WorldWideScience

Sample records for actors proliferant states

  1. Non-state actors in control of territory as 'actors of protection' in international refugee law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karavias, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the concept of non-stateactors of protection’ in international refugee law. This concept breaks with traditional State-centric readings of international law, as it connotes that a non-state actor may offer ‘protection’ against persecution, comparable to that normally offered

  2. Actor proliferation and the fragmentation of violent groups in conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitriona Dowd

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel application of a measure of actor fragmentation drawn from electoral studies to the growing field of conflict event data. The application facilitates comparison of conflict environments over time and across cases, while enabling researchers to take account of the relative activity levels of diverse actors. Analysis of the measure suggests that a fragmentation index diverges from a simple count of active conflict agents in important instances, including in providing a more accurate measure of dominant and weaker conflict agents, capturing dynamics of escalation and continuation of conflict over time and across country cases, and reflecting the coalescence of conflict agents around dominant conflict cleavages. The findings suggest that future research may benefit from combining measures of the discrete count of groups and their relative activity levels in order to accurately capture evolving conflict dynamics.

  3. Doctrinal Lessons from Non-State Actors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forte, Robert

    2001-01-01

    .... A phenomenon known as Gray Area War is on the rise. Gray Area War is defined as a conflict where at least one of the antagonists is a non-state entity and the method is combining elements of traditional war fighting with organized crime...

  4. EU–Hamas actors in a state of permanent liminality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle; Pallister-Wilkins, Polly

    2018-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate on liminality within International Relations (IR) theory by focusing on the actorness of the European Union (EU) and Hamas. The concept of liminality as a transitional process is applied to frame the situation of both the EU and Hamas as political actors in......-between socially established categories. This article explores how the liminal identity of these two actors impacts, on the one hand, their relations with each other and, on the other hand, their relations of ‘self’. Exploring the procedural relations of the EU and Hamas, it argues for the necessity of recognising...... liminal categories in IR theory and practice, while, at the same time, it highlights the limits of such in-between categories in a world order still structured around the state....

  5. Beyond Pain: Coercing Violent Non-State Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    same collection by Abraham Maslow , “A Theory of Motivation,” 174- 175, taken from Psychological Review, 50 (1943). 15 For excellent study of global...utility now? Despite a persistent threat, contemporary theory and practice are not oriented on the VNSA problem. Focus remains on inter-state...actors make imperfect decisions resulting in unexpected behaviors. This is contrary to the underlying premise of classical coercion theory , which

  6. Bridging the gap between non-state actors and the state in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    State Actors (NSAs) particularly, Civil Society Organizations' (CSOs) in public policy process in Nigeria. Using library retrieval technique, the paper argues that the state and NSAs have different but coordinate roles to play within the limit ...

  7. Counter-terrorism and the protection of civilians: Armed non-state actors

    OpenAIRE

    Munive, Jairo; Somer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Recent events in the Middle East present the latest and undoubtedly not the last challenge to international engagement with armed non-state actors. Over the last many years international humanitarian law has increasingly regulated the behaviour of armed non-state actors with regard to the protection of civilians. At the same time, counter-terror measures have increasingly addressed such conduct, as well as controlled the extent to which other actors may interact with armed non-state actors. Y...

  8. Necessity for Consistent and Understandable Engagement Policies with Non-State Actors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzpatrick, Andrew P

    2008-01-01

    How does a nonstate actor, namely a recognized armed insurgent group, transition to the political realm from insurgent to state actor, and what are the implications of such transitions for U.S. foreign policy...

  9. Transcended power of the state: the role of actors in Pierre Bourdieu's sociology of the state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnholtz, Jens; Hammerslev, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Pierre Bourdieu's writings on the state consist of a series of more or less coherent investigations approaching the state from different angles. His writings on the state may seem to contain internal ambiguities. On the one hand, they argue for an actor-centered approach to the state while......, on the other hand, elaborating the power of the state as an institution transcending these actors. The purpose of this article is to reconstruct Bourdieu's understanding of the state in order to examine if the opposition between these two apparently opposite approaches are in as sharp contention as they first...... appear. The article starts out by discussing how Bourdieu has approached the state through his broader sociological approach and concepts. Afterwards it outlines the state formation processes lying at the foundation of the state's power. Next it focuses on his special emphasis on the actor strategies...

  10. Revitalizing REDD+ Policy Processes in Vietnam: The Roles of State and Non-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Ba Huynh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam was one of the first countries to introduce the National REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Action Program in 2012. The country has recently revised the Program to aim for a more inclusive 2016–2020 strategy and a vision to 2030. This study explores how Vietnam policy actors view REDD+ policy development and their influence in these processes. The results can contribute to the discussion on how policy actors can effectively influence policy processes in the evolving context of REDD+ and in the types of political arrangements represented in Vietnam. We examined the influence of state and non-state actors on the 2012 National REDD+ Action Program (NRAP processes, and explored factors that may have shaped this influence, using a combination of document analysis and semi-structured interviews with 81 policy actors. It was found that non-state actors in REDD+ are still on the periphery of decision making, occupying “safe” positions, and have not taken either full advantage of their capacities, or of recent significant changes in the contemporary policy environment, to exert stronger influence on policy. We suggest that REDD+ policy processes in Vietnam need to be revitalized with key actors engaging collectively to promote the possibilities of REDD+ within a broader view of social change that reaches beyond the forestry sector.

  11. Non-State Actors in Global Governance. Three Faces of Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, B.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The political power of non-state actors (NSAs) remains a contested issue, as the continuing debates between neo-realists and transnationalists within the Study of International Relations (SIR) show. This paper builds on as well as tries to transcend this debate. Its objective is to bring more

  12. The Revival of Non-Traditional State Actors' Interests in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    credit ratings make external finance available for African governments. This article examines how non-traditional state actors affect the possibility of African governments setting and funding their own development priorities. It argues that while the current situation may increase the policy autonomy...

  13. A Poor Man's Nuclear Deterrent: Assessing the Value of Radiological Weapons for State Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Nathan

    The threat of weapons of mass destruction is an issue which remains at the forefront on national security. Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons are all considered very dangerous by both state and non-state actors. Radiological weapons exist in that same category yet are not held in the same regard; the reason that is given is that these types of weapons are not the weapons of mass destruction that the other three are. Instead, radiological weapons are better considered weapons of mass disruption. Accordingly, in the academic and policy literature there has been very little perceived value associated with such weapons for use by state actors. However the historical focus on the military efficacy of radiological weapons has obscured the obvious truth that they may pose significant value for state actors. What this research shows is that the explosion of a radiological weapon could disrupt a target area in ways which could cripple the economy of an adversary state and promote widespread fear concerning exposure to radiation. Any such attack would not only necessitate large scale evacuation, but cleanup, decontamination, demolition, territory exclusion, and relocation. Moreover, the effects of such an attack would be unlikely to remain an isolated event as evacuated and displaced citizens spread across the nation carrying both fear and residual radiation. All of these factors would only be compounded by a state actor's ability to not only develop such weapons, but to manufacture them in such a composition that contemporary examples of such weapons grossly underestimate their impact. Accordingly, radiological weapons could hold great value for any state actor wishing to pursue their development and to threaten their use. Moreover, "while RDDs may not be well suited as "military weapons" in the classic sense, the use of RDDs could be powerfully coercive."1 In that sense, state actors could even acquire radiological weapons for their deterrent value. 1James L. Ford

  14. Third Level of International Relations: Characteristics of Sub-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey P. Arteev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is in the genre of the review for textbook O. V. Plotnikova and O. Y. Dubrovina International relations of the regions States: characteristics and features (Moscow: Norma; INFRA-M, 2016. 192 p.. Textbook on international activities of sub-state/subnational actors in international relations. Under the sub-state/subnational actors refers to the regions of the States. The authors propose an along with interstate relations (first level and supranational organizations (second level to distinguish a third level of international relations - international relations of the regions in Federal and unitary States. The topic is very relevant due to the ongoing restructuring of the architecture of international relations and world politics. In addition, these processes lead to involvement in international relations new actors. The resulting configuration and the role of traditional players. In addition to long-term evolutionary processes, we should not forget about the position of Russia in the last few years. It is obvious that the current tensions around the Russian Federation may not be fully resolved with the old methods. At the same time, sub-state/ subnational actors as subjects of a combined nature, the role played by regions of the Russian Federation, able to combine harmoniously in its international activities as the techniques characteristic of the traditional actors - States and developments in the tools of non-traditional actors - international non-governmental and non-profit organizations etc. As a result of positive results can be achieved faster and at the interstate level. The review considers the subject and the relevance of the topic, presents the analysis of the content of the work. Marked strengths of the textbook, including those associated with the consideration of the diagonal ties and the political components in the international activities of the regions. In addition to the advantages, attention is paid to the analysis of

  15. The international right to health: state obligations and private actors in the health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Paula

    2013-09-01

    Most health systems have historically used a mix of public and private actors for financing and delivering care. But the last 30 years have seen many rich and middle-income countries moving to privatise parts of their health care systems. This phenomenon has generated concerns, especially about equitable access to health care. This article examines what the international right to the highest attainable standard of health in Art 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights says about the obligations of states which use private actors in health care. The article involves a close study of the primary documents of the key institutions responsible for interpreting and promoting Art 12. From this study, the article concludes that in mixed public-private health care systems, states not only retain primary responsibility for fulfilling the right to health but are subject to a range of additional specific responsibilities.

  16. The ambivalent relation between state and illegal actors: piracy retail in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, José Carlos G.

    2011-01-01

    In the rise of democratic governments across Latin America, the neoliberal law-and-order perspective has been the most influential model of security in the region. This approach is based on the opposition between state and illegal agents, as if they were two different sets of actors. Influenced by this model, Mexican president Vicente Fox launched an extensive anti-piracy programme to eradicate retail of counterfeit. Based on ethnographic material gathered in the San Juan de Dios market in Gu...

  17. Environmental governance in China: Interactions between the state and "nonstate actors".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Dan; Young, Oran; Jing, Yijia; Bramble, Barbara; Bu, Maoliang; Chen, Carmen; Furst, Kathinka; Hu, Tao; Li, Yifei; Logan, Kate; Liu, Lingxuan; Price, Lydia; Spencer, Michael; Suh, Sangwon; Sun, Xiaopu; Tan, Bowen; Wang, Harold; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Xinxin; Zeidan, Rodrigo

    2018-08-15

    In the West, limited government capacity to solve environmental problems has triggered the rise of a variety of "nonstate actors" to supplement government efforts or provide alternative mechanisms for addressing environmental issues. How does this development - along with our efforts to understand it - map onto environmental governance processes in China? China's efforts to address environmental issues reflect institutionalized governance processes that differ from parallel western processes in ways that have major consequences for domestic environmental governance practices and the governance of China "going abroad." China's governance processes blur the distinction between the state and other actors; the "shadow of the state" is a major factor in all efforts to address environmental issues. The space occupied by nonstate actors in western systems is occupied by shiye danwei ("public service units"), she hui tuanti ("social associations") and e-platforms, all of which have close links to the state. Meanwhile, international NGOs and multinational corporations are also significant players in China. As a result, the mechanisms of influence that produce effects in China differ in important ways from mechanisms familiar from the western experience. This conclusion has far-reaching implications for those seeking to address global environmental concerns, given the importance of China's growing economy and burgeoning network of trade relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Model of Social Responsibility of Actors in the State Sector of Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at developing a conceptual model of social responsibility of actors in the State sector of economy and elaborating directions for its improvement. It has been determined that social responsibility of the State and actors in the State sector of economy, as managers of the budget, is to determine and reconcile positions on the achievement of joint agreements and adoption of agreed decisions by the parties to the social dialog. A conceptual model of the socially responsible State has been developed, where the functions of moderator of principles of social responsibility at all levels of socio-economic relations are vested in the State sector of economy. It has been substantiated that the main tool for the creation of a social State is the auditing of social responsibility, the basic information base for controlling the level of social responsibility is the integrated reporting of companies. To disseminate the ideas of integrated reporting, creation of a «Single portal of integrated reporting for enterprises and organizations of Ukraine» has been proposed.

  19. State-owned Enterprises as Institutional Market Actors in the Marketization of Public Service Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup Christensen, Lene

    This doctoral thesis (PhD) explores from a public governance perspective the role of stateowned enterprises (SOEs) in an era of marketization of public service provision and thus contributes to the renewed academic interest in contemporary SOEs. It builds on an explorative comparative case study...... of DSB SOV and SJ AB in the marketization of passenger rail in Denmark and Sweden respectively from the 1990s to 2015. In the period both cases kept full state ownership and Sweden gradually exposed all services to competition whereas in Denmark with time competition was put on hold. The case study...... as an institutional market actor (IMA)....

  20. Introduction of Counter-Proliferation Capabilities in Development States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caulfield, P.; Edwards, T.; Witkin, A.; Elgebaly, A.

    2010-01-01

    In recent history we have seen a number of States develop their indigenous industrial skills to a point suitable for the manufacture of nuclear components. Private individuals unbeknown to the State have then utilized this capability to supply directly into proliferation networks - potentially reducing international confidence in such a State. To combat this possibility, a developing State must recognize the challenges that are raised by its emerging skills and take action to introduce measures that not only help the State identify proliferation activities but also ensure the national security of the State. One of those measures might be to develop a capability within the State to recognize and counter the activities of would-be-proliferators. In many States this capability is managed and applied through a dedicated counter-proliferation unit that has strong links with border controls and customs organizations. A counter-proliferation unit, once established could show dramatic returns for a modest investment. The activities of such a Unit could save the State political embarrassment by hindering and narrowing the chances of unintentional proliferation activities. The Unit should not be introduced as part of a Safeguards agreement or as part of a non proliferation treaty. It should rather be established as an act by the State to protect and control its emerging technologies from being involved, willingly or unwittingly, in proliferation activities. This is a sovereign act of the State - solely for its benefit and should not be imposed by any external power. Today's would-be-proliferators around the world cooperate and act together; similarly emerging counter-proliferation units should act and work together in order to be a step ahead of the proliferators. Improved world-wide cooperation should increase the detection rate of proliferation incidents which will in turn curtail the spread of nuclear weapons - for the benefit of all. (author)

  1. Level of implementation of best practice policies for creating healthy food environments: assessment by state and non-state actors in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phulkerd, Sirinya; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Lawrence, Mark; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Sacks, Gary

    2017-02-01

    To determine and compare the level of implementation of policies for healthy food environments in Thailand with reference to international best practice by state and non-state actors. Data on the current level of implementation of food environment policies were assessed independently using the adapted Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) by two groups of actors. Concrete actions were proposed for Thai Government. A joint meeting between both groups was subsequently held to reach consensus on priority actions. Thailand. Thirty state actors and twenty-seven non-state actors. Level of policy implementation varied across different domains and actor groups. State actors rated implementation levels higher than non-state actors. Both state and non-state actors rated level of implementation of monitoring of BMI highest. Level of implementation of policies promoting in-store availability of healthy foods and policies increasing tax on unhealthy foods were rated lowest by state and non-state actors, respectively. Both groups reached consensus on eleven priority actions for implementation, focusing on food provision in public-sector settings, food composition, food promotion, leadership, monitoring and intelligence, and food trade. Although the implementation gaps identified and priority actions proposed varied between state and non-state actors, both groups achieved consensus on a comprehensive food policy package to be implemented by the Thai Government to improve the healthiness of food environments. This consensus is a platform for continued policy dialogue towards cross-sectoral policy coherence and effective actions to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases and obesity in Thailand.

  2. An Autonomous Connectivity Restoration Algorithm Based on Finite State Machine for Wireless Sensor-Actor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of autonomous unmanned intelligent systems, such as the unmanned boats, unmanned planes and autonomous underwater vehicles, studies on Wireless Sensor-Actor Networks (WSANs have attracted more attention. Network connectivity algorithms play an important role in data exchange, collaborative detection and information fusion. Due to the harsh application environment, abnormal nodes often appear, and the network connectivity will be prone to be lost. Network self-healing mechanisms have become critical for these systems. In order to decrease the movement overhead of the sensor-actor nodes, an autonomous connectivity restoration algorithm based on finite state machine is proposed. The idea is to identify whether a node is a critical node by using a finite state machine, and update the connected dominating set in a timely way. If an abnormal node is a critical node, the nearest non-critical node will be relocated to replace the abnormal node. In the case of multiple node abnormality, a regional network restoration algorithm is introduced. It is designed to reduce the overhead of node movements while restoration happens. Simulation results indicate the proposed algorithm has better performance on the total moving distance and the number of total relocated nodes compared with some other representative restoration algorithms.

  3. An Autonomous Connectivity Restoration Algorithm Based on Finite State Machine for Wireless Sensor-Actor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jun; Hao, Guan

    2018-01-08

    With the development of autonomous unmanned intelligent systems, such as the unmanned boats, unmanned planes and autonomous underwater vehicles, studies on Wireless Sensor-Actor Networks (WSANs) have attracted more attention. Network connectivity algorithms play an important role in data exchange, collaborative detection and information fusion. Due to the harsh application environment, abnormal nodes often appear, and the network connectivity will be prone to be lost. Network self-healing mechanisms have become critical for these systems. In order to decrease the movement overhead of the sensor-actor nodes, an autonomous connectivity restoration algorithm based on finite state machine is proposed. The idea is to identify whether a node is a critical node by using a finite state machine, and update the connected dominating set in a timely way. If an abnormal node is a critical node, the nearest non-critical node will be relocated to replace the abnormal node. In the case of multiple node abnormality, a regional network restoration algorithm is introduced. It is designed to reduce the overhead of node movements while restoration happens. Simulation results indicate the proposed algorithm has better performance on the total moving distance and the number of total relocated nodes compared with some other representative restoration algorithms.

  4. Deconstructing Civil Society Actors and Functions: On the Limitations of International Frameworks for Fragile States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Datzberger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, there has been a steady increase of funds by the international community to support civil society organizations (CSOs in fragile states. Surprisingly, this growing attention has not strengthened local civil society landscapes in a way that it would lead to processes of social transformation. On the contrary, civic freedom and space is shrinking around the globe. In analyzing prominent international aid-effectiveness frameworks and donor strategies towards civil society, this paper will put forward one central argument. The way in which civil society actors and functions are currently appropriated threatens deep-rooted social transformation thereby impeding processes of structural and political change—necessary for the transition from conflict to sustainable peace. In delineating, how actors and functional approaches informed peacebuilding and development policy and practice, their strengths and limitations will be examined. Doing so, we draw on different case studies and examples from the literature. We find that existing frameworks for fragile states operate on a presumed model of a public sphere and civil society that may or may not exist. Such an approach disregards an organic formation of a civil society landscape thereby impeding processes of structural, social, and political change in times of fragility.

  5. An Autonomous Connectivity Restoration Algorithm Based on Finite State Machine for Wireless Sensor-Actor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jun; Hao, Guan

    2018-01-01

    With the development of autonomous unmanned intelligent systems, such as the unmanned boats, unmanned planes and autonomous underwater vehicles, studies on Wireless Sensor-Actor Networks (WSANs) have attracted more attention. Network connectivity algorithms play an important role in data exchange, collaborative detection and information fusion. Due to the harsh application environment, abnormal nodes often appear, and the network connectivity will be prone to be lost. Network self-healing mechanisms have become critical for these systems. In order to decrease the movement overhead of the sensor-actor nodes, an autonomous connectivity restoration algorithm based on finite state machine is proposed. The idea is to identify whether a node is a critical node by using a finite state machine, and update the connected dominating set in a timely way. If an abnormal node is a critical node, the nearest non-critical node will be relocated to replace the abnormal node. In the case of multiple node abnormality, a regional network restoration algorithm is introduced. It is designed to reduce the overhead of node movements while restoration happens. Simulation results indicate the proposed algorithm has better performance on the total moving distance and the number of total relocated nodes compared with some other representative restoration algorithms. PMID:29316702

  6. United States non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheinman, L.

    1978-01-01

    U.S. non-proliferation policy is aimed at slowing the spread of nuclear weapons capabilities, managing the destabilizing effects of nuclear technology for energy purposes, and fostering international standards and institutions to deal responsibly with global nuclear development. These goals assume that nuclear technology has not already precluded social control and recognize the social benefits offered by peaceful uses of atomic energy. Non-proliferation policies recognize that the motivation for possessing nuclear weapons is a more-difficult problem than technical ability and will concentrate on reducing those incentives through international agreements and safeguards and by maintaining the separation of commercial nuclear fuel cycles and military uses

  7. Riding the Hype: The Role of State-Owned Enterprise Elite Actors in the Promotion of Jatropha in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deasy Simandjuntak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Within a few years following its ambitious promotion in 2006, the development of jatropha in Indonesia came to a halt. Claimed as a potential solution to problems in energy and poverty, the introduction of jatropha in Indonesia’s energy policy had been triggered by the high oil prices in 2005. While studies by biofuel scholars have generally focused on what brought the end of the “miracle crop” hype by underlining various technical problems and the absence of market structure as the cause of its failure, few have examined jatropha as part of a policy-making trajectory, which began with, and was influenced by, the development narratives disseminated by individual actors. This article sheds light on the role of elite actors in the making of biofuel energy policy in Indonesia. Taking the case of the promotion of jatropha in 2005–2007, the article illustrates the role of the director of Indonesia’s leading sugar state-owned enterprise (SOE, Rajawali Nusantara Indonesia (RNI, whose decision in promoting jatropha became influential in forwarding its narratives into the national energy and development policy in 2006. In order to discover why a specific elite actor decided to promote jatropha, the article relies on data, including the SOE’s documents and interviews with key actor(s. The analysis is conducted using an actor-oriented approach, which underlines the discrepancy between the ideals and the operational practice of developmental goals.

  8. Exploring Agreements of Convenience Made among Violent Non-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Idler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to enhance our understanding of how different groups of violent non-state actors (VNSAs interact. It narrows the conceptual gap that has existed in the literature on VNSAs and the complex and multiple types of relationships that exist among them in order to better comprehend their decision-making and the ramifications that emerge from these decisions and interactions. Drawing on recent field research in Colombia´s border regions, the study develops a typology of VNSA interactions, conceptualised as a two-dimensional “clustery continuum” of VNSA arrangements. These borderlands lend themselves to such an undertaking because different types of VNSAs are present there and they unite an internal armed conflict context with a non-conflict, yet violent context by comprising both the Colombian and the neighbouring countries’ border zones. Taking a holistic and nuanced approach, this article first links the silos of civil war, mafia and organised crime literature by exploring situations in which these different dynamics coalesce. Second, it assumes a transnational perspective rather than a purely national view by considering borderlands that include territory of various states. Third, it unpacks the different types of VNSA interactions by describing them as based largely on economically motivated “arrangements of convenience”, rather than drawing on a dichotomy of conflict and cooperation. This case study yields insights on how to develop a more sophisticated understanding of VNSA interactions in other contexts as well. 

  9. Understanding the Roles of Non-State Actors in Global Governance: Evidence from the Global Partnership for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashy, Francine

    2016-01-01

    The study detailed in this paper examines the growing role of non-state actors in the transnational policy-making landscape through a case study of the Global Partnership for Education (GPE)--a partnership of donor and developing country governments, multilateral organizations, civil society, private companies and foundations, dedicated to…

  10. Sub-State Actors and Leadership in the Evolution of the African State

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tall, Samba

    1998-01-01

    .... Understanding the root causes of the mutations occurring in today's African states will help to build legitimacy for future Internal Security Assistance Programs and Military Operations Other Than War...

  11. Balance of power theory meets Al Qaeda : dynamics of non-state actor balancing in postinternational politics

    OpenAIRE

    Denk, Aytaç

    2008-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of International Relations, Bilkent University, 2008. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2008. Includes bibliographical references leaves 196-207. The bulk of studies on the balance of power, which constitutes balance of power theory, suggest that only states are involved in balance of power dynamics. This thesis maintains that exclusion of non-state actors (NSAs) from balance of power dynamics constitutes a significant gap in balance of power t...

  12. Labeling Actors and Uncovering Causal Accounts of Their States in Social Networks and Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Ngot P.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of social networks and social media has resulted in exponential increase in the amount of data that link diverse types of richly structured digital objects e.g., individuals, articles, images, videos, music, etc. Such data are naturally represented as heterogeneous networks with multiple types of objects e.g., actors, video,…

  13. Cybersecurity threats to satellite communications: Towards a typology of state actor responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housen-Couriel, Deborah

    2016-11-01

    Cybersecurity threats to satellite communications are a relatively new phenomenon, yet have quickly come to the forefront of concern for the sustainability of satellite systems due to the vulnerabilities that such threats may exploit and negatively impact. These vulnerabilities are mission-critical: they include launch systems, communications, telemetry, tracking and command, and mission completion. They and other aspects of satellite communications depend heavily on secure and resilient cyber capabilities for all stages of the satellite's lifespan. Because of the inherently global nature of both satellite and cyberspace activities, these capabilities rely significantly on international cooperation for setting a baseline of agreed legal norms that protect satellites and satellite communications. This critical cooperation is relevant during all mission phases, from planning to final wrap-up. Under optimal circumstances, the norms and standards protecting satellites and satellite transmissions are developed and enforced by those nation-state actors that are committed to system operability and overall mission sustainability for those satellites launched under their aegis and responsibility. However, when breaches of international law do occur in the form of hostile cyber events that cause damage to satellite communications, a range of measures should be available to the victim state, provided by the appropriate legal regime or regimes. This article proposes that a comprehensive and integrative multi-stakeholder review be undertaken in the near future of the measures available under international law for responding to hostile acts directed at satellite systems and communications, in a manner that takes into account both existing regimes of international law reviewed herein, as well as considerations of cybersecurity. These measures will depend upon the characterization of hostile interference with satellite transmissions in accordance with a proposed typology of

  14. Actores Secundarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gárate

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cámara digital en mano y provistos de los recuerdos y una sesuda investigación de 3 años, los realizadores de “Actores Secundarios” nos transportan al último periodo de la dictadura militar chilena. Pero esta vez no se trata de un relato épico sobre los actores tradicionales de la lucha por la democracia, sino de una generación prácticamente olvidada y que movilizó a miles de adolescentes contra un régimen que los ahogaba. “Actores Secundarios” es una crónica construida de los fragmentos de ...

  15. The technical potential for proliferation in Northeast Asian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joeck, N.; Kramer, R.

    1995-01-01

    This is a review of the technical capabilities of the states in Northeast Asia - principally Japan, South Korea, and North Korea - to develop nuclear weapons. At the outset, however, it should be emphasised that nuclear proliferation is primarily a political and security problem, rather than a technical challenge. The technical challenge is substantial, but if one looks at states with the technical capacity to develop nuclear weapons, it might be surprising to find that most of them have chosen not to do so. Even with access to fissile material and the technical and scientific infrastructure necessary to produce nuclear weapons, such states as Canada, Switzerland, Norway, Germany, Argentina, Brazil, Japan and many others, have not done so. All three non-nuclear weapon states in Northeast Asia have the technical capability to develop nuclear weapons. Japan and South Korea have intrusive safeguards and inspection arrangements on their nuclear programs, which allow their neighbours and the rest of the world to verify that they have not changed that status, and that they are living up to their NPT commitments. Despite its original commitment to the NPT, North Korea has yet to establish similar arrangements. It is ironic that the country with the smallest and technically least sophisticated nuclear program is the one creating the greatest concern about nuclear proliferation in the region. This irony illustrates the point made in the introduction, however. Nuclear proliferation is more a function of political decision-making than of technical capability

  16. The cold monsters facing the climatic change. Trans-national states and actors in the political process bond to the climatic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, B.

    2003-01-01

    The author discusses the evolution of the importance and the strategies of the different actors during the different phases of the political process and the learning of the state part in the international relations. (A.L.B.)

  17. Computer Network Attack and Its Effectiveness against Non-State Actors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Presby, Timothy D

    2006-01-01

    .... With the United States engaged in counter-insurgency operations against terrorist groups, synchronizing the effects of CNA with more traditional forms of kinetic attacks, as well as other instruments...

  18. NATO’s Options for Defensive Cyber Against Non-State Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    services to cyber criminals and hacker patriots.”33 The FSB had maintained an unsavory relationship with hackers since the early 1990s; 9 Oleg...responsibility under international law to stop the DDOS being facilitated by botnet controllers located within its geographic borders, and prosecute the cyber ... criminals involved. “Rule 5” of the Tallinn Manual addresses the cyber responsibility of a nation-state: “A State shall not knowingly allow the

  19. Nuclear electric power and the proliferation of nuclear weapon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walske, C.

    1977-01-01

    Control and elimination of the strategic nuclear weapons held by the nuclear weapon states remains the central problem in the arms control and disarmament field. Whether the proliferation of nations with nuclear weapons can be stopped is dubious. A sovereign nation will launch a nuclear weapons program if it has the motivation and resource. Motivation depends on military and political considerations. The necessary resources are economic and technological. Conditions in some sovereign states explain this issue. A survey of commercial nuclear power programs outside the USA lists 45 countries using or planning to use nuclear reactors for power generation. There are currently 112 reactors now operating outside the United States, 117 more under construction, 60 on order, and 180 planned. The U. S. as of December 1976 has 64 operating reactors, 72 under construction, 84 on order, and 8 planned. Nuclear trade and export policies are discussed. In this article, Mr. Walske says that American industry is convinced that the need for nuclear energy abroad is more urgent than in the United States; that in the long run, the breeder reactor must be developed to enable the supply of nuclear fuel to last for centuries; and that the experience of American industry abroad has convinced it that emphasis on restrictive, denial type policies will almost certainly fail--a collapse of what has been gained through the test ban treaty and the nonproliferation treaty

  20. The Discourse of Interculturality and Its Transnational Migration: Towards a Comparative Analysis of Its Appropriation by Academic and Political Actors in the State of Veracruz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Laura Selene Mateos

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the ways in which social and educational networks are being configured around the actors participating in the increasingly transnational field of intercultural education both at the Universidad Veracruzana Intercultural and the Veracruz State Ministry of Education. It starts by defining the notion of discursive migration as…

  1. Strategic Culture and Violent Non-State Actors: Weapons of Mass Destruction and Asymmetrical Operations Concepts and Cases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, James M; Long, Jerry M; Johnson, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    This Occasional Paper combines three separate threads of analysis on culture and violent nonstate actors as a launching pad to spur further research into this critical arena of culture and security...

  2. Burst Diplomacy The Diplomacies of Foreign Policy: Actors and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Devin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to diplomacy tend to be restrictive because of an exclusively interstate insight. Indeed, historically, the state monopoly over diplomacy has always been challenged by private actors. Today, it is defied both from the inside because of growing public fragmentation (every ministry tends to lead its own foreign policy; subnational authorities develop their diplomatic relations and from the outside (the business sector and civil society play a growing role on the international scene. This proliferation of actors has transformed diplomatic methods. Beyond the binary division between “old diplomacy” – bilateral, secret and resident – and “new diplomacy” – multilateral, public and itinerant – this article shows that diplomacy has to adapt to number and complexity. Therefore a more global conception need now be considered. Diplomacy today is a system of multiple actors using diverse methods in order to coordinate positions of common interest in a competitive and sometimes hostile environment.

  3. "Securing our survival (SOS": non-state actors and the campaign for a nuclear weapons convention through the prism of securitisation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata H. Dalaqua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the security practices of the anti-nuclear movement in the post-Cold War period through the prism of securitisation theory. By exploring Buzan and Wæver's conceptual developments on macrosecuritisations, the practices involved in the struggle against the Bomb are interpreted as securitising moves, in which the anti-nuclear movement is the leading securitiser. In the capacity of securitising actors, nuclear abolition activists argue that nuclear disarmament, under a Nuclear Weapons Convention (NWC, would be the only way to protect humankind from the threat posed by the existence of nuclear weapons. The empirical analysis of these non-state actors and their campaign for a NWC shows that, despite uttering security, the anti-nuclear movement has so far failed to achieve the proposed security measure, that is, nuclear disarmament. Nonetheless, securitisation has been instrumental for these non-state actors as a way of raising an issue on the agenda of decision-makers and urging them to take action.

  4. World Health Organization and the search for accountability: a critical analysis of the new framework of engagement with non-state actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Hanna Rached

    Full Text Available The article probes the origins and content of the Framework of Engagement with Non-State Actors (FENSA of the World Health Organization (WHO, approved on May 28, 2016, at the 69th World Health Assembly, which established different rules of collaboration to four categories of actors: nongovernmental organizations (NGOs, private sector entities, philanthropic foundations, and academic institutions. Applying the findings of International Legal Theory and based on extensive documentary research, we sought to determine whether FENSA is an appropriate accountability mechanism according to four functions of accountability: constitutional, democratic, epistemic, and populist. The article concludes that there is a risk of the prevalence of the populist function at the expense of the accountability potential that could result from the better use of the other three accountability functions.

  5. World Health Organization and the search for accountability: a critical analysis of the new framework of engagement with non-state actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached, Danielle Hanna; Ventura, Deisy de Freitas Lima

    2017-07-03

    The article probes the origins and content of the Framework of Engagement with Non-State Actors (FENSA) of the World Health Organization (WHO), approved on May 28, 2016, at the 69th World Health Assembly, which established different rules of collaboration to four categories of actors: nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), private sector entities, philanthropic foundations, and academic institutions. Applying the findings of International Legal Theory and based on extensive documentary research, we sought to determine whether FENSA is an appropriate accountability mechanism according to four functions of accountability: constitutional, democratic, epistemic, and populist. The article concludes that there is a risk of the prevalence of the populist function at the expense of the accountability potential that could result from the better use of the other three accountability functions.

  6. What is a conservation actor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jepson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crisis-oriented discipline, conservation biology needs actions to understand the state of nature and thwart declines in biodiversity. Actors-traditionally individuals, institutions, and collectives-have been central to delivering such goals in practice. However, the definition of actors within the discipline has been narrow and their role in influencing conservation outcomes inadequately conceptualised. In this paper, we examine the question ′What is a conservation actor?′ Who or what creates the capacity to influence conservation values and actions? Drawing from theoretical developments in Actor-Network Theory and collective governance, we argue that the concept of an actor in conservation biology should be broadened to include non-humans, such as species and devices, because they have the agency and ability to influence project goals and outcomes. We illustrate this through four examples: the Asian elephant, International Union for Conservation of Nature red lists, the High Conservation Value approach, and an Integrated Conservation and Development Project. We argue that a broader conceptualisation of actors in conservation biology will produce new forms of understanding that could open up new areas of conservation research, enhance practice and draw attention to spheres of conservation activity that might require stronger oversight and governance.

  7. The effect of cerium valence states at cerium oxide nanoparticle surfaces on cell proliferation

    KAUST Repository

    Naganuma, Tamaki

    2014-05-01

    Understanding and controlling cell proliferation on biomaterial surfaces is critical for scaffold/artificial-niche design in tissue engineering. The mechanism by which underlying integrin ligates with functionalized biomaterials to induce cell proliferation is still not completely understood. In this study, poly-l-lactide (PL) scaffold surfaces were functionalized using layers of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs), which have recently attracted attention for use in therapeutic application due to their catalytic ability of Ce4+ and Ce3+ sites. To isolate the influence of Ce valance states of CNPs on cell proliferation, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and osteoblast-like cells (MG63) were cultured on the PL/CNP surfaces with dominant Ce4+ and Ce3+ regions. Despite cell type (hMSCs and MG63 cells), different surface features of Ce4+ and Ce3+ regions clearly promoted and inhibited cell spreading, migration and adhesion behavior, resulting in rapid and slow cell proliferation, respectively. Cell proliferation results of various modified CNPs with different surface charge and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, indicate that Ce valence states closely correlated with the specific cell morphologies and cell-material interactions that trigger cell proliferation. This finding suggests that the cell-material interactions, which influence cell proliferation, may be controlled by introduction of metal elements with different valence states onto the biomaterial surface. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Assessing the optimism-pessimism debate: Nuclear proliferation, nuclear risks, and theories of state action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Nathan Edward

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the current debate in international relations literature over the risks associated with the proliferation of nuclear weapons. On this subject, IR scholars are divided into roughly two schools: proliferation 'optimists,' who argue that proliferation can be beneficial and that its associated hazards are at least surmountable, and proliferation 'pessimists,' who believe the opposite. This debate centers upon a theoretical disagreement about how best to explain and predict the behavior of states. Optimists generally ground their arguments on rational deterrence theory and maintain that nuclear weapons can actually increase stability among states, while pessimists often ground their arguments on 'organization theory,' which contends that organizational, bureaucratic, and other factors prevent states from acting rationally. A major difficulty with the proliferation debate, however, is that both sides tend to advance their respective theoretical positions without adequately supporting them with solid empirical evidence. This dissertation detailed analyses of the nuclear programs in the United States, Russia, China, India, and Pakistan to determine whether countries with nuclear weapons have adequate controls over their nuclear arsenals and tissue material stockpiles (such as highly enriched uranium and plutonium). These case studies identify the strengths and weaknesses of different systems of nuclear controls and help predict what types of controls proliferating states are likely to employ. On the basis of the evidence gathered from these cases, this dissertation concludes that a further spread of nuclear weapons would tend to have seriously negative effects on international stability by increasing risks of accidental, unauthorized, or inadvertent use of nuclear weapons and risks of thefts of fissile materials for use in nuclear or radiological devices by aspiring nuclear states or terrorist groups. (author)

  9. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer-supplier...... relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...

  10. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  11. The non-proliferation policies of non-nuclear-weapon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwah, Onkar

    1987-01-01

    Eight countries are considered to be capable of producing nuclear weapons and highly suspect in their intentions to actually produce them. These are Argentina, Brazil, India, Pakistan, Israel, South Africa, the Republic of Korea and Taiwan. The policies of these suspect Non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWS) are considered in this paper. The first part assesses the non-proliferation (or proliferation) policies of the eight suspect NNWS, the second part evaluates their differences in approach from the policies urged upon them by the nuclear-weapon states (NWS) and the third and final part attempts to understand the future evolution of NNWS policies in the nuclear military field. (U.K.)

  12. Actor-Network Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Meadows, Catherine; Ramanujam, R.; Ramaswamy, Srini

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose actor-networks as a formal model of computation in heterogenous networks of computers, humans and their devices, where these new procedures run; and we introduce Procedure Derivation Logic (PDL) as a framework for reasoning about security in actor-networks, as an extension

  13. Utility of Social Modeling in Assessment of a State's Propensity for Nuclear Proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, Garill A.; Brothers, Alan J.; Whitney, Paul D.; Dalton, Angela C.; Olson, Jarrod; White, Amanda M.; Cooley, Scott K.; Youchak, Paul M.; Stafford, Samuel V.

    2011-01-01

    This report is the third and final report out of a set of three reports documenting research for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Security Administration (NASA) Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development NA-22 Simulations, Algorithms, and Modeling program that investigates how social modeling can be used to improve proliferation assessment for informing nuclear security, policy, safeguards, design of nuclear systems and research decisions. Social modeling has not to have been used to any significant extent in a proliferation studies. This report focuses on the utility of social modeling as applied to the assessment of a State's propensity to develop a nuclear weapons program.

  14. Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative......, and by doing so they create in humans what in modern play theory is known as a “state of play”...

  15. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  16. A general native-state method for determination of proliferation capacity of human normal and tumor tissues in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.M.; Connors, K.M.; Meerson-Monosov, A.Z.; Herrera, H.; Price, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    An important need in cancer research and treatment is a physiological means in vitro by which to assess the proliferation capacity of human tumors and corresponding normal tissue for comparison. The authors have recently developed a native-state, three-dimensional, gel-supported primary culture system that allows every type of human cancer to grow in vitro at more than 90% frequency, with maintenance of tissue architecture, tumor-stromal interaction, and differentiated functions. Here they demonstrate that the native-state culture system allows proliferation indices to be determined for all solid cancer types explanted directly from surgery into long-term culture. Normal tissues also proliferate readily in this system. The degree of resolution of measurement of cell proliferation by histological autoradiography within the cultured tissues is greatly enhanced with the use of epi-illumination polarization microscopy. The histological status of the cultured tissues can be assessed simultaneously with the proliferation status. Carcinomas generally have areas of high epithelial proliferation with quiescent stromal cells. Sarcomas have high proliferation of cells of mesenchymal organ. Normal tissues can also proliferate at high rates. An image analysis system has been developed to automate proliferation determination. The high-resolution physiological means described here to measure the proliferation capacity of tissues will be important in further understanding of the deregulation of cell proliferation in cancer as well as in cancer prognosis and treatment

  17. Engaging Actors for Integrating Health Policy and Systems Research into Policy Making: Case Study from Haryana State in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Good examples of evidence generation using Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR in low and middle income countries (LMIC; and its application in policy making are scarce. In this paper, we describe the experience of establishing a system of HPSR from the Haryana state in India, outline how the HPSR is being utilized for policy making and programmatic decision making, and analyse the key factors which have been critical to the implementation and uptake of HPSR. Methods: Multiple methods are employed in this case study, ranging from unstructured in-depth interviews, review of the program and policy documents, and participatory notes from the meetings. The steps towards creation of a knowledge partnership between stakeholders are outlined. Four case studies i.e. development of a plan for universal health care (UHC, nutrition policy, centralized drug procurement system and use of RAPID appraisal method highlight the use of research evidence in agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation respectively. Results: Our analysis shows that the most important factor which contributed to Haryana model of HPSR was the presence of a dedicated and motivated team in National Rural Health Mission (NRHM at state level, many of whom were researchers by previous training. Overall, we conclude by highlighting the need for establishing an institutional mechanism at Central and State level where health service administrators and managers, academicians and researchers working in the field of health system from medical colleges, public health schools, management and technology institutions and social science universities can identify health system research priorities. Increased budgetary allocation for HPSR is required.

  18. Engaging Actors for Integrating Health Policy and Systems Research into Policy Making: Case Study from Haryana State in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Good examples of evidence generation using Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR in low and middle income countries (LMIC; and its application in policy making are scarce. In this paper, we describe the experience of establishing a system of HPSR from the Haryana state in India, outline how the HPSR is being utilized for policy making and programmatic decision making, and analyse the key factors which have been critical to the implementation and uptake of HPSR. Methods: Multiple methods are employed in this case study, ranging from unstructured in-depth interviews, review of the program and policy documents, and participatory notes from the meetings. The steps towards creation of a knowledge partnership between stakeholders are outlined. Four case studies i.e. development of a plan for universal health care (UHC, nutrition policy, centralized drug procurement system and use of RAPID appraisal method highlight the use of research evidence in agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation respectively. Results: Our analysis shows that the most important factor which contributed to Haryana model of HPSR was the presence of a dedicated and motivated team in National Rural Health Mission (NRHM at state level, many of whom were researchers by previous training. Overall, we conclude by highlighting the need for establishing an institutional mechanism at Central and State level where health service administrators and managers, academicians and researchers working in the field of health system from medical colleges, public health schools, management and technology institutions and social science universities can identify health system research priorities. Increased budgetary allocation for HPSR is required.

  19. Are the rules for the right to self-defense outdated to address current conflicts like attacks from non-state actors and cyber-attacks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo J. Arias

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The latest US-led coalition’s attacks against ISIS in Syria raised the question whether states can use defensive force against non-state actors. Two critical incidents had previously triggered the discussion on the importance and consequences of cyber-attacks as a new form armed attacks. The first one occurred in Estonia in 2007, when the country experienced extensive computer hacking attacks that lasted several weeks. The second incident happened in 2008, during the Georgia–Russia conflict over South Ossetia, when Georgia experienced cyber-attacks similar to those suffered by Estonia in the previous year. Furthermore, on June 21, 2016, the central banks of Indonesia and South Korea were hit by cyber-attacks on their public websites since activist hacking group Anonymous pledged last month to target banks across the world. The previous incidents have created, once again, public questioning if the rules on the use of force and the right of self-defense established in the United Nations Charter are sufficient and efficient to address these new forms of attacks.

  20. Proliferation: myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)

  1. Actor-Partner Interdependence Model Analysis of Sexual Communication and Relationship/Family Planning Factors Among Immigrant Latino Couples in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yui

    2017-05-01

    The Latino population in the United States is quickly growing, and its unintended pregnancy rate is increasing. To decrease unintended pregnancies, couples must mutually agree on family planning. Communication between partners is one key factor identified in successful family planning for couples. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine sexual communication and its associations with sexual relationship power, general communication, and views on family planning. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to analyze dyadic influences of the chosen variables. Forty immigrant Latino couples were recruited from prenatal care clinics. The study results were grouped according to the three types of power structures: exhibition of men's traditional machismo values, exhibition of women's increased power in their relationships, and exhibition of men's and women's own empowerment with sexual communication. There was a negative association between men's views on family planning and women's sexual communication (exhibition of machismo values); a negative association between women's sexual relationship power and their partners' sexual communication (exhibition of women's increased power); and positive associations between men's and women's general communication and sexual communication (exhibition of men's and women's own empowerment). Dyadic influences of sexual communication and associated variables need to be incorporated into interventions to facilitate family planning for couples.

  2. State Actor Threats in 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    advantage it will be happy to exploit. Scenario 3. David and Goliath: Irregular Warfare Against a Materials- Based Adversary Scenario Overview: What Does...words, one can quickly identify emerging topics before they hit the mainstream. For example, if chocolate had never been a topic at confectioner...conventions for 20 years, but then had a growing number of citations in the next 3, the increase would be an indicator that chocolate was about to make

  3. Actors at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobakht, Behrooz

    2016-01-01

    The core contributions of this thesis target the intersection of object orientation, actor model, and concurrency. We choose Java as the main target programming language and as one of the mainstream object-oriented languages. We formalize a subset of Java and its concurrency API to facilitate formal

  4. The Political Context for Transnational Actor Soft Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2015-01-01

    There is growing awareness and understanding of the role of non-state actors for the smart power of states. However, there is not yet a clear understanding of the impact of the political context and the state for non-state actors and their soft power. We look at American missionary universities...

  5. Fractal actors and infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom

    2011-01-01

    -network-theory (ANT) into surveillance studies (Ball 2002, Adey 2004, Gad & Lauritsen 2009). In this paper, I further explore the potential of this connection by experimenting with Marilyn Strathern’s concept of the fractal (1991), which has been discussed in newer ANT literature (Law 2002; Law 2004; Jensen 2007). I...... under surveillance. Based on fieldwork conducted in 2008 and 2011 in relation to my Master’s thesis and PhD respectively, I illustrate fractal concepts by describing the acts, actors and infrastructure that make up the ‘DNA surveillance’ conducted by the Danish police....

  6. A sleep state in Drosophila larvae required for neural stem cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuperak, Milan; Churgin, Matthew A; Borja, Austin J; Raizen, David M; Fang-Yen, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Sleep during development is involved in refining brain circuitry, but a role for sleep in the earliest periods of nervous system elaboration, when neurons are first being born, has not been explored. Here we identify a sleep state in Drosophila larvae that coincides with a major wave of neurogenesis. Mechanisms controlling larval sleep are partially distinct from adult sleep: octopamine, the Drosophila analog of mammalian norepinephrine, is the major arousal neuromodulator in larvae, but dopamine is not required. Using real-time behavioral monitoring in a closed-loop sleep deprivation system, we find that sleep loss in larvae impairs cell division of neural progenitors. This work establishes a system uniquely suited for studying sleep during nascent periods, and demonstrates that sleep in early life regulates neural stem cell proliferation. PMID:29424688

  7. Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons: Review conference of the States Parties Geneva 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Third Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons will be held in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1985 with a view to assuring that the purposes and provisions of the Treaty are being realized. The Treaty, commonly referred to as the non-proliferation Treaty, is the fundamental instrument to avert the danger of proliferation of nuclear weapons and is, perhaps, the most important multilateral arms regulation agreement of our time. It was negotiated in the 1960s in the Eighteen-Nation Committee on Disarmament in Geneva and in the United Nations General Assembly. The Treaty was opened for signature in London, Moscow and Washington on July 1, 1968. On that date, it was signed by the three Depositary Governments - the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States - and by 58 other States. As of December 31, 1983 the number of States parties to the Treaty had risen to 119

  8. Actors and Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Lars

    Actors and practices – An institutional study on management accounting change in Air Greenland My former CEO was one of the first executives in Greenland to formally implement an extensive commercial strategy to identify the contradictory forces of social obligations and commercial strivings...... societal obligation. He noted that: “…there is some inherent conflict in having the type of ownership we have, one in which the commercial owner demands higher profits or they will sell their shares, and the other two government owners, where one wishes to have the lowest possible fares and better...... infrastructure and the other one just wants less trouble. Well! This is the ongoing inherent conflict of the owner composition we just have to deal with.” He emphasized that SAS, the more “commercial oriented” owner and private shareholder, wanted higher profits and gains, whereas the Government of Greenland...

