WorldWideScience

Sample records for actors decentralizing environmental

  1. Post-decentralization regional economies and actors -- putting the capacity of Local governments to the test

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, Kazuhisa

    2005-01-01

    Decentralization in Indonesia was introduced institutionally in 2001, with a democratization drive promoted by international donors and by the intention of the new government to clear away the centralistic image of Soeharto. Decentralization has had some effects on regional economies and on local government administration. Compared to the period before decentralization, the share of gross regional domestic product and local government finance has increased in Java, though investment and bank ...

  2. Decentralization and environmentally sound decision making: Policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Cardona Castillo

    2007-01-01

    Among the major political and economic trends that have been evolving in Latin America in recent years, the emergence of municipal governments as frontline actors stands out. Central American countries have begun to grant local governments greater rights and responsibilities regarding natural resource management. In Guatemala, one of the major pieces of legislation to achieve important rural development goals, as claimed by the government, is the Law of Decentralization. As more decision maki...

  3. Value added structures and coordination structures of the decentral power generation. An actor-centered and institution-centered analyses by means of selected case examples; Wertschoepfungs- und Koordinationsstrukturen der dezentralen Stromerzeugung. Eine akteur- und institutionenzentrierte Analyse anhand ausgewaehlter Fallbeispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocke, Tobias

    2012-07-01

    Against the background of energy policy and climate policy decisions, the decentralized power generation has gained in importance in Germany. Previous research activities on this topic mostly concerned with technical, legal, environmental and economic issues as well as potential analyses for certain forms of power generation. In contrast, the contribution under consideration deals with the organizational structures and governance structures of the decentralized power generation at local and regional level. In particular, it concerns the question to what extent the decentralized power generation results in the formation of localized production connections. In addition, it is about the importance of institutional framework as well as the role of regulatory, political and civil society actors who are affected by the distributed power generation.

  4. Environmental actors and European integration: Attitudes towards further integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, A.

    1994-12-31

    This report asks to what extent environmental actors in the EU are positively or negatively inclined to further integration of environmental policy in the EU, and why. The main objective in the EU`s fifth environmental action programme is to integrate environmental concerns into other policy areas. In this study the concept of integration is used to describe various forms of cooperation between states, from independent nation states (inter-governmentalism) at one end of the scale to a supranational authority at the other. What kind of EU cooperation do environmental actors want? Do they believe that further integration of environmental policy in the EU will promote environmental interests and facilitate the integration of environmental concern into other policy areas? Or do they believe that further integration of environmental policy in the EU will reduce the possibilities of developing an ambitious environmental policy in Europe? The empirical material for the study consists of interviews with representatives of political parties and environmental organizations at both the national and the international level. The study concentrates on four arguments called (1) The ``transboundary`` argument, referring to the transboundary character of environmental problems, (2) The single market argument, focusing on the internal market and use of economic instruments in EU environmental policy, (3) The institutional argument, referring to the effectiveness of EU institutions in solving environmental problems and (4) The political influence argument, which focuses on political influence of environmental actors in the development of EU environmental policy. 29 refs., 8 tabs.

  5. Impacts of Decentralization on Environmental Management in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soparatana Jarusombat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the process, institutional and legal framework within which the environmental management operates in Thailand. It specifically focuses on the decentralization within central and local government’s role in environmental management. The methods of this research use literature review. The aim of the paper is to examine how interface between the central and local loci of power have affected pieces of legislation relating to management of the environment by central and local government in Thailand.

  6. Actores sociales y ambitos de construccion de politicas ambientales Social actors and scenarios in the generation of environmental politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gudynas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el concepto de "actores claves" en la generación de políticas ambientales. Independientemente de la definición de actor social que se maneje, el asumir la existencia de actores claves ofrece limitaciones conceptuales y prácticas, ya que éstos son coyunturales a cada situación específica. Todos pueden ser actores claves en generar políticas ambientales cumpliendo papeles diferenciales. Como alternativa se utiliza el término de "actores destacados" y se revisan aspectos sobresalientes de varios de ellos en América Latina. Seguidamente se postula que el análisis se debe centrar en los escenarios sociales donde esos actores se pueden manifestar. Se ofrece una distinción preliminar de escenarios que permite integrar a nuevos y viejos movimientos sociales y establecer relaciones de articulación y equivalencia.The concept of "key actors" in the field of environmental politics is analyzed. Beyond the definition of social actor, the assumption of the existence of key actors implies conceptual and practical limitations, as it depends of each specific situation. Everyone could be a key actor under differential roles in the generation of environmental politics. As an alternative, the term "noteworthy actors" is used and a brief review of them in Latin America is presented. The relevant question should address the social scenarios from where these actors can express themselves. A preliminary distinction of scenarios is presented, in which old and new social movements could be integrated and relationships of articulation and equivalence could be established.

  7. Environmental Decentralization: Seeking the Proper Balance between National and State Authority

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Allen; Morgenstern, Richard; Laskowski, Stanley

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the United States’ experience with environmental decentralization, focusing on the relationship between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the states. It outlines the factors that are considered in determining the appropriate degree of decentralization, the advantages and disadvantages of decentralization, how the EPA-state relationship has evolved over the years, and the structural mechanisms used to ensure that there is a high degree of performance by EPA...

  8. Actors or Spectators? Vulnerability and Critical Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Philippopoulos‐Mihalopoulos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether we as humans should remain spectators of the great theatre of ecological disaster or become actors is a false dichotomy. In this chapter, I argue that both are needed, since the critical distance of spectatorship does not annul the need for immersion in the ecological continuum. A tool in the realisation of this is the concept of vulnerability, which is here conceptualised as a space of ‘the middle’ (as opposed, emphatically, to ‘the centre’ and offers an opportunity to think away from the sterile debate on eco/anthropocentricity and from such limiting hierarchies as animal/human, human/environmental, natural/artificial. This new, vulnerable position of the middle allows the reconfiguration of ecological processes, and more specifically, the position of environmental law in relation to them. Environmental law now finds itself amidst a new, moving, ‘open ecology’ of social, biological and ecological processes. This is a new, radical conceptualisation of what I have called ‘critical environmental law’, based upon an epistemology of observation and an ontology of being part of this open ecology. Environmental law, in this light, is simultaneously reformulated as being an invitation to disciplinary and ontological openness and yet a call to remain immanent within existing legal structures. This finds expression in four critical environmental positions that set the stage for the further elaboration of a critical environmental law. La cuestión de si nosotros, como seres humanos, debemos seguir siendo espectadores del gran teatro de la catástrofe ecológica o convertirnos en actores es una dicotomía falsa. En este artículo se sostiene que ambos son necesarios, ya que la distancia crítica del espectador no anula la necesidad de una inmersión en el continuum ecológico. Una herramienta para la realización de esto es el concepto de vulnerabilidad, que aquí se concibe como un espacio 'intermedio' (en oposici

  9. Land use and environmental impacts of decentralized solar energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twiss, R.H.; Smith, P.L.; Gatzke, A.E.; McCreary, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    The physical, spatial and land-use impacts of decentralized solar technologies applied at the community level by the year 2000 are examined. The results of the study are intended to provide a basis for evaluating the way in which a shift toward reliance on decentralized energy technologies may eventually alter community form. Six land-use types representative of those found in most US cities are analyzed according to solar penetration levels identified in the maximum solar scenario for the year 2000. The scenario is translated into shares of end use demand in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. These proportions become the scenario goals to be met by the use of decentralized solar energy systems. The percentage of total energy demand is assumed to be 36.5 percent, 18.8 percent and 22.6 percent in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors respectively. The community level scenario stipulated that a certain percentage of the total demand be met by on-site solar collection, i.e. photovoltaic and thermal collectors, and by passive design. This on-site solar goal is 31.9 percent (residential), 16.8 percent (commercial) and 13.1 percent (industrial).

  10. Actores sociales y ambitos de construccion de politicas ambientales Social actors and scenarios in the generation of environmental politics

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Gudynas

    2001-01-01

    Se analiza el concepto de "actores claves" en la generación de políticas ambientales. Independientemente de la definición de actor social que se maneje, el asumir la existencia de actores claves ofrece limitaciones conceptuales y prácticas, ya que éstos son coyunturales a cada situación específica. Todos pueden ser actores claves en generar políticas ambientales cumpliendo papeles diferenciales. Como alternativa se utiliza el término de "actores destacados" y se revisan aspectos sobresaliente...

  11. Gobernanza ambiental, actores sociales y conflictos en las Áreas Naturales Protegidas mexicanas Environmental Governance, Social Actors and Conflicts in Mexican Natural Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Brenner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los retos que enfrenta la gobernanza ambiental de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sian Ka'an, una de las Áreas Naturales Protegidas más importantes en México. El estudio identifica los actores sociales involucrados, sus intereses, estrategias, poder relativo y acciones. La información pone en claro que el mayor problema que enfrenta la gobernanza ambiental resulta de los intereses y acciones contradictorias que llevan a cabo los diferentes actores sociales.This article analizes the challenges faced by environmental governance of the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, one of the most important protected natural areas in Mexico. The study focuses on social actors involved, their interests, strategies, relative power and actions. The information obtained shows that the main problem faced by environmental governance actions comes from the various social actors.

  12. New actors in environmental management: The case of the civil society in Ensenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nain Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The environment is a complex space where multiple interests converge, so the traditional government has been insufficient to respond to the new demands of the environmental management. In this sense, the theory governance suggests a bigger role for social actors in decision-making for a more effective resolution of environmental problems. This article focuses on the Civil Society Organizations (cso’s of Ensenada, due to its relevance in the public sphere and the ecological value of the area. Twenty two csos, its participants and the network of actors were characterized through a survey. It was found that three types of csos are focusing on the conservation agenda and urban sustainability.

  13. An Integrated Decentralized Energy Planning Model considering Demand-Side Management and Environmental Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmood Kazemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decentralized energy planning (DEP is looked upon as an indisputable opportunity for energy planning of villages, isolated islands, and far spots. Nonetheless, at this decentralized planning level, the value of demand-side resources is not fairly examined, despite enjoying great advantages. Therefore, the core task of this study is to integrate demand-side resources, as a competing solution against supply-side alternatives, with decentralized energy planning decisions and demonstrate the rewarding role it plays. Moreover, sustainability indicators (SIs are incorporated into DEP attempts in order to attain sustainable development. It is emphasized that unless these indicators are considered at lower energy planning levels, they will be ignored at higher planning levels as well. Hence, to the best knowledge of the authors, this study for the first time takes into account greenhouse gas (GHG emissions produced by utilization of renewable energies in DEP optimization models. To address the issues mentioned previously, multiobjective linear programming model along with a min-max goal programming approach is employed. Finally, using data taken from the literature, the model is solved, and the obtained results are discussed. The results show that DSM policies have remarkably contributed to significant improvements especially in terms of environmental indicators.

  14. Cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water system for wastewater reuse and environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Wang, X C

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a net benefit value (NBV) model for cost-benefit evaluation of wastewater treatment and reuse projects, and attention was mainly paid to decentralized systems which are drawing wide interests all over the world especially in the water-deficient countries and regions. In the NBV model, all the factors related to project costs are monetary ones which can be calculated by using traditional methods, while many of the factors related to project benefits are non-monetary ones which need sophisticated methods for monetization. In this regard, the authors elaborated several methods for monetization of the benefits from wastewater discharge reduction, local environment improvement, and human health protection. The proposed model and methods were applied for the cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water reclamation and reuse project in a newly developed residential area in Xi'an, China. The system with dual-pipe collection and grey water treatment and reuse was found to be economically ineligible (NBV > 0) when all the treated water is reused for artificial pond replenishment, gardening and other non-potable purposes by taking into account the benefit of water saving. As environmental benefits are further considered, the economic advantage of the project is more significant. PMID:19403964

  15. Cooperation over Water Resources as a Tool for Desecuritisation: the Israeli – Palestinian Environmental NGOs as Desecuritising Actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezen Balamir Coskun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of the Israeli and Palestinian environmental NGOs as desecuritising actors who have attempted to initiate a desecuritisation process. In this regard, the article first reviews the Copenhagen School's securitisation theory with a particular focus on the concept of desecuritisation and desecuritising actor. Based on the notion of desecuritisation, an analytical framework for analysis will be suggested here to integrate Israeli-Palestinian environmental NGOs' water management efforts as contributions in desecuritisation of relations between Israelis and Palestinians with wider conflict resolution efforts.

  16. Cooperation over Water Resources as a Tool for Desecuritisation: the Israeli – Palestinian Environmental NGOs as Desecuritising Actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezen Balamir Coskun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of the Israeli and Palestinian environmental NGOs as desecuritising actors who have attempted to initiate a desecuritisation process. In this regard, the article first reviews the Copenhagen School’s securitisation theory with a particular focus on the concept of desecuritisation and desecuritising actor. Based on the notion of desecuritisation, an analytical framework for analysis will be suggested here to integrate Israeli-Palestinian environmental NGOs’ water management efforts as contributions in desecuritisation of relations between Israelis and Palestinians with wider conflict resolution efforts.

  17. Linking Neoprotectionism and Environmental Governance: On the Rapidly Increasing Tensions between Actors in the Environment-Development Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Büscher (Bram); W. Dressler (Wolfram)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThere are rapidly increasing tensions between actors engaged in the governance of environment and natural resources in Africa. This becomes clear when reviewing current trends in the conservation-development debate and combining these insights with trends in environmental governance, mos

  18. Decentralized Governance and Environmental Change: Local Institutional Moderation of Deforestation in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Krister; Gibson, Clark C.

    2007-01-01

    Dozens of countries have decentralized at least part of their natural resource policies over the last two decades. Despite the length of time that these policy experiments have been in force, there is little agreement about their effectiveness. We argue that part of this ambivalence stems from three limitations of extant studies, suggesting that…

  19. Gobernanza ambiental, actores sociales y conflictos en las Áreas Naturales Protegidas mexicanas Environmental Governance, Social Actors and Conflicts in Mexican Natural Protected Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Ludger Brenner

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo analiza los retos que enfrenta la gobernanza ambiental de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sian Ka'an, una de las Áreas Naturales Protegidas más importantes en México. El estudio identifica los actores sociales involucrados, sus intereses, estrategias, poder relativo y acciones. La información pone en claro que el mayor problema que enfrenta la gobernanza ambiental resulta de los intereses y acciones contradictorias que llevan a cabo los diferentes actores sociales.This article analize...

  20. Actores Secundarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gárate

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cámara digital en mano y provistos de los recuerdos y una sesuda investigación de 3 años, los realizadores de “Actores Secundarios” nos transportan al último periodo de la dictadura militar chilena. Pero esta vez no se trata de un relato épico sobre los actores tradicionales de la lucha por la democracia, sino de una generación prácticamente olvidada y que movilizó a miles de adolescentes contra un régimen que los ahogaba. “Actores Secundarios” es una crónica construida de los fragmentos de ...

  1. Fiscal decentralization and Pollution: Institutions Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Mennel, Tim

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the impact of fiscal decentralization on different indicators of pollution for more than 80 countries from 1970 to 2000. Our cross country estimates show that fiscal decentralization increases pollution. However, higher quality of institutions can limit the destructive environmental effects of decentralization. The empirical results confirm a strand of the literature on decentralization that predicts a “race to the bottom” under federalism. The mitigating effect of good governance...

  2. Fertilizer efficiency and environmental risk of irrigating Impatiens with composting leachate in decentralized solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanbin; Wang, Rusong; Zhang, Yishan

    2010-06-01

    The reduction and reuse of composting leachate is an issue of importance in the field of decentralized solid waste management. In this study, composting leachate from source-separated food waste was treated and subsequently used as liquid fertilizer to irrigate Impatiens (Impatiens balsamina). The leachate was altered by adjusting storage time and dilution, and through addition of microbial inocula. For each test case, the effects of irrigation were monitored by analyzing the Impatiens extension degree, numbers of leaves and flowers, dry weight, and photosynthetic pigment content to assess fertilizer efficiency. The main results obtained revealed that the addition of microbial inocula and lengthening of storage times may lower COD concentrations, adjust pH value and maintain a comparatively high level of nutrient contents. By adding microbial inocula, a COD concentration of 9.6% and BOD(5) concentration of 6.7% were obtained for non-treated leachate with the same storage time. COD concentrations in leachate decreased to 69.4% after 36weeks storage. Moreover, composting leachate promoted growth of Impatiens. The dry weight biomass of Impatiens irrigated using treated diluted leachate was 1.15-2.94 times that obtained for Impatiens irrigated using tap water. Lastly, following the irrigation of Impatiens over a short period, soil did not accumulate VOCs and heavy metals to levels exceeding relative standards. Further research on heavy metal and salinity accumulation in plants should be undertaken to meet the needs of large-scale applications.

  3. Fiscal Decentralization and Environmental Pollution: From the Perspective of Carbon Emission%财政分权与环境污染:碳排放的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克中; 王娟; 崔小勇

    2011-01-01

    本文从碳排放的角度,利用1998--2008年省级面板数据分析了财政分权与环境污染的关系,研究发现,财政分权与碳排放存在正相关关系,分权度的提高不利于碳排放量的减少,这说明财政分权可能会降低地方政府对碳排放管制的努力。提高产业研发强度有利于碳排放的降低,但贸易开放度的提高不利于碳排放量的减少。本文还发现,财政分权对碳排放的影响在不同能源消费结构,不同地理区位,不同环境政策的省份之间存在显著差异。此外,财政分权导致碳排放增加的影响途径主要是第二、第三产业。%This paper studies the relationship between fiscal decentralization and environmental pollution from the perspective of carbon emission, using provincial-level dynamic panel data from 1998 to 2008. It shows that there is positive correlated relationship between fiscal decentralization and environmental pollution, the increase of fiscal decentralization level doesn't help to reduce carbon emission. It is shows that local governments may not do their efforts to control carbon emissions for fiscal decentralization. The increase of R&D may help improve the reducing of carbon emissions, but when the opening extent of trade becomes higher, the negative impact on reduction of carbon emission made by fiscal decentralization will be decreased. The impact of fiscal decentralization on carbon emission varies greatly among provinces there are different energy consumption structure, different geographical location, and different environmental policy. The influence of fiscal decentralization increasing the carbon emission is through secondary industry and tertiary industry.

  4. Environmental education strategies for decentralized schools in the Colombian educative system: the Medellin experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunia S. Rentería

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental education is a condition to enable an attitudinal and aptitudinal generation of change, a condition that facilitates the balance between man and his surroundings. Environmental education needs the support of almost every discipline. In order to solve environmental problems, one must count on the active participation of a wide set of people and institutions. This article examines environmental education in Colombia focusing on the case of training programs, making emphasis on a case study that took place in Medellín, capital of the department of Antioquia. Results show there is a lack of clear conceptualization about the reasons and ultimate purposes concerning why environmental education is finally accomplished. That situation has conducted to the formulation of objectives and strategies that are too general to be properly fulfilled, and the implementation of detailed, and isolated actions.Lack of coordination between institutions and groups has resulted in duplicity of functions and efforts, which in turn result in a far from rational use of scarce resources. The conclusion is that environmental education in Colombia is still inefficient and must advance to higher levels, taking into account these three main perspectives: environmental, educative and pedagogic.

  5. Foreign aid and decentralization: Policies for autonomy and programming for responsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Dickovick, J. Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Donor support for decentralization comes in two main categories: recommendations at the policy level and project activities at the programming level. At the policy level, donors promote decentralization by recommending greater autonomy for subnational actors. That is, they advocate for reforms that increase the extent (or 'quantity') of decentralization. At the programming level, donors implement projects intended to improve the capacity and accountability (or 'quality') of decentralized gove...

  6. Change-actors in the U.S. electric energy system: The role of environmental groups in utility adoption and diffusion of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the contribution of environmental groups to new technology adoption and diffusion by dominant incumbents. Building on institutional and social movement theory, we develop a theoretical framework that sheds light on environmental groups as change-actors. We theorize that by approaching embedded key constituents with various strategic actions, environmental groups affect taken-for-granted beliefs, build legitimacy for renewable energy technologies, and convince skeptical constituents to support the new technology. We verify our theoretical framework with a case study of wind power development in Colorado. We find that environmentalists educate constituents on the benefits of the new technology, engage in activities leading to regulatory and legislative decisions for wind, while also providing direct assistance to the utility. As a result, utilities are both pressured and encouraged to adopt and diffuse wind power on a large-scale. This research directs attention to the role of environmental groups as change-actors and the legitimating effects of their actions. It highlights their part in creating a more favorable institutional environment for new technologies while directly influencing the incumbent's technology choice. This paper contributes to an understanding of bottom-up, actor-initiated changes in energy systems taking into account both the systemic technological infrastructure and the institutional context. - Highlights: • We study environmentalists′ impact on utility-scale renewable technology diffusion. • Incumbent-dominated systems hinder the diffusion of new technologies. • Environmental groups′ strategic actions increase legitimacy for new technologies. • Environmental groups′ legitimating actions affect incumbent′s technology choice. • Environmental groups create a favorable institutional context for new technologies

  7. Aggregating Data for Computational Toxicology Applications: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACToR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine A. Cohen Hubal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational toxicology combines data from high-throughput test methods, chemical structure analyses and other biological domains (e.g., genes, proteins, cells, tissues with the goals of predicting and understanding the underlying mechanistic causes of chemical toxicity and for predicting toxicity of new chemicals and products. A key feature of such approaches is their reliance on knowledge extracted from large collections of data and data sets in computable formats. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA has developed a large data resource called ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource to support these data-intensive efforts. ACToR comprises four main repositories: core ACToR (chemical identifiers and structures, and summary data on hazard, exposure, use, and other domains, ToxRefDB (Toxicity Reference Database, a compilation of detailed in vivo toxicity data from guideline studies, ExpoCastDB (detailed human exposure data from observational studies of selected chemicals, and ToxCastDB (data from high-throughput screening programs, including links to underlying biological information related to genes and pathways. The EPA DSSTox (Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity program provides expert-reviewed chemical structures and associated information for these and other high-interest public inventories. Overall, the ACToR system contains information on about 400,000 chemicals from 1100 different sources. The entire system is built using open source tools and is freely available to download. This review describes the organization of the data repository and provides selected examples of use cases.

  8. Analysis of economic efficiency and environmental acceptability of decentral power supply systems; Analyse der Wirtschaftlichkeit und Umweltvertraeglichkeit dezentraler Energieversorgungssysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangelmaier, W.; Emmrich, A.; Koesters, C. [Heinz Nixdorf Inst., Univ. Paderborn, Paderborn (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Using the example of a communal supply area, the contribution outlines the cost development, the consumption of resources, and the emissions expected from enhanced decentral power supply on the basis of renewables. The best alternative is derived from an overall economic analysis. (orig.) [German] In diesem Artikel werden am Beispiel eines kommunalen Energieversorgungsgebietes die sich ergebende Kostenentwicklung, der Ressourcenverbrauch und die Emissionsbelastung aufgezeigt, die sich bei einer Steigerung der dezentralen und der regenerativen Energieproduktion ergeben. Im Rahmen einer gesamtwirtschaftlichen Nutzwertanalyse wird die Alternative mit dem hoechsten Gesamtnutzwert bestimmt. (orig.)

  9. Decentralized supply chains coordination under uncertain competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Hjaila, Kefah; Puigjaner Corbella, Lluís; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The coordination of decentralized multi - site multi - product manufacturing SCs is achieved through Scenario - Based Negotiation s (SBN s ) based on expected win - win principles in an uncertain competitive environment . Based on the non - symmetric roles of t he different actors , the client (SC leader ) is supposed to propose coordination contract s according to its best expected conditions , taking into account the uncertain reaction of the provider ( follower ). This uncertain reaction i...

  10. Sustainability evaluation of decentralized electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karger, Cornelia R.; Hennings, Wilfried [Research Centre Juelich, Programme Group Humans, Environment, Technology (MUT), 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Decentralized power generation is gaining significance in liberalized electricity markets. An increasing decentralization of power supply is expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the advantages and disadvantages of decentralized electricity generation according to the overall concept of sustainable development. On the basis of a hierarchically structured set of sustainability criteria, four future scenarios for Germany are assessed, all of which describe different concepts of electricity supply in the context of the corresponding social and economic developments. The scenarios are developed in an explorative way according to the scenario method and the sustainability criteria are established by a discursive method with societal actors. The evaluation is carried out by scientific experts. By applying an expanded analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multicriteria evaluation is conducted that identifies dissent among the experts. The results demonstrate that decentralized electricity generation can contribute to climate protection. The extent to which it simultaneously guarantees security of supply is still a matter of controversy. However, experts agree that technical and economic boundary conditions are of major importance in this field. In the final section, the article discusses the method employed here as well as implications for future decentralized energy supply. (author)

  11. Environmental Pollution,Fiscal Decentralization and China’s Economic Growth%环境污染、财政分权与中国经济增长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺俊; 刘亮亮; 唐述毅

    2016-01-01

    通过将环境污染强度和环境质量作为内生要素分别引入生产函数与效用函数,构建出带有环境污染约束的内生增长模型,探究了环境污染与经济增长之间的动态关系。基于2004—2012年中国31省的省际面板数据,考察了经济增长对环境污染的影响,研究发现:二氧化硫排放与实际人均 GDP 之间的关系正处于中国环境库兹涅茨曲线的上升阶段,离转折点尚有一段距离。在此基础上引进财政分权这一调节变量,研究发现:财政分权弱化了人均收入水平对环境污染的正向影响。%By taking environmental pollution intensity and environmental quality as endogenous factors,the production function and utility function were introduced respectively to build an endogenous growth model with environmental pollution constraints,and the dynamic relationship between environmental pollution and economic growth was explored.Then,based on China’s provincial panel data of 31 provinces from 2004 to 2012, the effect of economic growth on environment pollution was investigated,which suggested that the relationship between sulfur dioxide emissions and the actual GDP per capita is at a rising stage of Chinese environmental Kuznets curve,and there is still a distance from the turning point. On the basis of it,fiscal decentralization was introduced as a moderating variable, whose results indicated that fiscal decentralization weakens the positive effect of income level per capita on environmental pollution.

  12. Low Decision Space Means No Decentralization in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faguet, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Mohammed, North, and Ashton find that decentralization in Fiji shifted health-sector workloads from tertiary hospitals to peripheral health centres, but with little transfer of administrative authority from the centre. Decision-making in five functional areas analysed remains highly centralized. They surmise that the benefits of decentralization in terms of services and outcomes will be limited. This paper invokes Faguet’s (2012) model of local government responsiveness and accountability to explain why this is so – not only for Fiji, but in any country that decentralizes workloads but not the decision space of local governments. A competitive dynamic between economic and civic actors that interact to generate an open, competitive politics, which in turn produces accountable, responsive government can only occur where real power and resources have been devolved to local governments. Where local decision space is lacking, by contrast, decentralization is bound to fail because it has not really happened in the first place. PMID:27801361

  13. Indonesia's Decentralization After Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jun; Hofman, Bert

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, the Indonesian Parliament adopted two laws requiring that drastic decentralization measures be implemented in fiscal 2001 in a "big bang" fashion. Several lessons can be drawn from Indonesia's experience. 1) Ideally, decentralization should be managed so that the devolution of fiscal resources occurs in line with the devolution of spending. In reality, politics determines the devo...

  14. ADAPTING TO ENVIRONMENTAL AND URBANISATION STRESSORS: FARMER AND LOCAL ACTOR INNOVATION IN URBAN AND PERIURBAN AREAS IN CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Christopher; Chahine, Ghalia; Delusca, Kénel; Daouda, Oumarou; Doyon, Mélanie; Singh, Bhawan; Brklacich, Michael; Thomassin, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Urban and periurban agricultural producers have faced many stressors – both negative ones and positive ones – particularly from the mid-20th century onwards. They have included urban development pressures, exurban development, the evolving markets for the products of these producers – food and other products, and environmental challenges stemming from farming's own technologies. More recently, these stressors have been compounded by climate change and variability. The importance of the decisi...

  15. 财政分权、环境管制与污染治理%Fiscal Decentralization, Environmental Regulation and Pollution Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云雁

    2012-01-01

    Fiscal decentralization is the important institution impacting economic and social development in China, environmental regulation is the key factor promoting enterprise pollution control. In the financial decentralization system, the central government and the local government interests vary between the economic growth and environmental quality trade-offs. As environmental regulation implementation, local governments have motivation of sacrificing the quality of the environment to economic profit in economic incentives among governments. To encourage local governments to make better the implementation of environmental regulation, and prevent collusion between government and enterprises, the central government should establish the incentive and constraint mechanism of environmental regulation through paying the information rent and imposing fines on local government and enterprises.%财政分权是影响中国经济社会发展的重要制度改革,环境管制是推动企业污染治理的关键因素。在财政分权体制下,对于经济增长和环境质量的权衡取舍,中央政府和地方政府的利益诉求各有不同。地方政府作为环境管制的具体执行者,在政府间以经济激励为核心的竞争机制下,具有与企业“合谋”牺牲环境质量换取经济利益的动机。为激励地方政府更好地履行环境监管职责,约束政企合谋,中央政府可以通过向企业和地方政府支付信息租金和征收罚金,建立环境管制的激励约束机制。中国环境管制的实践具有加强中央集权模式的发展趋势,环境管制分权化的程度主要受企业减排成本差异、地区间发展水平和环境监测技术三方面因素的影响。现阶段,中国应转变以国内生产总值为核心的政府绩效考核评价体系,强化经济激励手段,提高政府补贴,积极开发环境在线监测技术,加大对环境违规的惩处力度,科学审核环境成本

  16. Amoebae as potential environmental hosts for Mycobacterium ulcerans and other mycobacteria, but doubtful actors in Buruli ulcer epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Gryseels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reservoir and mode of transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, remain unknown. Ecological, genetic and epidemiological information nonetheless suggests that M. ulcerans may reside in aquatic protozoa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We experimentally infected Acanthamoeba polyphaga with M. ulcerans and found that the bacilli were phagocytised, not digested and remained viable for the duration of the experiment. Furthermore, we collected 13 water, 90 biofilm and 45 detritus samples in both Buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic communities in Ghana, from which we cultivated amoeboid protozoa and mycobacteria. M. ulcerans was not isolated, but other mycobacteria were as frequently isolated from intracellular as from extracellular sources, suggesting that they commonly infect amoebae in nature. We screened the samples as well as the amoeba cultures for the M. ulcerans markers IS2404, IS2606 and KR-B. IS2404 was detected in 2% of the environmental samples and in 4% of the amoeba cultures. The IS2404 positive amoeba cultures included up to 5 different protozoan species, and originated both from Buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic communities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of experimental infection of amoebae with M. ulcerans and of the detection of the marker IS2404 in amoeba cultures isolated from the environment. We conclude that amoeba are potential natural hosts for M. ulcerans, yet remain sceptical about their implication in the transmission of M. ulcerans to humans and their importance in the epidemiology of Buruli ulcer.

  17. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    -supplier relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...... and understand actor rationalities. Finally managerial implications are discussed....

  18. Actor-Network Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Meadows, Catherine; Ramanujam, R.; Ramaswamy, Srini

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose actor-networks as a formal model of computation in heterogenous networks of computers, humans and their devices, where these new procedures run; and we introduce Procedure Derivation Logic (PDL) as a framework for reasoning about security in actor-networks, as an extension o

  19. Organizational decentralization in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    At present, most hospitals have a department of radiology where images are captured and interpreted. Decentralization is the opposite of centralization and means 'away from the centre'. With a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and broadband communications, transmitting radiology images between sites will be far easier than before. Qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons were performed in Norway. There was a response rate of 90%. Decentralization of radiology interpretations seems less relevant than centralization, but several forms of decentralization have a role to play. The respondents mentioned several advantages, including exploitation of capacity and competence. They also mentioned several disadvantages, including splitting professional communities and reduced contact between radiologists and clinicians. With the new technology decentralization and centralization of image interpretation are important possibilities in organizational change. This will be important for the future of teleradiology.

  20. Organizational decentralization in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    At present, most hospitals have a department of radiology where images are captured and interpreted. Decentralization is the opposite of centralization and means 'away from the centre'. With a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and broadband communications, transmitting radiology images between sites will be far easier than before. Qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons were performed in Norway. There was a response rate of 90%. Decentralization of radiology interpretations seems less relevant than centralization, but several forms of decentralization have a role to play. The respondents mentioned several advantages, including exploitation of capacity and competence. They also mentioned several disadvantages, including splitting professional communities and reduced contact between radiologists and clinicians. With the new technology decentralization and centralization of image interpretation are important possibilities in organizational change. This will be important for the future of teleradiology. PMID:16884560

  1. Indonesia; Managing Decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Ehtisham Ahmad; Ali M. Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    The process of decentralization in Indonesia was initiated after a long period of autocratic rule. Despite the political imperatives, there is a need to carefully sequence the fiscal decentralization to ensure that financing follows the assignment of functions. The functions should be commensurate with the capacity to provide public services. The paper argues for the proper sequencing to avoid jeopardizing macroeconomic stability or the effective delivery of public services.

  2. Decentralized energy studies: bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J.M.; Unseld, C.T.; Levine, A.; Silversmith, J.A.

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of literature on decentralized energy systems. It is arranged according to topical (e.g., lifestyle and values, institutions, and economics) and geographical scale to facilitate quick reference to specific areas of interest. Also included are articles by and about Amory B. Lovins who has played a pivotal role in making energy decentralization an important topic of national debate. Periodicals, other bibliographies, and directories are also listed.

  3. Decentralization and Natural Disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Goodspeed

    2013-01-01

    This paper surveys recent research on decentralization and natural disasters. The first part discusses results from theoretical models that have been used to study the issues that arise when natural disasters occur in a country with more than one level of government. The next section discusses the empirical results that have been found in the literature. A third section briefly touches upon practical problems that arise when decentralized governments are confronted with a natural disaster. Th...

  4. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  5. A clean and green ASEAN. The ASEAN as actor of multilateral environmental policy using the example of the international climate regime; A clean and green ASEAN. Die ASEAN als Akteur multiateraler Umweltpolitik am Beispiel des internationalen Klimaregimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobersalske, Katrin

    2014-07-01

    The book discusses the following issues. Fundamentals, international climate policy, institutional and procedural boundary conditions of ASEAN, compilation of the indicator list, climate policy of ASEAN. The chapter on the climate policy of ASEAN covers the following topics: the question of development of ASEAN, development of a regional environmental policy, the ASEAN as actor in the international climate policy, cooperation in case of trans-border haze pollution, energy cooperation.

  6. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff...... scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... Heathrow Airport. This study shows that decentralization generally increases the number of staff needed compared to centralized planning. The case study also shows that there is a trade-off between the extra staff needed and the quality of the stand allocation. Furthermore, the robustness of solutions...

  7. Fractal actors and infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom

    2011-01-01

    approaches and concepts such as social sorting (Lyon ed. 2003) and the surveillant assemblage (Haggerty & Ericson 2000), thus adding encouraging variety to a previously much more homogenous field. In the wake of this development, some have sought to bring the fruits of the successful actor-network...... argue that the concept fits nicely into the ANT-oriented situated surveillance approach (Gad & Lauritsen 2009), not because it explains surveillance, but because it brings empirical sensitivity to our efforts to understanding what comprises a surveillance actor, its network and its relations to those...

  8. The Rhetoric of Decentralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravitch, Diane

    1974-01-01

    Questions the rationale for and possible consequences of political decentralization of New York City. Suggests that the disadvantages--reduced level of professionalism, increased expense in multiple government operation, "stabilization" of residential segregation, necessity for budget negotiations because of public disclosure of tax structure and…

  9. MACROECONOMIC IMPACT OF DECENTRALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of decentralization has a variety of expressions, but the meaning generally accepted refers to the transfer of authority and responsibility of the public functions from central government to sub-national public entities or even to the private sector. Decentralization process is complex, affecting many aspects of social and economic life and public management, and its design and implementation cover several stages, depending on the cyclical and structural developments of the country. From an economic perspective, decentralization is seen as a means of primary importance in terms of improving the effectiveness and efficiency of public services and macroeconomic stability due to the redistribution of public finances while in a much closer logic of the government policy objectives. But the decentralization process behaves as well some risks, because it involves the implementation of appropriate mechanisms for the establishment of income and expenditure programming at the subnational level, which, if is not correlated with macroeconomic policy imperatives can lead to major imbalances, both financially as in termes of economic and social life. Equally, ensuring the balance of the budget at the local level is imperative to fulfill, this goal imposing a legal framework and specific procedures to size transfers of public funds, targeted or untargeted. Also, public and local authorities have to adopt appropriate laws and regulations such that sub-national public entities can access loans - such as bank loans or debentures from domestic or external market - in terms of a strict monitoring national financial stability. In all aspects of decentralization - political, administrative, financial -, public authorities should develop and implement the most effective mechanisms to coordinate macroeconomic objectives and both sectoral and local interests and establish clear responsibilities - exclusive or shared - for all parties involved in the

  10. Development Sociology. Actor Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Using case studies and empirical material from Africa and Latin America, Development Sociology focuses on the theoretical and methodological foundations of an actor-oriented and social constructionist form of analysis. This style of analysis is opposed to the traditional structuralist/institutional

  11. Transformations of the Political Communication in Social Media Era – from Mediatization to Decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Tasente

    2014-01-01

    The political communication in media era performs on two dimensions: the horizontal dimension – between political actors and journalists – and on vertical dimension – the media product is decentralized to the consumer public. In Social Media Era, the horizontal dimension completely disappears and the communication is routed by the online opinion leaders in the social groups. Thus, in the new public space, the main communication actors are not journalists and politicians, but publi...

