciplinary nuclear risk and safety assessment by modeling uncertainty and combining diverse evidence provided in such a way that it could be used to represent an entire argument about a system's dependability. The identified safety issues are being treated by means of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The behavior simulation of power plant in thepresence of risk factors is analyzed from the vulnerability, risk and functional safety viewpoints, hi...

  12. Testing the effects of safety climate and disruptive children behavior on school bus drivers performance: A multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Dov; Lee, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The study was designed to test a multilevel path model whose variables exert opposing effects on school bus drivers' performance. Whereas departmental safety climate was expected to improve driving safety, the opposite was true for in-vehicle disruptive children behavior. The driving safety path in this model consists of increasing risk-taking practices starting with safety shortcuts leading to rule violations and to near-miss events. The study used a sample of 474 school bus drivers in rural areas, driving children to school and school-related activities. Newly developed scales for measuring predictor, mediator and outcome variables were validated with video data taken from inner and outer cameras, which were installed in 29 buses. Results partially supported the model by indicating that group-level safety climate and individual-level children distraction exerted opposite effects on the driving safety path. Furthermore, as hypothesized, children disruption moderated the strength of the safety rule violation-near miss relationship, resulting in greater strength under high disruptiveness. At the same time, the hypothesized interaction between the two predictor variables was not supported. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate in general and distracted driving in particular for professional drivers are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Performance Improvement of Power Supply Module for Safety-related Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Kyun; Yun, Dong-Hwa; Hwang, Sung-Jae; Lee, Myeong-Kyun; Yoo, Kwan-Woo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, in relation to voltage shortage state when power supply module is a slave mode, the performance improvement by modifying a PFC(Power Factor Correction) circuit is presented. With the modification of the PFC circuit, the performance improvement in respect of the voltage shortage state when the power supply module is a slave mode is checked. As a result, POSAFE-Q PLC can ensure the stability with the redundant power supply module. The purpose of this paper is to improve the redundant performance of power supply module(NSPS-2Q). It is one of components in POSAFE-Q which is a PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) that has been developed for the evaluation of safety-related. Power supply module provides a stable power in order that POSAFE-Q can be operated normally. It is possible to be mounted two power supply modules in POSAFE-Q for a redundant(Master/Slave) function. So that even if a problem occurs in one power supply module, another power supply module will provide a power to POSAFE-Q stably

  14. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  15. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M and S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V and V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M and S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V and V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V and V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M and S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V and V into subcontinuum scale M and S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  16. A Performance Improvement of Power Supply Module for Safety-related Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Kyun; Yun, Dong-Hwa; Hwang, Sung-Jae; Lee, Myeong-Kyun; Yoo, Kwan-Woo [PONUTech Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, in relation to voltage shortage state when power supply module is a slave mode, the performance improvement by modifying a PFC(Power Factor Correction) circuit is presented. With the modification of the PFC circuit, the performance improvement in respect of the voltage shortage state when the power supply module is a slave mode is checked. As a result, POSAFE-Q PLC can ensure the stability with the redundant power supply module. The purpose of this paper is to improve the redundant performance of power supply module(NSPS-2Q). It is one of components in POSAFE-Q which is a PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) that has been developed for the evaluation of safety-related. Power supply module provides a stable power in order that POSAFE-Q can be operated normally. It is possible to be mounted two power supply modules in POSAFE-Q for a redundant(Master/Slave) function. So that even if a problem occurs in one power supply module, another power supply module will provide a power to POSAFE-Q stably.

  17. A Microbial Assessment Scheme to measure microbial performance of Food Safety Management Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Kussaga, J.; Luning, P.A.; Spiegel, van der M.; Devlieghere, F.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2009-01-01

    A Food Safety Management System (FSMS) implemented in a food processing industry is based on Good Hygienic Practices (GHP), Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles and should address both food safety control and assurance activities in order to guarantee food safety. One of the

  18. Rodent model for assessing the long term safety and performance of peripheral nerve recording electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Srikanth; Patel, Kunal; Welle, Cristin

