WorldWideScience

Sample records for actual electricity savings

  1. Electric power production contra electricity savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Soerensen, H.

    1991-01-01

    The expansion of electricity-producing plants has, in Denmark until now, taken place in accordance with the demand for electricity. Recently, it has been suggested that the cost of the further development of such systems is greater than the cost of instigating and carrying out energy conservation efforts. The aim of the project was to evaluate the consequences for power producing plants of a reduction of the electricity consumption of end-users. A method for the analysis of the costs involved in the system and operation of power plants contra the costs that are involved in saving electricity is presented. In developing a model of this kind, consideration is given to the interplay of the individual saving project and the existing or future electricity supply. Thus it can be evaluated to what extent it would be advisable to substitute investments in the development of the capacity of the power plants with investments in the reduction of electricity consumption by the end users. This model is described in considerable detail. It will be tested in representative situations and locations throughout the Nordic countries. (AB) 17 refs

  2. Actual heating energy savings in thermally renovated Dutch dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majcen, Daša; Itard, Laure; Visscher, Henk

    2016-01-01

    The register of the Dutch social housing stock was analysed, containing 300.000 dwellings, renovated between 2010 and 2013. The main objective was twofold: to evaluate the performance gap in these dwellings before and after the renovation and to establish what renovation measures achieve the highest reduction of consumption, particularly in practice (actual savings). The results showed large performance gaps in dwellings with low R and high U values, local heating systems, changes from a non-condensing into a condensing boiler and upgrades to a natural ventilation system. Regarding the actual effectiveness of renovation measures, replacement of old gas boilers with more efficient ones yields the highest energy reduction, followed by deep improvements of windows. Installing mechanical ventilation yields a small reduction compared to other measures, but still much larger than theoretically expected. The paper shows once more that the calculation method currently in use cannot be considered accurate if compared to actual consumption. The study demonstrated that unrealistic theoretical efficiencies of heating systems and insulation values are causing a part of the performance gap. Nowadays, large datasets of buildings thermal performance and actual consumption offer an opportunity to improve these misconceptions. - Highlights: • Performance gap is lower in more efficient buildings. • Replacements of gas boilers – the most energy reduction among renovation measures. • Replacing the ventilation system yields a much larger reduction than expected. • How well are the standard values of the calculation methods defined? • Provide large public building performance databases including actual use data.

  3. Saving electricity in a hurry - update 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquier, Sara Bryan

    2011-06-15

    As demonstrated by the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami-triggered blackouts in Japan, electricity shortfalls can happen anytime and anywhere. Countries can minimise the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of such electricity shortfalls by developing emergency energy-saving strategies before a crisis occurs. This new IEA report highlights preliminary findings and conclusions from electricity shortfalls in Japan, the United States, New Zealand, South Africa and Chile. It draws on recent analysis to: reinforce well-established guidelines on diagnosing electricity shortfalls, identifying energy-saving opportunities and selecting a package of energy-saving measures; and highlight proven practice for implementing emergency energy-saving programmes. This paper will be valuable to government, academic, private-sector and civil-society stakeholders who inform, develop and implement electricity policy in general, and emergency energy-saving programmes in particular.

  4. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  5. Electricity consumption and electricity saving in the Swedish households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstroem, B M; Eklund, Y; Sjoeberg, L

    1997-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine which factors influence electricity consumption behavior of Swedish households, the level of knowledge about electricity use and the willingness to pay for the use of electricity. In Sweden, as in many other developed countries, the need for electric power is constantly increasing. The major reason for this increase in electricity consumption is the lifestyle of a modern society. A feature in the nuclear power discussion is that the government in Sweden is having a hard time to establish how to phase-out all nuclear power plants by 2010. An additional major change in Swedish energy policy is the deregulation of the electricity market, which started in the beginning of 1996. There is an increased demand for strategies to save electricity among households. The results of this study stress the difficulties in reducing electricity consumption and to develop new electricity saving strategies in Sweden 125 refs, 6 figs, 21 tabs

  6. How to Organize Electricity Savings in a Liberalized Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The basic idea of Integrated Ressource Planning is described and it is demonstrated how this is in conflict with the sub-optimizing necessary in a liberalized market. Afterwards are outlined how the measuring of savings energy consumption constitutes a fundamental problem. Finally are dicussed...... the future actors in the electricity sector and their roles in implementing electricity savings, followed by some proposals for an energy policy....

  7. Financing aspects of electricity saving's in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacca, S.A.; Sauer, I.L.

    1996-01-01

    Programs regarding to energy saving in Brasil arised by the early 80's from the concern with oil products consumption. The situation has changed and electricity is growing in importance when energy conservation is discussed. Thus, the government, following examples from abroad, has been trying to overcome the barriers that obstruct a massive process evolution towards energy saving, since the potential is spread out in many society segments. One important issue is related to financing energy conservation. This paper attempts to analyze the utilities efforts allied to public and private banks investments towards energy conservation financing. (author)

  8. Defining a standard metric for electricity savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Brown, Marilyn; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B; Greenberg, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70% capacity factor with 7% T and D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kWh/year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO 2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question-Dr Arthur H Rosenfeld.

  9. Defining a standard metric for electricity savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, Jonathan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Stanford University, PO Box 20313, Oakland, CA 94620-0313 (United States); Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Brown, Marilyn; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B; Greenberg, Steve, E-mail: JGKoomey@stanford.ed

    2010-01-15

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70% capacity factor with 7% T and D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kWh/year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question-Dr Arthur H Rosenfeld.

  10. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  11. The effects of perceived and actual financial knowledge on regular personal savings: Case of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Anh Nhu Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the factors, which affect decision-making on regular personal saving behaviour in the context of an emerging market in Vietnam. Focusing on financial literacy, the paper uses a combined measure of actual financial knowledge and a self-assessment of overall financial knowledge. The sample of the study consists of 240 commercial banks customers selected in 12 branches of four banks in Ho Chi Minh City. The questionnaire covers: (1 actual financial knowledge; (2 self-rating of financial knowledge; (3 financial risk tolerance; and (4 demographic characteristics of the respondents. The results of a logistic regression analysis show that perceived and actual financial literacy have separate effects on regular personal saving. Particularly, actual financial knowledge has a statistically significant positive relationship with regular personal saving with odds ratio higher than 6.5 times. However, perceived financial knowledge and financial risk tolerance factor are not statistically significant with regular personal saving. Finally, this paper offers evidence that the interaction variable, which is used to combine education level with their major study, has a statistically significant relationship with regular personal saving.

  12. Public administration electricity savings. Offentlige energibesparelser; Nyere danske erfaringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelstrup, G

    1991-01-01

    Analysis on how different types of public authorities experienced carrying out electricity savings showed that the individual public authority's internal political-administrative organizational form is of major importance for the possibilities of realizing potential electricity savings. In addition, it can be concluded that only certain public authorities have utilized external assistance in connection with effecting electricity savings. In these cases there has been some accordance between the particular authority's internal, political-administrative, organization and the organizational form presupposed in the external assistance offered. In spite of this, the public authorities in question have, in general, not progressed very far with electricity savings. Part of the reason for this lies namely in the fact that the special importance the mode of organization has for electricity savings, has been overlooked in this type of assistance. (CLS) 43 refs.

  13. Public administration electricity savings. Offentlige energibesparelser; Nyere danske erfaringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelstrup, G.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis on how different types of public authorities experienced carrying out electricity savings showed that the individual public authority's internal political-administrative organizational form is of major importance for the possibilities of realizing potential electricity savings. In addition, it can be concluded that only certain public authorities have utilized external assistance in connection with effecting electricity savings. In these cases there has been some accordance between the particular authority's internal, political-administrative, organization and the organizational form presupposed in the external assistance offered. In spite of this, the public authorities in question have, in general, not progressed very far with electricity savings. Part of the reason for this lies namely in the fact that the special importance the mode of organization has for electricity savings, has been overlooked in this type of assistance. (CLS) 43 refs.

  14. Electricity saving in households-A social cognitive approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thogersen, John; Gronhoj, Alice

    2010-01-01

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. - Research highlights: →A combination of survey and meter reading data is used to analyze energy saving in households. →Up to two adults from each household answered the questionnaire. →Dyadic data analysis is used to investigate interactions between household members. →Both structural and motivational factors account for households' electricity consumption. →Electricity saving efforts depends on internalized norms, self-efficacy and social interaction.

  15. Electricity saving in households-A social cognitive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thogersen, John, E-mail: jbt@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark); Gronhoj, Alice, E-mail: alg@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. - Research highlights: {yields}A combination of survey and meter reading data is used to analyze energy saving in households. {yields}Up to two adults from each household answered the questionnaire. {yields}Dyadic data analysis is used to investigate interactions between household members. {yields}Both structural and motivational factors account for households' electricity consumption. {yields}Electricity saving efforts depends on internalized norms, self-efficacy and social interaction.

  16. Electricity saving in households. A social cognitive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoegersen, John; Groenhoej, Alice [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. (author)

  17. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, J. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-11-01

    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In this project, the Building America CARB team evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  18. Electricity demand savings from distributed solar photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassmire, John; Komor, Paul; Lilienthal, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Due largely to recent dramatic cost reductions, photovoltaics (PVs) are poised to make a significant contribution to electricity supply. In particular, distributed applications of PV on rooftops, brownfields, and other similar applications – hold great technical potential. In order for this potential to be realized, however, PV must be “cost-effective”—that is, it must be sufficiently financially appealing to attract large amounts of investment capital. Electricity costs for most commercial and industrial end-users come in two forms: consumption (kWh) and demand (kW). Although rates vary, for a typical larger commercial or industrial user, demand charges account for about ∼40% of total electricity costs. This paper uses a case study of PV on a large university campus to reveal that even very large PV installations will often provide very small demand reductions. As a result, it will be very difficult for PV to demonstrate cost-effectiveness for large commercial customers, even if PV costs continue to drop. If policymakers would like PV to play a significant role in electricity generation – for economic development, carbon reduction, or other reasons – then rate structures will need significant adjustment, or improved distributed storage technologies will be needed. - Highlights: ► Demand charges typically account for ∼40% of total electricity costs for larger electricity users. ► Distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems provide minimal demand charge reductions. ► As a result, PVs are not a financially viable alternative to centralized electricity. ► Electricity rate structures will need changes for PV to be a major electricity source.

  19. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01

    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In NREL's report titled 'Assessing and Improving the Accuracy of Energy Analysis of Residential Buildings,' researchers propose a method for improving the accuracy of residential energy analysis methods. A key step in this process involves the comparisons of predicted versus metered energy use and savings. In support of this research need, CARB evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. In this study, CARB seeks to improve the accuracy of modeling software while assessing retrofit measures to specifically determine which are most effective for large multifamily complexes in the cold climate region. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  20. Electricity savings in households with everyday IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Kaj; Larsen, Anders; leth, Søren

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying online feedback by SMS-text messages and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted where 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two control...... groups. Feedback was supplied throughout 2007 to members of the experiment groups who accepted the invitation, and data on consumption of electricity for 2006 and 2007 collected for all participants and control group members. 30% of the households invited to receive feedback accepted the invitation....... The estimated effects of the feedback on consumption of electricity are estimated to be in the range of 2-3%. The feedback technology is cheap to implement and therefore likely to be cost-effective...

  1. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide.......Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide....

  2. LED Lightbulbs as a Source of Electricity Saving in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeb Akhtar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today a number of renewable energy technologies are available for power generation, but fossil fuels are still providing a dominant share nevertheless. In order to decrease the electric bill and save our environment, energy conservation is always crucial. In this paper a very interesting idea is presented which is economically viable to reduce electricity usage in our buildings. An effort has been made to estimate the amount of energy that could be saved in the dormitory section of the IMOP building in Russia. Although there are many ways to reduce the consumption of electricity in this building but here the emphasis is on changing light bulbs inside the rooms, kitchen, toilet and bathroom of each apartment. The scope of the study is to figure out monthly electricity saving by replacing traditional light bulbs by LED light bulbs in the building under consideration. The total investment required and the payback period is also presented.

  3. Saving, efficiency and management of electric sector demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez de Tembleque, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    Spanish economic model of development is based on energy consumption, and its main source is imported fossil fuels, which have some environmental and scarcity consequences in the mid term, among others. These problems could be reduced in two ways: economic activity reduction or energy efficiency improvement. In the presence of these possibilities, It may be desirable to bet for saving and energy efficiency, to maintain the economic development. This assignment analyzes the main available regulatory and social mechanisms to promote saving and energy efficiency in the power sector, like systems to internalize social costs in the electricity price, efficiency standards, and encourage the new saving culture. (Author) 15 refs

  4. Electric energy savings from new technologies. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-09-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for 10 technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all 10 technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference projection, only 25% of the savings estimated here should be subtracted from the reference projection for analysis purposes.

  5. Electricity-cost savings obtained by means of nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, L.; Fletcher, T.; DuCharme, A.; Harrison, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines savings caused by nuclear-plant life extension (NUPLEX) and describes the effects of changes in assumptions on costs and technology using an approach simpler than the large economic-model simulations used in other reports. Under the simplified approach, we estimate savings at the broad national level by comparing projected costs/kWh for the typical NUPLEX plant with those for new coal-fired plants, which seem the most likely alternative in most regions. While ignoring some complications handled by the large, regionally disaggregated econometric models, the approach used in this study has advantages in sensitivity analyses. It reveals relationships between savings and basic assumptions on costs and technology in a more transparent way than in large-model simulations. We find that, absent major technological breakthroughs for present generating options, NUPLEX saves consumers money on their electric bills under most plausible economic scenarios. Using mid-range assumptions, we find that NUPLEX saves consumers a total of about dollar 180 billion spread over the period 2010-50. Under optimistic assumptions, the savings swell to over dollar 900 billion. Under extremely pessimistic assumptions, the savings actually turn negative. This wide range of estimates largely reflects the uncertainty in cost projections. Within plausible limits, higher- or lower-than-expected load growth does not affect the savings estimates. The NUPLEX construction costs stand out as the most critical unknown. If they turn out to be 50% (dollar 500 billion) above the baseline estimate savings would fall by almost 60% (dollar 105 billion). A 50% rise in nuclear fuel costs would drop baseline savings by almost 22%. A 50% increase in nuclear-plant operations-and-maintenance costs, would cut baseline savings by about 36%. These sensitivities highlight the need for continued monitoring of economic developments

  6. Estimating the potential for electricity savings in households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boogen, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Improving efficiency in the use of energy is an important goal for many nations since end-use energy efficiency can help to reduce CO_2 emissions. Furthermore, since the residential sector in industrialised countries requires around one third of the end-use electricity, it is important for policy makers to estimate the scope for electricity saving in households to reduce electricity consumption by using appropriate steering mechanisms. We estimate the level of technical efficiency in the use of electricity using data from a Swiss household survey. We find an average inefficiency in electricity use by Swiss households of around 20 to 25%. Bottom-up economic-engineering models estimate the potential in Switzerland to be around 15%. In this paper we use a sub-vector input distance frontier function based on economic foundations. Our estimates lie at the upper end of the electricity saving potential estimated by the afore-mentioned economic-engineering approach. - Highlights: • We estimate the level of efficiency in the use of electricity by Swiss households. • We apply a non-radial input distance function and stochastic frontier methods. • We use data from two waves of a Swiss household survey conducted in 2005 and 2011. • We find an inefficiency in the use of electricity of around 20–25%.

  7. Antecedents of employee electricity saving behavior in organizations: An empirical study based on norm activation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yixiang; Wang, Zhaohua; Zhou, Guanghui

    2013-01-01

    China is one of the major energy-consuming countries, and is under great pressure to promote energy saving and reduce domestic energy consumption. Employees constitute an important target group for energy saving. However, only a few research efforts have been paid to study what drives employee energy saving behavior in organizations. To fill this gap, drawing on norm activation model (NAM), we built a research model to study antecedents of employee electricity saving behavior in organizations. The model was empirically tested using survey data collected from office workers in Beijing, China. Results show that personal norm positively influences employee electricity saving behavior. Organizational electricity saving climate negatively moderates the effect of personal norm on electricity saving behavior. Awareness of consequences, ascription of responsibility, and organizational electricity saving climate positively influence personal norm. Furthermore, awareness of consequences positively influences ascription of responsibility. This paper contributes to the energy saving behavior literature by building a theoretical model of employee electricity saving behavior which is understudied in the current literature. Based on the empirical results, implications on how to promote employee electricity saving are discussed. - Highlights: • We studied employee electricity saving behavior based on norm activation model. • The model was tested using survey data collected from office workers in China. • Personal norm positively influences employee′s electricity saving behavior. • Electricity saving climate negatively moderates personal norm′s effect. • This research enhances our understanding of employee electricity saving behavior

  8. Saving electricity in a hurry. Dealing with temporary shortfalls in electricity supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Blackouts are normally the result of imbalances in electricity supply and demand. A brief blackout is mostly an inconvenience. But persistent shortfalls ? those lasting days, weeks, or months ? can cause economic disruption and danger to human life in our technology-rich societies. Saving Electricity in a Hurry describes some of the recent power shortfalls, from Norway to New Zealand, from Tokyo to Arizona and the policies these regions used to quickly reduce their power consumption. How did the whole country of Sweden cut its power consumption by 4% in only three days? How did California save 14% in only a few months? While the temporary shortfalls in electricity supplies described in this book are relatively rare events, they disproportionately shape future energy policies. Saving Electricity in a Hurry shows that countries can quickly reduce electricity consumption without harming the economy as much as blackouts or unplanned curtailments. The strategies are diverse, unique and often surprisingly cheap. They include mass media campaigns ? where a good joke can save a Megawatt ? improvements in equipment efficiency and quickly adjusting electricity prices. This book explains how California replaced a million traffic signals with energy-saving models, how millions of Tokyo residents raised their thermostat settings, and how New Zealanders took shorter showers, all quickly enough to help avoid imminent blackouts. Finally, it connects these policies to the traditional goal of ?saving electricity slowly?.

  9. How EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute] helps utilities save money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A number of case studies are presented which illustrate how the work of the Electric Power Research Institute in the USA has enabled nuclear utilities to save money. The areas covered by the examples are: steam generator tube repair; streamlining of reliability centred maintenance; cost effective instrumentation and control maintenance; reducing the frequency of instrument calibration; optimising the engineering change process; detecting and reducing fuel failure; extending the qualified life of equipment. (U.K.)

  10. Evaluation of the Electricity Saving Fund in Basel, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Vettori, A.; Schmidt, N.; Vaterlaus, S.; Wild, J.

    2003-09-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of an evaluation made concerning the Electricity Saving Fund operated in Basel, Switzerland. The aims of the fund, which is based on the imposition of a steering levy on electricity consumption, are presented and discussed. It is noted that the political policies behind this promotional scheme differ greatly from those of other Swiss Cantons. This study examines the direct and indirect effects of the steering levy and the resulting bonus for energy-saving consumers and takes a look at possibilities for transferring the idea to other Swiss Cantons. Questions asked include the degree to which the aims were fulfilled, were negative side-effects noted, is the implementation efficient, can the know-how gained be transferred to other communities and Cantons and which general experience was gained in the application of steering levies. Details on the implementation of the Electricity Saving Bonus are presented and discussed. Results of a survey on the perception of the scheme both in the commercial and private sectors are discussed. Also, the results of evaluations made concerning the degree to which the scheme's aims were fulfilled and their usefulness from the national economics point of view are discussed. Suggestions for improvements are presented. The report is concluded with an a selection of annexes on the topics dealt with in the report

  11. Net fossil energy savings for alternative mixes in various electric supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essam, P.; Stocks, K.J.

    1978-11-01

    The actual and projected electric power station building programs of several countries and regions have been examined to determine what effect the introduction of nuclear power has on fossil fuel usage by the electricity system. It was found that (1) nuclear power leads directly to savings in fossil fuel usage, a larger nuclear component leading to larger savings; (2) individual nuclear stations rapidly wipe out the energy 'debt' incurred during building; and (3) the relatively short periods of consolidation in the early stages of a nation's building program usually prevent the nuclear component from going into energy 'debt'. Assessments of the energy requirements to build and run various types of power station have been made from the available literature

  12. Tradable certificates for renewable electricity and energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Huld, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Tradable green certificates (TGCs) schemes have been developed and tested in several European countries to foster market-driven penetration of renewables. These certificates guarantee that a specific volume of electricity is generated from renewable-energy source (RES). More recently certificates (tradable white certificates (TWCs)) for the electricity saved by demand-side energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) have been introduced in some European countries. Recent advances in information and communication technology have opened up new possibilities for improving energy efficiency and increasing utilization of RESs. Use of technological resources such as the Internet and smart metering can permit real-time issuing and trading of TGCs. These technologies could also permit issuing of TWC. This paper reviews current renewable TGC and TWCs schemes in Europe and describes the possibilities for combining them in an Internet-based system. In the proposed combined tradable certificate scheme, both RESs and demand-side EEMs could bid in real time through the Internet to meet a specific obligation. The energy savings from the demand-side measures would be equivalent to the same amount of green electricity production. The paper describes the needed common targets and obligations, the certificate trading rules and the possible monitoring protocol. In particular, the paper focuses on the TWCs verification issues, including the assessment of the baseline, as these poses additional problems for TWCs compared to TGCs. (author)

  13. Holiday homes - electric power savings; Sommerhuse - elbesparelser her og nu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofoed Esbensen, N -U; Roed Rasmussen, E [Esbensen Raadgivende Ingenioerer A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark); Weldingh, P [Lokalenergi, Viby J. (Denmark); Worm, J; Adams Rasmussen, L [Energitjenesten, Aarhus (Denmark); Reuss, M [Elsparefonden, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ellehauge, K; Kjaergaard, C -J [Ellehauge og Kildemoes, Aarhus (Denmark); Jensen, Ole Michael [Aalborg Univ. SBi, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2010-09-15

    A questionnaire survey among 700 holiday home owners was conducted and followed up by interviews with representatives of typical groups of holiday home owners and a number of key persons representing rental, building, electricity supply, regulatory processing and supply of renewable energy facilities to holiday homes. The results of the questionnaire survey and of former surveys on technical savings potential are included in an easy-to-read catalogue of ideas with directions and recommendations for various groups of holiday home users and players. The recommendations are grouped into eight topics of more or less relevance for the various target groups. (LN)

  14. Standardization for electric energy saving; Normalizacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Diaz, Arturo [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This work describes shortly the current legislation on the standardization; as well as the participation of the entities Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) and Programa de Ahorro de Energia (PAESE) in the consulting committees, for the elaboration of the Mexican official standards focussed to electric power saving. [Espanol] El presente trabajo, describe brevemente la legislacion actual sobre la normalizacion; asi como la participacion de las entidades Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) y Programa de ahorro de Energia (PAESE) en los comites consultivos, para la elaboracion de normas oficiales mexicanas enfocadas al ahorro de energia electrica.

  15. Standardization for electric energy saving; Normalizacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Diaz, Arturo [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This work describes shortly the current legislation on the standardization; as well as the participation of the entities Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) and Programa de Ahorro de Energia (PAESE) in the consulting committees, for the elaboration of the Mexican official standards focussed to electric power saving. [Espanol] El presente trabajo, describe brevemente la legislacion actual sobre la normalizacion; asi como la participacion de las entidades Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) y Programa de ahorro de Energia (PAESE) en los comites consultivos, para la elaboracion de normas oficiales mexicanas enfocadas al ahorro de energia electrica.

  16. Riding the Electricity Market as an Energy Management Strategy: Savings from Real-Time Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiles, Thomas [U.S. General Services Administration, Washington, D.C. (United States); Shutika, Kenneth [U.S. General Services Administration, Washington, D.C. (United States); Coleman, Philip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-03-13

    Dynamic pricing of electricity, in which retail prices facing customers are responsive to changes in the underlying wholesale markets, represents a step towards economic efficiency in that customers get exposed to some or all of the costs facing wholesale market players. But what do customers who opt for this greater exposure – available in the roughly 15 “de-regulated” states, as well as, to some extent, from some regulated utilities – get in return for their risks? The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) took a retrospective eight-year look at what the savings would have been had they let the loads for which they purchase electricity in the Washington, DC area buy electricity on the real-time pricing (RTP) market – the dynamic pricing option with the highest risk – as opposed to the strategy they chose in actuality, which was fixing flat prices with 3rd-party providers. We found that opting for RTP for the eight years of the study (2005 through 2012) would have resulted in 17% savings, or almost a quarter of a billion dollars, relative to GSA’s actual prices from the 3rd-party suppliers. This is particularly astonishing given that GSA appeared to have timed the market well during the study period, consistently beating the standard offer products provided by the distribution utilities. The issue of budgetary predictability poses an obstacle for customers (especially government ones) considering RTP and, to a lesser extent, other dynamic pricing options. Indeed, GSA would have lost money with RTP in two of the eight years, one of them substantially. But the magnitude of the savings is indisputably compelling and, even if it may be somewhat aberrational due to high congestion in the DC market, begs consideration by large electricity users currently paying to “lock in” fixed flat prices.

  17. Saving energy and protecting environment of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lina; Chen, Huajun; Gong, Jing

    2017-05-01

    With the concept of low carbon economy, saving energy, and protecting environment spread, the development of the electric promotes the research pace of wireless charging electronic vehicles, which will become the best choice of energy supply in the future. To generalize and exploit the corresponding alternative fuels and the research and development, and promotion of electric vehicles, becomes the effective means to directly reduce the consumption of fuel, effectively relieves the problem of nervous energy and environmental pollution, and really conforms to the requirements of the national strategy of sustainable development in China. This paper introduces the status of electronic cars and wireless charging, expounds the principle of wireless charging, and concludes the full text.

  18. Effectiveness of energy renovations : a reassessment based on actual consumption savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippidou, F.; Nieboer, N.E.T.; Visscher, H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Energy renovations offer unique opportunities to increase the energy efficiency of the built environment and for the existing housing stock; they are the most important solution. Usually, energy savings are based on modeling calculations. However, recent research has shown that the predicted

  19. Mobile recommender application for promoting electricity saving among Iraqis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Manhal Isam; Hussain, Azham

    2017-10-01

    Mobile utilization has rapidly expanded due to its feasibility in executing different applications that can be used in solving everyday problems. Common issues in daily life include electricity saving. In Iraq, the Ministry of Power seriously faces such issue. This is because most households have lack access to information regarding to sufficient power consumption, as well as applications that educate about such saving. Therefore, this study aims at developing a mobile application for Iraqi to help them understand the basis for reducing electricity consumption based on the meter data supplied by the users for square meter along with the active devices and period of usage. The proposed mobile application was evaluated by 50 households from the perspective of ease of use, usefulness, ease of learning, and satisfaction. The obtained result showed that majority of the participants found the application to be ease to use, useful, easy to learn, and were satisfied with its functionalities. The study findings provide some insights about the importance of using mobile application for promoting households in Iraq to manage their power consumption behavior.

  20. Understanding usage patterns of electric kettle and energy saving potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.M.; Liao, J.; Stankovic, L.; Stankovic, V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Time-of-use analysis to motivate kettle usage and consumption prediction. • Identification of households whose kettle usage and consumption is outside the norm. • Mathematical model to estimate water volume from consumed power measurements only. • Quantification of energy savings if a household uses its kettle more efficiently. • Kettle usage and demand prediction using an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System. - Abstract: The availability of smart metering and smart appliances enables detecting and characterising appliance use in a household, quantifying energy savings through efficient appliance use and predicting appliance-specific demand from load measurements is possible. With growing electric kettle ownership and usage, lack of any efficiency labelling guidelines for the kettle, slow technological progress in improving kettle efficiency relative to other domestic appliances, and current consumer attitudes, urgent investigation into consumer kettle usage patterns is warranted. From an efficiency point of view, little can be done about the kettle, which is more efficient than other methods of heating water such as the stove top kettle. However, since a majority households use the kettle inefficiently by overfilling, in order to meet energy targets, it is imperative to quantify inefficient usage and predict demand. For the purposes of scalability, we propose tools that depend only on load measurement data for quantifying and visualising kettle usage and energy consumption, assessing energy wastage through overfilling via our proposed electric kettle model, and predicting kettle-specific demand, from which we can estimate potential energy savings in a household and across a housing stock. This is demonstrated using data from a longitudinal study across a sample of 14 UK households for a two-year period.

  1. Determinants and policy implications for household electricity-saving behaviour: Evidence from Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaohua; Zhang Bin; Yin Jianhua; Zhang Yixiang

    2011-01-01

    This research sets out to explore the possibilities for further saving in household electricity consumption through a study of the residents' willingness and behavioural characteristics in electricity saving, as applied within a Chinese context. Based on an extensive literature review, the authors argue that economic benefits, policy and social norms, and past experience may have a positive correlation with household electricity-saving behaviour, while the discomfort caused by electricity-saving activities, may exert a negative effect on it. Through a sample of 816 randomly selected residents in Beijing, the propositions are examined using logit regression analysis. The conclusions support the ideas, concerning both the positive influence of economic benefits, policy and social norms, and past experience as they affect broader electricity-saving behaviour, and the negative influence of the discomfort caused by electricity-saving activities. Finally, some inferences are drawn, and suggestions are offered for policy makers and further studies. - Highlights: → We develop a logistic regression to investigate household electricity saving behaviour. → Determinants for household electricity saving are verified with a questionnaire survey. → Environmental awareness does not impact on household electricity saving directly. → It is prerequisite to focus on both financial subsidy and technology improvement. → Tiered price reform is considered an effective policy for electricity saving.

  2. Heat-electrical regeneration way to intensive energy saving in an electric arc furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartavtcev, S.; Matveev, S.; Neshporenko, E.

    2018-03-01

    Energy saving in steel production is of great significance for its large economical scale of 1500 mil t/year and high-energy consumption. Steady trend of last years is an increase of steel production in electric arc furnaces (EAF) with a very high consumption of electricity up to 750 kWh/ton. The intention to reduce so much energy consumption they can reach by many ways. One of such way is a transforming heat energy of liquid steel to electricity and destine it to steel electric arc process. Under certain conditions, it may lead to “zero” consumption of electric power in the process. The development of these conditions leads to the formation of energy-efficient heat schemes, with a minimum electricity consumption from the external network.

  3. Options for electricity production, the actual opportunities and regulatory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphals, P.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal power and nuclear power represent the traditional methods of generating electricity. This paper presented opportunities for alternative centralized power production methods that include wind energy, biomass and solar energy. It also discussed decentralized alternatives for power generation, such as geothermal energy and cogeneration, including microturbines. The primary focus was on aspects of competitive market design for residential and small commercial applications as well as commercial and industrial applications. Law 116 of Quebec's Energy Board was reviewed in terms of energy policy and utility regulation. In particular, the framework agreement between Hydro-Quebec Production (HQP) and Hydro-Quebec Distribution (HQD) was discussed with reference to balancing electricity produced from renewable energy sources and energy security. The presentation also addressed issues regarding the role of competition, regulation and environmental implications of electricity trade. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Effects of heat and electricity saving measures in district-heated multistory residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Nguyen Le; Dodoo, Ambrose; Gustavsson, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the potential for energy savings in district heated buildings. • Measures that reduce more peak load production give higher primary energy savings. • Efficient appliances increase heat demand but give net primary energy savings. • Efficient appliances give the largest net primary energy savings. - Abstract: The effects of heat and electricity saving measures in district-heated buildings can be complex because these depend not only on how energy is used on the demand side but also on how energy is provided from the supply side. In this study, we analyze the effects of heat and electricity saving measures in multistory concrete-framed and wood-framed versions of an existing district-heated building and examine the impacts of the reduced energy demand on different district heat (DH) production configurations. The energy saving measures considered are for domestic hot water reduction, building thermal envelope improvement, ventilation heat recovery (VHR), and household electricity savings. Our analysis is based on a measured heat load profile of an existing DH production system in Växjö, Sweden. Based on the measured heat load profile, we model three minimum-cost DH production system using plausible environmental and socio-political scenarios. Then, we investigate the primary energy implications of the energy saving measures applied to the two versions of the existing building, taking into account the changed DH demand, changed cogenerated electricity, and changed electricity use due to heat and electricity saving measures. Our results show that the difference between the final and primary energy savings of the concrete-framed and wood-framed versions of the case-study building is minor. The primary energy efficiency of the energy saving measures depends on the type of measure and on the composition of the DH production system. Of the various energy saving measures explored, electricity savings give the highest primary energy savings

  5. Real-time pricing when some consumers resist in saving electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salies, Evens

    2013-01-01

    Successful real-time electricity pricing depends firstly upon consumers' willingness to subscribe to such terms and, secondly, on their ability to curb consumption levels. The present paper addresses both issues by considering consumers differentiated by their electricity saving costs, half of whom resist saving electricity. We demonstrate that when consumers are free to adopt real-time prices, producers prefer charging inefficient prices and, in so doing, discriminate against that portion of the consumer population which faces no saving costs. We also find that efficient marginal cost pricing is feasible, but is incompatible with mass adoption of real-time prices. - Highlights: • We model consumers switching from uniform to real-time electricity pricing (RTP). • Half the consumer population is pro-RTP and half resists saving electricity. • Efficient RTP is feasible but is incompatible with mass adoption

  6. The effect of daylight saving time options on electricity consumption of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasu, Servet [Rize University, Rize Vocational School, 53100, Rize (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    Most of the developed countries in the world use Daylight Saving Time (DST) as an energy conservation method. This study focuses on the effects of DST on electrical lighting in the buildings in Turkey. Turkey might adjust its daylight saving time to decrease energy consumption. For this purpose, five scenarios are considered and compared to status quo. The scenario with a 30-minute forward shift to single DST from April to October, stands out as the best solution to conserve electricity across the entire country. The results of the study show that maximum saving is obtained in this scenario by at least 0.7% on the consumption of lighting electricity. (author)

  7. Establishment of windows-based load management system for electricity cost savings in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.H.; Kim, B.H.; Hur, D.

    2007-01-01

    For electricity markets to function in a truly competitive and efficient manner, it is not enough to focus solely on improving the efficiencies of power supply. To recognize price-responsive load as a reliability resource, the customer must be provided with price signals and an instrument to respond to these signals, preferably automatically. This paper attempts to develop the Windows-based load management system in competitive electricity markets, allowing the user to monitor the current energy consumption or billing information, to analyze the historical data, and to implement the consumption strategy for cost savings with nine possible scenarios adopted. Finally, this modeling framework will serve as a template containing the basic concepts that any load management system should address. (author)

  8. Identifying electricity-saving potential in rural China: Empirical evidence from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yihua; Guo, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a fast-growing body of literature examining energy-saving potential in relation to electricity. However, empirical studies focusing on non-Western nations are limited. To fill this gap, this study intends to examine the electricity-saving potential of rural households in China using a unique data set from the China Residential Electricity Consumption Survey (CRECS) in collaboration with the China General Social Survey (CGSS), conducted nationwide at the household level in rural China. We use a stochastic frontier model, which allows us to decompose residential electricity consumption into the minimum necessary amount of consumption based on physical characteristics (e.g. house size, house age, number of televisions or refrigerators) and estimate the consumption slack (i.e. the amount of electricity consumption that could be saved), which depends on various factors. We find that rural households in China are generally efficient in electricity saving and the saving potential is affected by (fast) information feedback and social-demographic characteristics, instead of by the (averaged) electricity price, or energy efficiency labelling signals. In addition, we find no evidence of regional heterogeneity on electricity saving potential for rural households. Policy implications are derived. - Highlights: •Electricity saving potential of rural households in China is examined. •Unique survey data from the CRECS in collaboration with the CGSS are used. •A stochastic frontier model is applied. •Information feedback and social-demographic characteristics matter. •Electricity price or energy efficiency tier rating does not matter.

  9. Estimating customer electricity savings from projects installed by the U.S. ESCO industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvallo, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-11-25

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry has a well-established track record of delivering substantial energy and dollar savings in the public and institutional facilities sector, typically through the use of energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) (Larsen et al. 2012; Goldman et al. 2005; Hopper et al. 2005, Stuart et al. 2013). This ~$6.4 billion industry, which is expected to grow significantly over the next five years, may play an important role in achieving demand-side energy efficiency under local/state/federal environmental policy goals. To date, there has been little or no research in the public domain to estimate electricity savings for the entire U.S. ESCO industry. Estimating these savings levels is a foundational step in order to determine total avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from demand-side energy efficiency measures installed by U.S. ESCOs. We introduce a method to estimate the total amount of electricity saved by projects implemented by the U.S. ESCO industry using the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) /National Association of Energy Service Companies (NAESCO) database of projects and LBNL’s biennial industry survey. We report two metrics: incremental electricity savings and savings from ESCO projects that are active in a given year (e.g., 2012). Overall, we estimate that in 2012 active U.S. ESCO industry projects generated about 34 TWh of electricity savings—15 TWh of these electricity savings were for MUSH market customers who did not rely on utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs (see Figure 1). This analysis shows that almost two-thirds of 2012 electricity savings in municipal, local and state government facilities, universities/colleges, K-12 schools, and healthcare facilities (i.e., the so-called “MUSH” market) were not supported by a utility customer-funded energy efficiency program.

  10. Saving energy and reducing CO2 with electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, T.S.; Zaininger, H.W.

    1991-10-01

    Surprising potential exists for new and enhanced electric technologies to reduce energy use and CO 2 emission. Widespread deployment of these technologies could reduce energy use by up to 7 quads in 2010 and a corresponding reduction in carbon dioxide emission of up to 440 million tons. Electricity's unique high form value allows for efficiency at the point of end-use that is multiples of the efficiency possible in gas- or oil-fueled systems. The efficiency advantage at the point of end use more than offset the disadvantage of the high losses in the production of electricity. Hence, widespread deployment of many electric end uses will reduce the nation's total energy requirements. Major technologies which hold the greatest potential include electric process heating, industrial electrotechnologies, electric vehicles, information technologies that substitute electronic communication for transportation of people, and electric heat pumps for space heating, cooling and water heating. Wider use of these beneficial technologies in combination with the efficient use of electricity can reduce the nation's primary energy use and Co 2 emissions from electric generation by more than a quarter. 35 refs., 50 figs., 69 tabs

  11. Replacement or additional purchase: The impact of energy-efficient appliances on household electricity saving under public pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Kenichi; Takeuchi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of additional and replacement purchases of energy-efficient air-conditioners on power savings. We used a questionnaire survey and measured electricity use data from 339 Japanese households, collected from two city areas with different level of government-requested electricity-saving rates, namely, Osaka (10%) and Matsuyama (5%). The main findings of our study are as follows: (1) Households that purchased energy-efficient air-conditioners saved more electricity than those that did not. (2) “Additional-purchase households” showed significant energy savings, whereas “replacement households” did not. The rebound effect may negate the energy-saving effects of a new air-conditioner. (3) Altruistic attitude is associated with more active participation in power saving. (4) Households in Osaka saved more electricity than those in Matsuyama, probably because the government call to save electricity was more forceful. - Highlights: •Energy efficient air conditioner purchases affect household power savings. •Additional air conditioner purchase led to significant energy savings. •Replacement units did not produce more savings than non-purchase. • “Electricity conservation directives” amount had a significant power-saving effect. •Altruistic households were more likely to cooperate with power-saving requests.

  12. Electric Power Saving Awareness System at School Using ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzume Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, education on energy saving at schools attracts attention to reduce energy consumption. In this paper we proposed a novel system to promote energy conservation activity at schools using a sensor network. The system consisted of a wall-type clock embedded with several kinds of sensors for temperature and light in the classroom, and wireless devices to connect to a cloud computer network. The system had the following superiorities: offered various services for energy conservation activity, needless of CT (Current Transformer sensor, low price, ease of installation and extension, and visualization of power consumption in conjunction with school timetable in real time. We presented the system and a user study conducted to evaluate its usefulness.

  13. A simple tool for estimating city-wide annual electrical energy savings from cooler surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Rosado, Pablo J.; Levinson, Ronnen

    2015-12-01

    We present a simple method to estimate the maximum possible electrical energy saving that might be achieved by increasing the albedo of surfaces in a large city. We restrict this to the “indirect effect”, the cooling of outside air that lessens the demand for air conditioning (AC). Given the power demand of the electric utilities and data about the city, we can use a single linear equation to estimate the maximum savings. For example, the result for an albedo change of 0.2 of pavements in a typical warm city in California, such as Sacramento, is that the saving is less than about 2 kWh per m2 per year. This may help decision makers choose which heat island mitigation techniques are economical from an energy-saving perspective.

  14. Industrial plant electrical systems: Simplicity, reliability, cost savings, redundancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, A.; Tommazzolli, F.; Pavia Univ.

    1992-01-01

    This article represents a compact but complete design and construction manual for industrial plant electrical systems. It is to be used by design engineers having prior knowledge of local power supply routes and voltages and regards principally the optimum choice of internal distribution systems which can be radial or single, double ringed or with various network configurations, and with single or multiple supplies, and many or few redundancies. After giving guidelines on the choosing of these options, the manual deals with problematics relevant to suitable cable sizing. A cost benefit benefit analysis method is suggested for the choice of the number of redundancies. Recommendations are given for the choice of transformers, motorized equipment, switch boards and circuit breakers. Reference is made to Italian electrical safety and building codes

  15. The likely market potential for electricity saving ASD devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparow, F.T.; McKenzie, L.

    1993-01-01

    Many utility demand-side management (DSM) programs encourage the adoption of adjustable speed drives (ASD) in the industrial and commercial sectors, since such devices save KW and KWh. The term open-quotes adjustable speed drives close-quote is used to refer to any device which allows the speed of the motor to be adjusted to better match process requirements. Thus, motor input control devices, such as electronic adjustable speed drives for AC motors (i.e., adjustable frequency drives (AFD)), voltage controlled DC motors, and the use of floating pressure setpoint controls, or other devices which better control on/off compressor operation, would be considered ASD devices. Also included would be motor technologies, such as multi-speed windings, etc., which allow the synchronous speed of the motor to be altered. Not included in this definition would be mechanical systems such as gear boxes, friction disks, etc., which maintain motor speed, but alter the drive r.p.m. to the equipment. The importance of the distinction is that ASDs, as defined above, have the potential to substantially reduce KW and KWh consumption if the equipment duty cycle is varying, while mechanical drive r.p.m. varying devices don't

  16. Providing feedback as a means to empower householders to save electricity: A social cognitive approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Grønhøj, Alice

    Studies show that the electricity consumption in private households could be substantially reduced (5 - 25%) without the loss of comfort by using best practice technology and care (Birch & Krogboe A/S, 2004). A number of reasons for the squandering of electricity have been pointed out: the force...... of habit, lack of attention towards the issue, lack of motivation due to an unfavorable cost/benefit ratio, uncertainty about the environmental consequences of the squandering of electricity and about the effects of possible conservation efforts. Based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory......, this paper outlines a conceptual framework for understanding private consumers' (lack of) energy saving effort. The framework is tested based on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers and it is concluded that the impediments that now makes electricity saving difficult are a key action point...

  17. Analysis on factors affecting household customers decision in using electricity at peak time and its correlation towards saving electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasasa, Linus; Marbun, Parlin; Mariza, Ita

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study and analyse the factors affecting customer decisions in using electricity at peak-load hours (between 17.00 to 22.00 WIB) and their behaviors towards electricity conservation in Indonesian household. The underlying rationale is to influence a reduction in energy consumption by stimulating energy saving behaviors, thereby reducing the impact of energy use on the environment. How is the correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity? The primary data is obtained by distributing questionnaires to customers of PT. PLN Jakarta Raya and Tangerang Distribution from Household segment. The data is analysed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) and AMOS Software. The research is finding that all factors (Personal, Social, PLN Services, Psychological, and Cultural) are positively influence customer decision in using electricity at peak load hours. There is a correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity.

  18. The impact of daylight saving time on electricity consumption: Evidence from southern Norway and Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Faisal Mehmood, E-mail: faisal.mirza@umb.no [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway); Bergland, Olvar, E-mail: olvar.bergland@umb.no [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)

    2011-06-15

    This paper examines the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. As DST was implemented in both the countries in 1980, we do not have a clear counterfactual in the form of a control period to identify the impact of DST directly with before and after or with and without analysis. This problem in the study is resolved by using 'equivalent day normalization technique' to identify the impact of DST. The difference-in-difference (DID) average treatment effects model suggests an annual reduction of at least 1.0 percent in electricity consumption for both Norway and Sweden due to DST. The average annual electricity consumption reduction corresponding to DST effects equals 519 and 882 GWh for southern Norway and Sweden, resulting in an annual financial saving of 16.1 million Euros and 30.1 million Euros, respectively. The distribution of treatment effects across different hours of the day indicates a small but significant reduction in electricity consumption during the morning and a steep decline during the evening hours in both countries. - Highlights: > We assess the impact of DST on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. > DST reduces electricity consumption by 1.3 percent in both countries. > The impact is smaller during the morning hours but larger during evening hours. > Respective annual financial savings equal Euro 16.1 and 30.1 million for Norway and Sweden. > Average annual electricity savings equal 519 and 882 GWh for two countries, respectively.

  19. The impact of daylight saving time on electricity consumption: Evidence from southern Norway and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Faisal Mehmood; Bergland, Olvar

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. As DST was implemented in both the countries in 1980, we do not have a clear counterfactual in the form of a control period to identify the impact of DST directly with before and after or with and without analysis. This problem in the study is resolved by using 'equivalent day normalization technique' to identify the impact of DST. The difference-in-difference (DID) average treatment effects model suggests an annual reduction of at least 1.0 percent in electricity consumption for both Norway and Sweden due to DST. The average annual electricity consumption reduction corresponding to DST effects equals 519 and 882 GWh for southern Norway and Sweden, resulting in an annual financial saving of 16.1 million Euros and 30.1 million Euros, respectively. The distribution of treatment effects across different hours of the day indicates a small but significant reduction in electricity consumption during the morning and a steep decline during the evening hours in both countries. - Highlights: → We assess the impact of DST on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. → DST reduces electricity consumption by 1.3 percent in both countries. → The impact is smaller during the morning hours but larger during evening hours. → Respective annual financial savings equal Euro 16.1 and 30.1 million for Norway and Sweden. → Average annual electricity savings equal 519 and 882 GWh for two countries, respectively.

  20. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Reis, Callie [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  1. DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, MIchael; Letschert, Virginie; Shen, Bo; Sathaye, Jayant; de la Ru du Can, Stephane

    2011-01-12

    The global economy has grown rapidly over the past decade with a commensurate growth in the demand for electricity services that has increased a country's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Increasing need of reliable and affordable electricity supply is a challenge which is before every Asia Pacific Partnership (APP) country. Collaboration between APP members has been extremely fruitful in identifying potential efficiency upgrades and implementing clean technology in the supply side of the power sector as well established the beginnings of collaboration. However, significantly more effort needs to be focused on demand side potential in each country. Demand side management or DSM in this case is a policy measure that promotes energy efficiency as an alternative to increasing electricity supply. It uses financial or other incentives to slow demand growth on condition that the incremental cost needed is less than the cost of increasing supply. Such DSM measures provide an alternative to building power supply capacity The type of financial incentives comprise of rebates (subsidies), tax exemptions, reduced interest loans, etc. Other approaches include the utilization of a cap and trade scheme to foster energy efficiency projects by creating a market where savings are valued. Under this scheme, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of electricity are capped and electricity retailers are required to meet the target partially or entirely through energy efficiency activities. Implementation of DSM projects is very much in the early stages in several of the APP countries or localized to a regional part of the country. The purpose of this project is to review the different types of DSM programs experienced by APP countries and to estimate the overall future potential for cost-effective demand-side efficiency improvements in buildings sectors in the 7 APP countries through the year 2030. Overall, the savings potential is estimated to be

  2. Integration scenarios of Demand Response into electricity markets: Load shifting, financial savings and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerriegel, Stefan; Neumann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Demand Response allows for the management of demand side resources in real-time; i.e. shifting electricity demand according to fluctuating supply. When integrated into electricity markets, Demand Response can be used for load shifting and as a replacement for both control reserve and balancing energy. These three usage scenarios are compared based on historic German data from 2011 to determine that load shifting provides the highest benefit: its annual financial savings accumulate to €3.110 M for both households and the service sector. This equals to relative savings of 2.83% compared to a scenario without load shifting. To improve Demand Response integration, the proposed model suggests policy implications: reducing bid sizes, delivery periods and the time-lag between market transactions and delivery dates in electricity markets. - Highlights: •Comparison of 3 scenarios to integrate Demand Response into electricity markets. •These are: optimize procurement, offer as control reserve, avoid balancing energy. •Ex post simulation to quantify financial impact and policy implications. •Highest savings from load shifting with a cost reduction of 3%. •Model suggests reducing bid sizes, delivery periods and time lags as policy issues.