  12. Decentralized Portfolio Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Miranda Tabak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We use a mean-variance model to analyze the problem of decentralized portfolio management. We find the solution for the optimal portfolio allocation for a head trader operating in n different markets, which is called the optimal centralized portfolio. However, as there are many traders specialized in different markets, the solution to the problem of optimal decentralized allocation should be different from the centralized case. In this paper we derive conditions for the solutions to be equivalent. We use multivariate normal returns and a negative exponential function to solve the problem analytically. We generate the equivalence of solutions by assuming that different traders face different interest rates for borrowing and lending. This interest rate is dependent on the ratio of the degrees of risk aversion of the trader and the head trader, on the excess return, and on the correlation between asset returns.

  13. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the sta...

  14. Medication as Infrastructure: Decentring Self-care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danholt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on science and technology studies (STS, and specifically the concept of infrastructure as conceptualised by Bowker and Star (2000; Star 1999, this paper argues and empirically demonstrates that self-care may be considered a practice that is thoroughly sociotechnical, material, distributed and de-centred. Comparing the practices related to medication in the treatment of asthma, type 2 diabetes and haemophilia, we show that in practice there is no ‘self’ in self-care. More specifically, the ‘self’ in self-care is an actor who is highly dependent on, and intertwined with infrastructures of care, in order to be self-caring. Infrastructures of care are the more or less embedded ‘tracks’ along which care may ‘run’, shaping and being shaped by actors and settings along the way. Obtaining prescriptions, going to the pharmacy, bringing medication home and administering it as parts of daily life are commonplace activities embedded in the fabric of life, especially for those living with a chronic condition. However, this procurement and emplacement of medication involves the establishment and ongoing enactment of infrastructures of care, that is, the connections between various actors and locations that establish caring spaces and caring selves. Locations and actors are included as allies in treating chronic conditions outside the clinical setting, but these infrastructures may also be ambiguous, with respect to their effects; they may simultaneously contribute to the condition’s management and neglect. Particularly precarious is management at the fringes of healthcare infrastructure, where allies, routines and general predictability are scarce. We conclude by arguing that these insights may induce a greater sensitivity to existing infrastructures and practices, when seeking to introduce new infrastructures of care, such as those promoted under the headings of ‘telemedicine’ and ‘healthcare IT’.

  15. Economic and environmental benefits analysis of decentralized heating using biomass gasification gas in rural area%农村生物质气化燃气分散供暖经济和环境效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周卫红; 陈冠益; 马隆龙; 颜蓓蓓; 夏宗鹏

    2014-01-01

    为了充分利用农业废弃物资源,改善北方农村冬季供暖条件,该文对生物质气化燃气分散式供暖技术进行了经济和环境效益分析,探讨其在农村供暖中的可行性。生物质气化分散式供暖具有节约能源、减少大气污染、温度调节方便等优点。通过借鉴天然气分散式供暖的研究成果和对生物质气分散式供暖进行分析,结果表明采取分段式控温、分房间控温和建筑物节能改造等手段可将供暖费用降到合理水平,基本与城市供暖费用相同。通过该文分析可知生物质气化燃气分散式供暖可以作为农村供暖的一种新模式。%The economic and environmental benefits of decentralized heating technology produced by burning gas through the biomass gasification method were analyzed in this paper. The whole decentralized heating system can be divided into three sections. In the first section, the biomass is converted into the biomass gasification gas (i.e., combustible gas). In the second, pipelines are adopted through which the biomass gasification gas is transported to the user’s home. Indoor heating pipes consist of the third section, which connect the transporting pipelines with a gas-heating stove located at the user’s home. The economic estimation shows that the heating cost is 37.59 yuan per square meter in rural areas during a heating period with this kind of decentralized heating system, which is higher than the heating cost in cities. But the decentralized heating method has many other advantages, such as saving energy, easy charging, easy adjusting of the temperature, reducing gas costs, and simultaneous hot water supply. The decentralized heating cost is charged by gas consumption. Thus, household heat meters should be installed for measuring the gas consumption;and accordingly, the charge calculation can be obtained for heating enterprises. Users can easily adjust the indoor temperature in different periods

  16. Building social infrastructure for decentralized NRM

    OpenAIRE

    Keith M. Moore; Cissé, Salmana; Touré, A.

    2006-01-01

    Metadata only record In this round table, we describe the process, successes and failures associated with developing a new platform (community-based natural resource management committee) for an ethnically diverse population (involving CSO, NGO, and government stakeholders) in the context of West African decentralization and supportive of local NRM decision making and practice consistent with environmental and socio-cultural conditions. The objective of the effort was focused on raising aw...

  17. Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Discusses fiscal decentralization and economic development in developed and developing countries. Explores historical trends in fiscal centralization and puts them in context of the developing countries.

  18. Decentralization of place brand communication

    OpenAIRE

    Дубейковский, В. А.; Dubeykovskiy, V.

    2013-01-01

    Each place has a huge number of stakeholders. This article will make an introduction to the topic of decentralization of place brand communication and provide relevant examples of country, city and district branding. By decentralization the author means the process of uncontrollable place brand communication by various stakeholders.

  19. On Decentralization and Life Satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2008-01-01

    We empirically analyze the impact of fiscal and political decentralization on subjective well-being in a cross-section of 60,000 individuals from 66 countries. More spending or revenue decentralization raises well-being while greater local autonomy is beneficial only via government consumption...

  20. Subsidiarity in Principle: Decentralization of Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Stoa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The subsidiarity principle of water resources management suggests that water management and service delivery should take place at the lowest appropriate governance level. The principle is attractive for several reasons, primarily because: 1 the governance level can be reduced to reflect environmental characteristics, such as the hydrological borders of a watershed that would otherwise cross administrative boundaries; 2 decentralization promotes community and stakeholder engagement when decision-making is localized; 3 inefficiencies are reduced by eliminating reliance on central government bureaucracies and budgetary constraints; and 4 laws and institutions can be adapted to reflect localized conditions at a scale where integrated natural resources management and climate change adaptation is more focused. Accordingly, the principle of subsidiarity has been welcomed by many states committed to decentralized governance, integrated water resources management, and/or civic participation. However, applications of decentralization have not been uniform, and in some cases have produced frustrating outcomes for states and water resources. Successful decentralization strategies are heavily dependent on dedicated financial resources and human resource capacity. This article explores the nexus between the principle of subsidiarity and the enabling environment, in the hope of articulating factors likely to contribute to, or detract from, the success of decentralized water resources management. Case studies from Haiti, Rwanda, and the United States’ Florida Water Management Districts provide examples of the varied stages of decentralization.

  1. Centralized versus Decentralized Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugoson, Mats-Åke

    This paper brings into question whether information systems should be centralized or decentralized in order to provide greater support for different business processes. During the last century companies and organizations have used different approaches for centralization and decentralization; a simple answer to the question does not exist. This paper provides a survey of the evolution of centralized and decentralized approaches, mainly in a Nordic perspective. Based on critical reflections on the situation in the end of the century we can discuss what we can learn from history to achieve alignment between centralized and decentralized systems and the business structure. The conclusion is that theories, management and practice for decisions on centralization or decentralization of information systems must be improved. A conscious management and control of centralization /decentralization of IT support is a vital question in the company or the organization, and this is not a task that can be handled only by IT-specialists. There is a need for business oriented IT management of centralization/decentralization.

  2. Coalition or decentralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdiraji, Hannan Amoozad; Govindan, Kannan; Zavadskas, Edmundas Kazimieras;

    2014-01-01

    to enforce marketing effort any more. Supplier-manufacturer integration brings similar benefits. Under each scenario, all parties involved simultaneously set their strategies. Through a numerical experiment, 17 design cases (through designing experiments) have been developed and the total profit......Supply chains have become the major and dominant paradigm of business and competition. The main challenge is how to act in multi-echelon supply chains considering the levels involved. Making a choice independently or integrating with some or all levels will be a critical decision, and therefore...... retailers. The Nash equilibrium and definition are used bearing in mind inventory and pricing and marketing cost as decision variables for this matter. This paper studies a three-echelon supply chain network and focuses on the value of integrating a pair of partners in the chain. In the decentralized case...

  3. Decentring the Creative Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lubart, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Since its inception, the psychology of creativity has been concerned primarily with the study of individual creators. In contrast, this research is dedicated to an exploration of (a) who has a significant impact on a creative professional's activity and (b) what the contribution is that others make...... to creative outcomes. The research included interviews with 60 professionals working in science and creative industries in France. The following categories of others emerged: family and friends, peers and students, clients and funders, critics and gatekeepers, and the general public – and they were related...... and informational role in relation to creative work. From ‘internalized’ to ‘distant’, other people are an integral part of the equation of creativity calling for a de-centring of the creative self and its re-centring in a social space of actions and interactions....

  4. Variance Adjusted Actor Critic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar, Aviv; Mannor, Shie

    2013-01-01

    We present an actor-critic framework for MDPs where the objective is the variance-adjusted expected return. Our critic uses linear function approximation, and we extend the concept of compatible features to the variance-adjusted setting. We present an episodic actor-critic algorithm and show that it converges almost surely to a locally optimal point of the objective function.

  5. Decentralization Calls for Internal Audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCello, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Outlines internal-auditing strategies necessitated by decentralization. Describes the following areas of concern: the student activities account, student attendance, and funding delegated to the site level. Guidelines for conducting an internal audit are also included. (LMI)

  6. Fiscal decentralization and fiscal discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Çakır, Nida

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In this thesis, the effects of fiscal procedures, fiscal centralization and fiscal decentralization, on fiscal discipline are analyzed in a theoretical framework. A model of two optimization problems is established: central government’s optimization problem and local government’s optimization problem representing the two fiscal procedures; fiscal centralization and fiscal decentralization respectively. Comparative static analysis is per...

  7. The Infrastructure Gap and Decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Andres; Dan Biller; Jordan Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an economic logic for underpinning decentralization in the infrastructure sectors. It starts by detailing the definition of the infrastructure gap and the methodologies to calculate it. It provides some global trends for developing countries in terms of the gap and briefly discusses financing possibilities for developing countries to address the gap. Then it turns to the discussion of the link between the infrastructure gap and decentralization, providing a typology infras...

  8. Decentralized Bribery and Market Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    I propose a bribery model that examines decentralized bureaucratic decisionmaking. There are multiple stable equilibria. High levels of bribery reduce an economy's productivity because corruption suppresses small business, and reduces the total graft even though individual bribe size might increase. Decentralization prevents movement towards a Pareto-dominant equilibrium. Anti-corruption efforts, even temporary ones, might be useful to improve participation if they lower demanded bribe levels...

  9. The moral problem of worse actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals and institutions sometimes have morally stringent reasons to not do a given action. For example, an oil company might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing revenue to a genocidal regime, or an engineer might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing her expertise in the development of weapons of mass destruction. But in some cases, if the agent does not do the action, another actor will do it with much worse consequences. For example, the oil company might know their assets will be bought by a company with worse environmental and labor practices. Or the engineer might know her position will be filled by a more ambitious and amoral engineer. I call this the moral problem of worse actors (MPWA. MPWA gives reason, at least some of the time, to consider otherwise morally impermissible actions permissible or even obligatory. On my account, doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA remains morally objectionable even if permissible or obligatory, and this brings additional moral responsibilities and obligations to the actor. Similarly, not doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA may also bring additional (but different moral responsibilities and obligations. Acknowledging MPWA creates considerable challenges, as many bad actors may appeal to it to justify morally objectionable action. In this paper, I develop a set of strategies for individuals and institutions to handle MPWA. This includes appeals to integrity and the proper attribution of expressive responsibility, regulatory responsibility, and compensatory responsibility. I also address a set of related concerns, including worries about incentivizing would-be bad actors, concerns about epistemic uncertainty, and the problem of mala in se exceptions.

  10. Local authorities and electricity: territories, actors and issues within the local public service in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, the role of local authorities in the organization of the electricity supply system is largely unknown mainly due to the size of the state-owned utility Electricite de France (EDF). Local authorities and their groupings played a major role in the electrification of the national territory and have kept important prerogatives as conceding authorities of this service of general interest. These groupings also became the tools of the soft power of local actors. The geopolitical analysis of the relationships between local municipalities and electric power stakeholders shows the diversity of actors and opinions. Stuck between market liberalization issues and decentralization to local authorities, these groupings tend to reinforce their competencies. Furthermore, decentralization goes along with a reinforcement of the political involvement in local energy policy and with conflicts on the adequate territorial scale for theses policies. (author)

  11. An actor manages: Actor training and managerial ideology

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, BDV

    2014-01-01

    This article reads the development of psychologically based actor training against larger changes in the organisation of work in North America and Europe in the twentieth century. Konstantin Stanislavky's System and later adaptations including the American Method are wrapped into a larger ideology of individual self-management and discipline – mental, physical, and emotional – that accompanies the emergent managerial class of the post-war era. An actor is an ideal manager, and therefore prefi...

  12. Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative data from a study of board games , computer games, and exergames, we conclude that games are actors that produce experiences by exercising power over the user’ s abilities, for example their cognitive...

  13. Hacia un entrenamiento del actor

    OpenAIRE

    Urieta Lago, Amparo

    2010-01-01

    Esta investigación está basada en la intención de crear una guía de entrenamiento para el actor, que busca asumir un compromiso con su cuerpo, como instrumento para la creación escénica. El trabajo del actor-actriz está irremediablemente vinculado a su cuerpo, todo lo humano se enmarca en un cuerpo vivido, en el espacio y en el tiempo, no es algo neutral. Sabemos que cada actor-actriz, tiene una noción de su esquema corporal, entendiendo por esquema corporal la representación en imágenes de l...

  14. Robust Decentralized Formation Flight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Weihua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the idea of multiplexed model predictive control (MMPC, this paper introduces a new framework for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs formation flight and coordination. Formulated using MMPC approach, the whole centralized formation flight system is considered as a linear periodic system with control inputs of each UAV subsystem as its periodic inputs. Divided into decentralized subsystems, the whole formation flight system is guaranteed stable if proper terminal cost and terminal constraints are added to each decentralized MPC formulation of the UAV subsystem. The decentralized robust MPC formulation for each UAV subsystem with bounded input disturbances and model uncertainties is also presented. Furthermore, an obstacle avoidance control scheme for any shape and size of obstacles, including the nonapriorily known ones, is integrated under the unified MPC framework. The results from simulations demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully achieve robust collision-free formation flights.

  15. 中国式财政分权、公众参与和环境规制--基于1997-2011年中国30个省份的实证研究%China’s Fiscal Decentralization, Public Participation and Environmental Regulation:An Empirical Study Based on 30 Provinces from 1997 to 2011 in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩云; 郭艳青

    2015-01-01

    Selecting the relevant data in 30 provinces of China from 1997 to 2011, using dynamic panel model, this paper makes an analysis on the influence of China’s fiscal decentralization and public participation on environmental regulation. The results show that:at present, public participation has an indirect impact on the level of environmental regulation under the case of China’s fiscal decentralization, and its direct impact is not significant. Fiscal decentralization is not conducive to the improvement of the level of local environmental regulations, and the reduction of decentralization is conducive to public partici-pation. Accordingly, it is suggested that the central government should appropriately participate in local environmental man-agement in the process of local decentralization. In the promotion of local officials, the central government should take the public demands for the local environment into consideration. In addition, the government should endow the public with more rights to participate in environmental management, and give full play to public influence on local environmental policy.%选取中国30个省份1997—2011年的相关数据,运用动态面板模型回归分析中国式财政分权和公众参与对环境规制水平的影响发现:目前,公众参与通过中国式财政分权间接影响着地方的环境规制水平,其直接影响并不显著;财政分权不利于地方环境规制水平的提高;分权程度的降低有利于公众参与作用的发挥。因此,中央政府在对地方进行分权时,应该适当参与地方环境的管理,在对地方官员进行提拔时,也要考虑公众对地方环境的诉求。另外,政府要增加公众直接参与环境管理的权利,充分发挥公众对地方环境政策的影响。

  16. Financial Decentralization Reflected in the Revenues and Expenses of Local Budgets in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe MATEI; Olivia MANOLE

    2014-01-01

    Decentralization process, due to its inter-sectoral feature, is a very difficult process and requires constant coordination between the actors involved, as well as the undertaking by them, including by the recipients (local public administration authorities), of the measures agreed on. Thus,for this process to be successfully implemented, the transfer of administrative responsibilities must be correlated with that of the financial resources.

  17. Financial Decentralization Reflected in the Revenues and Expenses of Local Budgets in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization process, due to its inter-sectoral feature, is a very difficult process and requires constant coordination between the actors involved, as well as the undertaking by them, including by the recipients (local public administration authorities, of the measures agreed on. Thus,for this process to be successfully implemented, the transfer of administrative responsibilities must be correlated with that of the financial resources.

  18. Decentralized Decision-Making. ERS Information Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Janet F.

    In this paper, the current debate over decentralized decisionmaking is highlighted and facts, figures, and models based on a recent nationwide survey are presented. Decentralization in decisionmaking is defined as the involvement of building-level principals in district-wide decisions. Advantages and disadvantages of decentralization, the nature…

  19. Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    data from a study of board games , computer games, and exergames, we conclude that games are actors that produce experiences by exercising power over the user’ s abilities, for example their cognitive functions. Games are designed to take advantage of the characteristics of the human players......When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative...

  20. Decentralization and Environment: An Application to Water Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Valiñas, Maria Angeles

    2005-01-01

    By means of a two-jurisdictional model, this paper analyses the optimal division of environmental policymaking functions among the different government levels, identifying the most appropriate level of decentralization in each case. The paper focuses on water resources policies, with an application to Spanish regions during the 1996-2001 period. The estimation of an environmental quality-consumption transformation function allows the implementation of a simulation to find the most efficient p...

  1. Computerized Systems: Centralized or Decentralized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Linda Ludington

    1985-01-01

    Computerized management information systems have long been used in business, and data integration and sophisticated programing now enable many businesses to decentralize their information operations. This approach has advantages and disadvantages that colleges and universities must weigh and plan for carefully. (MSE)

  2. FYR Macedonia : Decentralization Status Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    To institutionalize the decentralization elements of the peace settlement in Macedonia, the Framework Agreement calls for specific changes in the Constitution, and three specific items of legislation: a new law on local governments specifying the functions they are to assume, a local finance law specifying how these functions are to be financed, and, a law revising the boundaries of local ...

  3. DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF DECENTRALIZATION POLICY MAKING PROCESS OF PROTECTED FOREST MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistya Ekawati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ”Decentralization of protected forest management from central to district government has not yet been implemented effectively. This effectiveness depends on many factors that include policy contents and political process or discourse in the policy making process. This study aimsto: 1 analyze the discourse in policy making process of decentralization in the management of protected forests, 2 analyze the actors/networks and their interests and 3 find out policy space for future policy reform. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used in the study. The results show that there are three discourses in the policy-making process of decentralized management of protected forests, namely: i democratic discourse (with story line of externality and accountability, supported by an association forum of Indonesian district government and  decentralization experts; ii economic discourse (with story line of efficiency, supported by businessmen, Association of Indonesian Provincial Government and World Bank; and iii democratic and economic discourses. The House of Representatives (DPR and Ministry of Home Affairs have authorities and capacities to integrate two discourses. Redefining of externality and interdependency can be used as narratives of new policies to improve the policy of decentralized protected forest management.

  4. Financial management systems under decentralization and their effect on malaria control in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivumbi, George W; Nangendo, Florence; Ndyabahika, Boniface Rutagira

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive case study with multiple sites and a single level of analysis was carried out in four purposefully selected administrative districts of Uganda to investigate the effect of financial management systems under decentralization on malaria control. Data were primarily collected from 36 interviews with district managers, staff at health units and local leaders. A review of records and documents related to decentralization at the central and district level was also used to generate data for the study. We found that a long, tedious, and bureaucratic process combined with lack of knowledge in working with new financial systems by several actors characterized financial flow under decentralization. This affected the timely use of financial resources for malaria control in that there were funds in the system that could not be accessed for use. We were also told that sometimes these funds were returned to the central government because of non-use due to difficulties in accessing them and/or stringent conditions not to divert them to other uses. Our data showed that a cocktail of bureaucratic control systems, corruption and incompetence make the financial management system under decentralization counter-productive for malaria control. The main conclusion is that good governance through appropriate and efficient financial management systems is very important for effective malaria control under decentralization.

  5. Self-Recovering Sensor-Actor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kamali, Maryam; Petre, Luigia; Sere, Kaisa; 10.4204/EPTCS.30.4

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor-actor networks are a recent development of wireless networks where both ordinary sensor nodes and more sophisticated and powerful nodes, called actors, are present. In this paper we formalize a recently introduced algorithm that recovers failed actor communication links via the existing sensor infrastructure. We prove via refinement that the recovery is terminating in a finite number of steps and is distributed, thus self-performed by the actors. Most importantly, we prove that the recovery can be done at different levels, via different types of links, such as direct actor links or indirect links between the actors, in the latter case reusing the wireless infrastructure of sensors. This leads to identifying coordination classes, e.g., for delegating the most security sensitive coordination to the direct actor-actor coordination links, the least real-time constrained coordination to indirect links, and the safety critical coordination to both direct actor links and indirect sensor paths between...

  6. DESAR - decentralized sanitation and reuse. 30. Sewage seminar; 13. DECHEMA expert discussion on environmental protection; DESAR - Kleine Klaeranlagen und Wasserwiederverwendung. 30. Abwassertechnisches Seminar; 13. DECHEMA-Fachgespraech Umweltschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilderer, P.A.; Paris, S.; Wiesner, J. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    Historically, domestic wastewaters are collected in large sewerage networks, transporting the waste from the site of production to the site of treatment (if implemented). For such systems, large civil and infra-structural investments (like electricity supply) are required, generally paid by the authorities from the tax income. In addition, in order to prevent clogging, a substantial amount of clean, and often potable, water is required which subsequently results in a dilution of the concentrated waste. The treatment systems, which need to be, developed to treat the huge flows of diluted wastewater, are extremely expensive and consume large amounts of energy. Moreover, the installed sewerage often suffers from lack of maintenance leading to huge losses of wastewater (particularly in the less prosperous countries). From the environmental engineering point of view, the generally applied centralised sanitation concept can be questioned. Concentrated wastes are relatively easy to manage while diluted wastes require large investments for purification. Obviously, many places are already served with sewer systems and a certain extent of sewerage will always be needed. Nonetheless, the extent to which this will be brought to practice needs reconsideration. This applies for a more decentralised approach. Also when decentralised sanitation and reuse (DESAR) is applied, different approaches are possible. It should become clear that the choice for the collection and transport system would determine for an important part the subsequent treatment and reuse. At the other hand the type of use, will determine the extent of treatment. The types of reuse will for important parts determine the extent of post treatment needed especially the removal of pathogens. (orig.)

  7. An Empirical Analysis on the Impact of Fiscal Decentralization on Environmental Pollution in China%财政分权对中国环境污染影响程度的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛钢; 潘孝珍

    2012-01-01

    财政分权体现了中央政府和地方政府间的财政权力分配关系,它可以通过支出分权度和收入分权度两个指标进行衡量.从理论上分析,大多数研究结论都认为财政分权与污染量排放存在负激励,但是缺乏相应的实证研究.本文利用1998年到2009年的省级面板数据,对中国财政分权与污染物排放规模之间的关系进行了实证分析.本文选取工业废气排放量、工业固体废弃物排放量、工业废水排放量和二氧化硫排放量作为衡量污染物排放规模的指标,选择支出分权度与收入分权度作为解释变量,选择人均GDP、人口密度、城市化水平、外商投资总额、工业化水平作为控制变量.本文还将所有省份按照地理位置划分为东部和中西部两组进行稳健性检验.研究结果表明:以支出分权度衡量的财政分权指标与污染物排放规模负相关,且实证结果具有稳健性,以收入分权度衡量的财政分权指标与污染物排放规模的关系从实证的角度来讲不确定.%Fiscal decentralization reflects the distribution financial power between the central government and local government. It can be measured through the two indicators which are expenditure decentralization and revenue decentralization. From the theoretical analysis, most studies have concluded that there is a negative incentive between the fiscal decentralization and the amount of pollutant discharge, but lacks the empirical research. Utilizing the provincial panel data from 1998 to 2009, this paper carried on the empirical analysis about the relationship between China' s fiscal decentralization and the scale of pollutant discharge. The industrial waste gas discharge amount, industrial solid wastes discharge amount, industrial waste water discharge amount and sulfur dioxide discharge amount were selected as the indicators to measure the scale of pollutant discharge in the paper. The paper selected the expenditure

  8. Multi-vehicle decentralized fusion and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fallah, A.; Zatezalo, A.; Mahler, R.; Mehra, R. K.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a decentralized fusion and tracking based on a distributed multi-source multitarget filtering and robust communication with the following features: (i) data reduction; (ii) a disruption tolerant dissemination procedure that takes advantage of storage and mobility; and (iii) efficient data set reconciliation algorithms. We developed and implemented complex high-fidelity marine application demonstration of this approach that encompasses all relevant environmental parameters. In the simulated example, multi-source information is fused by exploiting sensors from disparate Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUV) and Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) multi-sensor platforms. Communications among the platforms are continuously establishing and breaking depending on the time-changing geometry. We compare and evaluate the developed algorithms by assessing their performance against different scenarios.

  9. Decentralization and REDD+ in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Toni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent discussions on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks have raised optimism about reducing carbon emissions and deforestation in tropical countries. If approved under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, REDD+ mechanisms may generate a substantial influx of financial resources to developing countries. Some authors argue that this money could reverse the ongoing process of decentralization of forest policies that has spread through a large number of developing countries in the past two decades. Central states will be accountable for REDD+ money, and may be compelled to control and keep a significant share of REDD+ funds. Supporters of decentralization argue that centralized implementation of REDD+ will be ineffective and inefficient. In this paper, I examine the relation between subnational governments and REDD+ in Brazil. Data show that some state governments in the Brazilian Amazon have played a key role in creating protected areas (PAs after 2003, which helped decrease deforestation rates. Governors have different stimuli for creating PAs. Some respond to the needs of their political constituency; others have expectations to boost the forest sector so as to increase fiscal revenues. Governors also have led the discussion on REDD+ in Brazil since 2008. Considering their interests and political power, REDD+ is unlikely to curb decentralization in Brazil.

  10. Decentralization, Social Capital and Regional Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, Luciano; Pigliaru, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    By studying the interaction between social capital and decentralization, we show that political decentralization can be a source of divergence across heterogeneous regions. In particular, we claim that since the local endowments of social capital display their effect on the economy mainly through the functioning of local institutions, decentralization enhances (hampers) growth wherever social capital is high (low). We define our hypothesis within a growth model with public capital, and use th...

  11. Voting, Lobbying, and the Decentralization Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    This paper revisits the fiscal "decentralization theorem", by relaxing the role of the assumption that governments are benevolent, while retaining the assumption of policy uniformity. If instead, decisions are made by direct majority voting, (i) centralization can welfare-dominate decentralization even if there are no externalities and regions are heterogenous; (ii) decentralization can welfare-dominate centralization even if there are positive externalities and regions are hom...

  12. Decentralized Service Orchestration by Continuous Message Passing

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jayaprakash; M Shanmugam; Manikandan, P.; S. SHIVARAJ

    2010-01-01

    Decentralized service stands for distributing segments of workflow among various workflow engines, and workflow has set of activities responsible for invoking Web Services. Decentralized Orchestration holds an upper hand over Centralized Orchestration in producing optimal solutions in terms of scalability and network traffic by overcoming inefficient routing of messages. Although decentralized orchestration being more optimal in scalability it lacks in very significant part of web services an...

  13. Subsidiarity in Principle: Decentralization of Water Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Stoa

    2014-01-01

    The subsidiarity principle of water resources management suggests that water management and service delivery should take place at the lowest appropriate governance level. The principle is attractive for several reasons, primarily because: 1) the governance level can be reduced to reflect environmental characteristics, such as the hydrological borders of a watershed that would otherwise cross administrative boundaries; 2) decentralization promotes community and stakeholder engagement when deci...

  14. The material politics of waste disposal - decentralization and integrated systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Harvey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article and the previous «Convergence and divergence between the local and regional state around solid waste management. An unresolved problem in the Sacred Valley» from Teresa Tupayachi are published as complementary accounts on the management of solid waste in the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco. Penelope Harvey and Teresa Tupayachi worked together on this theme. The present article explores how discontinuities across diverse instances of the state are experienced and understood. Drawing from an ethnographic study of the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco, the article looks at the material politics of waste disposal in neoliberal times. Faced with the problem of how to dispose of solid waste, people from Cusco experience a lack of institutional responsibility and call for a stronger state presence. The article describes the efforts by technical experts to design integrated waste management systems that maximise the potential for re-cycling, minimise toxic contamination, and turn ‘rubbish’ into the altogether more economically lively category of ‘solid waste’. However while the financialization of waste might appear to offer an indisputable public good, efforts to instigate a viable waste disposal business in a decentralizing political space elicit deep social tensions and contradictions. The social discontinuities that decentralization supports disrupt ambitions for integrated solutions as local actors resist top-down models and look not just for alternative solutions, but alternative ways of framing the problem of urban waste, and by extension their relationship to the state.

  15. Interaction of simulated actors with the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, H.W.M.; Charrel, PJ; Galarreta, D

    2007-01-01

    The current chapter explores the possibilities of an improvement of the interaction of an ACT-R actor with its environment including other actors. This is done in the framework of a project aiming at a multi-actor simulation enviromnent based on the ACT-R architecture. Two objections against traditi

  16. The role of various actors in achieving the administrative decentralization process......

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana CASTRAŞAN

    2016-01-01

    Under the current conditions, when all attention is paid to primary tasks of rule of law, cultural and economic development, strengthening of rule of law in society, role of public administration prevail as the main task of the state. The public administrations system it is inseparably linked to the implementation of state policy through the activities they perform. In particular, it emphasizes the role of local authorities as a basic factor of the localities development and ac...

  17. Decentralization and Economic Growth per capita in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Crucq, Pieter; Hemminga, Hendrik-Jan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between decentralization and economic growth is investigated. The focus is on decentralization from the national government to the highest substate level in a country, which we define as regional decentralization. Section 2 discusses the different dimensions of decentralization. Political decentralization refers to the degree to which central governments allow non-central government entities to implement certain political functions. Fiscal decentralization in a ...

  18. The Grenelle de l'Environnement - actors, discourses, effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes an abstract of a collective publication which aimed at assessing the effects of the French environmental policy 'Grenelle de l'Environnement', its methodological originality and its consequences in terms of environmental public policies. The authors propose a sociological analysis of the about thousand five hundred involved actors, a thorough analysis of discourses, and an inventory of effects in three specific fields

  19. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature of the ...... actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  20. Wage Dispersion and Decentralization of Wage Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; le Maire, Christian Daniel; Munch, Jakob R.

    2013-01-01

    's wage-setting system that facilitates identification of the effects of decentralization. We find a wage premium associated with firm-level bargaining relative to sector-level bargaining and that the return to skills is higher under the more decentralized wage-setting systems. Using quantile regression...

  1. 财政分权、政治晋升与环境冲突--基于省级空间面板数据的实证检验%Fiscal Decentralization,Political Promotion and Environmental Conflict---An Empirical Analysis Based on Spatial Panel Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田艳芳

    2015-01-01

    本文从财政分权、政治晋升的角度分析了地方政府治理结构存在诱发环境冲突的机制,并使用1998—2011年省级面板数据构建空间计量模型检验财政分权、政治晋升与环境冲突的关系。研究发现,财政分权是环境冲突产生的重要制度性原因;政治晋升对环境冲突的影响是双面的;相较市场失灵,环境冲突更多反映的是政府失灵。在上述基础上,本文提出了相关对策与建议。%Environmental pollution is a cause of environmental conflict,but the government's lack of envi-ronmental services and the dereliction of duty of social management is the main cause.Using provincial panel data from 1998 to 2011 to build the spatial econometric model,this paper test the relationship between fiscal decentralization,political advancement and environmental conflicts.The research shows that fiscal decentrali-zation is an important institutional reason of causing the environment conflict.Fiscal decentralization gives the local government great autonomy in fiscal revenue and expenditure.Tax reform since 1994 increased the spending pressure of local government,which makes the local government emphasize growth while neglecting the public service.Political promotion impacts the environment conflict in two directions,on the one hand, the local government competes neglects the environmental services and social management which can induce environment conflict,while stability assessment has certain inhibitory effect on the environment conflict.The study also finds that the relationship between environmental conflicts and per capita income is inverted u -shaped.Compared with market failure,the environmental conflicts more reflect the government failure.The research has important influence on the governance structure of local government.Further financial reform should be based on the governance responsibilities,and political assessment should fully consider factors of public service

  2. Challenges to the implementation of health sector decentralization in Tanzania: experiences from Kongwa district council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasto Frumence

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the 1990s, the government of Tanzania introduced the decentralization by devolution (D by D approach involving the transfer of functions, power and authority from the centre to the local government authorities (LGAs to improve the delivery of public goods and services, including health services. Objective: This article examines and documents the experiences facing the implementation of decentralization of health services from the perspective of national and district officials. Design: The study adopted a qualitative approach, and data were collected using semi-structured interviews and were analysed for themes and patterns. Results: The results showed several benefits of decentralization, including increased autonomy in local resource mobilization and utilization, an enhanced bottom-up planning approach, increased health workers’ accountability and reduction of bureaucratic procedures in decision making. The findings also revealed several challenges which hinder the effective functioning of decentralization. These include inadequate funding, untimely disbursement of funds from the central government, insufficient and unqualified personnel, lack of community participation in planning and political interference. Conclusion: The article concludes that the central government needs to adhere to the principles that established the local authorities and grant more autonomy to them, offer special incentives to staff working in the rural areas and create the capacity for local key actors to participate effectively in the planning process.

  3. tradicional: Conflictos y actores laborales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Lucena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo forma parte de una línea de investigación más general que se ocupa de analizar las transformaciones en las Relaciones de Trabajo. El presente documento centra su atención en los cambios que experimenta la Organización del Trabajo y como ellos repercuten en la conflictividad laboral. Se parte de reconocer que la relación capital-trabajo es de naturaleza conflictiva, pero que los mecanismos de convivencia entre las partes y todo el marco regulatorio, permiten y facilitan el desenvolvimiento y la convivencia productiva. Sin embargo, los cambios en la Organización del Trabajo que reducen la fuerza de trabajo y lesionan conquistas históricas de los trabajadores, estimulan el desarrollo de conflictos colectivos, los que materializan en tanto existan constituidos los actores laborales. En el proceso de investigación seguido en esta línea, se revisa la literatura pertinente, se analizan casos de la realidad laboral venezolana reciente vía hemeroteca y entrevistas, privilegiándose la huelga de Sidor en el 2004. Se concluye, destacando que los cambios que paulatinamente se emprenden desde la empresa para modificar la Organización del Trabajo, erosionan la capacidad de respuesta de los actores laborales representativos de los trabajadores.

  4. Centralized versus Decentralized Infrastructure Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hines, Paul D H; Schläpfer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    While many large infrastructure networks, such as power, water, and natural gas systems, have similar physical properties governing flows, these systems tend to have distinctly different sizes and topological structures. This paper seeks to understand how these different size-scales and topological features can emerge from relatively simple design principles. Specifically, we seek to describe the conditions under which it is optimal to build decentralized network infrastructures, such as a microgrid, rather than centralized ones, such as a large high-voltage power system. While our method is simple it is useful in explaining why sometimes, but not always, it is economical to build large, interconnected networks and in other cases it is preferable to use smaller, distributed systems. The results indicate that there is not a single set of infrastructure cost conditions under which optimally-designed networks will have highly centralized architectures. Instead, as costs increase we find that average network size...

  5. Decentralization and Economic Growth per capita in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crucq, Pieter; Hemminga, Hendrik-Jan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between decentralization and economic growth is investigated. The focus is on decentralization from the national government to the highest substate level in a country, which we define as regional decentralization. Section 2 discusses the different dimensions of decentr

  6. Wind Farm Decentralized Dynamic Modeling With Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Mohsen; Shakeri, Sayyed Mojtaba; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran;

    2010-01-01

    Development of dynamic wind flow models for wind farms is part of the research in European research FP7 project AEOLUS. The objective of this report is to provide decentralized dynamic wind flow models with parameters. The report presents a structure for decentralized flow models with inputs from a...... available local models. The results of this report are especially useful, but not limited, to design a decentralized wind farm controller, since in centralized controller design one can also use the model and update it in a central computing node....

  7. Decentralized Procurement in Light of Strategic Inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Anil; Frimor, Hans; Mittendorf, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The centralization versus decentralization choice is perhaps the quintessential organizational structure decision. In the operations realm, this choice is particularly critical when it comes to the procurement function. Why firms may opt to decentralize procurement has been often studied...... and confirmed to be a multifaceted choice. This paper complements existing studies by detailing the trade-offs in the centralization versus decentralization decision in light of firm's decision to cede procurement choices to its individual devisions can help moderate inventory levels and provide a natural salve...