    2017-02-01

    Objective. In the US alone, there are approximately 185 000 cases of limb amputation annually, which can reduce the quality of life for those individuals. Current prosthesis technology could be improved by access to signals from the nervous system for intuitive prosthesis control. After amputation, residual peripheral nerves continue to convey motor signals and electrical stimulation of these nerves can elicit sensory percepts. However, current technology for extracting information directly from peripheral nerves has limited chronic reliability, and novel approaches must be vetted to ensure safe long-term use. The present study aims to optimize methods to establish a test platform using rodent model to assess the long term safety and performance of electrode interfaces implanted in the peripheral nerves. Approach. Floating Microelectrode Arrays (FMA, Microprobes for Life Sciences) were implanted into the rodent sciatic nerve. Weekly in vivo recordings and impedance measurements were performed in animals to assess performance and physical integrity of electrodes. Motor (walking track analysis) and sensory (Von Frey) function tests were used to assess change in nerve function due to the implant. Following the terminal recording session, the nerve was explanted and the health of axons, myelin and surrounding tissues were assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The explanted electrodes were visualized under high magnification using scanning electrode microscopy (SEM) to observe any physical damage. Main results. Recordings of axonal action potentials demonstrated notable session-to-session variability. Impedance of the electrodes increased upon implantation and displayed relative stability until electrode failure. Initial deficits in motor function recovered by 2 weeks, while sensory deficits persisted through 6 weeks of assessment. The primary cause of failure was identified as lead wire breakage in all of animals. IHC indicated myelinated and unmyelinated axons

  19. Comparison of nuclear safety research reactor (TRIGA-ACPR) performance with analytical prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.B.; Whittemore, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The NSRR was taken critical on June 30, 1975 at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute - Tokai-mura, Japan. Following initial core loading and control rod calibration, a series of pulsing tests was performed to characterize the performance of the reactor. A comparison has been made of performance parameters actually measured in the 157 element core versus predicted values based upon design analyses. The nuclear parameters measured were quite close to prediction. A $4.70 pulse produced a minimum period of 1.12 msec, a peak power of 20,500 MW and yielded a prompt energy release of 103 MW-sec. Pulse tests with experimental UO 2 fuel pins in the central irradiation cavity have produced 320 cal/gm, averaged at the axial center of 10% enriched UO 2 , for a 100 MW-sec pulse. The pulse rods for the NSRR contain B 4 C enriched to about 93 percent in Boron-10 in order to achieve maximum design performance with only three pulse rods. The total worth for the three transient rods was measured to be about $5.05 (vs $5.07 calculated for the 165 element core), thus verifying the effectiveness of the Boron-10 enrichment to achieve the desired result. Analysis of fuel temperature measurements made in the NSRR show that, for fuel temperatures produced during pulsing greater than 900 deg. C, heat transfer in the 0.010-inch gap between fuel and clad is enhanced by the minor outgassing of hydrogen which is characteristic of that temperature region. The hydrogen is normally all reabsorbed within about 100 sec of maximum temperature, at which time the heat transfer is characteristic of air (or argon) in the gap. In some of the temperature-instrumented elements, however, all of the hydrogen was not reabsorbed and as a result these elements gave significantly lower temperatures for high power steady state operation than were recorded prior to pulsing. In general, the NSRR parameters measured during startup were quite close to analytical prediction and the overall performance of the