  3. Projected electricity savings from implementing minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerators in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Choudhury, I.A.; NoorLeha, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Malaysian economy has grown rapidly in the last two decades. This growth has increased the ownership of household electrical appliances, especially refrigerator-freezers. Almost every house in Malaysia owns a refrigerator-freezer. The Malaysia Energy Center considered implementing a minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers sometime in the coming year. This paper attempts to predict the amount of energy savings in the residential sector by implementing a minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers. The calculations are based on the growth of refrigerator-freezer ownership data in Malaysian households. By implementing the programs in 2004, about 8722 GWh will be saved in the year 2013. Therefore, efficiency improvement of this appliance will provide a significant impact in future electricity consumption in Malaysia

  4. Ultra high benefits system for electric energy saving and management of lighting energy in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Presenting a novel multi channel smart system to manage lighting energy in buildings. • Saving considerable electric energy which is converted to lighting in buildings. • Providing desired constant and adjustable luminance for each location in buildings. • Capability of working with all AC electric power sources. • To automatically control and manage lighting energy in buildings. - Abstract: This paper presents a smart system, including a multi channel dimmer and a central process unit (CPU) together with an exact multi channel feedback mechanism, which automatically regulates and manages lighting in buildings. Based on a multi channel luminance feedback, a high benefits technique is utilized to convert the electric energy to lighting energy. Saving a lot of the electric energy which should be converted to lighting energy in buildings, managing the lighting energy in buildings, providing desired constant and adjustable luminance for each room (location), and the capability of working with all AC electric power sources regardless of frequency and voltage amplitude are some advantages of using the proposed system and technique, thus it will be widely used in buildings. An experimental prototype of the proposed smart system has been constructed to validate the theoretical results and to carry out the experimental tests. Experimental results earned by utilizing the proposed smart system in a sample building are presented to prove the benefits of using the system. The experimental results explicitly show a considerable electric energy saving (about 27%) in the sample building while the proposed system has provided desired constant and adjustable luminance for each location of the building

  5. Evaluation of the Electricity Saving Fund in Basel, Switzerland; Evaluation des Stromsparfonds Basel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iten, R.; Vettori, A.; Schmidt, N. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Vaterlaus, S.; Wild, J. [Plaut (Schweiz) Consulting AG, Bern (Switzerland)

    2003-09-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of an evaluation made concerning the Electricity Saving Fund operated in Basel, Switzerland. The aims of the fund, which is based on the imposition of a steering levy on electricity consumption, are presented and discussed. It is noted that the political policies behind this promotional scheme differ greatly from those of other Swiss Cantons. This study examines the direct and indirect effects of the steering levy and the resulting bonus for energy-saving consumers and takes a look at possibilities for transferring the idea to other Swiss Cantons. Questions asked include the degree to which the aims were fulfilled, were negative side-effects noted, is the implementation efficient, can the know-how gained be transferred to other communities and Cantons and which general experience was gained in the application of steering levies. Details on the implementation of the Electricity Saving Bonus are presented and discussed. Results of a survey on the perception of the scheme both in the commercial and private sectors are discussed. Also, the results of evaluations made concerning the degree to which the scheme's aims were fulfilled and their usefulness from the national economics point of view are discussed. Suggestions for improvements are presented. The report is concluded with an a selection of annexes on the topics dealt with in the report

  6. Evaluation of the Electricity Saving Fund in Basel, Switzerland; Evaluation des Stromsparfonds Basel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iten, R; Vettori, A; Schmidt, N [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Vaterlaus, S; Wild, J [Plaut (Schweiz) Consulting AG, Bern (Switzerland)

    2003-09-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of an evaluation made concerning the Electricity Saving Fund operated in Basel, Switzerland. The aims of the fund, which is based on the imposition of a steering levy on electricity consumption, are presented and discussed. It is noted that the political policies behind this promotional scheme differ greatly from those of other Swiss Cantons. This study examines the direct and indirect effects of the steering levy and the resulting bonus for energy-saving consumers and takes a look at possibilities for transferring the idea to other Swiss Cantons. Questions asked include the degree to which the aims were fulfilled, were negative side-effects noted, is the implementation efficient, can the know-how gained be transferred to other communities and Cantons and which general experience was gained in the application of steering levies. Details on the implementation of the Electricity Saving Bonus are presented and discussed. Results of a survey on the perception of the scheme both in the commercial and private sectors are discussed. Also, the results of evaluations made concerning the degree to which the scheme's aims were fulfilled and their usefulness from the national economics point of view are discussed. Suggestions for improvements are presented. The report is concluded with an a selection of annexes on the topics dealt with in the report

  7. The impact of the daylight saving time on electricity consumption-A case study from Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad Momani, Mohammad; Yatim, Baharudin; Ali, Mohd Alauddin Mohd

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on electricity consumption in Jordan. Two types of analysis were done: the first analysis examines the impact of DST on the lighting loads based on a survey study made for residential and commercial sectors. The second examines the impact of DST on the over all electricity generation through analyzing the daily load curves (DLCs) before and after the DST onset and removal in 2000 and 2007. The results show that the application of DST during the year 2000 saves the electricity used for illumination by -0.73% but it increases the overall generation at the onset and removal of DST by 0.5% and 1.4% due to increase in the heating and cooling loads. The analysis of DLCs during the year 2007 shows similar effects as in the year 2000 except during the early morning period at the DST onset where DST decreases the demand during this time. The analysis shows that DST decreases the electricity demand at DST onset by 0.2% and increases it at DST removal by 0.3%. A possible decrease in the electricity consumption may take place if the DST is implemented from April to end of August.

  8. The Impact of Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) Regulation on Electricity Saving in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihah Salleh, Siti; Eqwan Roslan, Mohd; Isa, Aishah Mohd; Faizal Basri Nair, Mohd; Syafiqah Salleh, Siti

    2018-03-01

    One of Malaysia’s key strategies to promote efficient energy use in the country is to implement the minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) through the Electricity Regulations (Amendment) 2013. Five selected electrical appliances (refrigerator, air conditioner, television, domestic fans and lamp fittings) must comply with MEPS requirement in order to be sold in Malaysian market. Manufacturers, importers or distributors are issued Certificate of Approval (COA) if products are MEPS-compliant. In 2015, 1,215 COAs were issued but the number of MEPS products in the market is unknown. This work collects sales data from major manufacturers to estimate the annual sales of MEPS appliances and the cumulative electricity consumption and electricity saving. It was found that most products sold have 3-star rating and above. By year 2015, total cumulative electricity savings gained from MEPS implementation is 3,645 GWh, with air conditioner being the highest contributor (30%). In the future, it is recommended that more MEPS products and related incentives be introduced to further improve efficiency of energy use in Malaysia.

  9. Electricity consumption and energy savings potential of video game consoles in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hittinger, E.; Mullins, K.A.; Azevedo, I.L. [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Total energy consumption of video game consoles has grown rapidly in the past few decades due to rapid increases in market penetration, power consumption of the devices, and increasing usage driven by new capabilities. Unfortunately, studies investigating the energy impacts of these devices have been limited and potential responses, such as ENERGY STAR requirements, have been difficult to define and implement. We estimate that the total electricity consumption of video game consoles in the US was around 11 TWh in 2007 and 16 TWh in 2010 (approximately 1 % of US residential electricity consumption), an increase of almost 50 % in 3 years. However, any estimate of total game console energy consumption is highly uncertain, and we have determined that the key uncertainty is the unknown consumer behavior with regards to powering down the system after use. Even under this uncertainty, we demonstrate that the most effective energy-saving modification is incorporation of a default auto power down feature, which could reduce electricity consumption of game consoles by 75 % (10 TWh reduction of electricity in 2010), saving consumers over USD 1 billion annually in electricity bills. We conclude that using an auto power down feature for game consoles is at least as effective for reducing energy consumption as implementing a strict set of energy efficiency improvements for the devices, is much easier to implement given the nature of the video game console industry, and could be applied retroactively to currently deployed consoles through firmware updates.

  10. Example for electrical energy savings with the pump adjustable electric drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirchevski, Slobodan; Andonov, Zdravko; Saracevic, Fahrudin; Micevski, Darko; Buchkoski, Aleksandar

    2004-01-01

    Most used method of flow regulation is by throttling the pipeline. Development of power electronic gives opportunity for induction motor pump drives speed control. The common ways of pump flow control are throttling, reducing the working circle, usage of fore circle shovels rotating, by pass and pump speed control Only pump speed control is the most suitable for the energy possibilities. Intensive development of power electronic gives. opportunity to create devices - power converters, which can change the speed of induction motor. For that improvement the energy savings the measurements of power consumption with throttling and speed control have been made. Also, the MATLAB-SIMULINK model of the measured system has been made. The economic effects of saving energy using adjustable speed drives are analyzed for the measured values. The analysis shows that the money payback period of speed controller investment is short compared with the drive lifetime (20 years). (Author)

  11. Microscopic Driving Parameters-Based Energy-Saving Effect Analysis under Different Electric Vehicle Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid motorization over the recent years, China's transportation sector has been facing an increasing environmental pressure. Compared with gasoline vehicle (GV, electric vehicle (EV is expected to play an important role in the mitigation of CO2 and other pollution emissions, and urban air quality improvement, for its zero emission during use and higher energy efficiency. This paper aims to estimate the energy saving efficiency of EV, especially under different EV penetration and road traffic conditions. First, based on the emission and electricity consumption data collected by a light-duty EV and a light duty GV, a set of electricity consumption rate models and gasoline consumption rate models are established. Then, according to the conversion formula of coal equivalent, these models are transformed into coal equivalent consumption models, which make gasoline consumption and electricity consumption comparable. Finally, the relationship between the EV penetration and the reduction of energy consumption is explored based on the simulation undertaken on the North Second Ring Road in Beijing. The results show that the coal equivalent consumption will decrease by about 5% with the increases of EV penetration by 10% and the maximum energy-saving effect can be achieved when the traffic volume is about 4000 pcu/h.

  12. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  13. The devil is in the details: Household electricity saving behavior and the role of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, Kristina; Soederholm, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze Swedish households' willingness to increase their daily efforts to save electricity. The analysis builds on a broad theoretical framework, which embraces both economic and norm-based motivations in explaining household behavior. The paper pays particular attention to the role of information about the availability of different behavioral changes that can be undertaken at the household level. The empirical results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1200 Swedish households, and the econometric analysis is carried out within a so-called ordered probit framework. Our results indicate that costs, environmental attitudes and social interactions are all important determinants of electricity saving activities within Swedish households. We tested the hypothesis that information about available savings measures that is presented in a more concrete and specific way is more likely to affect (stated) behavior than is more general information, and the data collected support this notion. The paper ends by discussing some implications of these results for the design of future informative policy measures in the energy-efficiency field.

  14. The devil is in the details. Household electricity saving behavior and the role of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, Kristina; Soederholm, Patrik [Economics Unit, Luleaa University of Technology, 971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze Swedish households' willingness to increase their daily efforts to save electricity. The analysis builds on a broad theoretical framework, which embraces both economic and norm-based motivations in explaining household behavior. The paper pays particular attention to the role of information about the availability of different behavioral changes that can be undertaken at the household level. The empirical results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1200 Swedish households, and the econometric analysis is carried out within a so-called ordered probit framework. Our results indicate that costs, environmental attitudes and social interactions are all important determinants of electricity saving activities within Swedish households. We tested the hypothesis that information about available savings measures that is presented in a more concrete and specific way is more likely to affect (stated) behavior than is more general information, and the data collected support this notion. The paper ends by discussing some implications of these results for the design of future informative policy measures in the energy-efficiency field. (author)

  15. The devil is in the details: Household electricity saving behavior and the role of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, Kristina, E-mail: kristina.ek@ltu.s [Economics Unit, Lulea University of Technology, 971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Soederholm, Patrik, E-mail: Patrik.Soderholm@ltu.s [Economics Unit, Lulea University of Technology, 971 87 Lulea (Sweden)

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze Swedish households' willingness to increase their daily efforts to save electricity. The analysis builds on a broad theoretical framework, which embraces both economic and norm-based motivations in explaining household behavior. The paper pays particular attention to the role of information about the availability of different behavioral changes that can be undertaken at the household level. The empirical results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1200 Swedish households, and the econometric analysis is carried out within a so-called ordered probit framework. Our results indicate that costs, environmental attitudes and social interactions are all important determinants of electricity saving activities within Swedish households. We tested the hypothesis that information about available savings measures that is presented in a more concrete and specific way is more likely to affect (stated) behavior than is more general information, and the data collected support this notion. The paper ends by discussing some implications of these results for the design of future informative policy measures in the energy-efficiency field.

  16. Compact fluorescent lamps, innovation for electricity saving; Lamparas fluorescentes compactas, innovacion para el ahorro de electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Fernando [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (Mexico); Camacho P, Wendolin E; Villalobos Alarcon, German [Phillips Lighting Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-01-15

    An extremely important resource is electricity because it has provided illumination for homes, buildings and cities in the absence of natural light. Therefore, the human being is considering to save this valuable resource by using sophisticated light bulbs. At the end of the 70's the compact fluorescent lamps appeared. In this article we can disclose the advantages and disadvantages of this technology, and how some years later of its invention, those lamps satisfied the client expectations, due to its cost, electricity saving, longer lifetime, use possibilities, and technological improvements. We can also know how Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) and The Trust Fund for Electric Energy Savings (FIDE) supported a project to favor these lamps to be in the Mexican market. [Spanish] La electricidad es un recurso de suma importancia porque ha contribuido a la iluminacion de casas, edificios y ciudades, ante la ausencia de luz natural, es por ello que se ha buscado ahorrar este recurso tan preciado con el uso de lamparas sofisticadas. Una tecnologia que aparecio a finales de los anos 70 fueron las lamparas fluorescentes compactas. En este articulo encontramos sus ventajas y desventajas, y como despues de algunos anos de su creacion comenzaron a llenar las expectativas del cliente gracias a su costo, ahorro de electricidad, mayor tiempo de vida, posibilidades de aplicacion y mejoras tecnologicas. Asi mismo podemos conocer, el proyecto que se hizo para que esta tecnologia entrara al mercado mexicano, con el apoyo de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y del Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE).

  17. Joule-Thief Circuit Performance for Electricity Energy Saving of Emergency Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryanto Budisusila, Eka; Arifin, Bustanul

    2017-04-01

    The alternative energy such as battery as power source is required as energy source failures. The other need is outdoor lighting. The electrical power source is expected to be a power saving, optimum and has long life operating. The Joule-Thief circuit is one of solution method for energy saving by using raised electromagnetic force on cored coil when there is back-current. This circuit has a transistor operated as a switch to cut voltage and current flowing along the coils. The present of current causing magnetic induction and generates energy. Experimental prototype was designed by using battery 1.5V to activate Light Emitting Diode or LED as load. The LED was connected in parallel or serial circuit configuration. The result show that the joule-thief circuit able to supply LED circuits up to 40 LEDs.

  18. Electricity-saving measures for electrical drives - Market analysis; Massnahmen zum Stromsparen bei elektrischen Antrieben. Marktanalyse in der Industrie. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, W.; Ebert Bolla, O.; Puenzieux, P.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of work done on an empirical analysis of the results of a small-scale survey of industries as well as on various interviews with experts. Topics covered include the number of electrical motors in use in Switzerland, the number held in reserve, power consumption, part-load and over-dimensioning, operational factors, control strategies and the use of standardised motors. The data collected is presented in tabular and graphical form. Possibilities of making savings are discussed, as are obstacles to such work. Finally, ideas for an efficiency campaign are presented.

  19. Evaluation of subsidy for electricity savings in households; Evaluering av tilskuddsordning for elektrisitetssparing i husholdninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-04-15

    Ramboll Management Consulting (Ramboll) has on behalf of Enova SF (Enova) conducted an evaluation of the 'Grant Scheme for electricity savings in households'. The evaluation is conducted in the period January to March 2009, Ramboll is solely responsible for all the analysis, conclusions and recommendations in the report. The evaluation conducted on the basis of a review of the grant assessed on the basis of six evaluation themes. The evaluation will form the basis for further work on the grant by Enova and in their reporting to the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (OED). (AG)

  20. Electrical heating tapes, their use, energy consumption and energy savings potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipkow, J.; Lingenhel, S.

    2002-01-01

    Heating cables require about 0.6% of Swiss electricity consumption, approximately as much as all TV-sets. Most important applications are domestic hot water distribution tubing, frost protection (tubing, gutters) and industrial tubing, each requiring about 1/3. For over 10 years, self-regulating technology is standard for heating cables and offers pre-defined maintenance temperatures. To minimize electricity consumption, in most applications additional control devices (timer, temperature-/ power control) are necessary. The study could not give a general answer to whether domestic hot water distribution systems should be heated by heating cables or circulation systems. The best solution depends on the specific building circumstances. Conclusions of the technical and market analysis say that measures in different fields can transfer the saving potentials into practice: architects and designers of sanitary and electrical installations should be informed by articles in specialized magazines: the goal is either to avoid the use of heating cables or to minimize their electricity consumption, training of plumbers and electricians should treat the efficient use of heating cables. An instruction leaflet is to be created. Building owners and operators should be informed by their specialized magazines about problems with heating cables. (author)

  1. Electricity savings from implementation of minimum energy efficiency standard for TVs in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varman, M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD in Malaysia are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the country. With the increasing of overall TV energy consumption, energy efficiency standards are one of highly effective policies for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. Energy efficiency standards are also capable of reducing consumer's electricity bill and contribute towards positive environmental impacts. This paper attempts to predict the amount of energy that can be saved in the residential sector by implementing minimum energy efficiency standard for television sets in Malaysia. Over the past 30 years, television ownership in Malaysian residents has increased from 186,036 units in 1970 to 2,741,640 units in 1991. This figure is expected to reach 6,201,316 units in the year 2010. Hence, efficiency improvement for this appliance will have a significant impact on the future of electricity consumption in this country. (author)

  2. Energy-Saving Sintering of Electrically Conductive Powders by Modified Pulsed Electric Current Heating Using an Electrically Nonconductive Die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikio; Kawahara, Kenta; Araki, Keita

    2014-04-01

    Sintering of Cu and thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9 was tried using a modified pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) process, where an electrically nonconductive die was used instead of a conventional graphite die. The pulsed electric current flowed through graphite punches and sample powder, which caused the Joule heating of the powder compact itself, resulting in sintering under smaller power consumption. Especially for the Ca3Co4O9 powder, densification during sintering was also accelerated by this modified PECS process.

  3. Estimating the cost of saving electricity through U.S. utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Goldman, Charles A.; Rybka, Gregory; Leventis, Greg; Schwartz, Lisa; Sanstad, Alan H.; Schiller, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The program administrator and total cost of saved energy allow comparison of the cost of efficiency across utilities, states, and program types, and can identify potential performance improvements. Comparing program administrator cost with the total cost of saved energy can indicate the degree to which programs leverage investment by participants. Based on reported total costs and savings information for U.S. utility efficiency programs from 2009 to 2013, we estimate the savings-weighted average total cost of saved electricity across 20 states at $0.046 per kilowatt-hour (kW h), comparing favorably with energy supply costs and retail rates. Programs targeted on the residential market averaged $0.030 per kW h compared to $0.053 per kW h for non-residential programs. Lighting programs, with an average total cost of $0.018 per kW h, drove lower savings costs in the residential market. We provide estimates for the most common program types and find that program administrators and participants on average are splitting the costs of efficiency in half. More consistent, standardized and complete reporting on efficiency programs is needed. Differing definitions and quantification of costs, savings and savings lifetimes pose challenges for comparing program results. Reducing these uncertainties could increase confidence in efficiency as a resource among planners and policymakers. - Highlights: • The cost of saved energy allows comparisons among energy resource investments. • Findings from the most expansive collection yet of total energy efficiency program costs. • The weighted average total cost of saved electricity was $0.046 for 20 states in 2009–2013. • Averages in the residential and non-residential sectors were $0.030 and $0.053 per kW h, respectively. • Results strongly indicate need for more consistent, reliable and complete reporting on efficiency programs.

  4. Characterization of the household electricity consumption in the EU, potential energy savings and specific policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Paula; Almeida, Anibal de (ISR-Univ. of Coimbra, Dep. Electrical Engineering (Portugal)). e-mail: pfonseca@isr.uc.pt; Feilberg, Nicolai (SINTEF Energiforskning AS (Norway)); Markogiannakis, George (Centre for Renewable Energy Sources - CRES (Greece)); Kofod, Casper (Energy piano (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    Although significant improvements in energy efficiency have been achieved in home appliances and lighting, the electricity consumption in the average EU-27 household has been increasing by about 2% per year during the past 10 years. Some reasons for such increase are associated with an increased degree of basic comfort and level of amenities (particularly in the new EU member countries) and also with the widespread utilization of relatively new types of loads whose penetration and use has experienced a very significant growth in recent years. With the objective of contributing to an increased understanding of the energy consumption in the EU-27 households for the different types of equipment including the consumers' behaviour and comfort levels, and to identify demand trends, a large energy monitoring campaign, co-funded by the IEE programme, was carried out in 12 countries, accompanied by a lifestyle consumer survey. From the measurements carried out it can be concluded that IT and entertainment loads, including standby, are a key contributor to the power demand. In basically all types of loads there is wide range of performance levels, including new emerging technologies, in the models available in the market. Available technology, associated with responsible consumer behaviour, can reduce wasteful consumption. The potential electricity savings that exist in the residential sector in Europe, and that can already be implemented by existing means, like the use of BAT (best available technology) efficient appliances or the elimination/mitigation of standby consumption, can reach up to 48% savings. Specific policy recommendations to promote market transformation and behavioural changes in the equipment selection and operation have been identified.

  5. The costs of the different pathways of electricity production and saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.

    2012-01-01

    The author discusses the content and methodology of a report published by the French Court of Audit on the assessment of the costs of the nuclear sector. He briefly recalls the principle adopted by the Court, i.e. the method of the economic current cost which calculates a global MWh cost on the whole operation duration of the selected production tool. The author discusses the application of this method to different electricity production and consumption sectors: ground-based wind energy, the Flamanville EPR, use of low-energy bulbs, air-air heat pumps, a refrigerator. He compares and discusses the results obtained for different electricity production sectors (EPR, ground-based wind energy, and gas combined cycle technology) and their sensitivity to adopted hypotheses. He comments the evolution of the investment cost of nuclear reactors in France, the economic current costs of offshore wind energy and small photovoltaic production. He finally discusses the economic current costs of the different ways of energy saving and their sensitivity to the adopted hypotheses

  6. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Chang, Wen-Kuei; Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-05-01

    Buildings consume more than one third of the world?s total primary energy. Weather plays a unique and significant role as it directly affects the thermal loads and thus energy performance of buildings. The traditional simulated energy performance using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data represents the building performance for a typical year, but not necessarily the average or typical long-term performance as buildings with different energy systems and designs respond differently to weather changes. Furthermore, the single-year TMY simulations do not provide a range of results that capture yearly variations due to changing weather, which is important for building energy management, and for performing risk assessments of energy efficiency investments. This paper employs large-scale building simulation (a total of 3162 runs) to study the weather impact on peak electricity demand and energy use with the 30-year (1980 to 2009) Actual Meteorological Year (AMY) weather data for three types of office buildings at two design efficiency levels, across all 17 ASHRAE climate zones. The simulated results using the AMY data are compared to those from the TMY3 data to determine and analyze the differences. Besides further demonstration, as done by other studies, that actual weather has a significant impact on both the peak electricity demand and energy use of buildings, the main findings from the current study include: 1) annual weather variation has a greater impact on the peak electricity demand than it does on energy use in buildings; 2) the simulated energy use using the TMY3 weather data is not necessarily representative of the average energy use over a long period, and the TMY3 results can be significantly higher or lower than those from the AMY data; 3) the weather impact is greater for buildings in colder climates than warmer climates; 4) the weather impact on the medium-sized office building was the greatest, followed by the large office and then the small

  7. Electrical resistance determination of actual contact area of cold welded metal joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordon, M. J.

    1970-01-01

    Method measures the area of the bonded zone of a compression weld by observing the electrical resistance of the weld zone while the load changes from full compression until the joint ruptures under tension. The ratio of bonding force to maximum tensile load varies considerably.

  8. Evaluation of actual costs of power sources and effects on balance sheets of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Murakami, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, almost all nuclear power stations continued to stop operation and sharp increase of purchase costs of fossil fuels forced some electric utilities to suffer a deficit. This article presented quantitative analysis of effects of present state on power costs and balance sheets of electric utilities. Levelized costs of electricity increased from 8.6 ¥/kWh (2010) to 11.6 ¥/kWh (2011) and 12.6 ¥/kWh (2012). Total power costs increased from 7.5 Trillion¥(2010) to 9.5 Trillion¥(2011). Due to increase of cost of fossil fuel compensated for nuclear power, electric utilities suffered a net loss of 0.8 Trillion¥ and decreased surplus to 2.5 Trillion¥ in 2011. Net loss of 1.3 Trillion¥ and surplus of 1.2 Trillion¥ was estimated for 2012. This state was beyond the limit of utilities' efforts to reduce costs and uncertain share of power sources became a great risk. Future share of power sources should be judged appropriately from various standpoints (costs, stable supply, energy security and national economic growth) and early public dissemination of new philosophy on share of power sources was highly required. (T. Tanaka)

  9. The actual role of alternative energies in electricity supply in Brazil in the nineties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado Junior, Fernando Amaral Almeida; Simoes, Nivaldo Silveira

    1993-01-01

    Starting in the seventies, deep changes have occurred in the electric sector, and alternative energy sources appeared as an option to hydraulic power. Presently, the effective contribution of alternative sources such as solar energy, cogeneration and energy conservation will not be predominant in the short run. Nevertheless, the study of these technologies is fundamental for the utilities' strategies. 4 refs., 5 figs

  10. Gauging the Impact of Various Definitions of Low- and Moderate-Income Communities on Possible Electricity Savings From Weatherization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-20

    With rising interest in lowering energy costs for low- and moderate-income households, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the implications of pursuing energy efficiency neighborhood-by-neighborhood where those households are most prevalent. DOE provided certain scenarios for qualifying geographic areas as “low- and moderate-income communities,” and LBNL used data on demographics, housing types and recent savings from low-income retrofits or weatherization to provide rough electricity savings estimates under those scenarios.

  11. Modelling of electricity savings in the Danish households sector: from the energy system to the end-user

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Trivella, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    sectors, has been extended in order to endogenously determine the best possible investments in more efficient home appliances. Second, we propose a method to relate the optimal energy system solution to the end-user choices by incorporating consumer behaviour and electricity price addition due to taxes...... of support to become profitable. The analysis quantifies energy and economic savings from the consumer side and reveals the impacts on the Danish power system and surrounding countries. Compared to a business-as-usual energy scenario, the end-user attains net economic savings in the range of 30–40 EUR per...

  12. A fresh look at weather impact on peak electricity demand and energy use of buildings using 30-year actual weather data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Chang, Wen-Kuei; Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Weather has a significant impact on both the peak electricity demand and energy use. • Weather impact varies with building type, building efficiency level, and location. • Simulated results using TMY3 weather data can under or over estimate those of AMY. • It is crucial to assess performance of buildings using long-term actual weather data. • Findings enable building stakeholders to make better decisions on weather impact. - Abstract: Buildings consume more than one third of the world’s total primary energy. Weather plays a unique and significant role as it directly affects the thermal loads and thus energy performance of buildings. The traditional simulated energy performance using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data represents the building performance for a typical year, but not necessarily the average or typical long-term performance as buildings with different energy systems and designs respond differently to weather changes. Furthermore, the single-year TMY simulations do not provide a range of results that capture yearly variations due to changing weather, which is important for building energy management, and for performing risk assessments of energy efficiency investments. This paper employs large-scale building simulation (a total of 3162 runs) to study the weather impact on peak electricity demand and energy use with the 30-year (1980–2009) Actual Meteorological Year (AMY) weather data for three types of office buildings at two design efficiency levels, across all 17 ASHRAE climate zones. The simulated results using the AMY data are compared to those from the TMY3 data to determine and analyze the differences. Besides further demonstration, as done by other studies, that actual weather has a significant impact on both the peak electricity demand and energy use of buildings, the main findings from the current study include: (1) annual weather variation has a greater impact on the peak electricity demand than it does

  13. Electricity savings with pellet stoves and solar heating in electrically heated houses; Elbesparing med pelletkaminer och solvaerme i direktelvaermda smaahus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tomas [Hoegskolan Dalarna, Borlaenge (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how electrically heated houses can be converted to using wood pellet and solar heating. There are a large number of wood pellet stoves on the market. Many stoves have a water jacket, which gives an opportunity to distribute the heat to domestic hot water and a radiator heating system. Three typical Swedish houses with electric resistance heating have been studied. Fourteen different system concepts using wood pellet stoves and solar heating systems have been evaluated. The systems and the houses have been simulated in detail using TRNSYS. The houses have been divided in up to 10 different zones and heat transfer by air circulation through doorways and open doors have been simulated. The pellet stoves were simulated using a recently developed TRNSYS component, which models the start- and stop phases, emissions and the dynamic behaviour of the stoves. The model also calculates the CO-emissions. Simulations were made with one stove without a water jacket and two stoves with different fractions of the generated heat distributed in the water circuit. Simulations show that the electricity savings using a pellet stove are greatly affected by the house plan, the system choice, if the internal doors are open or closed and the desired level of comfort. Installing a stove with a water-jacket connected to a radiator system and a hot water storage has the advantage that heat can be transferred to domestic hot water and be distributed to other rooms. Such systems lead to greater electricity savings, especially in houses having a traditional layout. It was found that not all rooms needed radiators and that it was more effective in most cases to use a stove with a higher fraction of the heat distributed by the water circuit. The economic investigation shows that installing a wood pellet stove without a water jacket gives the lowest total energy- and capital costs in the house with an open plan (for today's energy prices and the

  14. Specifics of energy-saving technologies in electrical power supply systems of operating industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Кирисов, Игорь Геннадиевич; Овчаренко, Татьяна Ивановна

    2014-01-01

    В статье рассмотрены особенности разных энергосберегающих технологий, которые можно применить в системах электроснабжения промышленных предприятий. Проведены расчеты, подтверждающие целесообразность замены недозагруженных асинхронных двигателей на двигатели меньшей мощности. The paper deals with the speci cs of different energy-saving technologies that can be applied in electrical power supply systems of industrial enterprises. The paper presents calculations that corroborate ...

  15. Sustainable Power Generation in Continuous Flow Microbial Fuel Cell Treating Actual Wastewater: Influence of Biocatalyst Type on Electricity Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Z. Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs have the potential to simultaneously treat wastewater for reuse and to generate electricity. This study mainly considers the performance of an upflow dual-chambered MFC continuously fueled with actual domestic wastewater and alternatively biocatalyzed with aerobic activated sludge and strain of Bacillus Subtilis. The behavior of MFCs during initial biofilm growth and characterization of anodic biofilm were studied. After 45 days of continuous operation, the biofilms on the anodic electrode were well developed. The performance of MFCs was mainly evaluated in terms of COD reductions and electrical power output. Results revealed that the COD removal efficiency was 84% and 90% and the stabilized power outputs were clearly observed achieving a maximum value of 120 and 270 mW/m2 obtained for MFCs inoculated with mixed cultures and Bacillus Subtilis strain, respectively.

  16. Monetary or environmental appeals for saving electricity? –Potentials for spillover on low carbon policy acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhorst, Julia; Matthies, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The acceptability of low carbon policies is an important precondition for energy system transitions, such as the German Energiewende. This long-term experimental study examines the potential for behavioural spillover on the acceptability of low carbon policies, caused by a framed intervention to promote electricity saving behaviour. Clients of a German energy provider were randomly assigned to continuously receive electricity saving tips with either monetary framing (saving potential in €) or environmental framing (saving potential in CO_2). The control group did not receive any information. In two follow-up surveys, four (N=333) and nine months (N=258) later, participants rated the acceptability of several low carbon policies. A pre-survey assessed the personal ecological norm for saving electricity. Participants with strong personal ecological norms reported generally higher policy acceptability. After environmental framing they also indicated higher acceptability compared to the monetary framing or control group. These results indicate that information campaigns should be designed carefully in order to promote positive spillover effects. Environmental framing of private-sphere behaviour can increase the disposition for further pro-environmental behaviour in the public sphere, e.g. policy acceptability. When appealing to monetary benefits in pro-environmental behaviour, there is a risk of inhibiting positive spillover effects. - Highlights: •Policy acceptability may be influenced by type of framing and individual factors. •We examined long-term spillover effects in association with type of framing. •Framing (environmental vs. monetary) interacts with personal ecological norms. •For strong personal ecological norms, environmental framing increases acceptability. •Also, strong personal ecological norms increase low carbon policy acceptability.

  17. Electricity savings in Latvia through implementation of labelling directives. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    Legislation on labelling of household appliances was enforced in Latvia July 2001 to implement the European labelling directives. The project 'Electricity Savings in Latvia through Implementation of labelling Directives' was started January 2001 in order to support the implementation of the directives to ensure that they got an immediate effect. The project has included the following activities: Information of the general public and of traders and importers. In relation to the general public the activities consisted of production of a widely spread information brochure, TV-spots and a TV competition and participation in a school project. Seminars and meetings with traders and importers were held to inform about the legislation before it was enforced and to create a network for discussion of practical implementation problems and planning of the information activities. Test and control activities. The purpose of the test and control activities was to strengthen the test and control capacities and to transfer experience from Denmark. This was achieved though workshops for as well inspectors from the Consumer Rights Protection Centre and for members of the voluntary Consumer Protection Clubs. Results: It is assumed that the project has been very successful in the sense that the information about labelling of appliances has been efficiently spread via the information brochure, which was printed in 100.000 copies and distributed in shops, via Latvenergo and the consumer clubs. Furthermore, a cartoon about 'Energy-eaters' produced as part of the project by a very talented Latvian film study (Environmental Film Studio) has been used as TV-spot and has been broadcasted 40 times, including in connection to a morning TV-competition on labelling of appliances. The participatory approach used in the project has resulted in a very dedicated participation from the different stake holders side. Thus there is basis for sustainability in the sense, that a network

  18. Energy saving synergies in national energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point...... to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving...... without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation...

  19. Material and energy flows in rotary kiln-electric furnace smelting of ferronickel alloy with energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Baokuan; Cheung, Sherman C.P.; Wu, Wenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Establish the synergy relationship of material and energy in key RKEF processes. • Develop an analysis model to study energy saving with internal cycling of energy. • Analyze material and energy flow parameters and assess its associated synergy effect. • A methodology to evaluate the synergy and design indices of RKEF processes. - Abstract: An energy saving strategy with two energy saving measures has been proposed for reducing energy loss in the rotary kiln-electric furnace (RKEF) for the smelting of ferronickel alloy. One of the measures is to recover the waste heat of exhaust gas from the rotary kiln for preheating and dehydrating the wet laterite ores in the rotary dryer. Another measure is to recycle the furnace gas from the electric furnace into the rotary kiln as fuel. Based on the mass conservation and energy conservation laws, an analysis model of material and energy flows has been developed to understand the potential energy saving with the internal cycling of material and energy in the RKEF process. The analysis model not only considers the energy efficiency but also assess the synergy degree of system. Furthermore, the model also predicts the ratio of raw materials and the energy flow distribution to investigate residual heat and energy and analyze the effects of nickel content on energy flow. Finally, the evaluation methodology of synergy and the technic indices are also presented. Through the investigation of the synergy effect, the performance of the RKEF process can be evaluated and quantified for performance optimization in future.

  20. Estimation of the cost savings from participation of electric vehicles in Vehicle to Grid (V2G) schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Kiaee, Mahdi; Cruden, Andrew; Sharkh, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The storage capacity of the batteries in an electric vehicle (EV) could be utilised to store electrical energy and give it back to the grid when needed by participating in vehicle to grid (V2G) schemes. This participation could be a source of revenue for vehicle owners thus reducing the total charging cost of their EVs. A V2G simulator has been developed using MATLAB to find out the potential cost saving from participation of EVs in V2G schemes. A standard IEEE30 network has been modelled in ...

  1. Cooling Performance Characteristics of the Stack Thermal Management System for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles under Actual Driving Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Seong Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cooling performance of the stack radiator of a fuel cell electric vehicle was evaluated under various actual road driving conditions, such as highway and uphill travel. The thermal stability was then optimized, thereby ensuring stable operation of the stack thermal management system. The coolant inlet temperature of the radiator in the highway mode was lower than that associated with the uphill mode because the corresponding frontal air velocity was higher than obtained in the uphill mode. In both the highway and uphill modes, the coolant temperatures of the radiator, operated under actual road driving conditions, were lower than the allowable limit (80 °C; this is the maximum temperature at which stable operation of the stack thermal management system of the fuel cell electric vehicle could be maintained. Furthermore, under actual road driving conditions in uphill mode, the initial temperature difference (ITD between the coolant temperature and air temperature of the system was higher than that associated with the highway mode; this higher ITD occurred even though the thermal load of the system in uphill mode was greater than that corresponding to the highway mode. Since the coolant inlet temperature is expected to exceed the allowable limit (80 °C in uphill mode under higher ambient temperature with air conditioning system operation, the FEM design layout should be modified to improve the heat capacity. In addition, the overall volume of the stack cooling radiator is 52.2% higher than that of the present model and the coolant inlet temperature of the improved radiator is 22.7% lower than that of the present model.

  2. Potential electricity savings by variable speed control of compressor for air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasution, Henry [Bung Hatta University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia); Wan Hassan, Mat Nawi [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Skudai, Johor Bahru-Darul Ta' zim (Malaysia)

    2006-05-15

    The potential of a variable-speed compressor running on a controller to provide enhanced load-matching capability, energy saving and thermal comfort for application in air-conditioning system is demonstrated. An air-conditioning system, originally operated on a constant speed mode, is retrofitted with an inverter and a PID controller. The system was installed to a thermal environmental room together with a data acquisition system to monitor energy consumption and temperature of the room. Measurements were taken 2 h daily at a time interval of 5 min for an on/off and an inverter variable-speed conditions. The results indicate that thermal comfort of the room together with energy saving can be obtained through a proper selection of K for the controller. At a temperature setting of 22 C, the energy saving for the system is estimated to reach 25.3% for PID controllers. (orig.)

  3. How much electricity can we save by using direct current circuits in homes? Understanding the potential for electricity savings and assessing feasibility of a transition towards DC powered buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgo, Brock; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Hendrickson, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • DC distribution systems are analyzed using monitored appliance and solar PV data. • DC-distributed PV energy generates savings under real-world load and solar profiles. • Savings from direct-DC are generally not cost-effective in current markets. • Non-technical hurdles remain before DC can be widely adopted in US homes. - Abstract: Advances in semiconductor-based power electronics and growing direct current loads in buildings have led researchers to reconsider whether buildings should be wired with DC circuits to reduce power conversions and facilitate a transition to efficient DC appliances. The feasibility, energy savings, and economics of such systems have been assessed and proven in data centers and commercial buildings, but the outcomes are still uncertain for the residential sector. In this work, we assess the technical and economic feasibility of DC circuits using data for 120 traditionally-wired AC homes in Austin, Texas to understand the effect of highly variable demand profiles on DC-powered residences, using appliance-level use and solar generation data, and performing a Monte Carlo simulation to quantify costs and benefits. Results show site energy savings between 9% and 20% when solar PV is distributed to all home appliances. When battery storage for excess solar energy is considered, these savings increase to 14–25%. At present DC equipment prices, converting all equipment to DC causes levelized annual costs of electricity to homeowners to roughly double. However, by converting only homes’ air conditioning condensing units to DC, the costs of direct-DC are greatly reduced and home site energy savings of 7–16% are generated. In addition to quantifying savings, we find major nontechnical barriers to implementing direct-DC in homes. These include a lack of standards for such systems, a relatively small market for DC appliances and components, utility programs designed for AC power, and a workforce unfamiliar with DC

  4. How to prevent greenhouse gas emissions in electrical installations: lighting energy savings and solar energy approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, C.; Aksoy, C. [Sakarya University, Faculty of Engineering, Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Serdivan (Turkey)

    2012-07-01

    Day by day greenhouse gas emissions increase dramatically. A passive adaptive method of lighting energy savings, daylight responsive systems are considered one of the best solutions for energy efficiency, saving and prevent CO{sub 2} emissions. Results of an annual experiment which was held in Sakarya University proves the necessity of daylight responsive systems with a 41% energy saving and 942.5 kg of prevented CO{sub 2} emissions Thinking this prevention is realized just only in a 36 m{sup 2} room with the use of 8 luminaries spreading such systems to nationwide, a major amount of greenhouse gas emissions would be prohibited. On the other hand energy saving is not the only way to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Again in Sakarya University a project has started to investigate the possibility of illumination of a complete building by using solar energy. This paper evaluates these mentioned systems both in energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions prevention and economic point of views. (author)

  5. Importance of the validation of saving technologies of electric power; Importancia de la validacion de tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valer Negrete, Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Within the Programs of Energy Saving it is fundamental the search and application of new technologies, with which this saving can be obtained, selected with base in their technical characteristics that allow to reduce to the consumptions and demands of power, without damaging the electric networks nor the transformers of the Comision Federal de Electricidad. It is important that the investments which are made count on attractive periods of capital recovery, in comparison with the useful life of the product, reason why the knowledge and price of the new technologies will be parameters to consider in an important manner, creating the need of conducting tests that verify the veracity of the information of the supplier, resulting in certain cases, the change of design of these technologies, so that thus they fulfill the engaged characteristics. This paper indicates the characteristics that the new saving technologies of electrical energy must fulfill and the tests and parameters to consider their evaluation. [Spanish] Dentro de los Programas de Ahorro de Energia es fundamental la busqueda y aplicacion de nuevas tecnologias, con las que se pueda obtener dicho ahorro, seleccionadas con base en sus caracteristicas tecnicas que permitan reducir los consumos y demandas de potencia, sin danar las redes ni transformadores de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. Es importante que las inversiones que se realicen cuenten con periodos de recuperacion de capital atractivos, comparados con la vida util del producto, por lo que el conocimiento y precio de las nuevas tecnologias seran parametros a considerar de manera importante, creandose la necesidad de realizar pruebas que verifiquen la veracidad de la informacion del proveedor, resultando en determinados casos, el cambio de diseno de dichas tecnologias, para que asi cumplan las caracteristicas prometidas. Este trabajo indica las caracteristicas que deben cumplir las nuevas tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica y las

  6. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  7. RTE - Electricity transport network operator. Energy is our future: let's save it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Managing and developing the French electricity transport network is essential to provide quality electricity on a continuous basis to all consumers. Since it was founded in 2000, and since it was made into a public service company (2005), RTE has proven its ability to fulfil its public interest mission in complete security. In an open European electricity market, RTE is recognised for offering all of its customers fair access to its network, which is the first condition for healthy competition. Based on this and thanks to its investments and operating quality, RTE is constantly improving its performances to meet its customers', public authorities' and the Energy Regulation Committee's requirements. This public service action is focused on four strategic priorities: performance of industrial facilities; a human and managerial policy focused on skills and efficiency; sustainable development; professionalism and innovation. This brochure presents RTE's missions, company overview and European cooperation

  8. Saving of electrical energy in educative institutions; Ahorro de energia electrica en instituciones educativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Medina, Gabino [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Campus Estado de Mexico, (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present work looks for integrating the actions of energy saving that can be applied in educative institutions, not concerning the level or size of the same ones. The actions go from questions of making aware the student population until those involved in the change in the operation, migration and implementation of technology. Without overlooking the formative aspect that the educative institutions have and the social commitment of these last ones. It is important that the saving measures have as mission to achieve a culture focussed to make efficient use of the resources, of energy as well as material. This culture must be born from the classrooms and must transform the way to be and act of the student community that will permeate itself with the society. Let us remember that actions are worth more than words, so the educative institutions must preach with the example. [Spanish] El presente trabajo busca integrar las acciones de ahorro de energia que pueden ser aplicadas en instituciones educativas, no importando el nivel o tamano de las mismas. Las acciones van desde cuestiones de concienciar a la poblacion estudiantil hasta las que involucran el cambio en la operacion, migracion e implementacion de tecnologia. Sin perder de vista el aspecto formativo que tienen las instituciones educativas y el compromiso social de estas ultimas. Es importante que las medidas de ahorro tengan como mision lograr una cultura enfocada a hacer uso eficiente de los recursos, tanto energeticos como materiales. Dicha cultura debe nacer desde las aulas y debe transformar la manera de ser y actuar, de la comunidad estudiantil que se permeara con la sociedad. Recordemos que las acciones valen mas que las palabras, asi que las instituciones educativas deben predicar con el ejemplo.

  9. Potential fuel savings through electric camschaft adjustment; Moeglichkeiten zur Kraftstoffeinsparung durch elektrische Nockenwellenverstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebber-Hortmann, Karl; Koester, Andreas; Toennesmann, Andres; Brunetti, Costantino [Pierburg GmbH, Neuss (Germany). Abt. Vorentwicklung

    2013-11-01

    KSPG has developed an electric variable cam timing system. Using simulations and engine tests, KSPG demonstrates the potential reduction in fuel consumption that the system offers when combined with technologies such as fully variable valve gear in a gasoline engine. (orig.)

  10. Providing feedback as a means to empower householders to save electricity: A social cognitive approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Grønhøj, Alice

    of habit, lack of attention towards the issue, lack of motivation due to an unfavorable cost/benefit ratio, uncertainty about the environmental consequences of the squandering of electricity and about the effects of possible conservation efforts. Based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory...

  11. User-driven Points for Feedback Motivated Electricity savings in Private Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    This paper reports from a study of design and exploration of feedback for motivated electricity consumption to private households based on user-driven innovation. Traditionally feedback is designed on the basis of technical possibilities and/or theories on consumer behavior. In this study we...

  12. The Flanitzhuette project - solar island electricity supply combined with comprehensive electricity saving measures; Projekt Flanitzhuette - solare Inselstromversorgung in Kombination mit umfassenden Stromsparmassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eingartner, M. [Abt. Marketing, Energiedienstleistungen, Regenerative Energien, Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany); Knapp, R. [Abt. Marketing, Energiedienstleistungen, Regenerative Energien, Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany); Kranz, U. [Abt. Marketing, Energiedienstleistungen, Regenerative Energien, Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-10-02

    Since 1992, Bayernwerk AG has been operating a solar island network at Flanitzhuette in the Bavarian Forest, to supply a remote hamlet. The plant is based on a photo-electric system together with a battery and a gas unit. The plant was designed by the least cost planning (LCP) process, ie: The electricity demand was first reduced by economy measures on the customers` side (demand side management, DSM) and then largely coverd by photo-electric supply. In the case of the `Flanitzhuette solar island`, the application of LCP was able to contribute to minimising the supply costs. The authors report on the project and the results in the electricity generation and saving areas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Bayernwerk AG betreibt seit 1992 in Flanitzhuette im Bayerischen Wald ein solares Inselstromnetz zur Versorgung eines abgelegenen Weilers. Die Anlage basiert auf einem Photovoltaik-System in Verbindung mit einer Batterieanlage und einem Gasaggregat. Bei der Konzeption der Anlage wurde nach dem Verfahren des Least-Cost Planning (LCP) vorgegangen, d.h. der Strombedarf wurde zunaechst durch wirtschaftliche Massnahmen auf der Kundenseite (Demand-Side Management, DSM) reduziert und erst anschliessend weitgehend photovoltaisch gedeckt. Im Falle der `Solarinsel Flanitzhuette` konnte die Anwendung von LCP zu einer Minimierung der Versorgungskosten beitragen. Die Verfasser berichten ueber das Projekt und die Ergebnisse im Stromerzeugungs- und Stromsparbereich. (orig.)