  8. Decentralized Coordination of Autonomous Vehicles at intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Makarem, Laleh; Gillet, Denis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the decentralized coordination of point-mass autonomous vehicles at intersections using navigation functions is considered. As main contribution, the inertia of the vehicles is taken into account to enable on-board energy optimization for crossing. In such a way, heavier vehicles that need more energy and time for acceleration or breaking are given an indirect priority at intersections. The proposed decentralized coordination scheme of autonomous vehicles at intersection is com...

  9. Decentralized electricity production. v. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the symposium is concerned with market analysis, case studies and prospectives for the decentralized production of electricity in France: cogeneration, heat networks, municipal waste incineration, etc. Financing systems and microeconomical analysis are presented. The second part is devoted to macroeconomical outlooks (France and Europe mainly) on decentralized electricity production (cogeneration, small-scale hydroelectric power plants), to other countries experience (PV systems connected to the grid, cogeneration, etc.) and to price contracts and regulations

  10. Decentralized network management based on mobile agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋; 冯珊

    2004-01-01

    The mobile agent technology can be employed effectively for the decentralized management of complex networks. We show how the integration of mobile agent with legacy management protocol, such as simple network management protocol (SNMP), leads to decentralized management architecture. HostWatcher is a framework that allows mobile agents to roam network, collect and process data, and perform certain adaptive actions. A prototype system is built and a quantitative analysis underlines the benefits in respect to reducing network load.

  11. Decentralization and Regional Inflation in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Tirtosuharto, Darius; Adiwilaga, Handri

    2013-01-01

    The link between decentralization and inflation as one of the key aspects of macroeconomic stability has been surveyed by a number of studies and the findings are generally inconclusive. Using sample data of developing and developed countries, the study found that decentralization correlates with lower inflation in developed countries and vice versa, it correlates with higher inflation in developing countries. The key question is what factors play a role in controlling inflation in a decentra...

  12. Can Indonesia Decentralize? Plans, Problems, and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm; Aten, Robert H.; Roy Bahl

    2000-01-01

    Indonesia is engaged in an unprecedented major social and economic experiment in which much authority and responsibility for its governmental expenditures are being decentralized from the national government, largely to the local government level rather than the provincial government level. From being the most centralized large country in the world, Indonesia is likely to become one of the most decentralized if this process is successful. This paper addresses the major issues that are arising...

  13. Institutional Model of Decentralization in Action

    OpenAIRE

    Azis, Iwan J.

    2011-01-01

    Applying the Institutional Model of Decentralization, the paper argues that the presumption that local democracy will impose accountability pressure on elected officials does not always hold. Even in a democratic system like in Indonesia, decentralization policy is welfare-enhancing only for the developed regions, not for all, exacerbating interregional welfare disparity. This "captured democracy" is largely due to the presence of "negative local capture". Where welfare has not improved, limi...

  14. Making decentralization work for women in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lakwo, A.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about engendering local governance. It explores the euphoria with which Uganda's decentralization policy took centre stage as a sufficient driver to engender local development responsiveness and accountability. Using a case study of AFARD in Nebbi district, it shows first that decentralized governance is gendered and technocratic as grassroots women's effective participation is lacking. Second, it shows that the insertion of women in local governance is merely a symbolic politica...

  15. Sustainable energy and social development. A decentralized and participatory approach to energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karottki, R. [Forum for Energy and Development, Executive Secretary, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1994-12-01

    Decentralized and sustainable energy development is now taking off in many corners of the world. 150,000 battery charging windmills operating among nomads in Inner Mongolia (China), hundreds of thousands family biogas plants providing energy and fertilizer for rural people in India, 1,000,000 efficient charcoal stoves manufactured and sold by small local companies in Kenya, 500 MW of wind power installed by rural cooperatives in Denmark are just a few examples. Because of the social and environmental benefits and of the possibilities for substitution of oil, such decentralized systems can be highly relevant to small island states. (au)

  16. Technology strategy as macro-actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    case account for how the strategic technology and the strategic collective emerge and co-produce each other as a macro-actor, only to become transformed in unexpected ways - as common technology and reflective human subjects.In the concluding section, it is argued that the humanity of the reflective...... outcomes, as providers of explanations and observations. The expression `technological strategy as macro-actor' summarizes these findings and the associated implications for research and practice....

  17. Cooperative Localization Algorithm based on Coverage Optimization of Actors for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanliang Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Different from existing range-free algorithms in wireless sensor networks (WSN, a cooperative localization algorithm based on coverage optimization of actors (CLCOA for wireless sensor and actor networks (WSAN is proposed. It uses mobile actors instead of anchors in WSN. Firstly, the area of the unknown node is determined through the movement of positioning actors. Then this area decreases through iteration. When localization accuracy is satisfied, the centroid of this area is calculated and treated as the coordinate of the unknown node. Free actors adjust their positions through virtual force while locating actors work. Accordingly, actors’ coverage is optimized. Via simulation, it is proven that CLCOA has high locating accuracy with RSSI error and GPS error, and the introduction of virtual force improves actors’ coverage and locating speed

  18. Elements for a Theory of Decentralized Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Ion POPA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This year the Romanian Government has triggered a wide-ranging political process in order to revise the existing Constitution and, in this context, an ambitious program of decentralization-regionalization of the Romanian state administration. The article proposes a brief critical analysis of these generous objectives of the Government, and the means of achieving them, using a part of the academic literature devoted to decentralized governance. The two main sections of the article will attempt to address, in turn, and as realistic as possible, (1 the potential advantages of decentralized governance, and (2 some risks of this type of government, as they are described in the relevant literature of public economy.

  19. Decentralized and Tactical Air Traffic Flow Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsimas, Dimitris; Odoni, Amedeo R.

    1997-01-01

    This project dealt with the following topics: 1. Review and description of the existing air traffic flow management system (ATFM) and identification of aspects with potential for improvement. 2. Identification and review of existing models and simulations dealing with all system segments (enroute, terminal area, ground) 3. Formulation of concepts for overall decentralization of the ATFM system, ranging from moderate decentralization to full decentralization 4. Specification of the modifications to the ATFM system required to accommodate each of the alternative concepts. 5. Identification of issues that need to be addressed with regard to: determination of the way the ATFM system would be operating; types of flow management strategies that would be used; and estimation of the effectiveness of ATFM with regard to reducing delay and re-routing costs. 6. Concept evaluation through identification of criteria and methodologies for accommodating the interests of stakeholders and of approaches to optimization of operational procedures for all segments of the ATFM system.

  20. Improve consensus via decentralized predictive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.-T.; Chen, M. Z. Q.; Zhou, T.

    2009-05-01

    For biogroups and groups of self-driven agents, making decisions often depends on interactions among group members. In this paper, we seek to understand the fundamental predictive mechanisms used by group members in order to perform such coordinated behaviors. In particular, we show that the future dynamics of each node in the network can be predicted solely using local information provided by its neighbors. Using this predicted future dynamics information, we propose a decentralized predictive consensus protocol, which yields drastic improvements in terms of both consensus speed and internal communication cost. In natural science, this study provides an evidence for the idea that some decentralized predictive mechanisms may exist in widely-spread biological swarms/flocks. From the industrial point of view, incorporation of a decentralized predictive mechanism allows for not only a significant increase in the speed of convergence towards consensus but also a reduction in the communication energy required to achieve a predefined consensus performance.

  1. Decentralization and the Shadow Economy: Oates Meets Allingham-Sandmo

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Bühn; Christian Lessmann; Gunther Markwardt

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of decentralization on the shadow economy. We argue that decentralization may decrease the size of the shadow economy mainly through two transmission channels: (1) Decentralization enhancing public sector efficiency (efficiency effect), and (2) decentralization reducing the distance between bureaucrats and economic agents, which increases the probability of detection of shadow economic activities (deterrence effect). Using various measures of fiscal, political an...

  2. Fiscal decentralization and its effects on macroeconomic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Yalım, Derya

    2003-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Decentralization has become an important policy issue in recent years. International organizations allocate more space for fiscal decentralization in their agenda. In the literature, there are vast amount of studies that concentrate on the advantages or disadvantages of fiscal decentralization. The literature suggested that with a good policy design of the fiscal decentralization, especially developing countries might achieve desired ou...

  3. Factors of Tax Decentralization in OECD-Europe Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jílek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the issue of tax decentralization to local government. The aim of the article is to describe the tax decentralization to local governments with respect to its possible determinants and to verify empirically the relevancy of theoretical factors generally explaining fiscal decentralization to the tax decentralization. The analysis is based on data panel of OECD-European covering the period of 1995 to 2013. Upon these data we build panel regression model. Estimated equatio...

  4. Decentralization and good governance: The case of Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Indonesia began a process of rapid government decentralization in 1999 from a formerly strong centralized government structure. I review the history of decentralization in Indonesia and assess how Indonesia has fared in pursuing a decentralization policy since 1999. I illustrate how Indonesia meets several criteria of successful decentralization and how it is fails the criteria in principle in other areas. Finally, I indicate the likely future challenges faced by Indonesia as it implements de...

  5. LINK OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION TO POVERTY REDUCTION: INDONESIAN CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Rr. Sita Dewi Kusumaningrum

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Link of Fiscal Decentralization to Poverty Reduction: Indonesian Context. It is identified from the literature studies that there are links between fiscal decentralization and poverty reduction. However, the links occurs in different ways among countries and local governments. This is a preliminary study which aims at observing the potential link pattern of fiscal decentralization to poverty reduction in Indonesian provinces before and in the period of fiscal decentralization implem...

  6. Fiscal decentralization and development: How crucial is local politics?

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Sarmistha; Roy, Jaideep

    2010-01-01

    Does fiscal decentralization in a politically decentralized less developed country help strengthen democratic institutions at the grass root level? And is the impact of such decentralization on local politics important in determining local development? Our study on Indonesia suggests that fiscal decentralization enhanced free and fair local elections, though the incidence of elite capture, and the consequent breakdown of local democracy, was also present in significant proportions. Fiscal de...

  7. Time varying controllers in discrete-time decentralized control

    OpenAIRE

    C. DELIU; Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Saberi, Ali; Roy, Sandip; Malek, Babak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of finding a time-varying controller which can stabilize a decentralized discrete-time system. In continuous-time, it was already known that time-varying decentralized controllers can achieve stabilization in cases where time-invariant decentralized controllers cannnot. This paper works out the details for the discrete-time case.

  8. Decentralizing Indonesia : A Regional Public Expenditure Review Overview Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Indonesia has embarked upon a radical and rapid decentralization program. Regional autonomy is transforming one of the most centralized countries in the world into one of the more decentralized ones. If managed well, a country as large and diverse as Indonesia will benefit greatly from decentralization, through more efficient service delivery, but also national unity and democracy. Yet, n...

  9. GDCluster: a general decentralized clustering algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashayekhi, Hoda; Habibi, Jafar; Khalafbeigi, Tania; Voulgaris, Spyros; Steen, van Maarten

    2015-01-01

    In many popular applications like peer-to-peer systems, large amounts of data are distributed among multiple sources. Analysis of this data and identifying clusters is challenging due to processing, storage, and transmission costs. In this paper, we propose GDCluster, a general fully decentralized c

  10. GDCluster: A General Decentralized Clustering Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashayekhi, H.; Khalafbeigi, T.; Habibi, J.; Voulgaris, S.; Steen, van M.

    2015-01-01

    In many popular applications like peer-to-peer systems, large amounts of data are distributed among multiple sources. Analysis of this data and identifying clusters is challenging due to processing, storage, and transmission costs. In this paper, we propose GDCluster, a general fully decentralized c

  11. Decentralization and Participation: the Montevidian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Revello

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the proposition that a true process of decentralization must necessarily be a process of democratization, such a process is understood as a privileged instrument for participation. Indeed, for a deepening of democratic practices, the ways which should be taken are via decentralization and social participation. This article describes and analyzes the experience of decentralization in Montevideo, a fundamental project created by the coalition of leftist parties that have governed the capital of Uruguay since 1990, a project which had no historical antecedents in the country. The department of Montevideo divided into 18 zones and created juntas locales (local boards - local, decentralized politicalorgans with representation from all the parties - and neighborhood councils. The Neighborhood Councils are representative organs that voice the neighborhood’s interests. Not integrated in the public municipal structure, these constitute private civil society organizations. They are consultative and consultancy bodies with the important tasks of initiative and proposal, planning, consultation, evaluation and the control over the communal management. Also described in the article is the methodology for the project’s improvement and progressive sophistication, which is in function of, among other factors, the degree of effectiveness and reaching of objectives that emerge from the permanent control and evaluation carried out year to year. The strategy presented emphasizes the need for ensuring that the community directly monitors and controls the process of municipal management to safeguard the democratic character of the process.

  12. Afterword: The Politics of School Decentralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Paul E.

    1975-01-01

    Summarizes the organizational process and political bargaining models of policy change, and considers the rational decision-making model as an alternative. Models are interrelated with each other to show how each reveals a dimension of the politics of school decentralization. (Author/AM)

  13. Local Responses to Decentralization Policy in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Ethnographic fieldwork in six junior high schools in East Java, Indonesia, focused on local responses to a national policy devolving authority over the curriculum to the schools. Interviews and observations in the schools revealed little change in teacher actions. The objectives of decentralization clashed with deeply rooted ideas about authority,…

  14. Beyond the actor's traits: forming impressions of actors, targets, and relationships from social behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, K P; Smith, E R

    1993-09-01

    Perceivers who observe social behaviors may form impressions not only of actors' traits but also of people as targets and of interpersonal relationships. In Study 1, Ss read about 4 individuals' behaviors under instructions to form actor-, target-, and relationship-based impressions. Ss then read additional behavioral information that they later tried to recall. Ss accurately perceived actor, target, and relationship effects in the presented information, and they better recalled subsequent behaviors that were consistent with all 3 types of impressions. In Study 2, Ss thought of 4 people they knew and judged how much each liked the other 3. These ratings revealed actor, target, and relationship effects as well as individual and dyadic reciprocity. Perceivers can form relatively accurate impressions of people as actors and as targets and accurate impressions of relationships between people, and these impressions influence memory for further behaviors.

  15. Effective Location Management of Mobile Actors in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Aslam

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed an increasing availability of heterogeneous sensor networks that consist of a large number of resource constrained nodes (sensors and a small number of powerful resource rich nodes (actors. Such heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Actor Network (WSANs offer improvement of sensor networks' capacity/coverage, energy conservation and network lifetime. This paper investigates the case where sensors are organized into clusters and mobile actors are used for maintaining an energy efficient topology by periodically manipulating their geographical position. We present an elegant technique that allows actor nodes to find an optimal geographical location with respect to their associated cluster heads such that the overall energy consumed is minimized. The proposed technique includes a weighted cost function based on the residual energy levels of cluster heads that allows the mobile actor to optimally fine-tune its geographical location. We present simulation results that demonstrate a significant increase of network lifetime over the traditional cluster based WSN deployments.

  16. Beyond the actor's traits: forming impressions of actors, targets, and relationships from social behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, K P; Smith, E R

    1993-09-01

    Perceivers who observe social behaviors may form impressions not only of actors' traits but also of people as targets and of interpersonal relationships. In Study 1, Ss read about 4 individuals' behaviors under instructions to form actor-, target-, and relationship-based impressions. Ss then read additional behavioral information that they later tried to recall. Ss accurately perceived actor, target, and relationship effects in the presented information, and they better recalled subsequent behaviors that were consistent with all 3 types of impressions. In Study 2, Ss thought of 4 people they knew and judged how much each liked the other 3. These ratings revealed actor, target, and relationship effects as well as individual and dyadic reciprocity. Perceivers can form relatively accurate impressions of people as actors and as targets and accurate impressions of relationships between people, and these impressions influence memory for further behaviors. PMID:8410651

  17. Decentralization of Health System in Islamic Republic of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Kabir

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization is the process of dispersing decision-making closer to the point of peripheral area, service or action. Basically decentralized governance, if properly planned and implemented, offers important opportunities for enhanced human development. The studies about this issue in different countries show that most of the decentralizations have been implemented in European countries and in comparison, the Middle East countries have been utilized lower degrees of the decentralization process. In fact, decentralization in the health system is a policy pursued for a variety of purposes including; increase in service delivery effectiveness and equity, improving efficiency and quality, fairness of financial contribution and planning for choosing the most appropriate interventions for the health priorities in peripheral regions. To implement decentralized governance, there is a spectrum of different choices that the government should regulate their degrees. Providing an appropriate atmosphere for decentralization is essential, otherwise lack of planning and achievement can result in complications for the system.

  18. Fiscal decentralization and the challenges of public ecological services delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Kotenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to define and propose the directions to solve the recent problems of financing public ecological services in the conditions of fiscal decentralization. The results of the analysis. This paper analyzes the decentralization reform impact on the possibilities of local authorities to finance the public ecological services in Ukraine. Advantages and threats of decentralizing reform are defined on the basis of theoretical vision of fiscal federalism in different state structures. The authors assessed basic central government documents in which the strategy and tactic of development. The lack of particular measures that are directed to the sustainable nature use on state level is defined. In practice, this means transference of financing powers from central to local government. Such process needs to be conducted with respective changes of financial flows directions and establishing effective forming and distributive tools. Traditionally, one of such tools, which are most appropriate to accumulate public environmental funds, is ecological tax. The study revealed that the enhancement of general fund of local budget revenues by local tax make the Local Environmental foundations' work impossible. Another initiative of central government is to transfer more than half revenues from the tax to the regional level. Such decision will be practicable only if impartial, formula based mechanism of subsequent allocation of funds between basic local authorities is developed. Scale projects now are funded by regional authorities. Authors proved that the better way to finance public ecological services on complementary basis is the local authorities’ cooperation. One of the advantages of such cooperation is the considering of the opportunities of self-taxation. This voluntary fiscal tool in Ukrainian European future must be stable source for financing of public ecological services. Decentralization reform also

  19. Sobre o natural e o actor

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Margarida

    2010-01-01

    Neste artigo, procura-se reflectir sobre o conceito de natural quando aplicado ao trabalho do actor. Parte-se de quatro relevantes textos da dramaturgia ocidental, a saber: Hamlet, de Shakespeare; Crítica da ‘Escola das mulheres’ e O improviso de Versalhes, de Molière; e O teatro cómico, de Goldoni.

  20. The Corporation as a Political Actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    . On the other hand, European scholars have recently promoted an understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) emphasizing that firms often assume a political role because they increasingly provide public goods and become involved in multi-actor governance processes. This article contrasts...... perspectives share a number of commonalities and complement each other....

  1. Off-Policy Actor-Critic

    CERN Document Server

    Degris, Thomas; Sutton, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first actor-critic algorithm for off-policy reinforcement learning. Our algorithm is online and incremental, and its per-time-step complexity scales linearly with the number of learned weights. Previous work on actor-critic algorithms is limited to the on-policy setting and does not take advantage of the recent advances in off-policy gradient temporal-difference learning. Off-policy techniques, such as Greedy-GQ, enable a target policy to be learned while following and obtaining data from another (behavior) policy. For many problems, however, actor-critic methods are more practical than action value methods (like Greedy-GQ) because they explicitly represent the policy; consequently, the policy can be stochastic and utilize a large action space. In this paper, we illustrate how to practically combine the generality and learning potential of off-policy learning with the flexibility in action selection given by actor-critic methods. We derive an incremental, linear time and space complexi...

  2. Empathy and attribution: turning observers into actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, D T; Totten, J

    1975-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to test Jones and Nisbett's information-processing explanation of the often-observed tendency for individuals (actors) to provide relatively more situational and less dispositional causal attributions for their behavior than those provided by observers of the same behavior. According to this explanation, aspects of the situation are phenomenologically more salient for actors, whereas characteristics of the actor and his behavior are more salient for observers. To test this explanation, the phenomenological perspective of observers are altered without making available any additional information. Subjects watched a videotape of a get-acquainted conversation after instructions either to observe a target conversant or to empathize with her. As predicted, taking the perspective of the target through empathy resulted in attributions that were relatively more situational and less dispositional than attributions provided by standard observers. The results support Jones and Nisbett's information-processing explanation of actor-observer attributional differences, and shed additional light on the process of empathy.

  3. Management Methods of Decentralized Public Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILOUSEAC Irina Adriana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article, having as theme the typology of public services management and the implications on decentralization, is the foundation of theoretical concepts, but also the analysis from a practical point of view of both types of management applied in the management of public services in Romania and of the effects they cause on the Romanian public administration capacity to provide efficient public services. Although the users of decentralized public services don’t have the possibility of choosing the service provider, the analysis of the management methods is important, because depending on the type of management chosen there are advantages and disadvantages for the local community. It has to be analyzed for each particularly case which type of management leads to a greater satisfaction of a social need appeared.

  4. Asynchronous decentralized method for interconnected electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an asynchronous decentralized method to solve the optimization problem of interconnected electricity markets. The proposed method decomposes the optimization problem of combined electricity markets into individual optimization problems. The impact of neighboring markets' information is included in the objective function of the individual market optimization problem by the standard Lagrangian relaxation method. Most decentralized optimization methods use synchronous models of communication to exchange updated market information among markets during the iterative process. In this paper, however, the solutions of the individual optimization problems are coordinated through an asynchronous communication model until they converge to the global optimal solution of combined markets. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed asynchronous method over the existing synchronous methods. (author)

  5. Ecology Based Decentralized Agent Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peysakhov, Maxim D.; Cicirello, Vincent A.; Regli, William C.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of maintaining a desired number of mobile agents on a network is not trivial, especially if we want a completely decentralized solution. Decentralized control makes a system more r e bust and less susceptible to partial failures. The problem is exacerbated on wireless ad hoc networks where host mobility can result in significant changes in the network size and topology. In this paper we propose an ecology-inspired approach to the management of the number of agents. The approach associates agents with living organisms and tasks with food. Agents procreate or die based on the abundance of uncompleted tasks (food). We performed a series of experiments investigating properties of such systems and analyzed their stability under various conditions. We concluded that the ecology based metaphor can be successfully applied to the management of agent populations on wireless ad hoc networks.

  6. Centralized, Decentralized, and Hybrid Purchasing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    This paper addresses one of the focal issues in purchasing and supply management – global sourcing – from an organizational design perspective. In particular, we elaborate the traditional classification of global sourcing organization designs into centralized, decentralized, and hybrid models. We...... illustrate with our empirical analysis on global sourcing organization design at Global Chemical Company (GCC, a pseudonym) that revisiting the conventional wisdom about global sourcing organization designs is required; by engaging in a detailed, subfirm level of analysis on the design of the purchasing...... organization we can identify organization designs beyond the classical centralization-decentralization continuum. We also provide explanations for the observed organization design at GCC. The study contributes to research on purchasing and supply management as well as research on organization design....

  7. Decentralizing Education Resources: School Grants in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Pedro; Koussihouèdé, Oswald; Lahire, Nathalie; Meghir, Costas; Mommaerts, Corina

    2015-01-01

    The impact of school resources on the quality of education in developing countries may depend crucially on whether resources are targeted efficiently. In this paper we use a randomized experiment to analyze the impact of a school grants program in Senegal, which decentralized a portion of the country's education budget. We find large positive effects on test scores at younger grades that persist at least two years. We show that these effects are concentrated among schools that focused funds o...

  8. Balance, accountability, and responsiveness : lessons about decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Anwar

    1998-01-01

    The author examines the reasons developing countries are reexamining the respective roles of the private sector, civil society, and various levels of government--and considering new fiscal arrangements between national and lower levels of government. Decentralization may be particularly well-suited to developing countries, where central governments are not aswell developed as in industrial countries--because information requirements and transaction costs are lower at lower levels of governmen...

  9. Decentralizing Eligibility for a Federal Antipoverty Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ravallion, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In theory, the informational advantage of decentralizing the eligibility criteria for a federal antipoverty program could come at a large cost to the program's performance in reaching the poor nationally. Whether this happens in practice depends on the size of the local-income effect on the eligibility cutoffs. China's Di Bao program provides a case study. Poorer municipalities adopt systematically lower thresholds—roughly negating intercity differences in need for the program and generating ...

  10. Rural Roads: The Challenge of Decentralized Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Simon D. Ellis; Aurelio Menendez

    2014-01-01

    This paper will review the key elements required for effective decentralized implementation of rural roads programs. It will review the range of options available and the evidence for successful implementation where it exists. Section 2 makes the case for the importance of rural roads and sets out the evidence for the socio-economic benefits. Section 3 addresses the responsibilities for implementation and critical importance of having clarity over network ownership. Section 4 highlights the d...

  11. Health Spending and Decentralization in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kruse, Ioana; Pradhan, Menno; Sparrow, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Using a panel dataset of 320 Indonesian districts we examine the impact of district budgets on public health spending, utilization patters in the public and private sector, and private health spending in the four years after decentralization. We exploit the panel structure of the data and the fact that district budgets are largely driven by central government transfers to determine causal patterns. We find that the elasticity of public health spending with respect to district budgets is aroun...

  12. Decentralization in Nation State Building of Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, Kazuhisa; 松井, 和久

    2003-01-01

    Introduction:Today, many countries, regardless of developed or developing, are trying to promotedecentralization. According to Manor, as his quoting of Nickson’s argument,decentralization stems from the necessity to strengthen local governments as proxy ofcivil society to fill the yawning gap between the state and civil society (Manor [1999]:30). With the end to the Cold War following the collapse of the Soviet Union renderingthe cause of the “leadership of the central government to counter c...

  13. Fiscal decentralization and urbanization in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Comola, Margherita; De Mello, Luiz

    2010-01-01

    Indonesia went through a process of fiscal decentralization in 2001 involving the devolution of several policymaking and service delivery functions to the subnational tiers of government (provinces and districts). This process is likely to have affected regional patterns of urbanization, because the new prerogatives granted to the local governments have altered the distribution of urban amenities and labour market outcomes among and within the local jurisdictions. This paper uses a dataset of...

  14. WATER MARKETS AND DECENTRALIZED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    K. William Easter; Robert HEARNE

    1994-01-01

    Because of its importance and the perceived inability of private sector sources to meet water demands, many countries have depended on the public sector to provide water services for their populations. Yet this has resulted in many inefficient public water projects and in inadequate supplies of good quality and reliable water. Decentralization of water management, including the use of water markets, cannot solve all of the water problems, but it can improve the efficiency of water allocation....

  15. File Transfer Algorithm for Autonomous Decentralized System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Xun; TAN Yong-dong; Qian Qing-quan

    2008-01-01

    A file transfer algorithm based on ADP (autonomous decentralized protocol) was proposed to solve the problem that the ADS (autonomous decentralized system) middleware (NeXUS/Dlink) lacks of file transfer functions for Windows. The algorithm realizes the peer-to-peer file transfer, one-to-N inquiry/multi-response file transfer and one-to-N file distribution in the same data field based on communication patterns provided by the ADP. The peer-to-peer file transfer is implemented through a peer-to-peer communication path, one-to-N inquiry/multi-response file transfer and one-to-N file distribution are implemented through multicast commtmieation. In this algorithm, a file to be transferred is named with a GUID ( global unique identification), every data packet is marked with a sequence number, and file-receiving in parallel is implemented by caching DPOs (data processing objects) and multithread technologies. The algorithm is applied in a simulation system of the decentralized control platform, and the test results and long time stable mrming prove the feasibility of the algorithm.

  16. La teoría del actor-red y la tesis de la tecnociencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverría, Javier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Actor-network theory and the analysis of technoscience developed by Javier Echeverría (2003 have many features in common, but they also diverge in a number of points. While the analysis of technoscience amounts to the attempt of classifying and characterizing the modalities of contemporary scientific and technological practices, the set of methodological tools of actor-network theory brings to the forefront the disorder hidden behind the ordered image of both contemporary and past technoscience. However, actor-network theory may be useful to describe the complex networks woven by research centres, institutions, universities, and companies, and their products in terms of natural and social order. In this paper, we characterize actor-network theory as well as technoscience and we identify how both, in spite of their differences, might benefit each other.La teoría del actor-red y el análisis de la tecnociencia desarrollado por Javier Echeverría (2003 presentan múltiples puntos comunes, pero también importantes divergencias. Mientras que el análisis de la tecnociencia responde al intento filosófico de clasificar y caracterizar las modalidades de práctica científico-tecnológica contemporánea, el conjunto de herramientas metodológicas de la teoría del actor-red trae al primer plano el desorden oculto tras la ordenada apariencia de la tecnociencia, la contemporánea y la de épocas pasadas. Sin embargo, la teoría del actor-red se muestra útil para describir las complejas redes tejidas por centros de investigación, instituciones, universidades y empresas, y los productos resultantes de las mismas en términos de orden natural y social. En este trabajo caracterizamos someramente tanto la teoría del actorred como la tecnociencia, para identificar de qué modo ambas, pese a sus diferencias, pueden beneficiarse mutuamente.

  17. Choosing between Centralized and Decentralized Models of Tax Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Andrey Timofeev

    2005-01-01

    The international experience shows a variety of approaches to the organization and degree of decentralization in tax administration. It is quite common to observe, even in countries that are otherwise significantly decentralized as is the case in the Scandinavian Countries, a highly centralized organization of tax administration. Nevertheless, there are other countries, in small number, where tax administration is highly decentralized; in some cases, as in Germany, even central government tax...

  18. Centralized or decentralized? A case study of Norwegian hospital reform

    OpenAIRE

    Magnussen, Jon; Hagen, Terje P; Oddvar M. Kaarbøe

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, decentralization of financial and political power has been perceived as a useful means to improve outcomes of the health care sector. Such reforms are often a result of fashion, rather than being based on knowledge of “what works”. If decentralization is the favored strategy in health care, studies of countries that go against the current trend will be of interest and importance as they provide information about the potential drawbacks of decentralization. In Norway, speciali...

  19. LOCAL BUDGETS UNDER CURRENT DECENTRALIZATION: UKRAINE AND FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    O. Cheberyako; O. Ryabokon

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the major trends and issues of development of local budgets in Ukraine. A study of the essence of fiscal decentralization as one of the components of the management, aimed at reducing the dependence of local governments from the central government with regard to foreign experience. Particular attention is paid to local budgets under decentralization of own and delegated financial powers. The theoretical principles of fiscal decentralization and its proven impact on t...

  20. Political decentralization and corruption: Evidence from around the world

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, CS; Lin, C.; Treisman, D

    2009-01-01

    How does political decentralization affect the frequency and costliness of bribe extraction by corrupt officials? Previous empirical studies, using subjective indexes of perceived corruption and mostly fiscal indicators of decentralization, have suggested conflicting conclusions. In search of more precise findings, we combine and explore two new data sources—an original cross-national data set on particular types of decentralization and the results of a firm level survey conducted in 80 count...

  1. Fiscal Decentralization in China: History, Impact, Challenges and Next Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Chunli Shen; Jing Jin; Heng-fu Zou

    2006-01-01

    Fiscal decentralization has been a fundamental aspect of China's transition to a market economy; and the country has made substantial efforts to break down its highly centralized fiscal management system with various forms of fiscal contracting systems (1978-1993) and later a tax sharing system (1994-present). The objectives of this paper are to provide a comprehensive review of China¡¯s experience in fiscal decentralization over the last decade, explore the impact of fiscal decentralization ...

  2. Governance decentralization and local infrastructure provision in Indonesia:

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Shyamnal; Yamauchi, Futoshi; Dewina, Reno

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the recent decentralization of governance in Indonesia and its impact on local infrastructure provision. The decentralization of decisionmaking power to local jurisdictions in Indonesia may have improved the matching of public infrastructures provision with local preferences. However, decentralization has made local public infrastructures depend on local resources. Due to differences in initial endowments, this may result in the divergence of local public infrastructures i...

  3. IMPLEMENTATION OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION IN INDONESIA: 2001-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Nursini Nursini

    2012-01-01

    In Indonesia, the implementation of fiscal decentralization has entered the 9th year, however, so far many problems and obstacles which is faced during the implementation to stimulate economic growth and reduce poverty. This study aims to analyze: (1) trend of government expenditure in decentralization era and regional autonomy during 2001-2009, (2) fiscal decentralization degree in Indonesia. This objective is achieved through descriptive analysis using secondary data for 2001-2009. The resu...

  4. Fiscal Decentralization Policy in Promoting Indonesia Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ady Soejoto; Waspodo Tjipto Subroto; Suyanto

    2015-01-01

    Goal of this research is promoting human development in Indonesia through fiscal decentralization. In general, funds decentralization, economic growth, public expenditure, and a decline in total poor population in the autonomous region provide significant positive effect on human development index (HDI), thus increasing decentralization funds as balance grants to autonomous regions can be used to finance local expenditure, especially public social expenditure in education and health increased...

  5. EFFECT OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION ON CAPITAL EXPENDITURE, GROWTH, AND WELFARE

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy Badrudin

    2013-01-01

    This research analyzes the influence of fiscal decentralization on capital expenditure, economic growth, and social welfare of 29 regencies and 6 cities in Central Java Province based on the data of year 2004 to 2008. The method used to analyze the hypotheses is the Partial Least Square. The results showes that fiscal decentralization has no significant effect on capital expenditure; fiscal decentralization has significant effect on economic growth and social welfare; capital expenditure has ...

  6. A Method for Studying Social Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaine Touraine

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available So little agreement exists on what constitutes sociology that it seems impossible to de?ne its speci?c methods. We can however proceed through a series of eliminations. Light has been shed on many types of social behavior as economic studies have taken more interest in issues of social strati?cation and mobility or in consumer behavior, and as they increasingly incorporate elaborate quantitative analysis into this type of data. Correlations between social statuses and social behavior tell us about the logic of the system, yet not about that of the actors. Hence, we must imagine other methods in order to reach the actor as an autonomous being, as an agent of transformation of his environment and of his own situation, as a creator of imaginary worlds, as capable of referring to absolute values or of being involved in love relations.

  7. Decentralized Formation Control for Small-Scale Robot Teams with Anonymity

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Geunho; Nak Young, Chong

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents decentralized formation controls for a team of anonymous mobile robots performing a task through cooperation. Robot teams are required to generate and maintain various geometric patterns adapting to environmental changes in many cooperative robotics applications. In particular, all robots must continue to strive toward achieving the team’s mission even if some members fail to perform their role. Toward this end, formation control approaches are proposed under the condition...

  8. [Evaluation of the capability of decentralized management of epidemiological surveillance in the state of Bahia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Silvone Santa Bárbara da Silva; Melo, Cristina Maria Meira de; Costa, Heloniza Oliveira Gonçalves; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi; Ramos, Fernanda Mota; Santana, Mário César Carneiro de; Trindade, Bianca Gonzaga

    2012-04-01

    Evaluative research into the capability of decentralized management of epidemiological vigilance (EV) was conducted in the operational, organizational and sustainable dimensions in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The quantitative approach was used in the construction of a baseline, with primary data obtained through an online questionnaire answered by thirty-eight municipal EV managers. In the qualitative approach to analyze the context and assess the management capability of municipalities in two case studies, techniques adapted to the analysis of discursive practices were used. This was done through semi-structured interviews with managers of regional and municipal government, health workers and representatives of the municipal health council. The case studies showed that the municipality with enhanced management capability is that in which the manager has the greatest potential of using the resources of his position, in addition to his ability to control, negotiate and coordinate with other actors. Due to decentralization of EV, considering the shared nature of management between the three spheres of government, there is a marked variation in the management capability of municipalities, determined by social, economic, political inequalities and management mechanisms adopted.

  9. Test Case Generation of Actor Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Albiol, Elvira; Arenas Sánchez, Purificación; Gómez Zamalloa, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Testing is a vital part of the software development process. It is even more so in the context of concurrent languages, since due to undesired task interleavings and to unexpected behaviours of the underlying task scheduler, errors can go easily undetected. Test case generation (TCG) is the process of automatically generating test inputs for interesting coverage criteria, which are then applied to the system under test. This paper presents a TCG framework for actor systems, which consists of...

  10. EFFECT OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION ON CAPITAL EXPENDITURE, GROWTH, AND WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Badrudin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the influence of fiscal decentralization on capital expenditure, economic growth, and social welfare of 29 regencies and 6 cities in Central Java Province based on the data of year 2004 to 2008. The method used to analyze the hypotheses is the Partial Least Square. The results showes that fiscal decentralization has no significant effect on capital expenditure; fiscal decentralization has significant effect on economic growth and social welfare; capital expenditure has no significant effect on economic growth and social welfare; and economic growth has significant effect on social welfare.Keywords: Fiscal decentralization, capital expenditure, economic growth, social welfareJEL classification: H76, I31, 043

  11. Local authorities and electricity: territories, actors and issues within the local public service in France; Les collectivites locales et l'electricite. Territoires, acteurs et enjeux autour du service public local de l'electricite en france

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvier, G

    2005-06-15

    In France, the role of local authorities in the organization of the electricity supply system is largely unknown mainly due to the size of the state-owned utility Electricite de France (EDF). Local authorities and their groupings played a major role in the electrification of the national territory and have kept important prerogatives as conceding authorities of this service of general interest. These groupings also became the tools of the soft power of local actors. The geopolitical analysis of the relationships between local municipalities and electric power stakeholders shows the diversity of actors and opinions. Stuck between market liberalization issues and decentralization to local authorities, these groupings tend to reinforce their competencies. Furthermore, decentralization goes along with a reinforcement of the political involvement in local energy policy and with conflicts on the adequate territorial scale for theses policies. (author)

  12. Towards feature selection in actor-critic algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Rohanimanesh, Khashayar; Roy, Nicholas; Tedrake, Russell Louis

    2009-01-01

    Choosing features for the critic in actor-critic algorithms with function approximation is known to be a challenge. Too few critic features can lead to degeneracy of the actor gradient, and too many features may lead to slower convergence of the learner. In this paper, we show that a wellstudied class of actor policies satisfy the known requirements for convergence when the actor features are selected carefully. We demonstrate that two popular representations for va...