  9. Which future for nuclear counter-proliferation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.

    2010-01-01

    Dealing with the case of nuclear weapons possessed by nuclear states (but not eventually by terrorists), the author first identifies the constants of counter-proliferation: it is linked to interest conflicts between those who try to preserve their monopoly and those who try to acquire a new weapon either because of a threat or for reasons of regional prestige, the evolution from use to deterrence, the appearance of new actors after the USA and Russia, the role of nuclear tactical weapons, and the future of Russian weapons and know-how. He presents the international counter-proliferation context: the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the IAEA and its controls, the Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG), the nuclear-free zones, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). He describes how and why proliferation occurs: uranium enrichment and plutonium technology, political reasons in different parts of the world. Then, he gives an overview of the proliferation status by commenting the cases of Israel, Iraq, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Iran. He discusses the future of proliferation (involved countries, existence of a nuclear black market) and of counter-proliferation as far as Middle-East and North Korea are concerned. He tries finally to anticipate the consequences for nuclear deterrence strategy, and more particularly for Europe and France

  10. New Actors and Alliances in Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    ‘New actors and alliances in development’ brings together an interdisciplinary group of scholars exploring how development financing and interventions are being shaped by a wider and more complex platform of actors than usually considered in the existing literature. The contributors also trace...... a changing set of key relations and alliances in development – those between business and consumers; ngos and celebrities; philanthropic organisations and the state; diaspora groups and transnational advocacy networks; ruling elites and productive capitalists; and ‘new donors’ and developing country...

  11. ACToR - Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, Richard; Richard, Ann; Dix, David; Houck, Keith; Elloumi, Fathi; Martin, Matthew; Cathey, Tommy; Transue, Thomas R.; Spencer, Richard; Wolf, Maritja

    2008-01-01

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a database and set of software applications that bring into one central location many types and sources of data on environmental chemicals. Currently, the ACToR chemical database contains information on chemical structure, in vitro bioassays and in vivo toxicology assays derived from more than 150 sources including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), state agencies, corresponding government agencies in Canada, Europe and Japan, universities, the World Health Organization (WHO) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). At the EPA National Center for Computational Toxicology, ACToR helps manage large data sets being used in a high-throughput environmental chemical screening and prioritization program called ToxCast TM

  12. Foreign Policy of The United States Against the Global Powers and Regional Actors: Case Study “Russian Federation” and “The Islamic Republic of Iran”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мехди Хедайати Шахидани

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines US foreign policy strategy toward the global powers and regional actors in the post-bipolar period. The aim of the article is to demonstrate the theoretical and scientific significance of the concept of balance in the structure of international relations in the post-bipolar period, by defining behaviors of US against Russia and Iran. The results of the research show that US foreign policy toward Russia and Iran in the short term based on a soft balance, and in the long term - on the depletion of power.

  13. Elegant Coercion and Iran: Beyond the Unitary Actor Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moss, J. C

    2005-01-01

    .... At its core, then, coercion is about state decision-making. Most theories of coercion describe states as if they were unitary actors whose decision-making results from purely rational cost-benefit calculations...

  14. Proliferation: myth or reality?; La proliferation: mythe ou realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)

  15. The semiotic actor : From signs to socially constructed meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmhout, M.; Jorna, R.J.J.M.; Gazendam, H.W.M.

    A semiotic actor creates, uses and transfers or communicates meaning with the help of signs in order to interact with other actors and society. For a complete understanding of the cognitive and social phenomena related to this process, we state that social science and cognitive science cannot stay

  16. The cold monsters facing the climatic change. Trans-national states and actors in the political process bond to the climatic changes; Les monstres froids a l'epreuve du rechauffement de la planete. Etats et acteurs transnationaux dans le processus politique lie aux changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis, B. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    The author discusses the evolution of the importance and the strategies of the different actors during the different phases of the political process and the learning of the state part in the international relations. (A.L.B.)

  17. The Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the insertion of the Brazilian State in its regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcos Valle Machado da

    2010-01-01

    The issue of nuclear weapons continues to appear as a focal point of International Relations. The efforts and concrete actions on disarmament, non-proliferation, and nuclear arms control are still issues that generate recurring tensions between States. However, in Brazil, there is little analysis of an academic nature about these issues and, with respect to current and prospective position of the Brazilian State in the Nuclear Weapons Non- Proliferation Regime, studies and analysis are even more scarce, or incipient. The present dissertation has as its object of study to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Regime arisen from NPT, and the Brazilian State insertion process in this Regime. Therefore our research work is structured in three areas: the first one is about the role of nuclear weapons in States security perception, the second is about NPT and its Regime, the third runs over the insertion of the Brazilian state in this regime. So, in summary, the research performed included the reasons that make a State to develop nuclear weapons, the NPT genesis and evolution of the perception of the meaning of that Treaty by the States, and the process and the degree of insertion of Brazil in the Nuclear Weapons Non- Proliferation Regime. The inquiry sought to place this object of study in the broader debate on Foreign Relations, based on the approaches of the discipline devoted to the question of managing the security of States, id est, the two approaches that constitute the mainstream of the discipline: the perspective theoretical liberal (and neoliberal variants) and realistic thinking (and neo-realist). Thus, we have used different theoretical lenses, which we think necessary for understanding the specific parts and causal connections between these parts of a complex issue. (author)

  18. Which future for nuclear counter-proliferation?; Quel avenir pour la contre-proliferation nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, M.

    2010-07-15

    Dealing with the case of nuclear weapons possessed by nuclear states (but not eventually by terrorists), the author first identifies the constants of counter-proliferation: it is linked to interest conflicts between those who try to preserve their monopoly and those who try to acquire a new weapon either because of a threat or for reasons of regional prestige, the evolution from use to deterrence, the appearance of new actors after the USA and Russia, the role of nuclear tactical weapons, and the future of Russian weapons and know-how. He presents the international counter-proliferation context: the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the IAEA and its controls, the Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG), the nuclear-free zones, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). He describes how and why proliferation occurs: uranium enrichment and plutonium technology, political reasons in different parts of the world. Then, he gives an overview of the proliferation status by commenting the cases of Israel, Iraq, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Iran. He discusses the future of proliferation (involved countries, existence of a nuclear black market) and of counter-proliferation as far as Middle-East and North Korea are concerned. He tries finally to anticipate the consequences for nuclear deterrence strategy, and more particularly for Europe and France

  19. The effect of cerium valence states at cerium oxide nanoparticle surfaces on cell proliferation

    KAUST Repository

    Naganuma, Tamaki; Traversa, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Understanding and controlling cell proliferation on biomaterial surfaces is critical for scaffold/artificial-niche design in tissue engineering. The mechanism by which underlying integrin ligates with functionalized biomaterials to induce cell

  20. International Political Actorness of the European Union: Evaluation Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GNATYUK N.N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is a completely new international entity which is hard to evaluate using traditional criteria of political actorness. Its active international presence stimulates the modeling of international actor features beyond the scope of “state-international organization” scheme. The concept of international actorness serves as a starting point for the development of appropriate analytical model. Unlike the traditional state-centered approaches which define an international actor through its affiliation witch the international system, this concept operates at the internal level of international entity and at the international structure level. Furthermore, both of these levels are treated as ontologically neutral and mutually constitutive. This basic theoretical scheme is used for elaboration of evaluation criteria of political actorness. The proposed system of criteria is based on drawing, synthesizing and developing the main writings on “new international actors” since the times of classic work by Carol A. Cosgrove and Kenneth J. Twitchett. The key elements of actorness assessed in this article include defining of capacity to act on the global scene as well as the acceptance by other actors and by international system as a whole. At the internal level, the EU’s actor capacity is measured by assessing its core elements ranging from core aspects, such as autonomy, authority, actor capability, coherence and cohesion to identity aspects. On the external level, the decisive criteria are recognition and acceptance by others which reflect expectations and perceptions of the EU. The proposed approach of evaluating the international actorness enables us to consider the political activity of the EU on the basis of coordinated system of interaction between the variables of international and domestic levels of the analysis. Furthermore, this contributes to the development of cumulative, coherent, and comprehensive theory of international

  1. Future non-proliferation challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelchenko, Volodymyr

    2008-01-01

    Having chaired the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee Mr. Volodymyr Yelchenko noted that the NPT States parties reaffirmed the important role of the Treaty as the cornerstone of the global non-proliferation regime. They stressed that non-compliance with the Treaty provisions by States parties undermined non-proliferation and placed emphasis on the mutually reinforcing nature of disarmament and non-proliferation, and due respect for the right of States parties to the peaceful use of nuclear energy in conformity with the treaty. They reaffirmed the importance of promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation for peaceful purposes in ways consistent with the non-proliferation goal of the Treaty. The universality aspect was brought to the front with the lack of progress in this area. States parties called upon India, Israel and Pakistan to accede to the Treaty as non-nuclear-weapons states, promptly and without conditions and to bring into force comprehensive safeguards agreements, together with Additional Protocols, for ensuring non-proliferation. There is concern that non-States actors could gain access to weapons of mass destruction. One of the underlying themes at the Second Prepcom was the total elimination of nuclear weapons as the only absolute guarantee against their proliferation. Negative consequences to nuclear non-proliferation were also mentioned in the context of the abrogation of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the development of missile defense systems, with the risk of a new arms race on Earth and in outer space. The importance of the immediate commencement of negotiations in the Conference of Disarmament on a treaty concerning fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices and the urgent conclusion of such a treaty as a beneficial step towards non-proliferation was stressed. The NPT states parties reaffirmed the role of the IAEA as the sole competent authority responsible for

  2. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR) is a database on environmental chemicals that is searchable by chemical name and other identifiers, and by...

  3. Proliferation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.

    1998-09-01

    The report gives an overview of different aspects related to safeguards of fissile materials. Existing treaties including the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Tlatelolco and the Rarotonga Treaties are discussed. An overview of safeguards systems for the control of fissile materials as well as the role of various authorities is given. An overall overview of proliferation risks, the physical protection of fissile materials and the trade in fissile materials is given. Finally, the status in problem countries and de facto nuclear weapon states is discussed

  4. Screening program for cervical cancer: public policies and experiences of actors who implement the program in the state of Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuanilda Mendoza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito fue analizar cómo se desarrolla el Programa de Detección del Cáncer Cervicouterino en una clínica de displasias y algunos centros de salud en el estado de Veracruz, a través de las representaciones y prácticas de los actores sociales que implementan el programa. Para ello, se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad y observación de la práctica de estos prestadores de servicios durante varios periodos a lo largo de 3 años entre 2009 y 2011. A partir de la información obtenida pretendemos dar cuenta de las dificultades, aciertos y resultados que dicho programa tiene como parte de una política pública, sobre la base de que las políticas en salud tienen como prioridad que toda la población se vea beneficiada por los servicios de atención preventiva y curativa, y si bien la evidencia nos muestra que las poblaciones marginadas no se ven beneficiadas por dichos programas, pareciera que esta información no permea los saberes populares y médicos.

  5. REPUTATIONAL CAPITAL OF POLITICAL ACTORS AS PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Rudakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the reputational characteristics of the formation of political actors at the expense of the state budget, the specificity of the mechanism of implementation of government procurement and modern Russian practice.

  6. Efficient Actor Recovery Paradigm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, Reem K; Elleithy, Khaled

    2017-04-14

    The actor nodes are the spine of wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs) that collaborate to perform a specific task in an unverified and uneven environment. Thus, there is a possibility of high failure rate in such unfriendly scenarios due to several factors such as power consumption of devices, electronic circuit failure, software errors in nodes or physical impairment of the actor nodes and inter-actor connectivity problem. Therefore, it is extremely important to discover the failure of a cut-vertex actor and network-disjoint in order to improve the Quality-of-Service (QoS). In this paper, we propose an Efficient Actor Recovery (EAR) paradigm to guarantee the contention-free traffic-forwarding capacity. The EAR paradigm consists of a Node Monitoring and Critical Node Detection (NMCND) algorithm that monitors the activities of the nodes to determine the critical node. In addition, it replaces the critical node with backup node prior to complete node-failure which helps balancing the network performance. The packets are handled using Network Integration and Message Forwarding (NIMF) algorithm that determines the source of forwarding the packets; either from actor or sensor. This decision-making capability of the algorithm controls the packet forwarding rate to maintain the network for a longer time. Furthermore, for handling the proper routing strategy, Priority-Based Routing for Node Failure Avoidance (PRNFA) algorithm is deployed to decide the priority of the packets to be forwarded based on the significance of information available in the packet. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed EAR paradigm, the proposed algorithms were tested using OMNET++ simulation.

  7. Guess Where? Actor-Supervision for Spatiotemporal Action Localization

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor

    2018-04-05

    This paper addresses the problem of spatiotemporal localization of actions in videos. Compared to leading approaches, which all learn to localize based on carefully annotated boxes on training video frames, we adhere to a weakly-supervised solution that only requires a video class label. We introduce an actor-supervised architecture that exploits the inherent compositionality of actions in terms of actor transformations, to localize actions. We make two contributions. First, we propose actor proposals derived from a detector for human and non-human actors intended for images, which is linked over time by Siamese similarity matching to account for actor deformations. Second, we propose an actor-based attention mechanism that enables the localization of the actions from action class labels and actor proposals and is end-to-end trainable. Experiments on three human and non-human action datasets show actor supervision is state-of-the-art for weakly-supervised action localization and is even competitive to some fully-supervised alternatives.

  8. Guess Where? Actor-Supervision for Spatiotemporal Action Localization

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor; Dao, Cuong D.; Jain, Mihir; Ghanem, Bernard; Snoek, Cees

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of spatiotemporal localization of actions in videos. Compared to leading approaches, which all learn to localize based on carefully annotated boxes on training video frames, we adhere to a weakly-supervised solution that only requires a video class label. We introduce an actor-supervised architecture that exploits the inherent compositionality of actions in terms of actor transformations, to localize actions. We make two contributions. First, we propose actor proposals derived from a detector for human and non-human actors intended for images, which is linked over time by Siamese similarity matching to account for actor deformations. Second, we propose an actor-based attention mechanism that enables the localization of the actions from action class labels and actor proposals and is end-to-end trainable. Experiments on three human and non-human action datasets show actor supervision is state-of-the-art for weakly-supervised action localization and is even competitive to some fully-supervised alternatives.

  9. The Eu as a strategic global policy actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzopoulou, Sevasti; Ansell, Christopher

    that shapes and is being shaped by the EU strategic choices. This process is facilitated by the existing EU institutions and structures, the administrative and technical expertise capacity when it responds to the internal and external challenges (environment, sustainable development climate and circular......This article aims to complement the existing literature on the EU as a global actor and demonstrates that the EU’s entrepreneurship on policy, ideas and knowledge production contributes to the evolution of the EU as a strategic global policy actor. While the number of significant studies on the EU...... as a global actor proliferated the last decades, these studies concentrate on the EU’s role in a fragmented manner, focusing either on specific normative or more economic and trade issues, and thus often competing between themselves. This article acknowledges these contributions and aims to take them further...

  10. Information report on Proliferation geo-strategic stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    This large report, notably based on interviews of many representatives of international institutions and politicians, ambassadors and researchers of different countries, all involved or specialized in nuclear and defence issues, starts with a description of the evolution of the international and geo-strategic context from the Cold War to a period of a new nuclear proliferation, with, in between, a period of stabilisation between the USA and the USSR. It also questions the various forms of proliferation which could be ballistic, biological, chemical, and cybernetic. Then, it analyses the role which mass destruction weapons have in international relationships, making a distinction between countries possessing such weapons (USA, Russia, China, France, Great-Britain), Israel which has been a newcomer for thirty years, the new actors (India, Pakistan, Iran, North Korea) with their own and different motivations, and the possible new actors (Libya, Syria). It comments the meaning of the ballistic threat and of the anti-missile defence. The third part of this report deals with the dissemination of proliferating technologies, describing the proliferation networks and the failure of actions against state-based proliferations, questioning the reality of the associated risks (discussion about the impact of September 11 attacks, about a chemical and biological terrorist threat which is realistic as well as difficult to be implemented, and about cybernetic attacks). The fourth part comments the impact of the international community on proliferation, outlining the different efficiencies of the international agreements and institutions (Chemical Weapons Convention, IAEA, Non Proliferation Treaty, Biological Weapons Convention, The Hague Code of Conduct), commenting the opportunities associated with other texts (those about nuclear free areas, or those produced by exporter groups), and discussing the attitude of the international community with respect to proliferation, and the

  11. Why does any state want to proliferate? (The case of Iran); Pourquoi un etat prolifere-t-il? (le cas de l'Iran)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anquez, Matthieu; Hubac, Olivier [Compagnie Europeenne d' Intelligence Strategique - CEIS, 280, boulevard Saint-Germain, 75007 Paris (France)

    2012-02-15

    Starting from perceptions of regional security and international power challenges, the authors analyse different countries ' behaviour regarding nuclear proliferation in order to understand better the case of Iran and the suspected military dimension of its nuclear programme

  12. You're a What? Voice Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  13. Multicultural Monologues for Young Actors. The Young Actors Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaight, Craig, Ed.; Sharrar, Jack, Ed.

    This book presents 62 monologue selections from diverse cultures for young actors to perform. The book's selections offer "quality literature by significant writers." Some of the writers represented in the book are George C. Wolfe, Miguel Pinero, Lorraine Hansberry, Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones), John M. Synge, Yukio Mishima, Reynolds…

  14. An Actor and His Suitcase

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    The idea of the actor as journeyman is as old as the profession itself. The travel troupes of yesteryear laid the groundwork for the theatres of Shakespeare and the regional theatre circuit here in America. So if there is one thing an actor must have: it's a good suitcase. Or two. One for the rags and trinkets he, or she, holds dear; and another for all the skills he, or she, brings to every project.When I left the east coast for San Diego I brought with me those two suitcases. Luckily for me...

  15. Dissociation of Survival, Proliferation, and State Control in Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, David J H F; Hammond, Colin A; Miller, Paul H; Rabu, Gabrielle M; Beer, Philip A; Ricicova, Marketa; Lecault, Véronique; Da Costa, Daniel; VanInsberghe, Michael; Cheung, Alice M; Pellacani, Davide; Piret, James; Hansen, Carl; Eaves, Connie J

    2017-01-10

    The role of growth factors (GFs) in controlling the biology of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remains limited by a lack of information concerning the individual and combined effects of GFs directly on the survival, Mitogenesis, and regenerative activity of highly purified human HSCs. We show that the initial input HSC activity of such a purified starting population of human cord blood cells can be fully maintained over a 21-day period in serum-free medium containing five GFs alone. HSC survival was partially supported by any one of these GFs, but none were essential, and different combinations of GFs variably stimulated HSC proliferation. However, serial transplantability was not detectably compromised by many conditions that reduced human HSC proliferation and/or survival. These results demonstrate the dissociated control of these three human HSC bio-responses, and set the stage for future improvements in strategies to modify and expand human HSCs ex vivo. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Soft Power in Central Asia: Actors and Its Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. Lebedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article considers theoretical aspects of soft power concept and its use by various actors in Central Asia. It is noted that scholars as well as practitioners are paying insufficient attention to such key concepts position J. Nye, as an attraction. As a result the efficiency of the use of soft power is significantly reduced. It also shows that the attractiveness is not a universal characteristic. For this reason, attractiveness and hence soft power of different actors are different and aimed at different segments of the population. These differences lead to competition of actors, but they do not reduce interaction in the region to zero-sum game. Specific forms and directions of the soft power of Russia, the U.S., the EU and China in Central Asia are discussed. The article emphasizes that the Central Asian states are not just recipients of soft power of external actors, but also themselves form behavioral strategies that are attractive to others.

  17. Limiting Future Proliferation and Security Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.

    2011-01-01

    A major new technical tool for evaluation of proliferation and security risks has emerged over the past decade as part the activities of the Generation IV International Forum. The tool has been developed by a consensus group from participating countries and organizations and is termed the Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP) Evaluation Methodology. The methodology defines a set of challenges, analyzes system response to these challenges, and assesses outcomes. The challenges are the threats posed by potential actors (proliferant states or sub-national adversaries). It is of paramount importance in an evaluation to establish the objectives, capabilities, resources, and strategies of the adversary as well as the design and protection contexts. Technical and institutional characteristics are both used to evaluate the response of the system and to determine its resistance against proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and terrorism threats. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of a set of measures, which thereby define the PR and PP characteristics of the system. This paper summarizes results of applications of the methodology to nuclear energy systems including reprocessing facilities and large and small modular reactors. The use of the methodology in the design phase a facility will be discussed as it applies to future safeguards concepts.

  18. Guide Actor-Critic for Continuous Control

    OpenAIRE

    Tangkaratt, Voot; Abdolmaleki, Abbas; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    Actor-critic methods solve reinforcement learning problems by updating a parameterized policy known as an actor in a direction that increases an estimate of the expected return known as a critic. However, existing actor-critic methods only use values or gradients of the critic to update the policy parameter. In this paper, we propose a novel actor-critic method called the guide actor-critic (GAC). GAC firstly learns a guide actor that locally maximizes the critic and then it updates the polic...

  19. The ambivalent relation between state and illegal actors: piracy retail in Mexico A relação ambígua entre o Estado e os atores ilegais: o mercado da pirataria no México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos G. Aguiar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the rise of democratic governments across Latin America, the neoliberal law-and-order perspective has been the most influential model of security in the region. This approach is based on the opposition between state and illegal agents, as if they were two different sets of actors. Influenced by this model, Mexican president Vicente Fox launched an extensive anti-piracy programme to eradicate retail of counterfeit. Based on ethnographic material gathered in the San Juan de Dios market in Guadalajara, I discuss on the exchanges between piracy sellers and police officers. My argument is that law enforcement programmes have not affected the political economy of corruption, they overlook the net of ambiguous loyalties where state and illegal actors are entrenched. The anthropology of the state provides the rationale for a critique on neoliberal security policies.Quando surgiram os governos democráticos na América Latina, a perspetiva neoliberal da lei e da ordem constituiu-se como o modelo de segurança dominante na região. Esta abordagem baseia-se na oposição entre o Estado e os agentes da ilegalidade, como se fossem dois conjuntos de atores distintos. Influenciado por este modelo, o presidente mexicano Vicente Fox lançou um programa alargado contra a pirataria, pretendendo erradicar a venda da contrafação. A partir de material etnográfico recolhido no mercado de San Juan de Dios, em Guadalajara, examino as interações entre vendedores de mercadoria pirata e agentes da polícia. Argumento que os programas para a aplicação da lei não afetaram a economia política da corrupção e que ignoram a rede de lealdades ambíguas que envolvem o Estado e os atores ilegais. A antropologia do Estado oferece os princípios para uma crítica sobre as políticas de segurança neoliberais.

  20. STATE, MARKET AND CIVIL SOCIETY AS ACTORS OF DEVELOPMENT: the Challenge of Sustainability in the 21st Century. Interview with Lecturer Heike Doering, PhD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila De Nadai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this edition, professor Priscila De Nadai interviewed Heike Doering, PhD in Sociology from Cardiff University (United Kingdom, lecturer at Cardiff Business School and researcher of the Centre for Local and Regional Government Research, also from Cardiff University. In the past few years,  she has conducted research about reginal development and sustainability management, in emerging economies. One of her research projects is being developed in Espírito Santo in partnership with researchers from our State. In this interview, profesor Heike Doering will tell us about her trajectory as a researcher, about her studies and the specific research she is currently conducting in Espírito Santo.

  1. Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L.; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We newly developed the whole-mount imaging method of the tympanic membrane. •Lymphatic vessel loops were localized around the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. •In regeneration, abundant lymphatic vessels were observed in the pars tensa. •Site-specific lymphatic vessels may play an important role in the tympanic membrane. -- Abstract: We clarified the localization of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane and proliferation of lymphatic vessels during regeneration after perforation of the tympanic membrane by using whole-mount imaging of the tympanic membrane of Prox1 GFP mice. In the pars tensa, lymphatic vessel loops surrounded the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. Apart from these locations, lymphatic vessel loops were not observed in the pars tensa in the normal tympanic membrane. Lymphatic vessel loops surrounding the malleus handle were connected to the lymphatic vessel loops in the pars flaccida and around the tensor tympani muscle. Many lymphatic vessel loops were detected in the pars flaccida. After perforation of the tympanic membrane, abundant lymphatic regeneration was observed in the pars tensa, and these regenerated lymphatic vessels extended from the lymphatic vessels surrounding the malleus at day 7. These results suggest that site-specific lymphatic vessels play an important role in the tympanic membrane

  2. North Korea: a mercenary proliferator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemez, Remy

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled that North Korea possesses a rather advanced ballistic programme which has been started in the 1970 with the Chinese support, that North Korea is the fourth world producer of ballistic missiles, the author outlines that this country has become a major proliferator as it exports this production to different States and non-State actors. He recalls the long history of relationships between North Korea and terrorist organisations (even during the Cold War), comments the current and major support of North Korea to Hamas and Hezbollah in Gaza and in Lebanon. These relationships are then related with those these both organisations have with Syria and Iran who are in fact the relays between them and North Korea. The author explains why Hamas and Hezbollah must buy their weapons to such a far country: Iran is submitted to international sanctions, Iran and Syria want to avoid being banned from the international community for selling weapon to a terrorist (or so-said) organisation, and prices are rather competitive. If North Korea is also submitted to international sanctions, weapon smuggling seems to be institutional in this country. The author finally briefly evokes the issue of chemical weapons: North Korea possesses few thousand tonnes of these weapons, and could export them to non-state organisations

  3. The Grand Strategy of Nonstate Actors: Theory and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Pierman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the Realist assumption that only actors that are states can be considered to have a strategic culture. The primary issue raised is the question of the ability of non-state actors to have a strategic culture. Al-Qaida is used as a theoretical case study. Ultimately this article rejects the idea of territoriality in strategic culture formulation and calls for academics and policymakers alike to adopt a broader conception of actors on the international, stage. This broader conception of actors would necessitate rich case studies to be done in the future in order to seek an understanding of the strategic culture of the non-state actors which academics and policymakers must deal with in the modern security environment. In particular, the article finds that the assumptions held about al-Qaida thus far are wrong and, in reality, the group has ambitions that are cosmic in nature, which will necessitate change in the strategies used to fight against terrorism.

  4. An Influence Analysis of Dissuading Nation States from Producing and Proliferating Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    influential power over the actions taken by the nation state. Freedman 8 provided the etymology of deterrence that starts with the Latin deterre—to...to the site during this time period included an isotope production laboratory, power substations, workshops, physics and chemistry laboratories

  5. The Nuclear Question. After Iran: Toward Nuclear Proliferation in the Middle East?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courmont, Barthelemy

    2008-01-01

    Iran's potential acquirement of the atomic bomb could lead to nuclear proliferation in the Middle East. Many countries in the region would be tempted to follow the Iranian example, in order to maintain their regional power. This development could produce significant geopolitical consequences in a region where relationships are already tense. In this context, one can envisage different crisis scenarios: support for terrorist acts, attacks on American bases in the region, threats against the state of Israel. Accelerated nuclear proliferation in the Middle East would also jeopardize the efforts undertaken by regional actors during the past four decades to create a Nuclear Weapon Free Zone (NWFZ)

  6. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature...... of the actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  7. Nuclear non-proliferation states urged to conclude Safeguards Agreement with International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document contains a brief presentation of the annual report of the IAEA, the statement of the Director General of the IAEA at the General Assembly Plenary with emphasis on Agency's actions to strengthen safeguards, and statements made by the representatives of Brazil, Finland, Mexico, United States, Lithuania, Cuba, Czech Republic, Japan, Egypt, Ukraine, South Africa, India, Myanmar, and the Russian Federation at the 46th Meeting, on 4 November 1999

  8. Two-actor conflict with time delay: A dynamical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qubbaj, Murad R.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata

    2012-11-01

    Recent mathematical dynamical models of the conflict between two different actors, be they nations, groups, or individuals, have been developed that are capable of predicting various outcomes depending on the chosen feedback strategies, initial conditions, and the previous states of the actors. In addition to these factors, this paper examines the effect of time delayed feedback on the conflict dynamics. Our analysis shows that under certain initial and feedback conditions, a stable neutral equilibrium of conflict may destabilize for some critical values of time delay, and the two actors may evolve to new emotional states. We investigate the results by constructing critical delay surfaces for different sets of parameters and analyzing results from numerical simulations. These results provide new insights regarding conflict and conflict resolution and may help planners in adjusting and assessing their strategic decisions.

  9. Commercial Actors and the Governing of Education: The Case of Academy School Sponsors in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which commercial actors are operating in state education by focusing on the case study of England's academies policy. First of all the discussion outlines the development of academies over time and the way in which the policy has provided opportunities for private actors to become involved in the state schooling…

  10. Action adaptation during natural unfolding social scenes influences action recognition and inferences made about actor beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Bruce D; Wincenciak, Joanna; Jellema, Tjeerd; Ward, James W; Barraclough, Nick E

    2016-07-01

    When observing another individual's actions, we can both recognize their actions and infer their beliefs concerning the physical and social environment. The extent to which visual adaptation influences action recognition and conceptually later stages of processing involved in deriving the belief state of the actor remains unknown. To explore this we used virtual reality (life-size photorealistic actors presented in stereoscopic three dimensions) to see how visual adaptation influences the perception of individuals in naturally unfolding social scenes at increasingly higher levels of action understanding. We presented scenes in which one actor picked up boxes (of varying number and weight), after which a second actor picked up a single box. Adaptation to the first actor's behavior systematically changed perception of the second actor. Aftereffects increased with the duration of the first actor's behavior, declined exponentially over time, and were independent of view direction. Inferences about the second actor's expectation of box weight were also distorted by adaptation to the first actor. Distortions in action recognition and actor expectations did not, however, extend across different actions, indicating that adaptation is not acting at an action-independent abstract level but rather at an action-dependent level. We conclude that although adaptation influences more complex inferences about belief states of individuals, this is likely to be a result of adaptation at an earlier action recognition stage rather than adaptation operating at a higher, more abstract level in mentalizing or simulation systems.

  11. Self-Recovering Sensor-Actor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kamali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor-actor networks are a recent development of wireless networks where both ordinary sensor nodes and more sophisticated and powerful nodes, called actors, are present. In this paper we formalize a recently introduced algorithm that recovers failed actor communication links via the existing sensor infrastructure. We prove via refinement that the recovery is terminating in a finite number of steps and is distributed, thus self-performed by the actors. Most importantly, we prove that the recovery can be done at different levels, via different types of links, such as direct actor links or indirect links between the actors, in the latter case reusing the wireless infrastructure of sensors. This leads to identifying coordination classes, e.g., for delegating the most security sensitive coordination to the direct actor-actor coordination links, the least real-time constrained coordination to indirect links, and the safety critical coordination to both direct actor links and indirect sensor paths between actors. Our formalization is done using the theorem prover in the RODIN platform.

  12. Preventing proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathjens, G.

    1983-01-01

    Challenging the argument that nuclear proliferation may be stabilizing, the author cites the Israeli attack on Iraq as evidence that emergent nuclear states may be moved to attack their adversaries.The larger the number of decision makers who can unleash nuclear weapons, the greater the liklihood of their use. Several reasons are cited for nations to seek nuclear capability: the accelerated spread of technology, the deterioration in US-Soviet relations and strength relative to their nations, the high cost of conventional weapons, and a loss of confidence in the international safeguards system. The imposition of constraints, such as a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, on nuclear trade and technology transfer are likely to have a high cost. The US position on this issue is likely to be determined by the balance of power with the Soviet Union. 5 references

  13. Social movements and the construction of crisis actors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela; Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    of social movements occurs when they collaborate with similar movements in other countries, claim a European identity, invoke Europe-wide solidarity, contest authorities beyond the state and ascribe responsibility for solving the crisis to European Union (EU). By targeting EU authorities, social movements......This article examines the Europeanization of social movements following the European sovereign debt crisis. It develops a theoretical framework to measure degrees of social movement Europeanization, incorporating targets, participants, and issue frame dimensions of mobilization. Europeanization...... may contribute to the construction of the EU as a crisis actor and through deliberative processes define the roles and identities of such actors....

  14. The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-06-15

    The Board of Governors has requested the Director General to use the material reproduced in this booklet as the basis for negotiating safeguards agreements between the Agency and non-nuclear-weapon States party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

  15. The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-06-01

    The Board of Governors has requested the Director General to use the material reproduced in this booklet as the basis for negotiating safeguards agreements between the Agency and non-nuclear-weapon States party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

  16. The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-05-01

    The Board of Governors has requested the Director General to use the material reproduced in this booklet as the basis for negotiating safeguards agreements between the Agency and non-nuclear-weapon States party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons [es

  17. The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    The Board of Governors has requested the Director General to use the material reproduced in this booklet as the basis for negotiating safeguards agreements between the Agency and non-nuclear-weapon States party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons [ru

  18. The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Board of Governors has requested the Director General to use the material reproduced in this booklet as the basis for negotiating safeguards agreements between the Agency and non-nuclear-weapon States party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

  19. Expression and contributions of the Kir2.1 inward-rectifier K+ channel to proliferation, migration and chemotaxis of microglia in unstimulated and anti-inflammatory states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris eLam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available When microglia respond to CNS damage, they can range from pro-inflammatory (classical, M1 to anti-inflammatory, alternative (M2 and acquired deactivation states. It is important to determine how microglial functions are affected by these activation states, and to identify molecules that regulate their behavior. Microglial proliferation and migration are crucial during development and following damage in the adult, and both functions are Ca2+-dependent. In many cell types, the membrane potential and driving force for Ca2+ influx are regulated by inward-rectifier K+ channels, including Kir2.1, which is prevalent in microglia. However, it is not known whether Kir2.1 expression and contributions are altered in anti-inflammatory states. We tested the hypothesis that Kir2.1 contributes to Ca2+ entry, proliferation and migration of rat microglia. Kir2.1 (KCNJ2 transcript expression, current amplitude, and proliferation were comparable in unstimulated microglia and following alternative activation (IL-4 stimulated and acquired deactivation (IL-10 stimulated. To examine functional roles of Kir2.1 in microglia, we first determined that ML133 was more effective than the commonly used blocker, Ba2+; i.e., ML133 was potent (IC50=3.5 M and voltage independent. Both blockers slightly increased proliferation in unstimulated or IL-4 (but not IL-10-stimulated microglia. Stimulation with IL-4 or IL-10 increased migration and ATP-induced chemotaxis, and blocking Kir2.1 greatly reduced both but ML133 was more effective. In all three activation states, blocking Kir2.1 with ML133 dramatically reduced Ca2+ influx through Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC channels. Thus, Kir2.1 channel activity is necessary for microglial Ca2+ signaling and migration under resting and anti-inflammatory states but the channel weakly inhibits proliferation.

  20. Characterization of Compounds with Tumor-Cell Proliferation Inhibition Activity from Mushroom (Phellinus baumii) Mycelia Produced by Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Henan; Shao, Qian; Wang, Wenhan; Zhang, Jingsong; Zhang, Zhong; Liu, Yanfang; Yang, Yan

    2017-04-27

    The inhibition of tumor-cell proliferationbyan organicsolvent extract from the solid-state fermentation of Phellinus baumii mycelia inoculated in rice medium was investigated in vitro. The active compounds inhibiting tumor-cell proliferation were characterized. Results revealed that all (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol) fractions inhibited tumor-cell proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion. The ethyl acetate extract had the highest inhibitory effecton tumor-cell proliferation, and the butanol fraction had the lowest. Six compounds were isolated and purified from the ethyl acetate extract of P. baumii mycelia by the tandem application of silica-gel column chromatography (SGCC), high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), and preparative HPLC. These compounds were identified by NMR and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) spectroscopic methods as ergosterol (RF1), ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-yl pentadecanoate (RF3), 3,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde(RF6), inoscavinA (RF7), baicalein(RF10), and 24-ethylcholesta-5,22-dien-3β-ol (RF13). To further clarify the activity of these compounds, the cell-proliferation-inhibition tests of these compounds on various tumor cells were carried out and evaluatedin vitro. Results suggested that compounds RF6, RF7, and RF10 had potent inhibition effects on the proliferation of a series of tumor cell lines, including K562, L1210, SW620, HepG2, LNCaP, and MCF-7cells. These findings indicated that P. baumii mycelia produced by solid-state fermentation in rice canbe used to obtain active compounds with the ability to inhibittumor-cell proliferation.

  1. Characterization of Compounds with Tumor–Cell Proliferation Inhibition Activity from Mushroom (Phellinus baumii Mycelia Produced by Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henan Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of tumor-cell proliferationbyan organicsolvent extract from the solid-state fermentation of Phellinus baumii mycelia inoculated in rice medium was investigated in vitro. The active compounds inhibiting tumor-cell proliferation were characterized. Results revealed that all (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions inhibited tumor-cell proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion. The ethyl acetate extract had the highest inhibitory effecton tumor-cell proliferation, and the butanol fraction had the lowest. Six compounds were isolated and purified from the ethyl acetate extract of P. baumii mycelia by the tandem application of silica-gel column chromatography (SGCC, high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC, and preparative HPLC. These compounds were identified by NMR and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS spectroscopic methods as ergosterol (RF1, ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-yl pentadecanoate (RF3, 3,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde(RF6, inoscavinA (RF7, baicalein(RF10, and 24-ethylcholesta-5,22-dien-3β-ol (RF13. To further clarify the activity of these compounds, the cell-proliferation-inhibition tests of these compounds on various tumor cells were carried out and evaluatedin vitro. Results suggested that compounds RF6, RF7, and RF10 had potent inhibition effects on the proliferation of a series of tumor cell lines, including K562, L1210, SW620, HepG2, LNCaP, and MCF-7cells. These findings indicated that P. baumii mycelia produced by solid-state fermentation in rice canbe used to obtain active compounds with the ability to inhibittumor-cell proliferation.

  2. State Department Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) Policy: A Nod to Non-Proliferation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cabot, Jr, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    ...) in regions where a like capability has yet to be introduced. The policy was conceived as an attempt to foster regional stability in regions where the proliferation of advanced weaponry may lead to the start of a local arms race...

  3. Actors of the hydrogen sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document proposes brief presentations (web site address, activities) of actors operating in the hydrogen sector in France. These actors are public actors who can be incentive or financing actors (ADEME, ANR) or research institutions (CNRS, CEA, university and engineering schools, IFP, INERIS, INRETS), private actors like industrial groups (Air Liquide, AREVA, GDF Suez, Total, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault, Saint-Gobain, SNECMA, ST Microelectronics, 3M, Veolia Environnement) or small companies (Alca Torda Applications, Axane, CETH2, Helion, MaHytec, N-GHY, PaxiTech, Sertronic, ULLIT). It also presents the HyPAC platform created by the AFH2 and ADEME), the AFH2 (the French Association for Hydrogen), and regional initiatives

  4. The Management of Political Actors in Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Odion Omoijiade

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The argument that the minimization of the dysfunctional consequences of organizational politics is no longer dependent on self-equilibrating mechanism remains valid. This inquiry is therefore framed with a view to establishing suitable strategies for managing political actors. There is a nexus between the diagnosis typology of political actors and the qualitative classes of political actors and their management strategies. In the management of mixed blessing, supportive, non-supportive and marginal political actors; collaborative, involvement, defensive and information strategies respectively were found suitable. This research is based on existing theoretical knowledge on organizational politics and stakeholders management. Data was collected from the literature by means of critical analysis and dialectic reflection on the emerging themes. The study will enhance capability in contexts where the scientific management of political actors is yet to be exemplified.

  5. Responsibilities of supplier states and consumer states in accommodating supply arrangements to changing circumstances and to identify and evaluate alternative mechanisms for improving supply guarantees consistent with non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The papers by the USA and Australia deal with the responsibility of supplier states and consumer states in accommodating supply arrangements to changing circumstances and with the development of alternative supply guarantees consistent with non-proliferation treaties. A number of theses are evolved for the realisation of these goals; most of them refer to an improvement of bilateral contacts and agreements

  6. Pathophysiological hypoxia affects the redox state and IL-2 signalling of human CD4+ T cells and concomitantly impairs survival and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Timo; Tran, Cam Loan; Schellmann, Saskia; Hahne, Martin; Strehl, Cindy; Hoff, Paula; Radbruch, Andreas; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Buttgereit, Frank

    2013-06-01

    Inflamed areas are characterized by infiltration of immune cells, local hypoxia and alterations of cellular redox states. We investigated the impact of hypoxia on survival, proliferation, cytokine secretion, intracellular energy and redox state of human CD4(+) T cells. We found that pathophysiological hypoxia (<2% O2 ) significantly decreased CD4(+) T-cell survival after mitogenic stimulation. This effect was not due to an increased caspase-3/7-mediated apoptosis or adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) consumption/depletion. However, the ability of stimulated T cells to proliferate was reduced under hypoxic conditions, despite increased expression of CD25. Pathophysiological hypoxia was also found to modify intracellular ROS (iROS) levels in stimulated T cells over time as compared with levels found in normoxia. Physiological hypoxia (5% O2 ) did not decrease CD4(+) T-cell survival and proliferation or modify iROS levels as compared with normoxia. We conclude that pathophysiological hypoxia affects T-cell proliferation and viability via disturbed IL-2R signalling downstream of STAT5a phosphorylation, but not as a result of impaired cellular energy homeostasis. We suggest iROS links early events in T-cell stimulation to the inhibition of the lymphoproliferative response under pathophysiological hypoxic conditions. The level of iROS may therefore act as a mediator of immune functions leading to down-regulation of long-term T-cell activity in inflamed tissues. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Energy in debate. Civil nuclear and proliferation. Energy scenarios and freedom latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This publication first gives a presentation of a European colloquium on energy strategies between the nuclear risk and the greenhouse effect. Then dealing with the relationship between nuclear energy and nuclear proliferation, a contribution comments the relationship between the civil use of nuclear energy (notably for electricity production) and the use of nuclear materials for nuclear weapons (posture of the five nuclear States, development of the counter-proliferation policy, proliferating countries and actors, evolution of the political context after the fall of the USSR). The next article discusses the rooms to manoeuvre when defining energy strategies, notably with respect to nuclear energy. It also outlines the challenge of energy efficiency improvement in France, particularly for electricity uses, and by limiting the road traffic dramatic increase. A last article is an answer to critics by the author of a book on the greenhouse effect

  8. APPROACHES TO GLOBAL SECURITY. ACTORS, MANIFESTATIONS AND TENDENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MINCULETE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the world seems to be in a transition from the current system founded on the liberal social, economic and political model to a more diverse and heterogeneous model in which the determinant role is played by a number of state and non-state actors. The step from the Western system of cultural, political and predominant economic values to a more diverse and heterogeneous system makes the actors involved defend not only their visions, but also promote their own interests. The differences between visions gain relevance and clarity because the countries supporting them obtain increased power, and that is more than obvious. All this leads to a symmetric allocation of different means, which generates uncertainties and diminishes unilateral actions This transition process impacts global security especially through the asymmetric, unconventional and hybrid risks and threats manifesting worldwide.

  9. Understanding Regional Actors: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harden, James

    2002-01-01

    .... It is possible the estimation process could improve if greater attention was given to the interests, challenges, and opportunities of the regional actors involved, rather than concentrating on U.S. interests...

  10. Special COP 21 - Stakes and actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, Loic; Dupain, Julien; Descamps, Olivier; Blosseville, Thomas; Connors, Anne; Canto, Albane; Robischon, Christian; Boedec, Morgan; Tubiana, Fabian; Bomstein, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    A first set of article comments and discusses the various stakes and challenges of the 21. Conference of Parties (COP 21): the negotiation process which resulted in a synthesis which is to be signed by 95 States in Paris, the elaboration of an Agenda of solutions with the commitment of enterprises and local authorities, the issue of international financing as some promises remained not kept for the support to adaptation of developing countries. A second set of articles addresses the involved actors and their technological or economic challenges: the needed evolution of energy (electricity, heat, gas, fuel) producers away from fossil energies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the strategy of the French company Engie in the field of photovoltaic, wind and more generally renewable energies, innovating trends of decentralisation of energy production (offshore wind energy, hydrogen, plasma torch, flexible photovoltaic arrays, the wind tree, the floating wind turbine, new technologies for solar arrays), the perspectives for industrial sectors concerned by energy transition (with the example of Schneider Electric), emerging technologies (oil lamp, new boilers, desalination equipment, storage of wind energy, co-generation), developments and perspectives in the transport sector (example of Renault, new technologies for hybrid propulsion, bio-refineries, reduction of fuel consumption, hybrid aircraft, and heat management in railways) and in the building sector (new standards and applications, new building materials). A last article outlines the threat that climate can be for profitability and the taking of the carbon risk into account by the insurance and financial sectors

  11. Private actor accountability on international regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Purnomo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs have emerged along with the growing role of corporations in global development. One of the largest forms of PPP today is the UN Global Compact. The UN Global Compact involves of companies, NGOs, IGOs and state governments. All of them are trying to realize globalization with a more humanist face with attention to the protection of human rights, environment, labor standards and anti-corruption. Engaging private actors in global governance, The UN Global Compact raises many issues such as power, authority, and legitimacy. The effort to tackle it all is to increase PPP accountability. This research seeks to describe what efforts can be made to enhance private accountability within the international regime. The research undertaken is a descriptive study, focuses on public-private partnerships in the UN Global Compact regime. The study found that there were two attempts that could be done. First, by involving the stakeholders in the development of procedures, mechanisms, reporting and monitoring associated with trying to improve the company’s reputation. Second, by looking at corporate relations as agent and UN Global Compact as principal in principal-agent relation in the international regime.

  12. Cyberspace: Malevolent Actors, Criminal Opportunities, and Strategic Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    local wireless network to in- form the doctor, relatives, or other caregivers that the medications have been taken. In this way, computer chips have...labeled this phenomenon BlackFor, or Black Force, defined as a “postmodern form of societal cancer ,” and as “a confederation of illicit non-state actors...psychedelics, pre- 298 scription, precursors, opioids, ecstasy, cannabis , and steroids.61 Once these products were purchased, they were shipped in

  13. Book Review: A Liberal Actor in a Realist World the European Union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: A Liberal Actor in a Realist World the European Union Regulatory State and the Global Political Economy of Energy. Book Author: Andreas Goldthau & Nick Sitter. Oxford University Press Oxford 2015. ISBN 9780198719595 ...

  14. ACTOR`S EXPRESSIVENESS: PHYSICAL ACTION AS A LANGUAGE OF ARCHETYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATEREVA IRINA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is the main element of the nonverbal expressiveness of the actor. Th e nonpsychological theatre of Europe in the second half of the 20th century was looking for the actor`s possibility of physical action for revealing the archetypal image of the character. Expressing the meanings similar among themselves in diff erent Nations, they connect the actors and spectators at the level of feelings, of the subconscious. Destroying the barriers in people’s minds which divides them into Europeans and Asians, or French and Germans, they are understandable to any audience regardless of their cultural or linguistic affiliation.

  15. Experimenting with International Collaborative Governance for Climate Change Mitigation by Private Actors: Scaling up Dutch Co-Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    TELESETSKY, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    For the past two decades, international climate policy has been handled as a matter for State to State deliberation. Non-state actors have played at best marginal roles in making and implementing international policy. This paper argues that climate change remains an intractable transnational problem because State to State deliberations failed to acknowledge that both climate mitigation and adaptation require ongoing collaborative governance with non-State actors to shift normative behavior. T...