  13. Modeling of electricity savings in the Danish household sector using Balmorel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivella, Alessio; Baldini, Mattia

    In this paper we examine the investments in energy-efficient household appliances from an energy system perspective. We consider a set of ten appliances constituting the majority of the electricity consumption in the private household sector, and investigate whether investing in improved energy...... efficiency can compete with the cost of electricity supply from existing or new power plants. To assess the analysis, Balmorel, a linear optimization model for heat and power sectors, has been extended in order to assess the best possible investments in more efficient household appliances. The model is non......-exclusively tested on the Danish energy system under different scenarios, and computational experiments show that several energy efficiency measures in the household sector should be regarded as valuable investments, while others would require some form of support to become profitable. The analysis also reveals...

  14. Electric energy saving in the cellulose and paper industry; Ahorro de energia electrica en la industria de celulosa y papel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This paper delineates the results of the demonstration project for electric energy saving, which is one of the twenty four projects in which the Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) sponsors the diagnosis as well as the applied measures and the measures currently in application. Also the potential opportunity areas and the measures applied and in course of application, as well as the required investments and their recuperation periods. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describen los resultados del proyecto de demostracion de ahorro de energia electrica que es uno de los veinticuatro proyectos, en los que el Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) financia tanto el diagnostico como la aplicacion de medidas. Se presentan tanto las areas de oportunidad, potenciales y medidas aplicadas y en aplicacion, asi como las inversiones requeridas y los periodos de recuperacion de las mismas.

  15. Electric energy saving in the cellulose and paper industry; Ahorro de energia electrica en la industria de celulosa y papel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This paper delineates the results of the demonstration project for electric energy saving, which is one of the twenty four projects in which the Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) sponsors the diagnosis as well as the applied measures and the measures currently in application. Also the potential opportunity areas and the measures applied and in course of application, as well as the required investments and their recuperation periods. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describen los resultados del proyecto de demostracion de ahorro de energia electrica que es uno de los veinticuatro proyectos, en los que el Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) financia tanto el diagnostico como la aplicacion de medidas. Se presentan tanto las areas de oportunidad, potenciales y medidas aplicadas y en aplicacion, asi como las inversiones requeridas y los periodos de recuperacion de las mismas.

  16. ELECTRICITY SAVINGS BY IMPLEMENTING ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS AND LABELS FOR CLOTHES WASHERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABU SALEH AHMED

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Clothes washers being one of the energy consuming household appliances in Malaysia have become a target for energy efficiency improvements. In the present study, a series of experiment investigations have been conducted on six clothes washers of varying capacities. The objectives are to develop the standards and labels. The test has been performed according to IEC (International Electrotechnical Commision clothes washers test specification. Using the experimental data, a baseline standard has been developed by statistical method. From the baseline standards, 10% standards have been developed. The baseline unit energy consumption was calculated to be 32 Wh/kg/cycle (average unit energy consumption of the six models and on the basis of baseline unit, standard unit energy consumption had been proposed to be 29 Wh/kg/cycle. It has been estimated with the introduction of minimum energy efficiency standards for clothes washer 38077037.46 kWh of energy could be saved per year. To develop a comprehensive energy guide labels, three labels had been design, which were star labeling, speedometer labeling and letter bin labeling. A survey was conducted with three different types of labels among the consumers and with the surveys respond, energy guide label of household clothes washers has been proposed for Malaysia. This is result from used of energy-efficient appliances product and is well positioned to promote more widespread efficient improvement.

  17. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  18. Retail electricity price savings from compliance flexibility in GHG standards for stationary sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, Dallas; Woerman, Matt; Paul, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The EPA will issue rules regulating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from existing steam boilers and refineries in 2012. A crucial issue affecting the scope and cost of emissions reductions will be the potential introduction of flexibility in compliance, including averaging across groups of facilities. This research investigates the role of compliance flexibility for the most important of these source categories—existing coal-fired power plants—that currently account for one-third of national emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important greenhouse gas. We find a flexible standard, calibrated to achieve the same emissions reductions as a traditional(inflexible) approach, reduces the increase in electricity price by 60 percent and overall costs by two-thirds in 2020. The flexible standard also leads to substantially more investment to improve the operating efficiency of existing facilities, whereas the traditional standard leads to substantially greater retirement of existing facilities. - Highlights: ► The U.S. EPA will regulate GHG emissions from power plants under the Clean Air Act. ► We compare a flexible standard with fleet-wide averaging to a traditional standard. ► Flexible standard reduces the increase in electricity price by 60percent in 2020. ► Flexible standard reduces the increase in overall costs by two-thirds in 2020. ► Flexible standard leads to more efficiency investment and less capacity retirement.

  19. Energy savings and increased electric vehicle range through improved battery thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Joshua; Hinterberger, Michael; Schneider, Christoph; Koehler, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion cells are temperature sensitive: operation outside the optimal operating range causes premature aging and correspondingly reduces vehicle range and battery system lifetime. In order to meet consumer demands for electric and hybrid-electric vehicle performance, especially in adverse climates, a battery thermal management system (BTMS) is often required. This work presents a novel experimental method for analyzing BTMS using three sample cooling plate concepts. For each concept, the input parameters (ambient temperature, coolant temperature and coolant flow rate) are varied and the resulting effect on the average temperature and temperature distribution across and between cells is compared. Additionally, the pressure loss along the coolant path is utilized as an indicator of energy efficiency. Using the presented methodology, various cooling plate layouts optimized for production alternative techniques are compared to the state of the art. It is shown that these production-optimized cooling plates provide sufficient thermal performance with the additional benefit of mechanical integration within the battery and/or vehicle system. It is also shown that the coolant flow influences battery cell thermal behavior more than the solid material and that pressure drop is more sensitive to geometrical changes in the cooling plate than temperature changes at the module.

  20. Analysis of electrical energy consumers operation in the heating plant with proposal of energy savings measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of power quality measurements, obtained during an energy audit in the heating plant Vreoci in the Electric Power System of Serbia, are presented in the paper. Two steam boilers, rated at 120MW each, are installed in this heating plant, using coal as a fuel. The energy audit encompassed the measurements of the complete set of parameters needed to determine the thermal efficacy of boilers and the entire heating plant. Based on the measurement results, several technical measures for improving energy efficiency of the plant are proposed. The measures evaluated in the paper should contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel usage and CO2 emissions, thereby resulting in a significant impact in both financial and ecological areas.

  1. Energy saving in the operation of industrial electrical substations. Part I. Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The main objective of this work is to offer a methodology for the operation of substations composed by two or more transformers that feed loads of first category. Understand by loads of first category those in that the interruption of the electric supply may cause the loss of human life. The core of this operation shows that in substations with several transformers, the number of transformers connected at a given moment should be one that avoids losses. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es ofrecer una metodologia para la operacion de subestaciones compuestas por dos o mas transformadores que alimentan cargas de primera categoria. Entendiendose por cargas de primera categoria, aquellas en que la interrupcion del suministro electrico puede causar la perdida de vidas humanas. El nucleo de esta operacion muestra que en las subestaciones con varios transformadores, el numero de transformadores conectados, en un momento dado, debe ser aquel que evite perdidas.

  2. National potential of saving of electricity in domestic refrigeration; Potencial nacional de ahorro de electricidad en refrigeracion domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo C, Fernando [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Ambriz G, Juan Jose; Romero P, Hernando [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the present paper the evaluation of the potential of saving of electrical energy in Mexico is presented, by means of the substitution of old refrigerators of low efficiency by modern high efficiency ones. This potential is very ample, since the replacement of the old models by new follows a very slow curve, if the economic difficulties of the Mexican families are considered and that, on the other hand, the technology of the domestic refrigerators is so reliable that they have a very long life and they are not easily rejected. In field work have been found refrigerators operating with ages of more than 30 years and still 40. In Mexico, it is estimated that the refrigeration is responsible for around 29% of the of electricity consumption in homes settled in tempered climate and of 14 % in those of warm climate in which air conditioning is used. The proposal of this work is the organization of a governmental program of accelerated substitution of refrigerators that helps to acquire an efficient refrigerator and to reject the old ones. The results indicate that if a total renovation of the park of domestic refrigerators is made, the saving of electrical energy would reach the 5.2 TWh/a which represents the 44.5% of the total consumption of 11.7 TWh in a year. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se presenta la evaluacion del potencial de ahorro de energia electrica en Mexico, mediante la substitucion de refrigeradores antiguos de baja eficiencia por modernos de alta eficiencia. Este potencial es muy amplio, ya que el reemplazo de los modelos viejos por nuevos sigue una curva muy lenta, si se consideran las dificultades economicas de las familias mexicanas y que, por otro lado, la tecnologia de los refrigeradores domesticos es tan confiable que tienen una vida muy larga y no se desechan facilmente. En trabajos de campo se han encontrado refrigeradores operando con edades de mas de 30 anos y aun 40. En Mexico, se estima que la refrigeracion es responsable de alrededor del

  3. Projects of electrical energy saving in Costa Rica; Proyectos de ahorro de energia electrica en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinchilla, Henry [Compania Nacional de Luz y Fuerza, S.A., San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    Costa Rica, located in Central America, is a highly electrified country, more of the 93.6% of the population, has access to the electricity, and its load curve presents two important demand peaks, one of them near noon and another one at sundown, additionally, the growth of this service is important, reason why it has been oriented to the establishment of actions focussed to the better use of the energy, in special of the electricity. The following notes are intended to show briefly the origin of the actions oriented to the energy saving, identifying the main projects that marked an important track in the national development in this sense, as well as a sample of some of the projects which have permitted to maintain throughout the last decade of this century a permanent attitude on the promotion and education of the saving and handling of the energy demand, specially of electricity, of such a way as to a suitable contribution is achieved towards the industrial competitiveness, human comfort and environmental protection. [Spanish] Costa Rica, ubicado en la America Central, es un pais altamente electrificado, mas del 93.6% de la poblacion, tiene acceso a la electricidad, y su curva de carga presenta dos importantes picos de demanda uno cercano al medio dia y otro al ocultarse el sol, junto a ello el crecimiento este servicio es importante, por lo que se ha abocado a establecer acciones que se orientan al mejor uso de la energia, en especial de la electricidad. En las siguientes notas se trata de mostrar en forma breve el origen de las acciones orientadas al ahorro de energia, identificando los principales proyectos que marcaron una huella importante en el rumbo nacional en este sentido, asi como una muestra de algunos de los proyectos que han permitido mantener a lo largo de la ultima decada de este siglo una permanente actitud de la promocion y ensenanza del ahorro y manejo de la demanda de energia, en especial de la electricidad, de tal forma que se logre con ello

  4. Customer-economics of residential photovoltaic systems (Part 1): The impact of high renewable energy penetrations on electricity bill savings with net metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darghouth, Naïm R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2014-01-01

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the US are often compensated at the customer's underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. Given the uncertainty in future retail rates and the inherent links between rates and the customer–economics of behind-the-meter PV, there is growing interest in understanding how potential changes in rates may impact the value of bill savings from PV. In this article, we first use a production cost and capacity expansion model to project California hourly wholesale electricity market prices under two potential electricity market scenarios, including a reference and a 33% renewables scenario. Second, based on the wholesale electricity market prices generated by the model, we develop retail rates (i.e., flat, time-of-use, and real-time pricing) for each future scenario based on standard retail rate design principles. Finally, based on these retail rates, the bill savings from PV is estimated for 226 California residential customers under two types of net metering, for each scenario. We find that high renewable penetrations can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, together with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV. - Highlights: • We investigate the impact of high renewables on customer economics of solar. • We model three types of residential retail electricity rates. • Based on the rates, we calculate the bill savings from photovoltaic (PV) generation. • High renewables penetration can lead to lower bill savings with time-varying rates. • There is substantial uncertainty in the future bill savings from residential PV

  5. Ergonomics work stations decreases the health impairment and saves electrical energy at the woodworking workshop in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiajeng, Lilik; Adiputra, Nyoman; Leibbrandt, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to assess the positive effect of the ergonomics work station on the health impairment and electrical energy usage at the woodworking workshop in Bali, Indonesia. Woodworking workshops are dangerous, particularly when they are used improperly. Workers are exposed to health hazards that cause health impairment and inefficiencies in their work conditions. A preliminary study at a woodworking workshop at the Bali State Polytechnic showed that the work station was not suitable to body size of the participants and caused awkward postures. In addition, there was also an inappropriate physical work environment. Both inappropriate work station and physical work environment caused participants to be less active and motivated. This paper reports on an experimental study into the effects of an ergonomic intervention at this workshop. The participants were 2 groups of male students with 10 participants in each group. The first group performed the task with the original work station as a control group, while the second group performed the task with the new work station. The study found a significant difference between groups (p work station decreased the working heart rate (16.7%), the total score of musculoskeletal disorders (17.3%), and the total score of psychological fatigue (21.5%). Furthermore, it also decreased the electrical energy usage (38.7%). This shows that an ergonomics intervention on work station decreased the health impairment and saved electrical energy usage. It also protected the workers from woodworking hazards and allowed participants to perform their tasks in healthy, safe, convenient and efficient work conditions.

  6. Motor Assembly Plant Saves$85,000 with Compressed Air System Improvements (Bodine Electric's Chicago Facility): Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-01-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the Bodine Electric motor assembly plant project

  7. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  8. Effective and persistent changes in household energy-saving behaviors: Evidence from post-tsunami Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimi, Toshio; Kajitani, Yoshio; Chang, Stephanie E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Some households’ adaptations to electricity shortage can be new efficient habits. • The electricity shortage in Japan was used as a natural experiment. • Some behaviors contributed to 2–4% electricity savings and persisted for two years. • Behaviors requiring frequency and discomfort cannot be effective or persistent. • Lowering the electricity-usage level of appliances might be a promising behavior. - Abstract: This paper focuses on households’ development of new energy-efficient habits as demonstrated in the context of a major electricity shortfall event. Energy conservation policies should encourage households to take measures that are actually effective in reducing energy consumption and that can be sustained over long periods of time. Few studies, however, have empirically examined what types of energy-saving measures are actually effective and persistent. The electricity shortages following the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster provided an opportunity to examine this question. A web survey of households in Japan was implemented to obtain data on metered electricity use in the summers of 2010–2013, household behaviors for electricity savings, and household socioeconomic attributes. Regression analysis was conducted to explain the effectiveness and persistence of energy saving behaviors. Results indicate that most households took several electricity-saving measures after the disaster to adapt to the electricity shortage. Certain types of measures led to 2–4% savings in electricity consumption (per measure) and persisted for two years. The effective and persistent electricity-saving measures tended to be those that did not require either frequent efforts or considerable discomfort. Findings suggest that electricity-saving behaviors requiring infrequent effort and little discomfort can become engrained as new habits or lifestyles. In particular, one promising measure may be to lower the electricity

  9. Electrical energy saving in motors and frequency variators; Ahorro de energia electrica en motores y variadores de frecuencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Neri, Roger [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The necessity of saving energy is urgent and undeniable. We must already begin with the rational use of energy. Which is obtaining the maximum benefit of the consumed energy and of the necessary facilities for its generation, transmission and use. Guaranteeing at the same time an operation free of interferences or interruptions for the users. The electricity in alternating current does not allow its storage, reason why it is necessary to generate and distribute it at the precise moment when it is required. This forces to determine the proportions of the generation facilities, to be able to feed the periods of maximum demand called {sup p}eaks{sup .} It is this very point where the problem of the inappropriate use of the electrical energy starts. The energy waste is self-evident during the periods of low demand because of the low efficiency of the sub-utilized facilities. Electrical motors of the induction type use approximately more than 60% of the energy in the industry. If we use high efficiency motors instead of standard motors, a better advantage of the energy demanded from Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is obtained. [Spanish] Es impostergable e innegable la necesidad de ahorrar energia. Tenemos que empezar ya con el uso racional de la energia: Obtener el maximo beneficio de la energia consumida y de las instalaciones necesarias para su generacion, transmision y utilizacion. Garantizando a los usuarios un funcionamiento sin interferencias o interrupciones. La electricidad en corriente alterna no permite su almacenamiento, por lo que es necesario generarla y distribuirla en el momento preciso en que es requerida. Esto obliga a dimensionar las instalaciones de generacion, para poder alimentar los periodos de maxima demanda llamados pico. Desde esta parte inicia el problema de la mala utilizacion de la energia electrica. Ya que en los periodos de baja demanda, las instalaciones se encuentran subutilizadas y si su eficiencia es muy baja, el desperdicio de

  10. Feasibility study on combined use of residential SOFC cogeneration system and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle from energy-saving viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Wada, Naohiro; Yokoyama, Ryohei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optimal operational planning for combined use of SOFC-CGS and PHEV is conducted. ► Charging PHEV with SOFC-CGS increases electric capacity factor of SOFC-CGS. ► Energy-saving effect of combined use is higher than that of their separate use. ► Combined use provides energy savings in both residential and transport sectors. - Abstract: The energy-saving effect of a combined use of a residential solid oxide fuel cell cogeneration system (SOFC-CGS) that adopts a continuous operation, and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is discussed by optimal operational planning based on mixed-integer linear programming. This combined use aims to increase the electric capacity factor of the SOFC-CGS by charging the PHEV using the SOFC-CGS electric power output late at night, and targets the application in regions where the reverse power flow from residential cogeneration systems to commercial electric power systems is not permitted, like in Japan. The optimal operation patterns of the combined use of 0.7-kWe SOFC-CGS and PHEV for a simulated energy demand with a sampling time of 1 h and various daily running distances of the PHEV show that this combined use increases the electric capacity factor of the SOFC-CGS and saves more energy in comparison with their separate use in which the SOFC-CGS is used but the PHEV is charged only with purchased electric power. Furthermore, it is found that at the PHEV daily running distance of 12 km/d, the reduction rate of the annual primary energy consumption for this combined use increases by up to 3.7 percentage points relative to their separate use. Consequently, this feasibility study reveals that the combined use of the SOFC-CGS and PHEV provides the synergistic effect on energy savings in the residential and transport sectors. For the practical use, simulation scenarios considering the energy demand fluctuations with short periods and real-time pricing of the purchased electric power must be considered as future

  11. Cost of electricity generated and fuel saving of an optimized wind-diesel electricity supply for village in Tangier-area (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nfaoui, H.; Buret, J.

    1996-01-01

    In several of the remote areas of Morocco, diesel generators are used to provide electrical power. Such systems are often characterized by poor efficiency and high maintenance costs. The integration of wind turbine with a diesel/battery hybrid system is becoming cost-effective in wind locations. In previous works (Nfaoul et al, 1990, 1994a, 1994b), the wind characteristics in Tangier-area were studied on the basis of 12 years (1978-1989) of hourly average wind speed data. A wind/diesel energy system with battery storage has been modelled using the Tangiers wind regime over a one year period (1989), and synthesized consumer load data based on the characteristics of typical usage of domestic appliances, along with the estimated working patterns of a local isolated community. In this work, we use a more realistic hourly consumer load, which is the result of an experiment realized in a Maroccan village using a diesel engine to provide electricity for lighting and audio-visual. The 1989 wind data were reworked for a large series of measurements (12 years). The optimum wind turbine size and the benefits of a storage system on fuel saving are also reviewed. This work is concerned with diesel fuel consumption: an optimum design of the considered system is to be found which minimises the cost energy generation over the equipments' lifetime. Given the economic assumption made (the most important being a fuel price of 4.5 Dh/litre and an interest rate of 5% net of inflation), the wind/diesel energy system has been shown to be competitive with diesel-only generation in the wind regime of the Tangier location for the cost per unit wind turbine swept area less than 3000 Dh/m 2 (8Dh=1$). (author)

  12. ONCE AGAIN ABOUT DETERMINATION OF SAVING OF ENERGY FOR TRACTION DUE TO PARTIAL CUT–OFF OF TRACTION ENGINES OF ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Getman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In general the well known methods for determination of energy saving due to the partial traction engines cut-off based on their comparison to efficiency coefficient or to the power of energy losses do not allow objective estimation of efficiency of these measures and in a number of cases result in erroneous results and errors. The search for new more advanced methods for determination of energy saving at the partial cut-off of the traction engines is needed. Methodology. The method of calculation determination of energy saving when partial cutting-off of the traction engines is offered. It is based on the use of rationality coefficient as the loading mode of the electric power consumption for the measuring instrument of transportation activity. Findings. Using the given mathematical expressions it is possible to determine the energy saving in both the relative and absolute values and set the terms (motion speed and route gradient, under which the energy saving will take place. Originality. The method of the task solving, which is based on the evaluation of energy consumption differences for the compared variants (not on the comparison of efficiency coefficient or differences of power of energy losses is offered. Practical value. The given methodology allows obtaining more exact conclusions in relation to the electric power consumption, as the comparison of energy losses power or the efficiency coefficient does not determine precisely the electric power consumption for traction. Therefore the conclusions based on the comparison of power of energy losses or efficiency coefficient can appear inexact.

  13. Navigation API Route Fuel Saving Opportunity Assessment on Large-Scale Real-World Travel Data for Conventional Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-06

    The green routing strategy instructing a vehicle to select a fuel-efficient route benefits the current transportation system with fuel-saving opportunities. This paper introduces a navigation API route fuel-saving evaluation framework for estimating fuel advantages of alternative API routes based on large-scale, real-world travel data for conventional vehicles (CVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The navigation APIs, such Google Directions API, integrate traffic conditions and provide feasible alternative routes for origin-destination pairs. This paper develops two link-based fuel-consumption models stratified by link-level speed, road grade, and functional class (local/non-local), one for CVs and the other for HEVs. The link-based fuel-consumption models are built by assigning travel from a large number of GPS driving traces to the links in TomTom MultiNet as the underlying road network layer and road grade data from a U.S. Geological Survey elevation data set. Fuel consumption on a link is calculated by the proposed fuel consumption model. This paper envisions two kinds of applications: 1) identifying alternate routes that save fuel, and 2) quantifying the potential fuel savings for large amounts of travel. An experiment based on a large-scale California Household Travel Survey GPS trajectory data set is conducted. The fuel consumption and savings of CVs and HEVs are investigated. At the same time, the trade-off between fuel saving and time saving for choosing different routes is also examined for both powertrains.

  14. Electric energy saving and its impact in the mining industry; El ahorro de energia electrica y su impacto en la industria minera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urteaga Dufour, Jose Antonio [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper are shown the most important results of the energy diagnosis performed in some representative industries of the mining industry, where opportunity areas were detected in electric energy saving, starting from those measures that do not require investment up to the ones that require medium investment, recoverable in less than two years terms as a maximum and with electric energy saving ranging from 10% to 25%. [Espanol] En este trabajo, se presentan los resultados mas importantes, obtenidos en el diagnostico energetico realizado en algunas empresas representativas de la rama de la mineria, en donde se detectaron areas de oportunidad de ahorro de energia electrica que van desde aquellas medidas que no requieren inversiones hasta las que requieren medianas inversiones, recuperables en menos de dos anos como maximo y con ahorros de energia que van desde un 10% hasta un 25%.

  15. Electric energy saving and its impact in the mining industry; El ahorro de energia electrica y su impacto en la industria minera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urteaga Dufour, Jose Antonio [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    In this paper are shown the most important results of the energy diagnosis performed in some representative industries of the mining industry, where opportunity areas were detected in electric energy saving, starting from those measures that do not require investment up to the ones that require medium investment, recoverable in less than two years terms as a maximum and with electric energy saving ranging from 10% to 25%. [Espanol] En este trabajo, se presentan los resultados mas importantes, obtenidos en el diagnostico energetico realizado en algunas empresas representativas de la rama de la mineria, en donde se detectaron areas de oportunidad de ahorro de energia electrica que van desde aquellas medidas que no requieren inversiones hasta las que requieren medianas inversiones, recuperables en menos de dos anos como maximo y con ahorros de energia que van desde un 10% hasta un 25%.

  16. Save Energy: Save Money!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccli, Eugene; And Others

    This publication is a collection of inexpensive energy saving tips and home improvements for home owners, particularly in low-income areas or in older homes. Section titles are: (1) Keeping Warm; (2) Getting Heat Where You Need It; (3) Using the Sun; (4) Furnaces, Stoves, and Fireplaces; (5) Insulation and Other Energy Needs; (6) Do-It-Yourself…

  17. Development of methods for evaluation of electricity saving and load levelling measures. Part 2: The planning and implementation of a power conservation campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm Soerensen, M.; Madsen, P.K. [NESA A/S, Research and Development Dept. (Denmark)

    1997-12-01

    In recent years many campaigns and projects have been carried out with the purpose of reducing the energy consumption. Simultaneously a lot of economic and structural changes are taking place in society in general; changes which also affect the size of the electricity consumption. Furthermore, there is a trend towards increased use of wind mills and decentral combined heating and power plants, which affects the electricity load of the local area. It is difficult to identify and separate the effect of each of these attitude-adjusting activities. The project `Development of methods for evaluation of the effect of electricity saving and load levelling measures` focuses on two different methods which, on different levels, can be used to determine the impact of different different activities on the electricity consumption. Both methods are based on mathematical statistics, and they consist of an analysis of historical data and a test campaign which will make it possible to test specific activities in a comparatively small scale. The historical part covers the years 1974 to 1994 and include such variables as: demography, economic factors, climatic conditions, periods of electricity saving campaigns, the start of billing according to time of day tariff etc. The wish to be able to measure the extent of these energy saving and load reducing initiatives resulted in a test campaign which was carried out under very restricted conditions starting in the fall of 1996. If the effect of the test campaign can be measured and as a consequence of this a method can be estimated, it will be possible to place models which can measure the effect of future campaigns. The primary object of the campaign is not the size of the electricity savings of the individual customer, but rather to obtain total savings for the entire group of customers. The test has been structured in a way which makes it possible to perform an analysis of the effect of the campaign by use of analysis of intervention

  18. Comparisons of recent growth in actual demand, planned demand, and planned generating capacity at U. S. electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, A.E. (James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States))

    1994-12-01

    During the winter of 1993, a number of U.S. electric utilities and some regional power pools discovered that current load exceeded generating capacity. Load restrictions followed, as entire regions-not just isolated utilities or even states-cut back. Was 1993 a typical, or simply a preview of the future If a preview, how did this shortage occur For a number of years, utilities, regulatory agencies, and power pools have been planning to add capacity at a much lower rate than the rate at which load has been growing. The National Electricity Reliability Council (NERC) has projected that eight of it's nine regions will have demand growth exceed capacity growth. The only region where capacity is growing faster is in the Texas Region. There are four reasons behind this shortage: excess capacity in the 1980's, disbelief in current forecasts, passage of the Clean Air act bringing stricter regulation on power plants, and the herd mentality where utilities have all delayed new plant construction.

  19. Electric power saving potential due to domestic refrigerators replacement; Potencial de ahorro de energia electrica por el reemplazo de refrigeradores domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta Solorio, Jose Luis [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (Mexico)]. E-mail: jose.peralta@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-04-15

    In Mexico the second most used electrical appliance is: refrigerator. Owing to its use, it would be a promising option for electric power saving. In Guadalajara, Reynosa and Tampico it was performed a study with the aim of launching a project to replace the old refrigerators with new ones which are more effective and less expensive. Since the refrigerators cost and the electrical invoicing saving, the electric appliance change is profitable. To expect with this replacement more than eight million of refrigerators manufactured before 1997 will be changed. [Spanish] El refrigerador es el segundo electrodomestico mas utilizado a nivel nacional, esto permite que debido a su uso sea una opcion prometedora para el ahorro de energia electrica. Se hizo un estudio en Guadalajara, Reynosa y Tampico con el fin de lanzar un proyecto para sustituir los refrigeradores viejos por unos nuevos que sean mas eficaces y menos costosos. Por el costo de los refrigeradores y el ahorro en la facturacion electrica, el cambio de electrodomestico es rentable, de esta manera se espera que los mas de ocho millones de refrigeradores fabricados antes de 1997 que existen en el pais sean cambiados.

  20. Saving electrical energy in a saw-mill; Einsparung von elektrischer Energie in einem Saegereibetrieb. Stromeinsparungen in den Bereichen Holzbearbeitung, Foerdertechnik, Holztrocknung, Absauganlagen, Druckluft, Beleuchtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrsch, I. [Wyrsch Technologies, Kuessnacht am Rigi (Switzerland); Dolder, M. [Ingenieurbuero Dolder, Luzern (Switzerland)

    2005-01-15

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the findings of a project that examined the electricity consumption of saw-mills and ways in which the amount of electrical power used in such facilities could be reduced. The Schilliger Holz AG company was taken as an example of a saw-mill in Switzerland. Its power consumption in 2001 was almost 6 gigawatt-hours. The work done in the two phases of the project is described and commented on. The first phase involved the measurement and analysis of power consumption; in the second phase measures to be taken to help save energy were developed. The various machinery and installations in this saw mill are described. These include various systems for the processing of the raw timber through to finished products that include wood for building, decoration and laminates. Measurement data is presented and commented on. Potentials for saving electricity and measures to be taken are described in detail for the various processing plants in the saw-mill.

  1. Verification of electricity savings through energy-efficient train management - Energy data base for traction units - Annex 5; Verifizierung der Stromeinsparung durch energieeffizientes Zugsmanagement - Anhang 5: Energiedatenbank Traktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Lerjen, M.; Menth, S. [emkamatik GmbH, Wettingen (Switzerland); Luethi, M. [Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology (ETHZ), Institute for Transport Planning and Systems (IVT), Zuerich (Switzerland); Tuchschmid, M. [SBB AG, BahnUmwelt-Center, 3000 Bern (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    This appendix to a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how various data sources on the energy consumption of the SBB's traction units can be combined into an energy-data basis. In this way, the considerable amount of work previously involved in combining and correlating data can be avoided. The aims being followed in the realisation of the traction data base are examined and discussed. The data base will provide the basis for the manual detail analysis of energy consumption within the framework of the overall efforts to save electricity using efficient train management.

  2. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Dianshu; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Khuong Minh Vu

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  3. The barriers to energy efficiency in China. Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianshu, Feng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Minh Vu, Khuong [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond. (author)

  4. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Dianshu, E-mail: dianshu@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Khuong Minh Vu, E-mail: sppkmv@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  5. Evaluation of Modeled and Measured Energy Savings in Existing All Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Andrew [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, Michael [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, Luke [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, Rick [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Salzberg, Emily [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy savings measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, a community in Tacoma Washington. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7. Market-ready energy solutions were also evaluated to improve the efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing (built since 2001) affordable housing in the marine climate of Washington State.

  6. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  7. Save energy - for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The article is an interview with Glenn Bjorklund, Vice President of SCalEd (Southern California Edison). The variations in Californian power demand and public electricity consumption habits are explained, together with types of power source used in electricity production. Questions are posed concerning SCalEd's energy saving strategy. The political implications of electricity charge changes are discussed. The planned energy resources for 1982-1992 are given with nuclear power being the largest contributor. (H.J.P./G.T.H.)

  8. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    suggested in the informal saving literature can be captured in the standard optimizing model. Particular attention is given to recent work on the precautionary motive and its implications for saving and consumption behavior. We also discuss the "behavioral" or "psychological" approach that eschews the use......In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  9. Measuring industrial energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly Kissock, J.; Eger, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurement of energy savings from industrial energy efficiency projects can reduce uncertainty about the efficacy of the projects, guide the selection of future projects, improve future estimates of expected savings, promote financing of energy efficiency projects through shared-savings agreements, and improve utilization of capital resources. Many efforts to measure industrial energy savings, or simply track progress toward efficiency goals, have had difficulty incorporating changing weather and production, which are frequently major drivers of plant energy use. This paper presents a general method for measuring plant-wide industrial energy savings that takes into account changing weather and production between the pre and post-retrofit periods. In addition, the method can disaggregate savings into components, which provides additional resolution for understanding the effectiveness of individual projects when several projects are implemented together. The method uses multivariable piece-wise regression models to characterize baseline energy use, and disaggregates savings by taking the total derivative of the energy use equation. Although the method incorporates search techniques, multi-variable least-squares regression and calculus, it is easily implemented using data analysis software, and can use readily available temperature, production and utility billing data. This is important, since more complicated methods may be too complex for widespread use. The method is demonstrated using case studies of actual energy assessments. The case studies demonstrate the importance of adjusting for weather and production between the pre- and post-retrofit periods, how plant-wide savings can be disaggregated to evaluate the effectiveness of individual retrofits, how the method can identify the time-dependence of savings, and limitations of engineering models when used to estimate future savings

  10. Continuous Steering Stability Control Based on an Energy-Saving Torque Distribution Algorithm for a Four in-Wheel-Motor Independent-Drive Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a continuous steering stability controller based on an energy-saving torque distribution algorithm is proposed for a four in-wheel-motor independent-drive electric vehicle (4MIDEV to improve the energy consumption efficiency while maintaining the stability in steering maneuvers. The controller is designed as a hierarchical structure, including the reference model level, the upper-level controller, and the lower-level controller. The upper-level controller adopts the direct yaw moment control (DYC, which is designed to work continuously during the steering maneuver to better ensure steering stability in extreme situations, rather than working only after the vehicle is judged to be unstable. An adaptive two-hierarchy energy-saving torque distribution algorithm is developed in the lower-level controller with the friction ellipse constraint as a basis for judging whether the algorithm needs to be switched, so as to achieve a more stable and energy-efficient steering operation. The proposed stability controller was validated in a co-simulation of CarSim and Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results under different steering maneuvers indicate that the proposed controller, compared with the conventional servo controller and the ordinary continuous controller, can reduce energy consumption up to 23.68% and improve the vehicle steering stability.

  11. Hydraulic speed variators for electrical energy saving; Variadores de velocidad hidraulicos para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This paper shows the characteristics and applications of the hydraulic speed variators, where because of the conditions of the industrial processes it is necessary to vary the operation parameters, obtaining therefore an energy saving besides improving the control of these processes. In addition, the technical and economic evaluation is presented of a project of the Mazatlan Fossil Power Plant, in which it is intended to invest in the installation of a hydraulic speed variator connected to the forced draft fan of unit number three, which operates with an induction motor of 1,865 kW (2,500 H.P.), with a Voltage of 4,180 V at 1,180 rpm. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra las caracteristicas y aplicaciones de los variadores de velocidad hidraulicos, donde por las condiciones de los procesos industriales sea necesario variar los parametros de operacion, obteniendose asi un ahorro de energia ademas de mejorar el control de dichos procesos. Se presenta ademas la evaluacion tecnica y economica de un proyecto de la Planta Termoelectrica Mazatlan, en donde se pretende invertir en la instalacion de un variador de velocidad hidraulico acoplado al ventilador de tiro forzado de la unidad numero tres, el cual opera con un motor de induccion de 1,865 kW (2,500 H.P.), con un voltaje de 4,180 V y una velocidad de 1,180 rpm.

  12. Energy Savings in a Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The paper outlines the concept of energy savings as opposed to energy efficency. Afterwards are described briefly the up and down role of energy savings in recent Danish energy policy. It discusses the failure of leaving electricity savings and Integrated Resource Planning to the electricity...

  13. Consumers’ perceptions of energy use and energy savings: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesic, Vedran; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Davis, Matthew C.; Krishnamurti, Tamar; Azevedo, Inês M. L.

    2018-03-01

    Background. Policy makers and program managers need to better understand consumers’ perceptions of their energy use and savings to design effective strategies for promoting energy savings. Methods. We reviewed 14 studies from the emerging interdisciplinary literature examining consumers’ perceptions electricity use by specific appliances, and potential savings. Results. We find that: (1) electricity use is often overestimated for low-energy consuming appliances, and underestimated for high-energy consuming appliances; (2) curtailment strategies are typically preferred over energy efficiency strategies; (3) consumers lack information about how much electricity can be saved through specific strategies; (4) consumers use heuristics for assessing the electricity use of specific appliances, with some indication that more accurate judgments are made among consumers with higher numeracy and stronger pro-environmental attitudes. However, design differences between studies, such as variations in reference points, reporting units and assessed time periods, may affect consumers’ reported perceptions. Moreover, studies differ with regard to whether accuracy of perceptions was evaluated through comparisons with general estimates of actual use, self-reported use, household-level meter readings, or real-time smart meter readings. Conclusion. Although emerging findings are promising, systematic variations in the measurement of perceived and actual electricity use are potential cause for concern. We propose avenues for future research, so as to better understand, and possibly inform, consumers’ perceptions of their electricity use. Ultimately, this literature will have implications for the design of effective electricity feedback for consumers, and related policies.

  14. Energy to save the world: use of portable nuclear energy for hydrocarbon recovery, electrical generation, and water reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, John R. Grizz; Pearson, Cody

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear-based electric and steam generation has traditionally been limited to large-scale plants that require enormous capital and infrastructure. A new wave of nuclear reactors is ready for introduction into locales and industry that previously have been unable to take advantage of the clean, safe, and cheap energy nuclear affords. One of these 'new kids on the block' is the Hyperion Power Module (HPM), an original design developed in Los Alamos National Laboratory. Through the U.S. government's technology transfer initiative, the exclusive license to develop and commercialize the invention has been granted to Hyperion Power Generation (HPG). The Hyperion Power 'Module' was specifically designed for applications in remote areas where cost, safety, and security is of concern. The Hyperion Power Module, a self-contained, self-regulating reactor, is breaking new ground in the nuclear industry and filling a heretofore-unmet need for moderately sized power applications either distributed or dedicated. Employing proven science in a new way, Hyperion provides a safe, clean power solution for remote locations or locations that must currently employ less than satisfactory alternatives. Generating nearly 70 megawatts of thermal energy and from 25 to 30 megawatts of electrical energy, the Power Module is the world's first small mobile reactor, taking advantage of the natural laws of chemistry and physics and leveraging all of the engineering and technology advancements made over the last fifty years. The HPM is comparable in size to a deep residential hot tub and is designed to be cited underground in a containment vessel. The CEO of Hyperion will outline the benefits of small nuclear reactors by examining their impact on the U.S. economy, national security, the environment, remote regions, and developing nations. The speaker will also focus on the four main applications of the Hyperion Reactor: military bases; oil and gas recovery and refining; remote communities lacking

  15. Driving with electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursin, M.; Hoeckel, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at the chances offered to the electricity supply industry by the increasing use of battery-driven vehicles - and the advantages thus offered to the environment. The use of the vehicles' batteries to form a distributed electricity storage scheme is discussed. The authors comment that, although electrically-driven vehicles consume more power, the total primary energy consumption and pollutant emissions will be reduced. The actual electricity consumption of electric vehicles and the source of this power are examined. Power saved by the reduced use of electrical heating systems and boilers could, according to the authors, be used to charge the batteries of electric vehicles. The use of these batteries as a storage system to help regulate electricity supplies is discussed and the steps to be taken for the implementation of such a system are listed

  16. Efficient use of power. Directory for private households to save power without renunciation of comfort; Strom effizient nutzen. Wegweiser fuer Privathaushalte zur wirtschaftlichen Stromeinsparung ohne Komfortverzicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The contribution under consideration is a guide for private households for an economically efficient conservation of electricity without renunciation of comfort. At first, reasons for saving electricity are presented. The approach to reduce power consumption consists of an inventory of electricity consumers, establishment of measures to save electricity as well as a selection of suitable measures. Tables are presented for the determination of the power consumption and costs for electricity in the actual and target state as well as for the determination of the economic efficiency.

  17. Energy to save the world: use of portable nuclear energy for hydrocarbon recovery, electrical generation, and water reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, John R. Grizz; Pearson, Cody [Hyperion Power Generation, Inc., 369 Montezuma Ave, Suite 508, Santa Fe, NM 87501 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear-based electric and steam generation has traditionally been limited to large-scale plants that require enormous capital and infrastructure. A new wave of nuclear reactors is ready for introduction into locales and industry that previously have been unable to take advantage of the clean, safe, and cheap energy nuclear affords. One of these 'new kids on the block' is the Hyperion Power Module (HPM), an original design developed in Los Alamos National Laboratory. Through the U.S. government's technology transfer initiative, the exclusive license to develop and commercialize the invention has been granted to Hyperion Power Generation (HPG). The Hyperion Power 'Module' was specifically designed for applications in remote areas where cost, safety, and security is of concern. The Hyperion Power Module, a self-contained, self-regulating reactor, is breaking new ground in the nuclear industry and filling a heretofore-unmet need for moderately sized power applications either distributed or dedicated. Employing proven science in a new way, Hyperion provides a safe, clean power solution for remote locations or locations that must currently employ less than satisfactory alternatives. Generating nearly 70 megawatts of thermal energy and from 25 to 30 megawatts of electrical energy, the Power Module is the world's first small mobile reactor, taking advantage of the natural laws of chemistry and physics and leveraging all of the engineering and technology advancements made over the last fifty years. The HPM is comparable in size to a deep residential hot tub and is designed to be cited underground in a containment vessel. The CEO of Hyperion will outline the benefits of small nuclear reactors by examining their impact on the U.S. economy, national security, the environment, remote regions, and developing nations. The speaker will also focus on the four main applications of the Hyperion Reactor: military bases; oil and gas recovery and refining

  18. Analisys and energy saving measures of kastvallen ice hockey rink arena

    OpenAIRE

    Igual Bueno, Mario; Bielsa Azcona, José Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays efficiency measures are more and more important because the price of the energy is increasing every year. Moreover, saving energy it is also important for decrease the environmental impact. Kastvallen is a hockey arena built in 1997 that cools the hockey rink with electric compressors. The changing rooms are heating by using district heating. Actually the total invoice of electricity is above the 800000 SEK. Meanwhile the district heating invoice reaches the 60000SE...

  19. A patient with severely reduced LV function and electrical storm saved by wearable cardioverter-defibrillator: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Margit; Kouraki, Kleopatra; Skarlos, Alexandros; Zahn, Ralf; Kleemann, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) is indicated in patients who are considered to be at temporarily high risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD), when an implantable defibrillator is not yet clearly indicated. We report the case of a 41-year-old patient with a newly diagnosed severely reduced left ventricular (LV) function for suspected myocarditis and repeated nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). This patient was supplied with a WCD who came back to the hospital 4 weeks after discharge with an electrical storm and adequate discharge of the WCD. After application of amiodarone, no further arrhythmias were detected during intrahospital course. For further risk stratification, we performed a magnetic field imaging (MFI), that was reported to be useful in risk assessment of SCD in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. This measurement showed a normal result, but we decided to give an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) to the patient. During a follow-up of 1 year, no further arrhythmias occurred. With this case, we report the efficacy of a WCD, which is a novel tool in patients at temporarily high risk of SCD and we report a novel method of risk stratification in patients with a high risk of SCD.

  20. European transition to a low carbon electricity system using a mix of variable renewable energies: carbon saving trajectories as functions of production and storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Today, most of the produced energy is generated from fossil energy sources (i.e. coal, petroleum). As a result, the energy sector is still the main source of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. For limiting greenhouse gas emission, a transition from fossil to renewable energy is required, increasing gradually the fraction energy coming from variable renewable energy (i.e. solar power, wind power and run-of-the river hydropower, hereafter denoted as VRE). VRE penetration, i.e. the percentage of demand satisfied by variable renewables assuming no storage capacity, is hampered by their variable and un-controllable features. Many studies show that combining different VRE over space smoothes their variability and increases their global penetration by a better match of demand fluctuations. When the demand is not fully supplied by the VRE generation, backup generation is required from stored energy (mostly from dams) or fossil sources, the latter being associated with high greenhouse gas emission. Thus the VRE penetration is a direct indicator of carbon savings and basically depends on the VRE installed capacity, its mix features, and on the installed storage capacity. In this study we analyze the European transition to a low carbon electricity system. Over a selection of representative regions we analyze carbon saving trajectories as functions of VRE production and storage capacities for different scenarios mixing one to three VRE with non-renewables. We show substantial differences between trajectories when the mix of sources is far from the local optimums, when the storage capacity evolves. We bring new elements of reflection about the effect of transport grid features from local independent systems to a European "copper plate". This work is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; Project FP7-ENV-2012 number: 308601; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  1. Introduction criteria and concepts on energy saving in the technical standards for electric installations; Introduccion de criterios y conceptos de ahorro de energia en las normas tecnicas para instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Nader, Jorge A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The project Introduction Criteria and Concepts on Energy Saving in the Technical Standards for electric installations, is described, whose immediate objective is to recommend and in some cases regulate the use of energy saving equipment and devices and the adoption of attitudes and procedures that convey into saving, and the rational and efficient use of the electric energy. [Espanol] Se describe el proyecto Introduccion de Criterios y Conceptos de Ahorro de Energia en las Normas Tecnicas para instalaciones electricas, que tiene como objetivo inmediato recomendar, y en algunos casos reglamentar el uso de equipos y dispositivos ahorradores y la adopcion de actitudes y procedimientos que conduzcan a un ahorro y uso racional y eficiente de la energia electrica.

  2. Introduction criteria and concepts on energy saving in the technical standards for electric installations; Introduccion de criterios y conceptos de ahorro de energia en las normas tecnicas para instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Nader, Jorge A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    The project Introduction Criteria and Concepts on Energy Saving in the Technical Standards for electric installations, is described, whose immediate objective is to recommend and in some cases regulate the use of energy saving equipment and devices and the adoption of attitudes and procedures that convey into saving, and the rational and efficient use of the electric energy. [Espanol] Se describe el proyecto Introduccion de Criterios y Conceptos de Ahorro de Energia en las Normas Tecnicas para instalaciones electricas, que tiene como objetivo inmediato recomendar, y en algunos casos reglamentar el uso de equipos y dispositivos ahorradores y la adopcion de actitudes y procedimientos que conduzcan a un ahorro y uso racional y eficiente de la energia electrica.

  3. A simple and efficient formula for saving electric energy in lighting systems; Una formula sencilla y eficaz para ahorrar energia electrica en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa Noriega, L. R. [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, as well as in other regions with a similar climate, there are an important number of users of the electric energy service, whose main load consists of lighting, since systems such as environmental conditioning, refrigeration, pumping and others are either not necessary or lack of importance as electric energy consumers. These are classified in the range of small users that altogether represent a significant saving, but the precarious diffusion of the technological advances have not contemplated the need of carrying on corrective actions. Among these users are the offices, sites of entertainment and a range of commerces and services such as clothing stores, pharmacies, shoe stores, printing shops, dry cleaner`s, restaurants, barber shops, etc. The present paper pretends to provide a simple methodology easy to carry on, derived form a demonstrative project that FIDE (Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico) successfully carried out for the Club Deportivo Berinbau. [Espanol] En el area Metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico, asi como en otras regiones con clima similar, existe un numero importante de usuarios del servicio de energia electrica cuya carga principal consiste en iluminacion, ya que sistemas como acondicionamiento ambiental, refrigeracion, bombeo y otros, o bien no son necesarios o carecen de la importancia en cuanto a consumo de energia electrica. Estos se catalogan dentro del rango de pequenos usuarios que en conjunto representan un potencial de ahorro significativo pero que, debido a la precaria difusion de los adelantos tecnologicos, no han contemplado la posibilidad de llevar a cabo acciones correctivas. Entre estos usuarios se encuentran oficinas, lugares de esparcimiento, planteles educativos y una gama de comercios y servicios como tiendas de ropa, farmacias, zapaterias, imprentas, tintorerias, restaurantes, peluquerias, etc. El presente trabajo pretende proporcionarles una

  4. A simple and efficient formula for saving electric energy in lighting systems; Una formula sencilla y eficaz para ahorrar energia electrica en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa Noriega, L R [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, as well as in other regions with a similar climate, there are an important number of users of the electric energy service, whose main load consists of lighting, since systems such as environmental conditioning, refrigeration, pumping and others are either not necessary or lack of importance as electric energy consumers. These are classified in the range of small users that altogether represent a significant saving, but the precarious diffusion of the technological advances have not contemplated the need of carrying on corrective actions. Among these users are the offices, sites of entertainment and a range of commerces and services such as clothing stores, pharmacies, shoe stores, printing shops, dry cleaner`s, restaurants, barber shops, etc. The present paper pretends to provide a simple methodology easy to carry on, derived form a demonstrative project that FIDE (Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico) successfully carried out for the Club Deportivo Berinbau. [Espanol] En el area Metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico, asi como en otras regiones con clima similar, existe un numero importante de usuarios del servicio de energia electrica cuya carga principal consiste en iluminacion, ya que sistemas como acondicionamiento ambiental, refrigeracion, bombeo y otros, o bien no son necesarios o carecen de la importancia en cuanto a consumo de energia electrica. Estos se catalogan dentro del rango de pequenos usuarios que en conjunto representan un potencial de ahorro significativo pero que, debido a la precaria difusion de los adelantos tecnologicos, no han contemplado la posibilidad de llevar a cabo acciones correctivas. Entre estos usuarios se encuentran oficinas, lugares de esparcimiento, planteles educativos y una gama de comercios y servicios como tiendas de ropa, farmacias, zapaterias, imprentas, tintorerias, restaurantes, peluquerias, etc. El presente trabajo pretende proporcionarles una

  5. Supplier choice and WTP for electricity attributes in an emerging market: The role of perceived past experience, environmental concern and energy saving behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Francisco Javier; González, Rosa Marina; Ramos-Real, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes customers' preferences and their willingness to pay (WTP) for certain service attributes in an electricity supplier choice context. Specifically, a stated preference choice experiment is conducted in the Canary Islands' residential market where limited competition exists. Preferences for different electricity suppliers and three level-of-service attributes are investigated, namely, supply reliability, share of renewable energies and availability of a complementary energy audit service. The results might be interpreted as an indication of different aspects new firms need to consider if they plan to enter in the market. There is an opportunity for new companies to establish in the market, though evidence of brand loyalty to the current company and/or significant switching costs are also found, especially in the case of older people. Regarding the estimated WTP, several results should be highlighted. First, customers who have experienced more serious outages in the past tend to show a higher WTP to reduce the outage frequency. Second, highly-educated respondents, those who state a great concern for the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and those who carry out energy saving actions in their homes exhibit a larger WTP for renewable energies. This empirical evidence provides useful information for authorities responsible for energy policy design. - Highlights: • A stated choice experiment is conducted in the Canary Islands' residential market. • Serious outages in the past lead to a higher WTP to reduce the outage frequency. • A higher education level explains a greater WTP for renewables. • People concerned for emissions and energy savers show greater WTP for renewables. • These findings provide useful information for energy policy design

  6. The satisfaction of developing a project of electrical energy saving; La satisfaccion de desarrollar un proyecto de ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arreola Suarez, Alejandro [Hotel Club Marival, Nuevo Vallarta, Nayarit (Mexico)

    2002-09-01

    The projects for the energy saving in hotels represent a great opportunity to reduce the operation costs in the demand and consumption of electrical energy, since the existing facilities can take advantage of new technologies in illumination, air conditioning, refrigeration and heating. By their constitution, the hotels work the year around uninterruptedly and must provide all type of services to the guests and working personnel, which originates that they consume great amounts of energy in air conditioning, lightning, laundry, etc., since the prestige of the installation depends on it. [Spanish] Los proyectos para el ahorro de energia en hoteles representan una gran oportunidad para reducir costos de operacion en la demanda y consumo de energia electrica, ya que las instalaciones existentes pueden aprovechar nuevas tecnologias en iluminacion, aire acondicionado, refrigeracion y calefaccion. Por su constitucion, los hoteles trabajan ininterrumpidamente todo el ano y deben proporcionar toda clase de servicios a los huespedes y personal que labora, lo cual origina que consuman grandes cantidades de energia en aire acondicionado, iluminacion, lavanderia, etc., pues de ello depende el prestigio de la instalacion.