  13. Topographical Evaluation of the Decentration of Orthokeratology Lenses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yang; Xingwu Zhong; Xiangming Gong; Junwen Zeng

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the amount of lens decentration and various factors affecting decentration after orthokeratology lens wear and to observe the effect of decentration on the visual functions.Methods: Two kinds of orthokeratology lenses were fitted to 270 eyes of 135 patients [initial mean refractive error: (-3.98±1.51)D]. Humphery Instruments ATLAS 990 was used for the computer-assisted analysis of corneal topographical maps. The examination of corneal topography was performed on patients before and after 6 months of wearing orthokeratology lenses. The amount of decentration of orthokeratology lenses was measured by finding the distance between center of optic zone and the pupil center. The factors influencing the amount of decentration were analyzed, including the initial refraction error, astigmatism, keratometry values, corneal eccentricity, and the diameter of lens.Visual symptoms including monocular diplopia, glare around lights were recorded to evaluate the effects of decentration on visual functions.Results: The mean amount of decentration was (0.49±0.34) mm after one night's wear.The mean amount of decentration after 1 month, 3 months and 6 months was (0.57±0.41) mm, (0.55±0.48) mm and (0.59±0.39) mm, respectively. After one month, the amount of decentration was less than 0.50 mm in 51.1% eyes, 0.50~1.0 mm in 35.6% eyes and more than 1.00 mm in 13.3% eyes. The direction of decentration of more than 0.50 mm was mainly in the temporal quadrant (48.5%). Patients with greater initial astigmatism and smaller lenses showed greater decentration (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in decentration between the two groups with different corneal eccentricities and keratometry values (P>0.05). The amount of decentration was greater in patients who complained of monocular diplopia and glare.Conclusions: The amount of decentration of orthokeratology depends on the initial refractive error, astigmatism and the design of orthokeratology

  14. Foreign Direct Investment, Local Government Competition and Environmental Pollution:Empirical Analysis on Fiscal Decentralization%外商直接投资、地方政府竞争与环境污染——基于财政分权视角的经验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓玉萍; 许和连

    2013-01-01

    本文利用2003-2010年全国278个地级城市统计数据,通过构建联立方程模型实证研究了分权体制下的地方政府引资竞争与环境污染之间的关系.实证结果表明:在财政分权体制下,地方政府间的策略性竞争行为显著影响到FDI的区位选择,其中本辖区财政分权水平的提高有利于增强当地引资能力,而邻近辖区财政分权水平的提高则明显阻碍了本地FDI的流入,积极的财政支出扩张和资金缺口成为各地区竞相争夺FDI的主要动力.与此同时,分权体制下的FDI竞争主要通过以下两种渠道影响到地区环境质量:一方面,FDI本身的生产活动对当地环境质量产生了显著的影响,外资带来了绿色环保的生产技术和治理经验有助于提高国内环境污染治理效率,并降低污染排放总量.另一方面,FDI通过影响经济活动的产出或规模来间接地作用于环境,这主要表现为政治晋升和经济激励下的分权体制弱化了FDI的增长效应,地方政府对GDP的过度关注使得区域恶性引资竞争日益激烈,导致中西部地区经济增长陷入低效率的“纳什均衡陷阱”,从而进一步加大了部分地区顺利跨越EKC曲线转折点的难度.%Based on a sample of 278 Chinese cities during 2003-2010,this paper attempts to empirically study on the relationship between the competition for FDI and environmental pollution by a simultaneous estimation.The estimated results show that governments' strategical competition exert significant impacts on the choice of FDI under the institution of fiscal decentralization.Among these,the improvement of local fiscal decentralization is favorable to enhancing local capacity of attracting FDI,while that in neighbouring area obviously decreases local FDI inflows.Proactive fiscal policy and funding gap have become the main motive forces to contend FDI with each other.In the meantime,the competition for FDI affects local environmental quality

  15. Decentralized Pricing in Minimum Cost Spanning Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    In the minimum cost spanning tree model we consider decentralized pricing rules, i.e. rules that cover at least the ecient cost while the price charged to each user only depends upon his own connection costs. We de ne a canonical pricing rule and provide two axiomatic characterizations. First......, the canonical pricing rule is the smallest among those that improve upon the Stand Alone bound, and are either superadditive or piece-wise linear in connection costs. Our second, direct characterization relies on two simple properties highlighting the special role of the source cost....

  16. P2P Techniques for Decentralized Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pacitti, Esther

    2012-01-01

    As an alternative to traditional client-server systems, Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems provide major advantages in terms of scalability, autonomy and dynamic behavior of peers, and decentralization of control. Thus, they are well suited for large-scale data sharing in distributed environments. Most of the existing P2P approaches for data sharing rely on either structured networks (e.g., DHTs) for efficient indexing, or unstructured networks for ease of deployment, or some combination. However, these approaches have some limitations, such as lack of freedom for data placement in DHTs, and high late

  17. Macroeconomic aspects of decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of decentralized electricity production should be viewed first and foremost as a means of adapting production resources to meet the needs of the users between 1995 and 1997. Consumer production and cogeneration are not, however, simply stopgap solutions operating on the fringe of electricity production. These methods serve to highlight a problem that has already been raised in the past: the real advantages and disadvantages of centralized systems managed by companies that exercise a virtual monopoly in either the public or private sector

  18. Worlds Apart: A Social Theoretical Exploration of Local Networks, Natural Actors, and Practitioners of Rural Development in Southern Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Brian J. Gareau

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the importance of incorporating the socioecological realities of alternative networks into analyses of rural development. Cultural theory is examined, which provides a base upon which rural development can identify difference in worldviews based on difference in sociological conditions and environmental phenomena. Actor-oriented theory problematizes the ideal types of cultural theory, providing a means of give-and-take between actors’ worldviews of different networks. Ac...

  19. Fiscal Decentralization in the Soviet Economy*

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Berkowitz; Beth Mitchneck

    1992-01-01

    This paper surveys local public finance developments in the former Soviet Union during perestroika. We argue that there was a significant decentralization of taxation power and responsibility to the oblast and city levels between 1985 and 1990. This decentralization, accompanied by more pressure on local organizations to spend, led to the breakdown of a coordinated all-Union fiscal system.

  20. Decentralization of Education: Legal Issues. Directions in Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florestal, Ketleen; Cooper, Robb

    In practice, most education systems have both centralized and decentralized elements. Planners involved in a decentralizing reform must identify which components of the system are more appropriately managed at the central level and which at the local level. This book is intended to inform education policymakers, planners, and practitioners about…

  1. School Administration: Optimal Ratio of Centralization to Decentralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapto, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    Compares advantages and disadvantages of centralized and decentralized control in Soviet public schools. Recognizes that centralization concentrates the forces, funds, and available resources necessary for maximum achievement. Suggests that decentralization of administration can be optimized by delegating rights, duties, and responsibilities to…

  2. Providing leadership to a decentralized total quality process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, J J; Eisenberg, M

    1993-01-01

    Integrating total quality management into the culture of an organization and the daily work of employees requires a decentralized leadership structure that encourages all employees to become involved. This article, based upon the experience of the University of Michigan Hospitals Professional Services Divisional Lead Team, outlines a process for decentralizing the total quality management process.

  3. Decentralized energy studies: compendium of international studies and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, C.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of the compendium is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies in other industrialized nations that involve decentralized energy systems. A contact person is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.

  4. Study on Concept of Centralization and Decentralization Group Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-sheng; XI You-min; WANG Ying-luo

    2002-01-01

    The paper extracts the concept of Centralization Group Decision Making (CGDM) and Decentralization Group Decision Making (DGDM) from management systems on bases of studies on Informational Centralization Process (ICP) and Informational Decentralization Process (IDP), then the similarities and differences between CGDM and DGDM are presented. Further, the taxonomy of CGDM and DGDM is researched.

  5. Providing leadership to a decentralized total quality process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, J J; Eisenberg, M

    1993-01-01

    Integrating total quality management into the culture of an organization and the daily work of employees requires a decentralized leadership structure that encourages all employees to become involved. This article, based upon the experience of the University of Michigan Hospitals Professional Services Divisional Lead Team, outlines a process for decentralizing the total quality management process. PMID:10130524

  6. Health Strategy in a Post-Crisis, Decentralized Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel S. Lieberman; Marzoeki, Puti

    2002-01-01

    The study reviews the strategy for a prospective health development, and the health benefits associated with decentralization, in a likely challenging near to medium term period in Indonesia. It addresses the major government reorganization, expected to take effect in January 2001, which could well define the social process during the next decade, consisting of decentralization of spending...

  7. Health Strategy in a Post-Crisis, Decentralizing Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    The study reviews the strategy for a prospective health development, and the health benefits associated with decentralization, in a likely challenging near to medium term period in Indonesia. It addresses the major government reorganization, expected to take effect in January 2001, which could well define the social process during the next decade, consisting of decentralization of spending...

  8. An index of political support for decentralization: the Spanish case.

    OpenAIRE

    Molero, J.C. (Juan Carlos); Rodríguez-Tejedo, I. (Isabel)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method to make measurable what was not: the discourses of politicians regarding decentralization. For this purpose, we develop a matrix of arguments and a set of indexes, and apply them to provide a snapshot of the politicians views on the General Law of Budgetary Stability, a landmark for the process of decentralization in Spain.

  9. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  10. Policy analysis of multi-actor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Enserink, Bert; Kwakkel, Jan; Thissen, Wil; Koppenjan, Joop; Bots, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Policy analysts love solving complex problems. Their favorite problems are not just technically complex but also characterized by the presence of many different social actors that hold conflicting interests, objectives, and perceptions and act strategically to get the best out of a problem situation. This book offers guidance for policy analysts who want to assess if and how their analysis could be of help, based on the premise that problem formulation is the cornerstone in addressing complex problems. This book positions policy analysis within the theories on processes of policy making, and f

  11. Negotiation in Decentralization Case Study of China's Carbon Trading in the Power Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese government set a target to reduce China’s carbon intensity by 40%-45% in 2020 at its 2005 level. To achieve this target, the government has allocated targets to provinces, cities, and large enterprises, and selected five pilot provinces and eight cities for CO2 emission trading. Such emission trading process will involve decentralization, optimization, and negotiation. The prime objective of this book is to perform academic research on simulating the negotiation process. Through this research, a methodological framework and its implementation are set up to analyze, model and facilitate the process of negotiation among central government and individual energy producers under environmental, economical and social constraints. Negotiation in Decentralization: Case Study of China's Carbon Trading in the Power Sector discusses research carried out on negotiation issues in China regarding Chinese power sector reform over the past 30 years. Results show that conflicts exist between power groups and the ...

  12. Conceptualizing decentralization in European health systems: a functional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Richard B; Bankauskaite, Vaida

    2006-04-01

    Although decentralization has been widely implemented in health systems, there is little agreement as to how it should be defined or the outcomes it should produce. This article develops a functional typology based on political, administrative, and fiscal dimensions of decentralization. It utilizes these three categories to identify and highlight key theoretical issues concerning decentralization, emphasizing the likely advantages and disadvantages that decentralization can be expected to generate. It then examines the usefulness of this functional framework in explaining recent policy-making decisions within a number of tax-based health systems in Western Europe. The article concludes by suggesting that this three-part typology can be helpful to both policy makers and academics in evaluating the effectiveness of decentralization as a policy mechanism within health care systems.

  13. Decentralized, Adaptive, Look-Ahead Particle Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Mohamed Osama; de Freitas, Nando; Fauvel, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The decentralized particle filter (DPF) was proposed recently to increase the level of parallelism of particle filtering. Given a decomposition of the state space into two nested sets of variables, the DPF uses a particle filter to sample the first set and then conditions on this sample to generate a set of samples for the second set of variables. The DPF can be understood as a variant of the popular Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF), where the second step is carried out using Monte Carlo approximations instead of analytical inference. As a result, the range of applications of the DPF is broader than the one for the RBPF. In this paper, we improve the DPF in two ways. First, we derive a Monte Carlo approximation of the optimal proposal distribution and, consequently, design and implement a more efficient look-ahead DPF. Although the decentralized filters were initially designed to capitalize on parallel implementation, we show that the look-ahead DPF can outperform the standard particle filter even on ...

  14. Diásporas y transiciones en la Teoría del Actor-Red Diasporas and transitions in Actor-Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Callén

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este texto es una presentación del monográfico Diásporas y transiciones en la teoría del actor-red. Sus páginas presentan las principales características de esta teoría, una manera de entender sus orígenes y una descripción de su presente estableciendo un paralelismo con la etnometodología. El texto finaliza con una valoración del estado de la teoría del actor-red en España y un comentario sobre un congreso que llevó el título de Presente y futuro de la teoría del actor-red y que constituye el embrión del presente monográfico. En el texto se defiende una tesis muy simple: la teoría del actor-red nace con cierta relevancia para el pensamiento social en el momento en que se difracta en una miríada de usos y aplicaciones diferentes. El principal corolario de este hecho también es muy sencillo: la gran diferencia entre la teoría del actor-red y otras propuestas del pensamiento social es su permanente estado de diáspora y transición.
    This paper is an introduction to the monograph titled Diasporas and Transitions in the Actor-Network Theory. Drawing a parallel with ethnomethodology, its pages present the main features of this theory, a way to figure out its origins and a description of its present. The text ends with a brief look at the state of art of actor-network theory in Spain and an appraisal of a meeting titled Present and Future of Actor-Network Theory, which is the origin of our monograph. In this paper we put forward a very simple idea: Actor-Network Theory was born with certain relevance in Social Sciences when it diffracted in a myriad of different uses and applications. The main corollary of such an idea is also straightforward: the very difference between Actor-Network Theory and other perspectives in Social Sciences resides in the permanent diaspora and transition of the former.

  15. Decentralized Grid Scheduling with Evolutionary Fuzzy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölling, Alexander; Grimme, Christian; Lepping, Joachim; Papaspyrou, Alexander

    In this paper, we address the problem of finding workload exchange policies for decentralized Computational Grids using an Evolutionary Fuzzy System. To this end, we establish a non-invasive collaboration model on the Grid layer which requires minimal information about the participating High Performance and High Throughput Computing (HPC/HTC) centers and which leaves the local resource managers completely untouched. In this environment of fully autonomous sites, independent users are assumed to submit their jobs to the Grid middleware layer of their local site, which in turn decides on the delegation and execution either on the local system or on remote sites in a situation-dependent, adaptive way. We find for different scenarios that the exchange policies show good performance characteristics not only with respect to traditional metrics such as average weighted response time and utilization, but also in terms of robustness and stability in changing environments.

  16. Fractional Power Control for Decentralized Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jindal, Nihar; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2007-01-01

    We propose and analyze a new paradigm for power control in decentralized wireless networks, termed fractional power control. Transmission power is chosen as the current channel quality raised to an exponent -s, where s is a constant between 0 and 1. Choosing s = 1 and s = 0 correspond to the familiar cases of channel inversion and constant power transmission, respectively. Choosing s in (0, 1) allows all intermediate policies between these two extremes to be evaluated, and we see that neither extreme is ideal. We prove that using an exponent of s = 1/2 optimizes the transmission capacity of an ad hoc network, meaning that the inverse square root of the channel strength is the optimal transmit power scaling. Intuitively, this choice achieves the optimal balance between helping disadvantaged users while making sure they do not flood the network with interference.

  17. Rollout Sampling Policy Iteration for Decentralized POMDPs

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Feng; Chen, Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    We present decentralized rollout sampling policy iteration (DecRSPI) - a new algorithm for multi-agent decision problems formalized as DEC-POMDPs. DecRSPI is designed to improve scalability and tackle problems that lack an explicit model. The algorithm uses Monte- Carlo methods to generate a sample of reachable belief states. Then it computes a joint policy for each belief state based on the rollout estimations. A new policy representation allows us to represent solutions compactly. The key benefits of the algorithm are its linear time complexity over the number of agents, its bounded memory usage and good solution quality. It can solve larger problems that are intractable for existing planning algorithms. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness and scalability of the approach.

  18. Decentralized Overlay for Federation of Enterprise Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Rajiv

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes Aneka-Federation, a decentralized and distributed system that combines enterprise Clouds, overlay networking, and structured peer-to-peer techniques to create scalable wide-area networking of compute nodes for high-throughput computing. The Aneka-Federation integrates numerous small scale Aneka Enterprise Cloud services and nodes that are distributed over multiple control and enterprise domains as parts of a single coordinated resource leasing abstraction. The system is designed with the aim of making distributed enterprise Cloud resource integration and application programming flexible, efficient, and scalable. The system is engineered such that it: enables seamless integration of existing Aneka Enterprise Clouds as part of single wide-area resource leasing federation; self-organizes the system components based on a structured peer-to-peer routing methodology; and presents end-users with a distributed application composition environment that can support variety of programming and execu...

  19. Decentralized energy systems for clean electricity access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstone, Peter; Gershenson, Dimitry; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-04-01

    Innovative approaches are needed to address the needs of the 1.3 billion people lacking electricity, while simultaneously transitioning to a decarbonized energy system. With particular focus on the energy needs of the underserved, we present an analytic and conceptual framework that clarifies the heterogeneous continuum of centralized on-grid electricity, autonomous mini- or community grids, and distributed, individual energy services. A historical analysis shows that the present day is a unique moment in the history of electrification where decentralized energy networks are rapidly spreading, based on super-efficient end-use appliances and low-cost photovoltaics. We document how this evolution is supported by critical and widely available information technologies, particularly mobile phones and virtual financial services. These disruptive technology systems can rapidly increase access to basic electricity services and directly inform the emerging Sustainable Development Goals for quality of life, while simultaneously driving action towards low-carbon, Earth-sustaining, inclusive energy systems.

  20. Vanuatu, the country of rural decentralized electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of decentralized rural electrification in Vanuatu was presented. Vanuatu is a sparsely populated rural country in the south Pacific. The country includes 92 populated islands spread over 1,000 kilometers in the south Pacific, halfway between Fiji and Australia. The low population density and the tremendous distances between the different islands have made local electrical networks a necessity in Vanuatu. Apart from the two principal urban centres, Vanuatu does not have a centralized electrical distribution network. In the early 1990s the government initiated a program to provide independent power sources to the isolated communities. Photovoltaic cells are used to power most telecommunications services. Solar cells are also used to provide power to important community buildings such as the schools or nursing stations on the remote islands. Two small hydroelectric generating stations of 600 kW were also installed with the help of the German government

  1. Load scheduling for decentralized CHP plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg, orlov 31.07.2008; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Torben Skov

    This report considers load scheduling for decentralized combined heat and power plants where the revenue from selling power to the transmission company and the fuel cost may be time-varying. These plants produce both heat and power with a fixed ratio between these outputs. A heat storage facility...... is used to be able to deviate from this restriction. The load scheduling must be performed with only approximate knowledge about the future. At present in Denmark this uncertainty is only associated with the heat demand, but in the future revenues of produced energy and the fuel costs might also...... for items (ii) and (iii). For item (i). The approach taken in this report is explicitly to describe how the total revenue from running the plant depends on the schedule for the heat and power producing units of the plant. Hereafter optimization theory, in this case dynamic programming, is applied to find...

  2. Innovation in Multi-Actor Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David

    2014-01-01

    innovative sustainable technological solutions and business models through partnerships. In this paper, an action research study is presented involving the early stage development of a commercial venture addressing waste problems in Vietnam involving CARE International and Danish companies in the waste......Access2innovation is an initiative based in Denmark that develops and tests innovative new ways to build and implement strategic partnerships between civil society, business and academia. The objective is to meet perceived market opportunities and challenges in developing countries by developing...... to success lie in providing actors with a sound base for decision-making as well as active bi- and multilateral negotiations. As a novel experiment, the study shows that access2innovation can provide a platform conducive for partnership-based innovation for development....

  3. Influence of cardiac decentralization on cardioprotection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Kingma

    Full Text Available The role of cardiac nerves on development of myocardial tissue injury after acute coronary occlusion remains controversial. We investigated whether acute cardiac decentralization (surgical modulates coronary flow reserve and myocardial protection in preconditioned dogs subject to ischemia-reperfusion. Experiments were conducted on four groups of anesthetised, open-chest dogs (n = 32: 1- controls (CTR, intact cardiac nerves, 2- ischemic preconditioning (PC; 4 cycles of 5-min IR, 3- cardiac decentralization (CD and 4- CD+PC; all dogs underwent 60-min coronary occlusion and 180-min reperfusion. Coronary blood flow and reactive hyperemic responses were assessed using a blood volume flow probe. Infarct size (tetrazolium staining was related to anatomic area at risk and coronary collateral blood flow (microspheres in the anatomic area at risk. Post-ischemic reactive hyperemia and repayment-to-debt ratio responses were significantly reduced for all experimental groups; however, arterial perfusion pressure was not affected. Infarct size was reduced in CD dogs (18.6 ± 4.3; p = 0.001, data are mean ± 1 SD compared to 25.2 ± 5.5% in CTR dogs and was less in PC dogs as expected (13.5 ± 3.2 vs. 25.2 ± 5.5%; p = 0.001; after acute CD, PC protection was conserved (11.6 ± 3.4 vs. 18.6 ± 4.3%; p = 0.02. In conclusion, our findings provide strong evidence that myocardial protection against ischemic injury can be preserved independent of extrinsic cardiac nerve inputs.

  4. Analysis and design of robust decentralized controllers for nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenwald, D.A.

    1993-07-01

    Decentralized control strategies for nonlinear systems are achieved via feedback linearization techniques. New results on optimization and parameter robustness of non-linear systems are also developed. In addition, parametric uncertainty in large-scale systems is handled by sensitivity analysis and optimal control methods in a completely decentralized framework. This idea is applied to alleviate uncertainty in friction parameters for the gimbal joints on Space Station Freedom. As an example of decentralized nonlinear control, singular perturbation methods and distributed vibration damping are merged into a control strategy for a two-link flexible manipulator.

  5. Responsiveness and flexibility in a Decentralized Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristian Rasmus; Bilberg, Arne; Hadar, Ronen

    Today’s supply chains are not capable of managing the instabilities that is the case in the market. Instead, there is a need to develop supply chains that are capable of adapting to changes. Through a case study of LEGO, the authors suggest a possible solution: a decentralized supply chain servin...... independent and self-sufficient local factories. The decentralized supply chain is provided with materials, parts and pre-assembled elements from local suppliers and supplies the local market in return. Keywords: Decentralize, Responsiveness, Flexibility...

  6. DECENTRALIZED STABILIZATION OF A CLASS OF INTERCONNECTED SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the decentralized stabilization of continuous and discrete linear interconnected systems with the structural constraints about the interconnection matrices. For the continuous case,the main improvement in the paper as compared with the corresponding results in the literature is to extend the considered class of systems from S to S*(both will be defined in the paper)without resulting in high decentralized gain and difficult numerical computation. The algorithm for obtaining decentralized state feedback control to stable the overall system is presented. The discrete case and some very useful results are discussed as well.

  7. On the efficiency of decentralized exchange with resale possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Ebbe; Tranæs, Torben

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies decentralized exchange by bilateral matching and bargaining when resale is possible. Decentralized exchange involves the risk that goods and services may be allocated inefficiently; if low-valuation buyers consume while high-valuation buyers do not, then social welfare is reduced....... If resale is possible and transaction costs are negligible, we would nevertheless expect an efficient allocation to result from decentralized exchange. This paper suggests that this depends on the nature of the commodity; while the allocation of a durable good will be efficient, the allocation...

  8. LOCAL BORROWING AUTONOMY AS PART OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasneac Alexandru Octavian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Beside the usual fiscal instruments like taxes and intergovernmental grants, sub-central governments have access to additional revenue through borrowing. When assessing the fiscal decentralization process, a key issue is the local borrowing autonomy, even though the fiscal decentralization literature has devoted surprisingly little attention to this topic. This paper examines the implications of sub-central government borrowing and the reasons behind the borrowing constrains they face. Based on the methodology developed by IADB, we have calculated a Borrowing Autonomy Index for Romania and compared the results to other countries providing a valuable insight on the fiscal decentralization specific features.

  9. Centralized vs. De-centralized Multinationals and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs - here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax m...... manipulation instrument -, we show that (de-)centralized decisions are more profitable when tax differentials are (small) large.Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, MNEs.JEL-Classification: H25, F23, L23....

  10. Games Real Actors Could Play: The Problem of Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Scharpf, Fritz W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper continues the examination, begun in MPIFG Discussion Paper 89/9, of the validity of game-theoretic explanations in empirical social science research. Assuming that real actors with bounded rationality would be unable to cope with the explosive complexity of n-person games, discussion focuses first on the conditions under which corporate actors and coalitions, as well as collective and even aggregate actors can be legitimately treated as unitary players. In addition, the importance ...

  11. Games Real Actors Could Play: The Challenge of Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Scharpf, F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper continues the examination of the validity of game-theoretic explanations in empirical social science and policy research. Assuming that real actors with bounded rationality would be unable to cope with the explosive complexity of n-person games, discussion focuses on the conditions under which corporate actors and coalitions, as well as collective and even aggregate actors, may be legitimately treated as unitary players. In addition, the importance of functional differentiation and...

  12. Using the decentralized and liberalized electricity market microworld (LEMM) as an educational tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decentralized and liberalized electricity market involves a great deal of interdisciplinary concepts, including economic, commercial, environmental and technological issues. Consequently, the system is complicated. Accordingly, nowadays introductory courses focusing on the electricity market dynamics have been added to the curriculum at many universities. However, as the electricity market dynamics are complicated, it is not straightforward for students to understand. A teaching tool to assist students to better understand strategic behaviors in the market is thus in high demand. Due to these reasons, Liberalized Electricity Market Microworld (LEMM), incorporating a system dynamics based simulation model, is developed. The LEMM's contribution to the students learning and understanding of the decentralized and liberalized electricity market dynamics have been explored by organizing game sessions with the LEMM for totally 49 students who participated in 'Energy Policy and Planning' course in Bogazici University. The findings obtained from the exploratory study reveal that the students improved their understanding of the liberalized and decentralized electricity market through the game session with the LEMM. In this paper, the general characteristics of the LEMM and the underlying model are presented, the microworlds', particularly the LEMM's potential contribution to learning and teaching is discussed. - Research highlights: → LEMM describes realistically the dynamics of liberalized and decentralized electricity markets. → LEMM is a system dynamics based microworld used as a teaching tool in universities. → The study reveals that student's learning and understanding improves significantly using LEMM. → Future target groups of the LEMM are energy policy makers and decision makers. → To improve the performance of the training, microworld based game sessions should be used.

  13. Ghana's Decentralization: Two decades and still crawling?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kweku Baah Inkoom

    2011-01-01

    After more than two decades of implementation, there are still debates raging on the nature, processes, financing and operationalization of the decentralization system in Ghana. Daniel Kweku Baah Inkoom looks at the legal, administrative, financial and human resource constraints.

  14. Communication-Based Decomposition Mechanisms for Decentralized MDPs

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, Claudia V; 10.1613/jair.2466

    2011-01-01

    Multi-agent planning in stochastic environments can be framed formally as a decentralized Markov decision problem. Many real-life distributed problems that arise in manufacturing, multi-robot coordination and information gathering scenarios can be formalized using this framework. However, finding the optimal solution in the general case is hard, limiting the applicability of recently developed algorithms. This paper provides a practical approach for solving decentralized control problems when communication among the decision makers is possible, but costly. We develop the notion of communication-based mechanism that allows us to decompose a decentralized MDP into multiple single-agent problems. In this framework, referred to as decentralized semi-Markov decision process with direct communication (Dec-SMDP-Com), agents operate separately between communications. We show that finding an optimal mechanism is equivalent to solving optimally a Dec-SMDP-Com. We also provide a heuristic search algorithm that converges...

  15. An interactive heuristic for financial planning in decentralized organizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Goedhart; J. Spronk (Jaap)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPlanning and controlling overall performance in decentralized organizations is a complex task for central management because it is contronted with incomplete information on organizational opportunities and possible conflicts of interest with local managers. Many formal procedures for the

  16. Engaging Social Capital for Decentralized Urban Stormwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decentralized approaches to urban stormwater management, whereby installations of green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens, bioswales, and constructed wetlands) are dispersed throughout a management area, are cost-effective solutions with co-benefits beyond water abatement. Inste...

  17. Robust Decentralized Control of Unified Power Flow Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Shayeghi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach based on structured singular value is proposed for the robust decentralized Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC design. To achieve decentralization, using the schauder fixed point theorem the synthesis and analysis of Multi-Input Multi-output (MIMO control system is translated into set of equivalent Multi-Input Single-Output (MISO control system. Power systems such as the other industrial plants contain different kinds of uncertainties, which should be considered in controller design procedure. For this reason, the idea of µ-synthesis technique was used for designing of UPFC controllers. The proposed µ-based controller has a decentralized scheme and advantage of a decentralized controller design is reduction in the controller complexity and suitability for practical implementation. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy was evaluated under operating conditions for damping low frequency oscillations in comparison with the classical controller to demonstrate its robust performance through nonlinear time simulation and some performance indices.

  18. Educational decentralization, public spending, and social justice in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geo-Jaja, Macleans A.

    2007-01-01

    This study situates the process of educational decentralization in the narrower context of social justice. Its main object, however, is to analyze the implications of decentralization for strategies of equity and social justice in Nigeria. It starts from the premise that the early optimism that supported decentralization as an efficient and effective educational reform tool has been disappointed. The author maintains that decentralization — on its own — cannot improve education service delivery, the capacities of subordinate governments, or the integration of social policy in broader development goals. If the desired goals are to be met, public spending must be increased, greater tax revenues must be secured, and macro-economic stabilization must be achieved without re-instituting the welfare state.

  19. Decentralized control of large flexible structures by joint decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tzu-Jeng; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to design decentralized controllers for large complex flexible structures by using the idea of joint decoupling. Decoupling of joint degrees of freedom from the interior degrees of freedom is achieved by setting the joint actuator commands to cancel the internal forces exerting on the joint degrees of freedom. By doing so, the interactions between substructures are eliminated. The global structure control design problem is then decomposed into several substructure control design problems. Control commands for interior actuators are set to be localized state feedback using decentralized observers for state estimation. The proposed decentralized controllers can operate successfully at the individual substructure level as well as at the global structure level. Not only control design but also control implementation is decentralized. A two-component mass-spring-damper system is used as an example to demonstrate the proposed method.

  20. Decentralized Detection in Censoring Sensor Networks under Correlated Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah S. Abu-Romeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of optimal rules derived for different decentralized detection application scenarios are based on an assumption that the sensors' observations are statistically independent. Deriving the optimal decision rule in the canonical decentralized setting with correlated observations was shown to be complicated even for the simple case of two sensors. We introduce an alternative suboptimal rule to deal with correlated observations in decentralized detection with censoring sensors using a modified generalized likelihood ratio test (mGLRT. In the censoring scheme, sensors either send or do not send their complete observations to the fusion center. Using ML estimation to estimate the censored values, the decentralized problem is converted to a centralized problem. Our simulation results indicate that, when sensor observations are correlated, the mGLRT gives considerably better performance in terms of probability of detection than does the optimal decision rule derived for uncorrelated observations.

  1. International Political Actorness of the European Union: Evaluation Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GNATYUK N.N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is a completely new international entity which is hard to evaluate using traditional criteria of political actorness. Its active international presence stimulates the modeling of international actor features beyond the scope of “state-international organization” scheme. The concept of international actorness serves as a starting point for the development of appropriate analytical model. Unlike the traditional state-centered approaches which define an international actor through its affiliation witch the international system, this concept operates at the internal level of international entity and at the international structure level. Furthermore, both of these levels are treated as ontologically neutral and mutually constitutive. This basic theoretical scheme is used for elaboration of evaluation criteria of political actorness. The proposed system of criteria is based on drawing, synthesizing and developing the main writings on “new international actors” since the times of classic work by Carol A. Cosgrove and Kenneth J. Twitchett. The key elements of actorness assessed in this article include defining of capacity to act on the global scene as well as the acceptance by other actors and by international system as a whole. At the internal level, the EU’s actor capacity is measured by assessing its core elements ranging from core aspects, such as autonomy, authority, actor capability, coherence and cohesion to identity aspects. On the external level, the decisive criteria are recognition and acceptance by others which reflect expectations and perceptions of the EU. The proposed approach of evaluating the international actorness enables us to consider the political activity of the EU on the basis of coordinated system of interaction between the variables of international and domestic levels of the analysis. Furthermore, this contributes to the development of cumulative, coherent, and comprehensive theory of international

  2. Responsiveness and flexibility in a Decentralized Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Kristian Rasmus; Bilberg, Arne; Hadar, Ronen

    2012-01-01

    Today’s supply chains are not capable of managing the instabilities that is the case in the market. Instead, there is a need to develop supply chains that are capable of adapting to changes. Through a case study of LEGO, the authors suggest a possible solution: a decentralized supply chain serving independent and self-sufficient local factories. The decentralized supply chain is provided with materials, parts and pre-assembled elements from local suppliers and supplies the local market in ret...

  3. Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Danyang Xie; Heng-fu Zou; Hamid Davoodi

    1999-01-01

    In a simple model of endogenous growth with spending by different levels of government, we demonstrate how fiscal decentralization affects the long-run growth rate of the economy. Applying the model to the U.S. economy, we find that the existing spending shares for state and local governments have been consistent with growth maximization. In this sense, further decentralization in public spending may be harmful for growth.

  4. Gossip Dual Averaging for Decentralized Optimization of Pairwise Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Colin, Igor; Bellet, Aurélien; Salmon, Joseph; Clémençon, Stéphan

    2016-01-01

    International audience In decentralized networks (of sensors, connected objects, etc.), there is an important need for efficient algorithms to optimize a global cost function , for instance to learn a global model from the local data collected by each computing unit. In this paper, we address the problem of decentralized minimization of pairwise functions of the data points, where these points are distributed over the nodes of a graph defining the communication topology of the network. Thi...

  5. Corruption and government spending : The role of decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This thesis points to a possible weakness of the empirical literature on corruption and government spending. That corruption affects the composition of government spending, and in particular that it affects education and health spending adversely, seems to be empirically well established. However, there exist additional literature closely related to corruption and government spending, treating(i) a relationship between corruption and decentralization, and (ii) a relationship between decentral...

  6. Decentralized Resource Sharing and Associationin in Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yuzhe

    2016-01-01

    In wireless networks, some of the most important supporting functionalities are decentralized resource sharing and association of clients to access points. These functionalities aim to optimally allocate the available wireless transmission resources, for example, time or spectrum channels, the transmit power, access points, and relaying opportunities, all of which are subject to availability constraints. Decentralized resource sharing and association are designed by a common background theory...

  7. Government decentralization and disaster impact, an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Vaillancourt, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the link between decentralization and the impact of natural disasters through empirical analysis. It addresses the issue of the importance of the role of local government in disaster response through different means of decentralization. By studying data available for 50 countries, it allows to develop the knowledge on the role of national government in setting policy that allows flexibility and decision making at a local level and how this devolution of...

  8. Sustainable Decentralized Model For Solid Waste Management In Urban India

    OpenAIRE

    T. Subramani; R. Umarani

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to assess the various factors that govern the sustenance of a decentralized Solid waste management system in urban India. Towards this end, two decentralized composting facilities (One operational and the other closed) were studied both of which were started at the same time in Bangalore. The parameters covered under the study were the technology and the technical expertise, Managerial influence, economic viability, community support including the socio- ec...

  9. Decentralization and Electoral Accountability : Incentives, Separation and Vote Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Jean, HINDRIKS; Ben, LOCKWOOD

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between fiscal decentralization and electoral accountability, by analyzing how decentralization impacts upon incentive and selecion effects, and thus on voter welfare. The model abstracts from features such as public good spillovers or economics of scale, so that absent elections, voters are indifferent about the fiscal regime. The effect of fiscal centralization on voter welfare works through two channels : (i) via its effect on the probability of pooling ...

  10. Decentralization and electoral accountablity : incentives, separation, and voter welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Hindriks, Jean; Lockwood, Ben

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between fiscal decentralization and electoral accountability, by analyzing how decentralization impacts upon incentive and selection effects, and thus on voter welfare. The model abstracts from features such as public good spillovers or economies of scale, so that absent elections, voters are indifferent about the fiscal regime. The effect of fiscal centralization on voter welfare works through two channels: (i) via its effect on the probability of pooling ...

  11. Decentralization and Electoral Accountability: Incentives, Separation and Voter Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Hindriks, Jean; Lockwood, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between fiscal decentralization and electoral accountability, by analyzing how decentralization impacts upon incentive and selection effects, and thus on voter welfare. The model abstracts from features such as public good spillovers or economies of scale, so that absent elections, voters are indifferent about the fiscal regime. The effect of fiscal centralization on voter welfare works through two channels: (i) via its effect on the probability of pooling ...