  20. Acute and chronic safety and efficacy of dose dependent creatine nitrate supplementation and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Elfego; Walker, Dillon K; Simbo, Sunday Y; Dalton, Ryan; Levers, Kyle; O'Connor, Abigail; Goodenough, Chelsea; Barringer, Nicholas D; Greenwood, Mike; Rasmussen, Christopher; Smith, Stephen B; Riechman, Steven E; Fluckey, James D; Murano, Peter S; Earnest, Conrad P; Kreider, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Creatine monohydrate (CrM) and nitrate are popular supplements for improving exercise performance; yet have not been investigated in combination. We performed two studies to determine the safety and exercise performance-characteristics of creatine nitrate (CrN) supplementation. Study 1 participants (N = 13) ingested 1.5 g CrN (CrN-Low), 3 g CrN (CrN-High), 5 g CrM or a placebo in a randomized, crossover study (7d washout) to determine supplement safety (hepatorenal and muscle enzymes, heart rate, blood pressure and side effects) measured at time-0 (unsupplemented), 30-min, and then hourly for 5-h post-ingestion. Study 2 participants (N = 48) received the same CrN treatments vs. 3 g CrM in a randomized, double-blind, 28d trial inclusive of a 7-d interim testing period and loading sequence (4 servings/d). Day-7 and d-28 measured Tendo™ bench press performance, Wingate testing and a 6x6-s bicycle ergometer sprint. Data were analyzed using a GLM and results are reported as mean ± SD or mean change ± 95 % CI. In both studies we observed several significant, yet stochastic changes in blood markers that were not indicative of potential harm or consistent for any treatment group. Equally, all treatment groups reported a similar number of minimal side effects. In Study 2, there was a significant increase in plasma nitrates for both CrN groups by d-7, subsequently abating by d-28. Muscle creatine increased significantly by d-7 in the CrM and CrN-High groups, but then decreased by d-28 for CrN-High. By d-28, there were significant increases in bench press lifting volume (kg) for all groups (PLA, 126.6, 95 % CI 26.3, 226.8; CrM, 194.1, 95 % CI 89.0, 299.2; CrN-Low, 118.3, 95 % CI 26.1, 210.5; CrN-High, 267.2, 95 % CI 175.0, 359.4, kg). Only the CrN-High group was significantly greater than PLA (p power (PLA, 59.0, 95 % CI 4.5, 113.4; CrM, 68.6, 95 % CI 11.4, 125.8; CrN-Low, 40.9, 95 % CI -9.2, 91.0; CrN-High, 60.9, 95 % CI 10.8, 111.1, W) and

  1. Scale of production and implementation of food safety programs influence the performance of current food safety management systems: Case of dairy processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Opiyo, Beatrice; Wangoh, John

    2017-01-01

    An FSMS-Diagnostic Instrument was used to evaluate fifteen Kenyan dairy processors based on indicators and descriptive grids for context riskiness, FSMS activities, and microbial food safety (FS) output with respect to scale of production. Contextual riskiness was diagnosed as low, moderate or hi....... FSMS activities were diagnosed as absent, basic, average or advanced. FS output was diagnosed as not performed, poor, moderate or good. Four clusters with significantly different (p ...

  2. Performance and safety of femoral central venous catheters in pediatric autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, Laura; Hoffmann, Sandra; Webb, Dawn; Yamada, Chisa; Davenport, Robertson; Choi, Sung Won

    2017-12-01

    Autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cell collection (A-HPCC) in children typically requires placement of a central venous catheter (CVC) for venous access. There is scant published data regarding the performance and safety of femoral CVCs in pediatric A-HPCC. Seven-year, retrospective study of A-HPCC in pediatric patients collected between 2009 and January 2017. Inclusion criteria were an age ≤ 21 years and A-HPCC using a femoral CVC for venous access. Femoral CVC performance was examined by CD34 collection rate, inlet rate, collection efficiency (MNC-FE, CD34-FE), bleeding, flow-related adverse events (AE), CVC removal, and product sterility testing. Statistical analysis and graphing were performed with commercial software. A total of 75/119 (63%) pediatric patients (median age 3 years) met study criteria. Only 16% of children required a CVC for ≥ 3 days. The CD34 collect rate and CD34-FE was stable over time whereas MNC-FE decreased after day 4 in 80% of patients. CD34-FE and MNC-FE showed inter- and intra-patient variability over time and appeared sensitive to plerixafor administration. Femoral CVC showed fewer flow-related AE compared to thoracic CVC, especially in pediatric patients (6.7% vs. 37%, P = 0.0005; OR = 0.12 (95%CI: 0.03-0.45). CVC removal was uneventful in 73/75 (97%) patients with hemostasis achieved after 20-30 min of pressure. In a 10-year period, there were no instances of product contamination associated with femoral CVC colonization. Femoral CVC are safe and effective for A-HPCC in young pediatric patients. Femoral CVC performance was maintained over several days with few flow-related alarms when compared to thoracic CVCs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Relationship Between Operating Room Teamwork, Contextual Factors, and Safety Checklist Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Sara J; Molina, George; Li, Zhonghe; Jiang, Wei; Nurudeen, Suliat; Kite, Julia G; Edmondson, Lizabeth; Foster, Richard; Haynes, Alex B; Berry, William R