  7. Electricity savings ``soon come'' to Jamaica -- Assessing the potential for air conditioning and refrigeration end-use DSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, T.; Hamzawi, E.; Campbell, V.

    1998-07-01

    With the support of the Inter-American Development Bank, the Global Environment Facility of the World Bank, and the Rockefeller Foundation, the national electric utility in Jamaica (Jamaica Public Service Company) has begun an assessment of the technical, economic, and financial opportunities for achieving demand-side management (DSM) energy savings in the air conditioning and refrigeration end uses. The feasibility and cost effectiveness of specific measures is being assessed for both the residential and commercials segments. While structures as a traditional load-research-based market assessment, the project uses ethnographic data collection and analysis techniques and involves collaboration with local contractors. The skills of local experts are being taped to identify and interview the key market players, and to develop an understanding of the barriers to and opportunities for energy efficiency present in the evolving equipment markets. The paper outlines methods and presents preliminary case study results for the air conditioning market. The authors identify major groups of market players and dominant types of equipment, and provide an overview of market dynamics. The volume of sales passing through both formal and informal distribution channels is estimated and market barriers are identified. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations will be made for future program and policy initiatives designed to mitigate selected barriers in each of the supply chains.

  8. Psychological interventions for energy saving. Development and evaluation of an electricity consumption reduction campaign in an urban development of energy-saving buildings; Energiesparen foerdern durch psychologische Intervention. Entwicklung und Evaluation einer Stromsparkampagne in einer Energiesparhaussiedlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, B.

    2007-07-01

    The study analyzes models of action of social psychology - in particular also an approach to institutionalize routine behaviour patterns - in order to identify the influencing factors that are described and the strategies for energy saving which are promoted. It also presents a comprehensive outline of current intervention studies and identifies effective strategy combinations which may serve as a basis for effective energy conservation campaigns. Against this background, an intervention measure for a neighbourhood context is developed and evaluated which is to promote energy-saving patterns of energy use in private households. The long-term effects suggest that it is a promising strategy to use a combination of information, commitment, goal identification, and individual and comparative feedback and to make use of group processes in a social context for developing energy-saving (routine) behaviour patterns. (orig.)

  9. An analysis of Water Supply Heat Pump's Capability of Energy Storage and Energy Saving Using Electricity%水源热泵系统蓄能节能的可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴薇; 张小松

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristic of water supply heat pump (WLHP) is introduced. The thermal performanceand effect of energy saving that can be used to heating and cooling at the same time (the distinctive working mode) is em-phasized. A new idea of heat input using wave trough electricity instead of boilers is brought up, the effect and significance ofthis new method is discussed.

  10. Importance of the harmonics in the lighting systems for the electric energy saving; Importancia de las armonicas en el sistema de iluminacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibay Mendoza, V. [Lumisistemas, departamento de aseguramineto de calidad, Naucalpan (Mexico); Hernandez Bernal, J. M. [UNICORP, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In a lighting system the discharge lamps (fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID)), ballast and controls are generating elements of harmonics. As a consequence of the tendency of saving energy, the use of electronic ballasts and controls that integrate dimmers, daylight and present sensors has increased in order to optimize the energy use. This paper presents the harmonics generation resulting from the fluorescent lamps operating different electronic ballasts as well as their electronic controls. Likewise, are also shown the effects caused by generation of harmonics components by the lighting system in the electric system that go from the voltage and current distortion, the presence of currents in the neutral conductor in balanced systems to the repercussions in the metering equipment such as watthour meters and the effects the lighting equipment suffer due to the presence of harmonics, such as the power factor decrease in ballasts that are of high power factor and the temperature increment in the magnetic type ballasts. [Espanol] Dentro de un sistema de iluminacion, las lamparas de descarga (fluorescentes y alta intensidad de descarga {sup H}ID{sup )}, balastros y los controles son elementos generadores de armonicas. A consecuencia de la tendencia al ahorro de energia se ha incrementado el uso de balastros electronicos y controles que integran atenuadores de luz (dimmers), sensores de luz natural y de presencia con el fin de optimizar el uso de la energia. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de generacion de armonicas para lamparas fluorescentes, operando diferentes balastros electronicos asi como con controles electronicos. Asi mismo son presentados los efectos causados por la generacion de componentes armonicas por el sistema de iluminacion dentro del sistema electrico que van desde la distorsion en voltaje y corriente, la presencia de corrientes dentro del conductor neutro en sistemas balanceados, asi como la repercusion en los equipos de medicion tales

  11. Importance of the harmonics in the lighting systems for the electric energy saving; Importancia de las armonicas en el sistema de iluminacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibay Mendoza, V [Lumisistemas, departamento de aseguramineto de calidad, Naucalpan (Mexico); Hernandez Bernal, J M [UNICORP, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In a lighting system the discharge lamps (fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID)), ballast and controls are generating elements of harmonics. As a consequence of the tendency of saving energy, the use of electronic ballasts and controls that integrate dimmers, daylight and present sensors has increased in order to optimize the energy use. This paper presents the harmonics generation resulting from the fluorescent lamps operating different electronic ballasts as well as their electronic controls. Likewise, are also shown the effects caused by generation of harmonics components by the lighting system in the electric system that go from the voltage and current distortion, the presence of currents in the neutral conductor in balanced systems to the repercussions in the metering equipment such as watthour meters and the effects the lighting equipment suffer due to the presence of harmonics, such as the power factor decrease in ballasts that are of high power factor and the temperature increment in the magnetic type ballasts. [Espanol] Dentro de un sistema de iluminacion, las lamparas de descarga (fluorescentes y alta intensidad de descarga {sup H}ID{sup )}, balastros y los controles son elementos generadores de armonicas. A consecuencia de la tendencia al ahorro de energia se ha incrementado el uso de balastros electronicos y controles que integran atenuadores de luz (dimmers), sensores de luz natural y de presencia con el fin de optimizar el uso de la energia. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de generacion de armonicas para lamparas fluorescentes, operando diferentes balastros electronicos asi como con controles electronicos. Asi mismo son presentados los efectos causados por la generacion de componentes armonicas por el sistema de iluminacion dentro del sistema electrico que van desde la distorsion en voltaje y corriente, la presencia de corrientes dentro del conductor neutro en sistemas balanceados, asi como la repercusion en los equipos de medicion tales

  12. Locomotive energy savings possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic indicators of electrodynamic braking have not been properly estimated. Vehicles with alternative power trains are transitional stage between development of pollution- free vehicles. According to these aspects the investigation on conventional hybrids drives and their control system is carried out in the article. The equation that allows evaluating effectiveness of regenerative braking for different variants of hybrid drive are given. Presenting different types of locomotive energy savings power systems, which are using regenerative braking energy any form of hybrid traction vehicles systems, circuit diagrams, electrical parameters curves.

  13. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  14. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  15. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  16. Energy savings: persuasion and persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eijadi, David; McDougall, Tom; Leaf, Kris; Douglas, Jim; Steinbock, Jason; Reimer, Paul [The Weidt Group, Minnetonka, MN (United States); Gauthier, Julia [Xcel Energy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wild, Doug; Richards McDaniel, Stephanie [BWBR Architects, Inc., Saint Paul, MN (United States)

    2005-07-01

    In this study, the architects, sponsoring utility and energy simulation specialist joined together to investigate the persistence of energy savings in three completed projects: a college library; a municipal transportation facility; and a hospital. The primary question being 'How well did the design decisions made with the help of simulation analysis translate into building operations over several years?' Design simulation and metered performance data are compared for specific energy-saving strategies. The paper provides a brief overview of the basis of selection of the three projects, the energy design assistance methods employed and the decisions made, along with their savings expectations. For each case, design characteristics, modelling assumptions, selected strategies and actual metered performance are outlined. We find evidence of appropriate levels of energy conservation, but they are not the absolute values predicted. In each case, the discrepancies between modelling assumptions and final construction or operating procedures are identified, examined and rectified. The paper illustrates that while owners are saving energy, they are not always getting the full savings potential for what they install. The paper concludes with a re-examination of the overall process. It evaluates the potential for additional savings of individual technologies and related larger utility incentives to design teams and building owners.

  17. Net savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    2001-01-01

    The state of e-commerce in the Canadian upstream oil and natural gas sector is examined in an effort to discover the extent to which the .com economy has penetrated the marketplace. The overall assessment is that although the situation varies from producer to producer and process to process, a bustling digital marketplace in the Canadian oil business has yet to emerge. Nevertheless, there are several examples of companies using e-business tools to minimize technology staffing and to eliminate wasteful practices. Initiatives cited include streamlining of supply chains to cut handling costs, using application service providers to trim information technology budgets, and adopting electronic joint interest billing to save on printing, postage and re-entering data. Most notable efforts have been made by companies such as BXL Energy Limited and Genesis Exploration Limited, both of which are boosting efficiency on the inside by contracting out data storage and software applications. For example, BXL has replaced its microfilm log library occupying six cabinets, and totalling about 9,000 lbs., by a fibre optic line. All applications can now be run from a laptop which weighs three to four pounds. In a similar vein, Genesis Exploration started using application service providers (ASPs) to avoid the cost and hassle of buying and maintaining major software applications in-house. By accessing the ASPs, Genesis staff can run software without buying or installing it on their own computers. In yet another example of cutting information technology costs, Pengrowth Corporation has its network administration done remotely over the Internet by Northwest Digital Systems (NWD). As far as the industry at large is concerned, the answer appears to be in a digital marketplace specifically tailored to the upstream sector's unique profile. As a start, a study is underway by Deloitte Consulting to explore producer interest in joining or founding an upstream digital marketplace. The study was

  18. Net savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2001-02-01

    The state of e-commerce in the Canadian upstream oil and natural gas sector is examined in an effort to discover the extent to which the .com economy has penetrated the marketplace. The overall assessment is that although the situation varies from producer to producer and process to process, a bustling digital marketplace in the Canadian oil business has yet to emerge. Nevertheless, there are several examples of companies using e-business tools to minimize technology staffing and to eliminate wasteful practices. Initiatives cited include streamlining of supply chains to cut handling costs, using application service providers to trim information technology budgets, and adopting electronic joint interest billing to save on printing, postage and re-entering data. Most notable efforts have been made by companies such as BXL Energy Limited and Genesis Exploration Limited, both of which are boosting efficiency on the inside by contracting out data storage and software applications. For example, BXL has replaced its microfilm log library occupying six cabinets, and totalling about 9,000 lbs., by a fibre optic line. All applications can now be run from a laptop which weighs three to four pounds. In a similar vein, Genesis Exploration started using application service providers (ASPs) to avoid the cost and hassle of buying and maintaining major software applications in-house. By accessing the ASPs, Genesis staff can run software without buying or installing it on their own computers. In yet another example of cutting information technology costs, Pengrowth Corporation has its network administration done remotely over the Internet by Northwest Digital Systems (NWD). As far as the industry at large is concerned, the answer appears to be in a digital marketplace specifically tailored to the upstream sector's unique profile. As a start, a study is underway by Deloitte Consulting to explore producer interest in joining or founding an upstream digital marketplace. The study

  19. Barriers for realisation of energy savings in buildings; Barrierer for realisering af energibesparelser i bygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, O.M.

    2004-07-01

    Many years' efforts within the energy labelling area have shown large saving potentials in heating and use of electricity in buildings. At the same time it has been proved that these saving potentials, even when economically advantageous, only are cashed to a limited extent. The reason to this is ascribed to barriers that meet the individual building owner who wants to start saving energy. Most barriers are known and a lot of these have been sought overcome for some time. The questions are how many barriers still exist, have new barriers arisen and the character of these barriers. On this background the objective of this survey has been to concretize and study the barriers, which are blocking reasonable energy savings. Focus has especially been on barriers for realisation of heating savings, but through a general evaluation of energy savings of barriers other forms of energy saving methods have been taken into consideration. Special interest has been directed towards houses, typically one family houses, which are affected by the Energy Labelling Scheme. The concept barriers include all kinds of barriers, also barriers that not are acknowledged as barriers by the individual house owner, or that on closer inspection turn out to be something else than actual barriers. This note suggests an alternative inertia model, in order to create an idea of the inertness characteristic of the many house owners who understand the message but fail to act on it. (BA)

  20. Hypochondria as an actual neurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Bernd

    2017-09-27

    Freud defined hypochondria as an actual neurosis. In this paper the actual neurosis will be interpreted as unbound traumatic elements which threaten the self. In severe hypochondria, breakdowns have occurred, as outlined by Winnicott. The nameless traumatic elements of the breakdown have been encapsulated. The moment these encapsulated elements are liberated, an actual dynamic takes place which threatens the self with annihilation. Projective identification is not possible because no idea of containment exists. The self tries to evacuate these elements projectively, thus triggering a disintegrative regression. However, the object of this projection, which becomes a malign introject, is felt to remove the remaining psychical elements, forcing the worthless residue back into the self. In a final re-introjection, the self is threatened by unintegration. To save the self, these elements are displaced into an organ which becomes hypochondriacal, an autistoid object, protecting itself against unintegration and decomposition. An autistoid dynamic develops between the hypochondriac organ, the ego and the introject. Two short clinical vignettes illustrate the regressive dynamical and metapsychological considerations. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  1. Saving Energy. Managing School Facilities, Guide 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide offers information on how schools can implement an energy saving action plan to reduce their energy costs. Various low-cost energy-saving measures are recommended covering heating levels and heating systems, electricity demand reduction and lighting, ventilation, hot water usage, and swimming pool energy management. Additional…

  2. Energy saving or privatization? The case of the electric residential sector of Mexico; Ahorro de energia o privatizacion? El caso del sector electrico residencial de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Rafael [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The validity of the premise that proposes the privatization of the electric sector as a solution to the problem of obtaining enough investment capital for the continuous expansion of the electric sector is examined. It is shown that the growth of the demand foreseen for the residential sector for year 2000, can be totally reduced by introducing technologies economically feasible to increase the efficiency and end uses of the residential electricity. With the efficient use of the electricity, the economical development is allowed for the residential sector, without large increments of the residential electricity demand. [Espanol] Se examina la validez de la premisa que propone la privatizacion del sector electrico como una solucion al problema de conseguir suficientes capitales de inversion para la continua expansion del sector. Se muestra que se puede reducir casi totalmente el crecimiento en la demanda prevista del sector residencial al ano 2000, introduciendo tecnologias economicamente factibles para aumentar la eficiencia en los usos finales de electricidad residencial. Con el uso eficiente de la electricidad, se permite el desarrollo economico del sector residencial sin grandes incrementos en la demanda residencial de electricidad.

  3. Energy saving or privatization? The case of the electric residential sector of Mexico; Ahorro de energia o privatizacion? El caso del sector electrico residencial de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Rafael [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The validity of the premise that proposes the privatization of the electric sector as a solution to the problem of obtaining enough investment capital for the continuous expansion of the electric sector is examined. It is shown that the growth of the demand foreseen for the residential sector for year 2000, can be totally reduced by introducing technologies economically feasible to increase the efficiency and end uses of the residential electricity. With the efficient use of the electricity, the economical development is allowed for the residential sector, without large increments of the residential electricity demand. [Espanol] Se examina la validez de la premisa que propone la privatizacion del sector electrico como una solucion al problema de conseguir suficientes capitales de inversion para la continua expansion del sector. Se muestra que se puede reducir casi totalmente el crecimiento en la demanda prevista del sector residencial al ano 2000, introduciendo tecnologias economicamente factibles para aumentar la eficiencia en los usos finales de electricidad residencial. Con el uso eficiente de la electricidad, se permite el desarrollo economico del sector residencial sin grandes incrementos en la demanda residencial de electricidad.

  4. User behaviour impact on energy savings potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    and the residents' behaviour and if these defaults do not reflect actual circumstances, it can result in non-realisation of expected energy savings. Furthermore, a risk also exists that residents' behaviour change after the energy upgrading, e.g. to obtain improved comfort than what was possible before......, 3) Domestic hot water consumption and 4) Air change rate. Based on the analysis, a methodology is established that can be used to make more realistic and accurate predictions of expected energy savings associated with energy upgrading taking into account user behaviour....... the upgrading and this could lead to further discrepancies between the calculated and the actual energy savings. This paper presents an analysis on how residents’ behaviour and the use of standard assumptions may influence expected energy savings. The analysis is performed on two typical single-family houses...

  5. Nissan Mexicana. First place in national prize of electrical energy saving 1998; Nissan Mexicana. Primer lugar en premio nacional de ahorro de energia electrica 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez S, Enrique [Nissan Mexicana, S.A. de C.V., Planta Civac, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    For Plant CIVAC of Nissan Mexicana, the energy saving began in the year of 1990. From then, different programs have been developed using different strategies for energy saving until arriving at the Benchmarking with other Plants of Japan, which represents a new challenge, since it opened up an area of opportunity of saving in processes that generally were known in detail as far as to its main function (to make vehicles with quality, cost and opportunity of delivery), but the parameter of energy consumption of by unit and its benefits in relation to the cost was unknown. This was endorsed by the high Direction and began with the optimization of training for the operation of each equipment with the involvement of the user (Production), the engineering area (that establishes the process) and the maintenance area. We designed a general program where the basic activities were included, such as the general and special activities. Each one of them fulfilled its objective, but the special activities took us to the optimization of the processes, finding excess of energy in the design conditions. [Spanish] Para Planta CIVAC de Nissan Mexicana, el ahorro de energia se inicio en el ano de 1990. A partir de entonces se han desarrollado programas de ahorro de energia usando estrategias diferentes hasta llegar al Benchmarking con otras Plantas de Japon, el cual representa un reto nuevo, ya que puso al descubierto una area de oportunidad de ahorro en los procesos que por lo general se conocian a detalle en cuanto a la funcion principal (hacer vehiculos con calidad, costo y oportunidad de entrega), pero se desconocia el parametro de consumo de energia por unidad y sus beneficios en relacion con el costo. Esto fue avalado por la alta Direccion y se inicio con la capacitacion de la optimizacion de la operacion de cada equipo y se involucro al usuario (Produccion), al area de ingenieria (que establece el proceso) y al area de mantenimiento. Elaboramos un programa general donde se

  6. Individual savings accounts for social insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, Lans; Hansen, Martin Ino; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2008-01-01

    Using Danish data, we find that about three-fourths of the taxes levied to finance public transfers actually finance benefits that redistribute income over the life cycle of individual taxpayers rather than redistribute resources across people. This finding and similar results for other countries...... provide a rationale for financing part of social insurance via mandatory individual savings accounts. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mandatory individual savings accounts for social insurance and survey some recent alternative proposals for such accounts...

  7. Budget and Actuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This dataset contains the Town's Year-to-Date Budget and Actuals for Fiscal Years 2016, 2017, and 2018. Fiscal years run from July 1 to June 30. The data comes from...

  8. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  9. The influences of financial and non-financial factors on energy-saving behaviour: A field experiment in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Kenichi; Takeuchi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the influences of financial and non-financial factors on electricity-conservation behaviour. A random sample of 236 Japanese households participated in the field experiment and the participants were offered two interventions, such as monetary rewards, depending on their reduction in electricity consumption and comparative feedback. The average saving rates of the (i) reward-intervention group (5.9%) and the (ii) reward with comparative feedback group (8.2%) are statistically larger than those of the (iii) control group (1.7%). Our study demonstrates the following. First, our econometric analysis confirmed a significant response by households to financial incentives but a more inconclusive response to the treatment that provided non-financial, additional information. Second, we found a positive influence of treatment externalities across time and households on energy saving. Third, there is a heterogeneous treatment effect in the reward-intervention group, with the households having a high New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) score being more likely to respond to the reward programme and save electricity than those that do not. Finally, and most interestingly, differences in responses to the questionnaire before and after the experiment suggest that the participants had underestimated the marginal costs of saving electricity before they actually started to do so. - highlights: • We studied the effects of (non-)financial factors on household electricity use. • Financial factors had a significant effect; non-financial ones were inconclusive. • Externalities had a positive effect across time and households on saving energy. • There is a heterogeneous treatment effect in financial-reward intervention. • Before the experiment, participants underestimated the marginal costs of saving electricity

  10. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  11. Are Women Empowered to Save?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Woolley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Female economic empowerment – rising earnings, increased opportunities, greater labour force participation – has given many women the means to save. The shifting of responsibility for retirement security from employers and governments onto individuals has given women a reason to save. But are women actually saving? In this paper, we explore the relationship between the gender dynamics within a family and the accumulation of wealth. We find that little evidence in support of the conventional wisdom that families with a female financial manager save more and repay their debts more often. We find some evidence that male financial management leads to greater savings, and other evidence suggesting that savings patterns have a complex relationship with intra-family gender dynamics. El empoderamiento económico de la mujer – el aumento de los ingresos, mayores oportunidades, mayor participación laboral – ha dado a muchas mujeres los medios para ahorrar. Al pasar la responsabilidad de los ingresos de la jubilación de los empleadores y el gobierno a los individuos ha dado a las mujeres un motivo para ahorrar. ¿Pero realmente ahorran las mujeres? En este artículo se analizan las relaciones entre las dinámicas de género en una familia, y la acumulación de riqueza. Se ha llegado a la conclusión de que hay poca evidencia que apoye la creencia convencional de que las familias en las que una mujer gestiona las financias ahorran más y devuelven sus créditos más frecuentemente. Se ha encontrado alguna evidencia de que la gestión financiera por varones acarrea mayores ahorros, y otras evidencias que sugieren que los patrones de ahorro tienen una relación compleja con las dinámicas de género dentro de la familia.

  12. Electric power saving in the drinkable water, sewage and sanitation system, La Piedad; Ahorro de energia electrica en el sistema de agua potable, alcantarillado y saneamiento de La Piedad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sistema de Agua Potable, Alcantarillado y Saneamiento de la Piedad (Mexico). E-mail: sapaslapiedad@prodigy.net.mx

    2006-04-15

    In Michoacan, Mexico, a project who seeks to benefice the Municipal public resources was crated in 1994. It would be achieved trough the electric power saving in the public lighting system, and drinkable water pumping and black water, since those activities required the budget biggest part. The program could be developed recently and the saving was significant. In addition the electromechanical efficiency increased in the equipment installation. This work is an example for other States to do something similar that can improve their conditions. [Spanish] En el estado de Michoacan, Mexico se creo un proyecto en el ano de 1994, el cual buscaba beneficiar los recursos publicos municipales, a traves del ahorro de la energia electrica en los sistemas de alumbrado publico y bombeo de agua potable y aguas negras, ya que estas actividades son las que requieren la mayor parte del presupuesto. El programa pudo llevarse a cabo en anos recientes y el ahorro fue significativo, ademas de que aumento la eficiencia electromecanica en los equipos que se instalaron, y esta obra ha servido de ejemplo a otros estados para que realicen algo similar que pueda mejorar su situacion.

  13. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    OpenAIRE

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation co...

  14. Program integration at JVC Industrial de Mexico, S.A. de C.V./Electric energy saving/Environmental management system /ISO 14001 standard; Integracion de programas en JVC Industrial de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. Ahorro de energia electrica/Sistema de administracion ambiental/Estandar ISO 14001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argote Molina, Martin [JVC Industrial de Mexico S. A. de C. V., Tijuana (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    It is possible, and besides logic, the integration of programs such as the electric energy saving and an environmental management system. In managing the consumption and the demand of the electric service, there is an effect on the pollutants emitted for the generation. It is clear that the user in not, and can not be, responsible for the type of fuel used but its importance in project planning is out of question. In its turn the central point of the environmental management system, consists in identifying the main effects on the environment caused by its activities, services and products, as well as the current or potential control level of the enterprise on them. Such identification and further evaluation took us at JVC Industrial de Mexico, to integrate conceptually and operationally such programs. The commitment with the Management was concentrated and strengthened resulting in a fuller consciousness of resource administration. [Espanol] Es posible, ademas de logica, la integracion de programas tales como el ahorro de energia electrica y un sistema de administracion ambiental. Al administrar el consumo y la demanda del servicio electrico tenemos un efecto en los contaminantes emitidos para la generacion. Es claro que el usuario no es, ni puede ser, responsable del tipo de combustible utilizado pero su importancia en la planeacion de proyectos es indiscutible. A su vez el punto central del sistema de administracion ambiental, consiste en identificar los principales efectos en el medio ambiente causados por sus actividades, servicios o productos, asi como el nivel de control actual o potencial de la empresa sobre ellos. Dicha identificacion y la posterior evaluacion nos llevo, en JVC Industrial de Mexico, a integrar tanto conceptual como operacionalmente dichos programas. El compromiso de la Gerencia se vio concentrado y fortalecido dando como resultado una conciencia mas plena de la administracion de recursos.

  15. Program integration at JVC Industrial de Mexico, S.A. de C.V./Electric energy saving/Environmental management system /ISO 14001 standard; Integracion de programas en JVC Industrial de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. Ahorro de energia electrica/Sistema de administracion ambiental/Estandar ISO 14001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argote Molina, Martin [JVC Industrial de Mexico S. A. de C. V., Tijuana (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    It is possible, and besides logic, the integration of programs such as the electric energy saving and an environmental management system. In managing the consumption and the demand of the electric service, there is an effect on the pollutants emitted for the generation. It is clear that the user in not, and can not be, responsible for the type of fuel used but its importance in project planning is out of question. In its turn the central point of the environmental management system, consists in identifying the main effects on the environment caused by its activities, services and products, as well as the current or potential control level of the enterprise on them. Such identification and further evaluation took us at JVC Industrial de Mexico, to integrate conceptually and operationally such programs. The commitment with the Management was concentrated and strengthened resulting in a fuller consciousness of resource administration. [Espanol] Es posible, ademas de logica, la integracion de programas tales como el ahorro de energia electrica y un sistema de administracion ambiental. Al administrar el consumo y la demanda del servicio electrico tenemos un efecto en los contaminantes emitidos para la generacion. Es claro que el usuario no es, ni puede ser, responsable del tipo de combustible utilizado pero su importancia en la planeacion de proyectos es indiscutible. A su vez el punto central del sistema de administracion ambiental, consiste en identificar los principales efectos en el medio ambiente causados por sus actividades, servicios o productos, asi como el nivel de control actual o potencial de la empresa sobre ellos. Dicha identificacion y la posterior evaluacion nos llevo, en JVC Industrial de Mexico, a integrar tanto conceptual como operacionalmente dichos programas. El compromiso de la Gerencia se vio concentrado y fortalecido dando como resultado una conciencia mas plena de la administracion de recursos.

  16. Data on energy saving measures on the basis of real consumption data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menkveld, M.; Vethman, P.; Leidelmeijer, K.; Cozijnsen, E.

    2012-05-01

    On assignment of NLAgency, RIGO and ECN have established the indicative savings of energy saving measures in existing dwellings based on actual (measured) energy use data. This is done with statistical analysis on a database with energy uses and data on energy saving measures in dwellings. This database is made by combination of data on dwellings from the energy label database of NLAgency and registrations of actual electricity and gas use from the customer files of Statistics Netherlands. The energy label database contains the data used for the label calculation of the dwellings that have received a label. The information consists of the heating system, the type of boiler, insulation, the type of glass, the type of ventilation system, but also the type of dwelling, the size of the dwelling and the year of construction. Linkage of these databases by Statistics Netherlands leads to a file containing data on over 600.000 dwellings. The relations between energy saving measures and energy cannot simply be calculated by comparing average uses of dwellings with a high-efficiency boiler and dwellings with an improved-efficiency boiler. After all, these dwellings will most likely have more differences with regard to other features (for example the extent to which double glazing has been installed). Comparison of these averages would lead to an overestimation of the effect of implementing a high-efficiency boiler. The energy use in dwellings that have a high-efficiency boiler is expected to be lower because of a combination of (other) measures. To arrive at useful statements about savings and effects, certain features of the dwellings and other measures were verified in the analyses. A statistical check of variables examines whether the variable has any influence on a (possible) relation, and if this is true, the influence is subsequently 'corrected' mathematically. The statistical analysis has not only been conducted for the actual energy use data from the customer files

  17. Evaluation of the impact of the liberalisation of the European electricity market on the CHP, District heating and cooling sector; 'Save CHP/DHC'. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    Improved energy efficiency will play a key role in meeting the EU Kyoto target economically. In addition to a significant positive environmental impact, improved energy efficiency will lead to a more sustainable energy policy and enhanced security of supply. The study: 1) Identifies and evaluates parameters and conditions which in relation to the liberalisation of the electricity market will have an impact on the CHP/DHC sector in EU15 and Poland. 2) Establishes an information base on CHP/DHC systems in EU15 and Poland. 3) Analyses the CHP/DHC sector and its ability to meet changing market conditions. 4) Assesses the effect of the liberalised electricity market on electricity production in relation to CHP/district heating and cooling. 5) Identifies threats for the viability of CHP/DHC in a liberalised market and evaluates means and measures to overcome such threats. The study brings forward the goals and commitments in respect of European energy and environmental policy and gives an overview of the present and expected future framework in which CHP/DHC is to operate. The study evaluates the viability of the sector at an overall level and for different groups/categories of CHP/DHC systems in different countries. The effects of existing or proposed national public measures are analysed. The analyses are essential to decision makers in the transition process towards a fully liberalised market. Recognised uncertainties in the market during the transition period may cause either a temporary or a permanent recession for the CHP/DHC sector. Improved understanding and recognition of threats and opportunities is important to all actors just now. The study can be considered a first step of a process to create a market situation, where the energy customers can make their choices under competition rules and where environmentally friendly and efficient CHP and DHC is considered an attractive business opportunity in competition with other energy supplies. (EHS)

  18. Effect of regulation on the rate of adoption of cost saving scale technology in the electric utility industry: a portfolio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheraga, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    This study presents a new analytical framework for examining the relationship between regulation and the investment behavior of electric utilities. The particular kind of investment behavior considered is the adoption of new as well as innovative electrical generation technology. The technologies of interest are large scale coal and nuclear generation plants. The theoretical model used in this study differs from traditional approaches in its utilization of a behavioral framework of analysis. The responsiveness of utilities to the required rate of return demanded by stockholders is demonstrated using an augmented form of the standard Capital Asset Pricing Model. Regulation is viewed as affecting utility investment behavior through the effect of the actions of regulatory commissions on the required rate of return that utilities must earn on equity. The particular regulatory policies considered are modification of existing rate structure, automatic adjustment clauses, and required efficiency standards. These policies are of particular interest both because their effects have not been previously examined in detail, and because they are recommended for adoption in the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. It is demonstrated empirically that the above policies do affect the required rate of return for utilities and hence their innovative investment behavior

  19. Linac project - actual stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin Filho, N.

    1990-01-01

    The actual development stage of Pelletron accelerator to study heavy ion reactions, nuclear structures and applied nuclear physics is presented. The construction of acceleration systems able to provide beams of several mass and energies up to 20 MeV/A, is discussed, describing acceleration structures and implemented systems. (M.C.K.)

  20. Actualism and Fictional Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leclerc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n1p61 In what follows, I present only part of a program that consists in developing a version of actualism as an adequate framework for the metaphysics of intentionality. I will try to accommodate in that framework suggestions found in Kripke’s works and some positions developed by Amie Thomasson. What should we change if we accept “fictional entities” in the domain of the actual world? Actualism is the thesis that everything that exists belongs to the domain of the actual world and that there are no possibilia. I shall defend that there are abstract artefacts, like fictional characters, and institutions. My argument could be seen as a version of Moore’s paradox: it is paradoxical to say: “I made (created it, but I do not believe it exists”. Moreover, there are true sentences about them. I will examine what it means to include abstract artefacts in the domain of the actual world. I favour a use of “exist” that includes beings with no concrete occupation of tri-dimensional space; to exist, it is enough to have been introduced at some moment in history. Abstract artefacts, like fictional characters, exist in that sense. I argue that it is important to distinguish two perspectives (internal and external in order to clarify the kind of knowledge we have of fictional characters. However, their existence presupposes a relation of dependence to a material basis and the mental activities of many people.

  1. Opinion: Composition Studies Saves the World!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzell, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Stanley Fish in his new book ["Save the World on Your Own Time" (New York: Oxford UP,2008)] says that composition studies presents "the clearest example" of what is desperately wrong in the academy, because in writing classrooms, he says, "more often than not anthologies of provocative readings take center stage and the actual teaching of writing…

  2. Private Sector Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitonáková Renáta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of household savings are in the form of bank deposits. It is therefore of interest for credit institutions to tailor their deposit policy for getting finances from non-banking entities and to provide the private sector with the loans that are necessary for investment activities and consumption. This paper deals with the determinants of the saving rate of the private sector of Slovakia. Economic, financial and demographic variables influence savings. Growth of income per capita, private disposable income, elderly dependency ratio, real interest rate and inflation have a positive impact on savings, while increases in public savings indicate a crowding out effect. The inflation rate implies precautionary savings, and dependency ratio savings for bequest. There are also implications for governing institutions deciding on the implementation of appropriate fiscal and monetary operations.

  3. Tracing Actual Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-08

    produce a full explanation. While related, this problem dif- fers from the problem of determining actual causes where the focus is on identifying...1987]. We prove that the decision problem for causal slices is DP1 - complete. DP1 is the class of computational problems that can be solved using an NP ...machine and a co- NP machine simultaneously. Based on this result, we further show that the decision problem for causal histories is in ΠP2 . Closely

  4. Can switching fuels save water? A life cycle quantification of freshwater consumption for Texas coal- and natural gas-fired electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubert, Emily A; Beach, Fred C; Webber, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Thermal electricity generation is a major consumer of freshwater for cooling, fuel extraction and air emissions controls, but the life cycle water impacts of different fossil fuel cycles are not well understood. Much of the existing literature relies on decades-old estimates for water intensity, particularly regarding water consumed for fuel extraction. This work uses contemporary data from specific resource basins and power plants in Texas to evaluate water intensity at three major stages of coal and natural gas fuel cycles: fuel extraction, power plant cooling and power plant emissions controls. In particular, the water intensity of fuel extraction is quantified for Texas lignite, conventional natural gas and 11 unconventional natural gas basins in Texas, including major second-order impacts associated with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. Despite the rise of this water-intensive natural gas extraction method, natural gas extraction appears to consume less freshwater than coal per unit of energy extracted in Texas because of the high water intensity of Texas lignite extraction. This work uses new resource basin and power plant level water intensity data to estimate the potential effects of coal to natural gas fuel switching in Texas’ power sector, a shift under consideration due to potential environmental benefits and very low natural gas prices. Replacing Texas’ coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants (NGCCs) would reduce annual freshwater consumption in the state by an estimated 53 billion gallons per year, or 60% of Texas coal power’s water footprint, largely due to the higher efficiency of NGCCs. (letter)

  5. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  6. Estimations of actual availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molan, M.; Molan, G.

    2001-01-01

    Adaptation of working environment (social, organizational, physical and physical) should assure higher level of workers' availability and consequently higher level of workers' performance. A special theoretical model for description of connections between environmental factors, human availability and performance was developed and validated. The central part of the model is evaluations of human actual availability in the real working situation or fitness for duties self-estimation. The model was tested in different working environments. On the numerous (2000) workers, standardized values and critical limits for an availability questionnaire were defined. Standardized method was used in identification of the most important impact of environmental factors. Identified problems were eliminated by investments in the organization in modification of selection and training procedures in humanization of working .environment. For workers with behavioural and health problems individual consultancy was offered. The described method is a tool for identification of impacts. In combination with behavioural analyses and mathematical analyses of connections, it offers possibilities to keep adequate level of human availability and fitness for duty in each real working situation. The model should be a tool for achieving adequate level of nuclear safety by keeping the adequate level of workers' availability and fitness for duty. For each individual worker possibility for estimation of level of actual fitness for duty is possible. Effects of prolonged work and additional tasks should be evaluated. Evaluations of health status effects and ageing are possible on the individual level. (author)

  7. Energy saving certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    The French ministry of economy, finances and industry and the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) have organized on November 8, 2005, a colloquium for the presentation of the energy saving certificates, a new tool to oblige the energy suppliers to encourage their clients to make energy savings. This document gathers the transparencies presented at this colloquium about the following topics: state-of-the-art and presentation of the energy saving certificates system: presentation of the EEC system, presentation of the EEC standard operations; the energy saving certificates in Europe today: energy efficiency commitment in UK, Italian white certificate scheme, perspectives of the different European systems. (J.S.)

  8. Spending to save

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    the energy distribution companies meet their overall saving obligation, the net savings impact are about a third of the savings reported by the obligated parties. Further it was found that while energy savings in the public and business sector have a high net impact, some subsidies given under the EEO...... perspective. The evaluation has resulted in noticeable adjustments of the design of the Danish EEO, e.g. introduction of a 1 year payback-time limit for projects receiving subsidies, a minimum baseline for insulation products, and specification of documentation requirements....

  9. Does extending daylight saving time save energy? Evidence from an Australian experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, R. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics; Wolff, H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics]|[Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit (IZA), Bonn (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Several countries are considering extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) in order to conserve energy, and the U.S. will extend DST by one month beginning in 2007. However, projections that these extensions will reduce electricity consumption rely on extrapolations and simulations rather than empirical evidence. This paper, in contrast, examines a quasiexperiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. Using detailed panel data and a triple differences specification, we show that the extension did not conserve electricity, and that a prominent simulation model overstates electricity savings when it is applied to Australia. (orig.)

  10. The optimization of electric motors repair techniques as a mean for electric energy saving; La optimizacion de las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos como un medio para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagal Leon, Juan Ruben [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents, in a very concise, which are the techniques to optimize the electric motors repair made by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), the loss of efficiency that might exist after repairing an electric motor, as well as the procedures to perform an optimum reparation of the electric motors. Furthermore, some recommendations are given for the selection of an adequate rewinding shop to guarantee that the motor does not suffer efficiency losses after its repair. [Espanol] Este trabajo presenta, de manera muy concreta, cuales son las tecnicas para optimizar las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos realizado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), el nivel de perdida de eficiencia que puede existir despues de reparar un motor electrico, asi como los procedimientos para realizar una optima reparacion en motores electricos. Asimismo, se proporcionan algunas recomendaciones para seleccionar un taller de reembobinado adecuado para garantizar que el motor no sufra perdidas de eficiencia despues de su reparacion.

  11. The optimization of electric motors repair techniques as a mean for electric energy saving; La optimizacion de las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos como un medio para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagal Leon, Juan Ruben [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    This paper presents, in a very concise, which are the techniques to optimize the electric motors repair made by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), the loss of efficiency that might exist after repairing an electric motor, as well as the procedures to perform an optimum reparation of the electric motors. Furthermore, some recommendations are given for the selection of an adequate rewinding shop to guarantee that the motor does not suffer efficiency losses after its repair. [Espanol] Este trabajo presenta, de manera muy concreta, cuales son las tecnicas para optimizar las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos realizado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), el nivel de perdida de eficiencia que puede existir despues de reparar un motor electrico, asi como los procedimientos para realizar una optima reparacion en motores electricos. Asimismo, se proporcionan algunas recomendaciones para seleccionar un taller de reembobinado adecuado para garantizar que el motor no sufra perdidas de eficiencia despues de su reparacion.

  12. Contract saving schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O'Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    Contractual saving schemes for housing are institutionalised savings programmes normally linked to rights to loans for home purchase. They are diverse types as they have been developed differently in each national context, but normally fall into categories of open, closed, compulsory, and ‘free

  13. Nuclear recycling: costs, savings, and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter discusses the economics, physical and chemical processes, and safety of nuclear fuel recycling. The spent fuel must be chemically reprocessed in order to recover uranium and plutonium. Topics considered include indifference costs, recycling in light water reactors (LWRs), plutonium in fast reactors, the choice between recycling and storage, safeguards, and weapons proliferation. It is shown that the economics of recycling nuclear fuel involves the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved, and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium

  14. How to estimate realistic energy savings in Energy Performance Certificates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Altmann, Nagmeh; Berecová, Monika

    Given the fact that most MS use fixed or other kinds of default values as boundary condition input for energy performance calculations, it is not surprising that the calculated energy performance differs from the measured energy consumption. As a consequence, the calculated energy savings due...... stationary calculation tools using monthly average values. The optimum solution for energy performance certificates and calculating realistic energy savings is to have two calculations. One calculation, using default values to calculate the label itself, and one with actual input parameters for calculating...... energy performance before and after implementing energy saving measures. Actual values though, may be difficult to identify, so there is a need to make adaptations to reality easy. Even if actual values are available, there are still issues that cause calculated energy savings to differ from the obtained...

  15. An energy saving system for hospital laundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsanis, J.S.; Tsarabaris, P.T.; Polykrati, A.D.; Proios, A.N. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Koufakis, E.I. [Public Power Corp. S.A., Crete (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    Hospital laundries are one of the largest consumers of water and electrical and thermal energy. This paper examined the energy savings achieved by a system using the hot wastewater from the washing process. Hospital laundries consume thermal energy using steam, which is produced in boilers by burning diesel oil or natural gas. Electrical energy for the mechanical drives, ventilation and also the lighting required in the laundry area are big consumers of energy. The paper presented the proposed system and discussed the parameters of the system and system dimensioning. The paper also provided and discussed an interpretation of steam and energy savings. The proposed system was considered to be economically viable, simple in its construction, installation and operation. From the application of the suggested system, the cost savings resulted in a satisfactory payback period for the capital invested of approximately three to five years. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Telework: Timesaving or Timeconsuming? An Investigation into Actual Working Hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, P.; Wetzels, C.T.A.H.; Tijdens, K

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the relationship between telework and the actual time employees put into their jobs. One of the reported threats to teleworkers' personal lives is that in order to finish their work, they not only use up saved commuting time, but also part of their non-working hours, even

  17. C. h. p. saves fuel in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugas, C F

    1979-04-01

    A combined heat and power plant based on a diesel generator to produce 12MW of electricity and 12MW of heat has successfully supplied the town of Skultuna in Sweden during the winter and has saved 3,700t of oil annually.

  18. Marijuana and actual driving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...

  19. Invisible costs, visible savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, G

    1999-08-01

    By identifying hidden inventory costs, nurse managers can save money for the organization. Some measures include tracking and standardizing supplies, accurately evaluating patients' needs, and making informed purchasing decisions.

  20. Realized Cost Savings 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset is provided as a requirement of OMB’s Integrated Data Collection (IDC) and links to VA’s Realized Cost Savings and Avoidances data in JSON format. Cost...

  1. Who is Self-Actualized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roweton, William E.

    1981-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify Maslow's concept of self-actualization as it relates to human motivation, a class of educational psychology students wrote essays describing a self-actualized person and then attempted to decide whether public schools contribute to the production of self-actualized persons. Two-thirds of the students decided that schools…

  2. Integration of the heat and refrigeration sector into the electricity market model PowerFlex for the analysis of sector encompasing effects on the climate protection goals and EE integration. Scientific final report - actualized version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Matthias; Hesse, Tilman; Kenkmann, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    The report covers the following issues: (i) Detailed description of the heat sector and its coupling to the electricity sector within the electricity market model PowerFlex: provate heat demand, derivation of heat load profiles, development of a technology and energy carrier mix, data inputs for the electricity market regulation. (ii) Creation of an empirically based data basis for the air conditioning of building, its coupling to the electricity system and derivation of recommendations: preparation of a representative empirical determination of the status quo and the factors that provoke private households to install air conditions, effective parameters for the development of energy demand for air conditioning of residential homes, preparation of a data input for the electricity market model - methodology and results. (iii) Preparation of generic renewable energy supply time series with different levels of fluctuation: Methodology of the renewable energy profile calculation, calculation of the supply profile for photovoltaics, calculation of the supply profile for onshore wind and offshore wind. (iv) Extension of the electricity market model PowerFlex to PowerFlex-heat and cold for the sector encompassing scenario analysis: extension of the module to cogeneration power plants, power-to-heat and power-to-gas for the detailed description of the heat sector, extension of the module for load management, scenarios and interpretation of the results.

  3. Acquiring energy savings in manufactured housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, the Northwest utilities faced a complex situation. They needed new sources of electrical power to avoid future deficits. A significant block of energy savings was available in the manufactured housing sector in the form of energy savings from increased insulation to new manufactured homes. The manufacturers were interested in saving the electricity in the homes, but would only deal with the utility sector as a whole. Half of the homes targeted were sited in investor-owned utility (IOU) service territories, and half in the public sector made up of utilities that purchased some or all of their electricity from the Bonneville Power Administration. Utilities agreed to acquire energy from manufacturers In the form of thermal efficiency measures specified by the Bonneville Power Administration. The program that resulted from over one year of negotiations was called the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program, or MAP. Manufacturers, the utilities, State Energy Offices, the Northwest Power Planning Council and Bonneville all worked closely and with tenacity to build the program that went into effect on April 1, 1992, and should save the region between 7 and 9 megawatts, enough energy to supply 11,000 homes in the Northwest

  4. Savings in its sights for Somerset Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Colin

    2011-10-01

    Colin Russell, healthcare specialist at Schneider Electric (pictured), explains how the company has recently worked with Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation Trust to implement a major energy-saving project at the Trust's Musgrove Park Hospital in Taunton. He argues that, at a time when all areas of the service are being asked to reduce costs, such partnerships can potentially save the institution millions of pounds and significantly reduce carbon emissions, while "revitalising" parts of the NHS estate, and ensuring continuity of vital hospital services for facilities managers.