  12. FACTS IN DECENTRALIZATION OF PUBLIC EXPENDITURES IN EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Mihai INCEU; Paul Vasile ZAI; Mara (Nandra), Eugenia Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Our research is focused on the very important field of public expenditures. The main goal is to emphasis the level of decentralization on public expenditures for all 27 European Union Countries. This decentralization is an important trend in public policy and depends on several factors such: specific of the expenditures, level and structure, specific social objectives, level of GDP, system of intergovernmental relations, subsectors of public administration sector, and so on.

  13. A Study on Indonesia Regions Disparity: Post Decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Aritenang, Adiwan F.

    2008-01-01

    Since its independence, Indonesia has developed fluctuated and uneven. The financial crisis and political changes has lead to decentralization in 1999, which has entitled local governments (province and regency/municipality) to develop its region autonomously. Surprisingly, it was concern that the decentralization will increase the disparities, rather than decrease it. This research uses Indonesia disparities in the province level. Using regression analysis we will overview Indonesian provinc...

  14. Fiscal Decentralization in Specific Areas of Government. A Technical Note

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Letelier S.; José Luis Sáez Lozano

    2013-01-01

    This study makes a contribution in two basic areas. First, it sets up a model which combines efficiency as well as political economy aspects in explaining the degree of fiscal decentralization. It innovates in making explicit the benefits from better informed politicians and policy makers (Von Hayek effect) and the potential cost push effect on public services and public goods (Scale Effect) resulting from decentralization. It takes advantage of previous literature in recognizing the extent o...

  15. Drivers of Environmental Institutional Dynamics in Decentralized African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Pittock, Jamie; Ferrand, Nils

    2015-12-01

    This paper builds on the assumption that an effective approach to support the sustainability of natural resource management initiatives is institutional "bricolage." We argue that participatory planning processes can foster institutional bricolage by encouraging stakeholders to make their own arrangements based on the hybridization of old and new institutions. This papers aims at identifying how participatory process facilitators can encourage institutional bricolage. Specifically the paper investigates the specific contextual and procedural drivers of institutional dynamics in two case studies: the Rwenzori region in Uganda and the Fogera woreda in Ethiopia. In both cases, participatory planning processes were implemented. This research has three innovative aspects. First, it establishes a clear distinction between six terms which are useful for identifying, describing, and analyzing institutional dynamics: formal and informal; institutions and organizations; and emergence and change. Secondly, it compares the contrasting institutional dynamics in the two case studies. Thirdly, process-tracing is used to identify contextual and procedural drivers to institutional dynamics. We assume that procedural drivers can be used as "levers" by facilitators to trigger institutional bricolage. We found that facilitators need to pay particular attention to the institutional context in which the participatory planning process takes place, and especially at existing institutional gaps or failures. We identified three clusters of procedural levers: the selection and engagement of participants; the legitimacy, knowledge, and ideas of facilitators; and the design of the process, including the scale at which it is developed, the participatory tools used and the management of the diversity of frames.

  16. FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION IN ALBANIA: EFFECTS OF TERRITORIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola KAPIDANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The principle of decentralization is a fundamental principle for the establishment and operation of local government. It refers to the process of redistributing the authority and responsibility for certain functions from central government to local government units. In many countries, particularly in developing countries, fiscal decentralization and local governance issues are addressed as highly important to the economic development. According to Stigler (1957, fiscal decentralization brings government closer to the people and a representative government works best when it is closer to the people. Albania is still undergoing the process of decentralization in all aspects: political, economic, fiscal and administrative. Decentralization process is essential to sustainable economic growth and efficient allocation of resources to meet the needs of citizens. Albania has a fragmented system of local government with a very large number of local government units that have neither sufficient fiscal or human capacity to provide public services at a reasonable level (World Bank. However, recent administrative and territorial reform is expected to have a significant impact in many issues related to local autonomy and revenue management. This paper is focused on the progress of fiscal decentralization process in Albania, stating key issues and ongoing challenges for an improved system. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of recent territorial reform, identifying problems and opportunities to be addressed in the future.

  17. Taking stock of decentralized disaster risk reduction in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Anthony; Gersonius, Berry; Makarigakis, Alexandros

    2016-09-01

    The Sendai Framework, which outlines the global course on disaster risk reduction until 2030, places strong importance on the role of local government in disaster risk reduction. An aim of decentralization is to increase the influence and authority of local government in decision making. Yet, there is limited empirical evidence of the extent, character and effects of decentralization in current disaster risk reduction implementation, and of the barriers that are most critical to this. This paper evaluates decentralization in relation to disaster risk reduction in Indonesia, chosen for its recent actions to decentralize governance of DRR coupled with a high level of disaster risk. An analytical framework was developed to evaluate the various dimensions of decentralized disaster risk reduction, which necessitated the use of a desk study, semi-structured interviews and a gap analysis. Key barriers to implementation in Indonesia included: capacity gaps at lower institutional levels, low compliance with legislation, disconnected policies, issues in communication and coordination and inadequate resourcing. However, any of these barriers are not unique to disaster risk reduction, and similar barriers have been observed for decentralization in other developing countries in other public sectors.

  18. Rethinking Decentralization in Education in terms of Administrative Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Papadopoulou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The general purpose of this study is to thoroughly examine decentralization in education according to the literature and previous research, and to discuss the applicability of educational decentralization practices in Turkey. The literature was reviewed for the study and findings reported. It has been observed that decentralization in education practices were realized in many countries after the 1980’s. It is obvious that the educational system in Turkey has difficulty in meeting the needs, and encounters many problems due to its present centralist state. Educational decentralization can provide effective solutions for stakeholder engagement, educational financing and for problems in decision making and operation within the education system. However, the present state of local governments, the legal framework, geographical, cultural and social features indicate that Turkey’s conditions are not ready for decentralization in education. A decentralization model realized in the long run according to Turkey’s conditions, and as a result of a social consensus, can help resolve the problems of the Turkish education system.

  19. The snow system: A decentralized medical data processing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellika, Johan Gustav; Henriksen, Torje Starbo; Yigzaw, Kassaye Yitbarek

    2015-01-01

    Systems for large-scale reuse of electronic health record data is claimed to have the potential to transform the current health care delivery system. In principle three alternative solutions for reuse exist: centralized, data warehouse, and decentralized solutions. This chapter focuses on the decentralized system alternative. Decentralized systems may be categorized into approaches that move data to enable computations or move computations to the where data is located to enable computations. We describe a system that moves computations to where the data is located. Only this kind of decentralized solution has the capabilities to become ideal systems for reuse as the decentralized alternative enables computation and reuse of electronic health record data without moving or exposing the information to outsiders. This chapter describes the Snow system, which is a decentralized medical data processing system, its components and how it has been used. It also describes the requirements this kind of systems need to support to become sustainable and successful in recruiting voluntary participation from health institutions.

  20. The semiotic actor : From signs to socially constructed meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmhout, Martin; Jorna, Rene J.; Gazendam, Henk W.

    2009-01-01

    A semiotic actor creates, uses and transfers or communicates meaning with the help of signs in order to interact with other actors and society. For a complete understanding of the cognitive and social phenomena related to this process, we state that social science and cognitive science cannot stay i

  1. EU-Hamas actors in a state of permanent liminality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle; Pallister-Wilkins, Polly

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate on liminality within International Relations (IR) Theory by focusing on the actorness of the European Union (EU) and Hamas. The concept of liminality as a transitional process is applied to frame the situation of both the EU and Hamas as political actors in...

  2. NGO - PRIVATE ACTORS AT AN INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAILA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available International law, taken by globalization, helps emerge “private actors at an international level” by generating “a removal from territories of problems and solutions”. The question of NGO accessing international jurisdictions is situated at this intersection, which is a dangerous one for jurists. The ways of national laws intersect, in fact, with those of international law. More over, private international law, more specifically, the private judicial nature of NGOs that enter into contact with public international law, an intersection that will imprint a plural-disciplinary character that marks this study. Thus, we must follow this rocky road and try a private approach of a question disputed by public law, which is also a part of international law. The risks of maladroitness are numerous, but must be assumed according to their importance and of the rarity of clarification attempts. NGOs, legal persons from private law exercising their activities in international context contain, in fact, elements of foreign origin that result in specific problems of international law. And if “international law can not be the domain of perfect solutions” it can allow however the adoption of others which, that can seem less perfect to some, will possess the aptitude of “creating the laws of a state”. Thus, only by allying public international law to private law, the question of NGOs access to international jurisdictions can receive an answer.

  3. A solution for actors' viewpoints representation with collaborative product development

    CERN Document Server

    Geryville, Hichem; Ouzrout, Yacine; Sapidis, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    As product complexity and marketing competition increase, a collaborative product development is necessary for companies which develop high quality products in short lead-times. To support product actors from different fields, disciplines, and locations, wishing to exchange and share information, the representation of the actors' viewpoints is the underlying requirement of the collaborative product development. The actors' viewpoints approach was designed to provide an organisational framework following the actors' perspectives in the collaboration, and their relationships, could be explicitly gathered and formatted. The approach acknowledges the inevitability of multiple integration of product information as different views, promotes gathering of actors' interests, and encourages retrieved adequate information while providing support for integration through PLM and/or SCM collaboration. In this paper, a solution for neutral viewpoints representation is proposed. The product, process, and organisation informa...

  4. To decentralize or not to decentralize, is that the question? Nicaraguan health policy under structural adjustment in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, A E; Zimmerman, S; Garfield, R

    2000-01-01

    Since 1990, health services decentralization in Nicaragua has been accompanied by structural adjustment, resulting in reduced equity and accountability. Sandinista efforts in the 1980s to extend access to primary care and reduce class and regional disparities in the delivery of health services were accompanied by modest attempts to increase local-level accountability and responsiveness. The escalation of war in the late 1980s transformed this effort into greater de facto decentralization. Over the past decade, Nicaragua has used decentralization policy to restructure the health system through health spending cuts and the favoring of curative over preventive services; privatization and the promotion of user fees; and confusion of lines of accountability. The authors analyze the 1990s' health policies in Nicaragua, paying particular attention to the blending of decentralization policy with the fiscal and administrative reforms advanced by the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and other international agencies. They conclude that analyzing decentralization as a sector-specific reform that can be ameliorated through technocratic modifications is insufficient. A full understanding of the problems and possibilities of decentralization requires an analysis of the political and economic context that conditions these policies. PMID:10707302

  5. Financial Decentralization in Bulgaria: An Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Stoilova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to provide a critical overview of the localgovernment finance reform and analyze the process of strengtheningfinancial decentralization in Bulgaria. First of all, the specificsof government structure and the main components of the legalbase in the scope of local self-government are presented. Thequantitative analysis is focused on dynamics of the public expenditureindicators and the structure of local revenues, based onfact figures for the period 1990–2011 and forecast for 2012. Theinfluence of economic crises on local government finance is discussedand estimated. A comparison is drawn between the threemost severe downturns of Bulgarian economy during the last 20years, namely the price liberalization in the beginning of transition(1991–1993, the credit crunch and series of bank bankruptcies,which caused the financial crisis in 1996–1997, and the currentworldwide crisis. Some of the most important actions, takenby the government in order to consolidate the crisis are describedand evaluated on the base of their effects on the local finance.The conclusion is that although the current crisis reached Bulgariaat comparatively mature stage of financial decentralizationreform, municipalities can do very little without active centralgovernment support and cannot substitute for it in regard of thebasic anti-crisis measures.

  6. Bandwidth Partitioning in Decentralized Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jindal, Nihar; Weber, Steven

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the following question, which is of interest in the design of a multiuser decentralized network. Given a total system bandwidth of W Hz and a fixed data rate constraint of R bps for each transmission, how many frequency slots N of size W/N should the band be partitioned into in order to maximize the number of simultaneous links in the network? Dividing the available spectrum results in two competing effects. On the positive side, a larger N allows for more parallel, non-interfering communications to take place in the same area. On the negative side, a larger N increases the SINR requirement for each link because the same information rate must be achieved over less bandwidth, which in turn increases the area consumed by each transmission. Exploring this tradeoff and determining the optimum value of N in terms of the system parameters is the focus of the paper. Using stochastic geometry, the optimal SINR threshold - which directly corresponds to the optimal spectral efficiency - is derived ...

  7. mSCTP Based Decentralized Mobility Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas A. Imtiaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To conceive the full potential of wireless IP services, Mobile Nodes (MNs must be able to roam seamlessly across different networks. Mobile Stream Control Transmission Protocol (mSCTP is a transport layer solution, which unlike Mobile IP (MIP, provides seamless mobility with minimum delay and negligible packet loss. However, mSCTP fails to locate the current IP address of the mobile node when Correspondent Node (CN wants to initiate a session. In this paper, we propose DHT Chord to provide the required location management. Chord is a P2P algorithm, which can efficiently provide the IP address of the called MN by using its key-value mapping. The proposed decentralized mobility framework collectively exploits the multihoming feature of mSCTP, and efficient key-value mapping of chord to provide seamless mobility. Suitability of the framework is analyzed by preliminary analysis of chord lookup efficiency, and mSCTP handover procedure using overlay weaver and NS-2. Performance analysis shows that mSCTP multihoming feature and Chord efficient key-value mapping can provide a non-delayed, reliable, and an efficient IP handover solution.

  8. DECENTRALIZATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE MANAGEMENT IN THE YUCATECAN LIVING TOWNS. INDICATORS PARTICIPATION AND COORDINATION OF THE PUBLIC AND SOCIAL STAKEHOLDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Ligorred Perramon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed against a background of debate arising since the 1990s regarding decentralization processes in archaeological heritage management in Mexico. Therefore this research focuses on the study of management processes in sites in Yucatan: particularly through observation of archaeological sites that make and what they do, and don’t, the different social actors to promote the conservation of this Our main hypothesis is that the lack of strategies for an activation of archaeological heritage in urban areas which is sustained over time and aimed at and/or alliance among the different government levels, and between government and various sectors of society, prohibits the and revaluing of this heritage for sustainable social use. We studied the archaeological situation prevailing in the Yucatecan cities of Mérida, Izamal, Acanceh and Dzilam González. The results us to demonstrate the need for a new management plan of heritage in living towns. Finally, we a series of indicators for measuring the participation, actions and coordination of those involved, with a view to collaborating in the development of mechanisms and strategies for evaluating advances in decentralization processes

  9. Forest biodiversity monitoring for REDD+: a case study of actors' views in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entenmann, Steffen K; Kaphegyi, Thomas A M; Schmitt, Christine B

    2014-02-01

    The climate change mitigation mechanism Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) is currently being negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Integrating biodiversity monitoring into REDD+ facilitates compliance with the safeguards stipulated by the UNFCCC to exclude environmental risks. Interviews with actors engaged in REDD+ implementation and biodiversity conservation at the national and sub-national level in Peru (n = 30) and a literature review (n = 58) were conducted to pinpoint constraints and opportunities for monitoring effects of REDD+ management interventions on biodiversity, and to identify relevant biodiversity data and indicators. It was found that particularly sub-national actors, who were frequently involved in REDD+ pilot projects, acknowledge the availability of biodiversity data. Actors at both the national and sub-national levels, however, criticized data gaps and data being scattered across biodiversity research organizations. Most of the literature reviewed (78 %) included indicators on the state of certain biodiversity aspects, especially mammals. Indicators for pressure on biodiversity, impacts on environmental functions, or policy responses to environmental threats were addressed less frequently (31, 21, and 10 %, respectively). Integrating biodiversity concerns in carbon monitoring schemes was considered to have potential, although few specific examples were identified. The involvement of biodiversity research organizations in sub-national REDD+ activities enhances monitoring capacities. It is discussed how improvements in collaboration among actors from the project to the national level could facilitate the evaluation of existing information at the national level. Monitoring changes in ecosystem services may increase the ecological and socioeconomic viability of REDD+.

  10. LINK OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION TO POVERTY REDUCTION: INDONESIAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rr. Sita Dewi Kusumaningrum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Link of Fiscal Decentralization to Poverty Reduction: Indonesian Context. It is identified from the literature studies that there are links between fiscal decentralization and poverty reduction. However, the links occurs in different ways among countries and local governments. This is a preliminary study which aims at observing the potential link pattern of fiscal decentralization to poverty reduction in Indonesian provinces before and in the period of fiscal decentralization implementation. This descriptive study shows that there is no clear link pattern of fiscal decentralization to poverty reduction in Indonesian context. Three links patterns, namely positive link, negative link, and no link appears differently among provinces. Elaboration at the level of each province using various variables is needed in order to see the clearer link of fiscal decentralization to poverty reduction in Indonesian context.   Keywords: Poverty Reduction, Fiscal Decentralization   Abstrak: Kaitan antara Desentralisasi Fiskal dengan Penurunan Kemiskinan: Kasus Indonesia. Sesuai dengan kajian literatur, terdapat keterkaitan antara desentralisasi fiskal dengan penurunan kemiskinan. Namun, pola keterkaitan tersebut berbeda antara satu negara dengan negara lain maupun antarberbagai pemerintah daerah. Studi ini merupakan studi awal yang bertujuan mengamati pola keterkaitan antara desentralisasi fiskal dengan penurunan kemiskinan di provinsi-provinsi di Indonesia pada periode sebelum dan setelah pelaksanaan desentralisasi fiskal. Hasil studi yang dilakukan secara deskriptif ini menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada pola keterkaitan yang jelas antara desentralisasi fiskal dan penurunan kemiskinan di Indonesia. Tiga pola keterkaitan, yaitu keterkaitan secara positif, negatif, maupun tidak ada keterkaitan antara desentralisasi fiskal dan penurunan kemiskinan tampak berbeda-beda di provinsi-provinsi yang diamati di Indonesia. Elaborasi yang lebih mendalam di tingkat

  11. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature.

  12. Comparative LCA of decentralized wastewater treatment alternatives for non-potable urban reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opher, Tamar; Friedler, Eran

    2016-11-01

    Municipal wastewater (WW) effluent represents a reliable and significant source for reclaimed water, very much needed nowadays. Water reclamation and reuse has become an attractive option for conserving and extending available water sources. The decentralized approach to domestic WW treatment benefits from the advantages of source separation, which makes available simple small-scale systems and on-site reuse, which can be constructed on a short time schedule and occasionally upgraded with new technological developments. In this study we perform a Life Cycle Assessment to compare between the environmental impacts of four alternatives for a hypothetical city's water-wastewater service system. The baseline alternative is the most common, centralized approach for WW treatment, in which WW is conveyed to and treated in a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and is then discharged to a stream. The three alternatives represent different scales of distribution of the WW treatment phase, along with urban irrigation and domestic non-potable water reuse (toilet flushing). The first alternative includes centralized treatment at a WWTP, with part of the reclaimed WW (RWW) supplied back to the urban consumers. The second and third alternatives implement de-centralized greywater (GW) treatment with local reuse, one at cluster level (320 households) and one at building level (40 households). Life cycle impact assessment results show a consistent disadvantage of the prevailing centralized approach under local conditions in Israel, where seawater desalination is the marginal source of water supply. The alternative of source separation and GW reuse at cluster level seems to be the most preferable one, though its environmental performance is only slightly better than GW reuse at building level. Centralized WW treatment with urban reuse of WWTP effluents is not advantageous over decentralized treatment of GW because the supply of RWW back to consumers is very costly in materials and

  13. Actor-Q Based Active Perception Learning System

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, Katsunari; Nishino, Tetsuo; Okabe, Yoichi

    2001-01-01

    An active perception learning system based on reinforcement learning is proposed. A novel reinforcement###architecture, called Actor-Q, is employed in which Q-###learning and Actor-Critic are combined. The system###decides its actions according to Q-values. One of the###actions is to move its sensor, and the others are to###make an answer of its recognition result, each of which###corresponds to each pattern. When the sensor motion###is selected, the sensor moves according to the actor's###ou...

  14. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources.

  15. Decentralized cogeneration - A solution for Romania? RAEF experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deficit should be covered using indigenous power generation sources. One could conclude, correlated with the previous discussion on financing investment, that most of the private capital is expected in the power and heat generation sector. New injection points might necessitate network reinforcement (implying additional costs and delays), may have to pass a complicated and lengthy authorizations process, etc. In conclusion, realisation of 'greenfield' large projects is likely to be cumbersome and delayed due mainly to issues related to connection to the grid. But also fuel supply issues, cooling water access, impact on communities, add to the serious siting problems for new greenfield power generation projects. A psychological impact on private investor's appetite is also given by the continuation of erection of Cernavoda 2, (3?) nuclear units, as these are modern, safe, and optimal at dispatching. In conclusion, in Romania, at present, one cannot identify large private power generation projects in advanced development phase. A solution could be decentralized power generation. Combined with covering a heat demand, it leads to distributed cogeneration. It is an EU and worldwide trend. The above, combined with the overall analysis of the experience in Romania and worldwide allow drawing the following conclusions: - Decentralised generation (cogeneration) is a solution to be considered for Romania and for the region; - The national energy strategy must consider it; - Resources should be allocated to it (not necessarily financial), thus contributing to sustainable development; - It must be promoted by appropriate legislative, regulatory fiscal, etc framework; - Periodic exchange of experience among different actors is decisive for avoiding wasting resources; - this is mainly the purpose of the present article; - Private initiative is the main driver and must be encouraged for promoting efficiency and sustainability; - The solution chosen yields better risk management while

  16. Local Economic Development. New generation of actors, policies and instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Helmsing, A.H.J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a summary report prepared for the UNCDF symposium on Decentralized Local Governance in Africa. The author explains how conditions for local economic development has changed, by distinguishing two sets of forces of change. The first refers to fundamental changes in development policy, while the second in the context of local development refers to what Dicken (1998) called the new 'geo-economy'.

  17. Reinforcement learning for a biped robot based on a CPG-actor-critic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yutaka; Mori, Takeshi; Sato, Masa-aki; Ishii, Shin

    2007-08-01

    Animals' rhythmic movements, such as locomotion, are considered to be controlled by neural circuits called central pattern generators (CPGs), which generate oscillatory signals. Motivated by this biological mechanism, studies have been conducted on the rhythmic movements controlled by CPG. As an autonomous learning framework for a CPG controller, we propose in this article a reinforcement learning method we call the "CPG-actor-critic" method. This method introduces a new architecture to the actor, and its training is roughly based on a stochastic policy gradient algorithm presented recently. We apply this method to an automatic acquisition problem of control for a biped robot. Computer simulations show that training of the CPG can be successfully performed by our method, thus allowing the biped robot to not only walk stably but also adapt to environmental changes. PMID:17412559

  18. Decentralizing Governance of Agropastoral Systems in Kyrgyzstan: An Assessment of Recent Pasture Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyldyz Shigaeva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Agropastoral systems in Kyrgyzstan have undergone dramatic change in recent decades. In large part, change has resulted from the introduction of legislation that devolves authority and responsibility for the management of common-pool agropastoral resources to community-level pasture users associations. By applying Ostrom’s principles of common resource governance, this paper analyzes the institutions and norms that currently shape local management practices in rural areas of Naryn Province in Kyrgyzstan and the views of different actors on pasture governance, including points of disagreement. Our research and analysis reveal that the community-initiated and -owned systems of pasture governance that were expected to develop and mature under the new Pasture Law have not yet been entirely realized. Decentralization occurred without the participation or awareness of most local resource users. As a consequence, users are creating and reinforcing their own community-defined practices and internal rules, leaving official management plans largely ignored and unenforced. Resource users tend to perceive the government-sanctioned pasture users associations not as public or democratic organizations that represent their interests, but rather as agencies that aim primarily to control the use of resources, exclude some people from decision-making, or impose taxation. Sustainable management of pasturelands therefore may best be served when community perspectives are more suitably integrated—from the planning phase through to collaborative governance and implementation of locally agreed upon management options.

  19. Modelling the Impact of Human Actors on Groundwater Resources under Conditions of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, R.; Reichenau, T. G.; Krimly, T.; Dabbert, S.; Schneider, K.; Mauser, W.; Hennicker, R.

    2012-12-01

    Water resources, activities of human actors and climate change are related in many different and complex ways because of the existence of and strong interactions between various influencing factors, including those that are natural-environmental and socio-economic. The GLOWA-Danube research cooperation has developed the integrated simulation system DANUBIA to simulate water-related influences of global change in different spatial and temporal contexts. DANUBIA is a modular system comprised of 17 dynamically-coupled, process-based model components and a framework which controls the interaction of these components with respect to space and time. This contribution describes approaches and capabilities of DANUBIA with regard to the simulation of global change effects on human decisions in water related fields with a focus on agriculture and groundwater. In agriculture, market prices and legislation can be equally or even more important than water availability in determining farmers' behavior and thus in determining the agricultural impact on water resources quantity and quality. The DANUBIA simulation framework and the associated DeepActor-framework for simulation of decision-making by human actors are presented together with the model components which are most relevant to the interactions between agriculture and groundwater. The approach for developing combination climate and socio-economic scenarios is explained. Exemplary scenario results are shown for the Upper Danube Catchment in Southern Germany. References Barthel, R., Janisch, S., N. Schwarz, A. Trifkovic, D. Nickel, C. Schulz, W. Mauser (2008): An integrated modelling framework for simulating regional-scale actor responses to global change in the water domain. Environmental Modelling and Software, 23, 1095-1121 (doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2008.02.004) Barthel, R., Reichenau T., Krimly, T., Dabbert, S., Schneider, K., Mauser, W. (2012) Integrated modeling of climate change impacts on agriculture and groundwater

  20. Research on virtual actor action editing and movement control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhu QIN; Yuhui WU; Zhengxu ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    To directly use a virtual surface model for action editing and movement control, a general method for creating virtual actor skeleton models and controlling movement is presented. The method includes judging borderlines of the block virtual surface model, calculat-ing the joints, confirming the above block, and using the block hierarchical layout to create the skeleton model. Then, according to the virtual actor model and move-ment restriction, the study focuses on the generation of movement animation using the key frame technique and smoothing movement technique by automatically adding animation and adjusting the actor's pose by different weights on movement amplitude. Finally, movement control of the actor in the virtual environment is implemented by real-time control and path point control, which achieve a good result.

  1. Efficient model learning methods for actor-critic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondman, Ivo; Vaandrager, Maarten; Buşoniu, Lucian; Babuska, Robert; Schuitema, Erik

    2012-06-01

    We propose two new actor-critic algorithms for reinforcement learning. Both algorithms use local linear regression (LLR) to learn approximations of the functions involved. A crucial feature of the algorithms is that they also learn a process model, and this, in combination with LLR, provides an efficient policy update for faster learning. The first algorithm uses a novel model-based update rule for the actor parameters. The second algorithm does not use an explicit actor but learns a reference model which represents a desired behavior, from which desired control actions can be calculated using the inverse of the learned process model. The two novel methods and a standard actor-critic algorithm are applied to the pendulum swing-up problem, in which the novel methods achieve faster learning than the standard algorithm. PMID:22156998

  2. Whose Journey Is It? A Critic's Plea to Actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Laments the narcissism that the author sees in too many contemporary approaches to acting and directing. Argues that actors must focus on the world outside themselves, where the play and the audience most need them to be. (SR)

  3. Engaging armed non-state actors in mechanisms for protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Lacroix

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Experience of engagement with armed non-state actors on the landmine ban may point the way to innovative approaches to preventing forced displacement and other abuses of human rights....

  4. Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions and their actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Omar Ron

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The work exposed here seeks to display, as a synthesis, the general characteristics and some conclusions of the investigation project "Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions through actors' perspective", developed between 2003 and 2005. It is through it that we sought to recognize the ideas and concepts that coexist in everyday institutional life, by recovering the voice of sport institutions' actors - parents, leaders, trainers and teachers, practising and players-, and also by analyzing speeches and practices; those institutions' distinguishing forms of organization; the ways that diverse actors relate and the social forms acting on them. We investigated sport institutions with the purpose of tracking the senses and meaning that actors grant them, their organization and dynamics, the reasons for their behaviour, the principles and logics that shape them. We also analyzed the joints that link them to external macroinstitutions, their autonomy or dependency with regard to the latter, and their incidence on sport institutions' logics

  5. The impulse influence function for de-centralized control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG; Wanxie

    2004-01-01

    Impulse influence matrix function is introduced based on that the de-centralized control analysis is analogous to the sub-structural analysis in structural mechanics. The static sub-structural analysis is analogous to the usual de-centralized control, whereas the dynamic sub-structural analysis corresponds to the de-centralized control theory. The reciprocal symmetry for the impulse influence matrix function is proved, and is solved by the precise integration method for time invariant system, giving the results up to computer precision. Based on the impulse influence functions of subsystems, the combination of subsystems can lead to a set of integral equations and be solved numerically. Numerical example demonstrates the effectiveness of the method.

  6. The Bases of Federalism and Decentralization in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ornelas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay uses the Weberian-type ideal to define the conceptual bases of federalism and the decentralization of education. Classic federalism, ficticious federalism (corporativism, the origins and the indigenous version of the new federalism are discussed. We conclude that Mexican constitutional federalism is baroque and ambiguous. Based on theory and the experiences of various countries, bureaucratic centralism and its main characteristics are defined. As a contrast, a typology of educational decentralization is developed. Taken into account are its political, judicial and administrative definitions; a distinction is made between delegation and decentralization. It is argued that with the signing of the Agreement for the Modernization of Basic Education, the Mexican government sought to increase its legitimacy without losing control of education.

  7. Decentralized Optimization for a Novel Control Structure of HVAC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A decentralized control structure is introduced into the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system to solve the high maintenance and labor cost problem in actual engineering. Based on this new control system, a decentralized optimization method is presented for sensor fault repair and optimal group control of HVAC equipment. Convergence property of the novel method is theoretically analyzed considering both convex and nonconvex systems with constraints. In this decentralized control system, traditional device is fitted with a control chip such that it becomes a smart device. The smart device can communicate and operate collaboratively with the other devices to accomplish some designated tasks. The effectiveness of the presented method is verified by simulations and hardware tests.

  8. A Critical Look at Decentralized Personal Data Architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Arvind; Barocas, Solon; Nissenbaum, Helen; Boneh, Dan

    2012-01-01

    While the Internet was conceived as a decentralized network, the most widely used web applications today tend toward centralization. Control increasingly rests with centralized service providers who, as a consequence, have also amassed unprecedented amounts of data about the behaviors and personalities of individuals. Developers, regulators, and consumer advocates have looked to alternative decentralized architectures as the natural response to threats posed by these centralized services. The result has been a great variety of solutions that include personal data stores (PDS), infomediaries, Vendor Relationship Management (VRM) systems, and federated and distributed social networks. And yet, for all these efforts, decentralized personal data architectures have seen little adoption. This position paper attempts to account for these failures, challenging the accepted wisdom in the web community on the feasibility and desirability of these approaches. We start with a historical discussion of the development of v...

  9. Decentralization of multimedia content in a heterogeneous environment

    CERN Document Server

    Koskenvaara, Tuomo

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study has been the decentralization of multimedia content in a heterogeneous environment. The environment consisted of the research networks connecting the European Organization for Nuclear Research and the Finnish University and Research Network. The European Organization for Nuclear Research produces multimedia content which can be used as studying material all over the world. The Web University pilot in the European Organization for Nuclear Research has been developing a multimedia content delivery service for years. Delivering the multimedia content requires plenty of capacity from the network infrastructure. Different content of the material can have different demands for the network. In a heterogeneous environment, like the Internet, fulfilling all the demands can be a problem. Several methods exist to improve the situation. Decentralization of the content is one of the most popular solutions. Mirroring and caching are the main methods for decentralization. Recently developed content del...

  10. On Memory Reuse Between Inputs and Outputs of Dataflow Actors

    OpenAIRE

    Desnos, Karol; Pelcat, Maxime; Nezan, Jean François; Aridhi, Slaheddine

    2016-01-01

    International audience This article introduces a new technique to minimize the memory footprints of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) applications specified with Synchronous Dataflow (SDF) graphs and implemented on shared-memory Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chips (MPSoCs). In addition to the SDF specification, which captures data dependencies between coarse-grained tasks called actors, the proposed technique relies on two optional inputs abstracting the internal data dependencies of actors: ann...

  11. Logistics Performance of Actors in the Wine Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Chandes, Jerôme; Estampe, Dominique

    2003-01-01

    International audience In an environment marked by ever-greater international competition, wine sector companies have been seriously questioning the structure of their entire logistics chain. This is due to the emergence of new actors (i.e., large retailers); the diversification of service providers' product offers; and the different rapprochements between actors in this branch. These are all signals that have caused companies to question their logistics strategies as shown in the ISLI sur...

  12. A Convergent Online Single Time Scale Actor Critic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Di Castro, D.; Meir, R.

    2009-01-01

    Actor-Critic based approaches were among the first to address reinforcement learning in a general setting. Recently, these algorithms have gained renewed interest due to their generality, good convergence properties, and possible biological relevance. In this paper, we introduce an online temporal difference based actor-critic algorithm which is proved to converge to a neighborhood of a local maximum of the average reward. Linear function approximation is used by the critic in order estimate ...

  13. A Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Weber

    2004-01-01

    The interactions between climate and the socio-economic system are investigated with a Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM) obtained by coupling a nonlinear impulse response model of the climate sub-system (NICCS) to a multi-actor dynamic economic model (MADEM). The main goal is to initiate a model development that is able to treat the dynamics of the coupled climate socio-economic system, including endogenous technological change, in a non-equilibrium situation, thereby o...

  14. Transformation from below in Bolivia and Bangladesh: decentralization, local governance, and systemic change

    OpenAIRE

    Faguet, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    I examine decentralization through the lens of the local dynamics it unleashed in the much-noted case of Bolivia and the less-noted case of Bangladesh. I argue that the national effects of decentralization are largely the sum of its local-level effects. Hence to understand decentralization we must first understand how local government works. This implies analysing not only decentralization, but also democracy, from the bottom up. Beginning with Bolivia, I explore the deep economic and institu...

  15. Decentralization and local government in Bolivia : an overview from the bottom up

    OpenAIRE

    Faguet, Jean-Paul

    2003-01-01

    Hundreds of studies have failed to establish the effects of decentralization on a number of important policy goals. This paper examines the remarkable case of Bolivia to explore decentralization's effects on government responsiveness and poverty-orientation. I first summarize econometric results on the effects of decentralization nationally, and then turn to qualitative research – the focus of the paper – that digs deep into local government processes to understand how decentralization did th...

  16. The Effect of Fiscal Decentralization on Under-five Mortality in Iran: A Panel Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Hussein Samadi; Ali Keshtkaran,; Zahra Kavosi; Sajad Vahedi

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundFiscal Decentralization (FD) in many cases is encouraged as a strong means of improving the efficiency and equity in the provision of public goods, such as healthcare services. This issue has urged the researchers to experimentally examine the relationship between fiscal decentralization indicators and health outcomes. In this study we examine the effect of Fiscal Decentralization in Medical Universities (FDMU) and Fiscal Decentralization in Provincial Revenues (FDPR) on Under-Five ...

  17. Design and Simulation of a Decentralized Railway Traffic Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of railway transportation, various methods have been developed for the control and management of train traffic. Train traffic control systems that are currently in use are overwhelmingly centralized systems. In this study, the development of the general structure of railway traffic control techniques is examined, centralized and decentralized control systems are investigated, and an alternative train traffic control system, the Decentralized Train Traffic Management System (DTMS, is suggested. Simulation results on the possible application of the proposed method to a railway line in South-East Turkey are employed to evaluate the performance of the developed system.

  18. Design of decentralized robust H∞ state feedback controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yong-fang; GUI Wei-hua; JIANG Zhao-hui; YANG Chun-hua

    2006-01-01

    The design of decentralized robust H∞ state feedback controller for large-scale interconnected systems with value bounded uncertainties existing in the state, control input and interconnected matrices was investigated.Based on the bounded real lemma a sufficient condition for the existence of a decentralized robust H∞ state feedback controller was derived. This condition is expressed as the feasibility problem of a certain nonlinear matrix inequality.The controller, which makes the closed-loop large-scale system robust stable and satisfies the given H∞ performance, is obtained by the offered homotopy iterative linear matrix inequality method. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Localization of acoustic sources using a decentralized particle filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerstoft Peter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the decentralized localization of an acoustic source in a (wireless sensor network based on the underlying partial differential equation (PDE. The PDE is transformed into a distributed state-space model and augmented by a source model. Inferring the source state amounts to a non-linear non-Gaussian Bayesian estimation problem for whose solution we implement a decentralized particle filter (PF operating within and across clusters of sensor nodes. The aggregation of the local posterior distributions from all clusters is achieved via an enhanced version of the maximum consensus algorithm. Numerical simulations illustrate the performance of our scheme.

  20. Designing a Decentralized Traffic Information System — AutoNomos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Axel; Hellbrück, Horst; Fischer, Stefan; Hendriks, Björn; Schmidt, Christiane; Fekete, Sándor P.