    2016-10-01

    Studies show that using surgical safety checklists (SSCs) reduces complications. Many believe SSCs accomplish this by enhancing teamwork, but evidence is limited. Our study sought to relate teamwork to checklist performance, understand how they relate, and determine conditions that affect this relationship. Using 2 validated tools for observing and coaching operating room teams, we evaluated the association between checklist performance with surgeon buy-in and 4 domains of surgical teamwork: clinical leadership, communication, coordination, and respect. Hospital staff in 10 South Carolina hospitals observed 207 procedures between April 2011 and January 2013. We calculated levels of checklist performance, buy-in, and measures of teamwork, and evaluated their relationship, controlling for patient and case characteristics. Few teams completed most or all SSC items. Teams more often completed items considered procedural "checks" than conversation "prompts." Surgeon buy-in, clinical leadership, communication, a summary measure of teamwork overall, and observers' teamwork ratings positively related to overall checklist completion (multivariable model estimates from 0.04, p < 0.05 for communication to 0.17, p < 0.01 for surgeon buy-in). All measures of teamwork and surgeon buy-in related positively to completing more conversation prompts; none related significantly to procedural checks (estimates from 0.10, p < 0.01 for communication to 0.27, p < 0.001 for surgeon buy-in). Patient age was significantly associated with completing the checklist and prompts (p < 0.05); only case duration was positively associated with performing more checks (p < 0.10). Surgeon buy-in and surgical teamwork characterized by shared clinical leadership, open communication, active coordination, and mutual respect were critical in prompting case-related conversations, but not in completing procedural checks. Findings highlight the importance of surgeon engagement and high-quality, consistent

  4. APMS: An Integrated Suite of Tools for Measuring Performance and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, Irving C.; Lynch, Robert E.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of work in progress. In it, I summarize the status of the research and development of the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) for managing, processing, and analyzing digital flight-recorded data. The objectives of the NASA-FAA APMS research project are to establish a sound scientific and technological basis for flight-data analysis, to define an open and flexible architecture for flight-data-analysis systems, and to articulate guidelines for a standardized database structure on which to continue to build future flight-data-analysis extensions. APMS will offer to the air transport community an open, voluntary standard for flight-data-analysis software, a standard that will help to ensure suitable functionality, and data interchangeability, among competing software programs. APMS will develop and document the methodologies, algorithms, and procedures for data management and analyses to enable users to easily interpret the implications regarding safety and efficiency of operations. APMS does not entail the implementation of a nationwide flight-data-collection system. It is intended to provide technical tools to ease the large-scale implementation of flight-data analyses at both the air-carrier and the national-airspace levels in support of their Flight Operations and Quality Assurance (FOQA) Programs and Advanced Qualifications Programs (AQP). APMS cannot meet its objectives unless it develops tools that go substantially beyond the capabilities of the current commercially available software and supporting analytic methods that are mainly designed to count special events. These existing capabilities, while of proven value, were created primarily with the needs of air crews in mind. APMS tools must serve the needs of the government and air carriers, as well as air crews, to fully support the FOQA and AQP programs. They must be able to derive knowledge not only through the analysis of single flights (special-event detection), but through

  5. Geographically weighted negative binomial regression applied to zonal level safety performance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos José Timbó Lima; Cunto, Flávio; da Silva, Alan Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    Generalized Linear Models (GLM) with negative binomial distribution for errors, have been widely used to estimate safety at the level of transportation planning. The limited ability of this technique to take spatial effects into account can be overcome through the use of local models from spatial regression techniques, such as Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR). Although GWPR is a system that deals with spatial dependency and heterogeneity and has already been used in some road safety studies at the planning level, it fails to account for the possible overdispersion that can be found in the observations on road-traffic crashes. Two approaches were adopted for the Geographically Weighted Negative Binomial Regression (GWNBR) model to allow discrete data to be modeled in a non-stationary form and to take note of the overdispersion of the data: the first examines the constant overdispersion for all the traffic zones and the second includes the variable for each spatial unit. This research conducts a comparative analysis between non-spatial global crash prediction models and spatial local GWPR and GWNBR at the level of traffic zones in Fortaleza/Brazil. A geographic database of 126 traffic zones was compiled from the available data on exposure, network characteristics, socioeconomic factors and land use. The models were calibrated by using the frequency of injury crashes as a dependent variable and the results showed that GWPR and GWNBR achieved a better performance than GLM for the average residuals and likelihood as well as reducing the spatial autocorrelation of the residuals, and the GWNBR model was more able to capture the spatial heterogeneity of the crash frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-01-01