  5. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    Energy savings seems to be the most environmentally benign element in an energy policy. The paper is a reflection on the work on saving energy both by improving technology and by adapting human daily behaviour. A simple model is suggested for the energy chain which converts the primary energy all...... the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  6. Public-opinion poll on energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A public-opinion poll was carried out on energy saving from November 26 to December 2, 1981, across the country. The number of persons participated in the survey was 5,000, whose age was 20 and above. The recovery ratio was 4,007 persons (80.1 %). The results of the survey and also the question-answer form are given with respective percentages. The questions were in the following three categories: (1) cognizance of energy saving - space-heating temperature, energy saving conscience use of private cars, purchase of highenergy consumption appliances; (2) energy for future - energy consumption, energy consumption trend, new types of energy, main sources of power generation, nuclear power in the overall electric power, apprehension toward nuclear power plants, safety measures in nuclear power plants; (3) governmental energy policy measures. (J.P.N.)

  7. Saving more to consume more. EDF's communication ambiguities during the energy saving era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Since 1974, EDF is placed between a communication scheme imposed for energy savings and an industrial strategy of massive investment in nuclear power. In ten years, the company managed to increase households electricity consumption without advertising, due in particular to electric heating. But strong tensions were generated by this situation and led the company to develop an institutional communication to the employees and to the general public

  8. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S.; Milby, M.; Baker, J.

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR(R) (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  9. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Milby, M. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for 15 Chicagoland single family housing archetypes. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these 15 housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost effectiveness.

  10. Sign Up for Savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses performance service contracts between educational facilities and energy services companies, in which the company provides the money for energy-efficiency improvements and the school pays the company an annual fee. The company guarantees the savings will meet or exceed the fee. (EV)

  11. Saving Malta's music memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Maltese music is being lost. Along with it Malta loses its culture, way of life, and memories. Dr Toni Sant is trying to change this trend through the Malta Music Memory Project (M3P) http://www.um.edu.mt/think/saving-maltas-music-memory-2/

  12. Save Our Water Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  13. Gun control saves lives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gun control legislation. One study estimated that more than 4 500 lives were saved across five SA cities from 2001 to 2005.[5] Pro-gun interest groups seeking to promote gun ownership and diffusion have attacked these findings, suggesting that stricter gun control was only enacted in 2004 following the publication of ...

  14. Recolecta: estado actual y perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    López Medina, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    Estado actual del Recolector de ciencia abierta español: Recolecta y proyectos de futuro. López Medina, A. (2010). Recolecta: estado actual y perspectivas. X Workshop Rebiun sobre proyectos digitales. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/8710.

  15. A road to more and cheaper energy conservation. Evaluation of all the Danish energy saving activities; En vej til flere og billigere energibesparelser. Evaluering af samtlige danske energispareaktiviteter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togeby, M.; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, K.; Damgaard, C.K. (and others)

    2008-12-15

    In total, about 650 million DKK yearly is used in Denmark for energy conservation incentives - 300 million DKK for the electric utilities' energy saving activities, 250 million DKK for energy labelling of buildings, and 100 million DKK for electric power saving activities. The present evaluation of all the Danish energy conservation activities has been performed based on the energy political agreements of 10 June 2005 and of 21 February 2008. The objective is to strengthen and develop the Danish energy savings efforts based on the experiences with the present activities and incentives. The evaluation is performed through data compilations from interviews with selected target groups and from questionnaires to the electric utilities. Furthermore, a statistical analysis was performed of the development of the energy consumption in eight countries, and information of other countries' energy conservation activities was compiled. The energy saving activities and incentives that are evaluated are: Taxes and CO{sub 2} quotas, the electric utilities' activities, energy labelling of buildings, the Electric Power Saving Trust, building codes, labelling of appliances, energy conservation requirements for public workplaces, agreement with the energy intensive industry, and the Energy Conservation Fund. The evaluation of these nine energy saving activities and incentives shows, that they were established over several years as answers to different energy political requirements. The coordination of these activities is in some cases insufficient. At the same time, the implementation of EU's CO{sub 2} quota system is a challenge to the other incentives. For example, the quota system has increased the incentive for electric power savings because of a higher power price but on the other hand it does not result in CO{sub 2} reductions within the actual quota period. Several of the savings systems seem to have too little focus on a systematic documentation of their

  16. Chinese hotel general managers' perspectives on energy-saving practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yidan

    As hotels' concern about sustainability and budget-control is growing steadily, energy-saving issues have become one of the important management concerns hospitality industry face. By executing proper energy-saving practices, previous scholars believed that hotel operation costs can decrease dramatically. Moreover, they believed that conducting energy-saving practices may eventually help the hotel to gain other benefits such as an improved reputation and stronger competitive advantage. The energy-saving issue also has become a critical management problem for the hotel industry in China. Previous research has not investigated energy-saving in China's hotel segment. To achieve a better understanding of the importance of energy-saving, this document attempts to present some insights into China's energy-saving practices in the tourist accommodations sector. Results of the study show the Chinese general managers' attitudes toward energy-saving issues and the differences among the diverse hotel managers who responded to the study. Study results indicate that in China, most of the hotels' energy bills decrease due to the implementation of energy-saving equipments. General managers of hotels in operation for a shorter period of time are typically responsible for making decisions about energy-saving issues; older hotels are used to choosing corporate level concerning to this issue. Larger Chinese hotels generally have official energy-saving usage training sessions for employees, but smaller Chinese hotels sometimes overlook the importance of employee training. The study also found that for the Chinese hospitality industry, energy-saving practices related to electricity are the most efficient and common way to save energy, but older hotels also should pay attention to other ways of saving energy such as water conservation or heating/cooling system.

  17. Actualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the Cedigaz annual report about the economic analysis of the worldwide natural gas statistical data for the year 1994. This report gives an up-to-date balance sheet of: the proved reserves, the production and consumption rates, the evolutions and tendencies of the international trade, the retail prices on the international market. (J.S.). 2 tabs

  18. The energy saving manual; Das Energiesparbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetze, Monika; Pinn, Gudrun

    2009-07-01

    The constant increase in the cost of electric power, petroleum, gasoline and gas burden the household budget. At the same time, greenhouse gases are speeding up global warming alarmingly. It is time to reconsider our style of living. This guide presents simple and practical hints to reduce energy costs and protect the climate. Exemplary calculations show how up to 1100 Euro can be saved per household member and per annum. Subjects: Identifying fields of excess energy consumption; No wasting of electricity, heat, and warm water; Food, shopping and climate; Mobility and climate protection; How to establish an individual energy conservation profile. (orig.)

  19. Evolution of China's power dispatch principle and the new energy saving power dispatch policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciwei, Gao; Yang, Li

    2010-01-01

    With social economic reform in the past decades, the power industry of China is gradually evolving from a highly integrated one toward an electricity market, which can be characterized based on the transition of the power dispatch principle. To attract investment in the power generating industry, China introduced non-state-owned power plants to the original system of a highly vertically integrated power industry with annual power generation quota guarantees, which makes the traditional economic dispatch principle not applicable. The newly debuted energy saving power dispatch (ESPD) is an attempt to fully exploit the maximum energy savings and was implemented by an administrative code. Starting in August 2007, the pilot operation of the ESPD was implemented in five provinces, but after two years, it is still not widely applied all over the country. This paper details the transition of China's power dispatch principle with particular attention to its origin and content. Moreover, the factors that influence the ESPD's actual energy saving effect are discussed, as well as the sustainability of the policy. (author)

  20. Energy saving potential in existing industrial compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittorini, Diego; Cipollone, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Air Sector accounts for a mean 10% worldwide electricity consumption, which ensures about its importance, when energy saving and CO_2 emissions reduction are in question. Since the compressors alone account for 15% overall industry electricity consumption, it appears vital to pay attention to machine performances. The paper presents an overview of present compressor technology and focuses on saving directions for screw and sliding vanes machines, according to data provided by the Compressed Air and Gas Institute and PNEUROP. Data were processed to obtain consistency with fixed reference pressures and organized as a function of main operating parameters. Each sub-term, contributing to the overall efficiency (adiabatic, volumetric, mechanical, electric, organic), was considered separately: the analysis showed that the thermodynamic improvement during compression achievable by splitting the compression in two stages, with a lower compression ratio, opens the way to significantly reduce the energy specific consumption. - Highlights: • Compressors technology overview in industrial compressed air systems. • Market compressors efficiency baseline definition. • Energy breakdown and evaluation of main efficiency terms. • Assessment of air cooling-related energy saving potential. • Energy specific consumption reduction through dual stage compression.

  1. A Quantification of the Energy Savings by Conservation Voltage Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellens, W.; Berry, A.; West, S.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of `Smart grid' technologies in the electricity supply industry has attracted new attention to Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR). CVR is a method that aims to save energy by reducing the voltage level of the electrical distribution network. However, not all devices consume less

  2. Potential energy savings from cool roofs in Spain and Andalusia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boixo, Sergio; Diaz-Vicente, Marian; Colmenar, Antonio; Castro, Manuel Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Cool roofs are an inexpensive method to save energy and to improve the comfort level in buildings in mild and hot climates. A high scale implementation of cool roofs in Andalusia, in the south of Spain, could potentially save 295,000 kWh per year, considering only residential buildings with flat roofs using electrical heating. At the current energy prices, consumers can save 59 million euros annually in electricity costs and the emission of 136,000 metric tons of CO 2 can be directly avoided every year from the production of that electricity. If radiative forcings are considered, Andalucía can potentially offset between 9.44 and 12 Mt of CO 2 . All the provinces in the rest of Spain are also studied in this paper. The biggest savings are achieved in Gran Canaria (48%), Tenerife (48%), Cádiz (36%), Murcia (33%), Huelva (30%), Málaga (29%), Almería (29%) and Sevilla (28%), where savings are greater than 2 euros per square meter of flat roof for old buildings with dark roofs. For the biggest cities the range of savings obtained are: between 7.4% and 11% in Madrid, between 12% and 18% in Barcelona and between 14% and 20% in Valencia. -- Highlights: ► We estimate potential savings in energy, CO 2 , and money for cool roofs in Spain (residential sector with flat roofs). ► Average savings are of around one euro per square meter in the biggest cities. ► Potential savings are of more than 2 €/m 2 in the hottest cities. ► In Andalusia the potential savings are 300 MWh, 60 millions euro and 136,000 tons of CO 2 per year. ► With forcings, the CO 2 equivalence of cool roofs in Andalusia is between 9 and 12 Mt.

  3. Study on wind turbine for Yamagata wind energy institute. Comparison of the actual and estimate values for electric power; Yamagata furyoku hatsudensho no fusha ni tsuite. Hatsudenryo yosoku to jissekichi no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, H [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Kojima, T [Yamagata Wind Energy Institute, Yamagata (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For two 400kW wind turbines erected in Jan. 1996 of Yamagata Wind Energy Institute, their estimated power output was compared with actual output for 7 months. AMeDAS data in 1985-94 were totaled every month to use as basic data. The altitude and surface roughness model necessary for WAsP analysis recommended by NEDO`s wind condition close inspection manual were prepared using 1/25,000 maps and aerial photographs. The obstacle model for estimating wind conditions at height of the wind turbine was prepared using the data obtained by field survey. Mean wind velocity and latent energy were determined by statistical analysis of wind velocity occurrence relative frequencies and Weibull distribution parameters. The power output of 717,700kWh was obtained for 7 months, which is equivalent to 88.5% of the estimated output of 810,730kWh for the same period. It was clarified from obtained characteristic wind conditions at the site that the wind power generation is promising at the site not only in winter but also in summer. Although the test period was too short, this method was effective as analytical method of output estimation in the planning stage of wind turbines. 3 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Good practice in saving energy at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Paola; Bonazzi, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    We teach students between 14 and 18 years old at a high school in Italy. In the first class, one of the topics we treat is related to the atmosphere. The students learn the composition of air, the importance of the natural greenhouse effect in keeping the average temperature of the planet and how human activity is increasing the level of greenhouse gases, enhancing greenhouse effect and causing global warming. It is possible to reach this knowledge using different materials and methods such as schoolbooks, articles, websites or films, individual or group work, but as students gradually become aware of the problem of climate change due to global warming, it is necessary to propose a solution that can be experienced and measured by students. This is the aim of the project "Switch off the light, to switch on the future". The project doesn't need special materials to be carried out but all the people in the community who work and "live" at school should participate in it. The project deals directly with saving electric energy, by changing the habits of the use of electricity. Saving electric energy means saving CO2 emitted to atmosphere, and consequently contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Normally, lights in the school are switched on in the early morning and switched off at the end of lessons. Nobody is responsible to turn out the lights in classes, so students choose one or two "Light guardians" who are responsible for the light management. Simple rules for light management are written and distributed in the classes so that the action of saving energy is spread all over the school. One class participates in the daily data collection from the electricity meter, before and after the beginning of the action. At the end of the year the data are treated and presented to the community, verifying if the electric consumption has been cut down or not. This presentation is public, with students who directly introduce collected data, results and

  5. Power load leveling and energy saving measures for office buildings. Power load leveling and energy saving technology for the new building of the Kobe branch of the Kansai Electric Power Co., and its effect; Office biru no denryoku fuka heijunka sho energy hosaku. Kobe shiten shinshaoku ni okeru denryoku fuka heijunka sho energy gijutsu to sono koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiyama, M. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-06-10

    This paper presents power load leveling and energy saving measures for heat source, air conditioning and lighting of the new Kobe branch building. The low-temperature hot-air system adopts an ice storage system, and reduces blowing power by 12 degreesC blowing in place of normal 16 degreesC blowing, and an initial cost by duct size reduction. The continuous air conditioning system levels an initial peak load of air conditioning as compared with normal air conditioning only for working hours for buildings with large heat capacity. In addition, as power load leveling measures for the whole building, the complete heat storage system using an underground internal melting type ice storage tank is adopted. Energy saving for lighting is achieved with a dimming lighting controlling its lighting output by inverter. The following effects are expected by these new technologies: Load leveling effect of 30%, energy saving effect of 20.2% and CO{sub 2} reduction effect of 24.1%. (NEDO)

  6. Entrepreneurial Saving Practices and Reinvestment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, Thorsten; Pamuk, Haki; Uras, Burak R.

    2017-01-01

    We use a novel enterprise survey to gauge the relationship between saving instruments and entrepreneurial reinvestment. We show that while most informal saving practices are not associated with a lower likelihood of reinvestment when compared with formal saving practices, there is a significantly

  7. Social Capital and Savings Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Khai, Luu Duc

    In this paper, we analyze household savings in rural Vietnam paying particular attention to the factors that determine the proportion of savings held as formal deposits. Our aim is to explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in promoting formal savings behavior. Social capital...

  8. Saving water through global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2005-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water

  9. Energy. Saving 'Private' Areva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    While Areva keeps on loosing money (billions of euros for 2014), the saving of this company is at stake. Staff is already planned to be reduced in La Hague, and other staff reductions might occur after the failure of a previous strategic plan. Various activities could be sold (dismantling, mining). The article outlines the difficult relationships between Areva and EDF and the problems also faced by EDF. Some actors think that Areva should remain independent from EDF in order to be free to compete on international bidding. The rapprochement between these two companies is said to be necessary for the Ministry but seems very difficult to achieve

  10. Water Saving for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  11. Savings for the Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Mas

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the relevance of formal financial services – in particular, savings – to poor people, the economic factors that have hindered the mass-scale delivery of such services in developing countries, and the technology-based opportunities that exist today to make massive gains in financial inclusion. It also highlights the benefits to government from universal financial access, as well as the key policy enablers that would need to be put in place to allow the necessary innovati...

  12. Design of energy saving monitoring system on isothermal oilless lubricated air compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S. N.; Liu, Q.; Xu, B. L.; Liu, Y.; Hu, F.

    2017-10-01

    This design introduces a kind of STM32F051C8T6 circuit monitoring system which is based on the ARM core. According to the operating principle of air compressor, the reduction of temperature and current is converted to save electricity and directly displayed, save electricity information stored at the same time, to achieve real-time monitoring air compressor energy saving effect in the process of operation.

  13. Exploring Demand Charge Savings from Commercial Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Commercial retail electricity rates commonly include a demand charge component, based on some measure of the customer’s peak demand. Customer-sited solar PV can potentially reduce demand charges, but the magnitude of these savings can be difficult to predict, given variations in demand charge designs, customer loads, and PV generation profiles. Moreover, depending on the circumstances, demand charges from solar may or may not align well with associated utility cost savings. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are collaborating in a series of studies to understand how solar PV can reduce demand charge levels for a variety of customer types and demand charges designs. Previous work focused on residential customs with solar. This study, instead, focuses on commercial customers and seeks to understand the extent and conditions under which rooftop can solar reduce commercial demand charges. To answer these questions, we simulate demand charge savings for a broad range of commercial customer types, demand charge designs, locations, and PV system characteristics. This particular analysis does not include storage, but a subsequent analysis in this series will evaluate demand charge savings for commercial customers with solar and storage.

  14. Learning to save lives!

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    They're all around you and watch over you, but you won't be aware of them unless you look closely at their office doors. There are 308 of them and they have all been given 12 hours of training with the CERN Fire Brigade. Who are they? Quite simply, those who could one day save your life at work, the CERN first-aiders. First-aiders are recruited on a volunteer basis. "Training is in groups of 10 to 12 people and a lot of emphasis is placed on the practical to ensure that they remember the life-saving techniques we show them", explains Patrick Berlinghi, a CERN first-aid instructor from TIS Division. He is looking forward to the arrival of four new instructors, which will bring the total number to twelve (eleven firemen and one member of the Medical Service). "The new instructors were trained at CERN from 16 to 24 May by Marie-Christine Boucher Da Ros (a member of the Commission Pédagogie de l'Observatoire National Français du Secourisme, the education commission of France's national first-aid body). This in...

  15. Own power: Motives of having electricity without the energy company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenheer, Jorna; Nooij, Michiel de; Sheikh, Omer

    2011-01-01

    New technologies will enable households to generate an increasing amount of their own electricity. Intentions to generate own power are a preliminary step towards actual behavior. Because own generation is still very limited and the behavior of early adopters may not be representative for the complete population, our study focuses on intentions rather than actual behavior. A consumer survey among 2047 Dutch households reveals that environmental concerns are the most important driver of a household's intention to generate its own power. Affinity with technology and energy and the reputation of electricity companies are also significant drivers, but financial factors and power outages are not. About 40% of Dutch households have an intention to generate their own power, with an overrepresentation of young households. This group falls apart in two sub segments; for the 'generating savers' (21%) a high intention to generate own power coincides with a high intention to save energy, whereas generating users (18%) combine a high intention to generate own power with a low intention to save energy. - Highlights: → A consumer survey studies household intentions to generate own power. → Environmental concerns are the most important motive for generating own power. → Other drivers are affinity with technology and reputation of electricity companies. → About 40% of Dutch households feel a need to generate their own electricity.

  16. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  17. ICU early physical rehabilitation programs: financial modeling of cost savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Robert K; Mayhew, Christopher R; Korupolu, Radha; Mantheiy, Earl C; Friedman, Michael A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Needham, Dale M

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the potential annual net cost savings of implementing an ICU early rehabilitation program. Using data from existing publications and actual experience with an early rehabilitation program in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU, we developed a model of net financial savings/costs and presented results for ICUs with 200, 600, 900, and 2,000 annual admissions, accounting for both conservative- and best-case scenarios. Our example scenario provided a projected financial analysis of the Johns Hopkins Medical ICU early rehabilitation program, with 900 admissions per year, using actual reductions in length of stay achieved by this program. U.S.-based adult ICUs. Financial modeling of the introduction of an ICU early rehabilitation program. Net cost savings generated in our example scenario, with 900 annual admissions and actual length of stay reductions of 22% and 19% for the ICU and floor, respectively, were $817,836. Sensitivity analyses, which used conservative- and best-case scenarios for length of stay reductions and varied the per-day ICU and floor costs, across ICUs with 200-2,000 annual admissions, yielded financial projections ranging from -$87,611 (net cost) to $3,763,149 (net savings). Of the 24 scenarios included in these sensitivity analyses, 20 (83%) demonstrated net savings, with a relatively small net cost occurring in the remaining four scenarios, mostly when simultaneously combining the most conservative assumptions. A financial model, based on actual experience and published data, projects that investment in an ICU early rehabilitation program can generate net financial savings for U.S. hospitals. Even under the most conservative assumptions, the projected net cost of implementing such a program is modest relative to the substantial improvements in patient outcomes demonstrated by ICU early rehabilitation programs.

  18. Energy-saving motor; Energiesparmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development and testing of an advanced electrical motor using a permanent-magnet rotor. The aims of the project - to study the technical feasibility and market potential of the Eco-Motor - are discussed and the three phases of the project described. These include the calculation and realisation of a 250-watt prototype operating at 230 V, the measurement of the motor's characteristics as well as those of a comparable asynchronous motor on the test bed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, and a market study to establish if the Eco-Motor and its controller can compete against normal asynchronous motors. Also, the results of an analysis of the energy-savings potential is made, should such Eco-Motors be used. Detailed results of the three phases of the project are presented and the prospects of producing such motors in Switzerland for home use as well as for export are examined.

  19. Does Daylight Saving Save Energy? A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Havránek, Tomáš; Herman, Dominik; Irsova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The original rationale for adopting daylight saving time (DST) was energy savings. Modern research studies, however, question the magnitude and even direction of the effect of DST on energy consumption. Representing the first meta-analysis in this literature, we collect 162 estimates from 44 studies and find that the mean reported estimate indicates modest energy savings: 0.34% during the days when DST applies. The literature is not affected by publication bias, but the results vary systemati...

  20. Energy saving in refineries and petrochemical complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, L

    1975-01-01

    Possible measures applicable in the design of refineries and petrochemical complexes, to effect energy savings were investigated. This was not limited to the single process unit problems, on the contrary the attention is mainly addressed to the identification of the interrelations between different units, emphasizing possible integrations. Particularly, the optimization of the pressure levels and number of the utility networks for steam distribution inside plant facilities, is considered, in order to maximize heat recovery in the process units, and electric power production in the central steampower generation plant. A computer program of general application, based on profitability evaluation at various fuel oil prices and different project configurations, has been developed for these purposes. The general measures applicable within certain limits are then briefly examined. The task of the process engineer is discussed in the perspective of the ''energy saving'' goal.

  1. Can lean save lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, David

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how over the last 18 months Bolton Hospitals NHS Trust have been exploring whether or not lean methodologies, often known as the Toyota Production System, can indeed be applied to healthcare. This paper is a viewpoint. One's early experience is that lean really can save lives. The Toyota Production System is an amazingly successful way of manufacturing cars. It cannot be simply translated unthinkingly into a hospital but lessons can be learned from it and the method can be adapted and developed so that it becomes owned by healthcare staff and focused towards the goal of improved patient care. Working in healthcare is a stressful and difficult thing. Everyone needs a touch of inspiration and encouragement. Applying lean to healthcare in Bolton seems to be achieving just that for those who work there.

  2. ATHENA: an actual antihydrogen annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This is an image of an actual matter-antimatter annihilation due to an atom of antihydrogen in the ATHENA experiment, located on the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN since 2001. The antiproton produces four charged pions (yellow) whose positions are given by silicon microstrips (pink) before depositing energy in CsI crystals (yellow cubes). The positron also annihilates to produce back-to-back gamma rays (red).

  3. 12 CFR 583.21 - Savings association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.21 Savings association. The term savings association means a Federal savings and loan association or a Federal savings bank chartered under section 5 of the Home Owners' Loan Act, a building and loan, savings and loan or homestead association or a cooperative...

  4. Reinforcement Learning and Savings Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C; Metrick, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    We show that individual investors over-extrapolate from their personal experience when making savings decisions. Investors who experience particularly rewarding outcomes from saving in their 401(k)-a high average and/or low variance return-increase their 401(k) savings rate more than investors who have less rewarding experiences with saving. This finding is not driven by aggregate time-series shocks, income effects, rational learning about investing skill, investor fixed effects, or time-varying investor-level heterogeneity that is correlated with portfolio allocations to stock, bond, and cash asset classes. We discuss implications for the equity premium puzzle and interventions aimed at improving household financial outcomes.

  5. Saving gas project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Maria Anunciacao S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garantizado, Maria Auxiliadora G. [CONCREMAT Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The work presented was implemented in municipalities around the construction of the pipeline project Urucu-Coari-Manaus, the Engineering / IETEG-IENOR, because of the constant release of workers, consequently the finishing stages of this work and its future completion. The Project aims to guide saving gas with the workforce, their families and communities to the enterprise of small business cooperatives and solidarity within the potential of the site. This project is developed through the workshops: entrepreneur ship, tourism, use, reuse and recycling of products, and hortifruiti culture, agroecology, agribusiness (cooperativism solidarity) and forestry. Its execution took place in two phases, the first called 'pilot' of 12/12/2007 to 27/03/2008 in sections A and B1, in the municipality of Coari stretch and B2 in Caapiranga. The second phase occurred from 30/06 to 27/09/08, in the words B1, in the municipalities of Codajas and Anori words and B2 in Iranduba, Manacapuru and Anama. The workshops were held in state and municipal schools and administered by the Institute of Social and Environmental Amazon - ISAM, which had a team of coordinators, teachers, experts and masters of the time until the nineteen twenty-two hours to implement the project. (author)

  6. Save energy, without entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, D.

    1992-01-01

    When we talk about saving energy what we usually mean is not wasting work. What we try to do when we design a process, is to use work as effectively as possible. It's hard to do that if we can't see it clearly. This paper illustrates how work can be seen (or calculated) without imposing entropy as a screen in front of it. We've all heard that the second law tells us that the entropy of the universe is increasing, and we are left with the feeling that the universe is ultimately headed for chaos, but receive little other information from this statement. A slightly more useful statement of the second law is the work potential of the universe is decreasing. However, this statement carries a needlessly negative ring. A simplified definition of the second law is: It takes work to change things. With these two corollaries: We can calculate the theoretical minimum work needed for a given change; and We can express the value of all changes in terms of work

  7. LITERATURA INTERCULTURAL CHILENA: PROYECTOS ACTUALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Carrasco M.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo define y sistematiza distintos aspectos de la interculturalidad textual, sus actuales manifestaciones literarias en Chile -la poesía etnocultural, la literatura del exilio y la escritura de inmigrantes- y sugiere su importancia en la alteración del canon de la modernidadThis work defines and systematizes different aspects of textual interculture, its literary manifestations in Chile to-day -ethnocultural poetry, exile literature, and the immigrants’ writing- suggesting its special importance in the alteration of the modernity canon

  8. Saving-Based Asset Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Schneider, Johannes; T. Smith, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of a novel class of preferences for the behavior of asset prices. Following a suggestion by Marshall (1920), we entertain the possibility that people derive utility not only from consumption, but also from the very act of saving. These ‘‘saving-based’’ prefere...

  9. Geology of Woman Saving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Madani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Money is lubricant and an instrument for economic transaction. Money social dimension has increased over time, transforming it from a sole economic instrument to a device for various transactions. Money economic value in society is indicated through different forms, one of which is saving, in the sense of money accumulation and its use under specific future circumstances. Women, who form half of the society, take specific approaches to money and savings. The current research aims to investigate the perspectives and changing attitude strategy to money and saving among married women. The participants of this study include 20 to 70 year-old employed household married women who were observed phenomenologically and interviewed qualitatively on saving through.   The findings of this study demonstrated women perspectives on various types of saving, ways of saving, transfer methods, saving consumption forms and their mechanism. It also revealed that while money is an economic instrument and possess the economic material; attitudes and acts related to money are influenced by social conditions that has consequently turned saving into a social phenomenon.

  10. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  11. Geothermal heating saves energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romsaas, Tor

    2003-01-01

    The article reviews briefly a pioneer project for a construction area of 200000 m''2 with residences, business complexes, a hotel and conference centre and a commercial college in Oslo. The energy conservation potential is estimated to be about 60-70 % compared to direct heating with oil, gas or electricity as sources. There will also be substantial reduction in environmentally damaging emissions. The proposed energy central combines geothermal energy sources with heat pump technology, utilises water as energy carrier and uses terrestrial wells for energy storage. A cost approximation is presented

  12. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  13. Cost savings from extended life nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, L.R. Jr.; Deutsch, T.R.; Schenler, W.W.

    1988-09-01

    This study assesses the costs and benefits of nuclear power plant life extension (NUPLEX) for the overall US under widely varying economic assumptions and compares these with alternative new coal- fired plants (NEWCOAL). It is found that NUPLEX saves future electricity consumers more than 3 cents/-kwh compared with NEWCOAL. The NUPLEX costs and benefits for existing individual US nuclear power plants under base-line, or most likely, assumptions are assessed to determine the effects of the basic plant design and plant age. While benefits vary widely, virtually all units would have a positive benefit from NUPLEX. The study also presents a cost-benefit analysis of the nuclear industry's planned advanced light water reactor (ALWR). It is concluded that ALWR offers electrical power at a substantially lower cost than NEWCOAL. 9 refs., 6 figs

  14. Controlled ventilation in gas-heated low-energy houses. Primary energy savings in regard to the users behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luedemann, B.; Schmitz, G.

    1999-01-01

    With the introduction of the energy savings regulation in Germany (ESVO) low-energy buildings will be the standard for new buildings at the turn of the millennium. The heating energy demand will sink around 30 % facing the actual standard. Systems for controlled Ventilation with heat-recovery are often regarded as an essential component to achieve the low-energy standard for buildings. The quota of the ventilation losses in high insulated buildings is up to far over 50 % of the heating energy demand. However, in practice ventilation systems often do not achieve the calculated energy-savings on the heat requirement. Until now, both technical defects of ventilation systems and the tightness of buildings are at the centre of discussion dealing with this problem. Therefore, in a common research project of three gas supply companies, an electricity distribution company and the Department of Technical Thermodynamics at the TUHH, the bandwidth of the possible energy-savings by ventilation systems with heat recovery was investigated by dynamic simulation of the thermal behaviour of buildings and ventilation systems. Above all, the question of the influence of the user behaviour was at the centre of attention. (author)

  15. Energy saving house utilizing photovoltaic system. 3; Taiyoko hatsuden wo donyushita sho energy jutaku. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itsumi, J. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Various measurements are conducted in an energy-efficient house equipped with a photovoltaic power generation system and actually lived in by people, and matching between the household load and photovoltaic power generation, and the consumption of power, are examined. As the result investigation of power consumption in the house, it is found that 13.31kWh is consumed in the daytime in winter, and 14.15kWh in summer. Thirty-two 153W modules are used, and they produce 12.74kWh in four hours on a fine summer day, which amount nearly satisfies the demand of the household. As for the records during a year beginning in May, 1996, it is found that an annual amount of 4326kWh was generated, with 68% being surplus and 32% consumed for the household. Details of the household consumption were that 49.2% was consumed for house heating and cooling and 34.1% for cooking, the two in total occupying more than 80% of the whole household consumption. Energy-saving behavior is evaluated by comparing the energy-efficient house with some ordinary residential houses in Kumamoto City, and it is found that there is a yearly difference of 104,310 yen in electricity bill or 47% in energy saving effect. 5 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-10-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner.

  17. Monitoring actual temperatures in Susquehanna SES reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkacs, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    PP and L has been monitoring temperatures in the Susquehanna SES reactor building with digital temperature recorders since 1986. In early 1990, data from four representative areas was analyzed to determine the temperature in each area which would produce the same rate of degradation as the distribution of actual temperatures recorded over about 40 months. From these effective average temperatures, qualified life multipliers were determined for activation energies in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 and those multipliers were used to estimate new qualified lives and the number of replacements which might be saved during the life of the plant. The results indicate that pursuing a program of determining EQ qualified lives from actual temperatures, rather than maximum design basis temperatures, will provide a substantial payback in reduced EQ driven maintenance

  18. Los Retos del Mercado Actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Quirós Sáenz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Probablemente la empresa que sobreviva en laeconomía actual, no será la que tenga el mejor productoo servicio, sino la que tenga la mayor eficienciaoperacional y ofrezca un servicio sorprendente paraobtener la lealtad de sus clientes. Pero también, la quetenga ejecutivos de mercadeo con el conocimiento,carácter y determinación, para enfrentar estos retos deuna manera creativa.   ABSTRACT Most probably the companies that will survive presentday’s economy will not be the ones with the better productor service but the ones with greater operational efficiencywho offers outstanding service to attain customer loyalty.But also the companies with marketing executives thatpossess the knowledge, temper and determination to facethese challenges in a creative way.

  19. Greenstone: uso actual en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Fushimi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta las características e historia del software para crear y gestionar bibliotecas digitales Greenstone, desarrollado inicialmente por la Universidad de Waikato, Nueva Zelandia en 1997. En primer lugar, se describe la comunidad de usuarios a nivel global, focalizando en el uso actual que el software ha alcanzado en Argentina: la cantidad de implementaciones disponibles, su evolución, el tipo, tamaño y variedad de los desarrollos existentes, así como su aplicación a la gestión de repositorios digitales de ciencia y tecnología en el ámbito de las instituciones científicas, tecnológicas y de educación superior en Argentina. En segundo lugar, se detallan las acciones llevadas a cabo a partir de la creación del Centro Nacional de Promoción de Greenstone en Argentina en 2009. Datos recabados en encuestas realizadas permitieron observar que las razones predominantes para elegir esta plataforma fueron, entre otras, su facilidad de instalación y configuración, su bajo nivel de requerimiento tecnológico, la generalizada escasez de recursos humanos dedicados a esta actividad, y la complejidad que presentaban los softwares alternativos existentes en ese momento. A lo largo de estos 8 años, tanto los repositorios digitales como los sistemas que los soportan evolucionaron drásticamente, modificando el escenario actual. Paralelamente, en 2016 la nueva versión mayor de Greenstone implementó una reingeniería completa del software para su adaptación a las tecnologías en uso: XML, XSLT, Web-services y Java. Como consecuencia de esto, la comunidad de desarrollo local se plantea nuevos desafíos para la migración de las bibliotecas digitales y repositorios implementados con versiones anteriores.

  20. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  1. 12 CFR 561.43 - Savings association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., chartered under section 5 of the Act, or a building and loan, savings and loan, or homestead association, or... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings association. 561.43 Section 561.43... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.43 Savings association. The term savings association means a...

  2. Importance of the lighting systems in commercial establishments and services and some criteria for electric energy saving; Importancia de los sistemas de iluminacion en comercios y servicios y algunos criterios para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandala Pimentel, Alicia Isabel [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    Among the projects executed by the Gerencia de Comercios y Servicios del Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), there are projects for apartment stores, self service stores, office buildings, schools and hospitals. As of now, we have executed 57 projects, from which in 47 of them the correction of the lighting system was a measure to apply. In this paper, we will show the corrective lighting measures that have been feasible to apply from the technical and economical stand point, the saving percentages that have been possible to attain and some additional considerations. [Espanol] Dentro de los proyectos realizados en la Gerencia de Comercios y Servicios del Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), se encuentran proyectos en almacenes departamentales, tiendas de autoservicio, edificios de oficinas, escuelas y hospitales. A la fecha contamos con 57 proyectos realizados, en los cuales en 47, la correccion del sistema de iluminacion fue una de las medidas a aplicar. En este trabajo mostraremos las acciones correctivas de iluminacion que han sido factibles de aplicar desde el punto de vista tecnico y economico, los porcentajes de ahorro que han sido posibles obtener y algunas consideraciones adicionales.

  3. Importance of the lighting systems in commercial establishments and services and some criteria for electric energy saving; Importancia de los sistemas de iluminacion en comercios y servicios y algunos criterios para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandala Pimentel, Alicia Isabel [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Among the projects executed by the Gerencia de Comercios y Servicios del Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), there are projects for apartment stores, self service stores, office buildings, schools and hospitals. As of now, we have executed 57 projects, from which in 47 of them the correction of the lighting system was a measure to apply. In this paper, we will show the corrective lighting measures that have been feasible to apply from the technical and economical stand point, the saving percentages that have been possible to attain and some additional considerations. [Espanol] Dentro de los proyectos realizados en la Gerencia de Comercios y Servicios del Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), se encuentran proyectos en almacenes departamentales, tiendas de autoservicio, edificios de oficinas, escuelas y hospitales. A la fecha contamos con 57 proyectos realizados, en los cuales en 47, la correccion del sistema de iluminacion fue una de las medidas a aplicar. En este trabajo mostraremos las acciones correctivas de iluminacion que han sido factibles de aplicar desde el punto de vista tecnico y economico, los porcentajes de ahorro que han sido posibles obtener y algunas consideraciones adicionales.

  4. COMPUTER MODELLING OF ENERGY SAVING EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian JANCZAREK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the dynamics of the heat transfer through the outer wall of the thermal technical spaces, taking into account the impact of the sinusoidal nature of the changes in atmospheric temperature. These temporal variations of the input on the outer surface of the chamber divider result at the output of the sinusoidal change on the inner wall of the room, but suitably suppressed and shifted in phase. Properly selected phase shift is clearly important for saving energy used for the operation associated with the maintenance of a specific regime of heat inside the thermal technical chamber support. Laboratory tests of the model and the actual object allowed for optimal design of the chamber due to the structure of the partition as well as due to the orientation of the geographical location of the chamber.

  5. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D. B.; Hadley, S. W.; Chin, S-M.

    2008-10-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. No. 109-58; EPAct 2005) amended the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (Pub. L. No. 89-387) to increase the portion of the year that is subject to Daylight Saving Time. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 extended the duration of Daylight Saving Time in the spring by changing its start date from the first Sunday in April to the second Sunday in March, and in the fall by changing its end date from the last Sunday in October to the first Sunday in November. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 also called for the Department of Energy to evaluate the impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy consumption in the United States and to submit a report to Congress. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) This report presents the results of impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the national energy consumption in the United States. The key findings are: (1) The total electricity savings of Extended Daylight Saving Time were about 1.3 Tera Watt-hour (TWh). This corresponds to 0.5 percent per each day of Extended Daylight Saving Time, or 0.03 percent of electricity consumption over the year. In reference, the total 2007 electricity consumption in the United States was 3,900 TWh. (2) In terms of national primary energy consumption, the electricity savings translate to a reduction of 17 Trillion Btu (TBtu) over the spring and fall Extended Daylight Saving Time periods, or roughly 0.02 percent of total U.S. energy consumption during 2007 of 101,000 TBtu. (3) During Extended Daylight Saving Time, electricity savings generally occurred over a three- to five-hour period in the evening with small increases in usage during the early-morning hours. On a daily percentage basis, electricity savings were slightly greater during the March (spring) extension of Extended Daylight Saving Time than the November (fall) extension. On a regional basis, some southern portions of the United States exhibited slightly smaller impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy savings

  6. Reinforcement Learning and Savings Behavior*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Metrick, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We show that individual investors over-extrapolate from their personal experience when making savings decisions. Investors who experience particularly rewarding outcomes from saving in their 401(k)—a high average and/or low variance return—increase their 401(k) savings rate more than investors who have less rewarding experiences with saving. This finding is not driven by aggregate time-series shocks, income effects, rational learning about investing skill, investor fixed effects, or time-varying investor-level heterogeneity that is correlated with portfolio allocations to stock, bond, and cash asset classes. We discuss implications for the equity premium puzzle and interventions aimed at improving household financial outcomes. PMID:20352013

  7. Trabajo en líneas energizadas en la Empresa Eléctrica CENTROSUR de Ecuador: Un ensayo crítico sobre su situación actual; Live-line Work in the Electric Enterprises CENTROSUR of Ecuador: Critical Analysis at Present Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo D Robles Lobato

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En la actual Empresa Eléctrica CENTROSUR, la ejecución del mantenimiento en líneas energizadas seinicia en 1980 con la llegada de la primera canastilla aislada para trabajos hasta 69 kV,  junto con unequipo de pértigas aisladas para el nivel de 25 kV. Dichos trabajos se suspendieron definitivamente en losaños 1990, por los continuos accidentes del personal debido a la excesiva confianza o por la inexperienciadel nuevo personal,  además de que ya no se contaba con un centro de capacitación que asegurara lapreparación de los linieros y supervisores de la actividad.En la actualidad, la empresa realiza actividadesde mantenimiento en líneas energizadas por el método de contacto, utilizando la técnica de guantes, peroel hecho de no contar con un manual de procedimientos y una adecuada capacitación hace que cadagrupo de trabajo desempeñe sus tareas de acuerdo con un criterio propio, lo que hace muy complejodeterminar la falla en el proceso en caso de algún accidente. El presente trabajo expone un análisiscrítico del estado actual y las consideraciones de los peligros a los que se está exponiendo el personalque realiza estas actividades en la actual Empresa CENTROSUR.  The line -live work in the Electric Enterprise CENTROSUR begun in 1980 when one isolated crew workarrived to do Works up to 69 kV,  including a group of hotstick to 25 kV. This works finished on 90´s yearsbecause many accidents occurred by inexperience or excessive confidence of workers. Not TrainingCenter is working in that moment.  At present the EECS Enterprise is doing line-live activities by contactmethods using rubber techniques but in the enterprise there not are manuals or procedures to do thesesactivities. For this reasons each group do the live - line works in different forms and this situation if verydifficult to analyze fault on the maintenance process when accident was happened.The dangers andcritical analysis created by this situation is presented in

  8. Overview of contractual savings institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Vittas, Dimitri; Skully, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Contractual savings institutions include national provident funds, life insurance companies, private pension funds, and funded social pension insurance systems. They have long-term liabilities and stable cash flows and are therefore ideal providers of term finance, not only to government and industry, but also to municipal authorities and the housing sector. Except for Singapore, Malaysia, and a few other countries, most developing countries have small and insignificant contractual savings in...

  9. The rise of corporate savings

    OpenAIRE

    Roc Armenter

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, several developed economies have experienced large changes in how much households and firms save. In fact, a sharp increase in firms’ savings behavior has changed the net position of the (nonfinancial) corporate sector vis-à-vis the rest of the economy. ; Why have firms in the business of producing goods or services become lenders? This is quite at odds with traditional models of corporate finance, which suggest that firms issue debt and equity to fund their operati...

  10. Tendencias Actuales del Constitucionalismo Latinoamericano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Carpizo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza los cambios constitucionales que ha habido en América Latina y que han tenido incidencia directa en el progreso de la democracia en la región; de esta manera, hace una amplia comparación de la creación de instituciones que persiguen este fin en los diferentes estados. Desde una definición amplia y actual de democracia, se revelan sus principales focos de peligro como la ilegitimidad del Estado de derecho o la percepción de corrupción predominante en la población. El escrito hace un estudio de los atributos más importantes que pueden encontrarse actualmente en esta parte del continente, y no todos ellos parecen ser siempre optimistas; tal es el caso, por ejemplo, de los referendos cuando no son conducidos conforme a la ley o los no siempre exitosos gobiernos divididos y de coalición. Es claro que el avance en materia de democracia ha sido significativo en los últimos treinta años, pero aún existen factores de riesgo que no deben perderse de vista puesto que resulta imperativo seguir el camino sin retroceder.

  11. Tendencias actuales del constitucionalismo latinoamericano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Carpizo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza los cambios constitucionales que ha habido en América Latina y que han tenido incidencia directa en el progreso de la democracia en la región; de esta manera, hace una amplia comparación de la creación de instituciones que persiguen este fin en los diferentes estados. Desde una definición amplia y actual de democracia, se revelan sus principales focos de peligro como la ilegitimidad del Estado de derecho o la percepción de corrupción predominante en la población. El escrito hace un estudio de los atributos más importantes que pueden encontrarse actualmente en esta parte del continente, y no todos ellos parecen ser siempre optimistas; tal es el caso, por ejemplo, de los referendos cuando no son conducidos conforme a la ley o los no siempre exitosos gobiernos divididos y de coalición. Es claro que el avance en materia de democracia ha sido significativo en los últimos treinta años, pero aún existen factores de riesgo que no deben perderse de vista puesto que resulta imperativo seguir el camino sin retroceder.

  12. Implementation of energy-saving policies in China: How local governments assisted industrial enterprises in achieving energy-saving targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaofan; Li, Huimin; Wu, Liang; Qi, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Local governments have replaced the national ministries that are in charge of various industries to become the primary implementer of energy-saving policies in China since 2000. This paper employs a case study-based approach to demonstrate the significance of local governments’ policy measures in assisting industrial enterprises with energy-saving activities in China. Based on the longitudinal case of the Jasmine Thermal Electric Power Company, this paper hypothesizes that sub-national governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies in China since the 11th Five-year-plan period. A wide range of provincial and municipal agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures – informational policy, skill building, improved enforcement of central directives, price adjustment, and funding – that reduced barriers to energy saving and motivated active pursuit of energy-saving activities at industrial enterprises. The case study demonstrates how an enterprise and local governments work together to achieve the enterprise's energy-saving target. The authors will investigate the hypothesis of this paper in the context of multiple case studies that they plan to undertake in the future. - Highlights: • We employ a case study-based approach to study policy implementation in China. • Local governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies. • Local public agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures. • Local policy measures reduced barriers to energy saving at industrial enterprises. • Enterprises and local governments work together to achieve energy-saving targets

  13. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  14. The Three R's of Utility Savings: Rate Reduction, Rebates and Retrofit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petiunas, Raymond V.

    1993-01-01

    An effective way to increase electricity energy savings for school districts is to integrate rate case participation (rate reduction) with conservation and load-management efforts (rebates) and retrofit operations, to obtain a total energy cost reduction package. Describes how a Pennsylvania consortium of school districts saved its member…

  15. Effect of daylight saving time on lighting energy use: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aries, M.B.C.; Newsham, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    The principal reason for introducing (and extending) daylight saving time (DST) was, and still is, projected energy savings, particularly for electric lighting. This paper presents a literature review concerning the effects of DST on energy use. Simple estimates suggest a reduction in national

  16. Telework: timesaving or time-consuming? An investigation into actual working hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, P.; Wetzels, C.; Tijdens, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the relationship between telework and the actual time employees put into their jobs. One of the reported threats to teleworkers’ personal lives is that in order to finish their work, they not only use up saved commuting time, but also part of their non-working hours, even

  17. Energy savings assessment for digital-to-analog converter boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Hoi Ying; Meier, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes. - Research highlights: → We examined energy efficiency policies on digital-to-analog converter boxes in US. → The government assistance program resulted in high participation. → 35 million coupons were redeemed for the purchases of energy efficient DTAs. → Between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the policies. → Savings are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.

  18. Energy at the author's house for saving conventional fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandwani, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    About 20 years ago, we decided to make our house. Being working on the utilization of solar energy and with the objective of saving maximum conventional fuel and some family budget, we dicided to make use of maximum this free and clean fuel. After buying the land with proper orientation, we installed different cheap devices and left the proper provision for another devices to installed in future. At present we solar energy mainly for cooking, water heating for bath and dish washing, drying clothes/fruits/vegetables, purification (pasteurization) of water. In addition. we also use solar cells for some electrical devices like solar radio, solar lamp for emergency, charging batteries and mobile phone etc. For our family of five persons, having 3 coloured TV, 2 computers using many hours of Internet, without any use of fuel other than electricity and sun, our electricity consumption is of the order of 270 (dry/summer)-350 (wet/rainy) kWh/month, depending on the season (US$16-21/month). This is roughly 40-50% of the electricity consumed by my other colleagues who do not use solar energy. With this saving, the initial cost of solar devices (US$1200-1400) is already recovered. In this presentation, construction and results of working of these solar thermal, electrical devices and other energy saving means at our house are mentioned.(Author)

  19. The actual goals of geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  20. 76 FR 16477 - General Reporting and Recordkeeping by Savings Associations and Savings and Loan Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Savings Associations and Savings and Loan Holding Companies AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS...), 12 CFR 562.4 (audit of savings association, savings and loan holding company, or affiliate), 12 CFR... the savings association), 12 CFR 584.1(f) (books and records of each savings and loan holding company...