    We propose a decentralized traffic information system—Auto-Nomos—that is based on a thorough investigation of the properties of traffic and recommends a hierarchical data aggregation and forwarding for providing individualized information and support to road users. Our approach differs from work in the field by consequently applying local rules and local decentralized data processing, which turns out to be a key property of robust and scalable computing systems. We present a flexible VANET middleware that assists the application development by providing generic functionality for traffic applications. We discuss the architectural design of the overall system and provide solutions of important design concepts demonstrating the innovation of the approach.

  1. Analysis of Decentralized Control for Absorption Cycle Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Just Nielsen, Rene; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard;

    2015-01-01

    Email Print Request Permissions This paper investigates decentralized control structures for absorption cycle heat pumps and a dynamic nonlinear model of a single-effect LiBr-water absorption system is used as case study. The model has four controllable inputs, which can be used to stabilize the ...... to minimize the effect of cross couplings and improve stability with the right pairing of input and output. Simulation of selected candidate input-output pairings demonstrate that decentralized control can provide stable operation of the heat pump....

  2. La prueba PISA: una mirada alternativa desde la Teoría del Actor-Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Paredes Suzarte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de la proliferación de las evaluaciones estandarizadas, inscritas en lo que ha sido conceptualizado por la literatura como políticas de accountability o de rendición de cuentas, se ofrece por medio de este artículo una línea de pensamiento y discusión alternativa sobre la prueba PISA. Utilizando como enfoque la Teoría del Actor-Red (TAR de Bruno Latour, se presentan ejercicios de traslación epistémica de la prueba PISA desde un modelo de pensamiento positivista moderno, a uno materialista pragmático en el que se privilegia una descripción constructivista y analítica de los componentes que la constituyen. En base al seguimiento y análisis de noticias sobre la prueba PISA desplegadas en diarios electrónicos en Chile y Argentina, más la revisión de fuentes secundarias, se exponen algunas de las controversias suscitadas en torno a la evaluación y se discute sobre su posible impacto en nuestras percepciones sobre educación y calidad. También se problematiza el carácter neutral y objetivo de la prueba, y se levanta la pregunta acerca de su posible agencia en la cristalización de las relaciones de centro-periferia entre países que, en el marco del enfoque de la TAR, tiene sentido explorar. 

  3. A Three Level Framework for Closed-Loop Supply Chain Management—Linking Society, Chain and Actor Level

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Seuring; Romy Morana

    2011-01-01

    Supply chain management and closed-loop supply chain management (CLSCM) have developed into established concepts in recent years. The related material cycles and product returns form an important part of all related processes with high potential for reducing environmental burden. The paper proposes a framework for (environmentally triggered) closed-loop supply chain management, spanning three different levels: the societal or governance, the chain and the actor level. Within each level, a set...

  4. Environmental Activism, Social Networks and the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, J.; Xie Lei

    2009-01-01

    Social networks and the internet both have a substantial individual effect on environmental activism in China. In this article, we speculate that social linking patterns between environmental actors, which often facilitate activism on the ground, may also exist in cyberspace in the form of an online network. The article addresses the following empirical questions. Does such an online network exist? If so, who are the constituent actors? Are these the same actors observed on the ground? In add...

  5. Humanoids Learning to Walk: a Natural CPG-Actor-Critic Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI eLI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of learning mechanisms for locomotion has been the subject of much researchfor some time but many challenges remain. Dynamic systems theory (DST offers a novel approach to humanoid learning through environmental interaction. Reinforcement learning (RL has offered a promising method to adaptively link the dynamic system to the environment it interacts with via a reward-based value system.In this paper, we propose a model that integrates the above perspectives and applies it to the case of a humanoid (NAO robot learning to walk the ability of which emerges from its value-based interaction with the environment. In the model,a simplified central pattern generator (CPG architecture inspired by neuroscientific research and DST is integrated with an actor-critic approach to RL (cpg-actor-critic. In the cpg-actor-critic architecture, least-square-temporal-difference (LSTD based learning converges to the optimal solution quickly by using natural gradient and balancing exploration and exploitation. Futhermore, rather than using a traditional (designer-specified reward it uses a dynamic value function as a stability indicator (SI that adapts to the environment.The results obtained are analyzed and explained by using a novel DST embodied cognition approach. Learning to walk, from this perspective, is a process of integrating sensorimotor levels and value.

  6. Humanoids Learning to Walk: A Natural CPG-Actor-Critic Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The identification of learning mechanisms for locomotion has been the subject of much research for some time but many challenges remain. Dynamic systems theory (DST) offers a novel approach to humanoid learning through environmental interaction. Reinforcement learning (RL) has offered a promising method to adaptively link the dynamic system to the environment it interacts with via a reward-based value system. In this paper, we propose a model that integrates the above perspectives and applies it to the case of a humanoid (NAO) robot learning to walk the ability of which emerges from its value-based interaction with the environment. In the model, a simplified central pattern generator (CPG) architecture inspired by neuroscientific research and DST is integrated with an actor-critic approach to RL (cpg-actor-critic). In the cpg-actor-critic architecture, least-square-temporal-difference based learning converges to the optimal solution quickly by using natural gradient learning and balancing exploration and exploitation. Futhermore, rather than using a traditional (designer-specified) reward it uses a dynamic value function as a stability indicator that adapts to the environment. The results obtained are analyzed using a novel DST-based embodied cognition approach. Learning to walk, from this perspective, is a process of integrating levels of sensorimotor activity and value. PMID:23675345

  7. Taming instabilities in power grid networks by decentralized control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, B.; Grabow, C.; Auer, S.; Kurths, J.; Witthaut, D.; Timme, M.

    2016-05-01

    Renewables will soon dominate energy production in our electric power system. And yet, how to integrate renewable energy into the grid and the market is still a subject of major debate. Decentral Smart Grid Control (DSGC) was recently proposed as a robust and decentralized approach to balance supply and demand and to guarantee a grid operation that is both economically and dynamically feasible. Here, we analyze the impact of network topology by assessing the stability of essential network motifs using both linear stability analysis and basin volume for delay systems. Our results indicate that if frequency measurements are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals, DSGC enhances the stability of extended power grid systems. We further investigate whether DSGC supports centralized and/or decentralized power production and find it to be applicable to both. However, our results on cycle-like systems suggest that DSGC favors systems with decentralized production. Here, lower line capacities and lower averaging times are required compared to those with centralized production.

  8. Reaction Diffusion and Chemotaxis for Decentralized Gathering on FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Girau

    2009-01-01

    and rapid simulations of the complex dynamics of this reaction-diffusion model. Then we describe the FPGA implementation of the environment together with the agents, to study the major challenges that must be solved when designing a fast embedded implementation of the decentralized gathering model. We analyze the results according to the different goals of these hardware implementations.

  9. An Evaluation of Decentralization in a Large School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Harry F.

    In October 1975, the School Board of the Los Angeles Unified School District appointed a Citizen's Committee to conduct an appraisal of the management of the school district. This Citizen's Management Review Committee (CMRC) organized itself into five subcommittees: Management, Policy, Personnel, Budget, and Decentralization. The Decentralization…

  10. Decentralization and Faculty Ownership: Keys to a Successful Assessment Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Terrence; And Others

    In an effort to prepare for a North Central Association accreditation visit, Henry Ford Community College (HFCC), in Michigan, developed and implemented a decentralized and faculty-driven assessment plan. First, a faculty member was assigned to begin the groundwork for the assessment plan and an Instructional Assessment Committee was formed to…

  11. Decentralization of operating reactor licensing reviews: NRR Pilot Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, which has incorporated comments received from the Commission and ACRS, describes the program for decentralization of selected operating reactor licensing technical review activities. The 2-year pilot program will be reviewed to verify that safety is enhanced as anticipated by the incorporation of prescribed management techniques and application of resources. If the program fails to operate as designed, it will be terminated

  12. Augur: a decentralized, open-source platform for prediction markets

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Jack; Krug, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Augur is a trustless, decentralized platform for prediction markets. It is an extension of Bitcoin Core's source code which preserves as much of Bitcoin's proven code and security as possible. Each feature required for prediction markets is constructed from Bitcoin's input/output-style transactions.

  13. Formula Funding of Schools, Decentralization and Corruption: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levacic, Rosalind; Downes, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study sets out to examine the relationship, if any, between the decentralization of funding for schools and the prevalence of corruption and fraud. It is based upon work carried out in four countries: Australia (the State of Victoria), the United Kingdom (specifically England), Poland (with particular reference to two cities) and Brazil…

  14. Croatia : Fiscal (De)centralization and Public Service Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses the contours of a possible strategic direction, the necessary basic institutional set up for implementation, and key reform policy options to be tackled in order to complete the foundations of the decentralization reform initiated in 2001. Croatia is still a highly centralized country in terms of decision making on public service financing and delivery, as compared to...

  15. Strategic Alignment: Recruiting Students in a Highly Decentralized Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    All enrollment managers face some level of challenge related to decentralized decision making and operations. Policies and practices can vary considerably by academic area, creating administrative complexity, restricting the scope and speed of institutional initiatives, and limiting potential efficiencies. Central attempts to standardize or…

  16. Contesting sharia : state law, decentralization and Minangkabau custom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huda, Yasrul

    2013-01-01

    This book explains how Sharia, commonly called Perda Sharia (Sharia by-law) in Indonesia, was legislated on the provincial, regional and municipal level in West Sumatra. This process began after the government started a decentralization policy in 2000. Although the law of local autonomy prescribes t

  17. Centralized and decentralized control of structural vibration and sound radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.P.; Baumann, O.N.; Elliott, S.J.; Fraanje, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of centralized and decentralized feedback controllers on a plate with multiple colocated velocity sensors and force actuators. The performance is measured by the reduction in either kinetic energy or sound radiation, when the plate is excited with a randomly distr

  18. A simulation model of a coordinated decentralized linear supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, Jalal; Cannella, S.; Lopez Campos, M.; Miranda, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation-based study of a coordinated, decentralized linear supply chain (SC) system. In the proposed model, any supply tier considers its successors as part of its inventory system and generates replenishment orders on the basis of its partners’ operational information. We s

  19. Centralization and Decentralization of Schools' Physical Facilities Management in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoya, Peter O.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine the difference in the availability, adequacy and functionality of physical facilities in centralized and decentralized schools districts, with a view to making appropriate recommendations to stakeholders on the reform programmes in the Nigerian education sector. Design/methodology/approach: Principals,…

  20. Association between multifocal soft contact lens decentration and visual performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedtke C

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cathleen Fedtke,1 Klaus Ehrmann,1,2 Varghese Thomas,1 Ravi C Bakaraju1,2 1The Brien Holden Vision Institute, Clinical Trial Research Centre, 2School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the association between decentration of several commercial multifocal soft contact lenses (MFCLs and various objective and subjective visual performance variables in presbyopic and non-presbyopic participants. Materials and methods: All presbyopic (age >40 years, near add ≥+1.25 D and non-presbyopic (age ≥18 years, no near add requirements, spherical equivalent ≤-0.50 D participants were each fitted bilaterally with six and two MFCLs (test lens, respectively, and with one single vision lens (control lens. Lens decentration, ie, the x- and y-differences between the contact lens and pupil centers, was objectively determined. Third-order aberrations were measured and compared. Visual performance (high- and low-contrast acuities and several subjective variables was analyzed for any associations (Pearson’s correlation, r with MFCL decentration. Results: A total of 17 presbyopic (55.1±6.9 years and eight non-presbyopic (31.0±3.3 years participants completed the study. All lenses displayed a temporal–inferior decentration (x=-0.36±0.29 mm, y=-0.28±0.28 mm, mean ± SD. Compared to the control, a significant inferior decentration was found for the Proclear® MFCL Near lens in both groups (ypresbyopic =-0.26 mm, ynon-presbyopic =-0.70 mm and for the Proclear® MFCL Distance lens in the non-presbyopic group (ynon-presbyopic =-0.69 mm. In both groups, lens-induced vertical coma (C(3, -1 was, by at least tenfold, significantly more positive for the Proclear® MFCL Distance lens and significantly more negative for the Proclear® MFCL Near lens. In the presbyopic group, the correlation of total MFCL decentration with vision variables was weak (r<|0

  1. A Convergent Online Single Time Scale Actor Critic Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Di Castro, D

    2009-01-01

    Actor-Critic based approaches were among the first to address reinforcement learning in a general setting. Recently, these algorithms have gained renewed interest due to their generality, good convergence properties, and possible biological relevance. In this paper, we introduce an online temporal difference based actor-critic algorithm which is proved to converge to a neighborhood of a local maximum of the average reward. Linear function approximation is used by the critic in order estimate the value function, and the temporal difference signal, which is passed from the critic to the actor. The main distinguishing feature of the present convergence proof is that both the actor and the critic operate on a similar time scale, while in most current convergence proofs they are required to have very different time scales in order to converge. Moreover, the same temporal difference signal is used to update the parameters of both the actor and the critic. A limitation of the proposed approach, compared to results a...

  2. A microeconomic analysis of decentralized small scale biomass based CHP plants—The case of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative energy sources, such as biomass CHP plants, have recently gained significantly in importance and action is due both on the large scale corporate level and on the small scale. Hence, making the scope and economic outline of such projects easily intelligible without losing relevant details seems a key factor to further promote the necessary developments. The model setup presented in this paper may therefore serve as a starting point for generating numerical results based on real life cases or scenarios. Its focus lies on the economic analysis of decentralized biomass CHP plants. It presents a new approach to analyzing the economic aspects of biomass CHP plants implementing a formal microeconomic approach. As Germany claims a leading role in the market for renewable energy production, the paper also takes a closer look on the effects of German energy policy with respect to biomass CHP plants. - Highlights: • A formal microeconomic model is used to analyse a decentralized biomass CHP plant. • Model setup is used to generate numerical results based on real life scenarios. • Nested CES production function is a new approach to model economics of biomass CHP. • Analysis presents insight into microeconomics and cost drivers of biomass CHP. • Evaluation of energy policy design with respect to environmental policy goals

  3. Environment as the Stage for Economic Actors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John E Coulter; Shi Lei; Samantha Jenkins

    2007-01-01

    The relative importance of economics and environment in debate may soon be reversed due to the influence of three factors. Firstly, in the global economy it is hard to hide the unwanted products of economic processes. Secondly, huge advances in science will reduce the imperfect knowledge of markets, making some monitoring and analyzing tools show the design of sensible and equitable livelihood in communities, which is more important than the motivation of maximising profits for some individuals or fums. Thirdly, China, as the last major player on the planet to take on economic growth, comes from traditions fundamentally different from those economies that have experienced the Industrial Revolution previously. Its challenges with sustainability and environmental conservation predate Western economics by millennia,and it is implementing policies domestically and starting to work on the world stage that acknowledges that the surroundings are the host for any economic and socio-political system.

  4. DECENTRALIZATION AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, RUSU (CIGU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development became a goal for knowledge society, but one of the main question in literature remains as how close is the relationship between economic dvelopment, knowledge society and local governments' level. Given the great diversity of situations and frameworks both across countries and within them in the European Union, I consider that each country must have own policies designed to implement process of decentralization with the commitment of "healthy" economy in a society dominated by the technology and innovation. In this context, the problem occurs in decentralization should be managed on two levels: on the one hand in terms of central-local budgets relations, and on the other hand, in the local public finance structural plan. The paper will try to emphasize the connection between decentralization, local economic sustainable development and knowledge society, taking into account an overview of this three aspects and empirical evidences. In this regard, I will use the background offered by literature and the official statiscal data for analysis to identify the variables which explain decentralization and local economic development in the knowledge society. I estimate the analysis to confirm the hypothesis that there are good aspects, but also deficiencies that require solutions and budgetary policy options as part undisputed positioning local government finance as an engine of development of the whole nation. I consider that the paper can be a useful viewpoint in understanding local public finances in decentralization, which allows researchers to include other sources of information for researching an in a much more complex approach.

  5. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. PMID:26363256

  6. Transnational corporations as 'keystone actors' in marine ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Österblom

    Full Text Available Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems.

  7. Burst Diplomacy The Diplomacies of Foreign Policy: Actors and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Devin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to diplomacy tend to be restrictive because of an exclusively interstate insight. Indeed, historically, the state monopoly over diplomacy has always been challenged by private actors. Today, it is defied both from the inside because of growing public fragmentation (every ministry tends to lead its own foreign policy; subnational authorities develop their diplomatic relations and from the outside (the business sector and civil society play a growing role on the international scene. This proliferation of actors has transformed diplomatic methods. Beyond the binary division between “old diplomacy” – bilateral, secret and resident – and “new diplomacy” – multilateral, public and itinerant – this article shows that diplomacy has to adapt to number and complexity. Therefore a more global conception need now be considered. Diplomacy today is a system of multiple actors using diverse methods in order to coordinate positions of common interest in a competitive and sometimes hostile environment.

  8. Values of decentralized systems that avoid investments in idle capacity within the wastewater sector: a theoretical justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng

    2014-04-01

    In this work, the values of decentralized (onsite) systems that avoid investments in idle capacity within wastewater plans are quantitatively justified using the specific net present value (SNPV) approach. SNPV is a currently proposed criterion in environmental engineering economics that is defined as the net present value of the cost per unit of service or per population equivalent (PE). The SNPV approach was reintroduced with bugs fixed and then applied to the economic analysis of the capital and operating costs of one-stage completed central plants, stage-expanded central plants, and decentralized treatment facilities. The results show that under a demand growth scenario, the central plant will inevitably reach idle capacity, which can be reduced by a staged expansion. However, the staged expansion plan will lose the economies of scale and, hence, is only viable under projections of a low or moderate price inflation rate or high demand growth rate. Onsite treatment systems can theoretically achieve 100% utilization. Assuming that the capital costs per PE of the onsite and central systems are equal, the former is economically favorable in most cases of price inflation as a result of its cost saving on idle capacity. Onsite treatment systems can be viable even though their capital expenditures per PE are higher than that of a comparable centralized option as to a capital investment. This finding suggests wide opening of onsite technology choices. Use of the SNPV showed that average operating expenses of centralized plants decrease as demand growth rates increase as a benefit of economies of scale, whereas those of onsite treatment systems depend only on price inflation. Semi-decentralized systems feature both the financial advantage of the onsite system (capital investment) and the superiority of centralized systems (operation and maintenance); thus, it is worth consideration. The results of this study illustrate not only the value of decentralized systems but

  9. Values of decentralized systems that avoid investments in idle capacity within the wastewater sector: a theoretical justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng

    2014-04-01

    In this work, the values of decentralized (onsite) systems that avoid investments in idle capacity within wastewater plans are quantitatively justified using the specific net present value (SNPV) approach. SNPV is a currently proposed criterion in environmental engineering economics that is defined as the net present value of the cost per unit of service or per population equivalent (PE). The SNPV approach was reintroduced with bugs fixed and then applied to the economic analysis of the capital and operating costs of one-stage completed central plants, stage-expanded central plants, and decentralized treatment facilities. The results show that under a demand growth scenario, the central plant will inevitably reach idle capacity, which can be reduced by a staged expansion. However, the staged expansion plan will lose the economies of scale and, hence, is only viable under projections of a low or moderate price inflation rate or high demand growth rate. Onsite treatment systems can theoretically achieve 100% utilization. Assuming that the capital costs per PE of the onsite and central systems are equal, the former is economically favorable in most cases of price inflation as a result of its cost saving on idle capacity. Onsite treatment systems can be viable even though their capital expenditures per PE are higher than that of a comparable centralized option as to a capital investment. This finding suggests wide opening of onsite technology choices. Use of the SNPV showed that average operating expenses of centralized plants decrease as demand growth rates increase as a benefit of economies of scale, whereas those of onsite treatment systems depend only on price inflation. Semi-decentralized systems feature both the financial advantage of the onsite system (capital investment) and the superiority of centralized systems (operation and maintenance); thus, it is worth consideration. The results of this study illustrate not only the value of decentralized systems but

  10. La red del Comercio Justo y sus principales actores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisa Ceccon Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de una descripción concisa del fenómeno del comercio justo y su participación en el comercio mundial. Al mismo tiempo, examina el papel de los diferentes actores que participan en la red del comercio justo, desde los productores hasta los consumidores. Finalmente, evalúa las relaciones entre estos actores y los retos que enfrentan para perfeccionar el sistema y mejorar las condiciones de participación de los productores, elementos fundamentales de esta red.

  11. Decentralized biogas technology of anaerobic digestion and farm ecosystem: opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junye eWang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term economic and environmental concerns have resulted in a great amount of research on renewable sources of biomass and bioenergy to replace fossil fuels in the past decades. Decentralized biogas technology is one of the most potential technologies of biomass and bioenergy by using agricultural waste materials (e.g., animal manure, crop straw and by-products from food industries as feedstocks. By-products from biogas production, called digestate, are nutrient rich which could potentially be reused as green fertilizers in agriculture, thereby providing a sustainable substitute for synthetic fertilizers for ecosystem farm. Thus, the biogas production of anaerobic digestion (AD is win-win option for livestock and crop producers to address issues of waste management and energy supply, and to avoid contamination of surface and ground waters and emissions of odors and greenhouse gases. In this paper, we review biogas production technology and then evaluate environmental effects of digestate used as fertilizer. Finally, we discuss issues of deployment of decentralized biogas technology for ecosystem farms. Economic and technological barriers still exist for large scale deployment of biogas technology. Two national scale deployments in China and Nepal showed that the operational status of biogas digesters is not optimal and up to 50% of plants are non-functional after a short operation period regardless of the social and economic factors. Main barriers are a wide variation of feedstocks and environmental conditions (e.g., temperature over space and time. It becomes clear that the experimental conditions of the pilot plants need to be adjusted and calibrated to the local feedstocks and climate. Also, more research needs to be done in cold fermentation technology.

  12. The Roles and Movements of Actors in the Deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-06-01

    also build endogenous roads, facilitating the entry of other actors. Future movements of actors will be influenced by major infrastructure plans, such as those for hydroelectric dams. Policies for reducing deforestation must include removing motives for deforestation by stopping the practice of regularizing land claims and by cutting subsidies. The rule of law must be established throughout the region by completing the cadaster, or register, of land titles and by reinforcing command and control. Movement to the frontier needs to be discouraged by exercising restraint in approving infrastructure such as highways, and by creating and protecting conservation units. Economic alternatives to deforestation should be fostered by generating employment in source areas and in alternative migration destinations, by supporting sustainable uses of forest, by supporting alternative supply of domestic markets for products such as timber, and by rewarding the environmental services of standing forest.

  13. Transformations in Environmental Governance and Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Dana; Fritsch, Oliver; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on how ecological modernization theory has approached transformations taking place in environmental governance and participation by social actors beyond the state. In other words, how has ecological modernization scholarship addressed changes in environmental governance...

  14. Summary on main policies, funding mechanisms, actors and trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kressler, Florian; Weiss, Lucas; Åkerman, Jonas;

    This document summarizes the output of WP 3 on policies, funding mechanisms, actors and trends relating the four thematic groups. Each thematic group examines one goal of the White Paper on Transport, published by the European Commission in 2011. The purpose of this document is to provide input...

  15. Researching the Habitus of Global Policy Actors in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam; Baroutsis, Aspa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reprises the argument for the emergence of a global education policy field and then focuses on the shared habitus of global and national policy actors and technicians. It is argued that this shared habitus is constituted as a reflection of and a contribution to the creation of the global education policy field. Bourdieu's approach…

  16. Consumer culture theory (re)visits actor-network theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    The vocabulary and tactics developed by actor-network theory (ANT) can shed light on several ontological and epistemological challenges faced by consumer culture theory. Rather than providing ready-made theories or methods, our translation of ANT puts forward a series of questions and propositions...

  17. Actor-Network Theory and Tourism : Ordering, materiality and multiplicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.; Ren, C.; Jóhannesson, G.T.

    2012-01-01

    The recent surfacing of actor-network theory (ANT) in tourism studies correlates to a rising interest in understanding tourism as emergent thorough relational practice connecting cultures, natures and technologies in multifarious ways. Despite the widespread application of ANT across the social scie

  18. A Semantics for a Real-Time Actor Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoll, Istvan; Ravn, Anders Peter; Skou, Arne

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop simulators and analysis tools for an actor based real-time language, we define its semantics. The semantics is interesting in itself, as it models the functional, communication, and timing aspects separately, allowing several variants of the language to be investigated....

  19. Lifelong Learning in the EU: Changing Conceptualisations, Actors, and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volles, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the changing conceptualisations, actors, and policies of lifelong learning (LLL) in the European Union (EU) from the time the topic first emerged and was promoted by international organisations in the 1960s. The author uses Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework to analyse how the LLL discourse became an important part of the EU…

  20. Demystifying Facilitation of Multi-Actor Learning Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, A.E.

    2002-01-01

     This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by multiple actors with different interests, values and perception

  1. Decentralized Neural Backstepping Control Applied to a Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Garcia-Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a discrete‐time decentralized control scheme for trajectory tracking of a two degrees of freedom (DOF robot manipulator. A high order neural network (HONN is used to approximate a decentralized control law designed by the backstepping technique as applied to a block strict feedback form (BSFF. The weights for each neural network are adapted online by an extended Kalman filter training algorithm. The motion for each joint is controlled independently using only local angular position and velocity measurements. The stability analysis for the closed‐loop system via the Lyapunov approach is included. Finally, the real‐time results show the feasibility of the proposed control scheme using a robot manipulator.

  2. Decentralized Disturbance Accommodation with Limited Plant Model Information

    CERN Document Server

    Farokhi, F; Johansson, K H

    2011-01-01

    The design of optimal disturbance accommodation and servomechanism controllers with limited plant model information is considered in this paper. Their closed-loop performance are compared using a performance metric called competitive ratio which is the worst-case ratio of the cost of a given control design strategy to the cost of the optimal control design with full model information. It was recently shown that when it comes to designing optimal centralized or partially structured decentralized state-feedback controllers with limited model information, the best control design strategy in terms of competitive ratio is a static one. This is true even though the optimal structured decentralized state-feedback controller with full model information is dynamic. In this paper, we show that, in contrast, the best limited model information control design strategy for the disturbance accommodation problem gives a dynamic controller. We find an explicit minimizer of the competitive ratio and we show that it is undomina...

  3. Delay-dependent decentralized H∞ filtering for uncertain interconnected systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ning; Gui Weihua; Zhang Xiaofeng

    2008-01-01

    This article considers delay dependent decentralized H∞ filtering for a class of uncertain intercon nected systems,where the uncertainties are assumed to be time varying and satisfy the norm-bounded conditions.First,combining the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach and the delay integral inequality of matrices,a sufficient condition of the existence of the robust decentralized H∞ filter is derived,which makes the error systems asymptotically stable and satisfies the H∞ norm of the transfer function from noise input to error output less than the specified up-bound on the basis of the form of uncertainties.Then,the above sufficient condition is transformed to a system of easily solvable LMIs via a series of equivalent transformation.Finally,the numerical simulation shows the efficiency of the main results.

  4. Incentivizing Decentralized Sanitation: The Role of Discount Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alison; Blackhurst, Michael; Garland, Jay L; Lawler, Desmond F

    2016-06-21

    In adoption decisions for decentralized sanitation technologies, two decision makers are involved: the public utility and the individual homeowner. Standard life cycle cost is calculated from the perspective of the utility, which uses a market-based discount rate in these calculations. However, both decision-makers must be considered, including their differing perceptions of the time trade-offs inherent in a stream of costs and benefits. This study uses the discount rate as a proxy for these perceptions and decision-maker preferences. The results in two case studies emphasize the dependence on location of such analyses. Falmouth, Massachusetts, appears to be a good candidate for incentivizing decentralized sanitation while the Allegheny County Sanitary Authority service area in Pennsylvania appears to have no need for similar incentives. This method can be applied to any two-party decision in which the parties are expected to have different discount rates. PMID:27183382

  5. Model-Based Design of Tree WSNs for Decentralized Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Tantawy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The classical decentralized detection problem of finding the optimal decision rules at the sensor and fusion center, as well as variants that introduce physical channel impairments have been studied extensively in the literature. The deployment of WSNs in decentralized detection applications brings new challenges to the field. Protocols for different communication layers have to be co-designed to optimize the detection performance. In this paper, we consider the communication network design problem for a tree WSN. We pursue a system-level approach where a complete model for the system is developed that captures the interactions between different layers, as well as different sensor quality measures. For network optimization, we propose a hierarchical optimization algorithm that lends itself to the tree structure, requiring only local network information. The proposed design approach shows superior performance over several contentionless and contention-based network design approaches.

  6. Learning Equilibria with Partial Information in Decentralized Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Luca; Lasaulce, Samson; Debbah, Mérouane

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a survey of several important equilibrium concepts for decentralized networks is presented. The term decentralized is used here to refer to scenarios where decisions (e.g., choosing a power allocation policy) are taken autonomously by devices interacting with each other (e.g., through mutual interference). The iterative long-term interaction is characterized by stable points of the wireless network called equilibria. The interest in these equilibria stems from the relevance of network stability and the fact that they can be achieved by letting radio devices to repeatedly interact over time. To achieve these equilibria, several learning techniques, namely, the best response dynamics, fictitious play, smoothed fictitious play, reinforcement learning algorithms, and regret matching, are discussed in terms of information requirements and convergence properties. Most of the notions introduced here, for both equilibria and learning schemes, are illustrated by a simple case study, namely, an interfe...

  7. Constructed wetlands as sustainable ecotechnologies in decentralization practices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valipour, Alireza; Ahn, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a range of novel and cost-effective engineered wetland technologies for decentralization practices of domestic wastewater treatment have been developed with ecological process modification, the use of functionalized plants, and advanced biofilm formation. However, selecting the one that can be more appreciated for on-site sanitation is still uncertain. This paper reviews the role of plants, media materials, microorganisms, and oxygen transfer in domestic wastewater purification through constructed wetlands (CWs). The effectiveness of traditional and recently developed CWs and the necessity of an induced biofilm attachment surface (BAS) in these systems for the treatment of domestic sewage are presented. This review also elucidates the idea of CWs for domestic wastewater characteristics highly stressed by total dissolved solids and the adaptive strategies in mitigating the cold climate impacts on their efficiencies. Further research needed to enhance the stability and sustainability of CWs is highlighted. By a more advanced investigation, BAS CWs can be specified as an ideal treatment process in decentralization.

  8. Decentralized adaptive control designs and microstrip antennas for smart structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Farshad; Jain, Sandeep; Das, Nirod K.

    1996-05-01

    Smart structures lend themselves naturally to a decentralized control design framework, especially with adaptation mechanisms. The main reason being that it is highly undesirable to connect all the sensors and actuators in a large structure to a central processor. It is rather desirable to have local decision-making at each smart patch. Furthermore, this local controllers should be easily `expandable' to `contractible.' This corresponds to the fact that addition/deletion of several smart patches should not require a total redesign of the control system. The decentralized control strategies advocated in this paper are of expandable/contractible type. On another front, we are considering utilization of micro-strip antennas for power transfer to and from smart structures. We have made preliminary contributions in this direction and further developments are underway. These approaches are being pursued for active vibration damping and noise cancellation via piezoelectric ceramics although the methodology is general enough to be applicable to other type of active structures.

  9. Combining centralization and decentralization in Danish Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzopoulou, Sevasti; Poulsen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    particular characteristics are explained, followed by the most recent reform that determines the coordination among the three levels of Danish Public Administration. The financial distribution of resources from the national budget among the different levels and how this is decided is then discussed......This chapter presents the structure and competences of the Danish administrative system and the significant changes that were introduced under the latest reform in 2007 and led to both centralization and decentralization. The chapter is divided in five sections. First, the recent history...... and the general principles of centralization and decentralization in the Danish Administrative system are presented. This is followed by the territorial division of the different levels of administrative structures, and their division of competences (decision and implementation). The Danish civil service and its...

  10. THE ROLE OF DECENTRALIZATION FOR EFFICIENT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A modern public administration is focused on meeting the needs of citizens, provides comprehensive information on matters concerning their community with full cooperate with citizens and public control exercised carefully and neutral on the achievement of public services.Modern public administration seeks to determine how greater participation of civil society in decision-making process that local corporate and also provides administrative transparency and direct communication with citizens as possible. In this sense, decentralization of public administration, involving public services decentralization and strengthening local autonomy in administrative and financial point of view, realizing and working to enhance local involvement in management issues they face and to build policy own - in the context of overall national economic and social development - to increase economic performance and to improve the social life of local citizens by defining and local responsibilities regarding local services and financial performance, for their accomplishment.

  11. A Decentralized Architecture for Enforcing Privacy in Online Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jahid, Sonia; Mittal, Prateek; Borisov, Nikita; Kapadia, Apu

    2011-01-01

    A multitude of privacy breaches, both accidental and malicious, have prompted users to distrust centralized providers of online social networks (OSNs) and investigate decentralized solutions. We examine the design of a fully decentralized (peer-to-peer) OSN, with a special focus on privacy and security. In particular, we wish to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of user content and the privacy of user relationships. We propose DECENT, an architecture for OSNs that uses a distributed hash table to store user data, and features cryptographic protections for confidentiality and integrity, as well as support for flexible attribute policies and fast revocation. DECENT ensures that neither data nor social relationships are visible to unauthorized users and provides availability through replication and authentication of updates. We evaluate DECENT through simulation and experiments on the PlanetLab network and show that DECENT is able to replicate the main functionality of current centralized ...

  12. Efficient, Decentralized Detection of Qualitative Spatial Events in a Dynamic Scalar Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong-Hun Jeong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an efficient, decentralized algorithm to monitor qualitative spatial events in a dynamic scalar field. The events of interest involve changes to the critical points (i.e., peak, pits and passes and edges of the surface network derived from the field. Four fundamental types of event (appearance, disappearance, movement and switch are defined. Our algorithm is designed to rely purely on qualitative information about the neighborhoods of nodes in the sensor network and does not require information about nodes’ coordinate positions. Experimental investigations confirm that our algorithm is efficient, with O(n overall communication complexity (where n is the number of nodes in the sensor network, an even load balance and low operational latency. The accuracy of event detection is comparable to established centralized algorithms for the identification of critical points of a surface network. Our algorithm is relevant to a broad range of environmental monitoring applications of sensor networks.

  13. Decentralized coverage control problems for mobile robotic sensor and actuator networks

    CERN Document Server

    Savkin, A; Xi, Z; Javed, F; Matveev, A; Nguyen, H

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces various coverage control problems for mobile sensor networks including barrier, sweep and blanket. Unlike many existing algorithms, all of the robotic sensor and actuator motion algorithms developed in the book are fully decentralized or distributed, computationally efficient, easily implementable in engineering practice and based only on information on the closest neighbours of each mobile sensor and actuator and local information about the environment. Moreover, the mobile robotic sensors have no prior information about the environment in which they operation. These various types of coverage problems have never been covered before by a single book in a systematic way. Another topic of this book is the study of mobile robotic sensor and actuator networks. Many modern engineering applications include the use of sensor and actuator networks to provide efficient and effective monitoring and control of industrial and environmental processes. Such mobile sensor and actuator networks are abl...

  14. ASPECTS OF DECENTRALIZATION IN THE CONTEXT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORM

    OpenAIRE

    Florina POPA

    2013-01-01

    Public administration reform as a response to the requirements of socio-economic environment change, is a process that develops both at central and local level, aiming to an institutional framework achievement, suitable for administrative and financial decentralization, under the European Union standards. Public administration modernization assumes checking and changing all sides of statal organization this being the result of strengthening its capacity of public policies improvement towards ...

  15. An Incentive Mechanism for Decentralized Water Metering Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Chambouleyron

    2002-01-01

    Metering water consumption has been long advocated by economists in developing countries as a way to curb waste and prevent resource depletion. However, very few of these economists have studied the inefficiencies brought about by universal metering or the conditions under which decentralized water metering decisions are optimal. The decision where to install water meters generally rests on either the consumer or the company providing the service. This paper shows that if left unregulated, bo...

  16. Price setting in a decentralized market and the competitive outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Lauermann, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies a decentralized, dynamic matching and bargaining market: buyers and sellers are matched into pairs. Traders exit the market at a constant rate, inducing search costs (frictions). All price offers are made by sellers. Despite the fact that sellers have all the bargaining power we show that they set competitive prices in the limit when frictions become small. Previous literature has restricted the sellers' bargaining power. We dispense with this restriction and show that the ...

  17. Countervailing Power? Collusion in Markets with Decentralized Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Burani, Nadia; Ponsatí, Clara

    2002-01-01

    We consider the collective incentives of buyers and sellers to form cartels in markets where trade is realized through decentralized pairwise bargaining. Cartels are coalitions of buyers or sellers that limit market participation and compensate inactive members for abstaining from trade. In a stable market outcome, cartels set Nash equilibrium quantities and cartel memberships are immune to defections. We prove that the set of stable market outcomes is non-empty and we provide its full charac...

  18. Tax morale and (de-)centralization: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Güth, Werner; Levati, Maria Vittoria; Sausgruber, Rupert

    2005-01-01

    We consider an economy composed of two regions. Each of them provides a public good whose benefits reach beyond local boundaries. In case of decentralization, taxes collected by members of a region are spent only on that region's public good. In case of centralization, tax receipts from the two regions are pooled and used to finance both public goods according to the population size of each region. The experiment shows that centralization induces lower tax morale and less efficient outcomes. ...