  16. Information report on Proliferation geo-strategic stakes; Rapport d'information depose en application de l'article 145 du Reglement par la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur Les enjeux geostrategiques des proliferations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    This large report, notably based on interviews of many representatives of international institutions and politicians, ambassadors and researchers of different countries, all involved or specialized in nuclear and defence issues, starts with a description of the evolution of the international and geo-strategic context from the Cold War to a period of a new nuclear proliferation, with, in between, a period of stabilisation between the USA and the USSR. It also questions the various forms of proliferation which could be ballistic, biological, chemical, and cybernetic. Then, it analyses the role which mass destruction weapons have in international relationships, making a distinction between countries possessing such weapons (USA, Russia, China, France, Great-Britain), Israel which has been a newcomer for thirty years, the new actors (India, Pakistan, Iran, North Korea) with their own and different motivations, and the possible new actors (Libya, Syria). It comments the meaning of the ballistic threat and of the anti-missile defence. The third part of this report deals with the dissemination of proliferating technologies, describing the proliferation networks and the failure of actions against state-based proliferations, questioning the reality of the associated risks (discussion about the impact of September 11 attacks, about a chemical and biological terrorist threat which is realistic as well as difficult to be implemented, and about cybernetic attacks). The fourth part comments the impact of the international community on proliferation, outlining the different efficiencies of the international agreements and institutions (Chemical Weapons Convention, IAEA, Non Proliferation Treaty, Biological Weapons Convention, The Hague Code of Conduct), commenting the opportunities associated with other texts (those about nuclear free areas, or those produced by exporter groups), and discussing the attitude of the international community with respect to proliferation, and the

  17. Globalization, Governance and New Actors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademil Lucio Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the main economic, politic and social changes that happened in Brazil in the 90's due to the hegemony of the neoliberal thought that offered an opportunity to a series of reforms, not only economical as well as politic and social ones, that caused the weakness of the State in benefit of a new governorship managed by the market forces and impelled by the financial and commercial globalization. In this period, when the Brazilian State abandoned his articulator role of social and economical development policies, this space has come to be occupied by states and municipal districts that started to articulate development policies and to negotiate, directly with transnational companies, productive investments for their areas without possessing an efficient technical body to drive the negotiations. The final result was a series of agreements that benefitted mainly the transnational companies, casting doubts about the benefits that countries, such as Brazil, had with the intensification of the globalization in the 90's.

  18. Passenger Rail SOEs as Domestic Institutional Market Actors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup Christensen, Lene

    2018-01-01

    sectorial challenges. In Sweden, this role has a new public governance form as the monopoly over time is fully dismantled. In Denmark, over time marketization is put on hold due to problems with the SOE as a market actor, but the SOE is nevertheless safeguarded in a new Weberian model as a sector......Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to make an empirical-based conceptualization of the contemporary domestic state-owned enterprises (SOEs) as domestic institutional market actors (IMAs) in the marketization of public service delivery. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based...... on a qualitative comparative case study of the SOEs in passenger rail in Denmark and Sweden from 1990 to 2015. Findings: The paper shows how marketization results in a layered institutional set-up of public service delivery based on both competition and monopoly where the SOE becomes what we call an IMA bridging...

  19. The EU and non proliferation: need for a quantum leap?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobia, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the possibilities of a strategy and all-encompassing European policy that could constitute an efficient and structured system against proliferation. This paper concentrate on actions and developments at the level of the E.U. sensu stricto, i.e. where common actions under the E.U. umbrella are set up and contribute to the efforts in non-proliferation. It does not cover all measures and mechanisms under the 'non-proliferation regime', the integrated and evolving network of unilateral, bilateral, regional, multilateral treaties and other standing-setting arrangements, which collectively provide a framework guiding the behaviour of states, international organisations, enterprises, associations and all non state actors generally active in the nuclear sector. For the purposes of this paper, the 'utilitarian and teleological' prisms are used. The 'utilitarian perspective aims to maximizing the net expectable utility for all parties affected by a decision or action knowing the that traditional utilitarianism favours the options that bring about the best consequences and aims at the 'good'. The teleological approach lies in an interpretation that favours the ultimate goals of any provision and action as well as their spirit, rather than accepting to remain in a more narrow exegetic interpretation that favours the strict letter thereof. (N.C.)

  20. Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and nuclear security. Overview of safeguards requirements for States with limited nuclear material and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodding, J.; Ribeiro, B.

    2006-06-01

    This booklet provides an overview of safeguards obligations that apply to States which are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) that have no nuclear facilities and only limited quantities of nuclear material. Most State parties to the NPT have no nuclear facilities and only limited quantities of nuclear material. For such States, safeguards implementation is expected to be simple and straightforward. This booklet provides an overview of the safeguards obligations that apply to such States. It is hoped that a better understanding of these requirements will facilitate the conclusion and implementation of safeguards agreements and additional protocols, and thereby contribute to the strengthening of the IAEA?s safeguards system and of collective security

  1. Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and nuclear security. Overview of Safeguards requirements for States with limited nuclear material and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodding, J.; Ribeiro, B.

    2006-06-01

    This booklet provides an overview of safeguards obligations that apply to States which are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) that have no nuclear facilities and only limited quantities of nuclear material. Most State parties to the NPT have no nuclear facilities and only limited quantities of nuclear material. For such States, safeguards implementation is expected to be simple and straightforward. This booklet provides an overview of the safeguards obligations that apply to such States. It is hoped that a better understanding of these requirements will facilitate the conclusion and implementation of safeguards agreements and additional protocols, and thereby contribute to the strengthening of the IAEA?s safeguards system and of collective security

  2. Postdecisional counterfactual thinking by actors and readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Vittorio; Ferrante, Donatella; Pighin, Stefania; Gonzalez, Michel

    2007-06-01

    How do individuals think counterfactually about the outcomes of their decisions? Most previous studies have investigated how readers think about fictional stories, rather than how actors think about events they have actually experienced. We assumed that differences in individuals' roles (actor vs. reader) can make different information available, which in turn can affect counterfactual thinking. Hence, we predicted an effect of role on postdecisional counterfactual thinking. Reporting the results of eight studies, we show that readers undo the negative outcome of a story by undoing the protagonist's choice to tackle a given problem, rather than the protagonist's unsuccessful attempt to solve it. But actors who make the same choice and experience the same negative outcome as the protagonist undo this outcome by altering features of the problem. We also show that this effect does not depend on motivational factors. These results contradict current accounts of counterfactual thinking and demonstrate the necessity of investigating the counterfactual thoughts of individuals in varied roles.

  3. Lone Actors: Challenges and Opportunities for Countering Violent Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Richman, A.; Sharan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores some of the key challenges and opportunities concerning the prevention and control of lone actor terrorism. It is argued that lone actors do not operate in a social vacuum and that the interaction points between lone actors and their social environments can render lone actors

  4. The European Union as a Comprehensive Police Actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Anthony Rozée

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has responded to changing security threats by seeking to increase cooperation between the law enforcement agencies of the Member States, granting further powers to Europol and other intelligence-sharing institutions, and by undertaking police missions beyond EU borders. The literature relating to EU policing is generally focused on the ‘internal’ and ‘external’ dimensions, or on specific aspects of police activity. This tendency to concentrate on narrow or isolated areas of policing has led to a significant gap regarding the broader analysis of the EU as a comprehensive police actor. Important questions about the nature of EU policing as a whole, as well as the contribution of policing activities to the EU’s security agenda, remain unexplored in the literature. This article aims to define what is meant by ‘comprehensive policing’ and to indentify criteria by which the comprehensiveness of EU-level policing may be measured. In addition to this, an integrated actorness/police comprehensiveness framework will be presented as a tool for assessing the EU as a comprehensive police actor.

  5. Sovereign Wealth Funds as Global Economic and Political Actors: Defining of Notions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Алексеевич Кинякин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article devoted to consideration of sovereign wealth funds (SWF as economic and political actors as well as analysis of different forms of their activity in the contemporary global economics and politics. The author comes to the conclusion, that sovereign wealth funds play not only the role of providers of interests of the national states, but being the special purpose vehicles (SPV, designated to fulfill the different tasks, turn out to be the new type of global actors.

  6. Nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, S.

    1978-01-01

    The terms and reactions to President Carter's nuclear policy, culminating in the 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act, are reviewed and analyzed. The new law increases restrictions on nuclear exports, encourages continued use of light water reactors in preference to plutonium-fueled reactors, and emphasizes technical solutions to proliferation problems. Critics of the law point out that it will hurt U.S. trade unfairly, that other countries do not have as many fuel options as the U.S. has, and that nuclear sales have as many political and economic as technical solutions. Compromise areas include new international safety guidelines, the possibility of an international nuclear fuel bank, and a willingness to consider each case on its merits. 21 references

  7. Iranian Sanctions: An Actor-Centric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    cultivated to counterbalance other actors in the system who opposed Khamenei’s ascension, based on his weak religious credentials.42 These security...trumped up religious infraction.256 The bonyads are the Iranian economy’s dominating revenue generating entity outside the oil sector,257 mushrooming in

  8. Political actors playing games: Theory and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamm, A.

    2015-01-01

    Political actors exert enormous influence over our daily lives. Their influence on economic activities cannot be underestimated. Voters determine the distribution of political power, political candidates choose policy platforms that they intend to enact if elected, and legislators bargain to arrive

  9. An Erlang Implementation of Multiparty Session Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fowler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By requiring co-ordination to take place using explicit message passing instead of relying on shared memory, actor-based programming languages have been shown to be effective tools for building reliable and fault-tolerant distributed systems. Although naturally communication-centric, communication patterns in actor-based applications remain informally specified, meaning that errors in communication are detected late, if at all. Multiparty session types are a formalism to describe, at a global level, the interactions between multiple communicating entities. This article describes the implementation of a prototype framework for monitoring Erlang/OTP gen_server applications against multiparty session types, showing how previous work on multiparty session actors can be adapted to a purely actor-based language, and how monitor violations and termination of session participants can be reported in line with the Erlang mantra of "let it fail". Finally, the framework is used to implement two case studies: an adaptation of a freely-available DNS server, and a chat server.

  10. Corporate actors in Western European television news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    News about corporations can be understood as an interdependent relationship among the public relations function, organizational logic and the logic of the media. This research addresses the visibility and role of corporate actors in Western European public television news. A quantitative content

  11. Policy Actors: Doing Policy Work in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen J.; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Hoskins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the "policy work" of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the "problem of meaning" and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get "enacted". It argues that "policy work" is made up of a set of complex and…

  12. Pensar e intervenir el territorio a traves de la Teoria del Actor-Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Cabrera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es reflexionar sobre las coincidencias entre la forma de ver el territorio como red, algunas posturas teóricas sobre su concepto y la teoría del actor-red. Sobre lo anterior se centra en proponer una forma de entender las relaciones entre actores cuando se va a intervenir el territorio a través de políticas públicas como la planificación utilizando un modelo de gestión territorial a través de las orientaciones de la TAR.   

  13. The moral problem of worse actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals and institutions sometimes have morally stringent reasons to not do a given action. For example, an oil company might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing revenue to a genocidal regime, or an engineer might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing her expertise in the development of weapons of mass destruction. But in some cases, if the agent does not do the action, another actor will do it with much worse consequences. For example, the oil company might know their assets will be bought by a company with worse environmental and labor practices. Or the engineer might know her position will be filled by a more ambitious and amoral engineer. I call this the moral problem of worse actors (MPWA. MPWA gives reason, at least some of the time, to consider otherwise morally impermissible actions permissible or even obligatory. On my account, doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA remains morally objectionable even if permissible or obligatory, and this brings additional moral responsibilities and obligations to the actor. Similarly, not doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA may also bring additional (but different moral responsibilities and obligations. Acknowledging MPWA creates considerable challenges, as many bad actors may appeal to it to justify morally objectionable action. In this paper, I develop a set of strategies for individuals and institutions to handle MPWA. This includes appeals to integrity and the proper attribution of expressive responsibility, regulatory responsibility, and compensatory responsibility. I also address a set of related concerns, including worries about incentivizing would-be bad actors, concerns about epistemic uncertainty, and the problem of mala in se exceptions.

  14. South America and the proliferation of biological weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Coutto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the role of regional institutions and political practices in strengthening multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation regimes. Particular attention is devoted to coordination between Brazil and Argentina with a view to forging a "South American position" vis-à-vis the Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention (BTWC. Empirical evidence suggests that informal arrangements between the two countries were capable of involving other South American leaders and promoting the exchange of information among different groups of states, most notably during the 2006 BTWC review conference. This paper also sheds light on the identification of specific features that allow for increasing visibility and actorness of regional powers in promoting universality of multilateral security regimes (MSR, as well as the limitations faced by these players.

  15. Nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    DOE's nuclear non-proliferation responsibilities are defined by the provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 (NNPA). The Department's major responsibilities in this area are to: (1) provide technical assistance to the Department of State in negotiating agreements for civil cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy with other countries and international organizations; (2) join with other agencies to reach executive branch judgments with respect to the issuance of export licenses by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; (3) be responsible for processing subsequent arrangements with other agencies as required by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act; (4) control the distribution of special nuclear materials, components, equipment, and nuclear technology exports; (5) participate in bilateral and multilateral cooperation with foreign governments and organizations to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; and (6) act as a primary technical resource with respect to US participation in the International Atomic Energy Agency

  16. Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by the Islamic State: Nature of the Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mrva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs on the battlefield does not exclude terrorist actors. Recently, there is an evident increase in the number of incidents when the so-called Islamic State has used UAVs. This article tries to describe this relatively new phenomenon and present an overview of main types of the potential Islamic State’s UAV employment in Europe. Despite the fact, that the UAV use by terrorist actors will probably not have the strategic impact by itself, it constitutes a new challenge for state security agencies.

  17. MYC through miR-17-92 Suppresses Specific Target Genes to Maintain Survival, Autonomous Proliferation, and a Neoplastic State

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yulin; Choi, Peter  S.; Casey, Stephanie  C.; Dill, David  L.; Felsher, Dean  W.

    2014-01-01

    The MYC oncogene regulates gene expression through multiple mechanisms, and its overexpression culminates in tumorigenesis. MYC inactivation reverses turmorigenesis through the loss of distinguishing features of cancer, including autonomous proliferation and survival. Here we report that MYC via miR-17-92 maintains a neoplastic state through the suppression of chromatin regulatory genes Sin3b, Hbp1, Suv420h1, and Btg1, as well as the apoptosis regulator Bim. The enforced expression of miR-17-92 prevents MYC suppression from inducing proliferative arrest, senescence, and apoptosis and abrogates sustained tumor regression. Knockdown of the five miR-17-92 target genes blocks senescence and apoptosis while it modestly delays proliferative arrest, thus partially recapitulating miR-17-92 function. We conclude that MYC, via miR-17-92, maintains a neoplastic state by suppressing specific target genes.

  18. MYC through miR-17-92 Suppresses Specific Target Genes to Maintain Survival, Autonomous Proliferation, and a Neoplastic State

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yulin

    2014-08-01

    The MYC oncogene regulates gene expression through multiple mechanisms, and its overexpression culminates in tumorigenesis. MYC inactivation reverses turmorigenesis through the loss of distinguishing features of cancer, including autonomous proliferation and survival. Here we report that MYC via miR-17-92 maintains a neoplastic state through the suppression of chromatin regulatory genes Sin3b, Hbp1, Suv420h1, and Btg1, as well as the apoptosis regulator Bim. The enforced expression of miR-17-92 prevents MYC suppression from inducing proliferative arrest, senescence, and apoptosis and abrogates sustained tumor regression. Knockdown of the five miR-17-92 target genes blocks senescence and apoptosis while it modestly delays proliferative arrest, thus partially recapitulating miR-17-92 function. We conclude that MYC, via miR-17-92, maintains a neoplastic state by suppressing specific target genes.

  19. Innovation in the plural of the alpine cre-actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Finger-Stich

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to innovate for a sustainable development of alpine territories cannot depend only on economic, legal and political conditions defined by the State at national and international levels. It depends also on local conditions that situate historically and geographically the actors in a continuity of social and ecological relationships. This approach highlights the collective – thus organisational – dimensions of the innovation process, including the imagination, the development, the implementation and even the diffusion of a new practice. Our point of view is that for contributing to the sustainable development of the Alps, innovations need to change the ecological, political, social and cultural relationships engaging the actors in these territories. This change affects as much the object territory as the subject actor of the territory. This is why innovating in the Alps means also innovating the Alps and the alpine actors (Cosalp, 2008. Based on a research about local people’s participation in the management of alpine communal forests, the article shows the importance of local interactions involving actors of diverse occupation, gender, age and origins1.La capacité d’innovation pour un développement durable des territoires alpins ne peut dépendre uniquement de conditions économiques, légales et politiques définies par les Etats aux échelles nationale et internationale. Elle dépend aussi de conditions locales, qui situent historiquement et géographiquement les acteurs dans une continuité de relations sociales et écologiques. Cette perspective accentue l’importance de la dimension collective, donc organisationnelle, du processus d’innovation, allant de l’imagination, puis au développement, à la réalisation – voire la diffusion – d’une nouvelle pratique. Le point de vue de cet article est qu’une innovation, pour contribuer au développement durable des Alpes, doit changer les relations

  20. Technology strategy as macro-actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    -human entities to the explanatory repertoire of strategy research, another line of inquiry is pursued. The performative perspective thus proposed, is inspired by the classical work of Von Clausewitz and the recent anthropology of science, technology and organizational identities. In the proposed perspective...... case account for how the strategic technology and the strategic collective emerge and co-produce each other as a macro-actor, only to become transformed in unexpected ways - as common technology and reflective human subjects.In the concluding section, it is argued that the humanity of the reflective...... outcomes, as providers of explanations and observations. The expression `technological strategy as macro-actor' summarizes these findings and the associated implications for research and practice....

  1. African Initiated Churches’ potential as development actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Öhlmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available African Initiated Churches (AICs are not yet recognised as relevant actors of community development interventions. While it has been acknowledged that many of them provide coping mechanisms in adverse environments, support in social transformation and social capital, little information is available on their role as development actors. In this article, we evaluate the potential of AICs as partners of international development agencies for community development. We draw on interviews and focus group discussions with leaders of various AICs conducted in South Africa in February and March 2016. In particular, we examine the churches’ understanding of development, their view on the separation of spiritual and development activities and their priorities. Moreover, we outline the development activities which they are currently engaged in and analyse the structures they have in place to do so. Our findings indicate that AICs are increasingly active in community development and offer various entry points for possible cooperation.

  2. Actor/Actant-Network Theory as Emerging Methodology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    2005-01-31

    Jan 31, 2005 ... to trace relationships, actors, actants and actor/actant-networks .... associated with a particular type of social theory (Latour, 1987; ..... the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Organised Business and Organised.

  3. Actors of Columbian drug trade : development and transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Smolíková

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to portray the main shifts which have been taking place in Colombian drug scene since the 70’s up to the present especially in relation to actors of this business and form of their activity. At first the development of Colombian drug trade till the 80’s when two big cartels centered in Medellín and Cali arose will be briefly outlined. These cartels were able to control a great part of domestic drug trade and due to their enormous power represented serious threat to Colombian state. Thus the cartels declared open warfare with the state in the 80’s. After the cartels’ elimination in the middle of 90’s new actors represented by small drug organizations arose in Colombian drug scene. These small groups were dependent upon cooperation with foreign partners, especially with Mexican cartels. Ever more important role in drug business is played by Colombian left-wing guerilla groups which will be described in the next part of the article. The problem of right-wing paramilitary groups and their participation in Colombian drug trade will be mentioned as well.

  4. An Actor's Approach to Management Conceptual framework and company practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of Contents Foreword: Actor-based managemet - long-term and sustainable management (Bo Prangsgaard) Chapter 1. Introduction (Morten Jakobsen, Inga-Lill Johansson & Hanne Nørreklit) Chapter 2. Actors and reality: a conceptual framework for creative governance (Lennart Nørreklit) Chapter 3. An actor...

  5. Co-evolution of social networks and continuous actor attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niezink, Nynke M.D.; Snijders, Tom A.B.

    2017-01-01

    Social networks and the attributes of the actors in these networks are not static; they may develop interdependently over time. The stochastic actor-oriented model allows for statistical inference on the mechanisms driving this co-evolution process. In earlier versions of this model, dynamic actor

  6. Global Surgery 2030: a roadmap for high income country actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sarah L M; Abdullah, Fizan; Amado, Vanda; Anderson, Geoffrey A; Cossa, Matchecane; Costas-Chavarri, Ainhoa; Davies, Justine; Debas, Haile T; Dyer, George S M; Erdene, Sarnai; Farmer, Paul E; Gaumnitz, Amber; Hagander, Lars; Haider, Adil; Leather, Andrew J M; Lin, Yihan; Marten, Robert; Marvin, Jeffrey T; McClain, Craig D; Meara, John G; Meheš, Mira; Mock, Charles; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Orgoi, Sergelen; Prestero, Timothy; Price, Raymond R; Raykar, Nakul P; Riesel, Johanna N; Riviello, Robert; Rudy, Stephen M; Saluja, Saurabh; Sullivan, Richard; Tarpley, John L; Taylor, Robert H; Telemaque, Louis-Franck; Toma, Gabriel; Varghese, Asha; Walker, Melanie; Yamey, Gavin; Shrime, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals have ended and the Sustainable Development Goals have begun, marking a shift in the global health landscape. The frame of reference has changed from a focus on 8 development priorities to an expansive set of 17 interrelated goals intended to improve the well-being of all people. In this time of change, several groups, including the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery, have brought a critical problem to the fore: 5 billion people lack access to safe, affordable surgical and anaesthesia care when needed. The magnitude of this problem and the world's new focus on strengthening health systems mandate reimagined roles for and renewed commitments from high income country actors in global surgery. To discuss the way forward, on 6 May 2015, the Commission held its North American launch event in Boston, Massachusetts. Panels of experts outlined the current state of knowledge and agreed on the roles of surgical colleges and academic medical centres; trainees and training programmes; academia; global health funders; the biomedical devices industry, and news media and advocacy organisations in building sustainable, resilient surgical systems. This paper summarises these discussions and serves as a consensus statement providing practical advice to these groups. It traces a common policy agenda between major actors and provides a roadmap for maximising benefit to surgical patients worldwide. To close the access gap by 2030, individuals and organisations must work collectively, interprofessionally and globally. High income country actors must abandon colonial narratives and work alongside low and middle income country partners to build the surgical systems of the future. PMID:28588908

  7. Forensic Analysis of Terrorist Counter-Financing to Combat Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drame, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toler, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The single greatest threat to U.S. homeland security remains the proliferation of nuclear weapons, especially among terrorists and other non-state actors who are not governed by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. One of the most important tools for combating terrorism among such rogue actors is counter-financing. Without funding, terrorists cannot acquire, maintain, or deploy nuclear weapons. According to the official report of the 9/11 Commission, counter-financing could have prevented the attacks of September 11, 2001. Unfortunately, no single country can defeat global terrorism. Successful counter-financing requires significant international cooperation. Since 2001, the United States and the European Union, despite vastly different approaches to intelligence gathering, have shared information through the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP). That shared information allows authorities to trace suspicious transactions, identify culprits, and map out global terrorist networks. The TFTP successfully thwarted a 2011 plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the U.S. and multiple threats during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London; it also aided in the investigation of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. That program is necessary but not sufficient. To strengthen our ability to detect and disrupt terrorist plotting and prevent nuclear proliferation, we must expand and coordinate two additional transnational measures: (1) the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT), a standardized global messaging network for financial institutions to quickly, accurately, and securely send and receive money transfer instructions, and (2) International Bank Account Numbers (IBAN) to identify individual accounts involved in international transactions. Both initiatives were incompletely adopted in the wake of 9/11, but most global banks use one or neither. More fully implementing and coordinating these two systems would allow for coherent information

  8. Controlling nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, W.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear non-proliferation policy depends on the 1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty, in which countries promise not to acquire nuclear weapons in exchange for open access to peaceful nuclear technology, and a system of international safeguards that are imposed on exported nuclear equipment and facilities operated by parties to the treaty. Critics have feared all along that non-nuclear countries might circumvent or exploit the system to obtain nuclear weapons and that the Atoms for Peace plan would spread the very technology it sought to control. The nuclear weapons states would like everyone else to believe that atomic bombs are undesirable, but they continue to rely on the bombs for their own defense. Israel's raid on Iraq's nuclear reactor focused world attention on the proliferation problem and helped to broaden and sterengthen its prospects. It also highlighted the weakness that there are no effective sanctions against violators. Until the international community can ageee on enforcement measures powerful enough to prevent nuclear proliferation, individual countries may be tempted to follow Israel's example, 19 references

  9. Nuclear proliferation: linkages and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quester, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear proliferation must be periodically re-examined as a moral as well as a practical foreign policy dilemma. The question is asked whether proliferation precludes a safe and peaceful world, or if a halt to proliferation is adequate without other arms control. The moral dilemma in foreign policy arises over the need to make practical choices which often serve one goal while sacrificing another. The ramifications of nuclear proliferation are examined and the conclusions reached that it is not an acceptable option. It is also decided that, because general disarmament steps will be more difficult to achieve, the world may have to accept a small number of nuclear arsenals as the price of state sovereignties. A high priority for making the effort to prevent proliferation is advised. 8 references

  10. Neoliberalism and political actors in contemporary Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Reynares

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we set out a critical reading of the literature on political neoliberal actors in Argentina. We consider that the concentration of these studies in the national level has to do with a definition of neoliberalism as a set of economical and structural macro politics. We propose to define neoliberalism as a technology of government that intends to hegemonize an “enterprise form” in different social spheres, articulating a symbolical framework in a contingent and contentious way. This insight allows analyzing neoliberal identification processes as heterogeneous trajectories with diverse geographic and temporal scopes.

  11. Policy analysis of multi-actor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Enserink, Bert; Kwakkel, Jan; Thissen, Wil; Koppenjan, Joop; Bots, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Policy analysts love solving complex problems. Their favorite problems are not just technically complex but also characterized by the presence of many different social actors that hold conflicting interests, objectives, and perceptions and act strategically to get the best out of a problem situation. This book offers guidance for policy analysts who want to assess if and how their analysis could be of help, based on the premise that problem formulation is the cornerstone in addressing complex problems. This book positions policy analysis within the theories on processes of policy making, and f

  12. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Batchelor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a “health knowledge economy”, organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term “health knowledge economy” draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups.

  13. Nociones del conflicto en actores escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Valderrama H

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca contribuir a la reflexión sobre la problemática del conflicto escolar a partir de algunas nociones que ciertos actores escolares tienen sobre el mismo, sus manifestaciones, sus causas u orígenes y las maneras como afirman se resuelve en sus instituciones. Desde una perspectiva que pretende inscribirse en el campo de la comunicación-educación, se describe la heterogeneidad de las posturas manifestadas por estudiantes, docentes y directivos y se intentan comprender éstas a partir de algunos postulados teóricos planteados por la sociología del conflicto y la pedagogía crítica.This essay contributes to an ongoing debate on the problematic of school conflict, working from certain concepts that some of the actors in schools have about conflict, its manifestations, causes or origins, and the manners in which they manifest that they are resolved. From a perspective that wants to inscribe itself in the field of communication-education, it describes the heterogeneity of the different views put forward by students, teaches, and school directors, and searches to understand these based on certain theoretical postulates derived from the fields of sociology of conflict and critical pedagogy.

  14. Conference day - Dissuasion, proliferation, disarmament: the nuclear debate beyond 2010. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    A first set of contributions (round tables) addresses the relationship between NATO, nuclear deterrence and antimissile defence. The second set of contributions addresses nuclear policies of emerging powers (Russia, China, Iran...) and proliferation risks. The third one addresses the perspectives of non proliferation, civil nuclear energy actors, and disarmament

  15. National oil companies and state actors : an assessment of the role of Petronas and ONGC in the foreign policy decision-making process of Malaysia and India using the example of overseas investments in Sudan and South Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Steinecke, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The thesis addresses the role of national oil companies and their overseas engagement in the foreign policy decision-making process of states. Over the past 40 years, national oil companies have gained importance in the international oil industry and currently control around 90 per cent of the global oil reserves. A number of political and economic factors – depleting domestic reserves, economic growth – have resulted in an increasing expansion of Asian national oil companies to Africa. Throu...

  16. Supporting non proliferation and global security efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochon, E.

    2013-01-01

    CEA contributes as a major actor of France's action against nuclear proliferation and to the strengthening of nuclear security at national level as European and International levels, in particular through the support of the IAEA activities in nuclear non proliferation with the French Support Programme for the IAEA safeguards system and security with the contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Plan and cooperation projects with the European Commission. The CEA is a French government funded technological research organization, organized around 5 branches: Nuclear Energy, Technological Researches, Defence (DAM), Material Sciences and Life Sciences. Within the scope of its activities, CEA covers most of the research areas and techniques in nuclear non-proliferation and security. The CEA is also the advisor of the French Government on nuclear policy. Treaty monitoring and the development and implementation of non proliferation and global security programs is an important mission of DAM which rely on nuclear weapons manufacture and past testing experience. The programmes on non proliferation and global security carried out to fulfil DAM's mission cover the following areas: development of monitoring and detection methods and equipments, country profiles and nuclear stockpiles assessment, arms control instruments, proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycle, monitoring of nuclear tests, operation and maintenance of national detection capabilities and contribution to CTBT verification systems. (A.C.)

  17. Oleotourism: Local Actors for Local Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tregua

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil consumption has grown substantially in recent years, due in part to the fact that olive oil is healthy. Much of the global olive oil production comes from the rural areas of Jaén in southern Spain. Surrounding this industry, services such as oleotourism are increasing. This paper aims to identify the key elements supporting the development of oleotourism. After a preliminary exploratory analysis of the existing data, a qualitative analysis was performed with actors directly involved in the industry in Jaén. The results helped us define the level of the stakeholders’ involvement and the sustainability, the opportunities, and the constraints affecting oleotourism in this area. The practical implications of this investigation can be useful for governing agencies, local firms, and the tourism industry in support of oleotourism development.

  18. Lone-actor Terrorism and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Pollard, Jeffrey W

    2017-11-01

    In some recent cases of lone-actor terrorism, there is evidence the subject acted impulsively, often in response to a triggering event which contained a loss and humiliation. Evidence suggests the subjects acted precipitously, despite planning and preparation carried out in the preceding weeks or months, and their attacks failed to include the often considerable preparation that had been done. The pathway became a runway. The authors recommend the traditional assessment of impulsivity in persons of concern for lone acts of terrorism, as well as other proximal warning behaviors for targeted violence. Both indirect and direct assessment guidelines are proposed, with an emphasis upon self-report, psychological testing, collateral data gathering, and historical records. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. The Corporation as a Political Actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    . On the other hand, European scholars have recently promoted an understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) emphasizing that firms often assume a political role because they increasingly provide public goods and become involved in multi-actor governance processes. This article contrasts both......This article distinguishes two approaches to study the political role of corporations. On the one hand, North American scholars have primarily understood the link between business and politics through the lens of corporate political activity (CPA) looking at how firms influence government policy...... approaches and suggests that differences in the way the political role of corporations are understood can at least, in part, be explained by the distinct nature of European/North American management scholarship as well as by the political environment in both regions. It is also suggested that both...

  20. The USA and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    United States policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia poses a test of balance between general US global non-proliferation goals and specific US regional security goals for Northeast Asia. US policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia further poses a test of priorities for US bilateral relations with the key Northeast Asian states, as non-proliferation and regional security goals must be weighed against other (e.g., economic, human rights) declared US policy goals. The result is a US policy equation for Northeast Asia proliferation that is considerably more complex in execution than might be expected from the simple statement of the US goal to avoid nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia. The question of security assurances - both negative and positive - may be closely related to US policies to avoid proliferation in Northeast Asia

  1. Scenarios for a urban energy transition. Actors, regulations, technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debizet, Gilles; Blanco, Sylvie; Buclet, Nicolas; Forest, Fabrice; Gauthier, Caroline; La Branche, Stephane; Menanteau, Philippe; Schneuwly, Patrice; Tabourdeau, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Cities concentrate populations, consumptions, levers of actions, and are places of various experiments for energy transition. This book aims at giving an overview of possible scenarios of development of renewable energies in urban context. It is based on interviews of actors of the energy, building and urban planning sectors by researchers in town planning, management, technology, political and economic sciences. The authors examine what would occur if large companies would manage entire quarters, if local authorities would supervise production and supply, if the State would take control of all fields of action again, or if consumer cooperatives would exchange energy and pool productions. In its different chapters, the book presents four scenarios of energy coordination in urban context by 2040, discuss energy transition in urban spaces, discuss the perspectives of evolution towards more autonomous cities and quarters from an energetic point of view, and discuss business models and urban energetic innovations

  2. From Gut Knowing: Every Silver Cloud Has a Black Lining. Actor Reflections on "Ties That Bind."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Makes sense of the performance of Steve Taylor's play, "Ties That Bind," from the perspective of the actors, 14 faculty members, and doctoral students from various universities in the United States by using the interpretive lens of Erving Goffman's Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. (SG)

  3. Movement Actors in the Education Bureaucracy: The Figured World of Activity Based Learning in Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesz, Tricia; Krishnamurthy, Ramchandar

    2014-01-01

    Tamil Nadu has gained international recognition for reforming its government school classrooms into active, child-centered learning environments. Our exploration of the history of the Activity Based Learning movement suggests that this reform was achieved by social movement actors serving in and through the state's administration. Participants in…

  4. Public Health Knowledge Utilisation by Policy Actors: An Evaluation Study in Midden-Holland, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, Joyce; Steenkamer, Betty; Treurniet, Henriëtte; Putters, Kim; van Oers, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive report has been prepared on the state of public health and healthcare in the Midden-Holland region of the Netherlands. This study describes the development of the report and the mechanisms behind public health knowledge utilisation by three groups of health policy actors: local authorities, public health professionals and regional…

  5. Theoretical Approaches to Nuclear Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin S. Tarasov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses discussions between representatives of three schools in the theory of international relations - realism, liberalism and constructivism - on the driving factors of nuclear proliferation. The paper examines major theoretical approaches, outlined in the studies of Russian and foreign scientists, to the causes of nuclear weapons development, while unveiling their advantages and limitations. Much of the article has been devoted to alternative approaches, particularly, the role of mathematical modeling in assessing proliferation risks. The analysis also reveals a variety of different approaches to nuclear weapons acquisition, as well as the absence of a comprehensive proliferation theory. Based on the research results the study uncovers major factors both favoring and impeding nuclear proliferation. The author shows that the lack of consensus between realists, liberals and constructivists on the nature of proliferation led a number of scientists to an attempt to explain nuclear rationale by drawing from the insights of more than one school in the theory of IR. Detailed study of the proliferation puzzle contributes to a greater understating of contemporary international realities, helps to identify mechanisms that are most likely to deter states from obtaining nuclear weapons and is of the outmost importance in predicting short- and long-term security environment. Furthermore, analysis of the existing scientific literature on nuclear proliferation helps to determine future research agenda of the subject at hand.

  6. MECHANISMS OF CELL RESISTANCE TO CYTOMEGALOVIRUS ARE CONNECTED WITH CELL PROLIFERATION STATE AND TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVITY OF LEUKOCYTE AND IMMUNE INTERFERON GENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Sokolova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection in diploid human fibroblasts (HF and levels of cell resistance to this virus were shown to be in direct correlation with high α-interferon (IFNα gene activity and induction of IFNγ gene transcription. Regulation of IFNα mRNA transcription was revealed to be positively associated with cellular DNA synthesis. At the same time, activities of IFNβ and IFNγ genes were at the constantly low level and were not induced in DNA-synthetic phase (S-phase of the cells. Levels of IFNα mRNA synthesis are quite different for G0- vs S-phase-synchronized HF110044 cell cultures: appropriate values for dividing cells (S-phase proved to be 100-fold higher than in resting state (G0. The mode of CMV infection in resting HF-cell could be considered either as acute, or a productive one. On the contrary, proliferating cells exhibited lagging viral syntheses and delayed cell death. Arrest of CMV replication may be, to some extent, comparable with latent infectious state, being associated with high production of IFNα. Both basal and induced levels of IFNα mRNA in CMV-resistant adult human skin fibroblast cells (HSF-1608 were 10-fold higher than in human embryo lung cell line (HELF-977, which is highly sensitive to CMV. Moreover, a short-time induction of IFNγ genes was observed in resistant cells, whereas no such effect was noticed in highly sensitive cells. CMV reproduction in sensitive cell lines (HELF-977 and HELF-110044 partially inhibits IFNα mRNA transcription at the later stages of infection (24 to 48 hours. Thus, cellular resistance and control of CMV infection in diploid fibroblasts are associated predominantly with high transcription of IFNα gene, and with temporal induction of IFNγ gene. We did not reveal any participation of IFNβ genes in protection of human diploid fibroblasts from CMV.

  7. Multi-actor decision making using mixed reality technologies Urban projects and multi-actor collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Basile,, Maria; Ozdirlik, Burcu; Terrin,, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper is based on the results of an ongoing research project, IPCity, on the application of mixed reality technologies in urban environments. It questions the relevance of traditional language and communication medium such as drawings, perspectives and 3D models in the co-production of urban projects in multi-actor working environments. It then discusses the possible use of “mixed reality technologies” as alternative medium through five workshops organised within ...

  8. Actores sociales y ambitos de construccion de politicas ambientales Social actors and scenarios in the generation of environmental politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gudynas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el concepto de "actores claves" en la generación de políticas ambientales. Independientemente de la definición de actor social que se maneje, el asumir la existencia de actores claves ofrece limitaciones conceptuales y prácticas, ya que éstos son coyunturales a cada situación específica. Todos pueden ser actores claves en generar políticas ambientales cumpliendo papeles diferenciales. Como alternativa se utiliza el término de "actores destacados" y se revisan aspectos sobresalientes de varios de ellos en América Latina. Seguidamente se postula que el análisis se debe centrar en los escenarios sociales donde esos actores se pueden manifestar. Se ofrece una distinción preliminar de escenarios que permite integrar a nuevos y viejos movimientos sociales y establecer relaciones de articulación y equivalencia.The concept of "key actors" in the field of environmental politics is analyzed. Beyond the definition of social actor, the assumption of the existence of key actors implies conceptual and practical limitations, as it depends of each specific situation. Everyone could be a key actor under differential roles in the generation of environmental politics. As an alternative, the term "noteworthy actors" is used and a brief review of them in Latin America is presented. The relevant question should address the social scenarios from where these actors can express themselves. A preliminary distinction of scenarios is presented, in which old and new social movements could be integrated and relationships of articulation and equivalence could be established.

  9. Los Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje como estrategia de aprendizaje desde la Teoría del Actor-Red

    OpenAIRE

    Meza Cano, José Manuel; Cejas León, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende visualizar los Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje desde el punto de vista de la Teoría del Actor-Red. En primer lugar, se describen los elementos centrales de la Teoría del Actor-Red, la visión de aprendizaje desde este enfoque, así como el concepto de actante y de simetría generalizada. Posteriormente se exponen los elementos clave de las definiciones sobre Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje y la visión del aprendizaje que defienden, centrada principalmente en el estudi...

  10. SRC: marker or actor in prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaeminck-Guillem, Virginie; Gillet, Germain; Rimokh, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    A key question for urologic practitioners is whether an apparently organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa) is actually aggressive or not. The dilemma is to specifically identify among all prostate tumors the very aggressive high-grade cancers that will become life-threatening by developing extra-prostatic invasion and metastatic potential and the indolent cancers that will never modify a patient's life expectancy. A choice must be made between several therapeutic options to achieve the optimal personalized management of the disease that causes as little harm as possible to patients. Reliable clinical, biological, or pathological markers that would enable distinctions to be made between aggressive and indolent PCas in routine practice at the time of initial diagnosis are still lacking. The molecular mechanisms that explain why a PCa is aggressive or not are also poorly understood. Among the potential markers and/or actors in PCa aggressiveness, Src and other members of the Src kinase family, are valuable candidates. Activation of Src-dependent intracellular pathways is frequently observed in PCa. Indeed, Src is at the cross-roads of several pathways [including androgen receptor (AR), TGFbeta, Bcl-2, Akt/PTEN or MAPK, and ERK …], and is now known to influence some of the cellular and tissular events that accompany tumor progression: cell proliferation, cell motility, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, resistance to apoptosis, angiogenesis, neuroendocrine differentiation, and metastatic spread. Recent work even suggests that Src could also play a part in PCa initiation in coordination with the AR. The aim of this review is to gather data that explore the links between the Src kinase family and PCa progression and aggressiveness.

  11. Src: marker or actor of prostate cancer aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie eVlaeminck-Guillem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A key question for urologic practitioners is whether an apparently organ-confined prostate cancer is actually aggressive or not. The dilemma is to specifically identify among all prostate tumors the very aggressive high-grade cancers that will become life-threatening by developing extra-prostatic invasion and metastatic potential and the indolent cancers that will never modify a patient’s life expectancy. A choice must be made between several therapeutic options to achieve the optimal personalized management of the disease that causes as little harm as possible to patients. Reliable clinical, biological or pathological markers that would enable distinctions to be made between aggressive and indolen prostate cancers in routine practice at the time of initial diagnosis are still lacking. The molecular mechanisms that explain why a prostate cancer is aggressive or not are also poorly understood. Among the potential markers and/or actors in prostate cancer aggressiveness, Src and other members of the Src kinase family, are valuable candidates. Activation of Src-dependent intracellular pathways is frequently observed in prostate cancer. Indeed, Src is at the cross-roads of several pathways (including androgen receptor, TGFbeta, Bcl-2, Akt/PTEN or MAPK and ERK …, and is now known to influence some of the cellular and tissular events that accompany tumor progression: cell proliferation, cell motility, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, resistance to apoptosis, angiogenesis, neuroendocrine differentiation, and metastatic spread. Recent work even suggests that Src could also play a part in prostate cancer initiation in coordination with the androgen receptor. The aim of this review is to gather data that explores the links between the Src kinase family and prostate cancer progression and aggressiveness.

  12. Making a Historical Survey of a State's Nuclear Ambitions. Impact of Historical Developments of a State's National Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy on Additional Protocol Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonter, Thomas

    2003-03-01

    In 1998, SKI initiated a project to conduct a historical survey of the Swedish nuclear weapons research for the period 1945-1972. IAEA became interested and accepted it in 2000 as a support program task to increase transparency and to support the implementation of the Additional Protocol in Sweden. The main purpose of the Additional Protocol is to make the IAEA control system more efficient with regard to nuclear material, facilities and research. Other countries have now shown interest to follow the Swedish example and to make their own reviews of their past nuclear energy and nuclear weapons research. The most important aim is to produce basic information for IAEA on the nuclear activities of the past and to refine and strengthen the instruments of the Safeguard System within the Additional Protocol. The first objective of this report is to present a short summary of the Swedish historical survey, as well as similar projects in other countries dealing with nuclear-related and nuclear weapons research reviews. These tasks are dealt with in chapter 2. Secondly, the objective is to present a general model of how a national base survey can be designed. The model is based on the Swedish experiences and it has been designed to also serve as a guideline for other countries to strengthen their safeguards systems within the framework of the Additional Protocol. Since other States declared that they would make similar historical surveys, the SKI decided to work out a model that could be used by other countries intending to conduct such studies. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are participating in a co-operation project to carry out such nationally base surveys under the auspices of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. Finland is also conducting such a survey, but it is done independently, albeit in close exchange of views between SKI and its Finnish counterpart, STUK. This is described in chapter 3. The third objective is to develop a pedagogic methodology for teaching

  13. Using social network analysis to understand actor participation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peripheral actors advocate issues of compensation and land grabbing from buffer zone establishment and wetland resources uses for livelihoods, but are unable to influence the central actors's agenda. SNA E-I Index reveals that government organisations are more cohesive and able to form strong ties with donors to ...

  14. Linkage Mechanisms among key Actors in Rice Innovation System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In assessment of linkage mechanisms among key actors in rice innovation system in southeast Nigeria, actors were classified into six major groups according to their main activity in the system namely research agency, policy personnel, technology transfer agencies, farmers, marketers and consumers. These constituted the ...

  15. Identifying and Mapping Linkages between Actors in the Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting innovations in climate change requires innovation partnerships and linkages and also creating an enabling environment for actors. The paper reviewed available information on the identification and mapping of linkages between actors in the climate change innovation system. The findings showed different ...

  16. Proposal for Requirement Validation Criteria and Method Based on Actor Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Noboru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Ajisaka, Tsuneo; Kitani, Tsuyoshi

    We propose requirement validation criteria and a method based on the interaction between actors in an information system. We focus on the cyclical transitions of one actor's situation against another and clarify observable stimuli and responses based on these transitions. Both actors' situations can be listed in a state transition table, which describes the observable stimuli or responses they send or receive. Examination of the interaction between both actors in the state transition tables enables us to detect missing or defective observable stimuli or responses. Typically, this method can be applied to the examination of the interaction between a resource managed by the information system and its user. As a case study, we analyzed 332 requirement defect reports of an actual system development project in Japan. We found that there were a certain amount of defects regarding missing or defective stimuli and responses, which can be detected using our proposed method if this method is used in the requirement definition phase. This means that we can reach a more complete requirement definition with our proposed method.

  17. Exploration of a Vision for Actor Database Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Vivek

    of these services. Existing popular approaches to building these services either use an in-memory database system or an actor runtime. We observe that these approaches have complementary strengths and weaknesses. In this dissertation, we propose the integration of actor programming models in database systems....... In doing so, we lay down a vision for a new class of systems called actor database systems. To explore this vision, this dissertation crystallizes the notion of an actor database system by defining its feature set in light of current application and hardware trends. In order to explore the viability...... of the outlined vision, a new programming model named Reactors has been designed to enrich classic relational database programming models with logical actor programming constructs. To support the reactor programming model, a high-performance in-memory multi-core OLTP database system named REACTDB has been built...

  18. Learning state representation for deep actor-critic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munk, J.; Kober, J.; Babuska, R.; Bullo, Francesco; Prieur, Christophe; Giua, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) can be used as function approximators in Reinforcement Learning (RL). One advantage of DNNs is that they can cope with large input dimensions. Instead of relying on feature engineering to lower the input dimension, DNNs can extract the features from raw observations. The

  19. Non-State Actors and their Risks to American Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    the music recording industry and Hollywood cinema corporations. The group has elevated its attack targets by a recent distributed denial of service...recruited away from the Mexican Army’s Special Forces. These soldiers were trained at Fort Benning’s School of Americas by US, Israeli and French

  20. 62 BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN NON-STATE ACTORS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the 2009 Report of the National Technical Working Group, NTWG, of Nigeria Vision 20 ... been further consolidated by the late Yar'Adua led administration through ..... the Freedom of Information bill, the Public Financial Responsibility bill and.