  1. Qualitative assessment of the CEE arrangement - Second period 2011-2013. The Certificates of Energy Savings: an arrangement which catalyses decision by households for energy saving works. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    After previous assessments on energy savings, costs, and potentials, this publication reports a qualitative assessment of the CEE arrangement (certificate of energy savings). The objective is to get a better insight into decision making by the final consumer. After a brief presentation of the survey methodology, the report describes the CEEs as a catalyst for higher performance works. The survey highlighted the incentive effect of the CEE premium, and the lever effect of advice and information. The report also outlines that the CEE is an additional tool to other public aids. It indicates that works are highly motivated by a search for energy savings, and are actually efficient to meet this objective

  2. FY 2000 Project report on survey for drawing district energy-saving visions for City of Ginowan; 2000 nendo Ginowan-shi sho energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The Ginowan municipal energy-saving vision drawing committee is established. It is responsible for drawing the energy-saving visions for the city, to study the basic guidelines and promotion measures for energy saving and promote the energy-saving measures suitable for the local characteristics. The studied items include background of and basic guidelines for the plans, analysis of energy consumption, survey on energy-saving consciousness and actual situations, prediction of potentially saved energy, drawing of the basic plans for energy saving and plan implementation programs, and surveys on preceding examples. The action plans include green planning for and revamping of public facilities, green purchasing, energy-saving diagnosis, drawing the design guidelines for energy saving and environmental considerations in public facilities, introduction of low-pollution local transportation systems, drawing the environment-related technology lists, including energy saving, and promotion of clean energy vehicles. (NEDO)

  3. Heat savings in energy systems with substantial distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, PA

    2003-01-01

    In Denmark, the integration of wind power is affected by a large amount of cogeneration of heat and power. With ancillary services supplied by large-scale condensation and combined heat and power (CHP) plants, a certain degree of large-scale generation is required regardless of momentary wind input......, if a certain production is required regardless of whether over-all electricity generation is sufficient. This article analyses this and although heat savings do have a negative impact on the amount of wind power the system may integrate a given moment in certain cases, associated fuel savings are notable...

  4. Predictive Maintenance (PdM) Centralization for Significant Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Dale

    2010-09-15

    Cost effective predictive maintenance (PdM) technologies and basic energy calculations can mine energy savings form processes or maintenance activities. Centralizing and packaging this information correctly empowers facility maintenance and reliability professionals to build financial justification and support for strategies and personnel to weather global economic downturns and competition. Attendees will learn how to: Systematically build a 'pilot project' for applying PdM and tracking systems; Break down a typical electrical bill to calculate energy savings; Use return on investment (ROI) calculations to identify the best and highest value options, strategies and tips for substantiating your energy reduction maintenance strategies.

  5. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  6. Control Evaluation Information System Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Sutedjo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the control of information system savings in the banking and to identify the weaknesses and problem happened in those saving systems. Research method used are book studies by collecting data and information needed and field studies by interview, observation, questioner, and checklist using COBIT method as a standard to assess the information system control of the company. The expected result about the evaluation result that show in the problem happened and recommendation given as the evaluation report and to give a view about the control done by the company. Conclusion took from this research that this banking company has met standards although some weaknesses still exists in the system.Index Terms - Control Information System, Savings

  7. Energy saving screw compressor technology; Energiebesparende schroefcompressortechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, A. [RefComp, Lonigo (Italy); Neus, M. [Delta Technics Engineering, Breda (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Smart solutions to reduce the energy consumption are continuously part of investigation in the refrigeration technology. This article subscribed the technology on which way energy can be saved at the operation of screw compressors which are used in air conditioners and refrigerating machinery. The combination of frequency control and Vi-control (intrinsic volumetric ratio) such as researched in the laboratory of RefComp is for the user attractive because the energy efficiency during part load operation is much better. Smart uses of thermodynamics, electric technology and electronic control are the basics of these applications. According to the manufacturer's information it is possible with these new generation screw compressors to save approx. 26% energy in comparison with the standard screw compressor. [Dutch] In dit artikel wordt de technologie omschreven waarmee veel energie bespaard kan worden bij schroefcompressoren die worden gebruikt in airconditioningsystemen en koel- en vriesinstallaties. De combinatie van frequentieregeling en Vi- regeling (Vi is de intrinsieke volumetrische verhouding) zoals onderzocht in het laboratorium van RefComp biedt de gebruiker veel voordelen doordat de energie-efficintie van de compressor tijdens deellast enorm wordt verbeterd. Slim gebruik van thermodynamika, elektrotechniek en elektronica vormen de basis van deze toepassing. Volgens de fabrikant kan met deze nieuwe generatie schroefcompressoren circa 26 procent op het energiegebruik tijdens deellast worden bespaard in vergelijking met de standaard serie schroefcompressoren.

  8. Year-round daylight saving time will save more energy in India than corresponding DST or time zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Dilip R.; SenGupta, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Many countries have experimented with daylight saving time (DST) to save energy and to align human activities more closely to the daily cycle of light and darkness. Using a novel methodology, we estimate the year-round energy savings to be obtained from advancing Indian Standard Time (IST), from the introduction of DST, and from dividing the country into two time zones. We find that the option of advancing IST consistently saves more energy than the corresponding DST option, which in turn saves more energy than the corresponding time zones option. This is because the energy benefits of advancing IST accrue for the entire year throughout the country, whereas the benefits of DST are confined to summer months and the benefits of two time zones are largely in the lower energy consuming eastern region. We recommend advancing IST by half-hour to being six hours ahead of UTC. This confers the advantages of DST and time zones without their disadvantages and is forecast to save more than 2 billion kWh of electricity every year during evening peaks that are difficult to supply. While these results are India-specific, similar exercises would be useful to many other countries. - Highlights: ► Advancing IST (YRDST) consistently saves more energy than the corresponding DST. ► DST consistently saves more energy than dividing India into two time zones. ► There are also many non-energy benefits of advancing IST. ► Results are for India; countries with DST may find it useful to consider YRDST.

  9. Electricity and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This invited presentation first deals with the potentials and environmantal advantages of reducing electricity demand. The policies for implementing these savings are dicussed and proposal for future strategies are suggested. The mephasis is on the conflicts between a free European trade with ele......This invited presentation first deals with the potentials and environmantal advantages of reducing electricity demand. The policies for implementing these savings are dicussed and proposal for future strategies are suggested. The mephasis is on the conflicts between a free European trade...

  10. Saving Face and Group Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Mao, Lei; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    their self- but also other group members' image. This behavior is frequent even in the absence of group identity. When group identity is more salient, individuals help regardless of whether the least performer is an in-group or an out-group. This suggests that saving others' face is a strong social norm.......Are people willing to sacrifice resources to save one's and others' face? In a laboratory experiment, we study whether individuals forego resources to avoid the public exposure of the least performer in their group. We show that a majority of individuals are willing to pay to preserve not only...

  11. Saving energy. [Metal Coating With Infrared Dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, K

    1981-01-01

    One way of saving energy in metal coating is by using electrically heated infrared dryers with medium-wave radiation (2 to 3 ..mu..m). The absorbing capacity of varnishes and plastic coatings is >90% in this range so that the radiation energy is almost completely transformed into heat. Medium-wave radiation sources have a much higher service life than short-wave sources (30.000 hours of operation) and do not require cooling; compared with long-wave sources, they have a higher heat transfer and thus much shorter drying times. The main fields of application, a cost example, and practical examples among the customers of Messrs. Eisenmann are presented.

  12. Improved methods to evaluate realised energy savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis regards the calculation of realised energy savings at national and sectoral level, and the policy contribution to total savings. It is observed that the results of monitoring and evaluation studies on realised energy savings are hardly applied in energy saving policy. Causes are the lack

  13. Electricity Bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, A.; Beith, A.J.; Hardy, P.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of the debate, which lasted a total of about 7 hours, a verbatim report of the first five of which are included here, was about energy conservation. Several new clauses and amendments were discussed. One would place a duty on the new Director of the Energy Supply industry to promote the efficiency and conservation of energy, another would appoint a Deputy Director with responsibility for energy conservation, and the third would require targets of energy efficiency and pollution reduction to be achieved. This allowed discussion on energy saving by domestic thermal insulation, improved efficiency of heating and refrigeration units and on renewable energy sources especially world energy. The second part of the debate was about access to information regarding health and safety resulting from any activities of the electricity supply industry. The remainder of the debate concerned regional representation and the economics of the electricity supply industry. (UK)

  14. Lighting Energy Saving with Light Pipe in Farm Animal Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans von Wachenfelt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish animal production sector has potential for saving electric lighting of €4-9 million per year using efficient daylight utilisation. To demonstrate this, two light pipe systems, Velux® (house 1 and Solatube® (house 2, are installed in two identical pig houses to determine if the required light intensity, daylight autonomy (DA, and reduced electricity use for illumination can be achieved. In each house, three light sensors continuously measure the indoor daylight relative to an outdoor sensor. If the horizontal illuminance at pig height decreases below 40 lux between 08.00 and 16.00 hours, an automatic control system activates the lights, and electricity use is measured. The daylight factor (DF and DA are determined for each house, based on annual climate data. The mean annual DA of 48% and 55% is achieved for house 1 and house 2, respectively. Light pipes in house 2 have delivered significantly more DA than those in house 1. The most common illuminance range between 0 and 160 lux is recorded in both houses, corresponding to approximately 82% and 83% of daylight time for house 1 and house 2, respectively. Further, the daylighting system for house 2 has produced a uniform DF distribution between 0.05 and 0.59. The results demonstrate that considerable electric energy savings can be achieved in the animal production sector using light pipes. Saving 50% of electric lighting would correspond to 36 GWh or 2520 t CO2 per year for Sweden, but currently the energy savings are not making the investment profitable.

  15. Natural gas decompression energy recovery: Energy savings potential in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatti, A.; Piemonte, C.; Rampini, E.; Vatrano, F.; Techint SpA, Milan; ENEA, Rome

    1992-01-01

    This paper surveyed the natural gas distribution systems employed in the Italian civil, industrial and thermoelectric sectors to identify those installations which can make use of gas decompression energy recovery systems (consisting of turbo-expanders or alternative expanders) to economically generate electric power. Estimates were then made of the total amount of potential energy savings. The study considered as eligible for energy savings interventions only those plants with a greater than 5,000 standard cubic meter per hour plant capacity. It was evaluated that, with suitable decompression equipment installed at 50 key installations (33 civil, 15 industrial), about 200 GWh of power could be produced annually, representing potential savings of about 22,000 petroleum equivalent tonnes of energy. A comparative analysis was done on three investment alternatives involving inputs of varying amounts of Government financial assistance

  16. Mission aware energy saving strategies for Army ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattathreya, Macam S.

    Fuel energy is a basic necessity for this planet and the modern technology to perform many activities on earth. On the other hand, quadrupled automotive vehicle usage by the commercial industry and military has increased fuel consumption. Military readiness of Army ground vehicles is very important for a country to protect its people and resources. Fuel energy is a major requirement for Army ground vehicles. According to a report, a department of defense has spent nearly $13.6 billion on fuel and electricity to conduct ground missions. On the contrary, energy availability on this plant is slowly decreasing. Therefore, saving energy in Army ground vehicles is very important. Army ground vehicles are embedded with numerous electronic systems to conduct missions such as silent and normal stationary surveillance missions. Increasing electrical energy consumption of these systems is influencing higher fuel consumption of the vehicle. To save energy, the vehicles can use any of the existing techniques, but they require complex, expensive, and time consuming implementations. Therefore, cheaper and simpler approaches are required. In addition, the solutions have to save energy according to mission needs and also overcome size and weight constraints of the vehicle. Existing research in the current literature do not have any mission aware approaches to save energy. This dissertation research proposes mission aware online energy saving strategies for stationary Army ground vehicles to save energy as well as to meet the electrical needs of the vehicle during surveillance missions. The research also proposes theoretical models of surveillance missions, fuzzy logic models of engine and alternator efficiency data, and fuzzy logic algorithms. Based on these models, two energy saving strategies are proposed for silent and normal surveillance type of missions. During silent mission, the engine is on and batteries power the systems. During normal surveillance mission, the engine is

  17. Revolving fund for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prebensen, K.

    1993-01-01

    A key issue in Eastern Europe is the adjustment of prices from the former COMECON level to a level conforming with free market conditions. In the case of household heating, this issue involves the removal of government subsidies leading to sharply increasing prices, metering of individual consumption, improving the efficiency of energy production, distribution and use - where savings of 30-50% in each link are technically feasible - thereby providing a potential for a adapting consumption patterns to higher energy prices, provided that funds are available. Currently, investment in commercial heat production and distribution systems have received substantial international support - whereas investment in reduction of demand has been little exploited. The Revolving Fund for Energy Savings in Polish Households is a concept for efficient financing of small-scale projects. It aims at financing, on the level of housing cooperatives, on the basis of a simplified lending and project evaluation procedure, well suited to current Polish conditions or an organizationally and financially weak banking system and little developed technical knowledge in the field of energy saving. A general introduction to the issue is given and technical problems are elaborated. The implementation of Energy Savings in Housing seen from the banking point of view, and a current pilot scheme for financing, are described. (AB)

  18. Social Capital and Savings Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    We explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in imparting information about the returns to saving where potential knowledge gaps and mistrust exists. Using data from Vietnam we find strong evidence to support the hypothesis that information transmitted via reputable social...

  19. Save the Boulders Beach Penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerer, Katherine; Schnittka, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maybe it's the peculiar way they walk or their cute little suits, but students of all ages are drawn to penguins. To meet younger students' curiosity, the authors adapted a middle-school level, penguin-themed curriculum unit called Save the Penguins (Schnittka, Bell, and Richards 2010) for third-grade students. The students loved learning about…

  20. Demonstration of energy savings of cool roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, S.; Gartland, L.; Akbari, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Rainer, L. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Dark roofs raise the summertime air-conditioning demand of buildings. For highly-absorptive roofs, the difference between the surface and ambient air temperatures can be as high as 90 F, while for highly-reflective roofs with similar insulative properties, the difference is only about 20 F. For this reason, cool roofs are effective in reducing cooling energy use. Several experiments on individual residential buildings in California and Florida show that coating roofs white reduces summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use from 2--63%. This demonstration project was carried out to address some of the practical issues regarding the implementation of reflective roofs in a few commercial buildings. The authors monitored air-conditioning electricity use, roof surface temperature, plenum, indoor, and outdoor air temperatures, and other environmental variables in three buildings in California: two medical office buildings in Gilroy and Davis and a retail store in San Jose. Coating the roofs of these buildings with a reflective coating increased the roof albedo from an average of 0.20--0.60. The roof surface temperature on hot sunny summer afternoons fell from 175 F--120 F after the coating was applied. Summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use was reduced by 18% (6.3 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Davis building, 13% (3.6 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Gilroy building, and 2% (0.4 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the San Jose store. In each building, a kiosk was installed to display information from the project in order to educate and inform the general public about the environmental and energy-saving benefits of cool roofs. They were designed to explain cool-roof coating theory and to display real-time measurements of weather conditions, roof surface temperature, and air-conditioning electricity use. 55 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity...... and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while...... proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts...

  2. 76 FR 31680 - General Reporting and Recordkeeping by Savings Associations and Savings and Loan Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Savings Associations and Savings and Loan Holding Companies AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... Savings and Loan Holding Companies. OMB Number: 1550-0011. Form Number: N/A. Description: This information...), 12 CFR 562.4 (audit of savings association, savings and loan holding company, or affiliate), 12 CFR...

  3. Savings potential of ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced ENERGY STAR (registered trademark), a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products. Since then EPA, now in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has introduced programs for more than twenty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, new homes, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. We present potential energy, dollar and carbon savings forecasts for these programs for the period 1998 to 2010. Our target market penetration case represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide results under the assumption of 100% market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period. Finally, we assess the sensitivity of our target penetration case forecasts to greater or lesser marketing success by EPA and DOE, lower-than-expected future energy prices, and higher or lower rates of carbon emission by electricity generators. The potential savings of ENERGY STAR are substantial. If all purchasers chose Energy Star-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products over the next 15 years, they would save more than$100 billion on their energy bills during those 15 years. (Bill savings are in 1995 dollars, discounted at a 4% real discount rate.)

  4. Enhanced policies for the improvement of electricity efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, Kornelis

    2005-01-01

    Energy-efficiency improvement is considered as an important option to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, the possibilities to implement new policies to improve the efficiency of electricity end-use are explored. The following policy actions are considered: - introduction of a '1 W standard' for standby power consumption of appliances;- incremental standards for large electric appliances;- design guidelines for small electric appliances;- a technology-forcing standard for lighting;- a motor-drive program;- a program directed at the reduction of electricity use during empty-office hours;- actual energy performance requirements for service-sector buildings. The implementation of these programs will contribute substantially to reaching greenhouse gas emission targets in the European Union (total estimated effect to be 200-350 Mton CO 2 emission reduction in the year 2020). However, to reach these targets a very substantial effort is required, both in terms of policy ambition, force of the applied instruments, and implementation efforts. In the case of electric appliances, regulatory instruments may need wider application. And, in order to attain the substantial potential savings in motor-drive systems, an effort comparable to the effort to promote renewable electricity in the European Union may be both justified and necessary

  5. Does energy labelling on residential housing cause energy savings? Working paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaerbye, V.H.

    2008-12-15

    More than 80% of energy used in households is dedicated to space heating. Large potential energy savings have been identified in the existing housing stock. Energy labelling of single-family houses is seen as an important instrument to provide new house owners with information on efficient energy saving investments that can be made on the house. This paper evaluates the effects of the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme on energy consumption in existing single-family houses with propensity score matching using actual consumption of energy and register data describing the houses and households. We do not find significant energy savings due to the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme. (Author)

  6. Intelligent control of energy-saving power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Guoqing; Guo, Zhizhong [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Highway power generation system which is environmentally friendly and sustainable provides an innovative method of energy conversion. It is also as a kind of city science and technology innovation, which has the characteristics of environmental protection and sustainable utilization. Making full use of vehicle impact speed control humps, we design a new kind of highway speed control humps combined with solar electric generation system integration. Developing green energy, energy saving and environment protection can be achieved.

  7. Matrix converter applied to energy saving for street lighting systems

    OpenAIRE

    Román Lumbreras, Manuel; Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Conesa Roca, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a three-phase AC-AC converter, with independent phase control, based on matrix-converter structure. This converter is applied to electrical energy saving on the public lighting systems by means of regulation and control of the voltage applied to the lamps. The developed converter represents a technological improvement with respect to the traditional systems based on an autotransformer: it reduces system cost and volume, and increases lamps lifetime.

  8. Will Renewable Energy Save Our Planet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojić, Milorad

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses some important fundamental issues behind application of renewable energy (RE) to evaluate its impact as a climate change mitigation technology. The discussed issues are the following: definition of renewable energy, concentration of RE by weight and volume, generation of electrical energy and its power at unit area, electrical energy demand per unit area, life time approach vs. layman approach, energy return time, energy return ratio, CO2 return time, energy mix for RES production and use, geographical distribution of RES use, huge scale of energy shift from RES to non-RES, increase in energy consumption, Thermodynamic equilibrium of earth, and probable solutions for energy future of our energy and environmental crisis of today. The future solution (that would enable to human civilization further welfare, and good living, but with lower release of CO2 in atmosphere) may not be only RES. This will rather be an energy mix that may contain nuclear energy, non-nuclear renewable energy, or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration, efficient energy technologies, energy saving, and energy consumption decrease.

  9. Study on the energy performance of an energy producing and saving house. Part 3. Measurement results of the connecting system to the power grid and prediction of the PV system electric generation residence in Kyushu; So sho energy seino ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Gyakuchoryu keito renkei system no nenkan jisseki to Kyushu ni okeru jutaku deno hatsudenryo yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, O.; Sakai, K.; Hirakawa, M. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    Two-year study of an energy-producing/-saving house equipped with a 5kWp photovoltaic power generation system is described, in which the track records of this system capable of back-flow and system interconnection and inverter performance are analyzed, and the power expected to be obtained when photovoltaic power generation systems are installed in some residential houses in the Kyushu area is predicted. In the analysis of the yearly variance in the demand/supply of electric power, it turns out that more is generated in spring than in summer, which is thanks to the good weather in spring, typhoons in summer, and power generation efficiency degraded due to temperature rise in the modules. The amount of photovoltaic cell module-generated power is estimated by performing a multiple regression analysis involving the amount of insolation, outside air temperature, and wind speeds. Furthermore, available power is calculated using a relational expression involving inverter performance. On the assumption of 3kW-capacity photovoltaic power generation systems installed at residential houses at various locations across Kyushu, the expected amount of power to be generated is calculated, which proves to be approximately 3000kWh a year, confirming the effectiveness of the photovoltaic power generation system. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Evaluating direct energy savings and market transformation effects: A decade of technical design assistance in the northwestern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Wymelenberg, Kevin; Brown, G.Z.; Burpee, Heather; Djunaedy, Ery; Gladics, Gunnar; Kline, Jeff; Loveland, Joel; Meek, Christopher; Thimmanna, Harshana

    2013-01-01

    This paper documents the direct energy savings and energy efficiency market transformation impacts of a multi-state design assistance program in the northwestern US. The paper addresses four specific aims. (1) It provides a conservative and justified estimate of the direct energy savings associated with design assistance activities of a market transformation program from 2001 to 2010. (2) It provides a rigorous methodology to evaluate direct energy savings associated with design assistance market transformation programs. (3) It provides a low-cost replicable method to predict energy savings in new buildings by evaluating the integrated design process. (4) It provides quantitative indicators useful for estimating indirect energy savings from market transformation. Applying the recommended analysis method and assuming a 12-year measure life, the direct energy savings of the population (626 buildings; 51,262,000 ft 2 ) is estimated as 45.3 aMW (average megawatts) (electric), and 265,738.089 therms (non-electric). If the entire program budget were divided into the electric savings only, the Lab Network cost per kWh saved ranged from $0.0016 to $0.003 using the recommended method and $0.0092/kWh using the most conservative method. These figures do not isolate contextual influences or represent total resource cost. Statistically significant correlations (r 2 =0.1−0.3) between integrated design scores and energy savings are reported. - Highlights: ► Estimated direct energy savings of a market transformation program are presented. ► A methodology to evaluate energy savings from multiple baselines is documented. ► Level of integrated design can be used to estimate energy savings in new buildings. ► Quantitative evaluation indicators of efficiency market transformation are provided. ► Electric energy saved from design assistance costs between $0.0016 and $0.0092/kWh.

  11. Chapter 10: Peak Demand and Time-Differentiated Energy Savings Cross-Cutting Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stern, Frank [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States); Spencer, Justin [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-10-03

    Savings from electric energy efficiency measures and programs are often expressed in terms of annual energy and presented as kilowatt-hours per year (kWh/year). However, for a full assessment of the value of these savings, it is usually necessary to consider the measure or program's impact on peak demand as well as time-differentiated energy savings. This cross-cutting protocol describes methods for estimating the peak demand and time-differentiated energy impacts of measures implemented through energy efficiency programs.

  12. FY 1997 cost savings report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellards, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    With the end of the cold war, funding for the Environmental Management program increased rapidly as nuclear weapons production facilities were shut down, cleanup responsibilities increased, and facilities were transferred to the cleanup program. As funding for the Environmental Management (EM) program began to level off in response to Administration and Congressional efforts to balance the Federal budget, the program redoubled its efforts to increase efficiency and get more productivity out of every dollar. Cost savings and enhanced performance are an integral pair of Hanford Site operations. FY1997 was the third year of a cost savings program that was initially defined in FY 1995. The definitions and process remained virtually the same as those used in FY 1996

  13. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  14. Water Saving Strategies & Ecological Modernisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on case studies of water saving campaigns and new collaborations, the pa-per will serve, on the one hand, as an interpretation of the water saving strategy in Co-penhagen in the light of Ecological Modernisation, and on the other hand, as a critical discussion of Ecological Modernisation...... as a frame for understanding resource manage-ment. The water management in Copenhagen has in recent years undergone a rather radi-cal transition. Along with strong drivers for resource management in the region the mu-nicipal water supplier has tested and implemented a number of initiatives to promote sus...... to 125 l/capita/day in 2002. A series of different strategies, targets and tools have been implemented: Emphasizing demand side instead of supply side, using and communicating indicators, formulating goals for reducing water consumption and developing learning processes in water management. A main...

  15. The Efficiency of the Regulation for Horizontal Mergers Among Electricity Distribution Operators in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Gammeltvedt, Thor Erik

    2015-01-01

    the attractiveness of mergers. Norway is one country having implemented an ex ante regulation for mergers among electricity distribution operators (DSOs). We investigate whether the actual mergers of Norwegian DSOs in the period 1995-2004 can be rationalized as cost saving exercises or whether they should...... to identify plausible pre-merger motivations. We also discuss the possibility to gain from strategic gaming in the regulation. We compare the regulated revenues and the regulated efficiency improvement requirements before and after the mergers. We find limited potential cost gains ex ante but some improvement...

  16. Cost savings through innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, J.M.; Jackson, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Newly developed technologies can and already are saving money. Other technologies under development will provide solutions to problems which are currently impossible or too expensive to address, and still others will offer alternative strategies where baseline approaches are not acceptable to the public. All of these options will be considered as the nation decides what it wishes to accomplish, and fund, to clean up the nuclear weapons complex

  17. Energy Saving Potential by Utilizing Natural Ventilation under Warm Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to show the potential of natural ventilation as a passive cooling method within the residential sector of countries which are located in warm conditions using Mexico as a case study. The method is proposed as performing, with a simplified ventilation model, thermal......–airflow simulations of 27 common cases of dwellings (considered as one thermal zone) based on the combination of specific features of the building design, occupancy and climate conditions. The energy saving potential is assessed then by the use of a new assessment method suitable for large-scale scenarios using...... the actual number of air-conditioned dwellings distributed among the 27 cases. Thereby, the energy saving is presented as the difference in the cooling demand of the dwelling during one year without and with natural ventilation, respectively. Results indicate that for hot-dry conditions, buildings with high...

  18. Blue Line Innovations brochure : Think green, act smart, save energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Blue Line Innovations Inc. is working with leading electric utilities and regulatory agencies to provide smart-home technologies to consumers for demand-side management. Their latest product is the PowerCost Monitor, a real-time feedback product that help households understand and reduce the amount of electricity they use. The monitor, which reveals electricity use in real-time by both total and current cost and kilowatt hour, uses wireless encrypted technology to send usage information from an outside meter to an in-home display. The small detector/transmitter can be easily installed to an existing household electro-mechanical utility meter by the homeowner without an electrician or service disruption. Studies have shown that when domestic users are provided with real-time feedback on electricity usage, they can reduce their energy bills by as much as 20 per cent. This in-home measuring and reporting unit helps customers make decisions about changing their usage habits, purchasing electricity-saving light and appliances and conserving energy. In a demonstration project, Hydro-One installed PowerCost Monitors in the homes of Hydro One customers in Ontario in July 2004. The objective was to determine the extent of changes in customer behaviour and reductions in electricity consumption resulting from direct real-time feedback information on electricity consumption. Other demonstration projects have been launched in conjunction with CEA Technologies Inc., Natural Resources Canada, Newfoundland Power and BC hydro to install the monitors in homes on both coasts of Canada. Governments, utilities, communities and individuals are recognizing that saving energy is a critical factor to sustainable development by conserving natural resources and reducing pollution. A list of suggestions for reducing electricity use in lighting, kitchens, laundry and heating and cooling were also presented. 1 fig.

  19. Estimado de la reducción de la emisión de co2 por accione de ahorro de electricidad en las condiciones de Cuba;Estimation of reduction of CO2 emission by electric power saving project in the Cuba conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Salazar - Fonseca et all.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo expone los resultados del estudio realizado a las numerosas vías que existen para el cálculo del factor de emisión de CO2 a nivel mundial. A partir de una amplia búsqueda de información, se obtuvo la metodología propuesta para el cálculo del factor de emisión de CO2 para proyectos de ahorro de energía eléctrica, teniendo en cuenta las particularidades de la matriz energética del país en cuestión. La metodología propuesta es el resultado de las modificaciones realizadas a la metodología ACM 0002, que es la aprobada por la Junta Ejecutiva del Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio (MDL. A partir de los datos reales del consumo de combustible para la electricidad en Cuba en los años 2007 y 2008, se calcula el factor de emisión de CO2, obteniéndose un valor igual a 0,795 y 0,794 t CO2/MWh, respectivamente. Estos resultados evidencian el paulatino desarrollo hacia fuentes de energía mas limpias que se ha realizado en ese periodo en el país, caracterizado por la entrada en funcionamiento de varios emplazamientos de Fuel-oil.This work exposes result of accomplished study to the many manners that exist for the calculation of CO2 emission factor in the world. Latter a ample quest of information, the proposed methodology was obtained for calculation of CO2 emission factor for electric power saving project, taking the particularities of electrical systems into account country. The proposed methodology is results of modifications realized to the methodology ACM 0002, this are the approved in Executive Board of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM. Whit the real data of fuel consumption for the electricity in Cuba in the years 2007 and 2008, CO2 emission factor is calculated, obtained an equal value to 0.795 and 0.794 tCO2/MWh, respectively. These aftermath evidence the gradual development to cleaning sources of energy that success in period at the country, characterized for the entrance in functioning of several Fuel

  20. Major savings promised by new dipper technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ednie, H.

    2005-10-01

    A Canadian rope shovel dipper prototype was tested at the Suncor oil sands operations in May 2005. The 3 cubic yard JPi 2005 series dipper was designed by JPi, a geo-industry engineering consultant firm. The new design minimizes shovel dipper wear and resistance while digging at a rock face. This simple concept could offer major savings for mine operators. The main feature of the shovel dipper is its shape. Rather than having a straight-lined profile, the lip to latch keeper is curved to match the range of motions of the machine itself. This provides optimum penetration angles with minimum resistance when digging, thereby increasing productivity while eliminating heel wear. The dipper was originally designed to dig softer materials, but can actually be used to dig or scoop any material from blasted hard rock to the softest oil sand. The dipper is also more open at the door than at the lip allowing the oil sand to naturally flow out of the dipper upon release. The prototype was demonstrated to an industry-wide audience in May 2005 on a recently rebuilt 1949 Dominion 500 shovel. Preliminary results indicate that the design is meeting the expectations of the designer. However, more tests are scheduled and JPi will continue to seek collaborations and partnerships with mining operations to produce and test a 75 cubic yard version of the dipper for use with modern shovels. 2 figs.

  1. 24 CFR 221.1 - Savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Savings clause. 221.1 Section 221.1... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Eligibility Requirements-Low Cost Homes-Savings Clause § 221.1...

  2. Consumer behaviours: Teaching children to save energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents.

  3. CO2 emissions savings produced by the construction of an upgraded freight rail corridor. Application to Extremadura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma Miro, J.F.; Garcia Garcia, M.

    2016-07-01

    Human activity since the industrial revolution through the use of fossil fuels is changing the natural composition of the atmosphere increasing the so called Greenhouse Gases (GHG). Extremadura’s government decided to react actively towards the predicted climatic variations and for that the “Strategy for Climatic Change for Extremadura” (2009-2012) was approved, which marked the strategies to follow regarding the mitigation and adaptation to climate change. Among the strategies some concrete measures are included like developing annual inventories of GHG emissions and contributing to the development and demonstration of innovative approaches, technology methods and instruments. With this objective in mind, we develop this investigation where data and conclusions dealing with the savings of CO2 emissions are given through a comparison of the actual freight transport in the area of influence of the line Badajoz-Puertollano with various scenarios of exploitation for the new planned infrastructures. The savings of the emissions will be caused by: The lowering of the emission factors (kg CO2/t·km) in the upgraded railway line in respect to the actual one. The commissioning of the upgraded line will reduce the number of lorries circulating on roads, whose emission factors in unitary terms are far more superior to those ones which will be produced by the use of the new railways. The research concludes that the commissioning of the corridor will delete 863,000 transport operations on lorries for a five-year period, reducing the CO2 emissions in relation with the road: a 59% if the traction is diesel and an 82% if it is electric. (Author)

  4. Electrical cardioversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucu, Murat; Davutoglu, Vedat; Ozer, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    External electrical cardioversion was first performed in the 1950s. Urgent or elective cardioversions have specific advantages, such as termination of atrial and ventricular tachycardia and recovery of sinus rhythm. Electrical cardioversion is life-saving when applied in urgent circumstances. The succcess rate is increased by accurate tachycardia diagnosis, careful patient selection, adequate electrode (paddles) application, determination of the optimal energy and anesthesia levels, prevention of embolic events and arrythmia recurrence and airway conservation while minimizing possible complications. Potential complications include ventricular fibrillation due to general anesthesia or lack of synchronization between the direct current (DC) shock and the QRS complex, thromboembolus due to insufficient anticoagulant therapy, non-sustained VT, atrial arrhythmia, heart block, bradycardia, transient left bundle branch block, myocardial necrosis, myocardial dysfunction, transient hypotension, pulmonary edema and skin burn. Electrical cardioversion performed in patients with a pacemaker or an incompatible cardioverter defibrillator may lead to dysfunction, namely acute or chronic changes in the pacing or sensitivity threshold. Although this procedure appears fairly simple, serious consequences might occur if inappropriately performed. PMID:19448376

  5. Comparative energy and exergy performance assessments of a microcogenerator unit in different electricity mix scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Pedro; Angrisani, Giovanni; Roselli, Carlo; Gaspar, Adélio R.; Gameiro da Silva, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental and energy–exergy modelling of a 6 kW micro-combined heat and power unit. • Evaluation of energy and exergy efficiencies for performance assessment. • Use of exergy and energy indicators for comparison with a reference system. • Use of different renewables supply options into the electric and heat reference system. • The electric grid mix of Portugal and Italy is used and discussed. - Abstract: The Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration proposes a comparative indicator based on primary energy savings, neglecting some important thermodynamic aspects, such as exergy. This study aims to compare and discuss the usefulness of a set of complementary indicators for performance assessments of cogeneration systems, concerning thermodynamic principles based on first and second law (the exergy approach). As case study, a 6 kW electric output micro-combined heat and power unit was experimentally tested and a model of the unit was developed in TRNSYS. Considering as reference a set of different heat and electricity scenarios, including the actual electric mixes of Portugal and Italy, the indicators case incon (PES) and Primary and Total Irreversibilities Savings (PIS and TIS), as well as energy and exergy renewability ratios were assessed and discussed. The results show that the use of MCHP has higher advantages for the Italian electric grid, than an equivalent scenario considering the Portuguese electric network as reference. As result, for a particular scenario analysed, PES and PIS have 3% and 6% for Portugal, and 10% and 18% for Italy, respectively. Furthermore, for one particular scenario evaluated, the indicators energetic and exergetic renewability ratios have 23% and 14%, respectively for the Portuguese electric grid, and 19% and 10% for the Italian electric system

  6. Investigation on the actual energy consumption by office automation devices used in offices; Office ni okeru OA kiki no energy shohi jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    With an objective to further improve efficiency of power demand by office automation devices and suppress increase in the power demand, investigations were carried out on the actual power consumption by office automation devices, and discussions were given on energy saving effects in the office automation devices. In the investigations, measurements were conducted for small offices as the subject thereof with regard to electric power consumed by such presentation tools and their peripheral devices as personal computers, word processors, copying machines, facsimile machines, electronic whiteboards and overhead projectors. Power consumption particularly in a standby condition was also investigated. As a result of the investigations, the following characteristics were revealed: the number of office automation devices used to deal with the Energy Star is increasing rapidly; power consumption believed to have been reduced by the Energy Star transferring to lower power consumption is estimated to be 3% in average for personal computers, 26% for copying machines, and 68% for facsimile machines; and while facsimile machines are left in operating condition for 24 hours, their operation rate at night is very low, wherein there is a large room for saving energy in this time band. 65 figs., 21 tabs.

  7. Using dew points to estimate savings during a planned cooling shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlein, Matthew T.; Changnon, David; Musselman, Eric; Zielinski, Jeff

    2005-12-01

    In an effort to save money during the summer of 2003, Northern Illinois University (NIU) administrators instituted a four-day working week and stopped air conditioning buildings for the three-day weekends (Friday through Sunday). Shutting down the air conditioning systems caused a noticeable drop in electricity usage for that part of the campus that features in our study, with estimated total electricity savings of 1,268,492 kilowatt-hours or 17% of the average usage during that eight-week period. NIU's air conditioning systems, which relied on evaporative cooling to function, were sensitive to dew point levels. Greatest savings during the shutdown period occurred on days with higher dew points. An examination of the regional dew point climatology (1959 2003) indicated that the average summer daily dew point for 2003 was 14.9°C (58.8°F), which fell in the lowest 20% of the distribution. Based on the relationship between daily average dew points and electrical usage, a predictive model that could estimate electrical daily savings was created. This model suggests that electrical savings related to any future three-day shutdowns over summer could be much greater in more humid summers. Studies like this demonstrate the potential value of applying climatological information and of integrating this information into practical decision-making.

  8. Energy saving consulting in Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-01

    For anyone who wants to realise the dream of his own house, the terms of thermal insulation and saving heating plant should be central in planning this. One needs advice from experts for this. A survey of the many consultants offices available in Hamburg is provided. The list was compiled with the assistance of the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce and the Hamburg Trades Council and of professional associations. The information on the special fields of activity of the named consultants is based on their statements.

  9. Medical savings accounts make waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J

    1995-02-27

    MSAs: the theory. Medical savings account legislation would allow consumers to set aside pre-tax dollars to pay for day-to-day healthcare costs. The accounts are to be backed up by a catastropic policy with a deductible roughly equal to the maximum amount allowed in the MSA. The aim is to reduce healthcare cost inflation by making consumers more aware of the costs of healthcare than they are under comprehensive policies and enabling them to shop for the lowest-cost, highest-quality care.

  10. Student saving, does it exist? : A study of students' saving behavior, attitude towards saving and motivation to save.

    OpenAIRE

    Tuvesson, Joakim; Yu, Shiyu

    2011-01-01

    Swedish households are getting deeper in debt and house prices keeps on rising. This is what happened in USA and it was one of the major causes of the recent financial crisis. To avoid a similar crisis in Sweden we think one part of the solution is to make sure that those who are students today and soon will get jobs, buy houses, take loans etcetera have necessary knowledge to do so. Students’ saving is an area that almost completely lacked researchers’ attention, and one goal with this thesi...

  11. Value of travel time savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Masurier, P.; Polak, J.; Pawlak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    A team of specialist market researchers and Value of Time experts comprising members from SYSTRA, Imperial College London and the Technical University of Denmark has conducted a formal audit and peer review of research undertaken by Arup/ITS Leeds/Accent to derive Value of Travel Time Savings...... Preference (RP) models that were used to derive final Values of Travel Time (VTT). This report contains the findings of our audit and peer review of the procedures adopted by the research team during data collection of the three surveys (SP, RP and Employers Surveys); a peer review of the reported approach...

  12. Marijuana, alcohol and actual driving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically determine the separate and combined effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol on actual driving performance. This was the first study ever in which the drugs' combined effects were measured...

  13. DOCUMENTARY: A CREATIVE TREATMENT OF ACTUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitch

    studios and on condition that the film represents a free artistic creation. ... television programme types, only the documentary documents and presents actualities. ... SPEECH: This refers to spoken word by the subject, commentary by the.

  14. Savings for visuomotor adaptation require prior history of error, not prior repetition of successful actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; de Rugy, Aymar; Marinovic, Welber; Riek, Stephan; Carroll, Timothy J

    2016-10-01

    When we move, perturbations to our body or the environment can elicit discrepancies between predicted and actual outcomes. We readily adapt movements to compensate for such discrepancies, and the retention of this learning is evident as savings, or faster readaptation to a previously encountered perturbation. The mechanistic processes contributing to savings, or even the necessary conditions for savings, are not fully understood. One theory suggests that savings requires increased sensitivity to previously experienced errors: when perturbations evoke a sequence of correlated errors, we increase our sensitivity to the errors experienced, which subsequently improves error correction (Herzfeld et al. 2014). An alternative theory suggests that a memory of actions is necessary for savings: when an action becomes associated with successful target acquisition through repetition, that action is more rapidly retrieved at subsequent learning (Huang et al. 2011). In the present study, to better understand the necessary conditions for savings, we tested how savings is affected by prior experience of similar errors and prior repetition of the action required to eliminate errors using a factorial design. Prior experience of errors induced by a visuomotor rotation in the savings block was either prevented at initial learning by gradually removing an oppositely signed perturbation or enforced by abruptly removing the perturbation. Prior repetition of the action required to eliminate errors in the savings block was either deprived or enforced by manipulating target location in preceding trials. The data suggest that prior experience of errors is both necessary and sufficient for savings, whereas prior repetition of a successful action is neither necessary nor sufficient for savings. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Development and analysis of an economizer control strategy algorithm to promote an opportunity for energy savings in air conditioning installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Jose H.M.; Azevedo, Walter L. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: henrique@daem.des.cefetmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents an algorithm control strategy denominated enthalpy economizer. The objective of this algorithm strategy is to determine the adequate fractions of outside and return air flowrates entering a cooling coil based on the analysis of the outside, return and supply air enthalpies, rather than on the analysis of the dry bulb temperatures. The proposed algorithm predicts the actual opening position of the outside and return air dampers in order to provide the lower mixing air enthalpy. First, the psychometrics properties of the outside and return air are calculated from actual measurements of the dry and wet bulb temperatures. Then, three distinct cases are analyzed: the enthalpy of the outside air is lower than the enthalpy of the supply air (free cooling); the enthalpy of the outside air is higher than the enthalpy of the return air; the enthalpy of the outside air is lower than the enthalpy of the return air and higher than the temperature of the supply air. Different outside air conditions were selected in order to represent typical weather data of Brazilians cities, as well as typical return air conditions. It was found that the enthalpy control strategy could promote an opportunity for energy savings mainly during mild nights and wintertime periods as well as during warm afternoons and summertime periods, depending on the outside air relative humidity. The proposed algorithm works well and can be integrated in some commercial automation software to reduce energy consumption and electricity demand. (author)

  16. Las neurosis actuales y las psicosis ordinarias

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Javier

    2013-01-01

    El trabajo tiene por finalidad poner en tensión las categorías de psicosis ordinaria y neurosis actuales. En primer lugar, se procede a examinar ambas categorías para luego establecer sus puntos de coincidencia y disidencia. Se concluye que la categoría de neurosis actual propuesta por Freud, es una posible expresión de lo que en la actualidad se llama psicosis ordinaria.

  17. Power and energy saving in buildings by distributed generation based on gas-engine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arghandeh, R.; Amidpour, M.; Ghaffari, A. [Khaje Nasir Toosi Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Joint Program of Energy Systems Engineering; Manchester Univ., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Buildings consume high amounts of energy and produce high amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper discussed the use of gas cogeneration distributed generation (DG) technologies as a means of reducing energy consumption from buildings as well as energy losses from transmission lines in Iran. Energy sources and power generation systems were reviewed, and the economical benefits and energy savings resulting from the use of cogeneration systems were outlined. Actual rates of electricity consumption for Iran were estimated. Building power consumption was divided into the following 6 major sections: (1) lighting, (2) home appliances, (3) restaurant and cooking devices, (4) sports facilities, (5) utilities, and (6) electronics. Energy consumption criteria (ECC) and daily consumption charts (DCC) were used to plan and design the cogeneration systems. Energy balances, capital costs, and investment rates of return (IRR) were then calculated for 2 scenarios for a sample building. Results of the study showed that gas engine combined heat and power (CHP) DG systems are a reliable and economic technology for reducing energy consumption in buildings. The IRR of the CHP DG system for the sample building was achieved in 1 year. 13 refs., 10 tabs., 11 figs.

  18. Plant Outage Time Savings Provided by Subcritical Physics Testing at Vogtle Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupp, Philip; Heibel, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    The most recent core reload design verification physics testing done at Southern Nuclear Company's (SNC) Vogtle Unit 2, performed prior to initial power operations in operating cycle 12, was successfully completed while the reactor was at least 1% ΔK/K subcritical. The testing program used was the first application of the Subcritical Physics Testing (SPT) program developed by the Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. The SPT program centers on the application of the Westinghouse Subcritical Rod Worth Measurement (SRWM) methodology that was developed in cooperation with the Vogtle Reactor Engineering staff. The SRWM methodology received U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval in August of 2005. The first application of the SPT program occurred at Vogtle Unit 2 in October of 2005. The results of the core design verification measurements obtained during the SPT program demonstrated excellent agreement with prediction, demonstrating that the predicted core characteristics were in excellent agreement with the actual operating characteristics of the core. This paper presents an overview of the SPT Program used at Vogtle Unit 2 during operating cycle 12, and a discussion of the critical path outage time savings the SPT program is capable of providing. (authors)

  19. Hot times in Whistler : energy saving hybrid systems in area hotels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-01-15

    The resort of Whistler in British Columbia is to host the 2010 Winter Olympics, and the town of Whistler has committed to reducing energy consumption and emissions output in the community's 9500 dwelling units. Commercial hotels and mountain operations in the region are facing higher costs associated with tanked propane supply systems and higher infrastructure costs for some of the proposed alternatives. This article described a hybrid heating system designed by Sempa Power Systems. The systems have now been installed in conference centres and on all large mountain lodge complexes in the region. The hybrid heating system is a patent-pending system that automatically load-balances fossil fuel sources with electricity consumption to reduce energy costs, decrease GHG emissions, and increase efficiencies. Clients at the complexes are monitored online in real time and analyses of empirical data are compared with actual consumption to historical baseline averages. It was concluded that complexes in which the systems have been installed are averaging 28 per cent energy savings, a 39 per cent reduction in greenhouse gases (GHGs), and a 13 per cent reduction in energy consumption. 2 figs.

  20. Connecting possibilistic prudence and optimal saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Lucia Casademunt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the optimal saving problem in the framework of possibility theory. The notion of possibilistic precautionary saving is introduced as a measure of the way the presence of possibilistic risk (represented by a fuzzy number influences a consumer in establishing the level of optimal saving. The notion of prudence of an agent in the face of possibilistic risk is defined and the equivalence between the prudence condition and a positive possibilistic precautionary saving is proved. Some relations between possibilistic risk aversion, prudence and possibilistic precautionary saving were established.

  1. Impact of daylight saving time on the Chilean residential consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo, Humberto; Becker, Cristhian; Echiburu, Diego; Escudero, William; Fucks, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    Since 1970 Chile has had a Daylight Saving Time (DST) policy in order to reduce residential electricity consumption in the country. The time change was set for the first time by executive decree in 1970, and since that date it was applied every year without great changes until 2010. Since then, and to date, decrees have been set in order to increase the duration of the DST, arguing that there are reasons associated with energy savings that justify the extension of the measure that has been adopted by the authority in recent years. In the present study the impact of the application of DST in terms of decreased household electricity consumption is analyzed using two complementary methods, one based on a heuristic approach and the other using an econometric model. The results indicate that there is indeed a marginally small reduction in residential electricity consumption, although these results are not homogeneous throughout the country. - Highlights: • The impact of the application of DST is analyzed in Chilean distribution networks. • The results indicate that there is indeed a marginally small reduction in residential electricity consumption. • A total energy reduction is estimated based on the proposed methodology.

  2. Replacement of pneumatic and hydraulic drives with electrical drives - Analysis of potential; Ersatz von pneumatischen und hydraulischen Antrieben durch Elektroantriebe. Potentialanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berchten, S. [BEngineering, Bassersdorf (Switzerland); Ritz, Ch. [Schnyder Ingenieure AG, Steg (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the potential offered by modern technologies to save energy. The replacement of energy-intensive methods of providing physical movement - such as with pneumatic and hydraulic drives - with electrical drives is discussed. Based on existing installations in industry, an estimate of the potential for making savings is presented. This shows that large energy savings can be made by directly converting electrical into mechanical energy. Using real world examples, end-users and decision-makers are shown two profit-scenarios involving the purchase of a new system or retrofitting an existing system. The scenarios take investments, operating costs and system life-cycle into account. Extrapolations provide estimates of savings-potentials for the Swiss electricity market. Various market sectors are looked at, including the metal-working, chemical, foodstuffs and packaging sectors. Examples of installations actually implemented, where electro-mechanical systems have replaced pneumatic and hydraulic drives, are given.

  3. Returns on investments in energy-saving technologies under energy price uncertainty in Dutch greenhouse horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, P.J.M.; Tongeren, van F.W.; Veen, van der H.B.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional net present value calculations evaluating the profitability of investments in energy-saving technologies in Dutch horticultural outlays predict a much higher rate of adoption of these technologies than is actually observed. This paper tries to explain this gap by applying a real options

  4. Flexible Fringe Benefit Plans Save You Money and Keep Employees Happy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rob

    1987-01-01

    This fringe benefit plan saves money for both employers and employees, provides a better fit for employees' actual benefit needs, and allows employees to choose options from a menu of benefits. One option is a flexible spending plan. Employees place a portion of their before-tax income into a special account from which allowable expenses are paid…

  5. Actual performance and economic feasibility of residential solar water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anhalt, J.