  19. Decentralized Trusted Timestamping using the Crypto Currency Bitcoin

    OpenAIRE

    Gipp, Bela; Meuschke, Norman; Gernandt, André

    2015-01-01

    Trusted timestamping is a process for proving that certain information existed at a given point in time. This paper presents a trusted timestamping concept and its implementation in form of a web-based service that uses the decentralized Bitcoin block chain to store anonymous, tamper-proof timestamps for digital content. The service allows users to hash files, such as text, photos or videos, and store the created hashes in the Bitcoin block chain. Users can then retrieve and verify the timest...

  20. The impact of fiscal decentralization on income segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Martínez Mora

    2004-01-01

    We investigate how decentralizing the provision and funding of a publicly provided good from central (or regional) to local governments affects income segregation in an urban area. As the previous theoretical literature suggests, local provision and funding of a publicly provided good by itself generates incentives for income segregation. However, other segregating forces such as local amenities are also at work in urban areas. We show that, once this important feature of urban economies is c...

  1. Decentralizing the French licensing procedure for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One important change in French nuclear policy is marked by the government's decision to decentralize and democratize the licensing procedures. This means a reshuffle of competencies, of the energy plants of the provinces, and the establishment of new institutions at local, regional, and national levels. The new type of licensing procedure has already proved its merits in dealing with the five frozen sites, four of which have so far been approved. (orig./HP)

  2. Decentralizing the French licensing procedure for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapin, M.

    1982-01-01

    One important change in French nuclear policy is marked by the government's decision to decentralize and democratize the licensing procedures. This means a reshuffle of competencies, of the energy plants of the provinces, and the establishment of new institutions at local, regional, and national levels. The new type of licensing procedure has already proved its merits in dealing with the five frozen sites, four of which have so far been approved.

  3. An approach to decentralizing search, using stigmergic hyperlinks

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Artur; Figueiredo, José

    2010-01-01

    A stigmergic hyperlink, or “stigh”, is an object that looks and behaves like a regular HTML hyperlink, but runs at the server side. A system of stighs displays interesting emergent behaviors, of some complexity, but a stigh alone is very simple: it has a life attribute, only reinforced when users click it, and methods to provide meta-information about its destination. We reason that stigmergic hyperlinks could support a more decentralized approach to the Web search problem, particularly for a...

  4. The prerequisites of social development when planning for decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin Daniel DUMITRICĂ; Teodora I. BIŢOIU; Dragoş DINCĂ

    2016-01-01

    The issue of decentralization is widely debated, regulated and analyzed in official EU documents and literature. The research topic is extensive and includes the analysis of the economic dimension, legal and administrative dimensions that contribute to the development of an interdisciplinary research. The paper is part of a larger research project aiming to design a polar diagram for the periodical assessment of the degree of regional development and, in its first phase, it has...

  5. Conceptual Issues in the Role of Education Decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Behrman, Jere R.; Anil B Deolalikar; Soon, Lee-Ying

    2002-01-01

    "While decentralization of education in DMCs has largely been driven by fiscal constraints, it has also been motivated by concerns about the effectiveness of a centralized system in delivering education services. The statistics are revealing: while virtually all DMCs have made impressive gains in expanding the coverage of primary schooling, enrollment rates remain generally low at secondary and tertiary levels, particularly for children coming from disadvantaged backgrounds. The quality of ed...

  6. Decentralized Control Performances of an Experimental Web Handling System

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Ivan Giannoccaro; Takeshi Nishida; Tetsuzo Sakamoto

    2012-01-01

    Robust and good tracking control of the speed and the tension in web handling systems in spite of changes of set point is surely one of the important challenges in the web transport systems future development. In this paper, the authors experimentally demonstrate the real applicability of a decentralized robust control to a multi‐span web transport system, which is composed of twelve guide rollers, four main sections mutually interconnected with each other. The overlapping methodology has bee...

  7. DAPriv: Decentralized architecture for preserving the privacy of medical data

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Rajesh; Subramanian, Deepak; Srirama, Satish N.

    2014-01-01

    The digitization of the medical data has been a sensitive topic. In modern times laws such as the HIPAA provide some guidelines for electronic transactions in medical data to prevent attacks and fraudulent usage of private information. In our paper, we explore an architecture that uses hybrid computing with decentralized key management and show how it is suitable in preventing a special form of re-identification attack that we name as the re-assembly attack. This architecture would be able to...

  8. Decentralized Bayesian reinforcement learning for online agent collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Teacy, W. T. L.; G. Chalkiadakis; Farinelli, A; Rogers, A.; Jennings, N. R.; McClean, S.; Parr, G.

    2012-01-01

    Solving complex but structured problems in a decentralized manner via multiagent collaboration has received much attention in recent years. This is natural, as on one hand, multiagent systems usually possess a structure that determines the allowable interactions among the agents; and on the other hand, the single most pressing need in a cooperative multiagent system is to coordinate the local policies of autonomous agents with restricted capabilities to serve a system-wide goal. The presence ...

  9. Decentralized energy services delivery in developing countries, Case study; India

    OpenAIRE

    Bandi, Venkata

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries, access to modern energy services is limited in spite of ambitious efforts of the governments and international development agencies like the World Bank. In this work, the importance of decentralized energy service delivery in developing countries has been investigated using the concepts of Service Engineering and institutional analysis of different delivery models is performed using the process mapping technique from the energy service provider's perspective. Decentra...

  10. Learning Algorithms in a Decentralized General Equilibrium Model

    OpenAIRE

    James Bruce

    2003-01-01

    A model is developed in which economic agents learn to make price-setting, price-response, and resource allocation decisions in decentralized markets where all information and interaction is local. Computer simulation shows that it is possible for agents to act almost as if they had the additional necessary information to define and solve a standard optimization problem. Their behaviour gives rise endogenously to phenomena resembling Adam Smith's invisible hand. The results also indicate that...

  11. Explaining the Regional Heterogeneity of Poverty: Evidence from Decentralized Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Sumarto, Sudarno; Vothknecht, Marc; Wijaya, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This study presents evidence from Indonesia on how the country’s recent periods of economic growth have contributed to poverty reduction at the regional level, with a particular emphasis on the role of decentralization. Over the past decade Indonesia has made significant progress in reducing poverty, from 23% of the population in 1999 to less than 12% in 2013. However, substantial differences in regional poverty are observed. In this paper, we discuss the factors that drive the evolution of p...

  12. A centralized global automation group in a decentralized organization

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Veitch; Judy Hinderliter-Smith; James Ormand; Jimmy Bruner; Larry Birkemo

    2000-01-01

    In the latter part of the 1990s, many companies have worked to foster a ‘matrix’ style culture through several changes in organizational structure. This type of culture facilitates communication and development of new technology across organizational and global boundaries. At Glaxo Wellcome, this matrix culture is reflected in an automation strategy that relies on both centralized and decentralized resources. The Group Development Operations Information Systems Robotics Team is a centralized ...

  13. Transnationalism and the Decentralization of the Global Film Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Codó Martínez

    2015-01-01

    As in other aspects of society (politics, economics), the film industry appears to be undergoing a process of decentralization (still in its infancy) by which Asia is, if not overtaking, at least matching its level of influence with that of European and American powers. Much of the impetus shifting this balance corresponds to China. The spectacular growth of China‟s domestic market is concentrating a substantial part of the global film business within this Asian giant, resulting in the still ...

  14. Decentralized Multi-Agent Optimization via Dual Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Terelius, Håkan; Topcu, Ufuk; Murray, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We study a distributed multi-agent optimization problem of minimizing the sum of convex objective functions. A new decentralized optimization algorithm is introduced, based on dual decomposition, together with the subgradient method for finding the optimal solution. The iterative algorithm is implemented on a multi-hop network and is designed to handle communication delays.The convergence of the algorithm is proved for communication networks with bounded delays. An explicit bound, which depen...

  15. Decentralization Policy and Effectiveness of Local Government Organization in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Muh Tang

    2014-01-01

    In the era of decentralization policy implementation, the local bureaucracy (Indonesian: Organisasi Perangkat Daerah) has strategic position in the local government system. It is so as the instruments and the fundamental base of the local government in implementing its affairs and as the media to realize the vision, mission, and the objectives of local government. The successful of local government is determined by the effectiveness of the local bureaucracy. This study aims to examine the eff...

  16. Asynchronous Decentralized Algorithm for Space-Time Cooperative Pathfinding

    OpenAIRE

    Čáp, Michal; Novák, Peter; Vokřínek, Jiří; Pěchouček, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative pathfinding is a multi-agent path planning problem where a group of vehicles searches for a corresponding set of non-conflicting space-time trajectories. Many of the practical methods for centralized solving of cooperative pathfinding problems are based on the prioritized planning strategy. However, in some domains (e.g., multi-robot teams of unmanned aerial vehicles, autonomous underwater vehicles, or unmanned ground vehicles) a decentralized approach may be more desirable than a...

  17. Decentralized Local Governance In Fragile States: Learning From Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkerhoff, Derick W.; Johnson, Ronald W.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role that local governance plays in creating an effective state and in building constructive state—society relations. Reconstruction efforts in fragile, post-conflict states have focused largely on central government, yet decentralized local authorities offer a number of positive features. Looking at the governance reconstruction experience in Iraq, the analysis explores the extent to which these positive features have characterized Iraqi sub-national government. The...

  18. Expectations as a key to understanding actor strategies in the field of fuel cell and hydrogen vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Björn; Alkemade, Floortje; Weber, K Matthias

    2012-07-01

    Due to its environmental impact, the mobility system is increasingly under pressure. The challenges to cope with climate change, air quality, depleting fossil resources imply the need for a transition of the current mobility system towards a more sustainable one. Expectations and visions have been identified as crucial in the guidance of such transitions, and more specifically of actor strategies. Still, it remained unclear why the actors involved in transition activities appear to change their strategies frequently and suddenly. The empirical analysis of the expectations and strategies of three actors in the field of hydrogen and fuel cell technology indicates that changing actor strategies can be explained by rather volatile expectations related to different levels. Our case studies of the strategies of two large car manufacturers and the German government demonstrate that the car manufacturers refer strongly to expectations about the future regime, while expectations related to the socio-technical landscape level appear to be crucial for the strategy of the German government. PMID:24850974

  19. Risk: For Whom? Representations of Mining Activity by Different Social Actors in the Molango Manganese District of Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Vázquez, Minerva; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown high levels of manganese exposure and neurocognitive damage in the population living in the mining zone in Molango, Mexico. One of the objectives of the Intersectoral Group on Environmental Management for the mining district has been to provide public participation in the risk management plan. To achieve this, it is important to know how the different social actors represent the mining activity. The objectives of this study were to characterize the social representations of the mining activity by different social actors. A qualitative design was used based on in-depth interviews of residents, public officials, and a mining company representative. The analysis was conducted according to themes for each group of actors. Essentially, distinct social representations of the different mining activities were identified. Residents viewed mining activities as synonymous with contamination and, therefore, as having affected all areas of their environment, health, and daily life. These activities were seen as a collective risk. The public officials and the mining company held that there was no evidence of harm and saw mining activities as a generator of regional development. Harm to health and the environment were seen as a stance taken by the communities in order to obtain economic benefits from the company. These images of the "other" are shaped by social, political, and cultural factors. They make it difficult for the actors to reach cooperative agreements and thereby affect progress on the risk management plan. Decisionmakers need to take these differences into account when promoting social participation.

  20. Game-Based Virtual Worlds as Decentralized Virtual Activity Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchi, Walt

    There is widespread interest in the development and use of decentralized systems and virtual world environments as possible new places for engaging in collaborative work activities. Similarly, there is widespread interest in stimulating new technological innovations that enable people to come together through social networking, file/media sharing, and networked multi-player computer game play. A decentralized virtual activity system (DVAS) is a networked computer supported work/play system whose elements and social activities can be both virtual and decentralized (Scacchi et al. 2008b). Massively multi-player online games (MMOGs) such as World of Warcraft and online virtual worlds such as Second Life are each popular examples of a DVAS. Furthermore, these systems are beginning to be used for research, deve-lopment, and education activities in different science, technology, and engineering domains (Bainbridge 2007, Bohannon et al. 2009; Rieber 2005; Scacchi and Adams 2007; Shaffer 2006), which are also of interest here. This chapter explores two case studies of DVASs developed at the University of California at Irvine that employ game-based virtual worlds to support collaborative work/play activities in different settings. The settings include those that model and simulate practical or imaginative physical worlds in different domains of science, technology, or engineering through alternative virtual worlds where players/workers engage in different kinds of quests or quest-like workflows (Jakobsson 2006).

  1. Evolutionary Concepts for Decentralized Air Traffic Flow Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Milton; Kolitz, Stephan; Milner, Joseph; Odoni, Amedeo

    1997-01-01

    Alternative concepts for modifying the policies and procedures under which the air traffic flow management system operates are described, and an approach to the evaluation of those concepts is discussed. Here, air traffic flow management includes all activities related to the management of the flow of aircraft and related system resources from 'block to block.' The alternative concepts represent stages in the evolution from the current system, in which air traffic management decision making is largely centralized within the FAA, to a more decentralized approach wherein the airlines and other airspace users collaborate in air traffic management decision making with the FAA. The emphasis in the discussion is on a viable medium-term partially decentralized scenario representing a phase of this evolution that is consistent with the decision-making approaches embodied in proposed Free Flight concepts for air traffic management. System-level metrics for analyzing and evaluating the various alternatives are defined, and a simulation testbed developed to generate values for those metrics is described. The fundamental issue of modeling airline behavior in decentralized environments is also raised, and an example of such a model, which deals with the preservation of flight bank integrity in hub airports, is presented.

  2. Decentralized Coordinated Control Strategy of Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan

    Facing the challenges brought by the traditional large power system concerning the environmental and economic issues, along recent years distributed generation is considered as an alternative solution to provide clean energy in a local manner. In this context, Microgrid which performing as a local...... small size grid, is emerging as a promising concept to flexibly control both sides of power generation and consumption as an integral controllable unit. Regarding whether there is main grid participating in the power regulation, the operation of Microgrid can be mainly classified as two modes: grid......-connected mode and islanded mode. In the islanded mode operation, since there is no energy back-up from the main grid, the coordinated control of power balance between generation and consumption encounters more challenges and this thesis is mainly focused on this scope. Hierarchical structure can be applied...

  3. ON DECENTRALIZED STABILIZATION OF LINEAR LARGE SCALE SYSTEMS WITH SYMMETRIC CIRCULANT STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金朝永; 张湘伟

    2004-01-01

    The decentralized stabilization of continuous and discrete linear large scale systems with symmetric circulant structure was studied. A few sufficient conditions on decentralized stabilization of such systems were proposed. For the continuous systems, by introducing a concept called the magnitude of interconnected structure, a very important property that the decentralized stabilization of such systems is fully determined by the structure of each isolated subsystem that is obtained when the magnitude of interconnected structure of the overall system is given. So the decentralized stabilization of such systems can be got by only appropriately designing or modifying the structure of each isolated subsystem,no matter how complicated the interconnected structure of the overall system is. A algorithm for obtaining decentralized state feedback to stabilize the overall system is given. The discrete systems were also discussed. The results show that there is a great dfference on decentralized stabilization between continuous case and discrete case.

  4. The impact of fiscal decentralization on infant mortality rates: evidence from OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores

    2011-11-01

    This study re-examines the hypothesis that shifts towards more decentralization would be accompanied by improvements in population health on a panel of 20 OECD countries over a thirty year period (1970-2001). Decentralization is proxied using a conventional indicator of revenue decentralization and a new measure of fiscal decentralization that reflects better than previous measures the existence of autonomy in the decision-making authority of lower tiers of government, a crucial issue in the decentralization process. The results show a considerable and positive effect of fiscal decentralization on infant mortality only if a substantial degree of autonomy in the sources of revenue is devolved to local governments. The proportion of health care expenditure on GDP and, in particular, education, were found to have a larger contribution to the reduction of infant mortality in the sample of OECD countries analysed over the period of study. PMID:21920653

  5. Decentralized receding horizon control of large scale dynamically decoupled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keviczky, Tamas

    Decentralized control techniques today can be found in a broad spectrum of applications ranging from robotics and formation flight to civil engineering. Their importance for dynamically decoupled systems arises from the abundance of networks of independently actuated systems and the necessity of avoiding centralized design when this becomes computationally prohibitive or would require unrealistic expectations regarding information exchange. A decentralized optimal control framework using distributed Receding Horizon Control (RHC) schemes is proposed to address this problem, which helps overcome drawbacks of currently available methods. Stability of the proposed scheme is analyzed in detail and a number of methodologies are enlisted to address the problem of feasibility. In particular, a feasible decentralized RHC scheme based on hierarchical decomposition and feasible set projection is developed. Another approach for guaranteed constraint fulfillment is described as well using invariant sets of emergency controllers and switching. A hybrid decentralized RHC framework is also introduced based on coordinating functions and logic rules. The proposed framework makes use of algorithms that rely on results from computational geometry, mathematical programming solvers, constrained optimal control, invariant set computation and hybrid systems. These techniques allow the formulation of constrained optimal control problems and the computation of their equivalent look-up tables which are easily implementable in real-time. A summary of relevant background material related to these underlying techniques is provided in this thesis as well. Applicability of the proposed framework is explored using the formation control problem of multiple Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) as a motivating example. This particular application problem has a wide range of envisioned applications including distributed sensing and monitoring, which appear to be the most promising ones. The challenge in UAV

  6. The legislative actor in the Nobel era: Quo Vadis EU?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Xavier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a political union, as well as an economic union of Europe, beyond free circulation of persons, goods and services, has always been included in the ideals of the building of Europe. However, its de jure formalization only occurs on November 1, 1993, when the Treaty of Maastricht is in force and a new political and strategic actor is in place: the European Union (EU. Since then, literature has "defined" the European Union in order to clearly establish what this UPO - Unidentified Political Object (an expression by Jacques Delors in the 1990s - is or what it can be. One of the ideas which has been a focus of discussion is that of "legislative actor" (Manners, 2001; 2002, which claims that the European Union has progressed towards normativity, both internally as well as externally, to its close neighbors and its relations with the rest of the world. This paper aims to contribute to the discussion on Europe's quality or condition to impose rules. We will begin by systematizing a series of achievements which, according to Manners, lead to the triangle democracy, Human Rights and good governance in the signing of the Treaty of Lisbon on December 13, 2007 and its entering in full force on December 1, 2009. However, this paper does not disregard the fact that the concept "legislative actor" has been (reworked and perfected by its author and other scholars due to criticism and empirical studies and has thus been altered, enhanced and argued against. Therefore, some concepts will be studied whose arguments will allow us to question the internal and external dimension of the actor European Union. We will also explore the symbolic power of the Union in the development of tools and capacity to be acknowledged as an actor able to face current threats and challenges but whose profile may not be different from other actors in international relations. Finally, we will discuss the impact of the EU having been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2012 on

  7. Balancing influence between actors in healthcare decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babad Yair M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare costs in most developed countries are not clearly linked to better patient and public health outcomes, but are rather associated with service delivery orientation. In the U.S. this has resulted in large variation in healthcare availability and use, increased cost, reduced employer participation in health insurance programs, and reduced overall population health outcomes. Recent U.S. healthcare reform legislation addresses only some of these issues. Other countries face similar healthcare issues. Discussion A major goal of healthcare is to enhance patient health outcomes. This objective is not realized in many countries because incentives and structures are currently not aligned for maximizing population health. The misalignment occurs because of the competing interests between "actors" in healthcare. In a simplified model these are individuals motivated to enhance their own health; enterprises (including a mix of nonprofit, for profit and government providers, payers, and suppliers, etc. motivated by profit, political, organizational and other forces; and government which often acts in the conflicting roles of a healthcare payer and provider in addition to its role as the representative and protector of the people. An imbalance exists between the actors, due to the resources and information control of the enterprise and government actors relative to the individual and the public. Failure to use effective preventive interventions is perhaps the best example of the misalignment of incentives. We consider the current Pareto efficient balance between the actors in relation to the Pareto frontier, and show that a significant change in the healthcare market requires major changes in the utilities of the enterprise and government actors. Summary A variety of actions are necessary for maximizing population health within the constraints of available resources and the current balance between the actors. These actions include

  8. An Examination of the Impacts of Fiscal Decentralization on Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Amagoh; Aloysius Ajab Amin

    2012-01-01

    Fiscal decentralization is said to offer a number of benefits for public sector governance, including growth, accountability and responsiveness of government officials to local demands and needs. However, there has been debate about the effects of fiscal decentralization on macroeconomic performance and growth. In this paper, we examine both sides of the arguments and posit that while there are many benefits to be gained from fiscal decentralization, its impacts on economic growth is constrai...

  9. Fiscal Decentralization and Regional Disparity: A Panel Data Approach for OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Leßmann, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of public sector decentralization are widely discussedin economics and political science. While some authors argue that decentralization leads to an optimal provision of public services and a promotion of economic growth, others emphasize the dangers of competition associated with decentralization between subnational governments especially for redistributive reasons. These authors argue that poorer regions could not compete for mobile factors with the richer o...

  10. The decentralization reform on educational administration in contemporary China : Focusing on the compulsory education

    OpenAIRE

    孟, 洪珠

    2002-01-01

    This paper tries to uncover the reality of the decentralization reform on educational administration in contemporary China through institutional approach and experimental study. This papaer is different from the conventional research in that, most of the conventional research took an institutional approach, the analytic focus was placed on the presentation of the advantages and disadvantages in decentralization reform. In order to uncover the reality of decentralization reform, this paper ana...

  11. A Mixed Method Research for Finding a Model of Administrative Decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Tahereh Feizy; Alireza Moghali; Masuod Geramipoor; Reza Zare

    2015-01-01

    One of the critical issues of administrative decentralization in translating theory into practice is understanding its meaning. An important method to identify administrative decentralization is to address how it can be planned and implemented, and what are its implications, and how it would overcome challenges. The purpose of this study is finding a model for analyzing and evaluating administrative decentralization, so a mixed method research was used to explore and confirm the model of Admi...

  12. Decentralization and the Productive Efficiency of Government: Evidence from Swiss Cantons

    OpenAIRE

    Barankay, Iwan; Lockwood, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    Advocates of fiscal decentralization argue that amongst other benefits, it can increase the productive efficiency of delivery of government services. This paper is one of the first to evaluate this claim empirically by looking at the association between expenditure decentralization and the productive efficiency of government using a data-set of Swiss cantons. We first provide careful evidence that expenditure decentralization is a powerful proxy for factual local autonomy. Further panel regre...

  13. Do Fiscal and Political Decentralization Raise Students' Performance? A Cross-Country Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Serrano, Luis; Meix-Llop, Enric

    2012-01-01

    The low quality of education is a persistent problem in many developed countries. Parallel to in the last decades exists a tendency towards decentralization in many developed and developing countries. Using micro data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) referred to 22 countries, we test whether there exists an impact of fiscal and political decentralization on student performance in the areas of mathematics, reading skills and science. We observe that fiscal decentr...

  14. Is Fiscal Decentralization Conflict Abating? Routine Violence and District Level Government in Java, Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoob Murshed; Zulfan Tadjoeddin

    2008-01-01

    Utilising a newly created data set we examine the relationship between routine/everyday violence and fiscal decentralization in 98 districts of the Indonesian island of Java. By examining possible relationships between fiscal decentralization and routine violence, this paper fills a gap in the literature where the analysis of the relation between fiscal decentralization and violence is relatively scant. Routine violence, which is different from both civil war and ethno-communal conflict, cent...

  15. Health Decentralization in East Asia: Some Lessons from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel S. Lieberman; Capuno, Joseph J.; Hoang Van Minh

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines decentralization experiences in Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam during the last 18 years (1985-2003). The analysis suggests that decentralization dividends so far have been modest and concentrated in some areas in the country. This is partly macroeconomic and political context in which decentralization was introduced. More importantly, however, current arrangements within the health sector have not worked well as hoped, including ensuring access for the poor to qual...

  16. (De)Centralization of Public Procurement at the Local Level in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Brezovnik, Boštjan; Oplotnik, Žan Jan; Vojinović, Borut

    2015-01-01

    The so-called decentralization of public procurement in EU Member States is accepted as the most suitable design of the public procurement system, often justifi ed by greater economic effi ciency and by the possibility of boosting the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, which act on the public procurement market as providers of goods, services and works. Despite the existence of highly decentralized public procurement systems which refl ect the decentralization of administrativ...

  17. Environmental Management: Towards a Conceptual Framework for Environmental Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Joost Kessler; Pieter van Ginniken; Willem Cornelissen; Bart Romijn

    2001-01-01

    This study is a first attempt to develop a new orientation on environmental management in the Latin America and Caribbean. The development towards a more strategic environmental management entails an evolution from a centralized management structure into a more decentralized system in which management is reasonably integrated, both vertically and horizontally. The study provides a framework of different criteria, key issues and requirements that are fundamental for an environmental management...

  18. From State Control to Governance: Decentralization and Higher Education in Guangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Joshua Ka-Ho

    2001-03-01

    In China there has been a strong trend to diversification and decentralization of education in the post-Mao period. This paper examines how the policy of decentralization has affected the governance of universities in Guangdong. More specifically, the paper focuses on reform of the financing and management structure, the merging of universities, and joint development programmes to enhance competitiveness. Despite these changes, the state's role as a regulator and overall service coordinator has been strengthened rather than weakened under the policy of decentralization. This paper not only examines the recent developments in Guangdong's higher education but also analyses such developments in light of the global trend towards decentralization in educational governance.

  19. Essays on remote monitoring as an emerging tool for centralized management of decentralized wastewater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Clement

    According to the United States Environmental Protections Agency (USEPA), nearly one in four households in the United States depends on an individual septic system (commonly referred as an onsite system or a decentralized wastewater system) to treat and disperse wastewater. More than half of these systems are over 30 years old, and surveys indicate at least 10 to 20% might not be functioning properly. The USEPA concluded in its 1997 report to Congress that adequately managed decentralized wastewater systems (DWS) are a cost-effective and long-term option for meeting public health and water quality goals, particularly in less densely populated areas. The major challenge however is the absence of a guiding national regulatory framework based on consistent performance-based standards and lack of proper management of DWS. These inconsistencies pose a significant threat to our water resources, local economies, and public health. This dissertation addresses key policy and regulatory strategies needed in response to the new realities confronting decentralized wastewater management. The two core objectives of this research are to demonstrate the centralized management of DWS paradigm and to present a scientific methodology to develop performance-based standards (a regulatory shift from prescriptive methods) using remote monitoring. The underlying remote monitoring architecture for centralized DWS management and the value of science-based policy making are presented. Traditionally, prescriptive standards using conventional grab sampling data are the norm by which most standards are set. Three case studies that support the potential of remote monitoring as a tool for standards development and system management are presented. The results revealed a vital role for remote monitoring in the development of standardized protocols, policies and procedures that are greatly lacking in this field. This centralized management and remote monitoring paradigm fits well and complements

  20. Actor Bonds in Situations of Discontinuous Business Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    in situations of discontinuity. Therefore an analysis and comparison of relevant concepts that capture the key generative features of actor bonds in both socially constructed networks and socially constructed markets is undertaken. These concepts include the "milieu" of project marketing (Cova et al., 1996......Demand in many industrial buying situations, e.g. project purchases or procurement related to virtual organizations, is discontinuous. In situations of discontinuity, networks are often more of an ad hos informational and social nature, as strong activity and resource links are not present......) and the institutional concept of the "field". Finally this paper introduces the concept of "social capital" (Bourdieu, 1983) and discusses whether it can be used to conceptualize the dynamic features of actor bonds in situations of discontinuity....

  1. Semantics for Communicating Actors with Interdependent Real-Time Deadlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoll, Istvan; Ravn, Anders Peter; Skou, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Models of embedded systems with communicating actors and deadlines offer abstraction and encapsulation of related functionality, but their behavior is complex. Verification is therefore difficult and requires a combination of simulation, model checking and testing tools. In order to rely on the...... results, these tools must use consistent semantics for the model. Yet, a monolithic semantic model is just as complex as the entity it describes. In order to circumvent this issue, we define a three level semantics giving independent definitions of the functionality of actors, the temporal properties of...... independent specialized verification tools. The verification task for timed, hybrid systems can thus be divided into the continuous, discrete, and timing domains with automated translation to specialized tools, and this promises better scalability than simulation or model checking of one complex model....

  2. Engaging Actors in Co-Designing Heterogeneous Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lindegaard, Hanne; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we share and analyze our experiences staging a co-design process in which we through different interventions engage important actors in designing. Our experiences are taking from an innovation and research project about user-involvement in textile design processes. As the project...... focused on textiles role in healing hospital environments, the co-design process analyzed is a process of designing textile products for these environments. During the co-design process we engaged architects, engineers and textile designers. The focus in this paper is specifically on the challenges...... related to translating and transporting the results of these different events due to the institutional and professional framing of projects and design processes. We are analyzing these through an actor network approach and use the translation term to describe how the participants slowly became engaged...

  3. Actores/agentes universitarios para el desarrollo local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Cienfuegos Velasco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Al hablar de desarrollo local se hace referencia a un espacio municipal con características propias, que demandan cierta forma de organización e interacción de actores y/o agentes, pertenecientes o no al contexto implicado para el desarrollo del mismo. Esto permite el aprovechamiento de diferentes formas de acción individual o colectiva; una de ellas es la acción que la universidad puede ofertar a dicho desarrollo. Al respecto, el objetivo del presente ensayo es identificar a la universidad como generadora de actores/ agentes emergentes que se preparan para contribuir, entre otras cosas, a la transformación de la localidad. Bajo el argumento de que estudiantes e investigadores de la universidad pública y privada generan conocimiento, el cual puede ser aplicado productivamente si se socializa con la comunidad y sus integrantes.

  4. Chinas carbon-intensity target: climate actors and policy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    China has become the largest GHG emitting country, and announced in 2009 its first policy objective measured in carbon emissions. The carbon-intensity target is to reduce the carbon intensity by 40-45 % by 2020 compared to 200 levels. Since then there has been further policy developments in order to attain the reduction carbon intensity and steer China towards a low-carbon development. The 12th 5-year plan (2011-2015) is strong on incentives for reducing China's carbon intensity such as energy conservation measures and the establishment of new market-based mechanisms. While the central government forms the policies, the implementation is dependent on a range of actors. In addition to the climate change bureaucracy, the positive forces and actors on GHG mitigation is presented. All in all, there are promising developments in China for the years to come.(auth)

  5. Effects of Actor-Network Theory in Accounting Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise Nederland; Mouritsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to discuss how Bruno Latour's version of actor-network theory has influenced accounting research. It also seeks to show that Latour's writings contain unexplored potential that may inspire future accounting research. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes the form...... of a critical literature review and discussion. Findings – Since the early 1990s, actor-network theory, particularly the work of Bruno Latour, has inspired accounting researchers and led to a number of innovative studies of accounting phenomena. In particular, Latour's book, Science in Action, has been...... the primary source of inspiration for accounting research. This means that there is unexplored potential in Latour's more recent writings which may lead to further inspiration and research in the field of accounting. Research limitations/implications – The paper reviews only a few of the relatively large...

  6. Social Technologies in Education - An Actor-Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Davey, Bill; Tatnall, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Part 6: Managing Open and Social Education; International audience; There are many opportunities for social technologies to create wider and more valuable educational communities. This paper presents an analysis of a Government initiative to create educational communities around schools in Victoria, Australia using social networking systems. The analysis, comparing several systems, shows that a number of factors, including interpretation of reactions by actors are crucial to the success of ap...

  7. Demystifying Facilitation of Multi-Actor Learning Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, A.E.

    2002-01-01

     This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by multiple actors with different interests, values and perceptions, participation has become a popular means of bringing about social and technical change. Across the globe, whether in agricultural development, poverty alleviation, natural resource management, health promotion o...

  8. An Actor-Critic Algorithm for Sequence Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bahdanau, Dzmitry; Brakel, Philemon; Xu, Kelvin; Goyal, Anirudh; Lowe, Ryan; Pineau, Joelle; Courville, Aaron; Bengio, Yoshua

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to training neural networks to generate sequences using actor-critic methods from reinforcement learning (RL). Current log-likelihood training methods are limited by the discrepancy between their training and testing modes, as models must generate tokens conditioned on their previous guesses rather than the ground-truth tokens. We address this problem by introducing a \\textit{critic} network that is trained to predict the value of an output token, given the policy of an...

  9. Biomass markets. Growth strategy and challenges for French actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study comprises three reports. The first one is an executive summary which focuses on the main aspects of the evolution of the activity in the biomass sector, and highlights factors of change and their strategic consequences. The second one proposes an overview of the situation of biomass French markets, analyses growth strategies adopted by actors of the biomass sector (development of new production capacities, international growth, development of strategies based on several energies, diversification of prospects, innovation and improvement of installation efficiency), and discusses the main strategic challenges on the medium term. The third report proposes a presentation of the context of French biomass markets (political, regulatory and energetic framework, energetic assessment and assessment of the waste-based sector, economic context, housing stock, and other contextual factors), a presentation of the biomass French market (data for 2005-2013, dynamics of three specific segments: solid biomass, renewable urban wastes, and biogas), and a description of the competitive landscape (economic structure, actors) and of the 15 main actors

  10. The European Union as a Comprehensive Police Actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Anthony Rozée

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has responded to changing security threats by seeking to increase cooperation between the law enforcement agencies of the Member States, granting further powers to Europol and other intelligence-sharing institutions, and by undertaking police missions beyond EU borders. The literature relating to EU policing is generally focused on the ‘internal’ and ‘external’ dimensions, or on specific aspects of police activity. This tendency to concentrate on narrow or isolated areas of policing has led to a significant gap regarding the broader analysis of the EU as a comprehensive police actor. Important questions about the nature of EU policing as a whole, as well as the contribution of policing activities to the EU’s security agenda, remain unexplored in the literature. This article aims to define what is meant by ‘comprehensive policing’ and to indentify criteria by which the comprehensiveness of EU-level policing may be measured. In addition to this, an integrated actorness/police comprehensiveness framework will be presented as a tool for assessing the EU as a comprehensive police actor.

  11. Searching for realism, structure and agency in Actor Network Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder-Vass, Dave

    2008-09-01

    Superficially, Actor Network Theory (ANT) and critical realism (CR) are radically opposed research traditions. Written from a realist perspective, this paper asks whether there might be a basis for finding common ground between these two traditions. It looks in turn at the questions of realism, structure, and agency, analysing the differences between the two perspectives and seeking to identify what each might learn from the other. Overall, the paper argues that there is a great deal that realists can learn from actor network theory; yet ANT remains stunted by its lack of a depth ontology. It fails to recognize the significance of mechanisms, and of their dependence on emergence, and thus lacks both dimensions of the depth that is characteristic of critical realism's ontology. This prevents ANT from recognizing the role and powers of social structure; but on the other hand, realists would do well to heed ANT's call for us to trace the connections through which structures are constantly made and remade. A lack of ontological depth also underpins ANT's practice of treating human and non-human actors symmetrically, yet this remains a valuable provocation to sociologists who neglect non-human entities entirely.

  12. Environmental policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  13. 分散式污水处理技术研究进展%Advances of Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳; 石玉敏

    2015-01-01

    The rate of wastewater treatment was only 3%among 580 000 villages of China in 2008 and only reached 8%in 2012.The total amount of untreated decentralized wastewater was as 1.5 times as centralized sewage treatment in the cities and counties.Therefore, the environmental pollution problem of decentralized wastewater has become more and more serious and needs urgently to resolve.The concept and components of decentralized wastewater treatment were described and it was pointed out that biological treatment was mainly used for decentralized wastewater treatment.The research developments, principles and advantages and disadvantages of various wastewater treatment technologies were analyzed from 3 aspects of anaerobic, aerobic and natural biological treatment.Wetland, stabilization pond, earthworm eco-filter, eco-toilets and other natural biological treatment technologies have many advantages with low construction cost, low environmental impact, being suitable for local conditions and flexible, etc, and have become new, economical, environmental friendly and dominant technologies for decentralized wastewater treatment. Finally the research direction of decentralized wastewater treatment technologies was put forward.%2008年我国58万个自然村中污水处理率仅为3%,2012年也仅达8%,未处理的污水总量是城市和县城采用集中式污水处理总量的1.5倍,分散式污水污染控制成为亟待解决的环境问题。阐述了分散式污水处理的概念和系统组成,指出分散式污水处理主要采用生物处理技术。从厌氧生物处理、好氧生物处理和自然生物处理3个方面分析了各种分散式污水处理技术的研究进展、技术原理及优缺点,其中人工湿地、稳定塘、浮床、蚯蚓生态滤池、生态厕所等自然生物处理技术,具有建设费用低、环境影响小、因地制宜、灵活多样等优点,已成为新型、经济、环保的分散式污水处理主导技术

  14. Autonomous Decentralized Control of Supply and Demand by Inverter Based Distributed Generations in Isolated Microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiki, Akira; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Baba, Jyunpei; Takano, Tomihiro; Gouda, Takahiro; Izui, Yoshio

    Recently, because of the environmental burden mitigation, energy conservations, energy security, and cost reductions, distributed generations are attracting our strong attention. These distributed generations (DGs) have been already installed to the distribution system, and much more DGs will be expected to be connected in the future. On the other hand, a new concept called “Microgrid” which is a small power supply network consisting of only DGs was proposed and some prototype projects are ongoing in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to develop the three-phase instantaneous valued digital simulator of microgrid consisting of a lot of inverter based DGs and to develop a supply and demand control method in isolated microgrid. First, microgrid is modeled using MATLAB/SIMULINK. We develop models of three-phase instantaneous valued inverter type CVCF generator, PQ specified generator, PV specified generator, PQ specified load as storage battery, photovoltaic generation, fuel cell and inverter load respectively. Then we propose an autonomous decentralized control method of supply and demand in isolated microgrid where storage batteries, fuel cells, photovoltaic generations and loads are connected. It is proposed here that the system frequency is used as a means to control DG output. By changing the frequency of the storage battery due to unbalance of supply and demand, all inverter based DGs detect the frequency fluctuation and change their own outputs. Finally, a new frequency control method in autonomous decentralized control of supply and demand is proposed. Though the frequency is used to transmit the information on the supply and demand unbalance to DGs, after the frequency plays the role, the frequency finally has to return to a standard value. To return the frequency to the standard value, the characteristic curve of the fuel cell is shifted in parallel. This control is carried out corresponding to the fluctuation of the load. The simulation shows that the

  15. Multidimensionality of Actors in Business Networks: The Influence of Social Action in Pharmacy Networks in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Steinby, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    In the markets-as-networks approach business networks are conceived as dynamic actor structures, giving focus to exchange relationships and actors’ capabilities to control and co-ordinate activities and resources. Researchers have shared an understanding that actors’ actions are crucial for the development of business networks and for network dynamics. However, researchers have mainly studied firms as business actors and excluded individuals, although both firms and individuals can be see...