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model

  7. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  8. The role of human performance in the safety complex plants' operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preda, Irina Aida; Lazar, Roxana Elena; Croitoru, Cornelia

    1999-01-01

    According to statistics, about 20-30% from the failures occurred in the plants are caused directly or indirectly by human errors. Furthermore, it was established that 10-15% of the global failures are related with the human errors. These are mainly due to the wrong actions, maintenance errors, and misinterpretation of instruments. The human performance is influenced by: professional ability, complexity and danger to the plant experience in the working place, level of skills, events in personal and/or professional life, discipline, social ambience, somatic health. The human performances' assessment in the probabilistic safety assessment offers the possibility of evaluation of human contribution to the events sequences outcome. Not all the human errors have impact on the system. A human error may be recovered before the unwanted consequences had been occurred on system. This paper presents the possibilities to use the probabilistic method (event tree, fault tree) to identify the solutions for human reliability improved in order to minimize the risk in industrial plants' operation. Also, the human error types and their causes are defined and the 'decision tree method' as technique in our analysis for human reliability assessment is presented. The exemplification of human error analysis method was achieved based on operation data for Valcea Heavy Water Pilot Plant. As initiating event for the accident state 'the steam supply interruption' event has been considered. The human errors' contribution was analysed for the accident sequence with the worst consequences. (authors)

  9. Safety of Performing Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy in Patients with Preexisting Barotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Chyun Sheu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in 1985 by Ciaglia et al, percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT has gradually become the procedure of choice in establishing a long-term airway in many intensive care units (ICU. However, the safety of performing PDT in patients with barotrauma is still unknown and has never been reported. We present the case of a 35-year-old man with AIDS, who was admitted to our medical ICU for pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. He developed subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum as complications of mechanical ventilation. After stabilization of the barotrauma, he underwent PDT with the standard Ciaglia Blue Rhino technique. However, rapid and extensive progression of preexisting barotrauma occurred shortly after PDT. This severe complication was nearly fatal. The prolonged procedure during which the susceptible lung was exposed to longer duration of high airway pressure was thought to be the mechanism of rapid deterioration of the preexisting barotrauma. With aggressive supportive care, the patient survived. To prevent further deterioration of preexisting barotrauma during and after PDT in future cases, we propose some principles that should be strictly followed. Under administration of these principles, we safely performed PDT in another case with preexisting barotrauma 1 month later.

  10. Higher energy prices are associated with diminished resources, performance and safety in Australian ambulance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence H; Chaiechi, Taha; Buettner, Petra G; Canyon, Deon V; Crawford, J Mac; Judd, Jenni

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of changing energy prices on Australian ambulance systems. Generalised estimating equations were used to analyse contemporaneous and lagged relationships between changes in energy prices and ambulance system performance measures in all Australian State/Territory ambulance systems for the years 2000-2010. Measures included: expenditures per response; labour-to-total expenditure ratio; full-time equivalent employees (FTE) per 10,000 responses; average salary; median and 90th percentile response time; and injury compensation claims. Energy price data included State average diesel price, State average electricity price, and world crude oil price. Changes in diesel prices were inversely associated with changes in salaries, and positively associated with changes in ambulance response times; changes in oil prices were also inversely associated with changes in salaries, as well with staffing levels and expenditures per ambulance response. Changes in electricity prices were positively associated with changes in expenditures per response and changes in salaries; they were also positively associated with changes in injury compensation claims per 100 FTE. Changes in energy prices are associated with changes in Australian ambulance systems' resource, performance and safety characteristics in ways that could affect both patients and personnel. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms of, and strategies for mitigating, these impacts. The impacts of energy prices on other aspects of the health system should also be investigated. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. ATHENA: an actual antihydrogen annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This is an image of an actual matter-antimatter annihilation due to an atom of antihydrogen in the ATHENA experiment, located on the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN since 2001. The antiproton produces four charged pions (yellow) whose positions are given by silicon microstrips (pink) before depositing energy in CsI crystals (yellow cubes). The positron also annihilates to produce back-to-back gamma rays (red).