  1. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A summary of the report dispatched in the middle of 1978 by the Atlantic Council of United States, organized by North American citizens, is presented. The report considers the relation between the production of nucleoelectric energy and the capacity of proliferation of nuclear weapons. The factors which affect the grade of proliferation risk represented by the use of nuclear energy in the world comparing this risk with the proliferation risks independently of nuclear energy, are examined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. 'For good and for bad': the relations between universal obligations and particular efforts in the field of nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassen Van, L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The world has 'nuclear non-proliferation' on its lips. Presidents, politicians, journalists and others refer to it as the number one peril in our times. This may be right or wrong but irrespective of the real salience of 'nuclear dangers' it has a grip on our minds and wallets. A long range of states now make active investments in the improvement of nuclear security; not only at home as they used to do, but even abroad in other places and countries where there is concern with regard to how safe nuclear and materials are kept and stored. This development is surely an expression of a shared broadening of our sense of responsibility beyond the narrow confines of statehood and borders, and therefore this development should please us. On the other hand, the truly universal measures and instruments of the NPT and the regime round it are in trouble. It is being stated in some quarters that the NPT is inadequate in a new era with new threats from sub-state actors. Nevertheless, the NPT is the only legal instrument that is a framework that either by itself or as a starting-point can serve as a tool box for long-term storage of the proliferation risks. The reason for this is that the NPT is an expression of fairness in terms of rights and balances for all states committed to non-proliferation. And its foundations are those of international law. To the extent the NPT is being questioned will there also be a risk that non-proliferation efforts in the framework of cooperative threat reduction and for instance global partnership will lose legitimacy; simply for the reason that only a small number of the non-proliferation concerns are given attention. This relationship between cooperative threat reduction efforts on the one hand and universal legal instruments for non-proliferation on the other is a double-edged sword. While the two can reinvigorate and strengthen each other, there is also a risk that the one - cooperative threat reduction - when given preference over

  3. The EU as an actor at the WTO: its strengths and weaknesses throughout history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana GARCIANDÍA GARMENDIA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, many reforms took place in the European Union legal and policy framework. Some of those reforms were motivated by the participation of the European Union and its member States in the World Trade Organization. This paper aims to analyze the role of the European Union as an actor in that organization, paying special attention to its mixed legal nature – EU and Member States. With that purpose, the evolution of the relationship between the EU member States and the EU itself as simultaneous actors at the WTO is studied. The division of competences is also reviewed. Finally, the analysis of the EU position in different negotiation rounds (Uruguay, Doha for the agricultural sector is reviewed as an example of the evolution in the protection of European interests. The paper shows that some changes in the Treaty of Lisbon have strengthened the legal framework for the EU to be heard with a unique voice in the WTO

  4. El actor aglutinante: Nacionalismo y sociedad civil en Quebec.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Giori

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reconstruct the history of civil society in Quebec (Canada to relate it with nationalism, the rise of the welfare state, trade unions, Catholic Church and civil society, the dynamic forces of society. Through in-depth interviews with key leaders, exploration of institutional archives and specific literature, we work with a particular case that, when compared to Catalonia, will allow us to evaluate the importance of civil society within nationalism. This actor is not usually considered as the central subject of researches and rarely token into account, unlike political parties, their leaders or intellectuals. Currently, in a context of crisis of the state and political parties, it has begun to be considered that civil society can be a key factor for its ability to produce alliances between sectors, build hegemony and dialogue directly with the population. The study is divided into four parts: 1 the development of the theoretical framework along with the construction of the object of study and the hypotheses; 2 an analysis about the importance of the involvement of civil society in the construction of the nationalist movement in Quebec; 3 a comparison with the Catalan case; and, 4 finally some conclusions.

  5. Conference day - Dissuasion, proliferation, disarmament: the nuclear debate beyond 2010. Conference proceedings; Journee d'etude - Dissuasion, proliferation, desarmement: le debat nucleaire apres 2010. Actes de la conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    A first set of contributions (round tables) addresses the relationship between NATO, nuclear deterrence and antimissile defence. The second set of contributions addresses nuclear policies of emerging powers (Russia, China, Iran...) and proliferation risks. The third one addresses the perspectives of non proliferation, civil nuclear energy actors, and disarmament

  6. Non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deiseroth, D.; Gustafsson, S.

    1993-01-01

    The issue of Nuclear Non Proliferation has been moved to a leading place on the contemporary international security agenda. What about the situation of nuclear weapons and nuclear technology in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belorussia? Why did the IAEA-inspectors totally failed to discover any sign of Iraq's clandestine nuclear-weapon programme before the Gulf War? Do the NATO and their nuclear power states violate Art. VI of the Non-Proliferation-Treaty (NPT), because they are - despite the end of the cold war - not willing to renounce of the ''option of the first use of nuclear weapons''? Does the NPT establish a form of nuclear apartheid? What will be the situation if the NPT-Extension-Conference in 1995 will be unable to obtain a majority of the parties for any one extension proposal? Do we need a new international nuclear control agency with severe powers, a sort of nuclear Interpol? The Colloquium ''Saving NPT and abolishing Nuclear Weapons'', held in Stockholm in September 1992, organized by the Swedish and the German Sections of IALANA, tried to analyse some of the raised issues. (orig.) [de

  7. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway

  8. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature.

  9. Using attractiveness model for actors ranking in social media networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Ziyaad; Jansen, Marc; Hecking, Tobias; Hoppe, H Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Influential actors detection in social media such as Twitter or Facebook can play a major role in gathering opinions on particular topics, improving the marketing efficiency, predicting the trends, etc. This work aims to extend our formally defined T measure to present a new measure aiming to recognize the actor's influence by the strength of attracting new important actors into a networked community. Therefore, we propose a model of the actor's influence based on the attractiveness of the actor in relation to the number of other attractors with whom he/she has established connections over time. Using an empirically collected social network for the underlying graph, we have applied the above-mentioned measure of influence in order to determine optimal seeds in a simulation of influence maximization. We study our extended measure in the context of information diffusion because this measure is based on a model of actors who attract others to be active members in a community. This corresponds to the idea of the IC simulation model which is used to identify the most important spreaders in a set of actors.

  10. Methodology Development and Applications of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Peterson, P.F.; Therios, I.U.; Whitlock, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the program on the evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) of advanced nuclear energy systems (NESs) sponsored by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). For a proposed NES design, the methodology defines a set of challenges, analyzes system response to these challenges, and assesses outcomes. The challenges to the NES are the threats posed by potential actors (proliferant States or sub-national adversaries). The characteristics of Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate the response of the system and to determine its resistance against proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and terrorism threats. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of a set of measures, which are the high-level PR and PP characteristics of the NES. The methodology is organized to allow evaluations to be performed at the earliest stages of system design and to become more detailed and more representative as the design progresses. It can thus be used to enable a program in safeguards by design or to enhance the conceptual design process of an NES with regard to intrinsic features for PR and PP.

  11. Ultracentrifuge and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voortman, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The author states that there is no meaningful difference, from the point of view of proliferation between peaceful, civil, scientific application of nuclear fission, and the use of it in nuclear weapons. The proliferation of the nuclear technology for weapons appeared and appears to be closely connected with the spread of peaceful applications of nuclear technology. In connection with this, he discusses the Ultracentrifuge plant at Almelo (Netherlands) and the supply of nuclear technology by West-Germany especially to Brazil. Further the changed American policy and the possibility of an American/Russian deal to prevent the spread of the nuclear enrichment technology is discussed

  12. The relationship between the political authorities and the commercial actors in the European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjelde, Jarle Christian

    1998-01-01

    In summarizing the reasons for the fall of the Roman empire one has found about 210 significant ones. Without too much comparison the Roman empire and the EU natural gas market have similarities in connections between political authorities and the commercial actors in the European natural gas market. The area has consisted of several independent markets with different solutions that from 1988 has been tried integrated in an inner energy market. Several governmental and private actors have interest in this sector and both inhabitants and businesses are affected by alterations in a national natural gas market. This process is not yet finished. The thesis gives a broad description of the topic by including as many as possible of the EU member states. The topic is large and complex and the author has had to make a choice which parts to emphasize. There are chapters on the theoretical basis, the natural gas industry, what factors may explain the relationship between the political authorities and the commercial actors in the national natural gas market in each EU member and how does the EU Commission goals regarding free competition in the energy market affect the relationship between the political authorities and commercial actors in the national natural gas market

  13. Using actor-network theory to study an educational situation: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actor-network theory allows a researcher to analyse a complex social setting involving both human and non-human actors. An actor network can be used to model a dynamic and complex set of relationships between these actors. This article describes actor-network theory and shows how it was applied to study and model ...

  14. Think about and intervene in the territory through the Actor Network Theory Pensar e intervenir el territorio a traves de la Teoria del Actor-Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Cabrera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to think about the similarities between the ways of seeing the territory as a network, some theoretical positions about the territory concept and actor network theory.
    After focusing on proposing a way of understanding the relationships between actors when they will intervene in the territory through the public policies and territorial planning, i ll try to apply the ANT model of public policy management through the guidance of ANT El propósito de este artículo es reflexionar sobre las coincidencias entre la forma de ver el territorio como red, algunas posturas teóricas sobre su concepto y la teoría del actor-red.
    Sobre lo anterior se centra en proponer una forma de entender las relaciones entre actores cuando se va a intervenir el territorio a través de políticas públicas como la planificación utilizando un modelo de gestión territorial a través de las orientaciones de la TAR.   

  15. The threat of proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palme, Olof.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on the threat of proliferation, is a keynote speech delivered to the Colloquium on Nuclear War, Nuclear Proliferation and their Consequences, Geneva, 1985. Topics discussed in the address include: nuclear weapons, nuclear war, terrorists, Non-Proliferation Treaty, nuclear disarmament, and leadership in world affairs. (UK)

  16. Trail-Based Search for Efficient Event Report to Mobile Actors in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhezhuang; Liu, Guanglun; Yan, Haotian; Cheng, Bin; Lin, Feilong

    2017-10-27

    In wireless sensor and actor networks, when an event is detected, the sensor node needs to transmit an event report to inform the actor. Since the actor moves in the network to execute missions, its location is always unavailable to the sensor nodes. A popular solution is the search strategy that can forward the data to a node without its location information. However, most existing works have not considered the mobility of the node, and thus generate significant energy consumption or transmission delay. In this paper, we propose the trail-based search (TS) strategy that takes advantage of actor's mobility to improve the search efficiency. The main idea of TS is that, when the actor moves in the network, it can leave its trail composed of continuous footprints. The search packet with the event report is transmitted in the network to search the actor or its footprints. Once an effective footprint is discovered, the packet will be forwarded along the trail until it is received by the actor. Moreover, we derive the condition to guarantee the trail connectivity, and propose the redundancy reduction scheme based on TS (TS-R) to reduce nontrivial transmission redundancy that is generated by the trail. The theoretical and numerical analysis is provided to prove the efficiency of TS. Compared with the well-known expanding ring search (ERS), TS significantly reduces the energy consumption and search delay.

  17. Intelligence and Nuclear Proliferation: Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Keith A.

    2011-09-01

    Intelligence agencies play a fundamental role in the prevention of nuclear proliferation, as they help to understand other countries' intentions and assess their technical capabilities and the nature of their nuclear activities. The challenges in this area remain, however, formidable. Past experiences and the discoveries of Iraq's WMD programs, of North Korean nuclear weapon program, and of Iranian activities, have put into question the ability of intelligence to monitor small, clandestine proliferation activities from either states or non-state entities. This Proliferation Paper analyzes the complex challenges intelligence faces and the various roles it plays in supporting national and international nuclear non-proliferation efforts, and reviews its track record. In an effort to shed light on the role and contribution of intelligence in national and international efforts to halt, if not prevent, further nuclear weapon proliferation, this paper first analyzes the challenges intelligence faces in monitoring small, clandestine proliferation activities and the role it plays in supporting non-proliferation efforts. It then reviews the intelligence track record in monitoring proliferation including the lessons learned from Iraq. Finally, it addresses whether it is possible for intelligence to accurately monitor future clandestine proliferation efforts. (author)

  18. Criminalizing WMD Proliferation: the Role of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, Karyn R.; Mladineo, Stephen V.; Vannoni, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    The United Nations (U.N.) Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 1540 in April 2004. This landmark measure legally charges all U.N. Member States to enact and enforce effective measures to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery by preventing illicit trafficking of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) materials and related technologies. Revelations regarding the expansiveness of the A.Q. Khan network provided a clear impetus for the Resolution. Resolution 1540 is distinctive because it is the first time the U.N. Security Council has required all Member States to act to prevent the illicit trafficking of CBRN materials and their means of delivery. It is also unique in that it specifically addresses prevention of CBRN proliferation and trafficking among non-state actors. The Resolution has a direct impact on the management of nuclear materials and nonproliferation policy in the future. Consequently, the INMM Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technical Division and the INMM Northeast Chapter initiated a professional workshop on March 15, 2005 to engage topical experts in a discussion of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540. Although Resolution 1540 is now one year old and the Committee established to monitor its implementation has begun its work, many in the nonproliferation and nuclear materials management communities have not learned of the Resolution or have not yet recognized its significance. This article provides a summary of and perspectives on the workshop discussion that was conducted on a not-for-attribution basis

  19. Towards Feature Selection in Actor-Critic Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rohanimanesh, Khashayar; Roy, Nicholas; Tedrake, Russ

    2007-01-01

    .... They demonstrate that two popular representations for value methods -- the barycentric interpolators and the graph Laplacian proto-value functions -- can be used to represent the actor so as to satisfy these conditions...

  20. Research on virtual actor action editing and movement control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhu QIN; Yuhui WU; Zhengxu ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    To directly use a virtual surface model for action editing and movement control, a general method for creating virtual actor skeleton models and controlling movement is presented. The method includes judging borderlines of the block virtual surface model, calculat-ing the joints, confirming the above block, and using the block hierarchical layout to create the skeleton model. Then, according to the virtual actor model and move-ment restriction, the study focuses on the generation of movement animation using the key frame technique and smoothing movement technique by automatically adding animation and adjusting the actor's pose by different weights on movement amplitude. Finally, movement control of the actor in the virtual environment is implemented by real-time control and path point control, which achieve a good result.

  1. Actors with Multi-Headed Message Receive Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulzmann, Martin; Lam, Edmund Soon Lee; Van Weert, Peter

    2008-01-01

    style actors with receive clauses containing multi-headed message patterns. Patterns may be non-linear and constrained by guards. We provide a number of examples to show the usefulness of the extension. We also explore the design space for multi-headed message matching semantics, for example first-match......The actor model provides high-level concurrency abstractions to coordinate simultaneous computations by message passing. Languages implementing the actor model such as Erlang commonly only support single-headed pattern matching over received messages. We propose and design an extension of Erlang...... and rule priority-match semantics. The various semantics are inspired by the multi-set constraint matching semantics found in Constraint Handling Rules. This provides us with a formal model to study actors with multi-headed message receive patterns. The system can be implemented efficiently and we have...

  2. Understanding Obstacles to Peace: Actors, Interests, and Strategies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-24

    Feb 24, 2011 ... Understanding Obstacles to Peace: Actors, Interests, and Strategies in Africa's ... The case studies all employ methods of “thick description” process tracing ... Addressing Africa's unmet need for family planning by intensifying ...

  3. Transnational Diaspora and Civil Society Actors Driving MNE Internationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Elo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are viewed as proactive global economic actors that enter new and emerging markets with intentional strategies, building on their inherent resources and firm-specific advantages. However, an international joint venture involves numerous actors in the market entry...... and civil society actors. It provides evidence of the reactive internationalisation of an MNE, showing how the transnational diaspora drove the MNE’s internationalisation and how a civil society actor, in conjunction with a diaspora member, facilitated the creation of an international joint venture (IJV...... and organisational capability base for this process, which would not have happened without their market-driving and enabling influence. The findings illustrate the central role of transnational diaspora entrepreneurship and the related innovation, motivation, contextual intelligence, networking and funding...

  4. Interface Between Research, Development and Local Actors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interface Between Research, Development and Local Actors in Enhancing ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Environmental sustainability is a key area of focus in academic and development circles mainly because of the role that the ...

  5. Resenha: Power, Interdependence and Nonstate Actors in World Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuscia Moreno Galhera Espósito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resenha do livro: Moravcsik, Andrew; Milner, Helen V. (org.. Power, Interdependence and Nonstate Actors in World Politics. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-691-14027-8

  6. Efficient model learning methods for actor-critic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondman, Ivo; Vaandrager, Maarten; Buşoniu, Lucian; Babuska, Robert; Schuitema, Erik

    2012-06-01

    We propose two new actor-critic algorithms for reinforcement learning. Both algorithms use local linear regression (LLR) to learn approximations of the functions involved. A crucial feature of the algorithms is that they also learn a process model, and this, in combination with LLR, provides an efficient policy update for faster learning. The first algorithm uses a novel model-based update rule for the actor parameters. The second algorithm does not use an explicit actor but learns a reference model which represents a desired behavior, from which desired control actions can be calculated using the inverse of the learned process model. The two novel methods and a standard actor-critic algorithm are applied to the pendulum swing-up problem, in which the novel methods achieve faster learning than the standard algorithm.

  7. Fissile material proliferation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The proliferation risk of a facility depends on the material attractiveness, level of safeguards, and physical protection applied to the material in conjunction with an assessment of the impact of the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment. Proliferation risk is a complementary extension of proliferation resistance. The authors believe a better determination of nuclear proliferation can be achieved by establishing the proliferation risk for facilities that contain nuclear material. Developing a method that incorporates the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment inherent to each country enables a global proliferation assessment. To effectively reduce the nuclear danger, a broadly based set of criteria is needed that provides the capability to relatively assess a wide range of nuclear related sites and facilities in different countries and still ensure a global decrease in proliferation risk for fissile material (plutonium and highly enriched uranium)

  8. Defining and Theorizing Terrorism: A Global Actor-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Lizardo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Arriving at a consensual definition of the phenomenon of terrorism has been a particularly difficult undertaking. Some definitions are either too specific or too vague, concentrating on some essential “terrorist” aspect of the actions, strategies, or types of non-state organizations that engage in terrorism. In this paper I draw on global approaches from international relations and world systems theories to propose a definition of terrorism that skirts these issues by concentrating on terrorist actors rather than terrorist behavior. I argue that this approach has several advantages, including the dissolution of several empirical and analytical problems produced by more essentialist definitions, and the location of terrorism within a two dimensional continuum of collective-violence phenomena in the international system which discloses important theoretical insights. I proceed to examine the characteristics of terrorism by comparing it with other forms of violence in the international system. I propose that terrorism may be part of the cycles and trends of unrest in the world system, responding to the same broad families of global dynamics as other forms of system-level conflict.

  9. Innovation barriers originating from the differing logics of network actors:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarikka-Stenroos, Leena; Alaranta, Mar

    2016-01-01

    The recent IMP and innovation network research has highlighted that diverse aspects of actors' heterogeneity such as differing goals, knowledge bases, capabilities and competences, perceptions, power, position, and culture play a role in the development of collaborative innovation....../organization, inter-organizational and ecosystem levels. Our results advance knowledge on the diversity of barriers in collaborative innovation and commercializing science and how they relate to the different actors: a body of knowledge that is increasingly discussed among IMP stream....

  10. A Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The interactions between climate and the socio-economic system are investigated with a Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM) obtained by coupling a nonlinear impulse response model of the climate sub-system (NICCS) to a multi-actor dynamic economic model (MADEM). The main goal is to initiate a model development that is able to treat the dynamics of the coupled climate socio-economic system, including endogenous technological change, in a non-equilibrium situation, thereby o...

  11. Logistics Performance of Actors in the Wine Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Chandes , Jerôme; Estampe , Dominique

    2003-01-01

    International audience; In an environment marked by ever-greater international competition, wine sector companies have been seriously questioning the structure of their entire logistics chain. This is due to the emergence of new actors (i.e., large retailers); the diversification of service providers' product offers; and the different rapprochements between actors in this branch. These are all signals that have caused companies to question their logistics strategies as shown in the ISLI survey.

  12. Actor roles in transition: Insights from sociological perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmayer, Julia; Avelino, Flor; van Steenbergen, F.; Loorbach, Derk

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo date, the field of transition research lacks a suitable vocabulary to analyse the (changing) interactions and relations of actors as part of a sustainability transition. This article addresses this knowledge gap by exploring the potential of the concept of 'roles' from social interaction research. The role concept is operationalized for transition research to allow the analysis of (changing) roles and relations between actor roles as indicative of changes in the social fabric a...

  13. Multi-actor governance of sustainable biofuels in developing countries: The case of Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schut, Marc; Cunha Soares, Núria; Ven, Gerrie van de; Slingerland, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the multi-actor governance process that made Mozambique the first African nation-state to develop a national policy framework for sustainable biofuels. The paper draws on findings from action research conducted in Mozambique between December 2008 and July 2012. We analyse interactions between the changing governance context, the course of the multi-actor governance process, and the choices in relation to governance framework characteristics and content for four successive stages of governance framework development. This provides the basis for reflection on the competences required for effective multi-actor sustainability governance, and a discussion about the role of the nation-state in sustainability governance of global economies such as biofuels. The governance framework for sustainable biofuels has contributed to a more transparent and secure investment climate for biofuels in Mozambique. Key factors for success were (1) the presence of different types of competences during the various stages of the governance framework development, (2) closing the gap between ‘licences to sell’ and ‘licences to produce’ across different governance levels, and (3) balancing between the short- and long-term objectives for biofuel production in Mozambique and requirements of global biofuel markets. Developing-country nation-states can provide an essential contribution to these success-factors for global governance of sustainable biofuels. - Highlights: • Mozambique is the first African country that developed a national governance framework for sustainable biofuels. • Independence, representation, expertise and operational capacity are essential competences in multi-actor sustainability governance. • Developing country's nation-states play an essential role in harmonizing short- and long-term objectives across different governance levels. • Synergies between licences to sell and licences to produce biofuels sustainably should

  14. Social health insurance without corporate actors: changes in self-regulation in Germany, Poland and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Claus; Agartan, Tuba I; Kaminska, Monika Ewa

    2013-06-01

    Social health insurance in Western Europe has for many years been characterized by self-regulation in which specific conditions of healthcare financing and provision have been regulated by social-insurance institutions through mutual self-governance. However, the principle of self-regulation has recently been weakened by increased state regulation and market competition, which were introduced in response to economic and social changes. Even in Germany, which has been regarded as an "ideal-type" health insurance system and in which self-regulation remains at the core of healthcare governance, more direct state intervention has gained in importance. On the other hand, in countries such as Poland and Turkey, where this tradition of self-regulation is missing, social health insurance is deemed a financing instrument but not an instrument of governance and corporate actors are not accorded a significant role in regulation. This article investigates how social health insurance systems are regulated in contexts in which corporate actors' role is either diminishing or absent by focusing on three crucial areas of regulation: financing, the remuneration of medical doctors, and the definition of the healthcare benefit package. In Germany, state regulation has increased in healthcare financing and remuneration while the role of corporate actors has grown in the definition of the benefits package. In Poland and Turkey, on the other hand, reforms have maintained the status quo in terms of the strong regulatory, budgetary, and managerial powers of the state and very limited involvement of corporate actors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-compliant Actors (NONCAS) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    terms of relations with the state, warlords are pragmatic. Warlords want to maintain their autonomy and usually oppose any initiatives by the state...general cultural dimensions (see e.g. Hofstede: 1997) may be scrutinised in the context of NC/NONCAS. For example a collectivist oriented society...political set up and politics; a desire for more autonomy or independence (see also DIE (2007): p. 54f); and any other perceived inequalities and

  16. Finland and nuclear non-proliferation: The evolution and cultivation of a norm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, L. van [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Peace and Conflict Research

    1998-03-01

    the long run. And this approach continues for Finland even after the end of the Cold War when many other states that used to be strong actors in non-proliferation are losing this interest. Refs.

  17. Finland and nuclear non-proliferation: The evolution and cultivation of a norm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassen, L. van

    1998-03-01

    the long run. And this approach continues for Finland even after the end of the Cold War when many other states that used to be strong actors in non-proliferation are losing this interest

  18. Romania – an International Actor in the Context of the Extensive Region of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world of the 21st century, the international relations are presented as a mandatory element for maintaining the balance of world power and peace. Although the international actors, such as states or international organizations, are trying to establish as many relationships as possible of various kinds (economic, political, military through diplomacy, all over the world, at macro level, the international actors should first achieve a harmony or a general state of good understanding at the micro level, i.e. in a certain geographic region to which they belong. Romania, as an actor of international relations, has as own purpose, and also imposed upon accession to the European Union, maintaining the diplomatic relations in the region of Central-Eastern Europe, both with its neighbors and with the states in the proximity of the Black Sea region. The article aims at outlining better the role that they have, in the geopolitical context, the countries from the extensive region of the Black Sea, in the consolidation of economic and political cooperation relationships, which would lead to stability in the region.

  19. Trail-Based Search for Efficient Event Report to Mobile Actors in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhezhuang; Liu, Guanglun; Yan, Haotian; Cheng, Bin; Lin, Feilong

    2017-01-01

    In wireless sensor and actor networks, when an event is detected, the sensor node needs to transmit an event report to inform the actor. Since the actor moves in the network to execute missions, its location is always unavailable to the sensor nodes. A popular solution is the search strategy that can forward the data to a node without its location information. However, most existing works have not considered the mobility of the node, and thus generate significant energy consumption or transmission delay. In this paper, we propose the trail-based search (TS) strategy that takes advantage of actor’s mobility to improve the search efficiency. The main idea of TS is that, when the actor moves in the network, it can leave its trail composed of continuous footprints. The search packet with the event report is transmitted in the network to search the actor or its footprints. Once an effective footprint is discovered, the packet will be forwarded along the trail until it is received by the actor. Moreover, we derive the condition to guarantee the trail connectivity, and propose the redundancy reduction scheme based on TS (TS-R) to reduce nontrivial transmission redundancy that is generated by the trail. The theoretical and numerical analysis is provided to prove the efficiency of TS. Compared with the well-known expanding ring search (ERS), TS significantly reduces the energy consumption and search delay. PMID:29077017

  20. EL ROL DE LOS ACTORES SOCIALES EN LA CONFIGURACIÓN TERRITORIAL DE MOQUEHUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Viviana Torrens

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Moquehue is a small mountain settlement located in Aluminé department, Neuquén, Argentina. It aroses in the 40's, as a product of the development of cattle raising and forestation. Since these activities began, the permanent settlement and first commercial activities appeared, in order to cover the new demands. Nature has given the region a beautiful landscape that acquires value since the 70's, when the population of nearby localities began to usufruct tourism in the region. Even though the lands belong to the Provincial State, since 1984 they are under the control of the Pulmarí Interstate Corporation (PIC, which regulates their use. In 1980, tourism was stimulated by state politics that lead to the growth and expansion of Villa Pehuenia and Moquehue, defining a new territorial configuration, in which different social actors have an active role. In the last decade, this dynamism was accentuated in Moquehue, a zone without regulation of the occupation and in an area with limited provision of services. The objective of this paper was the analysis of territorial transformations promoted by social actors that established the current uses of the land and its environmental consequences, considering the role of municipal and provincial government in these transformations. Research includes compilation of information, interviews and field survey of new occupations. This information was digitized. Four relevant social actors are recognized in the development and growth of Moquehue, linked especially to tourism activity: the municipality, that defines parcels for permanent residential use and services; private actors, that increase accommodation supply; historical local people who subdivide and sell land irregularly, and new actors who settle in the area with permanent residence, linked to other activities that made them choose this place because of its environmental values. As a result, zones with different types of transformation are identified, in

  1. Local authorities and electricity: territories, actors and issues within the local public service in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, G.

    2005-06-01

    In France, the role of local authorities in the organization of the electricity supply system is largely unknown mainly due to the size of the state-owned utility Electricite de France (EDF). Local authorities and their groupings played a major role in the electrification of the national territory and have kept important prerogatives as conceding authorities of this service of general interest. These groupings also became the tools of the soft power of local actors. The geopolitical analysis of the relationships between local municipalities and electric power stakeholders shows the diversity of actors and opinions. Stuck between market liberalization issues and decentralization to local authorities, these groupings tend to reinforce their competencies. Furthermore, decentralization goes along with a reinforcement of the political involvement in local energy policy and with conflicts on the adequate territorial scale for theses policies. (author)

  2. American Long-Distance Locomobility and the Spaces of Actor-Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Minn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Much of the discourse surrounding national intercity passenger rail service in the United States revolves around why it has lagged so far behind European and Asian counterparts. However, a more interesting question might be why it has survived despite competition from faster, more nimble transport modes, discriminatory public policy, and the ascension of neoliberal discourse hostile to public endeavor. This paper uses the concept of durability in actor-network theory to offer some insights into how the system has achieved a remarkable but problematic stability, and how that durability relates to an imagined role for national intercity passenger rail in a future of increasingly constrained material resources. This paper also demonstrates the application of actor-network theory (ANT in a way that can serve as a useful introduction to and template for the use of that methodology.

  3. Oxidative stress induced pulmonary endothelial cell proliferation is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellular hyper-proliferation, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress are hallmarks of the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension. Indeed, pulmonary endothelial cells proliferation is susceptible to redox state modulation. Some studies suggest that superoxide stimulates endothelial cell proliferation while others have ...

  4. Nuclear proliferation: prospects, problems, and proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the ANNALS addresses itself to three aspects of nuclear proliferation: the prospect that new nuclear powers will come on the scene, the problems that their arrival may create, and ways of coping with those problems. In an introductory paper, ''Quo Vadimus,'' Joseph I. Coffey investigates the pros and cons of proliferation, concluding that it is not a question of whether there will be nuclear proliferation, but in what countries. Part I, Where We Are, contains five papers preceded by introductory comments by Joseph I. Coffey. The papers and their authors are: Why States Go--and Don't Go--Nuclear, William Epstein; How States Can ''Go Nuclear,'' Frank C. Barnaby; What Happens If. . .Terrorists, Revolutionaries, and Nuclear Weapons, David Kreiger; Safeguards Against Diversion of Nuclear Material: An Overview, Ryukichi Imai; and Reducing the Incentives to Proliferation, George H. Quester. Part II, And Where We May Go, again includes some introductory remarks by Joseph I. Coffey. The seven succeeding papers are: Nth Powers of the Future, Ashok Kapur; Nuclear Proliferation and World Politics, Lewis A. Dunn; Arms Control in a Nuclear Armed World, Colin Gray; The United Nations, the Superpowers, and Proliferation, Abraham Bargman; Proliferation and the Future: Destruction or Transformation, Frederick C. Thayer; Decision Making in a Nuclear Armed World, Michael Brenner; and The United States in a World of Nuclear Powers, Michael Nacht. This special report is concluded with a glossary

  5. Director's series on proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    This is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The views represented are those of the author's. Essay topics include: Nuclear Proliferation: Myth and Reality; Problems of Enforcing Compliance with Arms Control Agreements; The Unreliability of the Russian Officer Corps: Reluctant Domestic Warriors; and Russia's Nuclear Legacy

  6. Engaging Actors in Co-Designing Heterogeneous Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lindegaard, Hanne; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we share and analyze our experiences staging a co-design process in which we through different interventions engage important actors in designing. Our experiences are taking from an innovation and research project about user-involvement in textile design processes. As the project...... in our project’s agenda by going through the different stages of translation. The paper is finalized with reflections on the difficulties in engaging actors in a co-design process and transporting results into the existing framed context of design and architectural work....... related to translating and transporting the results of these different events due to the institutional and professional framing of projects and design processes. We are analyzing these through an actor network approach and use the translation term to describe how the participants slowly became engaged...

  7. The Establishment of Marine Protected Areas in Senegal: Untangling the Interactions Between International Institutions and National Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Gianluca; Brans, Marleen; Dème, Moustapha; Failler, Pierre

    2011-04-01

    International institutions, understood as sets of rules contained in international agreements, are aimed at orienting national governments towards specific policy options. Nevertheless, they can determine a change in national policies and practices only if states are willing and capable of incorporating international obligations into their national legislations and ensuring their application and enforcement in areas that follow completely under national jurisdiction. The establishment of marine protected areas promoted by international agreements as a tool for the protection of marine resources represents an interesting case for revealing the complex interactions between international institutions and national actors. Particularly, the establishment of these areas in Senegal shows the salience of domestic constellations of actors who may support or undercut national commitments to international regimes: political elites, bureaucracies, the general public and target groups. By anchoring the empirical analysis to an actor-centred institutionalist perspective, the article explains how dynamic constellations of actors can distort the penetration of international objectives in the national policy framework. Different constellations of national actors can indeed bend international institutions at different moments: during the formulation of a new law in line with international obligations; in the definition of its implementation framework; and in the enforcement of national policies.

  8. Proliferation Networks and Financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruselle, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose practical solutions aimed at completing and strengthening the existing arrangement for the control of nuclear proliferation through a control of financial as well as material or immaterial flows. In a first part, the author proposes a systemic analysis of networks of suppliers and demanders. He notably evokes the Khan's network and the Iraqi acquisition network during the 1993-2001 period. He also proposes a modelling of proliferation networks (supplier networks and acquisition networks) and of their interactions. In a second part, the author examines possible means and policies aimed at neutralising proliferation networks: organisation, adaptation and improvement of intelligence tools in front of proliferation networks, and means, limitations and perspectives of network neutralisation. He also briefly addresses the possibility of military action to contain proliferation flows

  9. Robust Actor-Critic Contextual Bandit for Mobile Health (mHealth) Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Feiyun; Guo, Jun; Li, Ruoyu; Huang, Junzhou

    2018-01-01

    We consider the actor-critic contextual bandit for the mobile health (mHealth) intervention. State-of-the-art decision-making algorithms generally ignore the outliers in the dataset. In this paper, we propose a novel robust contextual bandit method for the mHealth. It can achieve the conflicting goal of reducing the influence of outliers while seeking for a similar solution compared with the state-of-the-art contextual bandit methods on the datasets without outliers. Such performance relies o...

  10. Balancing influence between actors in healthcare decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert M; Babad, Yair M

    2011-04-19

    Healthcare costs in most developed countries are not clearly linked to better patient and public health outcomes, but are rather associated with service delivery orientation. In the U.S. this has resulted in large variation in healthcare availability and use, increased cost, reduced employer participation in health insurance programs, and reduced overall population health outcomes. Recent U.S. healthcare reform legislation addresses only some of these issues. Other countries face similar healthcare issues. A major goal of healthcare is to enhance patient health outcomes. This objective is not realized in many countries because incentives and structures are currently not aligned for maximizing population health. The misalignment occurs because of the competing interests between "actors" in healthcare. In a simplified model these are individuals motivated to enhance their own health; enterprises (including a mix of nonprofit, for profit and government providers, payers, and suppliers, etc.) motivated by profit, political, organizational and other forces; and government which often acts in the conflicting roles of a healthcare payer and provider in addition to its role as the representative and protector of the people. An imbalance exists between the actors, due to the resources and information control of the enterprise and government actors relative to the individual and the public. Failure to use effective preventive interventions is perhaps the best example of the misalignment of incentives. We consider the current Pareto efficient balance between the actors in relation to the Pareto frontier, and show that a significant change in the healthcare market requires major changes in the utilities of the enterprise and government actors. A variety of actions are necessary for maximizing population health within the constraints of available resources and the current balance between the actors. These actions include improved transparency of all aspects of medical decision

  11. Private actors, global health and learning the lessons of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youde, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Private business and philanthropic organizations have played a prominent role in the response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the support of global health governance more broadly. While this involvement may appear to be novel or unprecedented, this article argues that this active role for private actors and philanthropies actually mirrors the historical experience of cross-border health governance in the first half of the twentieth century. By examining the experiences, roles and criticisms of the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, it is possible to identify potential opportunities for better cooperation between public and private actors in global health governance.

  12. Learning to Run with Actor-Critic Ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhewei; Zhou, Shuchang; Zhuang, BoEr; Zhou, Xinyu

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an Actor-Critic Ensemble(ACE) method for improving the performance of Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient(DDPG) algorithm. At inference time, our method uses a critic ensemble to select the best action from proposals of multiple actors running in parallel. By having a larger candidate set, our method can avoid actions that have fatal consequences, while staying deterministic. Using ACE, we have won the 2nd place in NIPS'17 Learning to Run competition, under the name of "Megvii-hzw...

  13. TACKLING THE INFORMAL ECONOMY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: A SOCIAL ACTOR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin C. Williams

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, participants in the informal economy have started to be viewed less as rational economic actors who engage in the informal economy when the pay-off is greater than the expected cost of being caught and punished, and more as social actors who engage when their tax morale (i.e., motivation to pay taxes is low. To evaluate this new social actor approach and the implications for tackling the informal economy, this paper reports evidence from 41,689 face-to-face interviews conducted across the European Union. Multilevel logistic regression analysis reveals a strong association between participation in the informal economy and the level of tax morale. Finding that higher tax morale (and thus lower participation in the informal economy is strongly correlated at the country-level with greater levels of state intervention and at the individual-level with characteristics such as gender, age, education and employment status, the outcome is to confirm a structuralist political economy explanation and refute the modernization and neo-liberal explanations and remedies, as well as to uncover the importance of some policy solutions not considered until now, including older citizens mentoring of younger people, and improving women’s participation in the labour force.

  14. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Tarah

    While global, national, and regional efforts to address climate and energy challenges remain essential, local governments and community groups are playing an increasingly stronger and vital role. As an active state in energy system policy, planning and innovation, Vermont offers a testing ground for research into energy governance at the local level. A baseline understanding of the energy planning and energy organizing activities initiated at the local level can support efforts to foster a transition to a sustainable energy system in Vermont. Following an inductive, applied and participatory approach, and grounded in the fields of sustainability transitions, energy planning, and community energy, this research project identifies conditions for change, including opportunities and challenges, within Vermont energy system decision-making and governance at the local level. The following questions are posed: What are the main opportunities and challenges for sustainable energy development at the town level? How are towns approaching energy planning? What are the triggers that will facilitate a faster transition to alternative energy systems, energy efficiency initiatives, and localized approaches? In an effort to answer these questions two studies were conducted: 1) an analysis of municipal energy plans, and 2) a survey of local energy actors. Study 1 examined Vermont energy planning at the state and local level through a review and comparison of 40 municipal plan energy chapters with the state 2011 Comprehensive Energy Plan. On average, municipal plans mentioned just over half of the 24 high-level strategies identified in the Comprehensive Energy Plan. Areas of strong and weak agreement were examined. Increased state and regional interaction with municipal energy planners would support more holistic and coordinated energy planning. The study concludes that while municipalities are keenly aware of the importance of education and partnerships, stronger policy mechanisms

  15. Comparative analysis of proliferation resistance assessment methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Inoue, Naoko; Osabe, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the methodologies was performed based on the discussions in the international workshop on 'Assessment Methodology of Proliferation Resistance for Future Nuclear Energy Systems' held in Tokyo, on March 2005. Through the workshop and succeeding considerations, it is clarified that the proliferation resistance assessment methodologies are affected by the broader nuclear options being pursued and also by the political situations of the state. Even the definition of proliferation resistance, despite the commonality of fundamental issues, derives from perceived threat and implementation circumstances inherent to the larger programs. Deep recognitions of the 'difference' among communities would help us to make further essential and progressed discussion with harmonization. (author)

  16. Nuclear experts and nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1979-01-01

    In Germany the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation has attracted scant attention. Most potential nuclear weapon states are important trade partners of the FRG and, since further proliferation of nuclear weapons could worsen conflicts involving these, it should be in the FRG's interest to limit proliferation. The security of the FRG is also dependent on the common interest of the great powers to avoid nuclear war. The contradictory positions of Usa and the USSR on nuclear weapons policy regarding themselves and non-nuclear weapon states encourages less developed countries to see nuclear weaponry as useful. The NPT and IAEA safeguards have only limited inhibiting effect. The nuclear export policy of the FRG has been dominated by short term economic advantage, neglecting the negative long term effects of decreased political stability. The FRG should formulate a policy based on self-restraint, positive stimuli and extension of controls, using its economic strength to deter proliferation. (JIW)

  17. Non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, I.T.

    1981-01-01

    Proliferation is a problem that can only be solved when the political problems which lead countries to contemplate, the possession of nuclear weapons are solved; in the meantime it can only be managed. Non-proliferation policy has to deal both with the political and the technical aspects of proliferation. It must seek to buy time by addressing the reasons why nations feel the political need to construct nuclear weapons, as well as delaying the moment when such nations feel capable of doing so. The subject is examined and proposals made. (author)

  18. Getting serious about proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, P.

    1984-01-01

    The US needs to give a higher priority to nuclear non-proliferation, but Reagan's policies assume that proliferation is inevitable and that it is more important to be a reliable supplier than to cause trade frictions by trading only with those nations which sign the non-proliferation treaty (NPT). This undercuts US leadership and the intent of the agreement. Several bills now before Congress could help to restore US leadership by tightening export restrictions and the use of plutonium from the US

  19. Actor-Network Theory and Tourism : Ordering, materiality and multiplicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.; Ren, C.; Jóhannesson, G.T.

    2012-01-01

    The recent surfacing of actor-network theory (ANT) in tourism studies correlates to a rising interest in understanding tourism as emergent thorough relational practice connecting cultures, natures and technologies in multifarious ways. Despite the widespread application of ANT across the social

  20. Living Labs as boundary-spanners between Triple Helix actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geenhuizen, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Living labs are an increasingly popular methodology to enhance innovation. Living labs aim to span boundaries between different organizations, among others Triple helix actors, by acting as a network organization typically in a real-life environment to foster co-creation by user-groups. This paper

  1. Of International Actors, Nodal Governance and the African Peer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the recent political unrest in Kenya, I argue that one way in which the. African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) can improve governance in Africa and indeed see through the implementation of its review recommendations is to form networks with other international actors. These networks will be constituted by ...

  2. Effects of Actor-Network Theory in Accounting Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise Nederland; Mouritsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to discuss how Bruno Latour's version of actor-network theory has influenced accounting research. It also seeks to show that Latour's writings contain unexplored potential that may inspire future accounting research. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes the form...

  3. Hugh Grant's Image Restoration Discourse: An Actor Apologizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the strategies used by actor Hugh Grant (in his appearances on talk shows) to help restore his reputation after he was arrested for lewd behavior with a prostitute. Uses this case as a springboard to contrast entertainment image repair with political and corporate image repair, arguing that important situational differences can be…

  4. Actor/Actant-Network Theory as Emerging Methodology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deliberates on actor/actant-network theory (AANT) as methodology for policy research in environmental education (EE). Insights are drawn from work that applied AANT to research environmental policy processes surrounding the formulation and implementation of South Africa's Plastic Bags Regulations of 2003.

  5. Stochastic actor-oriented models for network change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.B.

    1996-01-01

    A class of models is proposed for longitudinal network data. These models are along the lines of methodological individualism: actors use heuristics to try to achieve their individual goals, subject to constraints. The current network structure is among these constraints. The models are continuous

  6. ACToR Chemical Structure processing using Open Source ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a centralized database repository developed by the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Free and open source tools were used to compile toxicity data from over 1,950 public sources. ACToR contains chemical structure information and toxicological data for over 558,000 unique chemicals. The database primarily includes data from NCCT research programs, in vivo toxicity data from ToxRef, human exposure data from ExpoCast, high-throughput screening data from ToxCast and high quality chemical structure information from the EPA DSSTox program. The DSSTox database is a chemical structure inventory for the NCCT programs and currently has about 16,000 unique structures. Included are also data from PubChem, ChemSpider, USDA, FDA, NIH and several other public data sources. ACToR has been a resource to various international and national research groups. Most of our recent efforts on ACToR are focused on improving the structural identifiers and Physico-Chemical properties of the chemicals in the database. Organizing this huge collection of data and improving the chemical structure quality of the database has posed some major challenges. Workflows have been developed to process structures, calculate chemical properties and identify relationships between CAS numbers. The Structure processing workflow integrates web services (PubChem and NIH NCI Cactus) to d

  7. The Plurilingual Social Actor. Language, Citizenship and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, Daniel; Simon, Diana-Lee

    2009-01-01

    The paper critically discusses key theoretical concepts and definitions attached to the notion of a "plurilingual social actor", and assesses their impact and implications for European language policies and for the development of plurilingualism and citizenship in schools. (Contains 11 notes.)

  8. Consumer culture theory (re)visits actor-network theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    The vocabulary and tactics developed by actor-network theory (ANT) can shed light on several ontological and epistemological challenges faced by consumer culture theory. Rather than providing ready-made theories or methods, our translation of ANT puts forward a series of questions and propositions...

  9. Actor roles in transition: Insights from sociological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Wittmayer (Julia); F. Avelino (Flor); F. van Steenbergen; D.A. Loorbach (Derk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo date, the field of transition research lacks a suitable vocabulary to analyse the (changing) interactions and relations of actors as part of a sustainability transition. This article addresses this knowledge gap by exploring the potential of the concept of 'roles' from social

  10. 1968 en América Latina: aparición de nuevos actores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvar De la Llosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Más allá de reivindicaciones y protestas semejantes a las que se desarrollan en Europa y en el mundo, el año 1968 en América Latina se caracteriza por la aparición de nuevos actores (jóvenes, clases medias, feminismo, Iglesia, sindicatos. Los nuevos actores tienden a ocupar el hueco dejado por actores tradicionales que, en el seno de sociedades debilitadas por la crisis económica, ya no consiguen desempeñar su papel de actores democráticos. La organización de las Olimpiadas en México y la visita papal en Colombia prueban hasta qué punto la región es integrada al mundo moderno. Pero en México como en Argentina la prepotencia de gobiernos que se niegan al diálogo provoca choques violentos. 1968 está también marcado por opciones represivas que anuncian la acción violenta de los estados terroristas que 5 años más tarde conquistarán el poder mediante golpes de estado.____________________ABSTRACT:More than just voicing demands and protestations similar to those heard in Europe and around the world, the Americas in 1968 were mainly characterized by new articulate social groups (young people, middle class, feminists, church, trade-unions forefront. Within societies affected by an economic crisis, theses new social actors emerged upon a scene abandoned by other groups who, due to economical crisis, were no longer able or willing to take on their democratic duty. The choice of Mexico for the Olympic Games and the Pope's visit to Colombia are certainly evidence that Latin America was now integrated to the modern world. In Mexico and Argentina, however, authoritarian governments turned a deaf ear to demands put forth by their citizens thus creating a climate of social violence and upheaval. In 1968, an increase in repression as the sole response by the State, announced the brutality that future terrorist governments were soon to practise from 1973 on when the military juntas took over state control through putsches.

  11. Agreement between the State of Qatar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the State of Qatar and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 24 September 2008. It was signed in Vienna on 19 January 2009. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 21 January 2009, the date on which the Agency received from the State of Qatar written notification that Qatar's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  12. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part III, has two chapters (9 and 10). Chapter 9, Nuclear Power and Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is disucssed under these subjects: nuclear nonproliferation: origins and status; requirements for nuclear weapons manufacture; current nuclear programs and proliferation capabilities; encouraging decisions to forego weapons; arms control; safeguards; attitudes and expectations. Chapter 10, Nuclear Terrorism, discusses these areas: theft of nuclear materials; attacks on nuclear reactors; responding to nuclear terrorism; security and civil liberties

  13. Actors' portrayals of depression to test interrater reliability in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jules; Mulsant, Benoit H; Bruce, Martha L; Mittal, Vikas; Fox, Debra

    2004-10-01

    This study determined if actors could portray depressed patients to establish the interrater reliability of raters using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Actors portrayed depressed patients using scripts derived from HDRS assessments obtained at three points during treatment. Four experienced raters blindly viewed videotapes of two patients and two actors. They guessed if each interviewee was a patient or an actor and rated the certainty of their guesses. For each interview, they also rated the realism of the portrayal and completed the HDRS. Experienced raters could not distinguish actors and patients better than chance and were equally certain of their right and wrong guesses. Actors and patients received high scores on the realism of their portrayals. The HDRS scores of the actor-patient pairs were correlated. Actors can effectively portray depressed patients. Future studies will determine if actors can accurately portray patients with anxiety and psychosis.

  14. Global Civil Society: the Formation of the New Actor of World Politics. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Геннадьевич Иванов

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the analysis of the emerging global phenomenon: the rise of global civil society as the new actor of world politics. The author suggests that the importance of global civil society as a «third way» between the State and the Free Market is especially high at the time of modern economic crisis. Global civil society organizations work out the new socio-political agenda for the world and new approaches to the global problems. This shaping society is full of conflicts and contradictions but its rapid development in the 1990-2000th is the milestone for developing of truly global politics.

  15. The Power Reconfiguration and Global Governance with and Without Government: A View on The New Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Olsson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to address the reconfiguration of the exercise of power and governance by new international actors. Initially, the power is identified in both conflictual relations as in consensual, presenting him with a bifronte categorization: power on and power to. Still, it is the conceptual shift that involves governance, showing that the authority may be exercised independently of the will of States, presenting it as governance with and without government. Finally, it is shown that the new players, especially non-governmental organizations and transnational corporations exert significant role in the political landscape of contemporary international society, whose national borders have every day lost importance.