    1987-01-01

    Four residential solar water heaters currently available on the Brazilian market have been evaluated to their possible use for substituting the common electric shower head. The tests were carried out with the solar systems mounted side by side on an artificial roof. The hot water demand was simulated following a consumer profile which represents a Brazilian family with an income of seven minimum salaries. The data, which was collected automatically and presented in the form of graphs and tables, shows that an optimized solar water heater could save as much as 65% of the energy demand for residential water heating in the state of Sao Paulo. An economical study concludes that the installation and maintenance of such a solar system is feasible if long term financing is available. (author)

  6. Economic evaluation of energy saving measures in a common type of Greek building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaidis, Yiannis; Pilavachi, Petros A.; Chletsis, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic analysis and evaluation of various energy saving measures in the building sector, focusing on a domestic detached house in Greece, i.e. in a typical Mediterranean climate. In order to detect the energy saving measures that, in addition to energy benefits, can also provide economic profits, the study examines the following measures: all kinds of insulation; upgrading of the heating system; use of thermal solar systems; upgrading of lighting; upgrading of electric appliances; upgrading of the cooling system. The economic evaluation methods used for ranking the energy saving measures are the Net Present Value, the Internal Rate of Return, the Savings to Investment Ratio and the Depreciated Payback Period. It has been found that amongst the most effective energy saving methods are the upgrading of lighting, the insulation of the roof of the building and the installation of an automatic temperature control system.

  7. Risk transfer via energy-savings insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Evan

    2003-01-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and potential disputes over stipulated savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building diagnostics and commissioning), financial methods are less developed in the energy management arena than in other segments of the economy. Energy-savings insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - transfers and spreads both types of risk over a larger pool of energy efficiency projects and reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy service firms who lack sufficiently strong balance sheets to self-insure the savings. ESI encourages those implementing energy-saving projects to go beyond standard measures and thereby achieve more significant levels of energy savings. Insurance providers are proponents of improved savings measurement and verification techniques, as well as maintenance, thereby contributing to national energy-saving objectives. If properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy-saving projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Governmental agencies have been pioneers in the use of ESI and could continue to play a role

  8. Economic and Environmental Impact of Energy Saving in Healthcare Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo García-Sanz-Calcedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to estimate the economic and environmental impacts of energy consumption derived from healthcare buildings and proposes several energy-saving options in the sector. An experimental energy consumption study was development between 2005 and 2013 in 12 hospitals and 70 healthcare centres in Spain, built between 1980 and 2005 through audits carried out between 2005 and 2012, performed by the Extremadura Energy Agency. The study focused on electric energy, HVAC, DWH, lighting systems, renewable energies, maintenance strategy, thermal insulation, and optimal building size. Specifically, the following parameters were evaluated: energy savings, investment emission of CO2, NO2, and SO2 gases, and payback. The results revealed that through an appropriate energy management of healthcare buildings it is possible to save up to 8.60 kWh/m2 per year, for buildings of less than 5000 m2 (with no beds, which represents an expense of 1.55 €/m2. In healthcare buildings larger than 5000 m2 (with beds, it was possible to save up to 6.88 kWh/m2 per year, which represents an expense of 1.25 €/m2.

  9. Federal Aviation Administration retained savings program proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostick, D.J.; Larson, L.L.; Hostick, C.J.

    1998-03-01

    Federal legislation allows federal agencies to retain up to 50% of the savings associated with implementing energy efficiency and water conservation measures and practices. Given budget pressures to reduce expenditures, the use of retained savings to fund additional projects represents a source of funds outside of the traditional budget cycle. The Southwest Region Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a model retained savings program for Southwest Region FAA use and as a prototype for consideration by the FAA. PNNL recommends the following steps be taken in developing a Southwest Region FAA retained savings program: Establish a retained savings mechanism. Determine the level at which the retained savings should be consolidated into a fund. The preliminary recommendation is to establish a revolving efficiency loan fund at the regional level. Such a mechanism allows some consolidation of savings to fund larger projects, while maintaining a sense of facility ownership in that the funds will remain within the region

  10. Saving in cycles: how to get people to save more money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Leona; Dholakia, Utpal

    2014-02-01

    Low personal savings rates are an important social issue in the United States. We propose and test one particular method to get people to save more money that is based on the cyclical time orientation. In contrast to conventional, popular methods that encourage individuals to ignore past mistakes, focus on the future, and set goals to save money, our proposed method frames the savings task in cyclical terms, emphasizing the present. Across the studies, individuals who used our proposed cyclical savings method, compared with individuals who used a linear savings method, provided an average of 74% higher savings estimates and saved an average of 78% more money. We also found that the cyclical savings method was more efficacious because it increased implementation planning and lowered future optimism regarding saving money.

  11. SAVE ENERGY IN TEXTILE SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCALIA Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency and competitiveness in textile and clothing manufacturing sector must take into account the current and future energy challenges. Energy efficiency is a subject of critical importance for the Textile & Clothing industry, for other sectors and for the society in general. EURATEX has initiated Energy Made-to-Measure, an information campaign running until 2016 to empower over 300 textile & clothing companies, notably SMEs, to become more energy efficient. SET( Save Energy in Textile SMEs a collaborative project co-funded within the European Programme Intelligent Energy Europe II helps companies to understand their energy consumption and allows them to compare the sector benchmarks in different production processes. SET has developed the SET tool, Energy Saving and Efficiency Tool, a free of charge tool customized for textile manufacturers. The SET tool is made up of 4 elements: a stand-alone software (SET Tool for self-assessment based on an Excel application; an on-line part (SET tool Web for advanced benchmarking and comparison of the performances across years; a guiding document for the companies and overview of financial incentives and legal obligations regarding energy efficiency. Designed specifically for small and medium enterprises (SMEs, the SET tool enables the evaluation of energy consumption and recommends measures to reduce the consumption. Prior to modifying the company’s production processes and making investments to increase energy efficiency, textile SMEs need to get different type of information, including legal context, economic and technical peculiarities.

  12. Renewable energy for Canada's northern communities - quantifying potential fuel savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brothers, C.

    1998-01-01

    The probable impact of renewable energy technologies on fuel consumption in Canada's remote northern communities was discussed. These communities currently meet their electricity requirements using expensive diesel powered generators. It was noted that change to renewable energy in Canada's remote communities will only be made if the economic benefits can be clearly demonstrated. A study was conducted in Cambridge Bay, Northwest Territories, in which electrical load requirements and wind and solar resource data from the community was acquired to estimate savings in diesel fuel consumption for various renewable energy technologies. Wind was found to provide the most fuel displacement and was considered to be the most appropriate technology for these communities. A photovoltaic (PV) system of equivalent size would have significantly less impact on fuel savings in a community like Cambridge Bay, in part because a PV system would be poorly correlated on a seasonal basis with the energy requirements of the community. A wind-diesel system would be the most advantageous in terms of fuel savings due to its relatively high capacity factor, and due to the fact that is it is available year around. 4 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  13. A Pottery Electric Kiln Using Decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoe, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Nakayama, Minoru; Minamide, Akiyuki; Takemata, Kazuya

    This paper presents a novel type electric kiln which fires the pottery using the decompression. The electric kiln is suitable for the environment and the energy saving as the pottery furnace. This paper described the baking principle and the baking characteristic of the novel type electric kiln.

  14. Research and development of leading, fundamental energy-saving techniques. Report on the R and D of coal-fired magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) electrical power generation (Prompt report by Electrotechnical Laboratory); Sekitan nensho MHD hatsuden no kenkyu ni kansuru seika hokoku. Densoken kenkyu sokuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-30

    Summarized herein are the reports on the R and D of coal-fired magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) electrical power generation, received by March 30, 1990. For the coal combustor, the air flow tests have been conducted using a 5MW-scale plastic model since 1984, and the model has been later scaled-up to 15MW. The actual combustion tests have been conducted using a 1MW-scale combustor, designed based on the results of air flow tests using the 15MW-scale model, mainly for the cyclone combustor in the first stage. For a coal-fired generation channel, the studies on the cathodes and insulation walls have been conducted since 1986, the research themes including causes for and measures against inter-cathode shorting, and insulating walls of SiC. The anode walls have been studied since 1986, deepening understanding of, e.g., the anode arc phenomenon and anode discharge phenomenon which relates to the causes for exhaustion of the inter-anode insulators and anode materials. For the high temperature regenerative heat exchanger, the existing materials have been screened since 1985, and the basic data related to, e.g., slag viscosity and its effects on material corrosion have been collected since 1986. (NEDO)

  15. The actual technological progress of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florescu, Gheorghe; Popa, Adrian; Panaitescu, Valeriu

    2010-01-01

    The actual nuclear R and D issues require new technologies and continuous progress in order to find adequate and effective solutions in sustained and increasing energy demand. The current tendency in energy consumption and occurring of large consumers, especially from Asian countries, imposes finding new means for energy clean, large scale and sustained production. NPPs reliability and availability were permanently monitored and improved; in the mean time the safety of the nuclear energy production was under surveillance. Corresponding development of the new technologies and discovery of improved materials and adequate technological processes offers the possibilities for appropriate implementation and use of them in the NPPs systems configuration and functioning/operation. The modern technologies and scientific discoveries, also the international cooperation, offer the opportunities to brake the actual barriers in order to cumulate and use advanced energy production processes in finding new energy sources and to build improved, reliable and safety power plants. The monitoring systems, intelligent sensors and intelligent SSCs, nanotechnologies and and modern and intelligent materials constitute the main reasons in improvement of the NPPs systems configuration and processes. The paper presents: - The state of the art in the level of actual and useful technologies for nuclear power systems development; - The actual technological limits that need to be over passed for NPPs systems improvements; - The main systems that need improvement and reconfiguration for actual NPPs development and increase in efficient operation, appropriate availability and total safety; - The actual energy production issues; - The key arguments in sustaining the R and D new NPPs systems development; - Future trends in NPPs development; - The limitations in industrial processes knowledge and use. Appropriate R and D in the field of NPPs systems has a specific characteristic that is highlighted in

  16. Performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester in actual rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Voon-Kean; Ho, Jee-Hou; Chai, Ai-Bao

    2017-01-01

    When raindrops impact on the surface of a piezoelectric beam, strain energy produced by the impinging raindrop will be converted to harvestable electrical energy by the piezoelectric layers in a cantilever beam. The novelty of this study is to investigate the performance of the harvester in actual rain and provide practical insights on implementation. The influences of rain parameters such as rain rate, rainfall depth, raindrop count, and drop size distribution (DSD) are discussed in this study. The raindrops accumulated on the surface of the piezoelectric beam will form a water layer. It is described using added mass coefficient in this study. In an actual rain experiment, a piezoelectric beam with surface area of 0.0018 m 2 is able to produce 2076 μJ of energy over a duration of 301 min. The energy generation of a raindrop impact piezoelectric energy harvester is highly dependent on the rain rate. Due to the inconsistency of the energy generation, the piezoelectric energy harvester would require an integration of suitable energy storage device for continuous operation. Nevertheless, this work shows the feasibility of harvesting raindrop energy using a piezoelectric beam. - Highlights: • The performance of a piezoelectric rain energy harvester is tested in actual rain. • The energy generation is highly dependent on the rain rate. • Practical insights on the implementation of the harvester are discussed. • A total energy of 2076 μJ is generated over a duration of 301 min.

  17. Large-scale wind power integration and wholesale electricity trading benefits: Estimation via an ex post approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Hugo A.; Gomez-Quiles, Catalina; Riquelme, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    The integration of large-scale wind power has brought about a series of challenges to the power industry, but at the same time a number of benefits are being realized. Among those, the ability of wind power to cause a decline in the electricity market prices has been recognized. In quantifying this effect, some models used in recent years are based on simulations of the market supply-side and the price clearing process. The accuracy of the estimates depend on the quality of the input data, the veracity of the adopted scenarios and the rigorousness of the solution technique. In this work, a series of econometric techniques based on actual ex post wind power and electricity price data are implemented for the estimation of the impact of region-wide wind power integration on the local electricity market clearing prices and the trading savings that stem from this effect. The model is applied to the case of Spain, where the estimated savings are compared against actual credit and bonus expenses to ratepayers. The implications and extent of these results for current and future renewable energy policy-making are discussed. - Highlights: ► Wholesale electricity market trading benefits by wind power are quantified. ► Actual wind power forecast-based bids and electricity price data from Spain are used. ► Different econometric tools are used and compared for improved estimation accuracy. ► Estimated benefits outweigh current credit overhead paid to wind farms in Spain. ► An economically efficient benefit surplus allocation framework is proposed.

  18. Application of Waste Heat Recovery Energy Saving Technology in Reform of UHP-EAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J. H.; Zhang, S. X.; Yang, W.; Yu, T.

    2017-08-01

    The furnace waste heat of a company’s existing 4 × 100t ultra-high-power electric arc furnaces is not used and discharged directly of the situation has been unable to meet the national energy-saving emission reduction requirements, and also affected their own competitiveness and sustainable development. In order to make full use of the waste heat of the electric arc furnace, this paper presents an the energy-saving transformation program of using the new heat pipe boiler on the existing ultra-high-power electric arc furnaces for recovering the waste heat of flue gas. The results show that after the implementation of the project can save energy equivalent to 42,349 tons of standard coal. The flue gas waste heat is fully utilized and dust emission concentration is accorded with the standard of Chinese invironmental protection, which have achieved good results.

  19. Airline enters 2 shared-savings deals for $1M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, J.

    1984-02-06

    Pan American World Airways has two shared-savings agreements to reduce electricity costs at its maintenance base near Miami International Airport by 20 to 25%. The two Andover 256 energy management systems (EMS) to monitor and control lighting and cooling in four buildings are already in operation. A second phase involving solar-powered water heating systems and retrofit work to air conditioning, ventilating, and lighting systems at six other buildings is nearing completion. Pan Am will divide the projected $700,000 in annual energy savings with two investor groups for seven years, after which Pan Am can buy the equipment at fair market value, renew the contract, or have the equipment removed.

  20. Savings and Debts in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Luminita Sarbovan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The savings and debts problematic bring us in front the Keynesian principles of supporting the global demand, so spectacular immortalized inside his “General Theory of Money. The architects of the European Union consider that production in agriculture and other economic branches is “ab initio” grounded on the credit mechanism administrated by banks: the present day approach of the agricultural process configured it as costly, owing a relatively medium to long term duration, and risky, making important the banking institution for mitigating such constrains. Romania fights for the ambitious goal of entering in the euro zone, and this target became even more challenging after the new EU Regulation No 1176/2011 on the prevention and correction of macroeconomic imbalances, which stipulates a safer surveillance for the member states. In fact, our country has to meet the exigencies of nominal and real convergence criteria, measured by the European scoreboard and relevant index.

  1. Energy saving technologies of the decentralized ventilation of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurov, R. Sh; Rafalskaya, T. A.

    2017-11-01

    The growing aspiration to energy saving and efficiency of energy leads to necessity to build tight enough buildings. As a result of this the quantity of infiltration air appears insufficient for realization of necessary air exchange in. One of decisions of the given problem is development and application for ventilation of premises of the decentralized forced-air and exhaust systems (DFAES) with recuperative or regenerative heat-exchangers. For an estimation of efficiency of DFAES following basic parameters have been certain: factor of energy saving; factor of efficiency of energy; factor of a heat transfer; factor of an effective utilization of a surface of heat exchange. Were estimated temperature of forced air; actual speed of an air jet on an entrance in a served zone; actual noise level; the charge of external air. Tests of DFAES were spent in natural conditions at which DFAES influenced all set of factors both an external climate, and an internal microclimate of a premise, and also the arrangement on a wind side or behind wind side of a building, influence of surrounding building, fluctuation of temperature of external air is considered. Proceeding from results and the analysis of the lead researches recommendations have been developed for development and manufacture of new sample of DFAES.

  2. Streamlined energy-savings calculations for heat-island reduction strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-03-15

    We have developed summary tables (sorted by heating- and cooling-degree-days) to estimate the potential of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., solar-reflective roofs, shade trees, reflective pavements, and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings. The tables provide estimates of savings for both direct effect (reducing heat gain through the building shell) and indirect effect (reducing the ambient air temperature). In this analysis, we considered three building types that offer the most savings potential : residences, offices, and retail stores. Each building type was characterized in detail by Pre-1980 (old) or 1980+ (new) construction vintage and with natural gas or electricity as heating fuel. We defined prototypical-building characteristics for each building type and simulated the effects of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model and weather data for about 240 locations in the U.S. A statistical analysis of previously completed simulations for five cities was used to estimate the indirect savings. Our simulations included the effect of (1) solar-reflective roofing material on building [direct effect], (2) placement of deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], and (3) ambient cooling achieved by urban reforestation and reflective building surfaces and pavements [indirect effect]. Upon completion of estimating the direct and indirect energy savings for all the selected locations, we integrated the results in tables arranged by heating- and cooling-degree-days. We considered 15 bins for heating-degree-days, and 11 bins for cooling-degree-days. Energy use and savings are presented per 1000 ft2 of roof area. In residences heated with gas and in climates with greater than 1000 cooling-degree-days, the annual electricity savings in Pre-1980 stock ranged from 650 to 1300 kWh/1000ft2; for 1980+ stock savings ranged 300 to 600 kWh/1000 ft2

  3. Opportunities of energy saving in lighting systems for public buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abd El-khalek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The lighting system provides many options for cost-effective energy saving with low or no inconvenience. Lighting improvements are excellent investments in most public buildings, it is usually cost-effective to address because lighting improvements are often easier to make than many process upgrades.For public buildings, the easy no and low cost options to help save money and improve the energy performance are:Understand energy use.Identify optionsPrioritize actionsMake the changes and measure the savings.Continue managing energy efficiency.The challenge is to retrofit traditional lamps with LED lamps of good quality. The benefits of LED light bulbs are long-lasting, durable, cool, mercury free, more efficient, and cost effective.The light Emitting Diode (LED bulb uses a semiconductor as its light source, and is currently one of the most energy efficient and quickly developing types of bulbs for lighting. LEDs increasingly are being purchased to replace traditional bulbs. LEDs are relatively more expensive than other types of bulbs, but are very cost-effective because they use only a fraction of electricity of traditional lighting methods nd can last for longer.Benchmarking guides decision makers to policies aimed at the energy sector through better understanding of energy consumption trends nationwide, e.g.: energy price, moderating, peak demand, and encouraging sectors, low energy expansions.The “Improving Energy Efficiency Project of Lighting and Appliances” carried out energy audits and implemented opportunities of energy saving in lighting for different type of public buildings.To rationalize the use of energy by giving guidelines to consumers, the IEEL&A project prepared some brochures.This paper leads with the results of case studies as energy audits, opportunities in lighting systems, energy saving and CO2 reduction.

  4. Moonlight project promotes energy-saving technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, A.

    1986-01-01

    In promoting energy saving, development of energy conservation technologies aimed at raising energy efficiency in the fields of energy conversion, its transportation, its storage, and its consumption is considered, along with enactment of legal actions urging rational use of energies and implementation of an enlightenment campaign for energy conservation to play a crucial role. Under the Moonlight Project, technical development is at present being centered around the following six pillars: (1) large scale energy saving technology; (2) pioneering and fundamental energy saving technology; (3) international cooperative research project; (4) research and survey of energy saving technology; (5) energy saving technology development by private industry; and (6) promotion of energy saving through standardization. Heat pumps, magnetohydrodynamic generators and fuel cells are discussed.

  5. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...

  6. Saving in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Aryeetey; Christopher Udry

    2000-01-01

    Gross domestic savings in Africa averaged only 8 percent of GDP in the 1980s, compared to 23 percent for Southeast Asia and 35 percent in the Newly Industrialized Economies. Aside from being generally low, saving rates in most of Africa have shown consistent decline over the last thirty years. These savings figures must be considered tentative, because they are derived as a residual in the national accounts from expenditure and production data that are themselves quite unreliable. Notwithstan...

  7. Predicting energy consumption and savings in the housing stock: A performance gap analysis in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasa Majcen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research methods  The research used several large datasets, about dwellings theoretical energy performance, most of which were related to energy label certificates. All the datasets containing theoretical performance were merged with actual energy data. In addition to that, some were also enriched with socioeconomic and behaviour related data from Statistics Netherlands (CBS or from surveys which were designed for the purpose of this research. Simple descriptive statistics were used to compare average theoretical and actual consumptions. Advanced statistical tests were used for detecting correlations, followed by several regression analyses. In a separate scenario study, the resulting averages of both theoretical and actual consumptions were extrapolated nation-wide in order to be compared with the existing policy targets. Due to low predictive power of the variables in regression analyses, a sensitivity analysis of the theoretical gas use was performed on six assumptions made in the theoretical calculation to show how an increment in one of the assumptions affects the final theoretical gas consumption and whether this can explain the performance gap. Last but not least, longitudinal data of the social housing dwelling stock between 2010 and 2013 was analysed, focusing on dwellings that had undergone renovation. The goal was to find out whether the theoretical reduction of consumption materialised and to what extent. A comparison of the actual reduction of different renovation measures was made in order to show what renovation practices lower the consumptions most effectively. The discrepancies between actual and theoretical heating energy consumption in Dutch dwellings. Discrepancies between theoretical and actual gas and electricity consumption On average, the total theoretical primary energy use seems to be in accordance with actual primary energy consumption but when looking at more detailed data, one can see that the contribution of gas to

  8. Energy savings in CSFR - building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Czechoslovak/Danish project on energy savings in buildings proves that it is possible to save up to 30% of the energy in buildings. 10% can be saved at an investment of 27 bill KCS. The total investment that is needed to save 30% is 140 bill KCS. Further energy savings can be obtained through more energy efficient supply systems. Information dissemination is important for the energy saving programme as are economic incentives. Investments in energy savings should be profitable for the investor, but this is not the case in the Czech and Slovak republics today. Changes are needed. Energy prices are still to low, compared to investment costs. Financial possibilities are not satisfactory for private investors. Price systems are not favourable to investment in energy savings. Training is needed for boiler men and energy consultants. Legislation is essential for the support of the full range of activities in the energy sector. Research and Development activities must back up the development of the sector. Pilot projects can illuminate the savings potential. The production of technical equipment for control and metering and production of insulation materials must be promoted. (AB)

  9. Cogeneration an opportunity for industrial energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, R.A.; Butt, Z.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about the cogeneration from industrial energy savings opportunities perspective. The energy crisis in these days forces industry to find ways to cope with critical situation. There are several energy savings options which if properly planned and implemented would be beneficial both for industry and community. One way of energy saving is Cogeneration i.e. Combined Heat and Power. The paper will review the basic methods, types and then discuss the suitability of these options for specific industry. It has been identified that generally process industry can get benefits of energy savings. (author)

  10. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  11. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  12. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  13. Actual global problems of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.

    1995-01-01

    Personal views on some actual problems in radiation protection are given in this paper. Among these problems are: evolution methodology used in radiation protection regulations; radiation protection, nuclear energy and safety, and new approaches to the process of the hazardous substances management. An interesting fact relating to the X-ray, radiation protection and Nikola Tesla are given also. (author)

  14. Economic analysis of electric heating based on critical electricity price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Sun, Zhijie; Zhou, Xinnan; Fu, Chengran; Yang, Jie

    2018-06-01

    The State Grid Corporation of China proposes an alternative energy strategy, which will make electric heating an important task in the field of residential electricity consumption. This article takes this as the background, has made the detailed introduction to the inhabitant electric heating technology, and take the Zhangjiakou electric panels heating technology as an example, from the expense angle, has carried on the analysis to the electric panels heating economy. In the field of residential heating, electric panels operating costs less than gas boilers. After customers implying energy-saving behavior, electric panels operating cost is even lower than coal-fired boilers. The critical price is higher than the execution price, which indicates that the economic performance of the electric panels is significantly higher than that of the coal boiler.

  15. China energy-water nexus: Assessing the water-saving synergy effects of energy-saving policies during the eleventh Five-year Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Alun; Teng, Fei; Wang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and water limit China’s sustainable development. • Current energy policies fail to address water saving issues. • The energy-water coefficient is estimated for both direct use and indirect use. • Water saving effects associated with energy-saving policies is calculated. • Water-energy nexus should be enhanced in key industrial sectors. - Abstract: Energy and water have become major factors limiting sustainable development in China. Energy efficiency and optimization of water management are critical for the healthy growth of the Chinese economy. Current national energy policies fail to adequately address water use issues. Similarly, current water policies do not consider the impact of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, few studies have investigated the relationship between energy consumption and water use. The present study analyzes the energy-water nexus in Chinese industries using input–output tables. Coefficients that characterize the relationship between energy consumption and water are used to describe the supply-consumption relationship between the water supply and primary energy sectors. Next, we calculate the water-saving effects associated with the enforcement of energy-saving policies in selected industrial sectors during the eleventh Five-year Plan, from 2005 to 2010. These calculations address the ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, petrochemical engineering, building materials, and electricity industries as well as key light industries. Our findings indicate that energy-saving efforts in these industries will result in savings in water consumption. This study suggests that a cooperative relationship between water and energy conservation efforts should be an important factor in creating policies that encourage simultaneous savings of both resources. Additionally, the study indicates that government should promote water- and energy-saving techniques in key industrial sectors to encourage

  16. Dancers' Perceived and Actual Knowledge of Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Lynch, Meaghan; Cushman, Daniel; Hu, Jason; Garner, Jocelyn

    2017-06-15

    Dancers are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries and frequently require interaction with medical professionals. While many dancers have a finely tuned awareness of their bodies, their knowledge of the fundamentals of human anatomy is not uniform. There is a paucity of literature on the benefits of human anatomy education in dancers, though it seems intuitive that there should be a relationship. The purpose of this study was to assess dancers' perceived and actual knowledge of basic musculoskeletal anatomy and its relationship to function. Adult dancers at the undergraduate, pre-professional, and professional levels were surveyed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Questions included demographic information, dance techniques studied, anatomy training, and injury history. Subjects rated their perceived knowledge of anatomy and were tested with 15 multiple-choice questions on basic musculoskeletal anatomy. Four hundred seventy-five surveys were completed. Ordinal regression showed a correlation of perceived to actual knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001). Factors that correlated with increases in both perceived and actual knowledge of anatomy included having taken an anatomy course of any type (p < 0.001) and increased age (p ≤ 0.001). Years of dance training and professional dancer status both significantly correlated with increased knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001) but not perceived knowledge. Chi-square analysis showed that dancers with training in either modern or jazz dance had a significantly higher perceived, but not actual, knowledge when compared to those without training in those styles of dance (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, dancers generally scored well on questions pertaining to basic musculoskeletal anatomy, and their perception correlated with their actual knowledge of anatomy. Factors that contribute to dancers' knowledge of anatomy include age, years of experience, professional dancer status, and anatomy training.

  17. Actual imaging time in fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, Peter C.; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Safety issues in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are important, especially in fetal MRI. However, since basic data with respect of the effective exposure time in fetal MRI are not available, this study aimed to determine the actual imaging time during a fetal MRI study. Methods: 100 fetal MRI studies of singleton pregnancies performed on a 1.5 T system were analysed with respect to study duration (from starting the survey scan until the end of study), the number of sequences acquired, and the actual imaging time, which was calculated by adding up scan time of each sequence. Furthermore, each sequence type was analysed regarding the number of acquisitions, specific absorption rates (SAR), and duration. Results: Mean study duration was 34.6 min (range: 14–58 min; standard deviation (SD): 9.7 min), the average number of sequences acquired was 26.6 (range: 11–44, SD: 6.6). Actual scan time averaged 11.4 min (range: 4–19 min, SD: 4.0 min). Ultrafast T2-weighted and steady-state free-precession sequences accounted for 62.3% of actual scan time, and were distributed over the whole duration of the study. Conclusion: Actual imaging time only accounts for 33% of total study time and is not continuous. The remaining time is consumed by the preparation phases of the scanner, and is spent with planning sequences and the eventual repositioning of the coil and/or pregnant woman. These data may help to more accurately estimate the exposure to radiofrequency deposition and noise during fetal MRI studies.

  18. Integration of the heat and refrigeration sector into the electricity market model PowerFlex for the analysis of sector encompasing effects on the climate protection goals and EE integration. Scientific final report - actualized version; Einbindung des Waerme- und Kaeltesektors in das Strommarktmodell PowerFlex zur Analyse sektoruebergreifender Effekte auf Klimaschutzziele und EE-Integration. Wissenschaftlicher Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Matthias; Hesse, Tilman; Kenkmann, Tanja [Oeko-Institut e.V., Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg (Germany); and others

    2017-06-21

    The report covers the following issues: (i) Detailed description of the heat sector and its coupling to the electricity sector within the electricity market model PowerFlex: provate heat demand, derivation of heat load profiles, development of a technology and energy carrier mix, data inputs for the electricity market regulation. (ii) Creation of an empirically based data basis for the air conditioning of building, its coupling to the electricity system and derivation of recommendations: preparation of a representative empirical determination of the status quo and the factors that provoke private households to install air conditions, effective parameters for the development of energy demand for air conditioning of residential homes, preparation of a data input for the electricity market model - methodology and results. (iii) Preparation of generic renewable energy supply time series with different levels of fluctuation: Methodology of the renewable energy profile calculation, calculation of the supply profile for photovoltaics, calculation of the supply profile for onshore wind and offshore wind. (iv) Extension of the electricity market model PowerFlex to PowerFlex-heat and cold for the sector encompassing scenario analysis: extension of the module to cogeneration power plants, power-to-heat and power-to-gas for the detailed description of the heat sector, extension of the module for load management, scenarios and interpretation of the results.

  19. Saving energy in the baking industry. Energiesparen in der Baeckerei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    Measures for energy conservation and rational energy use have been given priority in almost all sectors of our economy. Between July and December 1991, 40 bakeries were studied for their energy consumptions in a study commissioned by BEWAG/EBAG in Berlin. Most bakeries will have to reckon with annual turnovers which will not rise as they used to. This brochure explains those measures which are best suited to use electric power in the business effectively to save energy, to lower costs and to reduce pollution. (orig./UA)

  20. Saving oil in a hurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    During 2004, oil prices reached levels unprecedented in recent years. Though world oil markets remain adequately supplied, high oil prices do reflect increasingly uncertain conditions. Many IEA member countries and non-member countries alike are looking for ways to improve their capability to handle market volatility and possible supply disruptions in the future. This book aims to provide assistance. It provides a new, quantitative assessment of the potential oil savings and costs of rapid oil demand restraint measures for transport. Some measures may make sense under any circumstances; others are primarily useful in emergency situations. All can be implemented on short notice ? if governments are prepared. The book examines potential approaches for rapid uptake of telecommuting, ?ecodriving?, and car-pooling, among other measures. It also provides methodologies and data that policymakers can use to decide which measures would be best adapted to their national circumstances. This ?tool box? may help countries to complement other measures for coping with supply disruptions, such as use of strategic oil stocks.

  1. Enershield : energy saving air barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallihan, D. [Enershield Industries Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Enershield Industries is a leader in air barrier technology and provides solution for the Canadian climate. This presentation described the advantages of air barriers and the impact of rising energy costs. An air barrier is used to separate areas of differing environments and makes existing building systems more efficient. This presentation discussed how an air barrier works. It also identified how Enershield Industries calculates energy savings. It described air barrier applications and those who use barrier technology. These include the commercial and industrial sector as well as the personnel and retail sector. Barrier technology can be used for cold storage; vehicle and equipment washes; food processing; and environmental separation. Features and benefits such as the ability to create seal, acoustic insulation, and long term durability were also discussed. Last, the presentation addressed model selection and design criteria issues. Design criteria that were presented included a discussion of acoustic installation, articulating nozzles, scroll cased fans, and structural frame. Other design criteria presented were galvanized frames, telescopic sliders, and off the shelf parts. It was concluded that the ability to reduce energy consumption and enhance employee/client comfort is beneficial to the employer as well as to the employee. figs.

  2. Review of the Fuel Saving, Life Cycle GHG Emission, and Ownership Cost Impacts of Lightweighting Vehicles with Different Powertrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jason M; Kim, Hyung Chul; De Kleine, Robert; Wallington, Timothy J; MacLean, Heather L

    2017-08-01

    The literature analyzing the fuel saving, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and ownership cost impacts of lightweighting vehicles with different powertrains is reviewed. Vehicles with lower powertrain efficiencies have higher fuel consumption. Thus, fuel savings from lightweighting internal combustion engine vehicles can be higher than those of hybrid electric and battery electric vehicles. However, the impact of fuel savings on life cycle costs and GHG emissions depends on fuel prices, fuel carbon intensities and fuel storage requirements. Battery electric vehicle fuel savings enable reduction of battery size without sacrificing driving range. This reduces the battery production cost and mass, the latter results in further fuel savings. The carbon intensity of electricity varies widely and is a major source of uncertainty when evaluating the benefits of fuel savings. Hybrid electric vehicles use gasoline more efficiently than internal combustion engine vehicles and do not require large plug-in batteries. Therefore, the benefits of lightweighting depend on the vehicle powertrain. We discuss the value proposition of the use of lightweight materials and alternative powertrains. Future assessments of the benefits of vehicle lightweighting should capture the unique characteristics of emerging vehicle powertrains.

  3. CO2 Mitigation Potential of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles larger than expected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plötz, P; Funke, S A; Jochem, P; Wietschel, M

    2017-11-28

    The actual contribution of plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles (PHEV and BEV) to greenhouse gas mitigation depends on their real-world usage. Often BEV are seen as superior as they drive only electrically and do not have any direct emissions during driving. However, empirical evidence on which vehicle electrifies more mileage with a given battery capacity is lacking. Here, we present the first systematic overview of empirical findings on actual PHEV and BEV usage for the US and Germany. Contrary to common belief, PHEV with about 60 km of real-world range currently electrify as many annual vehicles kilometres as BEV with a much smaller battery. Accordingly, PHEV recharged from renewable electricity can highly contribute to green house gas mitigation in car transport. Including the higher CO 2eq emissions during the production phase of BEV compared to PHEV, PHEV show today higher CO 2eq savings then BEVs compared to conventional vehicles. However, for significant CO 2eq improvements of PHEV and particularly of BEVs the decarbonisation of the electricity system should go on.

  4. Concepts. Environmental care through energy saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.

    1987-04-01

    Energy saving is an important ingredient of a preventive energy policy. It helps to reduce pollutants which are one essential source of damage done to air, water and soil. But even the environmentally damaging side effects of energy production, storage and distribution can be cut down through energy saving.

  5. Housing-related lifestyle and energy saving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2017-01-01

    of relevant background characteristics. A multivariate GLM analysis reveals that when differences in housing-related lifestyles are controlled, neither country of residence nor the interaction between lifestyle and country of residence influence energy saving innovativeness or everyday energy-saving efforts...

  6. Mozambican Aggregate Consumption and Domestic Saving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was an unprecedented decade for its break with the previous trend; but so far, the new trend does not correspond to a substantial change in growth strategy to ensure that foreign savings become complementary rather than a substitute for domestic savings. Keywords: consumption, economic growth strategy, domestic ...

  7. 37 CFR 11.61 - Savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savings clause. 11.61 Section... Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.61 Savings clause. (a... subsequent to such effective date, if such conduct would continue to justify suspension or exclusion under...

  8. The High Cost of Saving Energy Dollars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    In alternative financing a private company provides the capital and expertise for improving school energy efficiency. Savings are split between the school system and the company. Options for municipal leasing, cost sharing, and shared savings are explained along with financial, procedural, and legal considerations. (MLF)

  9. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a...

  10. Towards Designing Android Faces after Actual Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Using their face as their prior affective interface, android robots and other agents embody emotional facial expressions, and convey messages on their identity, gender, age, race, and attractiveness. We are examining whether androids can convey emotionally relevant information via their static...... facial sig-nals, just as humans do. Based on the fact that social information can be accu-rately identified from still images of nonexpressive unknown faces, a judgment paradigm was employed to discover, and compare the style of facial expres-sions of the Geminoid-DK android (modeled after an actual...... initially made for the Original, suggesting that androids inherit the same style of facial expression as their originals. Our findings support the case of designing android faces after specific actual persons who portray facial features that are familiar to the users, and also relevant to the notion...

  11. Energy savings for solar heating systems; Solvarmeanlaegs energibesparelser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Fan, J.

    2011-01-15

    Energy savings for a number of new solar heating systems in one family houses have been determined by means of information on the energy consumption of the houses before and after installation of the solar heating systems. The investigated solar heating systems are marketed by Velux Danmark A/S, Sonnnenkraft Scandinavia A/S and Batec Solvarme A/S. Solar domestic hot water systems as well as solar combi systems are included in the investigations The houses have different auxiliary energy supply systems: Natural gas boilers, oil fired burners, electrical heating and district heating. Some of the houses have a second auxiliary energy supply system. The collector areas vary from 1.83 m{sup 2} to 9.28 m{sup 2}. Some of the solar heating systems are based on energy units with a new integrated natural gas boiler and a heat storage for the solar heating system. The existing energy systems in the houses are for most of the houses used as the auxiliary energy systems for the solar heating systems. The yearly energy savings for the houses where the only change is the installation of the solar heating system vary from 300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 1300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 670 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector are not influenced by the solar heating system type, the company marketing the system, the auxiliary energy supply system, the collector area, the collector tilt, the collector azimuth, the energy consumption of the house or the location of the house. The yearly energy savings for the houses with solar heating systems based on energy units including a new natural gas boiler vary from 790 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 2090 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 1520 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector for

  12. Savings Behavior and Satisfaction with Savings: A Comparison of Low- and High-Income Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth P.; Schumm, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Data on 1,739 married couples from 13 states were analyzed. Associations between satisfaction with savings and level of savings with measures of motivation to save, motivations to spend, and family resources were found to differ substantially between low- and high-income couples. (Author/CH)

  13. Measured energy savings and cost-effectiveness of conservation retrofits in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greely, K.M.; Harris, J.P.; Hatcher, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the measured savings and cost-effectiveness of 447 commercial retrofit projects in the US, Canada, and Europe, representing over 1,700 buildings. For these projects, they examine savings and cost-effectiveness by building type and retrofit strategy, savings from individual measures, peak electric demand savings, comparisons of measured vs. predicted savings, and the persistence of savings in the years following a retrofit. Median annual site energy savings amounted to 20 kBtu/ft 2 , or 18% of whole-building usage; median retrofit cost was $0.56/ft 2 (1988 $), the median payback time was 3.1 years, and the median cost of conserved energy was $3.10/site MBtu. When examined by retrofit strategy, they found that projects with only HVAC and/or lighting retrofits had median payback times of one to three years, while those affecting the building shell, either alone or in combination with other types of measures, had payback times of five or more years. Projects in which only maintenance practices were changed typically saved 12% of their pre-retrofit consumption, often using in-house labor. Their research suggests that, despite significant savings and short payback times for the majority of projects, optimum savings are often not being achieved, due to limited owner willingness to invest in all cost-effective measures, as well as to improper retrofit installation and/or maintenance. A comprehensive understanding of energy management as a process is needed, including both inspection and commissioning of installed retrofits and ongoing tracking of energy consumption as an indicator of operating problems

  14. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2001-10-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of $875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance

  15. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Evan

    2001-01-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of$875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance sheets to self

  16. ONU Power Saving Scheme for EPON System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Hiroaki; Tano, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Masaki; Kozaki, Seiji; Yamanaka, Hideaki

    PON (Passive Optical Network) achieves FTTH (Fiber To The Home) economically, by sharing an optical fiber among plural subscribers. Recently, global climate change has been recognized as a serious near term problem. Power saving techniques for electronic devices are important. In PON system, the ONU (Optical Network Unit) power saving scheme has been studied and defined in XG-PON. In this paper, we propose an ONU power saving scheme for EPON. Then, we present an analysis of the power reduction effect and the data transmission delay caused by the ONU power saving scheme. According to the analysis, we propose an efficient provisioning method for the ONU power saving scheme which is applicable to both of XG-PON and EPON.

  17. Values and Technologies in Energy Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    2000-01-01

    of this saving can cause what is called the rebound effect, which reduces the savings obtained from the technology. Ways to avoid this effect are suggested, and they require value changes, primarly around frugality, consumption, and hard-working. There are indications that some of the necessary changes are well......The chapter is based on the assumption, that technology improvement is not sufficient to achieve a sustainable world community. Changes in people´s values are necessary. A simple model suggest how values, together with basic needs and with the environmental and societal frames, determine people......´s behavioural pattern and lifestyles. Deliberate changes in social values are illustrated by a historical example. From the side of technology the basic principles in the economy of energy savings are briefly described. The marginally profitable energy savings provides an economic saving. The application...

  18. Energy storage. The actual challenge for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combe, Matthieu; Danielo, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    As methods of energy production are now diversified and efficient, the challenge is now their integration into the grid, and their storage. Thus, this publication first proposes a set of articles which address perspectives and realisations (or projects) related to energy storage: the challenge of modernisation of Pump Storage Power plants (PSP), the possibilities provided by power-to-gas technology to store electricity, the possibilities provided by coupling of CO 2 storage and geothermal energy. Other aspects concern electric power storage at the back end of the supply chain: the Corri-door project of 200 terminals for fast electric charging (for electric vehicles), the emergence of the domestic battery as storage mean in different counties. More prospective projects are also evoked: the use of hot water in Hawaii to store photovoltaic solar electricity and inspired projects by ENGIE and EDF, the perspective of energy storage on miniaturised chips, and a three-wheel light vehicle (Moe) using solar energy and developed by the Evovelo startup

  19. Way to save nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brightsen, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    In the opinion of many citizens, including the majority of those who oppose it, nuclear power will never recover from the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island. But some of nuclear power's supporters hope that the accident will shatter past smugness and spur constructive self-criticism on the part of the companies that build reactors, the utilities that buy them, and the Federal regulators who oversee their operation--and that it will usher in an era of truly safe atomic electricity. The article reviews deficiencies of the existing nuclear regulation - industry framework, and what must be done

  20. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Hermansen, John E. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Sagisaka, Masayuki [Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source. (author)

  1. Investing EU ETS auction revenues into energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Summerton, P.; Pollitt, H.; Billington, S. [Cambridge Econometrics CE, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    The overall objective of this study is to analyse the effects of using EU ETS auction revenues to stimulate investments in energy savings in three key target sectors, i.e. Households, Tertiary and Industry (including both ETS and non-ETS industrial installations). The scenarios used refer basically to the situation before the recent agreement on the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) and include (a mixture of) different policy options to enhance energy savings in the target sectors, in particular (1) reducing the ETS cap, (2) introducing an Energy Efficiency Obligation (EEO) for energy suppliers or distributors, and/or (3) using ETS auction revenues to support additional (private) investments in raising energy efficiency. In order to meet this objective a variety of different policy scenarios have been defined and analysed by means of the 'Energy-Environment-Economy Model for Europe (E3ME)'. The study presents and discusses a large variety of scenario modelling results by the year 2020 at the EU27 level. These results refer to, among others, energy savings, GHG emissions, the ETS carbon price, household electricity bills and to changes in some macro- or socio-economic outcomes such as GDP, inflation, employment or international trade. Finally, the study discusses some policy findings and implications, including options to enhance the effectiveness of some EE policies, in particular those having a potential adverse effect on the ETS carbon price.

  2. Can this merger be saved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, S

    1999-01-01

    In this fictional case study, a merger that looked like a marriage made in heaven to those at corporate headquarters is feeling like an infernal union to those on the ground. The merger is between Synergon Capital, a U.S. financial-services behemoth, and Beauchamp, Becker & Company, a venerable British financial-services company with strong profits and an extraordinarily loyal client base of wealthy individuals. Beauchamp also boasts a strong group of senior managers led by Julian Mansfield, a highly cultured and beloved patriarch who personifies all that's good about the company. Synergon isn't accustomed to acquiring such companies. It usually encircles a poorly managed turnaround candidate and then, once the deal is done, drops a neutron bomb on it, leaving file cabinets and contracts but no people. Before acquiring Beauchamp, Synergon's macho men offered loud assurances that they would leave the tradition-bound company alone-provided, of course, that Beauchamp met the ambitious target numbers and showed sufficient enthusiasm for cross-selling Synergon's products to its wealthy clients. In charge of making the acquisition work is Nick Cunningham, one of Synergon's more thoughtful executives. Nick, who was against the deal from the start, is the face and voice of Synergon for Julian Mansfield. And Mansfield, in his restrained way, is angry at the constant flow of bureaucratic forms, at the rude demands for instant information, at the peremptory changes. He's even dropping broad hints at retirement. Nick has already been warned: if Mansfield goes, you go. Six commentators advise Nick on how to save his job by bringing peace and prosperity to the feuding couple.

  3. Photovoltaic performance models: an evaluation with actual field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    TamizhMani, Govindasamy; Ishioye, John-Paul; Voropayev, Arseniy; Kang, Yi

    2008-08-01

    Prediction of energy production is crucial to the design and installation of the building integrated photovoltaic systems. This prediction should be attainable based on the commonly available parameters such as system size, orientation and tilt angle. Several commercially available as well as free downloadable software tools exist to predict energy production. Six software models have been evaluated in this study and they are: PV Watts, PVsyst, MAUI, Clean Power Estimator, Solar Advisor Model (SAM) and RETScreen. This evaluation has been done by comparing the monthly, seasonaly and annually predicted data with the actual, field data obtained over a year period on a large number of residential PV systems ranging between 2 and 3 kWdc. All the systems are located in Arizona, within the Phoenix metropolitan area which lies at latitude 33° North, and longitude 112 West, and are all connected to the electrical grid.

  4. Use of landfill gas will save money and reduce emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    The City of Glendale, California has commenced on a project to transport landfill gas (LFG) from the Scholl Canyon Landfill to the Grayson Power Plant. At the plant the LFG will be used to produce electricity in existing steam electric generating units and combustion turbines. The LFG will reduce the natural gas consumed at the plant resulting in a substantial cost savings for the City. This project also offers significant environmental improvements. First, the elimination of flaring at the landfill will reduce emissions. Second, the LFG will reduce NO x emissions from the power plant. This paper will describe the existing collection system at the landfill as well as the design of the compression and piping system to transport the LFG to the power plant. It will also outline the in-plant modifications to the fuel delivery system and examine some of the emission implications of how the fuel is utilized

  5. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilation strategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7. Median energy use for the development is 11,000 kWh; annual energy costs are $780, with a fair amount of variation dependent on size of home. Preliminary analysis of savings between Salishan 7 and previous phases (4 through 6) suggest savings of between 20 and 30 percent. A more comprehensive comparison between Salishan 7 and previous phases will take place in year two of this project.

  6. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, M. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, L. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, R. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilationstrategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7. Median energy use for the development is 11,000 kWh; annual energy costs are $780, with a fair amount of variation dependent on size of home. Preliminary analysis of savings betweenSalishan 7 and previous phases (4 through 6) suggest savings of between 20 and 30 percent. A more comprehensive comparison between Salishan 7 and previous phases will take place in year two of this project.

  7. Demand response offered by households with direct electric heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofod, C.; Togeby, M.