  12. Performance Measurement of Location Enabled e-Government Processes: A Use Case on Traffic Safety Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, D.; Vancauwenberghe, G.

    2016-12-01

    The European Union Location Framework (EULF), as part of the Interoperable Solutions for European Public Administrations (ISA) Programme of the EU (EC DG DIGIT), aims to enhance the interactions between governments, businesses and citizens by embedding location information into e-Government processes. The challenge remains to find scientific sound and at the same time practicable approaches to estimate or measure the impact of location enablement of e-Government processes on the performance of the processes. A method has been defined to estimate process performance in terms of variables describing the efficiency, effectiveness, as well as the quality of the output of the work processes. A series of use cases have been identified, corresponding to existing e-Government work processes in which location information could bring added value. In a first step, the processes are described by means of BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation) to better understand the process steps, the actors involved, the spatial data flows, as well as the required input and the generated output. In a second step the processes are assessed in terms of the (sub-optimal) use of location information and the potential enhancement of the process by better integrating location information and services. The process performance is measured ex ante (before using location enabled e-Government services) and ex-post (after the integration of such services) in order to estimate and measure the impact of location information. The paper describes the method for performance measurement and highlights how the method is applied to one use case, i.e. the process of traffic safety monitoring. The use case is analysed and assessed in terms of location enablement and its potential impact on process performance. The results of applying the methodology on the use case revealed that performance is highly impacted by factors such as the way location information is collected, managed and shared throughout the

  13. Hypochondria as an actual neurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Bernd

    2017-09-27

    Freud defined hypochondria as an actual neurosis. In this paper the actual neurosis will be interpreted as unbound traumatic elements which threaten the self. In severe hypochondria, breakdowns have occurred, as outlined by Winnicott. The nameless traumatic elements of the breakdown have been encapsulated. The moment these encapsulated elements are liberated, an actual dynamic takes place which threatens the self with annihilation. Projective identification is not possible because no idea of containment exists. The self tries to evacuate these elements projectively, thus triggering a disintegrative regression. However, the object of this projection, which becomes a malign introject, is felt to remove the remaining psychical elements, forcing the worthless residue back into the self. In a final re-introjection, the self is threatened by unintegration. To save the self, these elements are displaced into an organ which becomes hypochondriacal, an autistoid object, protecting itself against unintegration and decomposition. An autistoid dynamic develops between the hypochondriac organ, the ego and the introject. Two short clinical vignettes illustrate the regressive dynamical and metapsychological considerations. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  14. Development of 4S and related technologies. (3) Statistical evaluation of safety performance of 4S on ULOF event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kyoko; Matsumiya, Hisato; Horie, Hideki; Miyagi, Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate quantitatively and statistically the safety performance of Super-Safe, Small, and Simple reactor (4S) by analyzing with ARGO code, a plant dynamics code for a sodium-cooled fast reactor. In this evaluation, an Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) is assumed, and an Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) event is selected as a typical ATWS case. After a metric concerned with safety design is defined as performance factor a Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT) is produced in order to select the plausible phenomena that affect the metric. Then a sensitivity analysis is performed for the parameters related to the selected plausible phenomena. Finally the metric is evaluated with statistical methods whether it satisfies the given safety acceptance criteria. The result is as follows: The Cumulative Damage Fraction (CDF) for the cladding is defined as a metric, and the statistical estimation of the one-sided upper tolerance limit of 95 percent probability at a 95 percent confidence level in CDF is within the safety acceptance criterion; CDF < 0.1. The result shows that the 4S safety performance is acceptable in the ULOF event. (author)

  15. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Youngblood

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  16. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Youngblood

    2011-02-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  17. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet; Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline - even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Research and Development (R and D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  18. Performance assessment studies for the long-term safety evaluation of radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Olteanu, M.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2008-01-01