  16. Balancing influence between actors in healthcare decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babad Yair M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare costs in most developed countries are not clearly linked to better patient and public health outcomes, but are rather associated with service delivery orientation. In the U.S. this has resulted in large variation in healthcare availability and use, increased cost, reduced employer participation in health insurance programs, and reduced overall population health outcomes. Recent U.S. healthcare reform legislation addresses only some of these issues. Other countries face similar healthcare issues. Discussion A major goal of healthcare is to enhance patient health outcomes. This objective is not realized in many countries because incentives and structures are currently not aligned for maximizing population health. The misalignment occurs because of the competing interests between "actors" in healthcare. In a simplified model these are individuals motivated to enhance their own health; enterprises (including a mix of nonprofit, for profit and government providers, payers, and suppliers, etc. motivated by profit, political, organizational and other forces; and government which often acts in the conflicting roles of a healthcare payer and provider in addition to its role as the representative and protector of the people. An imbalance exists between the actors, due to the resources and information control of the enterprise and government actors relative to the individual and the public. Failure to use effective preventive interventions is perhaps the best example of the misalignment of incentives. We consider the current Pareto efficient balance between the actors in relation to the Pareto frontier, and show that a significant change in the healthcare market requires major changes in the utilities of the enterprise and government actors. Summary A variety of actions are necessary for maximizing population health within the constraints of available resources and the current balance between the actors. These actions include

  17. The legislative actor in the Nobel era: Quo Vadis EU?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Xavier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a political union, as well as an economic union of Europe, beyond free circulation of persons, goods and services, has always been included in the ideals of the building of Europe. However, its de jure formalization only occurs on November 1, 1993, when the Treaty of Maastricht is in force and a new political and strategic actor is in place: the European Union (EU. Since then, literature has "defined" the European Union in order to clearly establish what this UPO - Unidentified Political Object (an expression by Jacques Delors in the 1990s - is or what it can be. One of the ideas which has been a focus of discussion is that of "legislative actor" (Manners, 2001; 2002, which claims that the European Union has progressed towards normativity, both internally as well as externally, to its close neighbors and its relations with the rest of the world. This paper aims to contribute to the discussion on Europe's quality or condition to impose rules. We will begin by systematizing a series of achievements which, according to Manners, lead to the triangle democracy, Human Rights and good governance in the signing of the Treaty of Lisbon on December 13, 2007 and its entering in full force on December 1, 2009. However, this paper does not disregard the fact that the concept "legislative actor" has been (reworked and perfected by its author and other scholars due to criticism and empirical studies and has thus been altered, enhanced and argued against. Therefore, some concepts will be studied whose arguments will allow us to question the internal and external dimension of the actor European Union. We will also explore the symbolic power of the Union in the development of tools and capacity to be acknowledged as an actor able to face current threats and challenges but whose profile may not be different from other actors in international relations. Finally, we will discuss the impact of the EU having been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2012 on

  18. Non-proliferation and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter von Wagner, A.

    1993-01-01

    In 1995 the Conference on the prolongation of the Non-Proliferation Treaty will take place. Will it be extended for a long term, indefinitely or only for a fixed period? The Federal Government of Germany advocates an unlimited extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Others have different ideas alleging that the Treaty is imperfect and discriminating. It is a thorn in the side of many States, in particular of the Third World, which no longer want to put up with being treated as second-class states. One argument which is considered especially embarrassing by developing countries as a visible expression of such discrimination, are the nuclear tests which are still carried out by nuclear weapon states. Is the political situation still such that one needs those weapons? Strategists gradually find it difficult to argument; over and over again they claim that an abandonment of nuclear weapons would make the world unsafer. But development has gradually passed over them. Nevertheless, one finds it hard to throw overboard considerations which for years have determined one's thinking. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    Canada's non-proliferation safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to ensure that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, treating nuclear weapon and non-weapon states alike, and working for new approaches covering reprocessing, Canada promotes attainment of the first objective. The second is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its partners. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums is to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers may subsume their national requirements

  20. Action recognition is sensitive to the identity of the actor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferstl, Ylva; Bülthoff, Heinrich; de la Rosa, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    Recognizing who is carrying out an action is essential for successful human interaction. The cognitive mechanisms underlying this ability are little understood and have been subject of discussions in embodied approaches to action recognition. Here we examine one solution, that visual action recognition processes are at least partly sensitive to the actor's identity. We investigated the dependency between identity information and action related processes by testing the sensitivity of neural action recognition processes to clothing and facial identity information with a behavioral adaptation paradigm. Our results show that action adaptation effects are in fact modulated by both clothing information and the actor's facial identity. The finding demonstrates that neural processes underlying action recognition are sensitive to identity information (including facial identity) and thereby not exclusively tuned to actions. We suggest that such response properties are useful to help humans in knowing who carried out an action. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Widening the scope? How intermediary actors can shape energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maneschi, Davide

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with energy consumption in the residential sector and with the implementation of measures to reduce it. While most research dealing with energy consumption has targeted factors and drivers at the individual user level, more recent works have highlighted collective aspects...... of (energy) consumption, both to explain the resilience of consumption patterns and to identify leverage points for the reduction of energy use. One understudied aspect of this discussion is the way “intermediary” actors – those actors who are neither policy makers, nor users, nor energy providers...... – influence energy consumption. This paper presents a review of the literature on intermediaries, providing an overview of their roles and contextualizing their functions in energy efficiency improvements. The review shows how the concept of intermediaries has been used in research dealing with innovation...

  2. Semantics for Communicating Actors with Interdependent Real-Time Deadlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoll, Istvan; Ravn, Anders Peter; Skou, Arne

    2009-01-01

    on the results, these tools must use consistent semantics for the model. Yet, a monolithic semantic model is just as complex as the entity it describes. In order to circumvent this issue, we define a three level semantics giving independent definitions of the functionality of actors, the temporal properties...... of communications, and finally imposing deadlines on the timing of dependent actors. With this approach the semantics is used directly in developing a simulator supporting the nondeterminism of the abstract semantics such that e.g. potential race conditions can be detected. The layers are also planned to underpin...... independent specialized verification tools. The verification task for timed, hybrid systems can thus be divided into the continuous, discrete, and timing domains with automated translation to specialized tools, and this promises better scalability than simulation or model checking of one complex model....

  3. Chinas carbon-intensity target: climate actors and policy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    China has become the largest GHG emitting country, and announced in 2009 its first policy objective measured in carbon emissions. The carbon-intensity target is to reduce the carbon intensity by 40-45 % by 2020 compared to 200 levels. Since then there has been further policy developments in order to attain the reduction carbon intensity and steer China towards a low-carbon development. The 12th 5-year plan (2011-2015) is strong on incentives for reducing China's carbon intensity such as energy conservation measures and the establishment of new market-based mechanisms. While the central government forms the policies, the implementation is dependent on a range of actors. In addition to the climate change bureaucracy, the positive forces and actors on GHG mitigation is presented. All in all, there are promising developments in China for the years to come.(auth)

  4. New market actors: economic social movements and politicized consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Portilho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reflections on new market actors, and economic social movements in particular - that is, those in which actors build a new culture of political action that seeks to reappropriate the economy through their own values. Some examples of this are the movements organized around “solidarity economics”, fair trade, geographic indications, “slow food” and consumer organization. This interface of social movements and the market may be the most marked, differentiated and polemic trait of contemporary political mobilizations. Nonetheless, beyond economic social movements, this article simultaneously emphasizes and problematizes political action within the sphere of individual consumption, that is, that which has been referred to as “political consumption”. Keywords: economic social movements, consumer movements, political consumption.

  5. Demystifying facilitation of multi-actor learning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by multiple actors with different interests, values and perceptions, participation has become a popular means of bringing about social and technical change. Across the globe, whether in agricultural devel...

  6. Actors: A Model of Concurrent Computation in Distributed Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Artificial Intelligence Labora- tory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for the labora- tory’s aritificial intelligence research is...RD-A157 917 ACTORS: A MODEL OF CONCURRENT COMPUTATION IN 1/3- DISTRIBUTED SY𔃿TEMS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CRMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ...Computation In Distributed Systems Gui A. Aghai MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Thsdocument ha. been cipp-oved I= pblicrelease and sale; itsI

  7. Wave Energy and Actor-Network Theory: The Irish Case

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the wave energy sector in Ireland using theories from the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). Theoretical divisions within the field of STS are examined, particularly the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge (SSK) and Actor-Network Theory (ANT). Any conflicts which these two theories present to each other are examined through the empirical findings of the Irish wave energy sector. In particular, ANT s rejection of macro and micro distinctions when analy...

  8. The Grenelle de l'Environnement - actors, discourses, effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boy, Daniel; Brugidou, Mathieu; Halpern, Charlotte; Lascoumes, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This document proposes an abstract of a collective publication which aimed at assessing the effects of the French environmental policy 'Grenelle de l'Environnement', its methodological originality and its consequences in terms of environmental public policies. The authors propose a sociological analysis of the about thousand five hundred involved actors, a thorough analysis of discourses, and an inventory of effects in three specific fields

  9. Low oxygen atmosphere facilitates proliferation and maintains undifferentiated state of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in an hypoxia inducible factor-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drela, Katarzyna; Sarnowska, Anna; Siedlecka, Patrycja; Szablowska-Gadomska, Ilona; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Jurga, Marcin; Lukomska, Barbara; Domanska-Janik, Krystyna

    2014-07-01

    As we approach the era of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) application in the medical clinic, the standarization of their culture conditions are of the particular importance. We re-evaluated the influences of oxygens concentration on proliferation, stemness and differentiation of human umbilical cord Wharton Jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs). Primary cultures growing in 21% oxygen were either transferred into 5% O2 or continued to grow under standard 21% oxygen conditions. Cell expansion was estimated by WST1/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or cell counting. After 2 or 4 weeks of culture, cell phenotypes were evaluated using microscopic, immunocytochemical, fluorescence-activated cell-sorting and molecular methods. Genes and proteins typical of mesenchymal cells, committed neural cells or more primitive stem/progenitors (Oct4A, Nanog, Rex1, Sox2) and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α-3α were evaluated. Lowering O2 concentration from 21% to the physiologically relevant 5% level substantially affected cell characteristics, with induction of stemness-related-transcription-factor and stimulation of cell proliferative capacity, with increased colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-F) centers exerting OCT4A, NANOG and HIF-1α and HIF-2α immunoreactivity. Moreover, the spontaneous and time-dependent ability of WJ-MSCs to differentiate into neural lineage under 21% O2 culture was blocked in the reduced oxygen condition. Importantly, treatment with trichostatin A (TSA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor) suppressed HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression, in addition to blockading the cellular effects of reduced oxygen concentration. A physiologically relevant microenvironment of 5% O2 rejuvenates WJ-MSC culture toward less-differentiated, more primitive and faster-growing phenotypes with involvement of HIF-1α and HIF-2α-mediated and TSA-sensitive chromatin modification mechanisms. These observations add to the understanding of MSC responses to defined culture conditions, which is the most

  10. Dynamics of nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book looks beyond policy disputes to make a systematic examination of the assumptions and contending hypotheses that constitute contemporary thinking on nuclear proliferation. Rather than determine who is right or wrong, the intent is to develop a better picture by using the various schools of thought as analytic windows. A better understanding of how the process operates should offer better guidance for predicting future nuclear proliferation and, ultimately, for controlling it. Separate chapters deal with the contending views, the technological and motivational bases of nuclear proliferation, the presence of a technological imperative, testing the motivational hypothesis, the dynamics of the process, and forecasting. Four appendices present historical decisions, the technical model, cost-estimating procedures, and procedures for estimating nuclear propensities. 288 references, 17 figures, 26 tables

  11. Counterterrorism in the Russian Arctic: legal framework and central actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvill M. Elgsaas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia’s strategic interests in the Arctic coupled with a complex and diffuse terrorist threat has produced a niche topic: Arctic counterterrorism. Arctic counterterrorism is a new and underdeveloped topic that has received only limited attention. This article contributes a discussion of the legal framework and the main actors involved in countering terrorism in the Russian Arctic. The author finds that the legal framework for counterterrorism is extensive yet centered in core documents. Similarly, counterterrorism involves many and varied actors united in a relatively simple and streamlined national system for counterterrorism. Current legal regulation and organisation provide a solid base that may support efficient management of counterterrorism, also in the Arctic. A notable strength is the concentration of coordination responsibilities in the hands of one central actor, the FSB. Another important characteristic is that the system is symmetrical and follows Russia’s federal organisation with coordinating bodies for all regions including those in the Arctic. Counterterrorism legislation is kept up to date and the trend is towards tougher punishments and a wide understanding of terrorist offenses. A potential weak spot is the unclear role of the newly formed National Guard. The uncertainty surrounding the role of the National Guard in the fight against terrorism may challenge the FSB and weaken coordination of the system for counterterrorism in the future.

  12. Environmental assessment for sustainable development: process, actors and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, P.; Delisle, C.E.; Reveret, J.-P.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple environmental problems afflict our contemporary world and have been the subject of discussions during many international meetings. All declarations resulting from these meetings insist on including environmental problems and on environmental assessment (EA) as an important tool to achieve this. This book aims to reach three objectives. First, it introduces EA to people from different disciplines, and therefore it opens up the perspective of new disciplinary horizons. Second, the authors discuss EA as a socio-political process rather than emphasizing methodologies. Third, this book draws mainly on the experience in Francophone countries which is still poorly disseminated. This book focusses on process and actors. Thus, the subject matter is divided into five major parts: the history and major issues of EA from a sustainable development perspective (Chapters 1 to 3); the actors, i.e. the Project Proponent and consulting firms, the public, the decision maker and international actors (Chapters 4 to 7); methods and tools including public participation (Chapters 8 and 9); processes in practice through step by step processes in practice and case studies (Chapters 10 and 11); and, finally, recent and upcoming developments in EA, including elements of strategic environmental assessment (Chapters 12 and 13). An index facilitates searching for information. The reader is also invited to consult the book's website

  13. Searching for realism, structure and agency in Actor Network Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder-Vass, Dave

    2008-09-01

    Superficially, Actor Network Theory (ANT) and critical realism (CR) are radically opposed research traditions. Written from a realist perspective, this paper asks whether there might be a basis for finding common ground between these two traditions. It looks in turn at the questions of realism, structure, and agency, analysing the differences between the two perspectives and seeking to identify what each might learn from the other. Overall, the paper argues that there is a great deal that realists can learn from actor network theory; yet ANT remains stunted by its lack of a depth ontology. It fails to recognize the significance of mechanisms, and of their dependence on emergence, and thus lacks both dimensions of the depth that is characteristic of critical realism's ontology. This prevents ANT from recognizing the role and powers of social structure; but on the other hand, realists would do well to heed ANT's call for us to trace the connections through which structures are constantly made and remade. A lack of ontological depth also underpins ANT's practice of treating human and non-human actors symmetrically, yet this remains a valuable provocation to sociologists who neglect non-human entities entirely.

  14. The Psychological Self as Actor, Agent, and Author.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Dan P

    2013-05-01

    The psychological self may be construed as a reflexive arrangement of the subjective "I" and the constructed "Me," evolving and expanding over the human life course. The psychological self begins life as a social actor, construed in terms of performance traits and social roles. By the end of childhood, the self has become a motivated agent, too, as personal goals, motives, values, and envisioned projects for the future become central features of how the I conceives of the Me. A third layer of selfhood begins to form in the adolescent and emerging adulthood years, when the self as autobiographical author aims to construct a story of the Me, to provide adult life with broad purpose and a dynamic sense of temporal continuity. An integrative theory that envisions the psychological self as a developing I-Me configuration of actor, agent, and author helps to synthesize a wide range of conceptions and findings on the self from social, personality, cognitive, cultural, and developmental psychology and from sociology and other social sciences. The actor-agent-author framework also sheds new light on studies of self-regulation, self-esteem, self-continuity, and the relationship between self and culture. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Biomass markets. Growth strategy and challenges for French actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This study comprises three reports. The first one is an executive summary which focuses on the main aspects of the evolution of the activity in the biomass sector, and highlights factors of change and their strategic consequences. The second one proposes an overview of the situation of biomass French markets, analyses growth strategies adopted by actors of the biomass sector (development of new production capacities, international growth, development of strategies based on several energies, diversification of prospects, innovation and improvement of installation efficiency), and discusses the main strategic challenges on the medium term. The third report proposes a presentation of the context of French biomass markets (political, regulatory and energetic framework, energetic assessment and assessment of the waste-based sector, economic context, housing stock, and other contextual factors), a presentation of the biomass French market (data for 2005-2013, dynamics of three specific segments: solid biomass, renewable urban wastes, and biogas), and a description of the competitive landscape (economic structure, actors) and of the 15 main actors

  16. Proliferation resistance modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Roglans, J.; Mladineo, S.; Nuclear Engineering Division; BNL; Univ. of California at Berkely; PNNL

    2004-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration is developing methods for nonproliferation assessments. A working group on Nonproliferation Assessment Methodology (NPAM) assembled a toolbox of methods for various applications in the nonproliferation arena. One application of this methodology is to the evaluation of the proliferation resistance of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. This paper first summarizes the key results of the NPAM program and then provides results obtained thus far in the ongoing application, which is co-sponsored by the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology. In NPAM, a top-level measure of proliferation resistance for a fuel cycle system is developed from a hierarchy of metrics. The problem is decomposed into: metrics to be computed, barriers to proliferation, and a finite set of threats. The analyst models the process undertaken by the proliferant to overcome barriers to proliferation and evaluates the outcomes. In addition to proliferation resistance (PR) evaluation, the application also addresses physical protection (PP) evaluation against sabotage and theft. The Generation IV goal for future nuclear energy systems is to assure that they are very unattractive and the least desirable route for diversion or theft of weapons-usable materials, and provide increased physical protection against terrorism. An Expert Group, addressing this application, has identified six high-level measures for the PR goals (six measures have also been identified for the PP goals). Combined together, the complete set of measures provides information for program policy makers and system designers to compare specific system design features and integral system characteristics and to make choices among alternative options. The Group has developed a framework for a phased evaluation approach to analyzing PR and PP of system characteristics and to quantifying metrics and measures. This approach allows evaluations to become more detailed and representative

  17. Children's Moral Judgments as a Function of Intention, Damage, and an Actor's Physical Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suls, Jerry; Kalle, Robert J.

    1979-01-01

    Examines children's moral judgments of story characters who accidently harm themselves. Children in kindergarten and in grades 3 and 5 rated actors in stories which varied in terms of intention, damage, and harm to the actor. (SS)

  18. Importance of Actors and Agency in Sustainability Transitions: A Systematic Exploration of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Britt Fischer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of actors and agency in the literature on sustainability transitions. We reviewed 386 journal articles on transition management and sustainability transitions listed in Scopus from 1995 to 2014. We investigate the thesis that actors have been neglected in this literature in favor of more abstract system concepts. Results show that this thesis cannot be confirmed on a general level. Rather, we find a variety of different approaches, depending on the systemic level, for clustering actors and agency as niche, regime, and landscape actors; the societal realm; different levels of governance; and intermediaries. We also differentiate between supporting and opposing actors. We find that actor roles in transitions are erratic, since their roles can change over the course of time, and that actors can belong to different categories. We conclude by providing recommendations for a comprehensive typology of actors in sustainability transitions.

  19. The Impact of Drug Trafficking on Informal Security Actors in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Schuberth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kenyan state is currently under pressure from two sides: First, numerous non-state armed groups have taken over the provision of security in areas where the state is practically absent. Second, drug-trafficking organizations are gaining ground as the country is increasingly being used as a major transit hub for narcotics. This article investigates the relationship between drug trafficking and informal security provision in Kenya and draws analogies from comparable experiences in Latin America and West Africa. Field research in Kenya has demonstrated that profit-oriented, informal security actors in Mombasa work for drug lords, while their counterparts in Nairobi are more likely to be hired by politicians. Moreover, faith-based vigilante groups in both cities appear to be less susceptible to external manipulation by drug traffickers. The article concludes by considering the potential consequences of an expansion of the drug trade in Kenya.

  20. Non-proliferation efforts in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellaney, B.

    1994-01-01

    Southern Asia is one of the most volatile regions in the world because of inter-State and intra-State conflicts. Security in the region highly depends on the rival capabilities of the involved states, Pakistan, India, China. Increased Confidence building and nuclear transparency are becoming more significant issues in attaining stability in the region, although non-proliferation efforts in this region have attained little headway

  1. Sovereignty and non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimminich, O.

    1990-01-01

    The Non-Proliferation Treaty seems to violate the fundamental principle of the quality of the states. However, if interpreted in the light of the latest developments of the international law, it is possible to justify the discriminations which it imposes on the non-nuclear states. A crucial point is the implementation of article VI by the nuclear states. If the latter procrastinate in nuclear disarmament the whole NPT-regime will collapse. (orig.) [de

  2. Gas Centrifuges and Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, David

    2004-09-15

    Gas centrifuges have been an ideal enrichment method for a wide variety of countries. Many countries have built gas centrifuges to make enriched uranium for peaceful nuclear purposes. Other countries have secretly sought centrifuges to make highly enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. In more recent times, several countries have secretly sought or built gas centrifuges in regions of tension. The main countries that have been of interest in the last two decades have been Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, and North Korea. Currently, most attention is focused on Iran, Pakistan, and North Korea. These states did not have the indigenous abilities to make gas centrifuges, focusing instead on illicit and questionable foreign procurement. The presentation covered the following main sections: Spread of centrifuges through illicit procurement; Role of export controls in stopping proliferation; Increasing the transparency of gas centrifuge programs in non-nuclear weapon states; and, Verified dismantlement of gas centrifuge programs. Gas centrifuges are important providers of low enriched uranium for civil nuclear power reactors. They also pose special nuclear proliferation risks. We all have special responsibilities to prevent the spread of gas centrifuges into regions of tension and to mitigate the consequences of their spread into the Middle East, South Asia, and North Asia.

  3. The role of social actors in times of crisis / El papel de los actores sociales en tiempos de crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Medina Iborra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the performance of the two main trade unions (UGT and CCOO and the employers’ association CEOE during the economic crisis. The analysis focuses on their position on major reforms, on their ideological differences over various public policies, as well as on their ability to negotiate collective bargaining agreements. We depart from the command of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, which in its seventh article gives trade unions and business associations a prominent role in representing economic interests, to suggest that social actors would be likely to reduce their chances of veto in times of economic crisis given the exceptional situation. However, the article confirms a gap in the approaches of social actors and the few options for a strong social dialogue. This leads to a greater distance between the social actors and the public opinion, as evidenced by the results derived from the survey on ‘Culture and Political Representation in Spain’.

  4. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists: Research Findings and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, de, van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of (potentially) violent lone-actors based on an analysis of 120 cases from across Europe. The Research Note focuses on the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists.[1] First of all, it presents th...

  5. Cell Proliferation in Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafman, Laura L.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, continues to carry a dismal prognosis for children diagnosed with advanced stage or relapsed disease. This review focuses upon factors responsible for cell proliferation in neuroblastoma including transcription factors, kinases, and regulators of the cell cycle. Novel therapeutic strategies directed toward these targets in neuroblastoma are discussed. PMID:26771642

  6. Strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.

    2003-01-01

    Although the nuclear non-proliferation regime has enjoyed considerable success, today the regime has never been under greater threat. Three states have challenged the objectives of the NPT, and there is a technology challenge - the spread of centrifuge enrichment technology and know-how. A major issue confronting the international community is, how to deal with a determined proliferator? Despite this gloomy scenario, however, the non-proliferation regime has considerable strengths - many of which can be developed further. The regime comprises complex interacting and mutually reinforcing elements. At its centre is the NPT - with IAEA safeguards as the Treaty's verification mechanism. Important complementary elements include: restraint in the supply and the acquisition of sensitive technologies; multilateral regimes such as the CTBT and proposed FMCT; various regional and bilateral regimes; the range of security and arms control arrangements outside the nuclear area (including other WMD regimes); and the development of proliferation-resistant technologies. Especially important are political incentives and sanctions in support of non-proliferation objectives. This paper outlines some of the key issues facing the non-proliferation regime

  7. Who Needs What? Some Thoughts on the Possibility of Using Psychology in Actor Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulova, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Contends that the aim of professional actor training is to reveal and develop an actor's individuality. Proposes that the responsibility of drama teachers is to lead training in such away that students feel accepted, understood, and respected. Proposes that psychodrama is the most appropriate method for student and professional actors' personal…

  8. Cognitively Central Actors and Their Personal Networks in an Energy Efficiency Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Kaisa; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to examine cognitively central actors and their personal networks in the emerging field of energy efficiency. Cognitively central actors are frequently sought for professional advice by other actors and, therefore, they are positioned in the middle of a social network. They often are important knowledge resources, especially in…

  9. A Low-cost System for Generating Near-realistic Virtual Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Mahmoud; Hussain, Khaled F.; Ibrahim, Hosny M.; Omar, Nagwa M.

    2015-06-01

    Generating virtual actors is one of the most challenging fields in computer graphics. The reconstruction of a realistic virtual actor has been paid attention by the academic research and the film industry to generate human-like virtual actors. Many movies were acted by human-like virtual actors, where the audience cannot distinguish between real and virtual actors. The synthesis of realistic virtual actors is considered a complex process. Many techniques are used to generate a realistic virtual actor; however they usually require expensive hardware equipment. In this paper, a low-cost system that generates near-realistic virtual actors is presented. The facial features of the real actor are blended with a virtual head that is attached to the actor's body. Comparing with other techniques that generate virtual actors, the proposed system is considered a low-cost system that requires only one camera that records the scene without using any expensive hardware equipment. The results of our system show that the system generates good near-realistic virtual actors that can be used on many applications.

  10. Pathways of undue influence in health policy-making: a main actor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa

    2018-02-01

    It is crucial to know the extent to which influences lead to policy capture-by which the policy-making process is shifted away from the public interest towards narrow private interests. Using the case study of Spain, our aim was to identify interactions between public administration, civil society and private companies that could influence health policies. 54 semistructured interviews with key actors related to health policy. The interviews were used to gather information on main policy actors as well as on direct and subtle influences that could modify health policies. The analysis identified and described, from the interviewed persons' experiences, both the inappropriate influences exerted on the actors and those that they exerted. Inappropriate influences were identified at all levels of administration and policy. They included actions for personal benefits, pressure for blocking health policies and pressure from high levels of government in favour of private corporations. The private sector played a significant role in these strategies through bribery, personal gifts, revolving doors, negative campaigns and by blocking unfavourable political positions or determining the knowledge agenda. The interviewees reported subtle forms of influence (social events, offers of technical support, invitations, etc) that contributed to the intellectual and cultural capture of health officials. The health policy decision-making processes in Spain are subject to influences by stakeholders that determine a degree of policy capture, which is avoidable. The private sector uses different strategies, from subtle influences to outright corruption, taking advantage in many cases of flexible legislation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Nuclear arbitration: Interpreting non-proliferation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Peter

    2015-01-01

    At the core of the nuclear non-proliferation regime lie international agreements. These agreements include, inter alia, the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, nuclear co-operation agreements and nuclear export control agreements.1 States, however, do not always comply with their obligations under these agreements. In response, commentators have proposed various enforcement mechanisms to promote compliance. The inconvenient truth, however, is that states are generally unwilling to consent to enforcement mechanisms concerning issues as critical to national security as nuclear non-proliferation.3 This article suggests an alternative solution to the non-compliance problem: interpretation mechanisms. Although an interpretation mechanism does not have the teeth of an enforcement mechanism, it can induce compliance by providing an authoritative interpretation of a legal obligation. Interpretation mechanisms would help solve the non-compliance problem because, as this article shows, in many cases of alleged non-compliance with a non-proliferation agreement, the fundamental problem has been the lack of an authoritative interpretation of the agreement, not the lack of an enforcement mechanism. Specifically, this article proposes arbitration as the proper interpretation mechanism for non-proliferation agreements. It advocates the establishment of a 'Nuclear Arbitration Centre' as an independent branch of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and recommends the gradual introduction of arbitration clauses into the texts of non-proliferation agreements. Section I begins with a discussion of international agreements in general and the importance of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section II then discusses nuclear non-proliferation agreements and their lack of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section III examines seven case studies of alleged non-compliance with non-proliferation agreements in order to show that the main problem in many cases

  12. Environmental governance as inclusion and exclusion of actors and issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2016-01-01

    The chapter analyses recent governance in Denmark of the interaction between climate, energy and land use. Governance is seen as inclusion and exclusion of actors and their perspectives in decisions about problems and solutions. Inclusion and exclusion are discussed as decisions about members...... and focus of public commissions. Furthermore, inclusion and exclusion are discussed as an aspect of NGOs’ development of climate plans and the societal role of such plans. The chapter concludes that governance of this field is balancing the interests of established and polluting sectors and the interest...

  13. Actor Bonds in Situations of Discontinuous Business Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Demand in many industrial buying situations, e.g. project purchases or procurement related to virtual organizations, is discontinuous. In situations of discontinuity, networks are often more of an ad hos informational and social nature, as strong activity and resource links are not present....... Furthermore the governance structure of markets characterized by discontinuous business activities is either that of the "socially constructed market" (Skaates, 2000) or that of the (socially constructed) network (Håkansson and Johanson, 1993). Additionally relationships and actor bonds vary substantially...

  14. The position of international political actors towards the Prague spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Tinu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The intervention of the USSR, Poland, Bulgaria, the German Democratic Republic and Hungary in Czechoslovakia on the night of 20 to 21 August 1968 produced a huge shock in the international community, but also a deepening of cleavage of relationships between the countries from the socialist camp. This study is an analysis of „hot“ reactions of key actors on the world political stage. The main source of information was the Agerpres Archive: unpublished documents (news, letters, analysis, translations of editorials in Western media and the external news flow.

  15. Visualising Actor Network for Cooperative Systems in Marine Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yushan; Finken, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    Awareness is a concept familiar to specialists within the field of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). It is superior for analysing and describing some of the ad hoc work activities that unfold in cooperation. Such informal activities are outside the scope of engineers’ formal models, whi...... that shape computer systems. The aim, thus, is to portray cooperative work in a way that can be valuable for engineers implementing marine technology. We do so by way of presenting a transferring technique (2T) using insights from the CSCW field and Actor Network Theory (ANT)....

  16. Actor, creación colectiva y dramaturgia nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Buenaventura Alder

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available El teatro no es un género literario. Esta afirmación, que hace algunos años resultó -en un seminario, en Caracas- polémica y hasta escandalosa, es hoy un punto de partida en los estudios de semiótica teatral. Dentro de este orden de cosas se dice que el teatro no es ni más ni menos que el momento efímero en el cual se produce una relación entre actores y espectadores.

  17. The Barcelona Mobile Cluster: Actors, Contents and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Scolari

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication mediated by mobile devices is one of the most dynamic sectors of the global economy and is transforming different aspects of our lives, including our ways of relating and our cultural production, distribution and consumption models. Media studies should not ignore these transformations. This paper presents the results of a study carried out during 2008 to determine the actors, contents produced and trends of the mobile communication companies in Barcelona. The study outlines an initial map of the situation, proposes a series of analysis categories and lays the foundations for more specific future studies on mCommunication.

  18. [The Chinese nuclear test and 'atoms for peace' as a measure for preventing nuclear armament of Japan: the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the United States and the introduction of light water reactors into Japan, 1964-1968].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2014-07-01

    Japan and the United States signed in 1968 a new atomic energy agreement through which US light-water nuclear reactors, including those of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, were to be introduced into Japan. This paper studies the history of negotiations for the 1968 agreement using documents declassified in the 1990s in the US and Japan. After the success of the Chinese nuclear test in October 1964, the United States became seriously concerned about nuclear armament of other countries in Asia including Japan. Expecting that Japan would not have its own nuclear weapons, the US offered to help the country to demonstrate its superiority in some fields of science including peaceful nuclear energy to counter the psychological effect of the Chinese nuclear armament. Driven by his own political agenda, the newly appointed Prime Minister Eisaku Sato responded to the US expectation favorably. When he met in January 1965 with President Johnson, Sato made it clear that Japan would not pursue nuclear weapons. Although the US continued its support after this visit, it nevertheless gave priority to the control of nuclear technology in Japan through the bilateral peaceful nuclear agreement. This paper argues that the 1968 agreement implicitly meant a strategic measure to prevent Japan from going nuclear and also a tactic to persuade Japan to join the Nuclear Non -Proliferation Treaty.

  19. Nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons which is the corner-stone of an international non-proliferation regime which has grown to embrace the overwhelming majority of countries in the world in the period since the Treaty. The other elements of the regime include, first of all, the safeguards system of IAEA-which operates to prevent the diversion of nuclear materials to military or other prohibited activities and must be accepted by all non-nuclear-weapon parties to the Treaty and, secondly, the Antarctic Treaty, the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Treaty of Tlatelolco) and the south Pacific Nuclear Free zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga)-which serve to extend the regime geographically. The last two Treaties require safeguards agreements with IAEA. In addition, the Treaty of Tlatelolco contains provisions establishing the agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean to ensure compliance

  20. Proliferation in cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao Yunsong [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: yspiao@gucas.ac.cn

    2009-06-15

    In the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0, the scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbation is given by the increasing mode of metric perturbation. In this Letter, it is found that if the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0 is included in each cycle of a cycle universe, since the metric perturbation is amplified on super horizon scale cycle by cycle, after each cycle the universe will be inevitably separated into many parts independent of one another, each of which corresponds to a new universe and evolves up to next cycle, and then is separated again. In this sense, a cyclic multiverse scenario is actually presented, in which the universe proliferates cycle by cycle. We estimate the number of new universes proliferated in each cycle, and discuss the implications of this result.

  1. Proliferation in cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao Yunsong

    2009-01-01

    In the contracting phase with w≅0, the scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbation is given by the increasing mode of metric perturbation. In this Letter, it is found that if the contracting phase with w≅0 is included in each cycle of a cycle universe, since the metric perturbation is amplified on super horizon scale cycle by cycle, after each cycle the universe will be inevitably separated into many parts independent of one another, each of which corresponds to a new universe and evolves up to next cycle, and then is separated again. In this sense, a cyclic multiverse scenario is actually presented, in which the universe proliferates cycle by cycle. We estimate the number of new universes proliferated in each cycle, and discuss the implications of this result.

  2. Global proliferation concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkins, R.

    1978-01-01

    The Non-Proliferation Treaty and the IAGA Safeguards System are discussed. President Carter's program to defer commercial reprocessing and recycle, to restructure the breeder program, to develop alternative fuel cycles, to increase US uranium enrichment capability, to provide fuel assurance for consumer nations, to continue the embargo of sensitive technology and equipment and to develop the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation Program is outlined

  3. The Design of Migrant Integration Policies in Spain: Discourses and Social Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Fernández Suárez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spain is one of the countries with the lowest social spending within the EU-15, and its welfare state has developed later and with less intensity. At the end of the 20th century, Spain became an immigration country, reaching 5.7 million immigrants in 2011. This article explores how the definition of migrant ‘integration’ is based more on a concept of universal rights and social cohesion by the main actors (political parties, trade unions, third sector organizations and immigrant associations than on a notion of a cultural type. We will also analyze how the influence of European policies and restrictive liberalism have led to the implementation of programmes which aim to make civic integration compulsory for the renewal of residence and work permits. The empirical evidence for this article stems from 60 qualitative interviews with social actors in migrant integration policies during 2010 and 2011. The impact of the economic crisis on the foreign population, especially regarding its position in the labor market, will also be considered, explaining the reduction of specific and general policies targeting the migrant population. This cut in social spending has involved a deinstitutionalization of this particular policy field.

  4. Brain-Machine Interface control of a robot arm using actor-critic rainforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmeyer, Eric A; Mahmoudi, Babak; Geng, Shijia; Prins, Noeline; Sanchez, Justin C

    2012-01-01

    Here we demonstrate how a marmoset monkey can use a reinforcement learning (RL) Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) to effectively control the movements of a robot arm for a reaching task. In this work, an actor-critic RL algorithm used neural ensemble activity in the monkey's motor cortext to control the robot movements during a two-target decision task. This novel approach to decoding offers unique advantages for BMI control applications. Compared to supervised learning decoding methods, the actor-critic RL algorithm does not require an explicit set of training data to create a static control model, but rather it incrementally adapts the model parameters according to its current performance, in this case requiring only a very basic feedback signal. We show how this algorithm achieved high performance when mapping the monkey's neural states (94%) to robot actions, and only needed to experience a few trials before obtaining accurate real-time control of the robot arm. Since RL methods responsively adapt and adjust their parameters, they can provide a method to create BMIs that are robust against perturbations caused by changes in either the neural input space or the output actions they generate under different task requirements or goals.

  5. The population-development tangle. Aspects and actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, G

    1993-01-01

    Since the 1974 Population Conference, the population field has become of interest to members of the fundamentalist right wing, feminists, and environmentalists. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the areas of agreement and disagreement among each set of actors as well as how they define the issues. Currently, development discourse is characterized by considerations of: 1) economic growth, 2) the provision of livelihoods, 3) the provision of basic needs, 4) ecological sustainability and renewability, and 5) political participation. The actors who define the terms of this discourse include: 1) corporate interests, which concentrate on economic growth; 2) international and national agencies, which place primary importance on economic growth and some importance on basic needs and ecological sustainability; 3) popular organizations and social movements, which concentrate on livelihoods, basic needs, and political participation; and 4) environmentalists, who focus on ecological sustainability, economic growth, and (occasionally) political participation. The field of population, on the other hand, is dominated by traditional populationists, whose primary focus is economic growth; developmentalists; the fundamentalist right, who are most concerned with family and control over reproduction; environmentalists; and the women's movement, which is most concerned with reproductive rights and reproductive health. When the perspective of poor women is considered, it can be seen that economic growth and ecological sustainability must support the securing of livelihoods, basic needs, political participation, and reproductive rights, and that reproductive health programs must be part of an overall health agenda.

  6. Construyendo la Barcelona creativa: nuevos actores, nuevas estrategias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Pareja-Eastaway

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Building A creative Barcelona: new actors, new strategies.Barcelona is under the international spotlight. The city that triumphed with the organisation of the Olympic Games in 1992 now wants to become a 21st Century creative city. In order to achieve this goal, the city must establish conditions that facilitate the emergence of a shared discourse around its ability to become an attractive city for creative talent and for businesses. The recognition of the historical-economic heritage, as a starting point for the creative city, along with the driving role played by culture in the generation of a exclusive and distinctive experience, turnBarcelona into a unique city. However, this is not sufficient. The participation and involvement of all the actors in a shared strategy pose significant challenges to Barcelona, as does the need to minimise the negative effects that inevitably accompany success. Companies, institutions and citizens constitute the city’s best assets: they must work in partnership and take advantage of the synergies generated amongst them. Consensus and participation are more than mere utopias in Barcelona: they have become requirements for the city of tomorrow. Moreover, leadership in Barcelona is largely left to public initiative: the emergence of linkages across the needs of the various creative sectors, based on public intervention mechanisms is the best way to ensure success.

  7. Spain and Mediterranean Security Governance: Neighbours, Spaces and Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wolff

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1999 Tampere Summit marked the start of the development of the external dimension of the European Union’s policy of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA. This external dimension has been reflected in the inclusion of JHA in agreements with third countries, and particularly with Mediterranean countries. Furthermore, the European NeighbourhoodPolicy (ENP, in addition to bilateral and multilateral programmes, confirmed the transformation of the JHA policy into one of the EU’s foreign policy objectives. In the light of this evolution, this article examines Spain’s role in the development of the Mediterraneandimension of the JHA policy: firstly, it covers the stance of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero’s government toward the JHA policy and its external dimension; secondly, it explores the new parameters of governance in the area of security and the Spanish case through three main factors: the neighbours, spaces and actors that define this governance. Lastly, and within a context of a multiplicity of governance actors on security, it focuses on the Canary Islands,which have acquired a central importance with respect to the management of borders and the policy of development for Africa. The analysis of this period helps to explain the new security perceptions that define Spain’s policy in the Mediterranean.

  8. Scholars in the Nineties: Actors, Subjects, Spectators or Hostages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gil Antón

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Gil questions the role played by Mexican university academics in the transformation of higher education during the nineties. After outlining the general context of change and its importance, the author proposes avoiding the false dichotomy between restoring the past or installing, without reflective mediation, a schematic future. He suggests taking into consideration the current national academic body composed of several generations of scholars. Three phases are established in terms of the modification of academic activities during the last decades of the twentieth century, and the changes in the level of higher education are considered. Dr. Gil asks if the academics have been actors, subjects, spectators or hostages-both in regard to regulations governing their activity and in the modifications of university processes and structure. The essay ends by proposing a general agenda for research in the field of university studies, and emphasizes two problems: the need for a detailed description of the type and depth of changes, and the definition of the academic as a central actor in institutional life. 

  9. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daguzan, J.F.

    2004-09-01

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  10. Proliferation risks; Proliferatierisico's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R

    1998-09-01

    The report gives an overview of different aspects related to safeguards of fissile materials. Existing treaties including the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Tlatelolco and the Rarotonga Treaties are discussed. An overview of safeguards systems for the control of fissile materials as well as the role of various authorities is given. An overall overview of proliferation risks, the physical protection of fissile materials and the trade in fissile materials is given. Finally, the status in problem countries and de facto nuclear weapon states is discussed.

  11. Enhancement by Enlargement: The Proliferation Security Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Minister Mahathir Mohammad. In any event, Malaysia’s expressions of common interest with the United States in cooperative efforts to combat terrorism...instances 10 The sharp change in the current Malaysian government’s stance toward cooperation with the United States from that of the preceding, Mahathir ...preceding prime minister, Mahathir , Malaysia was implicated in the proliferation network of Pakistan’s A. Q. Khan. As part of that network

  12. Illicit networks targeting the nexus between terrorists, proliferators, and narcotraffickers

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Rebekah K.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Globalization and the liberal international marketplace have provided fertile ground for the rise of transnational and non-state actors. Unfortunately, while states and businesses have profited from the increased fluidity of borders and the rise of global commerce, so have the criminal organizations that threaten national and international security. These illicit networks are stateless; they conduct their business in failed or failing ...

  13. Twenty years of the Non-proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldblat, Jozef.

    1990-01-01

    The report assesses the achievements of the Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and discusses ways in which the non-proliferation regime could be strenghtened. It recommends a series of measures to be taken by the parties of the Treaty, both nuclear and non-nuclear weapons states, with a view to reinforcing the Treaty and achieving its universality. 198 refs

  14. Perspectives of the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koungou, Leon

    2004-01-01

    To join traditional methods and new approaches of 'non-proliferation'. This is a technical method and the best way to fight against 'non-proliferation' which is facing few preoccupations: knowledge's disseminations; technologies; equipments and weapons that should be stopped. As it's important to note the return of nuclear danger as the end of confrontation between west-east which should be reduce. As the adaptation of mechanisms is necessary today, as it is important to react about states' incitations to violate international engagement of non-proliferation. Areas control allows finding out change and evolution, but more insufficient. Functional difficulties show that the IAEA (International Agency of Atomic Energy) does not work good. Safeguard system does not allow to respect 'non-proliferation' engagements; for instance 'junkies states' that they cannot dissuade traditional methods. The fight of 'non-proliferation' shows new progresses with fearing methods of prevention actions and heaviest international controls of exportation. The target of this is very ambitious. This new method is self-successful because it contributes to re-enforce international security when defeating acquisition of nuclear and mass destruction weapons by non-states factors. Therefore non-proliferation regime and especially 'non-proliferation treaty' remains delicate as long as some militaries state such USA will reject their 'non-proliferation' engagement. (author) [fr

  15. The challenge of nuclear proliferation control in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Prevention of nuclear weapon proliferation in South Asia is considered a a difficult challenge. The paper discusses the difficulties met in implementing the nuclear non-proliferation policy due to numerous disputes concerning China, North and South Korea, India and Pakistan, and the countries of former Soviet Union. Matters preventing proliferation are mentioned as well as obstacles to non-proliferation proposing that decisions whether voluntary or, eventually, compulsory would have to be consistently enforced by the Security Council, if states are to rely upon those methods for their security

  16. Missile proliferation and missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarif, M. Javad

    2002-01-01

    The global security environment is becoming increasingly volatile and dangerous. A new arms race is looming in the horizon ... [Missiles have] become the strong weapon of the poor and the discriminated against who find themselves vulnerable to outside threat. They believe missiles may prove instrumental in deterring the enemy from beginning a full scale war ... the engagement of all states at the United Nations in the issue of missiles, through the panel of governmental experts, and the new idea of exploring the subject in the Conference on Disarmament do provide a dim light at the end of the tunnel. ... Efforts at non-proliferation of missiles are more likely to succeed when viewed as an integral part of a global and comprehensive negotiation and progress in other areas of disarmament. (author)

  17. «Nomen est omen»: pseudonyms in actor society of Dnieper Ukraine late XIX – early XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Yeremeyeva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the memoirs and archival material basis of Central State Historical Archives of Ukraine, Kyiv and State Archives of Kharkiv Region the etymology of some actor’s pseudonyms on the Dnieper Ukraine territory in late XIX – early XX century was analysed. The pseudonyms’ place and role in desired professional actor image formation were determined. In particular the fact that pseudonyms borrowed or transformed from the famous literary character names used to transfer the character’s moral qualities and exterior to the artist was defined. The stage name creation specificity depending on the affiliation of the actor to the Russian or Ukrainian repertoire was shown. Also the basic motives for fictional anthroponym using in actors’ society were depicted. The main reason for the actor’s name-change among ones originated from the nobility and clergy was shown. Besides the recognition of pseudonym as the important part of professional success not only among the actors, but also among entrepreneurs of Dnieper Ukraine in late XIX – early XX century was explored.

  18. Can we predict nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The author aims at improving nuclear proliferation prediction capacities, i.e. the capacities to identify countries susceptible to acquire nuclear weapons, to interpret sensitive activities, and to assess nuclear program modalities. He first proposes a retrospective assessment of counter-proliferation actions since 1945. Then, based on academic studies, he analyzes what causes and motivates proliferation, with notably the possibility of existence of a chain phenomenon (mechanisms driving from one program to another). He makes recommendations for a global approach to proliferation prediction, and proposes proliferation indices and indicators

  19. The text of the amended Protocol to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the amended Protocol to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [es

  20. IAEA safeguards and non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, R J.S.

    1995-02-01

    An overview is given of efforts to contain the nuclear weapons proliferation during half a century of man-controlled nuclear fission. An initial policy of denial did not work, a following period of cooperation needed a gradual strengthening of international assurances on the peaceful character of the flourishing use of nuclear techniques for power generation and of other applications. The focus of the nuclear weapon proliferation concern changed from the highly developed states to developing states. The Non-Proliferation Treaty laid the basis for a unique system of voluntarily accepted international inspections to verify the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The IAEA got the task to implement this `Full Scope Safeguards` on all nuclear material and all nuclear activities in the non-nuclear weapon states. Thanks to the structure of the IAEA, in which both proponent and states with a critical attitude take part in the decision making process on the IAEA execution of its tasks, a balanced, and widely acceptable system emerged. International developments necessitated additional improvements of the non-proliferation system. The increase of strength of sub-national groups triggered international cooperation on physical protection, about a quarter of a century ago. More recently, it appeared that NPT states with assumed nuclear weapon ambitions operated in the margins between the interpretation of IAEA safeguards and the spirit and purpose of NPT. Improvements of the IAEA safeguards and a stronger cooperation between states, including the constraints which exporting states have imposed on nuclear supplies, strengthen the safeguards system. The important reductions in the two largest nuclear weapon arsenals lead, together with the delay in the fast breeder implementation, to large stockpiles of nuclear weapon usable materials. Also in this areas new internationally credible assurances have to be obtained, that these materials will never return to nuclear weapon applications.