    2004-01-01

    The peak power balance in the Nordic power system is gradually turning to be very tight, especially in the electric area of southern Sweden and eastern Denmark. Power stations are closed and hardly any investments in new production are carried out. Demand response is considered essential when the formation of spot prices shall send the signal of needed investments in new capacity. Demand response which are based on individual preferences, and carried out automatically, can be one way to increase the volume of price elastic demand. Demand response need hourly metering for calculation and documentation of the decrease in demand, and controllability in order to meet the timing requirements. Within the EU SAVE project EFFLOCOM (2002 - 2004), a Danish demand response pilot project was established in 2003 including 25 single family homes with direct electrical heating. The system has been tested during the winter 2003/2004. The tested technologies include hourly metering, communication by GRPS as well as the Internet. GPRS is used for daily remote meter reading and automatic control of the electric heating including individual control of up to five zones. The system is designed for automatic activation when the Nord Pool hourly Elspot prices exceed preset levels. The system can also be used as regulating power. The EFFLOCOM Web Bite includes an interactive demonstrator of the system. The developed customer Web Bite is including the services: 1) Access to setting the limits for the maximum duration of interruption for up to five different control zones for two periods of the day and for three price levels. 2) Access to stop an actual interruption. 3) A report on the hourly, daily, weekly and monthly use of electricity and the saved bonus by demand response control. The report is updated daily. The goals of up to 5 kW controlled per house were fulfilled. Besides the demand response bonus the customers have also saved electricity. A customer survey did show that the

  8. If you want to save, focus on the forest rather than on trees. The effects of shifts in levels of construal on saving decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rudzinska-Wojciechowska

    Full Text Available Although financial decisions are expected to be rational, there is a growing body of experimental research indicating that small psychological changes in one's mind-set in the actual decision-making moment might affect saving ratios. In this article, another type of change in one's mind-set, which can influence saving decisions, is explored, namely the level of construal. Construal level is a key descriptor of people's cognitive representations of targets, and is a way of characterising the mental mind-sets people use. Building on recent advances in the link between construal levels and intertemporal choices, the present research evaluates the effect of shifts in levels of construal in the very moment of decision making on people's propensity to save money. It is suggested that triggering a high-level construal mind-set would influence individuals' financial decisions and result in greater willingness to save than triggering a low-level construal mind-set. This assumption is supported by the findings: across three experiments, those with an abstract mind-set showed an increased willingness to save when compared to those with a concrete mind-set. The first experiment demonstrated that people in an abstract mind-set are more willing to delay financial gratification than those in a concrete mind-set. In the second and third experiments, those with an abstract mind-set showed an increased willingness to save when compared to those with a concrete mind-set. The research provides further evidence that mental states, which can be evoked by previous, unrelated tasks, such as level of cognitive abstraction, can influence everyday financial decisions. It, thus, highlights the role of situational factors that consumers may be not aware of, which still affect their savings decisions.

  9. If you want to save, focus on the forest rather than on trees. The effects of shifts in levels of construal on saving decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzinska-Wojciechowska, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Although financial decisions are expected to be rational, there is a growing body of experimental research indicating that small psychological changes in one's mind-set in the actual decision-making moment might affect saving ratios. In this article, another type of change in one's mind-set, which can influence saving decisions, is explored, namely the level of construal. Construal level is a key descriptor of people's cognitive representations of targets, and is a way of characterising the mental mind-sets people use. Building on recent advances in the link between construal levels and intertemporal choices, the present research evaluates the effect of shifts in levels of construal in the very moment of decision making on people's propensity to save money. It is suggested that triggering a high-level construal mind-set would influence individuals' financial decisions and result in greater willingness to save than triggering a low-level construal mind-set. This assumption is supported by the findings: across three experiments, those with an abstract mind-set showed an increased willingness to save when compared to those with a concrete mind-set. The first experiment demonstrated that people in an abstract mind-set are more willing to delay financial gratification than those in a concrete mind-set. In the second and third experiments, those with an abstract mind-set showed an increased willingness to save when compared to those with a concrete mind-set. The research provides further evidence that mental states, which can be evoked by previous, unrelated tasks, such as level of cognitive abstraction, can influence everyday financial decisions. It, thus, highlights the role of situational factors that consumers may be not aware of, which still affect their savings decisions.

  10. Targeting utility customers to improve energy savings from conservation and efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Nicholas W.; Jones, Pierce H.; Kipp, M. Jennison

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving DSM program impacts by targeting high energy users. • DSM energy savings potential hinges on pre-participation performance. • Targeting can benefit different utilities and energy efficiency programs. • Overall performance can be improved by up to 250% via targeting strategies. - Abstract: Electric utilities, government agencies, and private interests in the US have committed and continue to invest substantial resources – including billions of dollars of financial capital – in the pursuit of energy efficiency and conservation through demand-side management (DSM) programs. While most of these programs are deemed to be cost effective, and therefore in the public interest, opportunities exist to improve cost effectiveness by targeting programs to those customers with the greatest potential for energy savings. This article details an analysis of three DSM programs offered by three Florida municipal electric utilities to explore such opportunities. First, we estimate programs’ energy savings impacts; second, we measure and compare energy savings across subgroups of program participants as determined by their pre-intervention energy performance, and third, we explore potential changes in program impacts that might be realized by targeting specific customers for participation in the DSM programs. All three programs resulted in statistically significant average (per-participant) energy savings, yet average savings varied widely, with the customers who performed best (i.e., most efficient) before the intervention saving the least energy and those who performed worst (i.e., least efficient) before the intervention saving the most. Assessment of alternative program participation scenarios with varying levels of customer targeting suggests that program impacts could be increased by as much as 80% for a professional energy audit program, just over 100% for a high-efficiency heat pump upgrade program, and nearly 250% for an attic insulation

  11. Saving can save from death anxiety: mortality salience and financial decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz; Gasiorowska, Agata; Kesebir, Pelin

    2013-01-01

    Four studies tested the idea that saving money can buffer death anxiety and constitute a more effective buffer than spending money. Saving can relieve future-related anxiety and provide people with a sense of control over their fate, thereby rendering death thoughts less threatening. Study 1 found that participants primed with both saving and spending reported lower death fear than controls. Saving primes, however, were associated with significantly lower death fear than spending primes. Study 2 demonstrated that mortality primes increase the attractiveness of more frugal behaviors in save-or-spend dilemmas. Studies 3 and 4 found, in two different cultures (Polish and American), that the activation of death thoughts prompts people to allocate money to saving as opposed to spending. Overall, these studies provided evidence that saving protects from existential anxiety, and probably more so than spending.

  12. Saving can save from death anxiety: mortality salience and financial decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zaleskiewicz

    Full Text Available Four studies tested the idea that saving money can buffer death anxiety and constitute a more effective buffer than spending money. Saving can relieve future-related anxiety and provide people with a sense of control over their fate, thereby rendering death thoughts less threatening. Study 1 found that participants primed with both saving and spending reported lower death fear than controls. Saving primes, however, were associated with significantly lower death fear than spending primes. Study 2 demonstrated that mortality primes increase the attractiveness of more frugal behaviors in save-or-spend dilemmas. Studies 3 and 4 found, in two different cultures (Polish and American, that the activation of death thoughts prompts people to allocate money to saving as opposed to spending. Overall, these studies provided evidence that saving protects from existential anxiety, and probably more so than spending.

  13. Energy conservation. Federal shared energy savings contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Milans, Flora H.; Kirk, Roy J.; Welker, Robert A.; Sparling, William J.; Butler, Sharon E.; Irwin, Susan W.

    1989-04-01

    A number of impediments have discouraged federal agencies from using shared energy savings contracts. As of November 30, 1988, only two federal agencies - the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and the Department of the Army -had awarded such contracts even though they can yield significant energy and cost savings. The three major impediments we identified were uncertainty about the applicability of a particular procurement policy and practice, lack of management incentives, and difficulty in measuring energy and cost savings. To address the first impediment, the Department of Energy (DOE) developed a manual on shared energy savings contracting. The second impediment was addressed when the 100th Congress authorized incentives for federal agencies to enter into shared savings contracts. DOE addressed the third impediment by developing a methodology for calculating energy consumption and cost savings. However, because of differing methodological preferences, this issue will need to be addressed on a contract-by-contract basis. Some state governments and private sector firms are using performance contracts to reduce energy costs in their buildings and facilities. We were able to identify six states that were using performance contracts. Five have established programs, and all six states have projects under contract. The seven energy service companies we contacted indicated interest in federal shared energy savings contracting

  14. Energy Saving in Data Processing and Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Iazeolla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The power management of ICT systems, that is, data processing (Dp and telecommunication (Tlc systems, is becoming a relevant problem in economical terms. Dp systems totalize millions of servers and associated subsystems (processors, monitors, storage devices, etc. all over the world that need to be electrically powered. Dp systems are also used in the government of Tlc systems, which, besides requiring Dp electrical power, also require Tlc-specific power, both for mobile networks (with their cell-phone towers and associated subsystems: base stations, subscriber stations, switching nodes, etc. and for wired networks (with their routers, gateways, switches, etc.. ICT research is thus expected to investigate into methods to reduce Dp- and Tlc-specific power consumption. However, saving power may turn into waste of performance, in other words, into waste of ICT quality of service (QoS. This paper investigates the Dp and Tlc power management policies that look at compromises between power saving and QoS.

  15. Cost Savings for Manufacturing Lithium Batteries in a Flexible Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2015-06-01

    The flexible plant postulated in this study would produces types of batteries for electric-drive vehicles of the types hybrid (HEV), 10-mile range and 40-mile range plug-in hybrids (PHEV) and a 150-mile range battery-electric (EV). The annual production rate of the plant is 235,000 per year (30,000 EV batteries and 100,000 HEV batteries). The unit cost savings as calculated with the Argonne BatPaC model for this flex plant vs. dedicated plants range from 8% for the EV battery packs to 23% for the HEV packs including the battery management systems (BMS). The investment cost savings are even larger, ranging from 21% for EVs to 43% for HEVs. The costs of the 1.0-kWh HEV batteries are projected to approach $710 per unit and that of the EV batteries $228 per kWh with the most favorable cell chemistries and including the BMS. The best single indicator of the cost of producing lithium-manganate spinel/graphite batteries in a flex plant is the total cell area of the battery. For the four batteries studied, the price range is $20-24 per m2 of cell area including the cost of the BMS, averaging $21 per m2 for the entire flex plant.

  16. Survey of industrial radioisotope savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Only three decades after the discovery of artificial radioactivity and two after radioisotopes became available in quantity, methods employing these as sources or tracers have found widespread use, not only in scientific research, but also in industrial process and product control. The sums spent by industry on these new techniques amount to millions of dollars a year. Realizing the overall attitude of industry to scientific progress - to accept only methods that pay relatively quickly - one can assume that the economic benefits must be of a still larger order of magnitude. In order to determine the extent to which radioisotopes are in daily use and to evaluate the economic benefits derived from such use, IAEA decided to make an 'International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry'. In 1962, the Agency invited a number of its highly industrialized Member States to participate in this Survey. Similar surveys had been performed in various countries in the 1950's. However, the approaches and also the definition of the economic benefits differed greatly from one survey to another. Hence, the Agency's approach was to try to persuade all countries to conduct surveys at the same time, concerning the same categories of industries and using the same terms of costs, savings, etc. In total, 24 Member States of the Agency agreed to participate in the survey and in due course they submitted contributions. The national reports were discussed at a 'Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics', convened in Vienna in March 1964. Based upon these discussions, the national reports have been edited and summarized. A publication showing the administration of the Survey and providing all details is now published by the Agency. From the publication it is evident that in general the return of technical information was quite high, of the order of 90%, but, unfortunately the economic response was much lower. However, most of the reports had some bearing on the economic aspects

  17. Lowering electricity prices through deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Klitgaard; Rekha Reddy

    2000-01-01

    A wave of regulatory reform is now transforming the U.S. electricity industry. As state and federal authorities allow independent power producers to compete with utilities in supplying electricity, consumers are paying close attention to the effects of this change on their energy bills. Although deregulation poses significant structural challenges, the introduction of competitive pressures should ultimately lead to efficiency gains for the industry and cost savings for households and businesses.

  18. Centralized or decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, H.A. de.

    1975-01-01

    Because of low overall efficiency in electric power generation, it is argued that energy provision based on gas, combined with locally decentralized electricity production, saves for the Netherlands slightly more fossile fuel than nuclear technologies and makes the country independent of uranium resources. The reason the Netherlands persues this approach is that a big part of the energy is finally used for heating in the normal or moderate temperatures

  19. U.S. Army Reserve 88th Readiness Division Finds Big Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-02-20

    Fact sheet features lighting work done for the U.S. Army Reserve 88th Readiness Division, which was recognized in two 2017 Interior Lighting Campaign exemplary recognition categories. The troffer lighting upgrade projects at the two recognized sites are expected to save more than 246,000 kWh annually or roughly enough electricity to run 23 homes for a year.

  20. Freshwater savings from marine protein consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, Jessica A; Pace, Michael L; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Marine fisheries provide an essential source of protein for many people around the world. Unlike alternative terrestrial sources of protein, marine fish production requires little to no freshwater inputs. Consuming marine fish protein instead of terrestrial protein therefore represents freshwater savings (equivalent to an avoided water cost) and contributes to a low water footprint diet. These water savings are realized by the producers of alternative protein sources, rather than the consumers of marine protein. This study quantifies freshwater savings from marine fish consumption around the world by estimating the water footprint of replacing marine fish with terrestrial protein based on current consumption patterns. An estimated 7 600 km 3  yr −1 of water is used for human food production. Replacing marine protein with terrestrial protein would require an additional 350 km 3  yr −1 of water, meaning that marine protein provides current water savings of 4.6%. The importance of these freshwater savings is highly uneven around the globe, with savings ranging from as little as 0 to as much as 50%. The largest savings as a per cent of current water footprints occur in Asia, Oceania, and several coastal African nations. The greatest national water savings from marine fish protein occur in Southeast Asia and the United States. As the human population increases, future water savings from marine fish consumption will be increasingly important to food and water security and depend on sustainable harvest of capture fisheries and low water footprint growth of marine aquaculture. (paper)

  1. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  2. Neoadjuvant Treatment in Rectal Cancer: Actual Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garajová, Ingrid; Di Girolamo, Stefania; de Rosa, Francesco; Corbelli, Jody; Agostini, Valentina; Biasco, Guido; Brandi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant (preoperative) concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become a standard treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. The clinical stages II (cT3-4, N0, M0) and III (cT1-4, N+, M0) according to International Union Against Cancer (IUCC) are concerned. It can reduce tumor volume and subsequently lead to an increase in complete resections (R0 resections), shows less toxicity, and improves local control rate. The aim of this review is to summarize actual approaches, main problems, and discrepancies in the treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. PMID:22295206

  3. Actual service life prediction of building components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Niels-Jørgen; Brandt, Erik; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, sustainability and life cycle cost in the construction industry have been given great attention in many countries due to the heavy climatic and environmental impact from this sector. In Denmark, a sustainability certification scheme for buildings has been developed including....... Finally, it is discussed how to adjust the model for practical purposes, and a scheme for actual service life for selected building components important for analysis of sustainability is linked. The schemes are now being implemented as basis for sustainability certification of new buildings in Denmark....

  4. Actuality of the Einstein theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    Problems of actuality of the Einstein theory of gravitation are lightened. The great Einstein theory of gravitation is shown to remain a reliable base of understanding of modern physical world pattern and its inevitable further inexhaustible precising. The main GRT difficulties are enumirated: determination of reference systems, presence of singularities in the theory, absence of consistent determination of the gravity energy, impossibility of accounting the relations between atomic, gravitational and cosmological characteristics. The attention is paid to gauge, twistor problems and to unified interaction theory. The great contribution of the soviet science in the theory of gravitation is stressed

  5. Principles of valuing business travel time savings

    OpenAIRE

    Fowkes, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    OVERVIEW\\ud \\ud There are two approaches to valuing travel time savings to business people. The first is that which has formed the basis of UK policy for about 30 years, and which is set out in Section 2. This takes the value of travel time savings on employer’s business as equal to the gross wage rate plus an allowance for other costs that the employer saves. These might include such things as desk space, computer, tools, uniform, protective clothing, travel expenses. These were investigated...

  6. Who's in the business of saving lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Chang, Pepe

    2006-10-01

    There are individuals, including children, dying needlessly in poverty-stricken third world countries. Many of these deaths could be prevented if pharmaceutical companies provided the drugs needed to save their lives. Some believe that because pharmaceutical companies have the power to save lives, and because they can do so with little effort, they have a special obligation. I argue that there is no distinction, with respect to obligations and responsibilities, between pharmaceutical companies and other types of companies. As a result, to hold pharmaceutical companies especially responsible for saving lives in third world countries is unjustified.

  7. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  8. Must losing taxes on saving be harmful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    on account of international tax evasion mayprevent the overall saving-investment tax wedge from becoming too high, and hencemay be beneficial for moderate preferences for public goods. A world with 'high-spending' governments, in contrast, is made worse off by the loss of saving taxes,and hence stands...... are financed by taxes on savingand investment. There is international cross-ownership of firms, and countries areassumed to be unable to tax away pure profits. Countries then face an incentiveto impose a rather high investment tax also borne by foreigners. In this setting,the loss of the saving tax instrument...

  9. 12 CFR 583.20 - Savings and loan holding company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings and loan holding company. 583.20... REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.20 Savings and loan holding company. The term savings and loan holding company means any company that directly or indirectly controls a savings...

  10. Save water to save carbon and money: developing abatement costs for expanded greenhouse gas reduction portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Hendrickson, Thomas P; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-12-02

    The water-energy nexus is of growing interest for researchers and policy makers because the two critical resources are interdependent. Their provision and consumption contribute to climate change through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research considers the potential for conserving both energy and water resources by measuring the life-cycle economic efficiency of greenhouse gas reductions through the water loss control technologies of pressure management and leak management. These costs are compared to other GHG abatement technologies: lighting, building insulation, electricity generation, and passenger transportation. Each cost is calculated using a bottom-up approach where regional and temporal variations for three different California water utilities are applied to all alternatives. The costs and abatement potential for each technology are displayed on an environmental abatement cost curve. The results reveal that water loss control can reduce GHGs at lower cost than other technologies and well below California's expected carbon trading price floor. One utility with an energy-intensive water supply could abate 135,000 Mg of GHGs between 2014 and 2035 and save--rather than spend--more than $130/Mg using the water loss control strategies evaluated. Water loss control technologies therefore should be considered in GHG abatement portfolios for utilities and policy makers.

  11. La escritura intermedial en la escena actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Thenon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Las escrituras artísticas actuales integran, en el marco determinado por las realidades intermediales de la escena tecnológica, el concepto de diseño como manipulación perceptiva del espacio, lo que constituye uno de los instrumentos determinantes en la puesta en marcha de un cuadro compositivo de resonancias transformacionales. Podríamos en este sentido hablar de una nueva ecología artística y en especial, teatral. En la renovación del pensamiento teatral actualizado, fuertemente influenciado por la estructura discursiva cinematográfica y por los universos sensoriales de la cultura tecnológica de la imagen y del sonido, está la base de la multiplicación diegética, de la superposición, de la fragmentación de los discursos y de la praxis inter-relacional en la que radica, en gran medida, la potencia intermedial de la escena actual.

  12. Efficiency trends in electric machines and drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecrow, B.C.; Jack, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Almost all electricity in the UK is generated by rotating electrical generators, and approximately half of it is used to drive electrical motors. This means that efficiency improvements to electrical machines can have a very large impact on energy consumption. The key challenges to increased efficiency in systems driven by electrical machines lie in three areas: to extend the application of variable-speed electric drives into new areas through reduction of power electronic and control costs; to integrate the drive and the driven load to maximise system efficiency; and to increase the efficiency of the electrical drive itself. In the short to medium term, efficiency gains within electrical machines will result from the development of new materials and construction techniques. Approximately a quarter of new electrical machines are driven by variable-speed drives. These are a less mature product than electrical machines and should see larger efficiency gains over the next 50 years. Advances will occur, with new types of power electronic devices that reduce switching and conduction loss. With variable-speed drives, there is complete freedom to vary the speed of the driven load. Replacing fixed-speed machines with variable-speed drives for a high proportion of industrial loads could mean a 15-30% energy saving. This could save the UK 15 billion kWh of electricity per year which, when combined with motor and drive efficiency gains, would amount to a total annual saving of 24 billion kWh

  13. Heat and electricity generating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buter, J.

    1977-01-01

    A short synopsis on the actual methods of heating of lodgings and of industrial heat generation is given. Electricity can be generated in steam cycles heated by burning of fossil fuels or by nuclear energy. A valuable contribution to the electricity economy is produced in the hydroelectric power plants. Besides these classical methods, also the different procedures of direct electricity generation are treated: thermoelectric, thermionic, magnetohydrodynamic power sources, solar and fuel cells. (orig.) [de

  14. Electric power in Canada, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (82 tabs., 23 figs.)

  15. Electric power in Canada, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (78 tabs., 27 figs.)

  16. Maintaining a Viable Energy Savings Performance Contract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weber, Katherine L; Huckeby, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Substantial amounts of information are available on Energy Savings Performance Contract award requirements, measurement, and verification, but we have found very little information on the day-to-day...

  17. Potential Logistics Cost Savings from Engine Commonality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Robert L; Higer, Matthew W

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this MBA Project is to determine potential logistics cost savings the USAF and DoD could have realized through the life of the F-16 fighter aircraft had they required engine commonality...

  18. Radioisotope savings in industry and agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-01-15

    Benefits and savings achieved in industry and agriculture were described by leading experts from six different countries at a public discussion organized by the Agency on 24 September 1963, during the last IAEA General Conference.

  19. Site preparation savings through better utilization standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. Watson; B.J. Stokes; I.W. Savelle

    1984-01-01

    This reports preliminary paper results of a study to determine the savings in the cost of site preparation that can be accomplished by the intensive utiliiation of understory biomass. mechanized sys terns can potentially be used for recovering this material.

  20. Caustic saving potentile in textile processing mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M.; Rehman, A.; Ghafar, A.; Hafeez, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    The textile processing industry of pakistan has great potential of improvement in resource consumption in various production processes. One major concern is the heavy usage of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) especially during the mercerization process which incurs a significant cost to a textile processing mill. To reduce the unit fabric production cost and stay competitive, the industry need to minimize the caustic wastage and explore the caustic saving potential. This paper describe the detailed caustic consumption practices and saving potentials in woven textile sector based on the data base of 100 industries. Region wise caustic saving potential is also investigated . Three caustic conservation option including process improvement, reuse and recycling, and caustic recovery plants are discussed. Detailed technical and and financial requirements. saving potentials and paybacks of these options are provided. (author)

  1. Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight! Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents People with glaucoma see the world through a tunnel. Glaucoma is ...

  2. Statistical Uncertainty in the Medicare Shared Savings...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to analysis reported in Statistical Uncertainty in the Medicare Shared Savings Program published in Volume 2, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  3. The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES) package is a tool to help school designers assess the potential financial payback and indoor humidity control benefits of Energy Recovery Ventilation (ERV) systems for school applications.

  4. Impacts of Commercial Building Controls on Energy Savings and Peak Load Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas E.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Commercial buildings in the United States use about 18 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of primary energy annually . Studies have shown that as much as 30% of building energy consumption can be avoided by using more accurate sensing, using existing controls better, and deploying advanced controls; hence, the motivation for the work described in this report. Studies also have shown that 10% to 20% of the commercial building peak load can be temporarily managed/curtailed to provide grid services. Although many studies have indicated significant potential for reducing the energy consumption in commercial buildings, very few have documented the actual savings. The studies that did so only provided savings at the whole building level, which makes it difficult to assess the savings potential of each individual measure deployed.

  5. 31 CFR 359.35 - May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds through a payroll savings plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... savings bonds through a payroll savings plan? 359.35 Section 359.35 Money and Finance: Treasury... May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds through a payroll savings plan? You may purchase definitive bonds through deductions from your pay if your employer maintains a payroll savings plan. An...

  6. 31 CFR 351.47 - May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds through a payroll savings plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... savings bonds through a payroll savings plan? 351.47 Section 351.47 Money and Finance: Treasury....47 May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds through a payroll savings plan? You may purchase... maintains a payroll savings plan. An authorized issuing agent must issue the bonds. ...

  7. Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Vossos, Vagelis; Sanstad, Alan; Burch, Gabriel

    2011-10-13

    An increasing number of energy efficient appliances operate on direct current (DC) internally, offering the potential to use DC from renewable energy systems directly and avoiding the losses inherent in converting power to alternating current (AC) and back. This paper investigates that potential for net-metered residences with on-site photovoltaics (PV) by modeling the net power draw of the ‘direct-DC house’ with respect to today’s typical configuration, assuming identical DC-internal loads. Power draws were modeled for houses in 14 U.S. cities, using hourly, simulated PV-system output and residential loads. The latter were adjusted to reflect a 33% load reduction, representative of the most efficient DC-internal technology, based on an analysis of 32 electricity end-uses. The model tested the effect of climate, electric vehicle (EV) loads, electricity storage, and load shifting on electricity savings; a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how future changes in the efficiencies of power system components might affect savings potential. Based on this work, we estimate that net-metered PV residences could save 5% of their total electricity load for houses without storage and 14% for houses with storage. Based on residential PV penetration projections for year 2035 obtained from the National Energy Modeling System (2.7% for the reference case and 11.2% for the extended policy case), direct-DC could save the nation 10 trillion Btu (without storage) or 40 trillion Btu (with storage). Shifting the cooling load by two hours earlier in the day (pre-cooling) has negligible benefits for energy savings. Direct-DC provides no energy savings benefits for EV charging, to the extent that charging occurs at night. However, if charging occurred during the day, for example with employees charging while at work, the benefits would be large. Direct-DC energy savings are sensitive to power system and appliance conversion efficiencies but are not significantly

  8. The value of business travel time savings

    OpenAIRE

    Fowkes, A.S.; Marks, P.; Nash, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The value of time savings for business travellers forms a sizeable part of the benefits from trunk road, rail and air transport improvement schemes. It is therefore important to possess appropiate values to place on business travel time savings for evaluation purposes. The normal approach in practice is to adopt the wage rate of the workers in question plus an increment for overheads and non-wage payments. \\ud \\ud In this paper criticisms of this approach are discssed and the implications of ...

  9. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed.......The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed....

  10. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Evan

    2001-01-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of t...

  11. Conceptual Design of Operation Strategies for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Hoelzen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambitious targets to reduce emissions caused by aviation in the light of an expected ongoing rise of the air transport demand in the future drive the research of propulsion systems with lower CO2 emissions. Regional hybrid electric aircraft (HEA powered by conventional gas turbines and battery powered electric motors are investigated to test hybrid propulsion operation strategies. Especially the role of the battery within environmentally friendly concepts with significantly reduced carbon footprint is analyzed. Thus, a new simulation approach for HEA is introduced. The main findings underline the importance of choosing the right power-to-energy-ratio of a battery according to the flight mission. The gravimetric energy and power density of the electric storages determine the technologically feasibility of hybrid concepts. Cost competitive HEA configurations are found, but do not promise the targeted CO2 emission savings, when the well-to-wheel system is regarded with its actual costs. Sensitivity studies are used to determine external levers that favor the profitability of HEA.

  12. Creation of Carbon Credits by Water Saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutoshi Shimizu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Until now, as a way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from Japanese homes, the emphasis has been on reduction of energy consumption for air-conditioning and lighting. In recent years, there has been progress in CO2 emission reduction through research into the water-saving performance of bathroom fixtures such as toilets and showers. Simulations have shown that CO2 emissions associated with water consumption in Japanese homes can be reduced by 25% (1% of Japan’s total CO2 emissions by 2020 through the adoption of the use of water-saving fixtures. In response to this finding, a program to promote the replacement of current fixtures with water-saving toilet bowls and thermally insulated bathtubs has been added to the Government of Japan’s energy-saving policy. Furthermore, CO2 emission reduction through widespread use of water-saving fixtures has been adopted by the domestic credit system promoted by the Government of Japan as a way of achieving CO2 emission-reduction targets; application of this credit system has also begun. As part of a bilateral offset credit mechanism promoted by the Government of Japan, research to evaluate the CO2 reduction potential of the adoption of water-saving fixtures has been done in the city of Dalian, in China.

  13. Refrigeration: Introducing energy saving opportunities for business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    In some industries, most notably food and drink and chemicals, refrigeration accounts for a significant proportion of overall site energy costs. For instance, in the industrial handling of meat, poultry and fish, it often accounts for 50% of total energy costs. In ice-cream production the proportion is 70%. In a number of commercial sectors, refrigeration also represents a significant proportion of overall energy costs. For example: Cold storage 90%; Food supermarkets 50%; Small shops with refrigerated cabinets 70% or over; Pubs and clubs 30%. Against these high costs, even a small reduction in refrigeration energy use can offer significant cost savings, resulting in increased profits. Energy saving need not be expensive. Energy savings of up to 20% can be realised in many refrigeration plant through actions that require little or no investment. In addition, improving the efficiency and reducing the load on a refrigeration plant can improve reliability and reduce the likelihood of a breakdown. Most organisations can save energy and money on refrigeration by: More efficient equipment; Good maintenance; Housekeeping and control. This publication provides an understanding of the operation of refrigeration systems, identifies where savings can be realised and will enable readers to present an informed case on energy savings to key decision makers within their organisation. (GB)

  14. RECRUITMENT FINANCED BY SAVED LEAVE (RSL PROGRAMME)

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel; Tel. 73903

    1999-01-01

    Transfer to the saved leave account and saved leave bonusStaff members participating in the RSL programme may opt to transfer up to 10 days of unused annual leave or unused compensatory leave into their saved leave account, at the end of the leave year, i.e. 30 September (as set out in the implementation procedure dated 27 August 1997).A leave transfer request form, which you should complete, sign and return, if you wish to use this possibility, has been addressed you. To allow the necessary time for the processing of your request, you should return it without delay.As foreseen in the implementation procedure, an additional day of saved leave will be granted for each full period of 20 days remaining in the saved leave account on 31 December 1999, for any staff member participating in the RSL programme until that date.For part-time staff members participating in the RSL programme, the above-mentioned days of leave (annual, compensatory and saved) are adjusted proportionally to their contractual working week as...

  15. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The APH...

  16. La problemática educativa actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Filmus

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A través de una interesante y clara descripción de los cambios sufridos en América Latina y particularmente en Argentina a lo largo de la historia, el destacado especialista y actual Ministro de Educación de la Nación, Lic. Daniel Filmus, detalló los principales problemas que atraviesa hoy la educación. Su conferencia, sólidamente sustentada por numerosos datos estadísticos y ejemplos concretos, abordó temáticas claves como la exclusión, los salarios docentes, la inversión educativa, la globalización y sus efectos, la relación entre educación y demanda laboral. Finalmente, planteó algunos objetivos centrales a los que debemos apuntar para mejorar nuestro sistema educativo y lograr un país con lugar para todos

  17. Actual energy implementations and basic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nockemann, C.; Wuestenberg, H.

    1995-01-01

    The actual implementations in guaranteeing the reliability of NDE systems applied in service inspections in nuclear power plants will be presented. The difference between the American PDI (Performance Demonstration Initiative) which is based on blind trials and the European ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) approach which is based on a mixed procedure of physical modeling, experience data and test experiments will be discussed. The ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) has been adapted from the signal detection theory to NDE problems at BAM to be used for basic investigations and for the validation of new exceptional NDE systems where modeling and reference to standards is not yet possible. Examples of application will be shown and critical discussed especially concerning the influence of the grading unit raster

  18. CONCEPT OF REENGINEERING AGAIN RETURNS IN ACTUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Ionel POPESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it was released in the summer of 1990, the concept of reengineering returns in actuality, because in the social and economic conditions that we are experiencing at the moment, to face the increasingly fierce competition more and more companies have to resort to redesign the processes. Throughout this article, after a brief introduction, we will present the factors that contributed to the occurrence of reengineering; trying to highlight what involves this concept, the characteristics of the processes resulted from the reengineering, the importance and methods to prepare a process map, and the method to launch the process redesign. Finally we have issued several opinions and have made a number of recommendations that will lead to achieving a qualitative leap targeted by the companies which resort to reengineering.

  19. Saving-enhanced memory: the benefits of saving on the learning and remembering of new information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Benjamin C; Stone, Sean M

    2015-02-01

    With the continued integration of technology into people's lives, saving digital information has become an everyday facet of human behavior. In the present research, we examined the consequences of saving certain information on the ability to learn and remember other information. Results from three experiments showed that saving one file before studying a new file significantly improved memory for the contents of the new file. Notably, this effect was not observed when the saving process was deemed unreliable or when the contents of the to-be-saved file were not substantial enough to interfere with memory for the new file. These results suggest that saving provides a means to strategically off-load memory onto the environment in order to reduce the extent to which currently unneeded to-be-remembered information interferes with the learning and remembering of other information. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Exploring the time-saving bias: How drivers misestimate time saved when increasing speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Peer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the time-saving bias, drivers underestimate the time saved when increasing from a low speed and overestimate the time saved when increasing from a relatively high speed. Previous research used a specific type of task --- drivers were asked to estimate time saved when increasing speed and to give a numeric response --- to show this. The present research conducted two studies with multiple questions to show that the time-saving bias occurs in other tasks. Study 1 found that drivers committed the time-saving bias when asked to estimate (a the time saved when increasing speed or (b the distance that can be completed at a given time when increasing speed or (c the speed required to complete a given distance in decreasing times. Study 2 showed no major differences in estimations of time saved compared to estimations of the remaining journey time and also between responses given on a numeric scale versus a visual analog scale. Study 3 tested two possible explanations for the time-saving bias: a Proportion heuristic and a Differences heuristic. Some evidence was found for use of the latter.

  1. The actual state of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Masako

    2014-01-01

    The describing author's claims are as follows: a new mythology, semi made-in Japan energy, which 'the energy fundamental plan' creates; what is a nuclear fuel cycle?; operation processes in a reprocessing plant; the existing state against a recycle in dream; does a recycle reduce waste masses?; discharged liquid and gaseous radioactive wastes; an evaluation of exposure 'the value 22 μSv is irresponsible'; the putting off of waste problem in reprocessing; a guide in reprocessing; should a reprocessing be a duty of electric power companies? (M.H.)

  2. Energy-saving decomposition and power consumption forecast: The case of liaoning province in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.X.; Zhao, Y.S.; Wang, Y.J. [School of Business Administration, North China Electric Power University, Zhu Xin Zhuang, Bei Nong Lu No. 2, Changping District, Beijing (China); Zhang, S.L. [Finance Department, Nanning Power Supply Bureau, Xingguang Street No. 43, Nanning, Guangxi Autonomous Region (China); Li, F.R. [University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    To achieve sustainable development of the society, the People's Republic of China (PRC) proposed in its 11th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development Program a shift in energy-saving target of decreasing energy intensity by 20% in 2010 compared with that of 2005. Liaoning province is one of the oldest industrial bases in China. Policymakers are often confronted with problems relating to adjustment in the development pattern as a means to secure steady economic growth. The power industry is a fundamental energy industry; it plays an important role in realizing of energy-saving targets. Based on the input-output model, this paper sets extensive, planning and 20% energy-saving scenarios in order to analyze energy-saving and power consumption situations for Liaoning by 2010. Through extensive simulations, the levels of energy-saving and power demand under different scenarios are obtained. Results from the analysis show that under the premises of adjusting the ratio of investment and consumption, optimizing products structure, and improving energy use efficiency, it is possible to achieve the proposed energy-saving target. Liaoning's power consumption can maintain a stable growth trend in the future. The percentage of electricity to the total energy use can also increase to 16% in 2010. (author)

  3. Energy conservation in electric distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chong-Jin.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential for energy and power savings that exist in electric power delivery systems. These savings translate into significant financial and environmental benefits for electricity producers and consumers as well as for society in general. AlliedSignal's knowledge and perspectives on this topic are the result of discussions with hundreds of utility executives, government officials and other industry experts over the past decade in conjunction with marketing our Amorphous Metal technology for electric distribution transformers. Amorphous metal is a technology developed by AlliedSignal that significantly reduces the energy lost in electric distribution transformers at an incremental cost of just a few cents per kilo-Watt-hour. The purpose of this paper is to discuss: Amorphous Metal Alloy Technology; Energy Savings Opportunity; The Industrial Barriers and Remedies; Worldwide Demand; and A Low Risk Strategy. I wish this presentation will help KEPCO achieve their stated aims of ensuring sound development of the national economy and enhancement of public life through the economic and stable supply of electric power. AlliedSignal Korea Ltd. in conjunction with AlliedSignal Amorphous Metals in the U.S. are here to work with KEPCO, transformer manufacturers, industry, and government agencies to achieve greater efficiency in power distribution

  4. Mechanical design of electric motors

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Rapid increases in energy consumption and emphasis on environmental protection have posed challenges for the motor industry, as has the design and manufacture of highly efficient, reliable, cost-effective, energy-saving, quiet, precisely controlled, and long-lasting electric motors.Suitable for motor designers, engineers, and manufacturers, as well as maintenance personnel, undergraduate and graduate students, and academic researchers, Mechanical Design of Electric Motors provides in-depth knowledge of state-of-the-art design methods and developments of electric motors. From motor classificati

  5. Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-08-29

    With declining production costs and increasing technical capabilities, LED adoption has recently gained momentum in general illumination applications. This is a positive development for our energy infrastructure, as LEDs use significantly less electricity per lumen produced than many traditional lighting technologies. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications examines the expected market penetration and resulting energy savings of light-emitting diode, or LED, lamps and luminaires from today through 2030.

  6. How to Estimate Demand Charge Savings from PV on Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems are compensated through retail electricity tariffs - and for commercial and industrial customers, these are typically comprised of three components: a fixed monthly charge, energy charges, and demand charges. Of these, PV's ability to reduce demand charges has traditionally been the most difficult to estimate. In this fact sheet we explain the basics of demand charges, and provide a new method that a potential customer or PV developer can use to estimate a range of potential demand charge savings for a proposed PV system. These savings can then be added to other project cash flows, in assessing the project's financial performance.

  7. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, M. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, L. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, R. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilation strategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7.

  8. Radiation safety actuality in Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuharuk, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Radioecological monitoring issues and radiation safety are actual in the Republic of Moldova. Japan events show us the possibility of natural disasters. Republic of Moldova is surrounded by 8 NPPs, the closest being at the distance of 160 km. Moldovas territory is in seismic zone where underground earthquake shocks reaches 7 points or more. Thatis why radiation safety and radioecological monitoring is actual in our republic. Traces of Chernobyl were left in Moldovas soils. The fallouts of radio nuclides formed on the soil surfaces in the Republic of Moldova following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station Accident have been continuously affected by attacks of both natural and technicaly generated agents since the time of fallout. During the past decade a shift in emphasis has taken place regarding the need for more complete and accurate information on reservoir sedimentation. Classical sedimentation surveys involve repeated field measurement and, therefore, this is probably the most costly and time consuming method. The application of radio nuclides, particularly Cs 137, for water erosion and sedimentation studies in Republic of Moldova has not been attempted so far. This paper presents the results obtained on reservoir sedimentation rates in an area subjected to wide range in land degradation dy sheet-rill erosion. The profil characteristics support the assumption that in most undisturbed sites there is a sharp decline in Cs 137 activity with increasing dept. Such an asymmetrical distribution of the Cs 137 would suggest a standard pattern in the form of a cantilever. If the validity of this assamption is accepted it is possible to define two major types of Cs 137 cantilever distribution: shallow and deep buried cantilever. The main criterion in classifying these pattents lies generally in the shape of Cs 137 depth profile and particularly in burial magnitude of Cs 137 peak derived from Chernobyl. Hills area has been impacted by greatest sendimentation. This regional

  9. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction from Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V. Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios

  10. Potential energy savings in renovation projects of residential and service buildings; Energiansaeaestoemahdollisuudet rakennuskannan korjaustoiminnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heljo, J.; Vihola, J.

    2012-11-01

    The study estimates the feasible energy savings potential in the 2010 building stock by 2050. The focus is on energy-saving measures related to renovation of residential and service buildings. The calculations were done by building types and age groups using the EKOREM calculation model. The calculations indicate the building types and structural elements where potential for savings exists. The study did not consider energy-saving measures related to changes in heating systems, electrical equipment, property maintenance or use habits. The study disproved the common belief that considerably more energy savings could be achieved faster by focussing on the existing building stock instead of new construction. That is mainly due the fact that it generally pays to implement structural energy-saving measures only when the targeted elements also require other significant repairs besides energy-efficiency improvements. Thus, energy renovations cannot be speeded up very much. The clearest exception are the extra insulations added to roof assemblies that are easy to implement. Attempts to save more energy in the building stock than can be achieved at a small additional cost in connection with needed renovations may multiply costs, and the saving in energy costs will not necessarily cover the additional investments. The efficiency of energy-saving measures can be affected by recommending or ordering use of more energy efficient windows, thicker extra insulations or more efficient ventilation heat recovery systems than the standard solution selected in connection with renovations. The goal of preserving the characteristics of buildings of cultural-historical or architectural value and the typical solutions and materials used in all buildings of a certain period limit the repair and renovation of structural elements. In the case of these buildings, improvement of energy efficiency can be considered in connection with the planning of renovations and the buildings' use and

  11. Major cost savings associated with biologic dose reduction in patients with inflammatory arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, C L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether patients with Inflammatory Arthritis (IA) (Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) or Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS)) would remain in remission following a reduction in biologic dosing frequency and to calculate the cost savings associated with dose reduction. This prospective non-blinded non-randomised study commenced in 2010. Patients with Inflammatory Arthritis being treated with a biologic agent were screened for disease activity. A cohort of those in remission according to standardized disease activity indices (DAS28 < 2.6, BASDAI < 4) was offered a reduction in dosing frequency of two commonly used biologic therapies (etanercept 50 mg once per fortnight instead of weekly, adalimumab 40 mg once per month instead of fortnightly). Patients were assessed for disease activity at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following reduction in dosing frequency. Cost saving was calculated. 79 patients with inflammatory arthritis in remission were recruited. 57% had rheumatoid arthritis (n = 45), 13% psoriatic arthritis (n = 10) and 30% ankylosing spondylitis (n = 24). 57% (n = 45) were taking etanercept and 43% (n = 34) adalimumab. The percentage of patients in remission at 24 months was 56% (n = 44). This resulted in an actual saving to the state of approximately 600,000 euro over two years. This study demonstrates the reduction in biologic dosing frequency is feasible in Inflammatory Arthritis. There was a considerable cost saving at two years. The potential for major cost savings in biologic usage should be pursued further.

  12. Validating Savings Claims of Cold Climate Zero Energy Ready Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, J. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report details the validation methods used to analyze consumption at each of these homes. It includes a detailed end-use examination of consumptions from the following categories: 1) Heating, 2) Cooling, 3) Lights, Appliances, and Miscellaneous Electric Loads (LAMELS) along with Domestic Hot Water Use, 4) Ventilation, and 5) PV generation. A utility bill disaggregation method, which allows a crude estimation of space conditioning loads based on outdoor air temperature, was also performed and the results compared to the actual measured data.

  13. Energy Savings from Industrial Water Reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; de Fontaine, Andre

    2015-08-03

    Although it is widely recognized that reducing freshwater consumption is of critical importance, generating interest in industrial water reduction programs can be hindered for a variety of reasons. These include the low cost of water, greater focus on water use in other sectors such as the agriculture and residential sectors, high levels of unbilled and/or unregulated self-supplied water use in industry, and lack of water metering and tracking capabilities at industrial facilities. However, there are many additional components to the resource savings associated with reducing site water use beyond the water savings alone, such as reductions in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, treatment chemicals, and impact on the local watershed. Understanding and quantifying these additional resource savings can expand the community of businesses, NGOs, government agencies, and researchers with a vested interest in water reduction. This paper will develop a methodology for evaluating the embedded energy consumption associated with water use at an industrial facility. The methodology developed will use available data and references to evaluate the energy consumption associated with water supply and wastewater treatment outside of a facility’s fence line for various water sources. It will also include a framework for evaluating the energy consumption associated with water use within a facility’s fence line. The methodology will develop a more complete picture of the total resource savings associated with water reduction efforts and allow industrial water reduction programs to assess the energy and CO2 savings associated with their efforts.

  14. THE PUZZLE OF SIMULTANEOUS SAVINGS AND DEBTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA IANOLE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available „Neither a borrower nor a lender be” recommends Shakespeare in Hamlet. The advice seems particularly interesting in nowadays society where a person can be easily found in both approximate situations, in the same time. It goes without saying that saving and borrowing do not describe mutually exclusive strategies of financial management and thus many people retain savings or carry on saving at the same time as having debts. We add to this fact a more pragmatically wisdom, the one of the economist Robert Solow -“We (economists think of wealth as fungible; we think a dollar is a dollar. Why don't they (the others do so?” (Solow, 1987 – and we naturally ask ourselves if the mechanism of having simultaneous savings and debts is a rational one, according to traditional economics.Making appeal to the emerging body of behavioral economics literature we reach to the mental accounting theory to see if it can explain savings inclination versus debt inclination. The main research question we want to explore is the following: if mental accounting prevents people from spending money from one „mental account” on goods belonging to another one, will people – after using all their money from a given account – be willing to go into debt to buy goods belonging to this account in a situation when they still have money in other accounts?

  15. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  16. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  17. Nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling: Actual issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies are being spoken of as the driving force behind a new industrial revolution. Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. The size of nanoparticles allows them to interact strongly with biological structures, so they present potential human and environmental health risk. Nanometer size presents also a problem for separation, recovery, and reuse of the particulate matter. Therefore, industrial-scale manufacturing and use of nanomaterials could have strong impact on human health and the environment or the problematic of nanomaterials recycling. The catch-all term ''nanotechnology' is not sufficiently precise for risk governance and risk management purposes. The estimation of possible risks depends on a consideration of the life cycle of the material being produced, which involves understanding the processes and materials used in manufacture, the likely interactions between the product and individuals or the environment during its manufacture and useful life, and the methods used in its eventual disposal. From a risk-control point of view it will be necessary to systematically identify those critical issues, which should be looked at in more detail. Brief review of actual trends in nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling is given in this paper.

  18. The Actual Problems of Modern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya E. Anikeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The important aim of national and Spanish historiography and political science is to study history and foreign policy of modern Spain. The author studied articles and monographies of spanish politicians and researchers ( M. Rahoy, I. Aries, A. Rubalcaba, I. Molina for the preparation of this article during the scientific trip to Madrid (Complutense University, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology, which was held in the framework of cooperation between the Bank Santander and MGIMO (University. The paper analyzes the political and economic aspects of life in Spain, and its foreign policy of the period of government of Mariano Rajoy (from 2011 to the present time. The article is dedicated to actual problems of modern Spain: the economy and the priorities of the government of M.Rajoy, the problem of separatism and political system of the country. Modern Spain is still recovering economically from the euro debt crisis and continues to struggle with near-record unemployment. Domestic economic recovery of Spain and the country's foreign position are closely linked. The European integration process still remains the main strategic task of the spanish foreign policy. Spain increases its role in world politics and obtains a non-permanent UN's Security Council seat for the 2015-2016 term.

  19. Automation of Electrical Cable Harnesses Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuming Bi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional automated systems, such as industrial robots, are applied in well-structured environments, and many automated systems have a limited adaptability to deal with complexity and uncertainty; therefore, the applications of industrial robots in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are very limited. The majority of manual operations in SMEs are too complicated for automation. The rapidly developed information technologies (IT has brought new opportunities for the automation of manufacturing and assembly processes in the ill-structured environments. Note that an automation solution should be designed to meet the given requirements of the specified application, and it differs from one application to another. In this paper, we look into the feasibility of automated testing for electric cable harnesses, and our focus is on some of the generic strategies for the improvement of the adaptability of automation solutions. Especially, the concept of modularization is adopted in developing hardware and software to maximize system adaptability in testing a wide scope of products. A proposed system has been implemented, and the system performances have been evaluated by executing tests on actual products. The testing experiments have shown that the automated system outperformed manual operations greatly in terms of cost-saving, productivity and reliability. Due to the potential of increasing system adaptability and cost reduction, the presented work has its theoretical and practical significance for an extension for other automation solutions in SMEs.

  20. ENERGY SAVING AT OPERATION OF OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Ivin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Energy saving is a major problem in modern power engineering and various energy-consuming devices. They include outdoor swimming pools. In order to maintain them in working condition, especially in winter period, it takes significant amount of thermal energy. Task of heat loss substantial decrease in open swimming pools is considered in the article (on DNURT example. Methodology. The method of determining the mass and heat loss on the basis of criteria equations of heat and mass transfer theory is used. Findings. Calculations of the actual DNURT pool heat loss for different seasons, as for natural convection both for air forced motion above the free water surface are performed. It is shown that for the adiabatic evaporation conditions of water from the pool in winter during blow-off with wind the heat loss can be up to 2 kW/m2 on surface. To reduce these losses it is offered to cover water surface in a pool with a special material with low thermal conductivity on the basis of porous polyethylene during the time when the pool is not used for other purposes. It is shown that the implementation of these standards will reduce the actual heat loss, at least 5-6 times. Originality. The solution of important environmental and energy problem thanks to reducing heat losses by the pool in different times of a year and correspondingly lower emissions of power generating enterprises. Practical value. It is shown that the coating surface of the pool with poorly heat-conducting and easy to install coating will let, at a minimum, to reduce the actual heat loss on 5-6 times and reduce the emissions of power plants generating energy for pool heating.