    Especially during the last ten years, a part of Romanian research program 'Management of Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel' was focused mainly on applicative research for the design of near-surface disposal facility, which intends to accommodate the low and intermediate radioactive waste generated from Cernavoda NPP. In this frame, our contribution was at the acquisition of technical data for the characterization of the future disposal facility. In the present, the project of the disposal facility, located on the Saligny site, near Cernavoda NPP, must be licensed. As regards to the safe disposal, the location of final disposal, the Saligny site, has been characterized through the five geological formations which contain potential routes for transport of radionuclide released from disposal facility, in the receiving zones(potential receiving zones), into liquid and gaseous phases. The technical characteristics of the disposal facility were adapted at the Romanian disposal concept using the reference data from IAEA technical report (IAEA,1999). Input parameters which characterized from physical and chemical point of view the disposal system, were partially taken from literature. The performance assessment studies, which follows the preliminary design development phases and the selection, describes how the source term is affected by the infiltration of water through the disposal facility, degradation process of engineering barriers (reflected in the distribution coefficient values) and solubility limit. The studies regard the evaluation of the source term, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provide the information on 'how' and 'why' were evaluated, following: (i) radiological safety assessment of near-surface disposal facility on Saligny site; (ii) complexity standard assessment of the Engineering Barriers Systems (EBS); (iii) identification of the elements which must be elaborated for the increase of the disposal safety and the necessity for new technical data for

  19. Physician job satisfaction related to actual and preferred job size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and

  20. LITERATURA INTERCULTURAL CHILENA: PROYECTOS ACTUALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Carrasco M.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo define y sistematiza distintos aspectos de la interculturalidad textual, sus actuales manifestaciones literarias en Chile -la poesía etnocultural, la literatura del exilio y la escritura de inmigrantes- y sugiere su importancia en la alteración del canon de la modernidadThis work defines and systematizes different aspects of textual interculture, its literary manifestations in Chile to-day -ethnocultural poetry, exile literature, and the immigrants’ writing- suggesting its special importance in the alteration of the modernity canon

  1. Improved Performance and Safety for High Energy Batteries Through Use of Hazard Anticipation and Capacity Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Terrill

    1993-01-01

    Prediction of the capacity remaining in used high rate, high energy batteries is important information to the user. Knowledge of the capacity remaining in used batteries results in better utilization. This translates into improved readiness and cost savings due to complete, efficient use. High rate batteries, due to their chemical nature, are highly sensitive to misuse (i.e., over discharge or very high rate discharge). Battery failure due to misuse or manufacturing defects could be disastrous. Since high rate, high energy batteries are expensive and energetic, a reliable method of predicting both failures and remaining energy has been actively sought. Due to concerns over safety, the behavior of lithium/sulphur dioxide cells at different temperatures and current drains was examined. The main thrust of this effort was to determine failure conditions for incorporation in hazard anticipation circuitry. In addition, capacity prediction formulas have been developed from test data. A process that performs continuous, real-time hazard anticipation and capacity prediction was developed. The introduction of this process into microchip technology will enable the production of reliable, safe, and efficient high energy batteries.

  2. ‘Speaking Truth’ Protects Underrepresented Minorities’ Intellectual Performance and Safety in STEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Ben-Zeev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We offer and test a brief psychosocial intervention, Speaking Truth to EmPower (STEP, designed to protect underrepresented minorities’ (URMs intellectual performance and safety in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM. STEP takes a ‘knowledge as power’ approach by: (a providing a tutorial on stereotype threat (i.e., a social contextual phenomenon, implicated in underperformance and early exit and (b encouraging URMs to use lived experiences for generating be-prepared coping strategies. Participants were 670 STEM undergraduates [URMs (Black/African American and Latina/o and non-URMs (White/European American and Asian/Asian American]. STEP protected URMs’ abstract reasoning and class grades (adjusted for grade point average [GPA] as well as decreased URMs’ worries about confirming ethnic/racial stereotypes. STEP’s two-pronged approach—explicating the effects of structural ‘isms’ while harnessing URMs’ existing assets—shows promise in increasing diversification and equity in STEM.

  3. Predicting fatigue and psychophysiological test performance from speech for safety critical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Richard Baykaner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Automatic systems for estimating operator fatigue have application in safety-critical environments. A system which could estimate level of fatigue from speech would have application in domains where operators engage in regular verbal communication as part of their duties. Previous studies on the prediction of fatigue from speech have been limited because of their reliance on subjective ratings and because they lack comparison to other methods for assessing fatigue. In this paper we present an analysis of voice recordings and psychophysiological test scores collected from seven aerospace personnel during a training task in which they remained awake for 60 hours. We show that voice features and test scores are affected by both the total time spent awake and the time position within each subject’s circadian cycle. However, we show that time spent awake and time of day inf