  1. IAEA safeguards and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, R.J.S.

    1995-02-01

    An overview is given of the efforts to contain the nuclear weapons proliferation during half a century of man-controlled nuclear fission. An initial policy of denial did not work, a following period of cooperation needed a gradual strengthening of international assurances on the exclusively peaceful character of the flourishing use of nuclear techniques for power generation and of other applications. The focus of the nuclear weapon proliferation concern changed from the highly developed states to developing states. The Non-Proliferation Treaty laid the basis for a unique system of voluntarily accepted international inspections to verify the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The IAEA got the task to implement this 'Full Scope Safeguards' on all nuclear material and all nuclear activities in the non-nuclear weapon states. Thanks to the structure of the IAEA, in which both proponent and states with a critical attitude take part in the decision making process on the IAEA execution of its tasks, a balanced, and widely acceptable system emerged. International developments necessitated additional improvements of the non-proliferation system. The increase of strength of sub-national groups triggered international cooperation on physical protection, about a quarter of a century ago. More recently, it appeared that NPT states with assumed nuclear weapon ambitions operated in the margins between the interpretation of IAEA safeguards and the spirit and purpose of NPT. Improvements of the IAEA safeguards and a stronger cooperation between states, including the constraints which exporting states have imposed on nuclear supplies, strengthen the safeguards system. The important reductions in the two largest nuclear weapon arsenals lead, together with the delay in the fast breeder implementation, to large stockpiles of nuclear weapon usable materials. Also in this areas new internationally credible assurances have to be obtained, that these materials will never return to nuclear

  2. Proliferation Persuasion. Coercive Bargaining with Nuclear Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, Tristan A. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Why do states wait for prolonged periods of time with the technical capacity to produce nuclear weapons? Only a handful of countries have ever acquired the sensitive nuclear fuel cycle technology needed to produce fissile material for nuclear weapons. Yet the enduring trend over the last five decades is for these states to delay or forgo exercising the nuclear weapons option provided by uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing capabilities. I show that states pause at this threshold stage because they use nuclear technology to bargain for concessions from both allies and adversaries. But when does nuclear latency offer bargaining benefits? My central argument is that challengers must surmount a dilemma to make coercive diplomacy work: the more they threaten to proliferate, the harder it becomes to reassure others that compliance will be rewarded with nuclear restraint. I identify a range of mechanisms able to solve this credibility problem, from arms control over breakout capacity to third party mediation and confidence building measures. Since each step towards the bomb raises the costs of implementing these policies, a state hits a sweet spot when it first acquires enrichment and/or reprocessing (ENR) technology. Subsequent increases in proliferation capability generate diminishing returns at the bargaining table for two reasons: the state must go to greater lengths to make a credible nonproliferation promise, and nuclear programs exhibit considerable path dependency as they mature over time. Contrary to the conventional wisdom about power in world politics, less nuclear latency thereby yields more coercive threat advantages. I marshal new primary source evidence from archives and interviews to identify episodes in the historical record when states made clear decisions to use ENR technology as a bargaining chip, and employ this theory of proliferation persuasion to explain how Japan, North Korea, and Iran succeeded and failed to barter concessions from the

  3. North-East Asia: a risk of nuclear proliferation; Un risque de proliferation nucleaire en Asie du Nord-Est?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courmont, B. [Centre d' Etudes Transatlantiques, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-04-15

    North-East Asia is distinguished by being potentially one of the world's most nuclearised regions. It includes two nuclear powers recognised by the Non-Proliferation Treaty (Russia and China), a proliferating state (North Korea) and three countries that could very quickly complete nuclear programmes (Japan, South Korea and Taiwan). Now that the question of nuclear proliferation has again surfaced on the international strategic scene, and that North Korea's test of October 2006 has introduced a new security paradigm into the region, how real is the risk of nuclear proliferation in North-East Asia? (author)

  4. The State and Corporatism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Lars Bo; Schmidt-Hansen, Ulrich

    in corporatist theory. In particular, we draw upon a conceptualization of the state developed by Michael Mann and Eric Nordlinger's different forms of state autonomy. We propose a state-centered theoretical focus enabling us to grasp the role of the state in the dynamics of the corporatist system. In the second...... to the development of the `Danish model', but that these actors were often orchestrated by the state. At crucial moments the direction of these different actors was even determined by the state. In the first part of the article, it is argued that the state has been under-theorized and to some extent neglected...

  5. Can tics be performed convincingly by an actor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Riemann, Laura; Krämer, Hermann; Münchau, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In the German movie "Vincent will Meer" a healthy actor portrays a man with Tourette's syndrome. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the performance of tics is convincing and whether this judgment depends on whether he/she suffers from tics or not. While the movie was broadcasted in German cinemas, we put an online survey (including 28 questions on different aspects related to the observation, performance, and authenticity of tics) on the web pages of the German self-help group. 276/296 surveys submitted could be used for further analyses. 95.7% of all participants felt that the performance of tics was convincing. However, people with tics (n = 26) were less convinced compared to those who had never met a person with tics (n = 110) (P = 0.020). Our results further support the hypothesis that tics are not "abnormal" but "physiological" movements that are only misplaced both in time and context.

  6. Interaction among actors in retail market competition in malang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, B.; Ma'ruf, M. F.

    2018-01-01

    In several countries, traditional market lose in competition with supermarket. Supermarket has several advantages compared with traditional market. It can provides consumers with lower prices, offer more varieties of products and higher quality products than traditional retailers, has more comfortable place for shopping. In Malang City, the existence of traditional traders was threatened. In a competitive retail market, traditional traders get less protection from the Government of Malang Municipality. Massive demonstrations conducted by traditional traders along with other society elements unable to stem the rapid growth of modern retail. This paper focus on the interaction of Malang Municipality actors in the local retail market competition. How those interaction can make imbalance retail market competition. The author uses descriptive-analytic method with a qualitative approach in this work. As a result, the interaction tend to produce imbalance retail market competition. Interaction between legislative, executive, bureaucracy and mass media tend to support modern retail growth than traditional one.

  7. The actors of the photovoltaic sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houot, G.

    2010-01-01

    The author reviews the 192 actors in the French photovoltaic sector, they are classified into 9 categories: 1) the solar plant owner, 2) the developer: he sets projects and his role stops when the project is ready to be sold to an investor, 3) the design office: it leads technical studies and manages the construction works), 4) the installer: he fits the solar panels, 5) the operator of the solar plant, 6) the wholesaler of equipment, 7) the manufacturer of solar panels and photovoltaic systems, 8) the provider or manufacturer of components and materials for the photovoltaic industry, and 9) the provider of specialized services such as insurance, staff training, the follow-up of legal issues... For each company, a brief historical account, the range of activities, the strength of manpower and the turnover are reported. (A.C.)

  8. Non Proliferation of Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang S Irawan

    2004-01-01

    Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons is the international community's efforts to maintain the security of the world, in order to prevent the spread of nuclear technology and the use of nuclear weapons, promoting cooperation for the use of nuclear peaceful purposes, build mutual trust (Confidence Building Measures) as well as to achieve the ultimate goal of disarmament overall (General and Complete Disarmament). Addressing the post-WTC tragedy, 11 September 2001, the Indonesian government should set up a National Measures (National Action Plan), among others formed the National Security Council and NBC Counter Proliferation Unit, or the National Authority for Nuclear Treaty, preparing national legislation, to prevent the abuse nuclear materials for terrorist acts, prevent Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear materials, developed a National Preparedness and Emergency Response Management in the event of a nuclear accident or attack by the use of nuclear terrorism. Importance of a National Action Plan meant the existence of a national commitment in the context of compliance with treaties and conventions which have been ratified relating to safety, security, safeguards towards a general and complete disarmament, to safeguard national security and maintain peace (safeguards) international

  9. Operationalizing social safeguards in REDD+: actors, interests and ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, Constance L.; Coad, Lauren; Helfgott, Ariella; Schroeder, Heike

    2012-01-01

    “REDD+” is a mechanism created under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for Reducing {carbon} Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation and forest enhancement. In addition, REDD+ “safeguards” are intended to protect non-carbon forest values. While REDD+ countries are formally requested to provide information on safeguards, there is as yet no agreement on the relative priority of carbon versus non-carbon values, and the appropriate level of safeguard standardization. This, we argue, has allowed REDD+ to function as a “boundary object” spanning disparate priorities. Meanwhile, the contestation of these priorities has been displaced from intergovernmental processes to the various organizations involved in operationalizing REDD+ activities. This article applies a set of organizational, substantive and conceptual typologies to compare differences in the balance of actors, interests and ideas across these organizations. It finds that multi-lateral funding programs have drawn heavily on existing safeguards for international aid, while private certification schemes have specialized in different niche priorities at the project level. In regards to the substance of safeguard requirements, the involvement of donors and investors appears correlated with a stronger emphasis on carbon and risk mitigation while greater NGO involvement and the decoupling of safeguards design from REDD+ funding appear correlated with greater emphasis on social rights and benefits. These findings have several critical implications for future REDD+ activities. Firstly, the choice of organizations involved in defining, funding and verifying safeguard activities, and the balance of actors in their governing structures, are likely to influence the relative emphasis on non-carbon values. Secondly, a diversity of approaches to disbursing REDD+ incentives may be necessary to maintain widespread support for REDD+. Thirdly, it remains to be seen whether REDD

  10. La disciplina entre las disposiciones legales y los actores escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Palacios Mena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una descripción del funcionamiento de la disciplina escolar en una institución educativa de secundaria en Colombia. Tiene como objetivo explicar el origen del conflicto disciplinario, las situaciones que lo generan, la forma como la institución trata de lograr y mantener la disciplina, las explicaciones que cada uno de los actores da a las situaciones conflictivas y la manera como son vividas por ellos. El diseño metodológico de la investigación combinó una encuesta, entrevistas y el análisis de documentos de la institución educativa. El análisis de los datos se hace a la luz de planteamientos sociológicos que reconocen la enorme importancia que ejercen las estructuras sociales sobre la forma de pensar y actuar de los individuos, pero también resaltan la gran capacidad de los actores sociales para amoldarse a dichas estructuras y a través de sus ideas y acciones darle una dinámica propia al tipo de relaciones que establecen entre individuos en sus entornos de vida más inmediatos. Se pudo concluir que sobre la disciplina escolar no hay unidad de criterio entre los docentes, los directivos y los estudiantes, ni en su definición, ni en su importancia, ni en los medios para conseguirla; dichas diferencias producen tensiones y desacuerdos entre los miembros de la comunidad educativa.

  11. Role of Actors and Gender Factor in Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Oguz; Isik, Ozden; Ozcep, Ferhat; Goksu, Goksel

    2014-05-01

    In Turkey, the discussions in the modern sense about disaster management begun after the 1992 Erzincan and the 1995 Dinar earthquakes, faulting in terms of features and effects. These earthquakes are "Urban Earthquakes'' with effects and faulting charectristics, and have led to radical changes in terms of disaster and disaster management. Disaster Management, to become a science in the world, but with the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes in Turkey has begun to take seriously on the agenda. Firstly, such as Civil Defense and Red Crescent organizations, by transforming its own, have entered into a new organizing effort. By these earthquakes, NGO's have contributed the search-rescue efforts in the field and to the process of normalization of life. Because "the authority and responsibilities" of NGO's could not be determined, and could not be in planning and scenario studies, we faced the problems. Thus, to the citizens of our country-specific "voluntary" has not benefited enough from the property. The most important development in disaster management in 2009, the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) has been the establishment. However, in terms of coordination and accreditation to the target point has been reached yet. Another important issue in disaster management (need to be addressed along with disaster actors) is the role of women in disasters. After the Golcuk Earthquake, successful field works of women and women's victimization has attracted attention in two different directions. Gender-sensitive policies should be noted by the all disaster actors due to the importance of the mitigation, and these policies should take place in laws, regulations and planning.

  12. Water Pollution Control Legislation in Israel: Understanding Implementation Processes from an Actor-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Hophmayer-Tokich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Israel, advanced legislation for the management of scarce water resources, including legislation to prevent water pollution, were put in place in the early stages of the State’s formation. Despite that, on-going uncontrolled pollution has deteriorated the quality of water sources for decades, with the main source of pollution being untreated or partially treated domestic wastewater. This has been mainly the result of lack of enforcement of the existing laws. During the 1990s and onwards, a shift to forceful enforcement has been observed and wastewater treatment substantially improved. The paper analyzes the implementation processes of the pollution control legislations (the lack-of and the shift to forceful enforcement based on an actor-centered approach, using the contextual interaction theory.

  13. Actores no estatales y procesos de integración regional: la Unión Europea y el sistema de integración Centroamericano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parthenay, K.; Sánchez Salgado, R.

    2011-01-01

    This study advances a comparative analysis of the interactions between non state actors (in this article also referred to as transnational society) and regional integration processes in Europe and Central America. Firstly, the correlation between the degree of development of regional institutions

  14. Institutional and Actor-Oriented Factors Constraining Expert-Based Forest Information Exchange in Europe: A Policy Analysis from an Actor-Centred Institutionalist Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Baycheva-Merger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adequate and accessible expert-based forest information has become increasingly in demand for effective decisions and informed policies in the forest and forest-related sectors in Europe. Such accessibility requires a collaborative environment and constant information exchange between various actors at different levels and across sectors. However, information exchange in complex policy environments is challenging, and is often constrained by various institutional, actor-oriented, and technical factors. In forest policy research, no study has yet attempted to simultaneously account for these multiple factors influencing expert-based forest information exchange. By employing a policy analysis from an actor-centred institutionalist perspective, this paper aims to provide an overview of the most salient institutional and actor-oriented factors that are perceived as constraining forest information exchange at the national level across European countries. We employ an exploratory research approach, and utilise both qualitative and quantitative methods to analyse our data. The data was collected through a semi-structured survey targeted at forest and forest-related composite actors in 21 European countries. The results revealed that expert-based forest information exchange is constrained by a number of compound and closely interlinked institutional and actor-oriented factors, reflecting the complex interplay of institutions and actors at the national level. The most salient institutional factors that stand out include restrictive or ambiguous data protection policies, inter-organisational information arrangements, different organisational cultures, and a lack of incentives. Forest information exchange becomes even more complex when actors are confronted with actor-oriented factors such as issues of distrust, diverging preferences and perceptions, intellectual property rights, and technical capabilities. We conclude that expert-based forest information

  15. 'Two clicks and I'm in!' Patients as co-actors in managing health data through a personal health record infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanutto, Alberto

    2017-06-01

    One of the most significant changes in the healthcare field in the past 10 years has been the large-scale digitalization of patients' healthcare data, and an increasing emphasis on the importance of patients' roles in cooperating with healthcare professionals through digital infrastructures. A project carried out in the North of Italy with the aim of creating a personal health record has been evaluated over the course of 5 years by means of mixed method fieldwork. Two years after the infrastructure was put into regular service, the way in which patients are represented in the system and patient practices have been studied using surveys and qualitative interviews. The data show that, first, patients have become co-actors in describing their clinical histories; second, that they have become co-actors in the diagnosis process; and finally, they have become co-actors in the management of time and space as regards their specific state of health.

  16. Uncertainties in Nuclear Proliferation Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chul Min; Yim, Man-Sung; Park, Hyeon Seok

    2015-01-01

    There have been various efforts in the research community to understand the determinants of nuclear proliferation and develop quantitative tools to predict nuclear proliferation events. Such systematic approaches have shown the possibility to provide warning for the international community to prevent nuclear proliferation activities. However, there are still large debates for the robustness of the actual effect of determinants and projection results. Some studies have shown that several factors can cause uncertainties in previous quantitative nuclear proliferation modeling works. This paper analyzes the uncertainties in the past approaches and suggests future works in the view of proliferation history, analysis methods, and variable selection. The research community still lacks the knowledge for the source of uncertainty in current models. Fundamental problems in modeling will remain even other advanced modeling method is developed. Before starting to develop fancy model based on the time dependent proliferation determinants' hypothesis, using graph theory, etc., it is important to analyze the uncertainty of current model to solve the fundamental problems of nuclear proliferation modeling. The uncertainty from different proliferation history coding is small. Serious problems are from limited analysis methods and correlation among the variables. Problems in regression analysis and survival analysis cause huge uncertainties when using the same dataset, which decreases the robustness of the result. Inaccurate variables for nuclear proliferation also increase the uncertainty. To overcome these problems, further quantitative research should focus on analyzing the knowledge suggested on the qualitative nuclear proliferation studies

  17. Actor-network Theory and cartography of controversies in Information Science

    OpenAIRE

    LOURENÇO, Ramon Fernandes; TOMAÉL, Maria Inês

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The present study aims to discuss the interactions between the Actor-network Theory and the Cartography of Controversies method in Information Science research. A literature review was conducted on books, scholarly articles, and any other sources addressing the Theory-Actor Network and Cartography of Controversies. The understanding of the theoretical assumptions that guide the Network-Actor Theory allows examining important aspects to Information Science research, seeking to identif...

  18. The Interactive Constitution of Actors in Industrial Networks: The Case of the Norwegian City of Alesund

    OpenAIRE

    Frans Prenkert

    2013-01-01

    The actor-dimension of the Activitiy-Resource-Actor (ARA)-model has not gained the same attention among Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) scholars as the resource and activity dimensions. However, the issue of what an actor actually is, in the sense of its interactive constitution, is important from an industrial marketing and purchasing perspective that emphasizes the interactive character of the business landscape. This is adressed in this paper. As a concequence of their interactiv...

  19. Third Non-Proliferation Treaty review conference and 29th regular session of the general conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy, Nuclear Proliferation, and Government Processes of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, November 20, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Ambassador Lewis A. Dunn of the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and Danny J. Boggs of DOE reported on two recent international conferences relating to non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and arms control. Dunn summarized the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review conference and its final declaration in which participants reaffirmed treaty principles and made recommendations for strengthening its efforts and enhancing its implementation. Boggs summarized the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conference, and noted the significance of China's recent entry into IAEA. They stressed that energy security is a key factor in the success of IAEA safeguards because it affects trade and international cooperation. US contributions to the success of non-proliferation policies depend upon our ability to share technological information with less advanced nations. Questions and responses and an appendix with the final declaration of the Review Conference follow the testimony

  20. The need of a multi-actor perspective to understand expectations from virtual presence: managing elderly homecare informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Tobias; Vimarlund, Vivian

    2011-12-01

    Different studies have analysed a wide range of use cases and scenarios for using IT-based services in homecare settings for elderly people. In most instances, the impact of such services has been studied using a one-dimensional approach, either focusing on the benefits for the patient or health service provider. The objective of this contribution is to explore a model for identifying and understanding outcomes of IT-based homecare services from a multi-actor perspective. In order to better understand the state of the art in homecare informatics, we conducted a literature review. We use experiences from previous research in the area of informatics to develop the proposed model. The proposed model consists of four core activities 'identify involved actors', 'understand consequences', 'clarify contingencies', 'take corrective actions', and one additional activity 'brainstorming IT use'. The primary goal of innovating organisations, processes and services in homecare informatics today, is to offer continued care, better decision support both to practitioners and patients, as well as effective distribution of resources. A multi-actor analysis perspective is needed to understand utility determination for the involved stakeholders.

  1. The Influence of the Actor Network on the Innovative Process of Transgenic Soybean in Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Daroit

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rio Grande do Sul was the first Brazilian state to plant genetically modified soybean. The sowing occurred in 1998 with Roundup Ready soybean seeds from Monsanto smuggled from Argentina. The aim of this study is to investigate how this innovative process of planting transgenic soybean came about in Rio Grande do Sul based on the actor network involved in the period 1998 to 2003. Although the innovative process has been discussed in the literature on innovation management since the work of Schumpeter, there is still no clear understanding of the issues of interests and power that involve the innovative process. Given this, from within the literature we have sought a perspective that would understand the innovative process as being political. We adopted Actor Network Theory as a base for the discussion of the primary and secondary data obtained regarding the controversy surrounding transgenic soybean in RS. The results point to the existence of two translation chains that contribute towards the formation of actor networks.

  2. The nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, F.

    1995-04-01

    In this book is detailed the beginning of nuclear military power, with the first bomb of Hiroshima, the different ways of getting uranium 235 and plutonium 239, and how the first countries (Usa, Ussr, China, United kingdom, France) got nuclear weapons. Then the most important part is reviewed with the details of non-proliferation treaty and the creation of IAEA to promote civilian nuclear power in the world and to control the use of plutonium and uranium in nuclear power plants. The cases of countries who reached the atom mastery, such Israel, South Africa, Pakistan, Iraq, North Korea, Argentina, Brazil, Iran, Algeria, Taiwan and the reasons which they wanted nuclear weapon for or why they gave up, are exposed

  3. Brexit, Euratom and nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedersten, Anna

    2016-01-01

    One of the issues absent from the academic (and public) debate on the United Kingdom's (UK) referendum vote to withdraw from the European Union (EU) (commonly referred to as 'Brexit') is what will happen to the UK's membership in the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). The Euratom Treaty was signed in Rome in 1957, together with the European Economic Community (EEC) Treaty. It was concluded for an unlimited period and it establishes a Community that has a separate legal personality from the EU. Thus, the EU and Euratom form two separate, although closely linked entities. Euratom's principal mission is related to the economy, tasked with 'creating the conditions necessary for the speedy establishment and growth of nuclear industries'; in other words, to promote the nuclear industry. This reflects the high expectations for nuclear energy in the 1950's. Some even believed that the development of nuclear energy would trigger an industrial revolution; however, Euratom only came to play a minor role in the European integration process. Despite this, the Euratom Treaty has remained, almost unchanged, since its adoption and is still frequently applied, although it is unclear to what extent it has boosted the nuclear industry. This article has a two-fold purpose. The first purpose is to address the constitutional issue of 'partial membership'. All EU member states are also members of Euratom. It has always been assumed that with membership in the EU also comes a membership in Euratom. But, what about withdrawal? What are the arguments for 'partial membership'? The second purpose of this article is to shed light on some implications of Brexit as it relates to Euratom. The most serious consequences are perhaps found in the area of nuclear non-proliferation. The United Kingdom is one of two nuclear weapon states in the EU (France being the other one). Withdrawal from Euratom means withdrawal from its control system, the system of so-called nuclear safeguards. Under

  4. Proliferation and Nonproliferation in the Early Twenty-First Century. The Permanent Five Hold the Key to Success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, David

    2012-01-01

    It is a truth universally acknowledged that nuclear proliferation constitutes a threat to international peace and security. However little known its causes may be, this truth is so well fixed in international public consciousness that it is considered an utmost requirement to address the problem expeditiously. Is the international community indeed properly geared to respond quickly, strongly, and unanimously to proliferation? If so, how? Writing for Foreign Affairs in 1961, the late Fred Ikle asked, 'After Detection-What?'He expressed concerns that the international community focused too exclusively on how to detect violations to arms control agreements. He explained that determining the consequences of violations after detection was also essential and described 'a program to deter evasion', but remained pessimistic about its prospects for success. Four decades later, in a 2001 article for the Nonproliferation Review, Brad Roberts assessed how the problem had changed. He showed that many policy tools had been developed, but that they did not guarantee success. Anticipating many of the debates of the 2000's, he reflected on the dilemma of resorting to multilateral action (sanctioned by the UN Security Council) or US unilateral action, and concluded that there was a crisis of confidence about the nonproliferation regime and the role of the major powers. Over ten years have passed since Roberts's review article. It is now a good time to stand back and take stock of how the problem has evolved. To this end, this paper begins with an assessment of the nonproliferation landscape between 2001 and 2011 by looking at the changes that affected the proliferation problem itself, the tools to address that problem, and the actors involved in the process to solve it. Although progress was made to better tackle it, the paper suggests that pessimism is in order today. On that basis, it moves on to explore what the 'winning agenda' might be, what it entails, and what the prospects

  5. Does interdependence alleviate proliferation risks in Asia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Osamu

    1997-01-01

    As the extension Conference of the Non-Proliferation Treaty ended with its unlimited extension without any modification of the treaty obligation of the nuclear-weapon states to nuclear disarmament, the prospect of the regime to incorporate those suspected nuclear powers in Asia, namely India, Pakistan and Israel, has become dark. In this paper the problem of proliferation risk centred in India is analysed. It is well known that India was the first to criticize the Non-Proliferation Treaty regime as highly discriminating between the five nuclear haves and the rest. As was always the case, India's point is logically persuasive and consistent. However, it is also true that the logical or legal point of view does not always solve the problem. Therefore, we look at the regional and international political constellation in which any assertion has to be constructed. At present there is very little possibility that this region will become nuclear-free. This is because the horizontal proliferation, that has seemingly taken place here, is the result of a 'nuclear chain reaction', starting with a minor nuclear-weapon state, China. However, the economic upsurge in the region now throws the nuclear chain-reactions into the background. It has come to a standstill and the future of nuclear proliferation here will have to be decided by global nuclear disarmament, as there is no motivation on the side of the two Asian giants to agree on the reduction in their nuclear arsenals, though under American pressure, another suspected nuclear power, Pakistan, may have to give up its nuclear development plan

  6. Proliferation resistance assessment of pyro processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, E. H.; Ko, W. I.; Kim, H. D. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In 2002, world experts gathered and defined the term proliferation resistance as 'the characteristic of a nuclear energy system that impedes the diversion or undeclared production of nuclear material, or misuse of technology, by State in order to acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.' The same report also defines the following terms: Intrinsic barriers (technical features) of proliferation resistance are features that result from the technical design of nuclear energy systems, including those that facilitate the implementation of extrinsic measures. Extrinsic barriers (institutional measures) of proliferation resistance are features that result from the decisions and undertakings of states related to nuclear energy system. Intrinsic barriers are further divided into material barriers.the 'intrinsic, or inherent, qualities of materials that reduce the inherent desirability or attractiveness of the material as an explosive' and technical barriers. The 'intrinsic technical lements of the fuel cycle, its facilities, processes, and equipment that serve to make it difficult to gain access to materials and/or to use or misuse facilities to obtain weapons usable materials.' Material barriers include isotopic, chemical, radiological, mass and bulk, and detectability, whereas technical barriers include facility unattractiveness, accessibility, available fissile mass, detectability of and time required for diversion, and skills, expertise, and knowledge. Assessing the proliferation resistance of pyro processing is meaningful only when compared with other processes. This paper attempts to discuss the features of pyro processing by comparing it with direct disposal and aqueous separation processes from a proliferation resistance viewpoint.

  7. Confidence, Actors' Beliefs and Transparency: the Case of ANDRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buclet, Nicolas; Bouzidi, Youcef

    2003-01-01

    Considering the predominant position of nuclear power in France, one could think that nuclear in France has always benefited from a high consensus within the French opinion. The emerging of nuclear and its development through years in France, might seem to have taken place in a rather singular climate of good social acceptability, if compared with other countries. Yet, now that the question has to be raised concerning the management of long-life radioactive waste, things are complicated. A strong contest accompanies each choice of a site that could be dedicated to stocking those very sensitive wastes. Actually, only one site has been found and accepted by local political authorities. A laboratory has been created by ANDRA, with the scope to study the opportunity to stock long-life radioactive waste. The decision should take place in 2006 and, since many years, is at the origin of a strong controversy between actors in favour or against the project. How to explain that? Why in a country where everything has been done for the nuclear development, is it so difficult to find a place to manage the residues of such an activity? It is even amazing to see that, on this specific topic, controversy is even stronger in France than in Sweden, although the Swedish opinion is by far less nuclear-friendly than the French one. The present paper focuses on one aspect of the strategy followed by ANDRA in order to achieve its mission: the essential aspect of the social acceptability of its activities. The comprehension of the difficulties met by ANDRA is not possible without taking into account the history of French nuclear and the catastrophic lack of democracy that characterised it. Among the results from an inquiry done by CREIDD for ANDRA in 2002, it indeed emerged that ANDRA was most of all perceived as an entity belonging to a global 'nuclear sphere'. Although rather young, ANDRA therefore has to carry with it the 'weigh of history' of the whole 'sphere', and its social

  8. Security Guarantees and Nuclear Non-Proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno Tertrais

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the value of 'security guarantees', that is, positive security assurances that include a formal or informal defense commitment, in preventing nuclear proliferation. It demonstrates that such guarantees have proven to be a very effective instrument in preventing States from going nuclear. It would thus seem logical to reinforce or extend them. However, this path is fraught with obstacles and dilemmas

  9. Security Guarantees and Nuclear Non-Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno Tertrais

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the value of 'security guarantees', that is, positive security assurances that include a formal or informal defense commitment, in preventing nuclear proliferation. It demonstrates that such guarantees have proven to be a very effective instrument in preventing States from going nuclear. It would thus seem logical to reinforce or extend them. However, this path is fraught with obstacles and dilemmas

  10. Recollection and unitization in associating actors with extrinsic and intrinsic motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Alan W; Earles, Julie L; Berger, Johanna D

    2015-04-01

    Four experiments provide evidence for a distinction between 2 different kinds of motion representations. Extrinsic motions involve the path of an object with respect to an external frame of reference. Intrinsic motions involve the relative motions of the parts of an object. This research suggests that intrinsic motions are represented conjointly with information about the identities of the actors who perform them, whereas extrinsic motions are represented separately from identity information. Experiment 1 demonstrated that participants remembered which actor had performed a particular intrinsic motion better than they remembered which actor had performed a particular extrinsic motion. Experiment 2 replicated this effect with incidental encoding of actor information, suggesting that encoding intrinsic motions leads one to automatically encode identity information. The results of Experiments 3 and 4 were fit by Yonelinas's (1999) source-memory model to quantify the contributions of familiarity and recollection to memory for the actors who carried out the intrinsic and extrinsic motions. Successful performance with extrinsic motion items in Experiment 3 required participants to remember in which scene contexts an actor had appeared, whereas successful performance in Experiment 4 required participants to remember the exact path taken by an actor in each scene. In both experiments, discrimination of old and new combinations of actors and extrinsic motions relied strongly on recollection, suggesting independent but associated representations of actors and extrinsic motions. In contrast, participants discriminated old and new combinations of actors and intrinsic motions primarily on the basis of familiarity, suggesting unitized representations of actors and intrinsic motions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Pharmaceutical digital marketing and governance: illicit actors and challenges to global patient safety and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Digital forms of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical marketing (eDTCA) have globalized in an era of free and open information exchange. Yet, the unregulated expansion of eDTCA has resulted in unaddressed global public health threats. Specifically, illicit online pharmacies are engaged in the sale of purportedly safe, legitimate product that may in fact be counterfeit or substandard. These cybercriminal actors exploit available eDTCA mediums over the Internet to market their suspect products globally. Despite these risks, a detailed assessment of the public health, patient safety, and cybersecurity threats and governance mechanisms to address them has not been conducted. Discussion Illicit online pharmacies represent a significant global public health and patient safety risk. Existing governance mechanisms are insufficient and include lack of adequate adoption in national regulation, ineffective voluntary governance mechanisms, and uneven global law enforcement efforts that have allowed proliferation of these cybercriminals on the web. In order to effectively address this multistakeholder threat, inclusive global governance strategies that engage the information technology, law enforcement and public health sectors should be established. Summary Effective global “eHealth Governance” focused on cybercrime is needed in order to effectively combat illicit online pharmacies. This includes building upon existing Internet governance structures and coordinating partnership between the UN Office of Drugs and Crime that leads the global fight against transnational organized crime and the Internet Governance Forum that is shaping the future of Internet governance. Through a UNODC-IGF governance mechanism, investigation, detection and coordination of activities against illicit online pharmacies and their misuse of eDTCA can commence. PMID:24131576

  12. Pharmaceutical digital marketing and governance: illicit actors and challenges to global patient safety and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-10-16

    Digital forms of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical marketing (eDTCA) have globalized in an era of free and open information exchange. Yet, the unregulated expansion of eDTCA has resulted in unaddressed global public health threats. Specifically, illicit online pharmacies are engaged in the sale of purportedly safe, legitimate product that may in fact be counterfeit or substandard. These cybercriminal actors exploit available eDTCA mediums over the Internet to market their suspect products globally. Despite these risks, a detailed assessment of the public health, patient safety, and cybersecurity threats and governance mechanisms to address them has not been conducted. Illicit online pharmacies represent a significant global public health and patient safety risk. Existing governance mechanisms are insufficient and include lack of adequate adoption in national regulation, ineffective voluntary governance mechanisms, and uneven global law enforcement efforts that have allowed proliferation of these cybercriminals on the web. In order to effectively address this multistakeholder threat, inclusive global governance strategies that engage the information technology, law enforcement and public health sectors should be established. Effective global "eHealth Governance" focused on cybercrime is needed in order to effectively combat illicit online pharmacies. This includes building upon existing Internet governance structures and coordinating partnership between the UN Office of Drugs and Crime that leads the global fight against transnational organized crime and the Internet Governance Forum that is shaping the future of Internet governance. Through a UNODC-IGF governance mechanism, investigation, detection and coordination of activities against illicit online pharmacies and their misuse of eDTCA can commence.

  13. Reinforcement learning using a continuous time actor-critic framework with spiking neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Frémaux

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals repeat rewarded behaviors, but the physiological basis of reward-based learning has only been partially elucidated. On one hand, experimental evidence shows that the neuromodulator dopamine carries information about rewards and affects synaptic plasticity. On the other hand, the theory of reinforcement learning provides a framework for reward-based learning. Recent models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity have made first steps towards bridging the gap between the two approaches, but faced two problems. First, reinforcement learning is typically formulated in a discrete framework, ill-adapted to the description of natural situations. Second, biologically plausible models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity require precise calculation of the reward prediction error, yet it remains to be shown how this can be computed by neurons. Here we propose a solution to these problems by extending the continuous temporal difference (TD learning of Doya (2000 to the case of spiking neurons in an actor-critic network operating in continuous time, and with continuous state and action representations. In our model, the critic learns to predict expected future rewards in real time. Its activity, together with actual rewards, conditions the delivery of a neuromodulatory TD signal to itself and to the actor, which is responsible for action choice. In simulations, we show that such an architecture can solve a Morris water-maze-like navigation task, in a number of trials consistent with reported animal performance. We also use our model to solve the acrobot and the cartpole problems, two complex motor control tasks. Our model provides a plausible way of computing reward prediction error in the brain. Moreover, the analytically derived learning rule is consistent with experimental evidence for dopamine-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity.

  14. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Canada's non-proliferation and safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote the emergence of a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to assure the Canadian people and the international community that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the NPT, by promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, by treating nuclear weapon and non-nuclear weapon states alike regarding Canadian nuclear exports, by working for new approaches covering the sensitive phases (e.g. reprocessing) of the nuclear fuel cycle, Canada's policy promotes attainment of the first objective. The latter objective is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its nuclear partners. Those agreements provide assurance that Canada's nuclear exports are used solely for legitimate, peaceful, nuclear energy production purposes. At the same time, Canada, having formulated its non-proliferation and safeguards policy during the period 1945 to 1980, has recognized that it has gone as far as it can on its own in this field and that from this point on any further changes should be made on the basis of international agreement. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums such as the Committee on Assurances of Supply is to exert Canada's best efforts to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers might subsume their national requirements

  15. Nuclear Society and non-proliferation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinskij, A.Ya.; Kushnarev, S.V.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Sukhoruchkin, V.K.; Khromov, V.V.; Shmelev, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    In the USSR Nuclear Society in 1991 the special working group on the problems of nuclear weapons non-proliferation and nuclear materials control, uniting the experts of different types (nuclear physicists, lawyers, teachers), was created. This group became the mechanism of the practical Nuclear Society activity realization in this sphere. Three milestones of the innovative activity can be specified. First Milestone. In January 1992 the Central Nuclear Society Board (of the International Public Nuclear Society Association) published a special appeal to the First Leaders of all countries - former USSR republics. This address paid a special attention to the unity of the USSR power-industrial complex, and numerous problems arisen while separating this complex, including nuclear weapons non-proliferation problems, were indicated as well. Second Milestone. In 1992 and 1993 the Nuclear Society experts issued two selection 'Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control Problems' including reviewing basic papers. In addition, materials on non-proliferation and control are published regularly in the organs. Third Milestone.In 1993 - 1997 some special scientific and technical events (conferences, workshops, meetings) allowing to analyze the joint international projects and contracts outcomes, and establish new contacts between the specialists of NIS, Baltic states and others, have been hold

  16. Laser enrichment: a new path to proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    The use of lasers to obtain enriched uranium is an easier and cheaper method than methods currently in use. The immediate concern is that it could promote easy access to nuclear weapons by countries that do not presently have them. Mr. Casper feels that the U.S. government is working against itself; while the State Department is seeking to block one path to proliferation, ERDA laboratories are developing new technology that could open another. The proliferation implications have not been factored in a serious way into the decisions to proceed with this research. It is also clear that the United States does not now have a comprehensive policy that deals with all potentially important paths to proliferation, including laser enrichment. Mr. Casper states that there is still time to stop and consider whether laser enrichment should be developed, in light of its broader consequences. But this will not happen if the decisions are left exclusively in the hands of those promoting the technology, the author says. It is just this sort of situation that prompted the creation of several government institutions to provide independent assessments of new technologies. The Office of Technology Assessment, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency all have the authority to intervene. Laser enrichment provides a good test of these institutions and of the viability of the concept of technology assessment. The status, benefits and risks, and the policy needed on laser research are discussed

  17. La prostitución, una mirada desde sus actores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Montoya Restrepo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo surge de la investigación Aspectos sociales y familiares que conllevan al ejercicio de la prostitución a 14 jóvenes de la ciudad de Medellín, a partir de sus relatos de vida, que en su proceso de generación de información implementó entre otras estrategias, una serie de talleres con población –hombres y mujeres– en ejercicio de la prostitución y con el equipo profesional que les brinda atención psicosocial, como parte del desarrollo del diseño metodológico planteado para la generación de información. Con esta publicación se pretende reflexionar sobre las diferentes concepciones y significados que se le ha dado a la palabra prostitución, estigmatizada no solo desde el imaginario social, sino también desde la religión. Se retoman para ello algunas posturas disciplinares y especialmente las voces de los actores que participaron como fuentes originales en el proceso de investigación; por ende, se realizará un breve recorrido que recoja las connotaciones más comunes de las personas que ejercen cotidianamente la prostitución.

  18. Can Tics be Performed Convincingly by an Actor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten R. Müller-Vahl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the German movie “Vincent will Meer” a healthy actor portrays a man with Tourette’s syndrome. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the performance of tics is convincing and whether this judgment depends on whether he/she suffers from tics or not. Methods. While the movie was broadcasted in German cinemas, we put an online survey (including 28 questions on different aspects related to the observation, performance, and authenticity of tics on the web pages of the German self-help group. 276/296 surveys submitted could be used for further analyses. Results. 95.7% of all participants felt that the performance of tics was convincing. However, people with tics (n=26 were less convinced compared to those who had never met a person with tics (n=110 (P=0.020. Conclusions. Our results further support the hypothesis that tics are not “abnormal” but “physiological” movements that are only misplaced both in time and context.

  19. The world's non-proliferation regime in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, George

    2005-01-01

    members to countries that need assistance in order to provide better security for nuclear material in their possession, to an April 2004 Security Council resolution that requires countries having nuclear materials to protect them in various ways from being acquired by 'non-State actors' such as terrorists. The regime includes prohibitions on testing such as the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty and the 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The first prohibits nuclear weapons tests everywhere but underground, and the second will prohibit them even underground if it goes into force. For the large majority of NPT members not having nuclear weapons, these treaties contribute to non-proliferation not just by inhibiting testing but by reducing the discrimination inherent in the NPT between those permitted to have nuclear weapons and those not so permitted. These members see an agreement to stop testing by the P-5 as a step of compliance by the P-5 with their NPT promise to cease the nuclear arms race, reduce their nuclear weapons and move toward nuclear disarmament. The regime includes 'no-first-use promises' by the P-5 to other NPT members, usually called 'negative security assurances.' All of the P-5 but China have stated some exceptions to these promises. (The US exception permits use of nuclear weapons against a non-nuclear-weapon NPT member if it attacks another non-weapon NPT member while the attacker is in alliance with a State having nuclear weapons. Recently, the United States asserted another exception by saying it might use nuclear weapons to counter a biological or chemical attack.) The regime includes promises by the P-5 that some protection will be provided to other NPT members in the event of a threat of attack, promises called 'positive security assurances.' The P-5 have promised to seek immediate UN Security Council orders providing security assistance to any NPT member not having nuclear weapons if it is threatened with attack by another nation's nuclear weapons. For

  20. [Indicators of governance in mental health policies and programmes in Mexico: a perspective of key actors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    To analyse the role of Mexico's mental health system governance in the development of mental health policies and programmes, from the perspective of its own actors. A map was developed for identifying the actors in Mexico's mental health system. A guide was designed for in-depth interviews, which were recorded and arranged in categories for their analysis. The Atlas-ti v.7 software was used for the organisation of qualitative data and Policy Maker v.4 was used to determine the position and influence of actors within the health system. The actors were identified according to their level of influence in mental health policies: high, medium and low. Actors with a high level of influence participate in national policies, actors with medium influence are involved in regional or local policies and the participation of actors with a low level of influence is considered marginal. This study facilitated understanding of governance in mental health. The level of influence of the actors directly affects the scope of governance indicators. Relevant data were obtained to improve policies in mental health care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Lone-Actor Terrorism. Toolkit Paper 1 : Practical Guidance for Mental Health Practitioners and Social Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.; Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to draw out practical implications for mental health practitioners and social workers in dealing with Lone-Actor Terrorism. It is not intended to provide a profile of lone-actor terrorists, but rather to offer guidance that may be of use to practitioners in Europe (and

  2. Lone Actor Terrorist Attack Planning and Preparation : A Data-Driven Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, B.W.; Bakker, E.; Gill, P.; Bouhana, N.

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth assessment of lone actor terrorists’ attack planning and preparation. A codebook of 198 variables related to different aspects of pre-attack behavior is applied to a sample of 55 lone actor terrorists. Data were drawn from open-source materials and complemented

  3. Camus' Actor as Tom Stoppard's Player; A Key to Interpreting "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivanovic, Judith

    An examination of Albert Camus' definition of the actor in "The Myth on Sisyphus" helps to illuminate the character and role of The Player in Tom Stoppard's play and, hence, to bring light to an understanding of the philosophy of the play itself. The actor, for Camus, reveals our mortality in the face of the absurdity of our mortality,…

  4. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists : Research Findings and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of

  5. Optimal Placement of Actors in WSANs Based on Imposed Delay Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxi Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs refer to a group of sensors and actors linked by wireless medium to probe environment and perform specific actions. Such certain actions should always be taken before a deadline when an event of interest is detected. In order to provide such services, the whole monitor area is divided into several virtual areas and nodes in the same area form a cluster. Clustering of the WSANs is often pursued to give that each actor acts as a cluster-head. The number of actors is related to the size and the deployment of WSANs cluster. In this paper, we find a method to determine the accurate number of actors which enables them to receive data and take actions in an imposed time-delay. The k-MinTE and the k-MaxTE clustering algorithm are proposed to form the minimum and maximum size of cluster, respectively. In those clustering algorithms, actors are deployed in such a way that sensors could route data to actors within k hops. Then, clusters are arranged by the regular hexagon. At last, we evaluate the placement of actors and results show that our approach is effective.

  6. International humanitarian actors and governments in areas of conflict: challenges, obligations, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Paul

    2013-10-01

    For too long international humanitarian aid has neglected the primary responsibility of the state to assist and protect its citizens in times of disaster. A focus on the role of the state in contexts where governments are active parties to a conflict and are failing to live up to these responsibilities is difficult and underpins many of the recurring dilemmas of humanitarian action. The fundamental principles of humanitarian action should offer a framework for principled engagement with governments in situations of conflict but too often they are still interpreted as shorthand for ignoring governments. Using principles to inform engagement with both states and other international actors engaged in crises could provide a way forward. However, this would need to be a humanitarian agenda that engages with developing country governments, with non-OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) donors, and with the stabilisation and security agendas of Western governments, and not one that attempts to ring-fence an ever-shrinking isolationist humanitarian space. © 2013 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  7. The role of multisensor data fusion in neuromuscular control of a sagittal arm with a pair of muscles using actor-critic reinforcement learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkhou, V; Parnianpour, M; Lucas, C

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we consider the role of multisensor data fusion in neuromuscular control using an actor-critic reinforcement learning method. The model we use is a single link system actuated by a pair of muscles that are excited with alpha and gamma signals. Various physiological sensor information such as proprioception, spindle sensors, and Golgi tendon organs have been integrated to achieve an oscillatory movement with variable amplitude and frequency, while achieving a stable movement with minimum metabolic cost and coactivation. The system is highly nonlinear in all its physical and physiological attributes. Transmission delays are included in the afferent and efferent neural paths to account for a more accurate representation of the reflex loops. This paper proposes a reinforcement learning method with an Actor-Critic architecture instead of middle and low level of central nervous system (CNS). The Actor in this structure is a two layer feedforward neural network and the Critic is a model of the cerebellum. The Critic is trained by the State-Action-Reward-State-Action (SARSA) method. The Critic will train the Actor by supervisory learning based on previous experiences. The reinforcement signal in SARSA is evaluated based on available alternatives concerning the concept of multisensor data fusion. The effectiveness and the biological plausibility of the present model are demonstrated by several simulations. The system showed excellent tracking capability when we integrated the available sensor information. Addition of a penalty for activation of muscles resulted in much lower muscle coactivation while keeping the movement stable.

  8. Actors of the hydrogen sector in France; Les acteurs de l'hydrogene en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document proposes brief presentations (web site address, activities) of actors operating in the hydrogen sector in France. These actors are public actors who can be incentive or financing actors (ADEME, ANR) or research institutions (CNRS, CEA, university and engineering schools, IFP, INERIS, INRETS), private actors like industrial groups (Air Liquide, AREVA, GDF Suez, Total, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault, Saint-Gobain, SNECMA, ST Microelectronics, 3M, Veolia Environnement) or small companies (Alca Torda Applications, Axane, CETH2, Helion, MaHytec, N-GHY, PaxiTech, Sertronic, ULLIT). It also presents the HyPAC platform created by the AFH2 and ADEME), the AFH2 (the French Association for Hydrogen), and regional initiatives

  9. Literacy testing objects as co-actors in framing bilingual childrens literacy development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    Literacy testing objects as co-actors in framing bilingual children´s literacy development Based on Latour´s theoretical perspective that human beings delegate roles and responsibility to artifacts, it becomes important to track and research the objects that circulate within and between “sites...... of human social interaction” (Latour, 2005). Latour argues that objects – e.g. a literacy testing instrument – play a central role through the meaning, human beings delegate to objects. In this way objects become co-actors in a network through the agency human actors delegate to them, and objects mediate...... categories and artifacts based on the local context. The second is termed “globalising connects” that brings local actors in line with bigger and remote networks. In order to understand the semiotic function of artifacts in a meaning making network an ethnographic oriented approach with a focus on actor...

  10. Application of the actor model to large scale NDE data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Chris

    2018-03-01

    The Actor model of concurrent computation discretizes a problem into a series of independent units or actors that interact only through the exchange of messages. Without direct coupling between individual components, an Actor-based system is inherently concurrent and fault-tolerant. These traits lend themselves to so-called "Big Data" applications in which the volume of data to analyze requires a distributed multi-system design. For a practical demonstration of the Actor computational model, a system was developed to assist with the automated analysis of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) datasets using the open source Myriad Data Reduction Framework. A machine learning model trained to detect damage in two-dimensional slices of C-Scan data was deployed in a streaming data processing pipeline. To demonstrate the flexibility of the Actor model, the pipeline was deployed on a local system and re-deployed as a distributed system without recompiling, reconfiguring, or restarting the running application.

  11. Consideration of climate change impacts and adaptation in EIA practice — Perspectives of actors in Austria and Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiricka, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.jiricka@boku.ac.at [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Department of Landscape, Spatial and Infrastructure Sciences, Institute for Landscape Development, Recreation and Conservation Planning, Peter-Jordan-Straße 82, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Formayer, Herbert; Schmidt, Anna [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Department of Landscape, Spatial and Infrastructure Sciences, Institute for Landscape Development, Recreation and Conservation Planning, Peter-Jordan-Straße 82, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Völler, Sonja; Leitner, Markus [Environment Agency Austria, Environmental Impact Assessment and Climate Change, Spittelauer Lände 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); Fischer, Thomas B. [Environmental Assessment and Management, School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, 74 Bedford Street South, Liverpool L69 7ZQ (United Kingdom); Wachter, Thomas F. [Büro für Umweltplanung Dr. Wachter, Wiesnerring 2c, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Current political discussions and developments indicate the importance and urgency of incorporating climate change considerations into EIA processes. The recent revision of the EU Directive 2014/52/EU on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) requires changes in the EIA practice of the EU member states. This paper investigates the extent to which the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can contribute to an early consideration of climate change consequences in planning processes. In particular the roles of different actors in order to incorporate climate change impacts and adaptation into project planning subject to EIA at the appropriate levels are a core topic. Semi-structured expert interviews were carried out with representatives of the main infrastructure companies and institutions responsible in these sectors in Austria, which have to carry out EIA regularly. In a second step expert interviews were conducted with EIA assessors and EIA authorities in Austria and Germany, in order to examine the extent to which climate-based changes are already considered in EIA processes. This paper aims to discuss the different perspectives in the current EIA practice with regard to integrating climate change impacts as well as barriers and solutions identified by the groups of actors involved, namely project developers, environmental competent authorities and consultants (EIA assessors/practitioners). The interviews show that different groups of actors consider the topic to different degrees. Downscaling of climate change scenarios is in this context both, a critical issue with regards to availability of data and costs. Furthermore, assistance for the interpretation of relevant impacts, to be deducted from climate change scenarios, on the specific environmental issues in the area is needed. The main barriers identified by the EIA experts therefore include a lack of data as well as general uncertainty as to how far climate change should be considered in the process without

  12. Consideration of climate change impacts and adaptation in EIA practice — Perspectives of actors in Austria and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiricka, Alexandra; Formayer, Herbert; Schmidt, Anna; Völler, Sonja; Leitner, Markus; Fischer, Thomas B.; Wachter, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Current political discussions and developments indicate the importance and urgency of incorporating climate change considerations into EIA processes. The recent revision of the EU Directive 2014/52/EU on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) requires changes in the EIA practice of the EU member states. This paper investigates the extent to which the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can contribute to an early consideration of climate change consequences in planning processes. In particular the roles of different actors in order to incorporate climate change impacts and adaptation into project planning subject to EIA at the appropriate levels are a core topic. Semi-structured expert interviews were carried out with representatives of the main infrastructure companies and institutions responsible in these sectors in Austria, which have to carry out EIA regularly. In a second step expert interviews were conducted with EIA assessors and EIA authorities in Austria and Germany, in order to examine the extent to which climate-based changes are already considered in EIA processes. This paper aims to discuss the different perspectives in the current EIA practice with regard to integrating climate change impacts as well as barriers and solutions identified by the groups of actors involved, namely project developers, environmental competent authorities and consultants (EIA assessors/practitioners). The interviews show that different groups of actors consider the topic to different degrees. Downscaling of climate change scenarios is in this context both, a critical issue with regards to availability of data and costs. Furthermore, assistance for the interpretation of relevant impacts, to be deducted from climate change scenarios, on the specific environmental issues in the area is needed. The main barriers identified by the EIA experts therefore include a lack of data as well as general uncertainty as to how far climate change should be considered in the process without

  13. Nuclear proliferation: motivations, capabilities, and strategies for control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, T.; Feiveson, H.A.; Taylor, T.B.

    1977-01-01

    Two possible patterns of proliferation appear to involve the greatest risks for nuclear use or war. The first is proliferation to particular categories of states and the second dangerous possibility is proliferation at a rapid rate. But rapid proliferation could cause instabilities that might be too great for political systems and institutions to handle, making nuclear use of nuclear war more likely. Thus, any strategy for nonproliferation should especially attempt to prevent a rapid spread of nuclear weapons and to avert acquisition by states in the high-risk categories. Nuclear proliferation will also have important effects on world and regional stability for reasons not directly related to nuclear use. The mere possession of nuclear weapons by certain states could radically alter international perceptions and threaten global arrangements. The main concern in this discussion is to analyze the various incentives and disincentives--involving both security and political considerations--that will affect states' decisions about whether or not to acquire nuclear weapons. The discussion then turns to the means by which individual states and the international community can influence nuclear incentives and disincentives. The particularly important subject of the management of the international nuclear industry is addressed separately, followed by an analysis of nuclear acquisition, use, and threat by non-state entities. Finally, a general strategy for decreasing incentives and increasing disincentives is proposed and applied to four special categories of states

  14. Nuclear proliferation: present, past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Zaleski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Since the end of WW II one of the more, if not the most, serious concerns of all people in the world has been to preserve this planet avoiding a nuclear war. On the positive side, in spite of the huge arsenal of strategic and tactical nuclear weapons (NW) accumulated over the years by the US and the former SU and the innumerable military conflicts we have witnessed since WW II, no NW have been used again. But this should not be a great consolation: the fact that countries have refrained from using NW does not necessarily mean that it will always be that way. As long as countries try to solve their differences by the use of force the danger of a nuclear confrontation remains, and nuclear disarmament and proliferation should cotinue to be a serious concern. This concern has profound political, social and ethical components that have been analyzed extensively and profusely. The purpose of this paper is more limited: to provide an overview of the national and international efforts to minimize the risk of a nuclear war by regulating, restricting and containing the development and possession of NW. This is what has become know as the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Any nuclear non-proliferation regime must have two essential goals: achieving nuclear disarmament by the NWS (and thereby eliminating vertical proliferation). To make a regime effective it must rely on international agreements, a system of safeguards coupled with inspection and verification procedures, and above all on the good faith of all nations involved. It should be stated from the very beginning that nuclear non-proliferation efforts, like all disarmament efforts, are essentially of political nature, albeit having an important scientific and technological component. They are effective only to the extent that countries really renounce NW and are prepared to severely sanction those who do not. (Author) 31 refs

  15. Thorium cycles and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovins, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper analyzes several prevalent misconceptions about nuclear fuel cycles that breed fissile uranium-233 from thorium. Its main conclusions are: U-233, despite the gamma radioactivity of associated isotopes, is a rather attractive material for making fission bombs, and is a credible material for subnational as well as national groups to use for this purpose; (2) pure thorium cycles, which in effect merely substitute U-233 for Pu, would take many decades and much U to establish, and offer no significant safeguards advantage over Pu, cycles; (3) denatured Th-U cycles, which dilute the U-233 with inert U-238 to a level not directly usable in bombs, are not an effective safeguard even against subnational bomb-making; (4) several other features of mixed Th-U cycles are rather unattractive from a safeguards point of view; (5) thus, Th cycles of any kind are not a technical fix for proliferation (national or subnational) and, though probably more safeguardable than Pu cycles, are less so than once-through U cycles that entail no reprocessing; (6) while thorium cycles have some potential technical advantages, including flexibility, they cannot provide major savings in nuclear fuel resources compared to simpler ways of saving neutrons and U; and (7) while advocates of nuclear power may find Th cycles worth exploring, such cycles do not differ fundamentally from U cycles in any of the respects--including safeguards and fuel resources--that are relevant to the broader nuclear debate, and should not be euphorically embraced as if they did

  16. China's Coal Methane: Actors, Structures, Strategies and their Global Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ke; Charnoz, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    The need for China to alleviate its energy shortage, reduce its dependence on foreign sources and mitigate its climate impact is driving a dire quest for alternative fuels. Coal Mine Methane (CMM), in this context, holds significant potential. While the 11. Five-Year Plan aimed to capture and use 10 billion m"3 per year of CMM by 2010, the country achieved less than a quarter of this. This paper enquires into this puzzling outcome, which bears consequences for the world at large. China is indeed responsible for more than 40% of the world's total un-captured CMM emissions - which act as a greenhouse gas 21 times more potent than CO_2, and whose role in global warming is often underestimated, especially in short- and medium-term climate strategies. While the Chinese central government may have incentive to work towards promoting CMM, the benefits of such policies at the sub-national level are far from self-evident. National CMM policies can have significant economic and social costs at the local level, and thus their implementation can be jeopardized. Implementation of such policies is inherently ambiguous, conflicting, and as such, political. Current research on the Chinese CMM industry has largely focused on its techno-economic aspects, with little if any politico-institutional analyses. As for policy research on the larger Chinese energy sector, this seems sturdily to embody a top-down view: it mostly ends up blaming the country's decentralized governance structure and lack of a stringent implementation chain. Such top-down approaches do not help uncover 'the sinews of war': the range of less formal mechanisms, negotiations and agreements among the local actors, without which implementation does not in fact occur at the sub-national level. Nor do top-down research approaches facilitate inquiry into the way local stakeholders re-frame the meaning, content and impact of CMM policies. More generally, the top-down approaches fail to consider the significance of

  17. Actors or Spectators? Vulnerability and Critical Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Philippopoulos‐Mihalopoulos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether we as humans should remain spectators of the great theatre of ecological disaster or become actors is a false dichotomy. In this chapter, I argue that both are needed, since the critical distance of spectatorship does not annul the need for immersion in the ecological continuum. A tool in the realisation of this is the concept of vulnerability, which is here conceptualised as a space of ‘the middle’ (as opposed, emphatically, to ‘the centre’ and offers an opportunity to think away from the sterile debate on eco/anthropocentricity and from such limiting hierarchies as animal/human, human/environmental, natural/artificial. This new, vulnerable position of the middle allows the reconfiguration of ecological processes, and more specifically, the position of environmental law in relation to them. Environmental law now finds itself amidst a new, moving, ‘open ecology’ of social, biological and ecological processes. This is a new, radical conceptualisation of what I have called ‘critical environmental law’, based upon an epistemology of observation and an ontology of being part of this open ecology. Environmental law, in this light, is simultaneously reformulated as being an invitation to disciplinary and ontological openness and yet a call to remain immanent within existing legal structures. This finds expression in four critical environmental positions that set the stage for the further elaboration of a critical environmental law. La cuestión de si nosotros, como seres humanos, debemos seguir siendo espectadores del gran teatro de la catástrofe ecológica o convertirnos en actores es una dicotomía falsa. En este artículo se sostiene que ambos son necesarios, ya que la distancia crítica del espectador no anula la necesidad de una inmersión en el continuum ecológico. Una herramienta para la realización de esto es el concepto de vulnerabilidad, que aquí se concibe como un espacio 'intermedio' (en oposici

  18. Natural gas supply strategies for European energy market actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, Vincent

    2007-06-01

    The liberalization of the European energy markets leads to the diversification of supplies. Hence, we analyse the natural gas importation problem in a power producer point of view. Upstream and downstream natural gas markets are concentrated. In this oligopoly context, our topic is to focus on strategies which modify natural gas sourcing price. This by studying the surplus sharing on the natural gas chain. A European firm can bundle gas and electricity outputs to increase its market share. Therefore, a bundling strategy of a power producer in competition with a natural gas reseller on the final European energy market increases upstream natural gas price. Bundling also acts as a raising rival cost strategy and reduces the rivals' profit. Profits opportunities incite natural gas producers to enter the final market. Vertical integration between a natural gas producer and a European gas reseller is a way, for producers, to catch end consumer surplus. Vertical integration results in the foreclosure of the power producer on the upstream natural gas market. To be active on the natural gas market, the power producer could supply bundles. But, this strategy reallocates the rent. The integrated firm on natural gas gets the rent of electricity market in expenses of the power producer. Then, a solution for the power producer is to supply gas and electricity as complements. Then, we consider a case where vertical integration is not allowed. Input price discrimination by a monopolist leads to a lower natural gas price for the actor which diversifies its supplying sources. Furthermore, a bundling strategy increases the gap between the price proposed to the firm which also diversify its output and the firm which is fully dependent from the producer to supply natural gas on final market. (author)

  19. Emerging nuclear energy systems and nuclear weapon proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gsponer, A.; Sahin, S.; Jasani, B.

    1983-01-01

    Generally when considering problems of proliferation of nuclear weapons, discussions are focused on horizontal proliferation. However, the emerging nuclear energy systems currently have an impact mainly on vertical proliferation. The paper indicates that technologies connected with emerging nuclear energy systems, such as fusion reactors and accelerators, enhance the knowledge of thermonuclear weapon physics and will enable production of military useful nuclear materials (including some rare elements). At present such technologies are enhancing the arsenal of the nuclear weapon states. But one should not forget the future implications for horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons as some of the techniques will in the near future be within the technological and economic capabilities of non-nuclear weapon states. Some of these systems are not under any international control. (orig.) [de

  20. The new US nuclear non-proliferation and export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welck, S. von.

    1981-01-01

    The future American nuclear non-proliferation and export policy will be determined chiefly by three elements: (1) Adherence to the former objective of nuclear non-proliferation. (2) A large and varied assortment of old and new tools for implementing this goal. (3) Much more differentiation in applying these tools in the light of the reliability, with respect to non-proliferation policy, of the respective partner. Consequently, it would make little sense for the new Administration to force upon allied industrialized countries, whose nuclear technologies are at the same level as that of the United States, restrictive rules on reprocessing and breeder technology. The new measures designed to curb proliferation are especially meant to destroy motivations that could cause states to own nuclear explosives. This also applies to the removal of economic motivations. (orig.) [de

  1. Nuclear proliferation: Some context and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    The article addressed the importance of nonproliferation and supporting and reinforcing nonproliferation commitments. The most important benefit of the NPT has been in its contribution to the security of individual states party, as well as to regional and international security, through the obligations which help to prevent any further proliferation of nuclear weapons. The NPT therefore powerfully augments the national security of every state party, and not merely just the NPT nuclear weapons states. Indeed, it is the countries of the developing world, as well as many other non-nuclear weapon states, that could suffer the most in security terms if a non-nuclear weapons state in the developing world suddenly acquired T he Bomb a nd became emboldened to engage in threats and adventurism against its neighbors. The nonproliferation regime hinges upon the steps that all countries take on their own and with like-minded allies to further nonproliferation goals - and whether the international community can successfully shape the calculations of present-day and future would-be proliferation in useful ways. The nonproliferation regime, therefore, includes not just the NPT and other legally-binding obligations but complex dynamics of persuasion and deterrence that employ many different tools. The NPT helps establish the core nonproliferation obligations toward which many of the tools in the international community's tool kit are directed.

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells after Polytrauma: Actor and Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Huber-Lang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent cells that are considered indispensable in regeneration processes after tissue trauma. MSCs are recruited to damaged areas via several chemoattractant pathways where they function as “actors” in the healing process by the secretion of manifold pro- and anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, pro- and anticoagulatory, and trophic/angiogenic factors, but also by proliferation and differentiation into the required cells. On the other hand, MSCs represent “targets” during the pathophysiological conditions after severe trauma, when excessively generated inflammatory mediators, complement activation factors, and damage- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns challenge MSCs and alter their functionality. This in turn leads to complement opsonization, lysis, clearance by macrophages, and reduced migratory and regenerative abilities which culminate in impaired tissue repair. We summarize relevant cellular and signaling mechanisms and provide an up-to-date overview about promising future therapeutic MSC strategies in the context of severe tissue trauma.

  3. Non-proliferation and international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1992-01-01

    Full text: In my view, drastic nuclear disarmament by nuclear weapon States could be coupled with universal commitment to non-proliferation by non-nuclear weapon States by 1995 when the extension of the NPT Will be discussed. The incentives and disincentives for making and stockpiling nuclear weapons are first of all in the political and security fields, (Global and regional detente reduce the incentive, With the cold war gone, the US and Russia are now agreeing on far-reaching cuts in their nuclear arsenals and at some point the other declared nuclear weapon States Will follow.In the regional fields, we have seen how Argentina and Brazil are about to commit themselves to exclusively peaceful uses of the atom through the Latin American Tlatelolco Treaty. And we have seen how South Africa has joined the NPT. A new wave of States adhering to the NPT may be expected from countries in the former Soviet Union. Some have already come, others are on the way. Detente in the Middle East and on the Indian subcontinent would improve the outlook for non-proliferation in these areas. A second barrier to nuclear proliferation lies in export restrictions on sensitive nuclear material and equipment, Following the discoveries in Iraq, these restrictions are being strengthened in a large number of States. A third barrier to nuclear proliferation lies in the economic and political consequences that would follow for a State if IAEA safeguards inspection revealed activities aimed at the production of nuclear weapons. These must have a high degree of reliability. The case of Iraq showed that it was possible for a closed, highly militarized State to hide nuclear activities from the IAEA and the world We are now drawing the lessons from this case. It is not physically possible for inspectors to look into every building and basement in vast countries, They must have information about where to look, and the IAEA is significantly strengthening its information basis. The IAEA has also re

  4. Nuclear non proliferation and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of the publication of a document on the ''weapons mastership, disarmament and non proliferation: the french action'', by the ministry of Foreign Affairs and the ministry of Defense, the French Documentation organization presents a whole document. This document describes and details the following topics: the conference on the treaty of non proliferation of nuclear weapons, the France, Usa and Non Governmental Organizations position, the threats of the proliferation, the french actions towards the disarmament, the disarmament in the world, a chronology and some bibliographic resources. (A.L.B.)

  5. International proliferation on nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is dealt with under the following headings: introduction; routes to proliferation (preparation of U 235 , Pu 239 , U 233 ); nuclear power fuel cycles and proliferation; the fast reactor fuel cycle; security aspects of the existing fuel cycle; the IAEA and the nuclear non-proliferation treaty. It is concluded that 'the basis for sound international control exists, and taken together with the further technical steps which will be taken to make the existing fuel cycles more robust against the diversion of materials by terrorists and the abuse of civil nuclear power programmes by governments, we have good reason to proceed now with the orderly exploitation of ...nuclear energy...'. (U.K.)

  6. Questionnaire: involved actors in large disused components management - Summary Of Responses To The Questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the Questionnaire is to establish an overview of the various bodies [Actors] that have responsibilities or input to the issue of large component decommissioning. In answering the intent is to cover the overall organisation and those bits that have most relevance to large components. The answers should reflect the areas from site operations to decommissioning as well as the wider issue of disposal at another location. The Questionnaire covers the following points: 1 - What is the country (institutional) structure for decommissioning? 2 - who does what and where lie the responsibilities? 3 - Which bodies have responsibility for onsite safety regulation, discharges and disposal? 4 - Which body(s) owns the facilities? 5 - Describe the responsibilities for funding of the decommissioning plan and disposal plan. Are they one and the same body? Whilst there are differences between countries there are some common threads. Regulation is through the state though the number of regulators involved may vary. In summary, the IAEA principles concerning independence of the regulatory body are followed. Funding arrangements vary but there are plans. Similarly, ownership of facilities is a mix of state and private. Some systems require a separate decommissioning license with Spain having the clearest demarcation of responsibilities for the decommissioning phase and waste management responsibilities

  7. Exploring the social without a separate domain for religion: on actor-network theory and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peik Ingman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In post-secular societies—after secularisation—it may increasingly be the case that the connecting and structuring of religious matter is done outsidedesignated religious sites and without appointed religious experts. The centres of calculation have changed and so the connections between these are different. The former ways of translation and ordering are transforming into new ones. By exiting the designated sites religious matter has found new freedom with the new associations and inventions in the processes of translation. Less control leads to more heterogeneous agencies and facilitates the mobility of religious materials. This less controlled mobility of religious actants can also produce an apparent increase of religious matter, but this does not necessarily mean the return of religion. In any case, this increased plurality combined with increased mobility calls for perspectives which can recognise novelty, andnot just in comparison with previous states of affairs. Actor-network theory (ANT is about tracing the webs of associations between myriad actants whose collective actions produce what we call ‘society’. Dismissing the notion of ‘the social’ as a kind of ‘stuff ’, ANT insists that sociology should focus on the interactional processes—the circulation of ‘the social’ among human and non-human actants—collectively assembling emerging states of affairs.

  8. Plutonium Proliferation: The Achilles Heel of Disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Plutonium is a byproduct of nuclear fission, and it is produced at the rate of about 70 metric tons a year in the world's nuclear power reactors. Concerns about civilian plutonium ran high in the 1970s and prompted enactment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 to give the United States a veto over separating plutonium from U.S.-supplied uranium fuel. Over the years, however, so-called reactor-grade plutonium has become the orphan issue of nuclear non-proliferation, largely as a consequence of pressures from plutonium-separating countries. The demise of the fast breeder reactor and the reluctance of utilities to introduce plutonium fuel in light-water reactors have resulted in large surpluses of civilian, weapons-usable plutonium, which now approach in size the 250 tons of military plutonium in the world. Yet reprocessing of spent fuel for recovery and use of plutonium proceeds apace outside the United States and threatens to overwhelm safeguards and security measures for keeping this material out of the hands of nations and terrorists for weapons. A number of historical and current developments are reviewed to demonstrate that plutonium commerce is undercutting efforts both to stop the spread of nuclear weapons and to work toward eliminating existing nuclear arsenals. These developments include the breakdown of U.S. anti-plutonium policy, the production of nuclear weapons by India with Atoms-for-Peace plutonium, the U.S.-Russian plan to introduce excess military plutonium as fuel in civilian power reactors, the failure to include civilian plutonium and bomb-grade uranium in the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty, and the perception of emerging proliferation threats as the rationale for development of a ballistic missile defense system. Finally, immobilization of separated plutonium in high-level waste is explored as a proliferation-resistant and disarmament-friendly solution for eliminating excess stocks of civilian and military plutonium.

  9. Nuclear proliferation and the near-nuclear countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwah, O.; Schulz, A.

    1975-01-01

    The process of nuclear proliferation and its consequences for the international political system is examined by focusing on the issues in the nuclear-strategic debate that divide first and second order states. Information is included on: the US-USSR arms race; SALT agreement; the Non-Proliferation Treaty; the nuclear aspirations and policies of India, Middle Eastern countries, South Africa, Japan, Brazil, and Argentina; and assessment of the risks related to the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear weapons

  10. The key role of supply chain actors in groundwater irrigation development in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejars, Caroline; Daoudi, Ali; Amichi, Hichem

    2017-09-01

    The role played by supply chain actors in the rapid development of groundwater-based irrigated agriculture is analyzed. Agricultural groundwater use has increased tremendously in the past 50 years, leading to the decline of water tables. Groundwater use has enabled intensification of existing farming systems and ensured economic growth. This "groundwater economy" has been growing rapidly due to the initiative of farmers and the involvement of a wide range of supply chain actors, including suppliers of equipment, inputs retailers, and distributors of irrigated agricultural products. In North Africa, the actors in irrigated production chains often operate at the margin of public policies and are usually described as "informal", "unstructured", and as participating in "groundwater anarchy". This paper underlines the crucial role of supply chain actors in the development of groundwater irrigation, a role largely ignored by public policies and rarely studied. The analysis is based on three case studies in Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria, and focuses on the horticultural sub-sector, in particular on onions and tomatoes, which are irrigated high value crops. The study demonstrates that although supply chain actors are catalyzers of the expansion of groundwater irrigation, they could also become actors in adaptation to the declining water tables. Through their informal activities, they help reduce market risks, facilitate credit and access to subsidies, and disseminate innovation. The interest associated with making these actors visible to agricultural institutions is discussed, along with methods of getting them involved in the management of the resource on which they depend.

  11. Neuroimaging of the joint Simon effect with believed biological and non-biological co-actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tanya; Hsieh, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    Performing a task alone or together with another agent can produce different outcomes. The current study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural underpinnings when participants performed a Go/Nogo task alone or complementarily with another co-actor (unseen), whom was believed to be another human or a computer. During both complementary tasks, reaction time data suggested that participants integrated the potential action of their co-actor in their own action planning. Compared to the single-actor task, increased parietal and precentral activity during complementary tasks as shown in the fMRI data further suggested representation of the co-actor's response. The superior frontal gyrus of the medial prefrontal cortex was differentially activated in the human co-actor condition compared to the computer co-actor condition. The medial prefrontal cortex, involved thinking about the beliefs and intentions of other people, possibly reflects a social-cognitive aspect or self-other discrimination during the joint task when believing a biological co-actor is present. Our results suggest that action co-representation can occur even offline with any agent type given a priori information that they are co-acting; however, additional regions are recruited when participants believe they are task-sharing with another human.

  12. Bombing alone: tracing the motivations and antecedent behaviors of lone-actor terrorists,.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender's grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors' plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy Act of 1977. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session on S. 897 and S. 1432

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    On April 7, 1977, President Carter announced his nuclear power policy. The policy statement set forth seven specific objectives for the future use of nuclear energy in this country and the rest of the world. The two proposed instruments for implementing this policy are the revised fiscal year 1978 ERDA authorization draft bill and S. 1432, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1977. These legislative proposals are linked in that S. 1432 is designed to establish a non-proliferation framework with specific objectives established for the ERDA nuclear energy programs. The ERDA authorization bill is the budgetary vehicle to implement those objectives. The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources obtained joint referral of certain portions of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act to insure that non-proliferation policy is implemented in a manner consistent with the policy of having sufficient energy for this country and foreign countries in the future. The Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development must examine the costs and the consequences of various initiatives before they are implemented. F or example, the proposal to guarantee uranium enrichment services for foreign nations poses specific requirements on ERDA to expand considerably our enrichment capacity by the year 2000. Without reprocessing, it is expected that spent fuel rods from abroad will be returned to this country for storage with attendant costs and siting decisions. Also, international fuel-cycle evaluation programs must be carefully examined to insure that all options, including regional fuel cycle centers with international controls and inspection, are considered in seeking international approaches to the non-proliferation objectives. At the June 10 hearing, the subcommittee received testimony on S. 1432, the bill prepared by the administration. The hearings on September 13 and 14 focused on S. 897. Statements by many witnesses are included

  14. Non-proliferation and nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, M.G.

    1978-01-01

    A review is made of the problem of the proliferation of nuclear weapons with particular emphasis on proliferation and nuclear power. Some indications of the nuclear data requirements associated with methods of reducing proliferation risks are presented

  15. Comparisons of Multilevel Modeling and Structural Equation Modeling Approaches to Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sehee; Kim, Soyoung

    2018-01-01

    There are basically two modeling approaches applicable to analyzing an actor-partner interdependence model: the multilevel modeling (hierarchical linear model) and the structural equation modeling. This article explains how to use these two models in analyzing an actor-partner interdependence model and how these two approaches work differently. As an empirical example, marital conflict data were used to analyze an actor-partner interdependence model. The multilevel modeling and the structural equation modeling produced virtually identical estimates for a basic model. However, the structural equation modeling approach allowed more realistic assumptions on measurement errors and factor loadings, rendering better model fit indices.

  16. NAVIGATING PROTOTYPING SPACES FOR CO-DESIGN OF ACTOR-NETWORKS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Brodersen, Søsser

    2017-01-01

    of diverse actors in what we term prototyping spaces. In these prototyping spaces, prototypes play an important role in visualising controversies, enabling matters of concern to be negotiated, and making knowledge transparent throughout the design process. Based on a case study of a pilot program to make...... of temporary prototyping spaces, which are to be staged and facilitated to allow various actors to negotiate matters of concern. Designers then translate the resulting knowledge and insights into pro-totypes for use in subsequent spaces and eventually into an actor-network com-prising the final solution....

  17. THE ANALYSIS OF ACTORS IN THE MAKING OF THE BUDGET REVENUE OF REGIONAL COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of research on the analysis of the policy making of the budget revenues and shopping area of Makassar city fiscal year 2009. One part of this research use approach to the actors and the relationships between actors in policy making. Within the framework of the system of policy making of Budget income and Expenditure area (Budgets Makassar city, this research is the description of the analysis of the local government and actors People’s Representative Council District Makassar city as policy makers in making Grant Makassar city

  18. Actor-critic-based ink drop spread as an intelligent controller

    OpenAIRE

    SAGHA, Hesam; AFRAKOTI, Iman Esmaili Paeen; BAGHERISHOURAKI, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces an innovative adaptive controller based on the actor-critic method. The proposed approach employs the ink drop spread (IDS) method as its main engine. The IDS method is a new trend in soft-computing approaches that is a universal fuzzy modeling technique and has been also used as a supervised controller. Its process is very similar to the processing system of the human brain. The proposed actor-critic method uses an IDS structure as an actor and a 2-dimensional...

  19. Lone-Actor Terrorism. Toolkit Paper 1: Practical Guidance for Mental Health Practitioners and Social Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, E.; Roy, de, van Zuijdewijn J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to draw out practical implications for mental health practitioners and social workers in dealing with Lone-Actor Terrorism. It is not intended to provide a profile of lone-actor terrorists, but rather to offer guidance that may be of use to practitioners in Europe (and beyond), supporting the development of strategies to detect and deal with potential lone-actor terrorists and to understand the possible risk posed by persons of interest. This paper presents three sets...

  20. Position paper on nuclear proliferation issues preventing nuclear proliferation. A duty for the nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Pierre; Bonin, Bernard [ENS High Scientific Council, Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    The production of electricity from nuclear power plants is widely seen today as having an increasing role to play in meeting global energy requirements in a sustainable manner. Conscious of the inherently sensitive nature of nuclear technology and materials the ENS-HSC (European Nuclear Society - High Scientific Council) is well aware that a severe safety, security, environmental or proliferation mishap stemming from nuclear energy anywhere in the world would undermine the potential for nuclear energy to contribute to the global energy supply and the minimization of harmful carbon emissions. While the safety of nuclear power plants has continuously improved over the last three decades, the same degree of success cannot be claimed when it comes to the achievements of the international community in stemming the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. This unfortunate situation is due to both technical and political reasons. The European nuclear industry is committed to the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy and to export nuclear facilities and related materials, equipment and technology solely in accordance with relevant national export laws and regulations, Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines and pertinent United Nations Security Council Resolutions. The ENS-HSC considers that, as a manifestation of their strong commitment to nonproliferation, it is important for the nuclear industry to pay special attention to and promote proliferation-resistant designs and to take IAEA safeguards requirements into account at the design stage. Preventing nuclear proliferation is primarily the responsibility of states but, as major stakeholders, the nuclear industry and scientific community should actively support nuclear disarmament as foreseen in the Non-Proliferation Treaty and measures necessary to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, particularly the international control of the flux of nuclear material and technology. (orig.)

  1. Position paper on nuclear proliferation issues preventing nuclear proliferation. A duty for the nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, Pierre; Bonin, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The production of electricity from nuclear power plants is widely seen today as having an increasing role to play in meeting global energy requirements in a sustainable manner. Conscious of the inherently sensitive nature of nuclear technology and materials the ENS-HSC (European Nuclear Society - High Scientific Council) is well aware that a severe safety, security, environmental or proliferation mishap stemming from nuclear energy anywhere in the world would undermine the potential for nuclear energy to contribute to the global energy supply and the minimization of harmful carbon emissions. While the safety of nuclear power plants has continuously improved over the last three decades, the same degree of success cannot be claimed when it comes to the achievements of the international community in stemming the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. This unfortunate situation is due to both technical and political reasons. The European nuclear industry is committed to the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy and to export nuclear facilities and related materials, equipment and technology solely in accordance with relevant national export laws and regulations, Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines and pertinent United Nations Security Council Resolutions. The ENS-HSC considers that, as a manifestation of their strong commitment to nonproliferation, it is important for the nuclear industry to pay special attention to and promote proliferation-resistant designs and to take IAEA safeguards requirements into account at the design stage. Preventing nuclear proliferation is primarily the responsibility of states but, as major stakeholders, the nuclear industry and scientific community should actively support nuclear disarmament as foreseen in the Non-Proliferation Treaty and measures necessary to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, particularly the international control of the flux of nuclear material and technology. (orig.)

  2. JPRS Report Proliferation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-29

    MVLIS) which utilizes carbon dioxide lasers. such an experience in the United States or Europe. They were able to go into uranium enrichment and repro...yttrium, is used like phosphorous in color television Rhodia, Paranapanema, the Belgian Solvay group, and sets. By combining samarium with neodymium, two...use presently. There have been some using thorium and U-233. problems centering on the liquid sodium coolant used in FBTR reportedly accentuated by use

  3. Prospects for Nuclear Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    David Lilienthal, a Harvard Law graduate and director of the Tenne- see Valley Authority, as chairman of the board of consul- tants. Their job, as...Nuclear Age, pp. 81-83, The MIT Press, 1974. Paul C. Szasz , "International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards," in International Safeguards and Nuclear...princi- ple of national sovereignty as embodied in international law , As stated earlier, the NPT safeguards system included the whole range of a

  4. Why Iran proliferates

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    Iran and the United States have faced each other across a deep divide ever since the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the events of the American Embassy Hostage crisis. The absence of diplomatic relations between the two nations has led to a lack of communication which has resulted in difficulties crafting successful policies to build bridges between the two governments. The specter of Iran's quest for nuclear weapons casts a further pall on the troubled relations. Case studies of historical ex...

  5. Politics, class actors, and health sector reform in Brazil and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qamar; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-03-01

    involves various actors within the state, the political society and civil society.

  6. GAVE multi-actor process. A exemplified study with recommendations for a follow-up traject; GAVE multi-actor proces. Een voorbeeldstudie met aanbevelingen voor het vervolgtraject

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diepenmaat, H.B. [Actors Procesmanagement, Zeist (Netherlands)

    2000-02-01

    The focus is on GAVE as an integral multi-actor process, as a collaboration process in which the parties have to find each other. The reason for this multi-actor approach is that the parties themselves have to realise the importance of sustainable energy. A multi-actor approach uses this crucial fact as the starting point. By means of the use of specific multi-actor methods and insights, it is possible during the collaboration process to develop a clear idea of the content of the joint path and the intended collaborative future, while paying specific attention to the individual roles of the players. Based on this, a well- considered and promising realisation path can be followed. The objective of this study is to illustrate - on the basis of two GAVE options - how the multi-actor approach can support the GAVE programme. In doing this, emphasis is placed on examples, the demonstration of added value of such an approach, and making recommendations for the future. Two experiments have been carried out on the basis of the Trinity approach. The Trinity approach is a set of methods specifically developed for supporting change processes which involve many parties (i.e. multi-actor processes). Trinity helps those involved to obtain a clear picture of both the route to be followed and the future situation to be aimed at. The term 'picture' must be understood literally: an important aspect of Trinity is the collaboration and communication with multi-actor models (also referred to as actorprints). By means of a diagram technique (figures and arrows) these models demonstrate the cohesion between the roles and activities of the various parties involved. The modelling process is instrumental in this; the actual result is that the image that is developed is formed and backed up by the participants in the process. Within these experiments, we have, so far, worked mainly in the shadow of the current GAVE process. A forceful participative use of the actor approach is

  7. Worst-case Throughput Analysis for Parametric Rate and Parametric Actor Execution Time Scenario-Aware Dataflow Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Skelin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Scenario-aware dataflow (SADF is a prominent tool for modeling and analysis of dynamic embedded dataflow applications. In SADF the application is represented as a finite collection of synchronous dataflow (SDF graphs, each of which represents one possible application behaviour or scenario. A finite state machine (FSM specifies the possible orders of scenario occurrences. The SADF model renders the tightest possible performance guarantees, but is limited by its finiteness. This means that from a practical point of view, it can only handle dynamic dataflow applications that are characterized by a reasonably sized set of possible behaviours or scenarios. In this paper we remove this limitation for a class of SADF graphs by means of SADF model parametrization in terms of graph port rates and actor execution times. First, we formally define the semantics of the model relevant for throughput analysis based on (max,+ linear system theory and (max,+ automata. Second, by generalizing some of the existing results, we give the algorithms for worst-case throughput analysis of parametric rate and parametric actor execution time acyclic SADF graphs with a fully connected, possibly infinite state transition system. Third, we demonstrate our approach on a few realistic applications from digital signal processing (DSP domain mapped onto an embedded multi-processor architecture.

  8. (Dis Integration and the Emergence of the State System in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Imad El-Anis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The fall of the Ottoman Empire during World War One and theemergence of the modern state system in the Middle East have receivedsignificant attention in academic literature. However, the impacts thatthe proliferation of state borders in the 19th and 20th centuries havehad on political and economic integration within the Middle East isoften ignored. This study argues that between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries the region underwent significant structural changes.Furthermore, these changes were driven by external intervention andinternal decline. A number of theoretical assumptions are positedconcerning the importance on integration and cooperation of thefollowing: the increase in borders and claims to sovereignty and theseparation of peoples/markets. The conclusions drawn are that thechange from a system characterised by large political actors andintegrated markets to one which is characterised by smaller states andseparated markets led to the disintegration of the region’s internalrelations.

  9. The motivations of proliferating countries. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambault, Jean-Claude; Daguzan, Jean-Francois; Pasco, Xavier; Sitt, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This report is based on previous works made by the GSPP group (GSPP stands for geographic-social-psychological-political) which defined conceptual backgrounds for a new approach to nuclear proliferation, notably by introducing an associated method, the GSPP method, which is used in this study. Thus, this report first presents the GSPP method through its application to the analysis of the decision dynamics in the case of a proliferating State, a discussion of the seven determining factors (national resources, history and strategic context, type of political regime, leader's history and personal typology, international dependencies and alliances, elites and mediators, public opinions), a discussion of the interactions between these factors, an application of the first determining factor, and an application of the GSPP method to the case of biological and chemical proliferation. In the next part, the authors propose sheets which report the application of the method to different countries (Iran, Israel, Iraq, Algeria, Libya, China, India, Pakistan, North and South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Australia, Indonesia, South Africa). The content and the exploitation of these sheets is then discussed, and the authors address the perspective of development of a GSPP model, notably by using the Maslowe pyramid. They propose an application of this model to the case of Iran

  10. Nuclear non-proliferation: failures and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, R.; Press, R.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the evolution of combined political and technical attempts to achieve worldwide acceptance of a commitment to non-proliferation, to note failures to date, and to identify essential factors to be satisfied if greater and necessary success is to be achieved in the immediate future. For this it is necessary to separate the realism and unrealism so often involved in discussing the concept of non-proliferation, as defined above, particularly if treated as a moral principle rather than as part of a general security issue reflecting shifts in regional and global stability. The political nature of the non-proliferation problem is underlined by the fact that whereas five nuclear weapon states are currently accepted, any threatened increase in that number is discouraged by every possible peaceful means. This fact combines political acceptance of an existing international situation with a belief that any addition to the present number must lead to international instability. Success in preventing additions may be more readily achieved through political understanding and perhaps some compromises, in particular cases, rather than through seeking a universal solution to a generalized problem

  11. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    An appropriate non-proliferation treaty should not discriminate among the non-weapon states, but should seek a cooperative approach with all countries seeking nuclear power and willing to accept international safeguards. Near-term proliferation problems, represented by nations already on the threshold of weapon capability, should not be confused with the long-term problem of world-wide nuclear development. The first can be handled with incentives and disincentives imposed on specific countries, while the latter involves the distribution of plutonium on the basis of alternative fuel cycles. To retain world leadership, U.S. efforts along these lines should be to encourage a dialogue between suppliers and recipients and to coordinate the economic and security issues of its own non-proliferation and foreign policies. One option is a U.S. commitment to a multinational fuel storage and reprocessing facility. Technical evaluation and demonstration of alternative fuel cycles to reach an international consensus would be a parallel activity

  12. The Non-Proliferation Treaty increases security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahiluoto, K.

    1995-01-01

    Extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty indefinitely was a historic decision. The Treaty is the most extensive international agreement on security policy to date; now its obligations have become a permanent part of international justice. Moreover, the NPT represents a political and moral obligation. Through the NPT, the international community has made a permanent commitment to restrict the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Increasing pressures will be applied to the few countries still outside the NPT, making it more likely that these countries will eventually change their views. The likelihood of regional bans on nuclear weapons in the Middle East and in Asia, too, will increase. The Treaty promotes the establishment of new nuclear-free zones. The nuclear-free zone in Latin America - the countries covered by the Tlatelolco Treaty - is already very close to its full implementation. Finland is firmly committed to the obligations of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The NPT Conference of 1995 was among the first international meetings in which Finland participated, and took an active role, as a Member State of the European Union. (orig.)

  13. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-01-01

    particular, will continue to play a vital role in determining the extent to which Iran is able to pursue WMD options. Without a fundamental change in the regional security environment, however, there is little reason to expect changes in Iranian WMD and missile policies, and the United States, acting alone and short of war, cannot prevent Iran from ultimately developing WMD and delivery systems. Furthermore, U.S. policies that take a tougher line with Russia, China and North Korea are not likely to lead to more restraint among these potential sources of WMD and missile technology. In the absence of engagement with Iran, unilateral U.S. economic sanctions will remain the principal, if flawed, U.S. policy tool for seeking to prevent Iran from acquiring WMD. The rationale is that by discouraging trade and investment, particularly in Iran's energy sector, the government of Iran will have less revenue to pursue proliferation. Without broad international support for economic isolation, however, such an effort may hinder Iran's WMD programs, though it cannot block them. Finally, options are needed to deal with major failures in nonproliferation efforts. These options include measures to deter Iranian use of WMD, to defend against their use if deterrence fails, and to destroy Iranian WMD capabilities should the need arise

  14. Actor Network Theory Approach and its Application in Investigating Agricultural Climate Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharifzadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Actor network theory as a qualitative approach to study complex social factors and process of socio-technical interaction provides new concepts and ideas to understand socio-technical nature of information systems. From the actor network theory viewpoint, agricultural climate information system is a network consisting of actors, actions and information related processes (production, transformation, storage, retrieval, integration, diffusion and utilization, control and management, and system mechanisms (interfaces and networks. Analysis of such systemsembody the identification of basic components and structure of the system (nodes –thedifferent sources of information production, extension, and users, and the understanding of how successfully the system works (interaction and links – in order to promote climate knowledge content and improve system performance to reach agricultural development. The present research attempted to introduce actor network theory as research framework based on network view of agricultural climate information system.

  15. Examining actors into boosting the provision of universal service in the Vietnamese context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Williams, Idongesit

    2017-01-01

    are very important in formulating and implementing universal service policy. Originality/value - There have been a few studies applying actor network theory in analysing the formulation of policy, especially in universal service. The paper wants to close this gap.......Purpose - The paper looks at the formulation of the BMGF-VN project to examine which actors participated in the formulation of this project, how their interests were translated into this project, and what lessons may be drawn for the formulation and implementation of universal service policy...... in Vietnam in general. Design/methodology/approach - The paper recruits the actor network theory and qualitative analysis to analyse the BMGF-VN project. Findings - the involvement of non-government actors in formulating and implementing the project, the focus not only on the supply side but also demand side...

  16. Actor networks in strategic niche management : insights from social network theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caniëls, M.C.J.; Romijn, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to Strategic Niche Management (SNM), an analytical technique designed to facilitate the introduction and diffusion of radically new sustainable technologies through societal experiments. According to SNM, intensive networking among social actors is a crucial process for the

  17. The influence of socio cultural dynamics on convergence communication of aquaculture agribusiness actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktavia, Y.

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to: (1) Analyze the level of socio-cultural dynamics of agibusiness aquaculture actors. (2) Analyze the influence of socio-cultural dynamics on convergence communication of capacity development of aquaculture agribusiness actors.Data was collected by questionnaire and interview of group members on agribusiness. Data analyze was done by descriptive and inferential statistics with using SEM method. The result of descriptive statistics on 284 agribusiness members showed that: Socio-cultural dynamics of agibusiness aquaculture actors was in low category, as shown by lack of the role of customary institutions and quality of local leadership.The communication convergence is significantly and positively influenced by the communication behavior of agribusiness actors in access information.

  18. Competing actors in the climate change arena in Mexico: A network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Díaz, Araceli; Gutiérrez, Erika Casamadrid

    2018-06-01

    This paper analyzes the actors in the climate change arena and their influence in directing Mexico toward policies that decrease greenhouse gas emissions, such as the carbon tax and climate change law. The network analysis of the agreement of these laws and public policies in Mexico is a lesson for any country that is in the process of designing and adopting environmental laws. The research is performed using a network analysis that is derived from interviews with various main actors and a discourse analysis of the media. Results show that actors do not coordinate their efforts-they meet frequently but in different inter-ministerial commissions-and do not enforce the same policies. The actors in the industry have formed strong coalitions against the carbon tax and the General Law on Climate Change, whereas international institutions have formed coalitions that support these policies and laws. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Market structure and performance of value chain actors in hides and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Market structure and performance of value chain actors in hides and skins processing and marketing in Nigeria. ... There was high performance in hides and skins processing and marketing in Nigeria. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  20. Renewable energy sources. Non-traditional actors on the international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Five of Sweden's technical attaches have investigated the non-traditional actors activity within the field of renewable energy sources. Countries studied are USA, Japan, France, Germany and Great Britain

  1. 'Special' non-human actors in the 'inclusive' early childhood classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Karen; Millei, Zsuzsa; Petersen, Eva Bendix

    2015-01-01

    of classrooms. In this article, we pay attention to ‘special’ non-human actors present in an ‘inclusive’ early childhood classroom. These ‘special’ non-human actors are so named as they operate in the classroom as objects specific for the child with a diagnosis. The ‘special’ non-human actors, in the specific...... case the wrist band, the lock and the scooter board, take on meaning within discourses in the ‘inclusive’ classroom. We illuminate how these non-human actors contribute to the constitution of the ‘normal’ and the regulation of educators and children. To trouble the working of power and the control...

  2. Predicting Proliferation: High Reliability Forecasting Models of Nuclear Proliferation as a Policy & Analytical Aid

    OpenAIRE

    Center on Contemporary Conflict; Gartzke, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Performer: University of California at San Diego Project Lead: Erik Gartzke Project Cost: $121,000 FY15-16 Objective: Scholars have spent decades studying and explaining nuclear proliferation. This project will develop a model to predict the behavior of states regarding their pursuit and acquisition of nuclear weapons. An accurate prediction model will allow for action against potential suppliers, interdiction of nuclear trade, intelligence collection on covert nuclea...

  3. [Can we consider the journalist an actor in suicide prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notredame, C-E; Pauwels, N; Vaiva, G; Danel, T; Walter, M

    2016-10-01

    After more than 50 years of dedicated research, media coverage of suicide is now well known to have a significant influence on the suicide epidemiology. This influence is supposed to result from two opposite effects. The Werther effect (WE) refers to the robust increase of suicide rates following the publication of a suicide story. This specific kind of mass cluster implies a suggestion process, i.e. imitation of the depicted death by vulnerable persons. In contract, the preventive potential of medias has been labeled the "Papageno effect" (PE). Although more recently discovered and far less known, PE predicts that journalists can help prevent suicidal behaviors beyond a simple WE reduction. Because PE and WE directly bridge journalistic productions to suicidal events, several national and international health organisms (including the World Health Organization) started to see the media as new prevention opportunities. In this paper, we intend to assess the extent to which journalists can be considered as public health actors in the specific field of suicide prevention. Based on a critical review of the so-called Media effect studies, we explore the opportunities, limits and constraints of collaborating with media professionals for public health actions. For that purpose, we focus on the main strategy employed so far, namely providing recommendations for more cautious coverage of suicide. An overview of the efficacy of these recommendations serves not only as a starting point for understanding how public health and journalistic perspectives can confront, but also how they can be combined in a fertile way. Numerous suicide prevention organisms developed strategies in order to assist journalists in reporting suicide stories in a safer way. As a formal support to these strategies, around 30 national or international guides have been produced around the word, with the shared aim of reducing WE and, eventually, promoting PE. The recommendations about articles' style

  4. Physical protection and its role in nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.

    1999-01-01

    Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons has been one of the main concerns of the international community since the first nuclear weapons were developed. To prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons has been on the agenda for individual States, groups of States and the international organizations. A number of treaties, conventions and agreements, the most important being the Non-Proliferation Treaty, have been negotiated to prevent the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons. States have concluded safeguards agreements with the IAEA to fulfill their obligations according to Article III.1 of the NPT. Other agreements relate to the prevention of vertical proliferation and also to the disarmament of nuclear weapons. It has also been recognized that sub-national, terrorist, or criminal activities may pose a proliferation risk. Illicit trafficking of nuclear material, particularly highly enriched uranium or plutonium, is a non-proliferation concern. States have recognized the need to prevent, as far as possible, the use of nuclear material in unlawful activities. The Convention of Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials, obligates the State Parties to protect nuclear material from theft during international transport, and to make unlawful possession, use, etc., of nuclear material a criminal offense, subject to punishment under national law. Although the physical protection convention recognizes the importance of the physical protection of nuclear material in domestic use, storage and transport, it does not obligate the State party to establish the necessary systems for this purpose. It is this limitation which led many States to believe that the international physical protection regime needs to be strengthened. Although not legally binding per se, the recommendations documented in INFCIRC/225/Rev. 4, The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities, has obtained wide recognition. There is recognition among States that protecting nuclear material

  5. On Efficient Link Recommendation in Social Networks Using Actor-Fact Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Ciesielczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Link recommendation is a popular research subject in the field of social network analysis and mining. Often, the main emphasis is put on the development of new recommendation algorithms, semantic enhancements to existing solutions, design of new similarity measures, and so forth. However, relatively little scientific attention has been paid to the impact that various data representation models have on the performance of recommendation algorithms. And by performance we do not mean the time or memory efficiency of algorithms, but the precision and recall of recommender systems. Our recent findings unanimously show that the choice of network representation model has an important and measurable impact on the quality of recommendations. In this paper we argue that the computation quality of link recommendation algorithms depends significantly on the social network representation and we advocate the use of actor-fact matrix as the best alternative. We verify our findings using several state-of-the-art link recommendation algorithms, such as SVD, RSVD, and RRI using both single-relation and multirelation dataset.

  6. Aspects of School Violence Affecting Coexistence Among Socio-Educational Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Margarita Sáenz Rojo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted at the Industrial Technical School Robinsoniana “Laudelino Mejia” Municipio Trujillo, Trujillo State Parroquia Cristobal Mendoza. Venezuela. Nonviolence, both in theory and in practice, it is for UNESCO rejection of violence and seeks the resolution of conflicts and the realization of common objectives from a constructivist perspective. Throughout 2001, it said Agency launched the initiative of a collection of examples of “good practices” for conflict resolution in the school world, both formal and non-formal level. The purpose of the study was to reveal aspects of school violence affecting coexistence among socio-educational actors. Study was oriented from ethnography, which is interested in the systematic approach to a social situation, considered globally in their natural context. Information collected, transcribed and arranged to develop the different categories of analysis, so that school life as subjective category, subcategories emerged: coexist harmoniously rights responsibly, assertive communication. As relates to school violence emerged: indiscipline, damage to the institution, physical and psychological violence, teaching practice assertiveness. Ending with reflections.

  7. Efficient Actor-Critic Algorithm with Hierarchical Model Learning and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, QiMing

    2016-01-01

    To improve the convergence rate and the sample efficiency, two efficient learning methods AC-HMLP and RAC-HMLP (AC-HMLP with ℓ 2-regularization) are proposed by combining actor-critic algorithm with hierarchical model learning and planning. The hierarchical models consisting of the local and the global models, which are learned at the same time during learning of the value function and the policy, are approximated by local linear regression (LLR) and linear function approximation (LFA), respectively. Both the local model and the global model are applied to generate samples for planning; the former is used only if the state-prediction error does not surpass the threshold at each time step, while the latter is utilized at the end of each episode. The purpose of taking both models is to improve the sample efficiency and accelerate the convergence rate of the whole algorithm through fully utilizing the local and global information. Experimentally, AC-HMLP and RAC-HMLP are compared with three representative algorithms on two Reinforcement Learning (RL) benchmark problems. The results demonstrate that they perform best in terms of convergence rate and sample efficiency. PMID:27795704

  8. Toward Nucleating the Concept of the Water Resource Recovery Facility (WRRF): Perspective from the Principal Actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Erik R; Wilson, Patrick I

    2017-04-18

    Wastewater resource recovery has been advocated for decades; necessary structural pathways were long-ago articulated, and established and emerging technologies exist. Nevertheless, broad wastewater valorization remains elusive. In considering implementation barriers, the argument is made that decision-makers focus on avoiding permit violations and negative publicity by embracing a conservative/safe approach-seemingly ignoring research on economic/environmental benefits. Conversely positing that economics is a primary barrier, we investigated, characterized, and described nontechnical socio-political barriers to realizing wastewater resource recovery. Principal actors in the Pacific NW region of the U.S. (representing a progressive populace facing stringent water quality regulations) were interviewed. Results revealed that economics were, indeed, the primary barrier to implementation/expansion of the WRRF concept. Consistent throughout interviews was a prevalent sense that the "cost of doing something (different)" was a principal consideration in resource recovery actions/policies. Moreover, "economics drives decisions," and "95% the bottom line is money. Show return on investment, it will get people's attention." Who pays was also a concern: "Government isn't going to pay. The states and Federal government won't give any grants, and we can't raise rates." Applying business case evaluations was seen as a pathway to actualizing resource recovery. Most encouragingly, the consensus was that resource recovery is a necessary future paradigm, and that real barriers are surmountable.

  9. Mental health in France, policies and actors: developing administrative knowledge in a segmented world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossé, Philippe; Maury, Caroline; Daumerie, Nicolas; Roelandt, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    The new mental health care policy, which has been set up in France, involves a change of paradigm, which has been going on since the 2000s: the emphasis is shifting from psychiatry to mental health care. This shift mainly concerns the knowledge about mental health is produced and circulates among an increasingly large number of bodies. Mainly grounded on actor interview analysis, official reports and blueprints, this study shows that the results of this process are numerous. They include the development of ambulatory care and strong moves towards decentralization. More data and knowledge are therefore to be shared in this more complex system. However, the French State, in the form of the central administration, is taking advantage of this move and is still contributing significantly to the definition and implementation of the new policy. On the other hand, the new governance dynamic is not leading to standardization of medical practices, as the mental health field remains highly heterogeneous. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Drug scheduling of cancer chemotherapy based on natural actor-critic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Inkyung; Park, Jooyoung

    2011-11-01

    Recently, reinforcement learning methods have drawn significant interests in the area of artificial intelligence, and have been successfully applied to various decision-making problems. In this paper, we study the applicability of the NAC (natural actor-critic) approach, a state-of-the-art reinforcement learning method, to the drug scheduling of cancer chemotherapy for an ODE (ordinary differential equation)-based tumor growth model. ODE-based cancer dynamics modeling is an active research area, and many different mathematical models have been proposed. Among these, we use the model proposed by de Pillis and Radunskaya (2003), which considers the growth of tumor cells and their interaction with normal cells and immune cells. The NAC approach is applied to this ODE model with the goal of minimizing the tumor cell population and the drug amount while maintaining the adequate population levels of normal cells and immune cells. In the framework of the NAC approach, the drug dose is regarded as the control input, and the reward signal is defined as a function of the control input and the cell populations of tumor cells, normal cells, and immune cells. According to the control policy found by the NAC approach, effective drug scheduling in cancer chemotherapy for the considered scenarios has turned out to be close to the strategy of continuing drug injection from the beginning until an appropriate time. Also, simulation results showed that the NAC approach can yield better performance than conventional pulsed chemotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The actors and privatization of sanitation services in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Córdova Bojórquez

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This document offers an analysis about possibilities to implement a concession system in the recollection and disposal of non-hazardous trash collection service in Ciudad Juarez. The recognition of view points from different actors in the timeframe, applying a survey to home heads and interviews to opinion leaders, as actors key in city´s production, let us to identify a high politized item that keep off efficient and transparent public participation.

  12. The high-level and long life radioactive wastes management in France: inquiry near the actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dars, A.

    2002-07-01

    This document presents talks carried out near various actors of the radioactive wastes management in France. These talks have been realized in the framework of an inquiry aiming at supporting the developments of an economic sciences thesis, relative to the sustainable management of the nuclear wastes. This inquiry aimed to better determine the actors stakes, the controversies on the technical choices, but also the possible cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  13. The actor set-up of TV advertising. A new process for hybrid formats

    OpenAIRE

    von Rimscha, M Bjørn; Rademacher, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a basic description of the advertising process in TV advertising and discusses how this process might be altered when 30 second spots are replaced by hybrid advertising formats such as sponsoring and placements. For each actor in the process the potential benefit of hybrid advertising is identified and the respective interest in changing the process is deduced. A qualitative interview study with representatives from each actor in the process is used to illustrate that con...

  14. The Roles and Movements of Actors in the Deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-01-01

    Containing the advance of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia requires understanding the roles and movements of the actors involved. The importance of different actors varies widely among locations within the region, and also evolves at any particular site over the course of frontier establishment and consolidation. Landless migrants have significant roles in clearing the land they occupy and in motivating landholders to clear as a defense against invasion or expropriation. Colonists in offic...

  15. Managing Actors, Resources, and Activities in Innovation Ecosystems – A Design Science Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Valkokari , Katri; Amitrano , Cristina ,; Bifulco , Francesco; Valjakka , Tiina

    2016-01-01

    Part 13: Design Science and Business Models - Design Science Research; International audience; Through a design science approach, the paper explores how actors in a network create and sustain competitive advantage independently and through participation in a system of actors (i.e., a collaborative network) who are not hierarchically managed but, rather, act toward their own goals within the innovation ecosystem. In accordance with design studies, the relevance of research and its quality are ...

  16. Adversarial Advantage Actor-Critic Model for Task-Completion Dialogue Policy Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Baolin; Li, Xiujun; Gao, Jianfeng; Liu, Jingjing; Chen, Yun-Nung; Wong, Kam-Fai

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new method --- adversarial advantage actor-critic (Adversarial A2C), which significantly improves the efficiency of dialogue policy learning in task-completion dialogue systems. Inspired by generative adversarial networks (GAN), we train a discriminator to differentiate responses/actions generated by dialogue agents from responses/actions by experts. Then, we incorporate the discriminator as another critic into the advantage actor-critic (A2C) framework, to encourage the...

  17. A strategic framework for proliferation resistance: a systematic approach for the identification and evaluation of technology opportunities to enhance the proliferation resistance of civilian nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Isaac, T.; Schock, R.N.

    2001-01-01

    The United State Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee recently completed a study ''Technological Opportunities To Increase The Proliferation Resistance Of Global Civilian Nuclear Power Systems (TOPS)''. That effort included the development of a set of both intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to proliferation that technologies can directly impact. In this paper we will review these barriers as and framework for assisting in the evaluation of the relative proliferation resistance of various nuclear fuel cycles, technologies and alternatives. (author)

  18. Actors and factors in the governance of irregular migration : a comparative analysis of Albanian, Georgian, Ukrainian, Pakistani and Afghani irregular flows to Greece

    OpenAIRE

    TRIANDAFYLLIDOU, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings from the conference "Governing Irregular Migration : States, Actors and Intermediaries", Athens 8-9 July 2015 The loss of over a thousand human lives in the effort to cross the Mediterranean during April 2015 has once again drawn media and political attention to the challenges that the EU is facing in its efforts to govern migration and asylum. However, what seems to be still far from complete is our (the experts and the politicians) understanding of what drives people to put t...

  19. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1994-08-12

    This fifth edition contains some of the papers that were presented in July 1994 at the Lawrence Livermore National conference entitled ``NPT: Review and Extension.`` Topics covered include: strategic warning and new nuclear states, the future for nuclear weapons, possibly stopping North Korean nukes without a war, Article VI of the nuclear non-proliferation treaty from the Chinese perspective, Article VI issues, Article VI and other NPT issues form the perspective of Russia, NPT review and extension, and finally problems facing total nuclear disarmament.

  20. International aspects of non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aucoin, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    There are currently two areas on the national scene and one on the international scene that require immediate attention. The first is relief under contracts for enrichment services, an area in which the US can still demonstrate its desire to become a stable and continuous source of supply. The second national area is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1977. The United States must proceed very cautiously, however, for if discretion and very careful judgment are not used, the Act will immediately be branded as a blatant effort on the part of the US to control the energy options of other sovereign states. The international area is that of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation program. This medium exists for wise and deliberate growth of a commercial nuclear power program which can serve the global community. The next three years probably allow one remaining chance for successful containment of weapons proliferation. If we do not recognize the rights of every sovereign state to voluntarily participate and agree, we, as members of the global community, will have failed

  1. Getting acquainted: Actor and partner effects of attachment and temperament on young children's peer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Nancy L; Holland, Ashley S; Engle, Jennifer M; Ogolsky, Brian G

    2014-06-01

    Guided by a dyadic view of children's peer behavior, this study assessed actor and partner effects of attachment security and temperament on young children's behavior with an unfamiliar peer. At 33 months of age, child-mother attachment security was assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure, and parents reported on child temperament (anger proneness and social fearfulness). At 39 months, same-sex children (N = 114, 58 girls) were randomly paired, and child dyads were observed during 3 laboratory visits occurring over 1 month. Actor-partner interdependence models, tested via multilevel modeling, revealed that actor security, partner anger proneness, and acquaintanceship (e.g., initial vs. later visits) combined to predict child behavior. Actor security predicted more responsiveness to the new peer partner at the initial visit, regardless of partner anger proneness. Actor security continued to predict responsiveness at the 2nd and 3rd visits when partner anger was low, but these associations were nonsignificant when partner anger was high. Actor security also predicted a less controlling assertiveness style at the initial visit when partner anger proneness was high, yet this association was nonsignificant by the final visit. The findings shed light on the dynamic nature of young children's peer behavior and indicate that attachment security is related to behavior in expected ways during initial interactions with a new peer, but may change as children become acquainted. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of pornography film actors: self-report versus perceptions of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James D; Hayworth, Michelle; Adams, Lea T; Mitchell, Sharon; Hart, Christian

    2013-05-01

    The assumed characteristics of individuals in the adult entertainment industry have been used to advocate positions for and against pornography. Although prior studies have investigated perceptions of porn actors, no data on the actual characteristics of this group exist. The present study compared the self-reports of 105 male and 177 female porn actors to the perceptions of 399 college students on childhood sexual abuse (CSA), self-esteem, work and non-work sexual behaviors, and safe sex issues. College students were asked to identify the characteristics associated with either a male or female porn star. College students provided underestimates for both female and male porn actors on self-esteem, age of first intercourse, lifetime number of partners outside of work, ideal experience in a romantic partner, concerns regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), enjoyment of sex, and condom use during a first time sexual encounter, but overestimated earnings. Additional differences among male porn stars included an underestimate of the number of partners at work. For female porn stars, college students underestimated their enjoyment of work, the probability of catching an STD, and having unprotected sex. Although there were no significant differences on perceived rates of childhood abuse of porn actors, the incidence of CSA among the porn actor participants were within the ranges of the general population. The majority of college student stereotypes were not supported regarding the perceptions of porn actors. These findings were discussed within the context of attributing unfounded characteristics of individuals to an entire industry.

  3. Compositional schedulability analysis of real-time actor-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaghoori, Mohammad Mahdi; de Boer, Frank; Longuet, Delphine; Chothia, Tom; Sirjani, Marjan

    2017-01-01

    We present an extension of the actor model with real-time, including deadlines associated with messages, and explicit application-level scheduling policies, e.g.,"earliest deadline first" which can be associated with individual actors. Schedulability analysis in this setting amounts to checking whether, given a scheduling policy for each actor, every task is processed within its designated deadline. To check schedulability, we introduce a compositional automata-theoretic approach, based on maximal use of model checking combined with testing. Behavioral interfaces define what an actor expects from the environment, and the deadlines for messages given these assumptions. We use model checking to verify that actors match their behavioral interfaces. We extend timed automata refinement with the notion of deadlines and use it to define compatibility of actor environments with the behavioral interfaces. Model checking of compatibility is computationally hard, so we propose a special testing process. We show that the analyses are decidable and automate the process using the Uppaal model checker.

  4. Neuroimaging of the joint Simon effect with believed biological and non-biological co-actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya eWen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Performing a task alone or together with another agent can produce different outcomes. The current study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate the neural underpinnings when participants performed a Go/Nogo task alone or complementarily with another co-actor (unseen, whom was believed to be another human or a computer. During both complementary tasks, reaction time data suggested that participants integrated the potential action of their co-actor in their own action planning. Compared to the single-actor task, increased parietal and precentral activity during complementary tasks as shown in the fMRI data further suggested representation of the co-actor’s response. The superior frontal gyrus of the medial prefrontal cortex was differentially activated in the human co-actor condition compared to the computer co-actor condition. The medial prefrontal cortex, involved thinking about the beliefs and intentions of other people, possibly reflects a social-cognitive aspect or self-other discrimination during the joint task when believing a biological co-actor is present. Our results suggest that action co-representation can occur even offline with any agent type given a priori information that they are co-acting; however additional regions are recruited when participants believe they are task-sharing with another human.

  5. PROGNOSTICAL COMPETENCE OF THE FUTURE TEACHERS-ACTORS: TO THE ISSUE OF THE CONCEPT DEFINITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viktorovna Tsalko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper on the basis of the notions of competence, forecasting, prognostical competence the author’s definition of future actors-teachers’ prognostical competence is developed. Under prognostic competence of future actors-teachers we understand a special competence that allows the subject, engaged in professional activities as a performer of roles in the theater (movies, TV, as well as performing teaching activities in the field of arts, to receive the necessary anticipatory information about the phenomenon under investigation (on performing roles in the theatre, films, and television, on the learning process and actors-teachers training. Components of prognostical competence as a type of competencies (cognitive, instrumental and operational and motivational-value are singled out. The feature of the future actor-teacher’s professional activities in the context of prognostical competence is viewed. It is the simultaneous solving the artistic-creative, organizational and teaching-upbringing problems.Purpose. The purpose of the paper is the definition of prognostical competence of future teachers-actors.Methodology. In the research the methods of theoretical level are used: comparison, analysis and synthesis, generalization, concretization; analytical methods; idealization and modeling.Result. The result of the research is the development of the author’s concept of «prognostical competence of the future teachers-actors».Practical implications. Application of the results: The results may be applied to the work of teachers-actors’ trainers as well as the researchers in Pedagogy.

  6. Neuroimaging of the joint Simon effect with believed biological and non-biological co-actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tanya; Hsieh, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    Performing a task alone or together with another agent can produce different outcomes. The current study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural underpinnings when participants performed a Go/Nogo task alone or complementarily with another co-actor (unseen), whom was believed to be another human or a computer. During both complementary tasks, reaction time data suggested that participants integrated the potential action of their co-actor in their own action planning. Compared to the single-actor task, increased parietal and precentral activity during complementary tasks as shown in the fMRI data further suggested representation of the co-actor’s response. The superior frontal gyrus of the medial prefrontal cortex was differentially activated in the human co-actor condition compared to the computer co-actor condition. The medial prefrontal cortex, involved thinking about the beliefs and intentions of other people, possibly reflects a social-cognitive aspect or self-other discrimination during the joint task when believing a biological co-actor is present. Our results suggest that action co-representation can occur even offline with any agent type given a priori information that they are co-acting; however, additional regions are recruited when participants believe they are task-sharing with another human. PMID:26388760

  7. Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists*,†,‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender’s grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors’ plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. PMID:24313297

  8. Opening up the solar box: Cultural resource management and actor network theory in solar energy projects in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrie, Bryan F.

    This project considers the ways that Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be brought to bear upon Cultural Resource Management (CRM) practices on renewable energy projects. ANT is a way of making inquiry into scientific knowledge practices and as CRM is intended to preserve environmental, historic, and prehistoric resources, it necessarily involves certain kinds of knowledge generation about regions in which projects are being developed. Because the practice of CRM is complex, involving a range of actors from developers to biologists, native peoples to academics, private landholders to environmental and cultural activists, it is imperative to account for the interests of all stakeholders and to resist devolving into the polemical relations of winners and losers, good and bad participants, or simple situations of right and wrong. This project intends to account for the "matters of concern" of various actors, both primary and secondary, by examining the case study of a single solar installation project in the Mojave Desert. A theoretical description of ANT is provided at the beginning and the concerns of this theory are brought to bear upon the case study project through describing the project, discussing the laws governing CRM on federal lands and in the state of California, and providing the points of view of various interviewees who worked directly or indirectly on various aspects of CRM for the solar project. The creators of ANT claim that it is not a methodology but it does speak to ethnomethodologies in that it insists that there is always something more to learn from inquiring into and describing any given situation. These descriptions avoid generalizations, providing instead various points of entry, from diverse perspectives to the project. There is an invitation to avoid assuming that one knows all there is to know about a given situation and to choose instead to continue investigating and thus give voice to the more obscure, often marginalized, voices in the

  9. AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF ECONOMIC ACTORS IN THE WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT SYSTEM: LEGAL OR POLITICAL ISSUE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Soeparna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic actors are the main trade player in the World Trade Organization, although, the relation between WTO and economic actor is built by trade regulation that is negotiated among the WTO Members. Nothing in the WTO regulates economic actors to involve directly in the WTO, especially in the WTO dispute settlement system. Nevertheless, the debate amongst experts regarding the involvement of economic actors in the WTO dispute settlement system is unavoidable. This article therefore discusses the possibility of the involvement of economic actors in the WTO dispute settlement system, whether there is legal and political point of views

  10. Nuclear proliferation and safeguards. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    This comprehensive analysis of the technological, economic, and political factors affecting the potential spread of nuclear weapons proved useful in the congressional debate which culminated in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978. The report was subsequently published commercially and has been a frequently cited reference in the literature on proliferation and nuclear power. Despite developments since 1977, the information in the OTA report is still useful to those wishing to obtain an indepth understanding of the issues. Included is an analysis of why a nation might want nuclear weapons development program and the various sources of nuclear material are discussed. The control of proliferation is considered as well as its relation to the nuclear industry

  11. Domestic Politics and Nuclear Proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chul Min; Yim, Man Sung

    2016-01-01

    The external security threat is known as the most important factor of nuclear weapons program, the domestic politics situation can also affect the nuclear proliferation decision of a country. For example, when a leader wants nuclear weapons as an ultimate weapon, the domestic politics situation can determine the effectiveness of the weapons program of a country. This study analyzes the current knowledge of the relationship between domestic politics and nuclear proliferation and suggests the main challenges of the quantitative models trying to calculate nuclear proliferation risk of countries. The domestic politics status is one of the most important indicators of nuclear program. However, some variables have never been used in quantitative analyses; for example, number of veto players and the public opinion on nuclear weapons; despite they are considered to be important in various qualitative studies. Future studies should focus on how should they be coded and how can they be linked with existing domestic politics variables

  12. Domestic Politics and Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Min; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The external security threat is known as the most important factor of nuclear weapons program, the domestic politics situation can also affect the nuclear proliferation decision of a country. For example, when a leader wants nuclear weapons as an ultimate weapon, the domestic politics situation can determine the effectiveness of the weapons program of a country. This study analyzes the current knowledge of the relationship between domestic politics and nuclear proliferation and suggests the main challenges of the quantitative models trying to calculate nuclear proliferation risk of countries. The domestic politics status is one of the most important indicators of nuclear program. However, some variables have never been used in quantitative analyses; for example, number of veto players and the public opinion on nuclear weapons; despite they are considered to be important in various qualitative studies. Future studies should focus on how should they be coded and how can they be linked with existing domestic politics variables.

  13. O Judiciário como Ator Regulador da Internet: seu papel no esquema de forças do Estado moderno / The Judiciary as Regulatory Actor of the Internet: Its Role in the Framework of Forces of the Modern State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Nunes Lopes Espiñeira Lemos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To understand the role of Judiciary Power in regulating the Internet from the perspective of the WhatsApp blocking cases between 2015 and 2016 that led to the questioning of Judiciary's interpretation of the issue and the role of a Data Protection Authority in conflict resolution. Methodology/approach/design – Qualitative analysis from issues of internet regulation in relation to the theory that includes the positioning of Judiciary in scheme of forces of the modern State. It also presents a dialogue between the regulatory and argumentative theories pertinent to the arguments of the public decision to block WhatsApp. Finally, a brief analysis of the public audience discourse of the Bill of personal data and comparative international experience on DPAs. Findings – The Civil Internet Framework has been used as an isolated regulation to an entire legal system and the peculiarities of cyberspace that do not reproduce in the physical world, which requires the improvement of the interpretation of regulatory milestones in the network architecture. DPAs are facilitators in resolving conflicts that involve Internet and even to reduce prosecution of demands such as WhatsApp block. Resumo Propósito – Compreender o papel do Judiciário na regulação da Internet, a partir dos casos de bloqueio do WhatsApp entre 2015 e 2016, que levaram ao questionamento sobre a interpretação do Judiciário sobre o tema e o papel de uma Agência de Proteção de Dados Pessoais na resolução de conflitos. Metodologia/abordagem/design – Análise qualitativa das questões de regulação da internet frente à teoria que compreende o posicionamento do Judiciário no esquema de forças do Estado moderno. Apresenta-se também diálogo entre as teorias regulatórias e argumentativas pertinentes para os argumentos da decisão pública de bloqueio do WhatsApp. Por fim, uma breve análise do discurso da audiência pública do PL de dados pessoais e comparativa

  14. Promotion of Nuclear Non-proliferation in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo

    2009-07-01

    KAERI has jointly worked with Sandia National Laboratories for Nuclear Energy Non-proliferation in East Asia for the last five years. This project aims at support activities in this joint project between two states. The annual meetings were held during the project period, the 4th one in 2008 and the 5th one in 2009. In addition code comparison between KAERI and SNL's codes for assessing the back-end fuel cycle options was carried out. This project strongly enhances the close tie for the non-proliferation, transparency and safeguards among Korea Japan China Taiwan the United States Russia Malaysia Singapore Indonesia Thailand Vietnam and others for the project period

  15. Positive steps toward non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, G.

    1979-08-30

    Russel W. Fox and Mason Willrich in their paper, International Custody of Plutonium Stocks: A First Step Toward an International Regime for Sensitive Nuclear Energy Activities, advocate placing excess plutonium in an international custodial facility; critical criteria governing releases are outlined so that, on one hand the owners can have high confidence that their plutonium will be returned promptly, under appropriate circumstances, and on the other hand, all the other participating and concerned countries can have confidence in the assurance that plutonium will be released only for immediate use in a defined and approved civil purpose. The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute in the 1978 issue of its Year Book, recognizes a move towards a more positive approach to the problem of nuclear proliferation. It is noted that the non-proliferation strategies of the main supply countries have largely concentrated on a two-pronged approach of technology denials with tightening of safeguards. But already, enrichment, reprocessing, and breeder reactor programs extend far beyond the five nuclear weapon states. History testifies to the limitations of a policy of technical denials. SIPRI recognizes that another way to dissuade non-nuclear weapon states from creating their own enrichment or reprocessing plants would be to establish an open market for these services, a market characterized by diversity and competition. So far, there has been no case where a country has developed nuclear explosives by diverting material from a civil power station. Development of nuclear weapons by various countries is briefly noted and areas where strengthening of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is needed are noted. (MCW)

  16. Nuclear energy and proliferation: A longer perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear power has expanded slowly; and it is largely based on reactors that require no recycle. The original basis for concern about proliferation - that nuclear power would be used very widely and that it would be based on systems that required reprocessing - has been shaken. The present world nuclear energy system, which is small and based on no-recycle reactors, is relatively resistant to proliferation via diversion from power reactors. Though worry about proliferation can never be eliminated, the perceived connection between power and bombs can be slowly reduced. The proposal to link fuel take-back with waste disposal poses a dilemma for the ''nuclear environmental'' activists. This group objects to nuclear power because, in their view, reactor wastes threaten the environment, and because bombs and reactors are connected. Both objections are held, often passionately; it would be difficult to assess which takes primacy. This proposal further breaks the ''Nuclear Connection,'' but at the expense of adding a little to the volume of wastes the United States would have to dispose of. We are in effect saying that the loosening of the nuclear connection through the take-back scheme should take precedence over the tiny environmental burden incurred by the addition of a few percent to the total wastes the U.S. already must dispose of. It is hoped that the nuclear environmental community will recognize this trade-off, and will help create the atmosphere of public understanding necessary if fuel take-back is to be accepted in the United States

  17. Heath sector network governance and State-building in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bwimana, Aembe

    2017-01-01

    Longstanding patterns of interaction exist between state and non-state actors seeking to improve public health in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). DRC is a weak state, and, in many cases, private actors have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of state health care provision. However,

  18. A human resources project implementation. An actor-network theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibrán Rivera González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene dos objetivos principales. Primero, sugerir el uso de la Teoría del Actor-Red (ANT por sus siglas en inglés como una teoría que puede ser utilizada para analizar la implementación de un proyecto de recursos humanos (llamado ModeCo, Modelo de Competencias; y, segundo, proveer un entendimiento inicial sobre algunos de los principales eventos y situaciones que dieron forma al ritmo de la implementación de este proyecto. Este artículo se basa en una investigación cualitativa, la cual toma una perspectiva informada por la Teoría del Actor-Red (Callon, 1986; Latour, 1987; Law, 1992 que es utilizada como mecanismo de entendimiento para describir cómo un proyecto es implementado en una Universidad con múltiples campus en México. En este trabajo se ofrecen, primero, una serie de enunciados que capturan la manera en cómo la Teoría del Actor-Red fue útil para entender el proceso de implementación; y, segundo, se exponen los principales eventos y situaciones que afectaron dicho proceso de implementación. En esta investigación adoptamos un modelo interpretativo (Walsham, 1995; Walsham, 2006, mismo que se vale del uso de una batería de métodos, principalmente el uso de doce entrevistas semiestructuradas con diferentes actores del proyecto, documentos del proyecto y asistencia virtual a reuniones del Comité Directivo de recursos humanos. En términos de análisis nuestra investigación está basada en los principios propuestos por Klein and Myers (1999 para estudios interpretativos.

  19. La dimensión social del actor local en el talento territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Delgado Barrios

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación parte de la definición del actor local en los planteamientos expuestos por García (2007, Fernández (2008 y Arocena (2002. Los actores locales con su capacidad asociativa ligada a decisiones y acciones, a influencias de poder o de experticia para el desarrollo territorial. Este artículo estudia la dimensión social, -el capital social -, del actor local, dentro del talento territorial. Esta dimensión está vinculada con la exigencia a los actores locales involucrados en el desarrollo territorial de contar con altos niveles de organización social para la producción, participación social protagónica, auto dependencia, confianza en los sistemas e instituciones de la participación, capacidad de articulación con otros actores organizados o encomunidades, así como, con otros territorios y con redes territoriales del desarrollo. Metodológicamente es una investigación exploratoria, de análisis de un territorio como laboratorio vivencial a partir de un enfoque sistémico procesal, desde la metodología sistémica interpretativa, sustentada en referencias bibliográficas y electrónicas dando apoyo a las reflexiones y experiencias del autor sobre el tema abordado de manera inductiva y constructivista. Como resultado se presentan la conceptualización de la dimensión social del actor local y su rol en el desarrollo territorial a partir de un territorio referencial bajo investigación (Zona Sur del Lago de Maracaibo. Concluyendo con la identificación de tres escenarios de actuación del actor local dentro dela dimensión social del talento territorial.

  20. Not My Problem: Vicarious Conflict Adaptation with Human and Virtual Co-Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel M. Spapé

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Simon effect refers to an incompatibility between stimulus and response locations resulting in a conflict situation and, consequently, slower responses. Like other conflict effects, it is commonly reduced after repetitions, suggesting an executive control ability, which flexibly rewires cognitive processing and adapts to conflict. Interestingly, conflict is not necessarily individually defined: the Social Simon effect refers to a scenario where two people who share a task show a conflict effect where a single person does not. Recent studies showed these observations might converge into what could be called vicarious conflict adaptation, with evidence indicating that observing someone else’s conflict may subsequently reduce one’s own. While plausible, there is reason for doubt: both the social aspect of the Simon Effect, and the degree to which executive control accounts for the conflict adaptation effect, have become foci of debate in recent studies. Here, we present two experiments that were designed to test the social dimension of the effect by varying the social relationship between the actor and the co-actor. In Experiment 1, participants performed a conflict task with a virtual co-actor, while the actor-observer relationship was manipulated as a function of the similarity between response modalities. In Experiment 2, the same task was performed both with a virtual and with a human co-actor, while heart-rate measurements were taken to measure the impact of observed conflict on autonomous activity. While both experiments replicated the interpersonal conflict adaptation effects, neither showed evidence of the critical social dimension. We consider the findings as demonstrating that vicarious conflict adaptation does not rely on the social relationship between the actor and co-actor.

  1. Bridging centrality: A new indicator to measure the positioning of actors in R&D networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherngell, T.; Wanzenboeck, I.; Berge, L.

    2016-07-01

    In the recent past, we can observe growing interest in the STI community in the notion of positioning indicators, shifting emphasis to actors in the innovation process and their R&D inter-linkages with other actors. In relation to this, we suggest a new approach for assessing the positioning of actors relying on the notion of bridging centrality (BC). Based on the concept of bridging paths, i.e. a set of two links connecting three actors across three different aggregate nodes (e.g. organisations, regions or countries), we argue that triangulation in networks is a key issue for knowledge recombinations and the extension of an actor's knowledge base. As bridges are most often not empirically observable at the individual level of research teams, we propose an approximated BC measure that provides a flexible framework for dealing with the aggregation problem in positioning actors. Hereby, BC is viewed as a function of an aggregate node's (i) participation intensity in the network, (ii) its openness to other nodes (i.e. the relative outward orientation of network links), and iii) the diversification of links to other nodes. In doing so, we provide an integrative perspective that enables us to achieve a better understanding of the positioning of certain actors in R&D networks. An illustrative example on the co-patent network of European regions demonstrates the performance and usefulness of our BC measure for networks constructed at the aggregated level, i.e. regions in our example. A region's outward orientation and the diversification of its network links moderates the influence of regional scale on network centrality. This is a major strength of the measure, and it paves the way for future studies to examine the role of certain aggregate node's, and, by this, contributes to the debate on positioning indicators in the STI context. (Author)

  2. Proliferating macrophages prevail in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Gwendalyn J

    2013-09-01

    Macrophages accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions during the inflammation that is part of atherosclerosis development and progression. A new study in mice indicates that the accumulation of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques depends on local macrophage proliferation rather than the recruitment of circulating monocytes.

  3. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  4. The Relation Between Multi Actors and Local Reform in Solo City During Joko Widodo’s Leadership Era (2005-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahidah R. Bulan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explored power relation of Jokowi as mayor of Solo City and his efforts to create inclusive populist policies in the case of street vendors’ arrangement and resettlement of people on the banks of Solo River. Specifically, this study explores how Jokowi build his relations with many actors, namely, how the relations can be established, who were they, how were the relationships between Jokowi and CSO (Civil Society Organization and CSA (Civil Society Activist as the agencies with serious interest in pursuing reform, and how these relations contribute to achieving local reform agenda. By using qualitative approach with case study strategy as the methodology, this study was conducted from December 2010 to early 2012 and obtained some results as follows: there are some strong enough relations between Jokowi with state and non-state actors, which exist as the attempt to overcome the structural constraints (limited human resources and because of the similar agendas between Jokowi and those actors (especially with CSO and CSA, and that the relations (with CSO and CSA are proven effective in helping to achieve local reform agenda progressively. The study also refines Tilly’s theory (1978 on several aspects, namely: the variant of member and challenger, the radical challenger, and neutral, and that the positions of challenger or member are not permanent (depend on the issues.

  5. Neuromuscular control of the point to point and oscillatory movements of a sagittal arm with the actor-critic reinforcement learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkhou, Vahid; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Lucas, Caro

    2005-04-01

    In this study, we have used a single link system with a pair of muscles that are excited with alpha and gamma signals to achieve both point to point and oscillatory movements with variable amplitude and frequency.The system is highly nonlinear in all its physical and physiological attributes. The major physiological characteristics of this system are simultaneous activation of a pair of nonlinear muscle-like-actuators for control purposes, existence of nonlinear spindle-like sensors and Golgi tendon organ-like sensor, actions of gravity and external loading. Transmission delays are included in the afferent and efferent neural paths to account for a more accurate representation of the reflex loops.A reinforcement learning method with an actor-critic (AC) architecture instead of middle and low level of central nervous system (CNS), is used to track a desired trajectory. The actor in this structure is a two layer feedforward neural network and the critic is a model of the cerebellum. The critic is trained by state-action-reward-state-action (SARSA) method. The critic will train the actor by supervisory learning based on the prior experiences. Simulation studies of oscillatory movements based on the proposed algorithm demonstrate excellent tracking capability and after 280 epochs the RMS error for position and velocity profiles were 0.02, 0.04 rad and rad/s, respectively.

  6. Dynamics of proliferating powers. For a new interdisciplinary approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambault, Jean-Claude; GRAND, Camille; Pasco, Xavier; SITT, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    The authors highlight that conventional approaches to the proliferation of arms of massive destruction are not sufficient to provide a generic evaluation grid whereas such a grid is clearly needed. In a first part, they discuss the contribution of various theories of proliferation of arms of massive destruction which generally address this phenomenon through three main points of view: legal and political means of struggle against proliferation, analysis of technical capacities, and motivations of proliferating States. The authors indicate and briefly present the various associated models. Then, they develop the basis of an analytical method aimed at a better understanding of the 'proliferating power', and at using various approaches, and notably that related to leader's psychology. They comment the content of studies already published on these issues, more precisely address the psycho-sociological dimension, outline the interest of diplomacy in this psychological approach, evoke the different typologies of personality, and propose elements of a new matrix of analysis of the proliferation phenomenon which takes national resources, history and strategic context, type of political regime, history and personality typology of the leader, and international dependencies, alliances, elites and mediators of the inner power, and public opinions into account

  7. Emotional labor actors: a latent profile analysis of emotional labor strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Allison S; Daniels, Michael A; Diefendorff, James M; Greguras, Gary J

    2015-05-01

    Research on emotional labor focuses on how employees utilize 2 main regulation strategies-surface acting (i.e., faking one's felt emotions) and deep acting (i.e., attempting to feel required emotions)-to adhere to emotional expectations of their jobs. To date, researchers largely have considered how each strategy functions to predict outcomes in isolation. However, this variable-centered perspective ignores the possibility that there are subpopulations of employees who may differ in their combined use of surface and deep acting. To address this issue, we conducted 2 studies that examined surface acting and deep acting from a person-centered perspective. Using latent profile analysis, we identified 5 emotional labor profiles-non-actors, low actors, surface actors, deep actors, and regulators-and found that these actor profiles were distinguished by several emotional labor antecedents (positive affectivity, negative affectivity, display rules, customer orientation, and emotion demands-abilities fit) and differentially predicted employee outcomes (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and felt inauthenticity). Our results reveal new insights into the nature of emotion regulation in emotional labor contexts and how different employees may characteristically use distinct combinations of emotion regulation strategies to manage their emotional expressions at work. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Lone Actor Terrorist Attack Planning and Preparation: A Data-Driven Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, Bart; Bakker, Edwin; Gill, Paul; Bouhana, Noémie

    2017-10-23

    This article provides an in-depth assessment of lone actor terrorists' attack planning and preparation. A codebook of 198 variables related to different aspects of pre-attack behavior is applied to a sample of 55 lone actor terrorists. Data were drawn from open-source materials and complemented where possible with primary sources. Most lone actors are not highly lethal or surreptitious attackers. They are generally poor at maintaining operational security, leak their motivations and capabilities in numerous ways, and generally do so months and even years before an attack. Moreover, the "loneness" thought to define this type of terrorism is generally absent; most lone actors uphold social ties that are crucial to their adoption and maintenance of the motivation and capability to commit terrorist violence. The results offer concrete input for those working to detect and prevent this form of terrorism and argue for a re-evaluation of the "lone actor" concept. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Forensic Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. The role of institutions as actors influencing Uganda’s cassava sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Mutyaba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We aim at mapping out a detailed framework that reveals the proportionate flow of cassava and its products along the value chain (VC. Furthermore, we aim at establishing the role of institutions and the linkages between institutions and other VC actors that influence the cassava VC in Uganda. We use both primary and secondary data obtained from four regions in Uganda. Results show that farmers, processors, transporters, traders, consumers and institutions are the major actors. There are four categories of institutions, viz, government, non-government, community based organisations and international agencies. Roles performed by institutions include: development and enforcement of policies, Research and Development (R&D, capacity building, and creation of market access linkages for cassava and its products. Findings reveal that there is no clear nexus and no coordination among farmers/producers, processors, traders, transporters and consumers. However, institutions are well coordinated and play various roles along the VC to influence the dynamics of actors. Policy-wise it is important to establish strong private-public partnerships to bridge the impaired linkages between the actors (farmers/producers, processors, traders, transporters, and consumers and institutions. Strong partnerships are envisaged to reduce the associated transaction costs amongst the actors.

  10. The Rights of Private Economic Actors Under the World Trade Organization Agreements in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Soeparna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nothing in the Uruguay Round mentions directly about rights of private economic actors. It seems that the relationship to private economic actors (or may be individual does not exist within the WTO Agreements, because as a general rule, private parties are not legal subjects of the international legal order. However, this article will prevail upon this situation, by looking closer at the essence of the WTO Agreements to discern the rights of private economic actors that derive from the WTO. The main question of this article is to what extent then Indonesia is dealing with the rights of private economic actors under the WTO Agreements? The background of this questionis because four years after ratifying the WTO Agreements, Indonesia has been facing what is arguably the most serious multidimensional crisis in 1997, some difficult situations have arisen from the crisis; therefore, the society hesitated to accept the open world trading system. The society seemed look askance to the implementation of the WTO Agreements. But Indonesian Government took major step to reduce the skepticism of society toward liberalization, by readjusting its national laws conform to the WTO Agreements with the intention to support the rights of national economic actors under the WTO Agreements in order to achieve total benefits of the WTO rules.

  11. La figura del consum’actor justo francés: ¿consumidor y ciudadano?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Parodi∗

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El neologismo consum’actor (consumidor-actor es utilizado en diferentes espacios sociales para dirigirse a los consumidores susceptibles de ejercer una forma de compromiso través del consumo. El artículo muestra cómo la figura del consum’actor cumple una función de tipo ideal en la promoción del consumo de productos del comercio justo para el caso de promotores y consumidores franceses entrevistados en el marco de una investigación sociológica. Observando el mecanismo de recalificación del consumidor en consum’actor analizamos cómo se fabrica una argumentación tendiente a politizar ese acto de compra, interrogando la lógica de acción de los promotores. La reflexividad de los consumidores justos sobre las prácticas asociadas con el consum’actor permitió conocer los límites en la apropiación de esta figura. La porosidad de campos (mercado, consumo, política movilizados en la argumentación para su caracterización explica la distancia entre aquella función y los límites de su apropiación como figura social del compromiso ciudadano

  12. Modelling the lay expert for first-year medical students: the actor-patient as teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, Debra; Muir, Elizabeth; Plant, Marilyn; Kidd, Jane; Thurlow, Sue

    2002-09-01

    Actors are widely used in medical education as simulated patients. In this session, the role of actors was extended to 'simulated students' and facilitators in an introductory communication session. After an initial activity with the entire cohort of first-year students, groups of 20 students worked with either an actor or medical teacher in three activities. The activities aimed to raise students' awareness of the range of communication challenges in medical education and practice. After the session, students completed evaluation forms based on their experiences in the session. The results revealed no difference between students who were facilitated by actors or medical teachers in relation to meeting the learning objectives and their ratings of the usefulness of the activities to support learning. The actors who participated in this session were experienced in working with medical students. Their enhanced role provides students with an opportunity to identify with and reflect on the expertise of a lay teacher and to consider extending their definition of a learning opportunity to more informal encounters.

  13. Actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Javier; Gardner, Toby A; Tizado, E Jorge; Pacheco, Pablo

    2014-10-28

    Annual deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon fell by 77% between 2004 and 2011, yet have stabilized since 2009 at 5,000-7,000 km(2). We provide the first submunicipality assessment, to our knowledge, of actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown by linking agricultural census and remote-sensing data on deforestation and forest degradation. Almost half (36,158 km(2)) of the deforestation between 2004 and 2011 occurred in areas dominated by larger properties (>500 ha), whereas only 12% (9,720 km(2)) occurred in areas dominated by smallholder properties (deforestation rates fell during this period by 68-85% for all actors, the contribution of the largest landholders (>2,500 ha) to annual deforestation decreased over time (63% decrease between 2005 and 2011), whereas that of smallholders went up by a similar amount (69%) during the same period. In addition, the deforestation share attributable to remote areas increased by 88% between 2009 and 2011. These observations are consistent across the Brazilian Amazon, regardless of geographical differences in actor dominance or socioenvironmental context. Our findings suggest that deforestation policies to date, which have been particularly focused on command and control measures on larger properties in deforestation hotspots, may be increasingly limited in their effectiveness and fail to address all actors equally. Further reductions in deforestation are likely to be increasingly costly and require actor-tailored approaches, including better monitoring to detect small-scale deforestation and a shift toward more incentive-based conservation policies.

  14. Regulating Halal and Kosher Foods: Different Arrangements between State, Industry and Religious Actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Havinga (Tetty)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe Netherlands, like other Western countries, is a growing market for halal food products, that is, food products that comply with Islamic food laws. Halal food is becoming more visible as Dutch supermarkets, hospitals and schools decide to include halal food in their supply. This

  15. Carbon pricing. Mobilizing non-state actors on a global issue with local implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afriat, Marion; Vaidyula; Manasvini; Alberola, Emilie

    2016-09-01

    An effective carbon price should send economic and political signals that shift public and private investment to increase the competitiveness of low-carbon solutions (fuels switching, deployment of renewable energy, etc.) and stay below the 2 deg. C trajectory. In 2016, over 40 countries and 20 provinces and cities have established an explicit price on carbon through carbon taxes or emissions trading systems. The choice of the carbon pricing instrument depends largely on the national or local circumstances and priorities. Carbon pricing should not be a stand-alone policy and should be part of a coherent energy and climate policy framework in order to achieve an effective low-carbon transition in all economic sectors. In 2015, $26 billion in government revenue was generated in the world through carbon pricing initiatives. These revenues can be leveraged to yield economic and environmental benefits at the national and local level. The Paris Agreement provides the necessary framework to facilitate the uptake of carbon pricing

  16. Rural electrification with multiple actors - the experience of the brazilian state of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Pelegrini, Marcelo Aparecido; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro

    1999-01-01

    The lack of resources and the new scenery of private utilities turn necessary to look for the ways that allow to illuminate the rural zone. Several international papers show the involvement of different segments of the society as being a viable alternative to execute this goal. This paper analyses the experience of Sao Paulo in the practice of a program of rural electrification in which the society is involved. The model, the operational difficulties and the alternatives made to agile program are appraised. The main conclusion is that, in spite of the difficulties, the model in which the society is included is a viable alternative to solve the subject of the lack of energy in the countryside. (author)

  17. A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Armed Non State Actors (ANSAs): Strategic Roles and Operational Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    and stability to societies under violent stress . Consistent with DRDC’s support-to-operations mandate, the overarching objective of our Project was...under violent stress . 4 Consistent with DRDC’s support-to-operations mandate, the overarching objective of our Project was to improve this...threat on the one hand and support for ANSA behaviour and acculturation to Canada on the other. Moreover, these important links have implications

  18. Enhancing U.S. Counterterrorism Efforts: The Role of State and Local Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Security and the Politics of Objectivity,” Theory and Society 39, no. 5 (September 2010): 509. 16 Peter Eisinger, “Imperfect Federalism: The...Force – The NYPD (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2009), 58-59. 20 Ibid., 71. 80 monitor its officers on the task force.21 Civil libertarians ...Lakoff, Andrew and Eric Klinenberg. “Of Risk and Pork: Urban Security and the Politics of Objectivity.” Theory and Society 39, no. 5 (September 2010

  19. The Bioterrorism Threat by Non-State Actors: Hype or Horror?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    at Holy Cross Hospital in Fort Lauderdale, FL, thinks he treated one of the 9/11 hijackers, Ahmed Ibrahim A. Haznawi, for cutaneous anthrax. In...of Kyushu, he was the fourth son of a poor family of mat weavers.128 He was afflicted with infantile glaucoma causing blindness in one eye and

  20. Modeling Violent Non-State Actors: A Summary of Concepts and Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartolomei, Jason; Casebeer, William; Thomas, Troy

    2004-01-01

    .... Here, we discuss the importance of formulating systems-level computer models that may enable us to forecast VNSA growth, and that also give us leverage for effects-based operations and planning...