  16. Innovation in the plural of the alpine cre-actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Finger-Stich

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to innovate for a sustainable development of alpine territories cannot depend only on economic, legal and political conditions defined by the State at national and international levels. It depends also on local conditions that situate historically and geographically the actors in a continuity of social and ecological relationships. This approach highlights the collective – thus organisational – dimensions of the innovation process, including the imagination, the development, the implementation and even the diffusion of a new practice. Our point of view is that for contributing to the sustainable development of the Alps, innovations need to change the ecological, political, social and cultural relationships engaging the actors in these territories. This change affects as much the object territory as the subject actor of the territory. This is why innovating in the Alps means also innovating the Alps and the alpine actors (Cosalp, 2008. Based on a research about local people’s participation in the management of alpine communal forests, the article shows the importance of local interactions involving actors of diverse occupation, gender, age and origins1.La capacité d’innovation pour un développement durable des territoires alpins ne peut dépendre uniquement de conditions économiques, légales et politiques définies par les Etats aux échelles nationale et internationale. Elle dépend aussi de conditions locales, qui situent historiquement et géographiquement les acteurs dans une continuité de relations sociales et écologiques. Cette perspective accentue l’importance de la dimension collective, donc organisationnelle, du processus d’innovation, allant de l’imagination, puis au développement, à la réalisation – voire la diffusion – d’une nouvelle pratique. Le point de vue de cet article est qu’une innovation, pour contribuer au développement durable des Alpes, doit changer les relations

  17. A Kind of Adaptive Fuzzy Actor-Critic Learning%一种自适应模糊Actor-Critic学习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪松; 程玉虎; 易建强

    2006-01-01

    提出一种基于模糊RBF网络的自适应模糊Actor-Critic学习.采用一个模糊RBF神经网络同时逼近Actor的动作函数和Critic的值函数,解决状态空间泛化中易出现的"维数灾"问题.模糊RBF网络能够根据环境状态和被控对象特性的变化进行网络结构和参数的自适应学习,使得网络结构更加紧凑,整个模糊Actor-Critic学习具有泛化性能好、控制结构简单和学习效率高的特点.Mountain Car的仿真结果验证了所提方法的有效性.

  18. Decentralized Formation Flying Control in a Multiple-Team Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Joseph .; Thomas, Stephanie J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a system that addresses these objectives-a decentralized guidance and control system that is distributed across spacecraft using a multiple-team framework. The objective is to divide large clusters into teams of manageable size, so that the communication and computational demands driven by N decentralized units are related to the number of satellites in a team rather than the entire cluster. The system is designed to provide a high-level of autonomy, to support clusters with large numbers of satellites, to enable the number of spacecraft in the cluster to change post-launch, and to provide for on-orbit software modification. The distributed guidance and control system will be implemented in an object-oriented style using MANTA (Messaging Architecture for Networking and Threaded Applications). In this architecture, tasks may be remotely added, removed or replaced post-launch to increase mission flexibility and robustness. This built-in adaptability will allow software modifications to be made on-orbit in a robust manner. The prototype system, which is implemented in MATLAB, emulates the object-oriented and message-passing features of the MANTA software. In this paper, the multiple-team organization of the cluster is described, and the modular software architecture is presented. The relative dynamics in eccentric reference orbits is reviewed, and families of periodic, relative trajectories are identified, expressed as sets of static geometric parameters. The guidance law design is presented, and an example reconfiguration scenario is used to illustrate the distributed process of assigning geometric goals to the cluster. Next, a decentralized maneuver planning approach is presented that utilizes linear-programming methods to enact reconfiguration and coarse formation keeping maneuvers. Finally, a method for performing online collision avoidance is discussed, and an example is provided to gauge its performance.

  19. Who Needs What? Some Thoughts on the Possibility of Using Psychology in Actor Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulova, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Contends that the aim of professional actor training is to reveal and develop an actor's individuality. Proposes that the responsibility of drama teachers is to lead training in such away that students feel accepted, understood, and respected. Proposes that psychodrama is the most appropriate method for student and professional actors' personal…

  20. Cognitively Central Actors and Their Personal Networks in an Energy Efficiency Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Kaisa; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to examine cognitively central actors and their personal networks in the emerging field of energy efficiency. Cognitively central actors are frequently sought for professional advice by other actors and, therefore, they are positioned in the middle of a social network. They often are important knowledge resources, especially in…

  1. Decentralized adaptive generalized predictive control for structural vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Minyue; GU Zhongquan

    2005-01-01

    A decentralized generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithm is developed for strongly coupled multi-input multi-output systems with parallel computation. The algorithm is applied to adaptive control of structural vibration. The key steps in this algorithm are to group the actuators and the sensors and then to pair these groups into subsystems. It is important that the on-line identification and the control law design can be a parallel process for all these subsystems. It avoids the high computation cost in ordinary predictive control,and is of great advantage especially for large-scale systems.

  2. Decentralization of Decision Authority in Complex Task Structures DRUID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Karim, Samina

    We investigate tradeoffs associated with delegating authority over multiple interrelated decisions in a complex task structure. The empirical setting is a business process of a global Fortune 50 firm. The firm decentralized its organization and redefined decision authority across organizational......-relevant knowledge, the matching of required knowledge and manager?s expertise, and information processing intensity affect (a) the occurrence of delegation, and (b), if delegation occurs, how far down the organizational hierarchy authority is delegated. We discuss how these findings complement existing theories...... on delegation by providing insights into how multiple interrelated decisions are delegated within a complex task structure....

  3. Decentralized control and filtering in interconnected dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2011-01-01

    Based on the many approaches available for dealing with large-scale systems (LSS), Decentralized Control and Filtering in Interconnected Dynamical Systems supplies a rigorous framework for studying the analysis, stability, and control problems of LSS. Providing an overall assessment of LSS theories, it addresses model order reduction, parametric uncertainties, time delays, and control estimator gain perturbations. Taking readers on a guided tour through LSS, the book examines recent trends and approaches and reviews past methods and results from a contemporary perspective. It traces the progre

  4. Genetic Algorithm based Decentralized PI Type Controller: Load Frequency Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Atul; Ray, Goshaidas; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2016-05-01

    This work presents a design of decentralized PI type Linear Quadratic (LQ) controller based on genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed design technique allows considerable flexibility in defining the control objectives and it does not consider any knowledge of the system matrices and moreover it avoids the solution of algebraic Riccati equation. To illustrate the results of this work, a load-frequency control problem is considered. Simulation results reveal that the proposed scheme based on GA is an alternative and attractive approach to solve load-frequency control problem from both performance and design point of views.

  5. Decentralized impulsive control for a class of uncertain interconnected systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成新明; 关治洪; 刘新芝

    2004-01-01

    A great deal of stabilization criteria has been obtained from study of stabilizing interconnected systems. The results obtained are usually based on continuous systems by state feedback. In this paper, decentralized impulsive control is presented to stabilize a class of uncertain interconnected systems based on Lyapunov theory. The system under consideration involves parameter uncertainties and unknown nonlinear interactions among subsystems. Some new criteria of stabilization under impulsive control are established. Two numerical examples are offered to prove the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed method.

  6. Robust decentralized adaptive stabilization for a class of interconnected systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaojing WU; Xuejun XIE; Siying ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    The robust decentralized adaptive output-feedback stabilization for a class of interconnected systems with static and dynamic interconnections by using the MT-filters and backstepping design method is studied. By introducing a new filtered tramformation, the adaptive laws were derived for measurement. Under the assumption of the nonlinear growth conditions imposed on the nonlinear interconnections and by constructing the error system and using a new proof method, the global stability of the closed-loop system was effectively analyzed, and the exponential convergence of all the signals except for parameter estimates were guaranteed.

  7. Decentralization Policies for Supply Chain Investments under Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Supply chains need specific investments for improved performance in terms of lead-time, cost, and quality. We study the contractual choice of a coordinator to either centralize or delegate the investment decision in a three-stage chain. The analysis derives closed-form results for the economic...... performance of three decentralized contracting schemes under asymmetric information on investment cost, as well as the optimal full revelation results. The results show that the observed practice of tier-1 delegated investments leads to relatively poor performance because of underinvestment. We illustrate...

  8. Semi-decentralized Strategies in Structural Vibration Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Palacios-Quiñonero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the main ideas involved in the design of overlapping and multi-overlapping controllers via the Inclusion Principle are discussed and illustrated in the context of the Structural Vibration Control of tall buildings under seismic excitation. A detailed theoretical background on the Inclusion Principle and the design of overlapping controllers is provided. Overlapping and multi-overlapping LQR controllers are designed for a simplified five-story building model. Numerical simulations are conducted to asses the performance of the proposed semi-decentralized controllers with positive results.

  9. DECENTRALIZED THERMOPHILIC BIOHYDROGEN: A MORE EFFICIENT AND COST EFFECTIVE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Sani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonfood lignocellulosic biomass is an ideal substrate for biohydrogen production. By avoiding pretreatment steps (acid, alkali, or enzymatic, there is potential to make the process economical. Utilization of regional untreated lignocellulosic biomass by cellulolytic and fermentative thermophiles in a consolidated mode using a single reactor is one of the ways to achieve economical and sustainable biohydrogen production. Employing these potential microorganisms along with decentralized biohydrogen energy production will lead us towards regional and national independence having a positive influence on the bioenergy sector.

  10. The impact of corporate and national cultures on decentralization in multinational corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Williams; S. van Triest

    2009-01-01

    We develop and test a model of multinational corporation (MNC) decentralization in which the allocation of decision rights to subsidiaries is explained by aspects of both internal corporate culture as well as external national cultures. We extend the literature on MNC decentralization by testing the

  11. Team Games Optimality Conditions of Distributed Stochastic Differential Decision Systems with Decentralized Noisy Information Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Charalambous, Charalambos D.; N. U. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    We consider a team game reward, and we derive a stochastic Pontryagin's maximum principle for distributed stochastic differential systems with decentralized noisy information structures. Our methodology utilizes the semi martingale representation theorem, variational methods, and backward stochastic differential equations. Furthermore, we derive necessary and sufficient optimality conditions that characterize team and person-by-person optimality of decentralized strategies. Finally, we apply ...

  12. High Expectations, Varying Outcomes: Decentralization and Participation in Brazil, Japan, Russia and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrews, C.W.; Vries, M.S. de

    2007-01-01

    In the past 20 years, decentralization has been proposed as a strategy for enhancing public participation. Aid-providing organizations, such as the World Bank, stimulated decentralization processes in several countries in the hope that this would promote civic empowerment, diminish corruption, enhan

  13. Fiscal Decentralization in Developing and Transition Economies: Progress, Problems, and the Promise

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Anwar

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses the revolution in public sector thinking that is transforming the public sectors of developing and transition countries. Countries are reconsidering their fiscal systems and searching for the right balance between central government control and decentralized governance. Political decentralization has advanced in most countries. Subnational expenditures in developing co...

  14. Academic Dynasties: Decentralization and Familism in the Italian Academia. NBER Working Paper No. 17572

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Ruben; Labartino, Giovanna; Perotti, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Decentralization can lead to "good" or "bad" outcomes depending on the socio-cultural norms of the targeted communities. We investigate this issue by looking at the evolution of familism and nepotism in the Italian academia before and after the 1998 reform, which decentralized the recruitment of professors from the national to the university…

  15. Nutrient removal by NF and RO membranes in a decentralized sanitation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorthuizen, van Ellen M.; Zwijnenburg, Arie; Wessling, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Decentralized treatment of domestic wastewater offers the possibility of water and nutrient reuse. In a decentralized sanitation system the household wastewater streams are separated in a large diluted stream (gray water) and a small and concentrated stream (black water) containing important nutrien

  16. The Effect of Political Decentralization on School Leadership in German Vocational Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Michael; Ashmawy, Iman K.

    2016-01-01

    In this explorative qualitative study the effect of political decentralization on vocational school leadership is investigated. Through conducting structural interviews with 15 school principals in the states of Bremen and Lower Saxony in Germany, the study was able to conclude that political decentralization entails the creation of elected bodies…

  17. Geographic inequity in a decentralized anti-poverty program : a case study of China

    OpenAIRE

    Ravallion, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The central governments of many developing countries have chosen to decentralize their anti-poverty programs, in the expectation that local agents are better informed about local needs. The paper shows that this potential advantage of decentralized eligibility criteria can come at a large cost, to the extent that the induced geographic inequities undermine performance in reaching the incom...

  18. Review of Centralization and Decentralization Approaches to Curriculum Development in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Vaziri Yazdi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current review article aims at classifying, summarizing and organizing some researches conducted about the process of centralization-decentralization and its influence on curricula. Regarding some conducted studies in this area, this paper discusses the condition of decentralization in general and then represents decentralization levels in order to provide the readers more information. Types of decentralization in education are the issues that have been mainly discussed in this paper. The analysis of centralization reduction policies in curriculum of Iran's higher education is the next subject to be discussed; some investigations carried out in this scope are also presented. Then school-based curriculum planning is explored as a practical solution to reduce centralization of curriculum planning system. Finally, after introducing the dualistic (zero or one view as the main problem that makes educational issues complicated and inefficient, such as in curriculum planning decentralization, the evolution overview is presented from centralization to decentralization and then again turning back to centralization in Iran's and world's curriculum systems. The most important result obtained from this review is that although many theorists and experts in the field of curriculum planning have supported the dominance of decentralization on curricula and have talked about various shortcomings of centralization, the real move towards decentralization of different parts of educational system such as curriculum planning, specially in Iran, is very slow.

  19. The State of Local Governance and Public Services in the Decentralized Indonesia in 2006 : Findings from the Governance and Decentralization Survey 2 (GDS2)

    OpenAIRE

    Wenefrida Widyanti; Asep Suryahadi

    2008-01-01

    The Governance and Decentralization Survey (GDS) aims to evaluate the implementation of local governance and decentralization policy in Indonesia. The GDS was designed to initiate a database that will be used for the evaluation. Similar to the previous GDS rounds, the GDS2 is an integrated survey of households, public health and education facilities, private health practitioners, hamlet heads (kepala dusun), and district- and village-level officials. In total, around 32,000 respondents were i...

  20. [Analysis of the healthcare service decentralization process in Côte d'Ivoire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soura, B D; Coulibaly, S S

    2014-01-01

    The decentralization of healthcare services is becoming increasingly important in strategies of public sector management. This concept is analyzed from various points of view, including legal, economic, political, and sociological. Several typologies have been proposed in the literature to analyze this decentralization process, which can take different forms ranging from simple deconcentration to more elaborate devolution. In some instances, decentralization can be analyzed by the degree of autonomy given to local authorities. This article applies these typologies to analyze the healthcare system decentralization process in Cote d'Ivoire. Special attention is paid to the new forms of community healthcare organizations. These decentralized structures enjoy a kind of autonomy, with characteristics closer to those of devolution. The model might serve as an example for population involvement in defining and managing healthcare problems in Cote d'Ivoire. We end with proposals for the improvement of the process.

  1. Centralization and Decentralization of Public Policy in a Complex Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria ROSARIA ALFANO

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The public economic literature of the past century is characterized by a traditional paradigm that ascribes little attention to the spatial dimension. However, contemporary globalization requires that researchers and economists expand their perspectives to consider space conceptualization. What is required in the 21st century is a richer and more realistic framework that broadens existing concepts of socio-economic analysis while overcoming narrow national borders. Although national governments will remain prominent performers in the global market, regional and local governments cannot be ignored because citizens worldwide are exerting greater self-determination in influencing governmental decisions. This paper is focused on the opportunity to analyze the governance of decentralization by the new optimizing procedures provided by complex system theory. The first section of the paper explores the positive and normative issues related to centralization and decentralization in a globalized framework as well as the increased interdependence in power sharing among different jurisdictional level. In the second section, Kauffman’s (1993 contributions are examined as a means of determining if the fitness landscape allows combining the institutional evolution. Finally, this paper concludes highlighting that complex system theory is one of the possible tools useful to redesign the map of institutional sharing power in an era of globalization, considering that it allows catching Pareto improving in the level of welfare.

  2. Decentralized Optimal Dispatch of Photovoltaic Inverters in Residential Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Johnson, Brian B.; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2015-10-05

    Summary form only given. Decentralized methods for computing optimal real and reactive power setpoints for residential photovoltaic (PV) inverters are developed in this paper. It is known that conventional PV inverter controllers, which are designed to extract maximum power at unity power factor, cannot address secondary performance objectives such as voltage regulation and network loss minimization. Optimal power flow techniques can be utilized to select which inverters will provide ancillary services, and to compute their optimal real and reactive power setpoints according to well-defined performance criteria and economic objectives. Leveraging advances in sparsity-promoting regularization techniques and semidefinite relaxation, this paper shows how such problems can be solved with reduced computational burden and optimality guarantees. To enable large-scale implementation, a novel algorithmic framework is introduced - based on the so-called alternating direction method of multipliers - by which optimal power flow-type problems in this setting can be systematically decomposed into sub-problems that can be solved in a decentralized fashion by the utility and customer-owned PV systems with limited exchanges of information. Since the computational burden is shared among multiple devices and the requirement of all-to-all communication can be circumvented, the proposed optimization approach scales favorably to large distribution networks.

  3. The indicators of energy security of decentralized heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vitalyevna Bykova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the new additional indicators of energy security with the purpose to include decentralized heating sector is developed in the work. The structure of the housing stock of the country is analyzed, which includes different types of central heating boilers and CHP, individual gas or electric heating and stove heating.The analysis of the existing thermal supply (per unit area and per capita living for each sector is carried out. It is found that heat consumed in the residential sector with central heating from CHP and boilers is significantly higher of heat consumed in other sectors. The missing amount of heat energy, which can be produced in two ways, is calculated. Part of the deficit heat can be produced at existing sources that are not loaded enough to the nominal parameters at the moment. The second part can be obtained from small new sources (for inhabited localities that do not have a centralized heat supply infrastructure. New indicators complement the system of indicators to be used to analyze and monitoring the level of Moldova's energy security. They allowed including decentralized heat supply sector, which is not reflected in the official statistics. At the same, the calculation methodology has been improved and the overall integral indicator of the energy security level, which was even more crisis than previously thought.

  4. Decentralized enforcement, sequential bargaining, and the clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovi, Jon

    2001-07-01

    While there is a vast literature both on international bargaining and on how international agreements can be enforced, very little work has been done on how bargaining and enforcement interact. An important exception is Fearon (1998), who models international cooperation as a two-stage process in which the bargaining process is constrained by a need for decentralized enforcement (meaning that the agreement must be enforced by the parties themselves rather than a third party, such as a court). Using the Clean Development Mechanism as an example, the present paper proposes a different model of this kind of interaction. The model follows Fearon's in so far as we both use the infinitely repeated Prisoners' Dilemma to capture the enforcement phase of the game. However, while Fearon depicts the bargaining stage as a War of Attrition, the present model sees that stage as a sequential bargaining game of the Staahl-Rubinstein type. The implications of the present model are compared both to those of the Staahl-Rubinstein model and to those of the Fearon model. A surprising conclusion is that a need for decentralized enforcement tends to make the bargaining outcome more symmetrical than otherwise. Thus, the impact of bargaining power is actually smaller when the resulting agreement must be enforced by the parties themselves than it is if enforcement is taken care of by a third party. (author)

  5. Energy conservation and energy decentralization: issues and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Craig, P.P.

    1980-01-01

    Views are presented of the seemingly paradoxical nature and irrationality of the energy system and the decisions that determine its evolution. An economic approach to energy decisions, while widely espoused and generally believed to be the underpinning of our system, appears not to be functioning in very-important areas. The result is enormous waste of economic and intangible resources to produce energy that could be effectively replaced by energy conservation at low costs. This inefficiency in the economic system is, in the author's judgment, far greater than is recognized either by the public or by experts. They feel it has led to an over-investment in centralized energy systems and has discouraged the use of decentralized systems that could contribute significantly in the near term to a lessening of our energy problems. There are some signs that the situation is changing, albeit rather slowly. High prices and the widespread recognition of the seriousness of our energy problems have contributed to an increasing involvement of individuals in energy decisions profoundly affecting their future. To achieve an evolution of the energy system in which decentralized technologies (and, in the near term, particularly technologies that improve the efficiency of energy use) play an important role, the government must act forcefully. This action needs to recognize and be responsive to the powerful discriminatory effect of the economic system, as it is presently constituted, against investments in energy conservation.

  6. ENERGY CONSERVATION AND ENERGY DECENTRALIZATION: ISSUES AND PROSPECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark D.; Craig, Paul P.

    1980-01-01

    We have presented views of the seemingly paradoxical nature and irrationality of the energy system and the decisions that determine its evolution. An economic approach to energy decisions, while widely espoused and generally believed to be the underpinning of our system. appears not to be functioning in very important areas. The result is enormous waste of economic and intangible resources to produce energy that could be effectively replaced by energy conservation at low costs. This inefficiency in the economic system is, in our judgment. far greater than is recognized either by the public or by 'experts.' It has led to an over-investment in centralized energy systems and has discouraged the use of decentralized systems that could contribute significantly in the near term to a lessening of our energy problems. There are some signs that the situation is changing. albeit rather slowly. High prices and the widespread recognition of the seriousness of our energy problems have contributed to an increasing involvement of individuals in energy decisions profoundly affecting their future. To achieve an evolution of the energy system in which decentralized technologies (and, in the near term, particularly technologies that improve the efficiency of energy use) play an important role, the government must act forcefully. This action needs to recognize and be responsive to the powerful discriminatory effect of the economic system, as it is presently constituted, against investments in energy conservation.

  7. A Decentralized Heuristic Approach towards Resource Allocation in Femtocell Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Geun Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Femtocells represent a novel configuration for existing cellular communication, contributing towards the improvement of coverage and throughput. The dense deployment of these femtocells causes significant femto-macro and femto-femto interference, consequently deteriorating the throughput of femtocells. In this study, we compare two heuristic approaches, i.e., particle swarm optimization (PSO and genetic algorithm (GA, for joint power assignment and resource allocation, within the context of the femtocell environment. The supposition made in this joint optimization is that the discrete power levels are available for the assignment. Furthermore, we have employed two variants of each PSO and GA: inertia weight and constriction factor model for PSO, and twopoint and uniform crossover for GA. The two proposed algorithms are in a decentralized manner, with no involvement of any centralized entity. The comparison is carried out between the two proposed algorithms for the aforementioned joint optimization problem. The contrast includes the performance metrics: including average objective function, min–max throughput of the femtocells, average throughput of the femto users, outage rate and time complexity. The results demonstrate that the decentralized PSO constriction factor outperforms the others in terms of the aforementioned performance metrics.

  8. La disciplina entre las disposiciones legales y los actores escolares

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Palacios Mena; José Darío Herrera

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una descripción del funcionamiento de la disciplina escolar en una institución educativa de secundaria en Colombia. Tiene como objetivo explicar el origen del conflicto disciplinario, las situaciones que lo generan, la forma como la institución trata de lograr y mantener la disciplina, las explicaciones que cada uno de los actores da a las situaciones conflictivas y la manera como son vividas por ellos. El diseño metodológico de la investigación combinó una encuesta, en...

  9. Actor-Network Theory: sensitive terms and enduring tensions

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, A.

    2010-01-01

    ANT is not a "theory", or, if it is, then a "theory" does not necessarily offer a coherent framework, but may as well be an adaptable, open repository. A list of terms. A set of sensitivities. If ANT is a theory, then a theory helps to tell cases, draw contrasts, articulate silent layers, turn questions upside down, focus on the unexpected, add to one’s sensitivities, propose new terms, and shift stories from one context to another. In this presentation of "Actor Network Theory" the terms "ac...

  10. Networks with free actors : encouraging sustainable innovations animal husbandry by using the FAN approach (Free Actors in Networks) : networking is sensing opportunities!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, E.; Zaalmink, W.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Geerling-Eiff, F.A.; Holster, H.C.; Hoogerwerf, L.; Vrolijk, M.; Teenstra, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    After three-and-a-half years of experience with 120 networks of livestock farmers a new approach has arisen which offers good perspectives for encouraging sustainable innovations: the FAN approach (Free Actors in Networks), with actors focusing on energy and connections to steer things along. Part o

  11. Identidad, escritura, performance: Marco Paolini, actor y autor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Soriani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marco Paolini es uno de los más representativos actores y autores del llamado "teatro di narrazione". El presente artículo pretende acercarse a algunos aspectos centrales de su poética en tanto actor y escritor, tales como los complejos y articulados procesos a través de los cuales llega a un (más o menos definitivo texto escrito; la fuerte relación que establece entre él y su público, a quien Paolini siempre se dirige consciente y explícitamente con gags y "bromas" en ocasiones tomados de la tradición del teatro popular italiano; o el "lenguaje del cuerpo" que Paolini pone en práctica en el escenario y en las páginas de sus libros publicados, en el que (de un modo personal mezcla el italiano, dialectos venecianos y ecos de poetas y escritores de la tradición literaria italiana.

  12. Actors of Columbian drug trade : development and transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Smolíková

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to portray the main shifts which have been taking place in Colombian drug scene since the 70’s up to the present especially in relation to actors of this business and form of their activity. At first the development of Colombian drug trade till the 80’s when two big cartels centered in Medellín and Cali arose will be briefly outlined. These cartels were able to control a great part of domestic drug trade and due to their enormous power represented serious threat to Colombian state. Thus the cartels declared open warfare with the state in the 80’s. After the cartels’ elimination in the middle of 90’s new actors represented by small drug organizations arose in Colombian drug scene. These small groups were dependent upon cooperation with foreign partners, especially with Mexican cartels. Ever more important role in drug business is played by Colombian left-wing guerilla groups which will be described in the next part of the article. The problem of right-wing paramilitary groups and their participation in Colombian drug trade will be mentioned as well.

  13. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Simon; Waldman, Linda; Bloom, Gerry; Rasheed, Sabrina; Scott, Nigel; Ahmed, Tanvir; Khan, Nazib Uz Zaman; Sharmin, Tamanna

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a "health knowledge economy", organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term "health knowledge economy" draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups. PMID:26184275

  14. Spain and Mediterranean Security Governance: Neighbours, Spaces and Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wolff

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1999 Tampere Summit marked the start of the development of the external dimension of the European Union’s policy of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA. This external dimension has been reflected in the inclusion of JHA in agreements with third countries, and particularly with Mediterranean countries. Furthermore, the European NeighbourhoodPolicy (ENP, in addition to bilateral and multilateral programmes, confirmed the transformation of the JHA policy into one of the EU’s foreign policy objectives. In the light of this evolution, this article examines Spain’s role in the development of the Mediterraneandimension of the JHA policy: firstly, it covers the stance of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero’s government toward the JHA policy and its external dimension; secondly, it explores the new parameters of governance in the area of security and the Spanish case through three main factors: the neighbours, spaces and actors that define this governance. Lastly, and within a context of a multiplicity of governance actors on security, it focuses on the Canary Islands,which have acquired a central importance with respect to the management of borders and the policy of development for Africa. The analysis of this period helps to explain the new security perceptions that define Spain’s policy in the Mediterranean.

  15. Chile. Actores Populares en la Protesta Nacional, 1983-1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa REVILLA BLANCO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los acontecimientos y los actores implicados en las movilizaciones producidas en Santiago de Chile en 1983-84, son el objeto de andlisis de este artículo. Tras una breve exposición del contexto económico y político, se describen los rasgos fundamentales y la evolución de las protestas. Del análisis de los hechos se deducen tres objetivos implícitos en las movilizaciones: recuperación de la identidad política y social, integración polltica de los excluidos y democracia. Los resultados son dispares; mientras en el plano político se produce una derrota, en lo referente a la expresividad de las acciones y al problema de la integración, las movilizaciones fueron exitosas.ABSTRACT: ThLs article focuses on the events and actors involved in the mobilizations tha took place in Santiago de Chile between 1983-1984. After a short exposition of the political and economic context, it describes the main characteristics and the protest's evolution. Three implicit objetives can be identified from the demostrations: the recovering of social and political identity, the political integration of the excluded people and democracy. The results are inequal; while on the political level a defeat ocurs, with regard to the expressiveness of the actions and the integration's problem, the mobilizations were successful.

  16. Actor/observer asymmetry in risky decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernandez-Duque

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Are people willing to gamble more for themselves than what they deem reasonable for others? We addressed this question in a simplified computer gambling task in which subjects chose from a set of 10 cards. Subjects selected one card at a time after being instructed that 9 cards were good (win a dollar per card and one was really bad (lose all the money and end the game. Subjects could stop playing at any time to collect their winnings. Some subjects played the game, others observed a confederate. Both groups took risks beyond what was rational (i.e., 5 cards but extit{actors} were riskier than extit{observers}. The actor/observer asymmetry occurred even after controlling for monetary outcome (i.e., having observers win prizes and after controlling for how the question was framed (i.e., asking observers what they themselves extit{would} do as opposed to what the confederate extit{should} do. We discuss these results in relation to theories of decision making that emphasize separate contributions of rational and experiential systems.

  17. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Simon; Waldman, Linda; Bloom, Gerry; Rasheed, Sabrina; Scott, Nigel; Ahmed, Tanvir; Khan, Nazib Uz Zaman; Sharmin, Tamanna

    2015-07-15

    This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a "health knowledge economy", organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term "health knowledge economy" draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups.

  18. Actor coalitions and implementation in strategic delta planning: Opening the Haringvliet sluices in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermoolen, Myrthe; Hermans, Leon

    2016-04-01

    drinking water, but negative consequences for the ecological quality and biodiversity. In the 1980s environmental awareness increased. To restore natural processes, it was decided in 2000 to put the sluices 'ajar' as a first step towards the strategic long-term vision of tidal restoration and major rehabilitation of the Rhine-Meuse estuary. First planning was to have the Kierbesluit implemented in 2005. However, this has been put off again and again, and since the actual implementation started in 2013, planning is to have the infrastructures ready to start opening the sluices in 2018 - 13 years later. What was supposed to be the first step towards full estuarine recovery has become an end goal itself, with implementing actors strictly focusing on putting the sluices ajar and compensating for fresh water loss, dismissing building with nature possibilities behind the dam. The Advocacy Coalition Framework is used as a starting point for analysis, and will be altered and detailed with insights from implementation literature to identify lessons regarding the role and dynamics of actor coalitions from the planning to implementation stage of strategic delta planning.

  19. Action adaptation during natural unfolding social scenes influences action recognition and inferences made about actor beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Bruce D; Wincenciak, Joanna; Jellema, Tjeerd; Ward, James W; Barraclough, Nick E

    2016-07-01

    When observing another individual's actions, we can both recognize their actions and infer their beliefs concerning the physical and social environment. The extent to which visual adaptation influences action recognition and conceptually later stages of processing involved in deriving the belief state of the actor remains unknown. To explore this we used virtual reality (life-size photorealistic actors presented in stereoscopic three dimensions) to see how visual adaptation influences the perception of individuals in naturally unfolding social scenes at increasingly higher levels of action understanding. We presented scenes in which one actor picked up boxes (of varying number and weight), after which a second actor picked up a single box. Adaptation to the first actor's behavior systematically changed perception of the second actor. Aftereffects increased with the duration of the first actor's behavior, declined exponentially over time, and were independent of view direction. Inferences about the second actor's expectation of box weight were also distorted by adaptation to the first actor. Distortions in action recognition and actor expectations did not, however, extend across different actions, indicating that adaptation is not acting at an action-independent abstract level but rather at an action-dependent level. We conclude that although adaptation influences more complex inferences about belief states of individuals, this is likely to be a result of adaptation at an earlier action recognition stage rather than adaptation operating at a higher, more abstract level in mentalizing or simulation systems. PMID:27472496

  20. Regional Development and Decentralization – two Options to Overcome Lack of Funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka JURLINA ALIBEGOVIC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization can be generally described as a process in which selected functions are assigned to sub-national units. The literature identifies a number of positive consequences of decentralization which all lead to a better satisfaction of citizens’ needs for public services. Although the decentralization process in Croatia started more than ten years ago, it has not yet been completed. While leading to a new allocation of authorities and responsibilities to local government units, the level of fiscal decentralization remained lower than in the EU countries.In this paper we analyze the fiscal capacity of local government units to provide an insight into the main problems of decentralization in Croatia. We show that most local government units have very low fiscal capacity, which is insufficient for financing basic public functions with their own resources. The paper presents the results of a survey relating to the decentralization process conducted among local councilors at the regional level in Croatia. We explore how local councilors at the regional level evaluate different goals of decentralization. With the lack of fiscal capacity in mind, we identify two possible solutions for an optimal provision of public functions. The first one is the level of political will for a joint provision of public functions by different local units, and the second one is a change in the territorial organization of the country. We measure the difference in the attitudes toward these questions across counties.

  1. Known unknowns, unknown unknowns and information flow: new concepts in decentralized control

    CERN Document Server

    Belabbas, M -A

    2011-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a model for decentral- ized control. The model is broad enough to include problems such as formation control, decentralization of the power grid and flocking. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we show how the issue of decentralization goes beyond having agents know only part of the state of the system. In fact, we argue that a complete theory of decentralization should take into account the fact that agents can be made aware of only part of the global objective of the ensemble. A second contribution of this paper is the introduction of a rigorous definition of information flow for a decentralized system: we show how to attach to a general nonlinear decentralized system a unique information flow graph that is an invariant of the system. In order to address some finer issues in decentralized system, such as the existence of so-called "information loops", we further refine the information flow graph to a simplicial complex-more precisely, a Whitney complex. We illustrate the...

  2. Decentralized State Estimation Algorithm of Centralized Equivalent Precision for Formation Flying Spacecrafts Based on Junction Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyuan Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As centralized state estimation algorithms for formation flying spacecraft would suffer from high computational burdens when the scale of the formation increases, it is necessary to develop decentralized algorithms. To the state of the art, most decentralized algorithms for formation flying are derived from centralized EKF by simplification and decoupling, rendering suboptimal estimations. In this paper, typical decentralized state estimation algorithms are reviewed, and a new scheme for decentralized algorithms is proposed. In the new solution, the system is modeled as a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN. A probabilistic graphical method named junction tree (JT is used to analyze the hidden distributed structure of the DBNs. Inference on JT is a decentralized form of centralized Bayesian estimation (BE, which is a modularized three-step procedure of receiving messages, collecting evidences, and generating messages. As KF is a special case of BE, the new solution based on JT is equivalent in precision to centralized KF in theory. A cooperative navigation example of a three-satellite formation is used to test the decentralized algorithms. Simulation results indicate that JT has the best precision among all current decentralized algorithms.

  3. Organically Grown Architectures: Creating Decentralized, Autonomous Systems by Embryomorphic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doursat, René

    Exploding growth growth in computational systems forces us to gradually replace rigid design and control with decentralization and autonomy. Information technologies will progress, instead, by"meta-designing" mechanisms of system self-assembly, self-regulation and evolution. Nature offers a great variety of efficient complex systems, in which numerous small elements form large-scale, adaptive patterns. The new engineering challenge is to recreate this self-organization and let it freely generate innovative designs under guidance. This article presents an original model of artificial system growth inspired by embryogenesis. A virtual organism is a lattice of cells that proliferate, migrate and self-pattern into differentiated domains. Each cell's fate is controlled by an internal gene regulatory network network. Embryomorphic engineering emphasizes hyperdistributed architectures, and their development as a prerequisite of evolutionary design.

  4. Decentring the Human? Towards a Post- Anthropocentric Standpoint Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnaLouise Keating

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on recent developments in virology and the work ofChicana queer-feminist Gloria Anzaldúa,this article explores the possibility of shifting from anthropocentricepistemologies (including feminist standpoint theoriesinto more expansive, decentralized modes of knowledgeproduction which are neither entirely human-centered norfully post-human. We explore this shift through several parts:(1 A brief overview of recent critiques of anthropocentrismand the limitations in mainstream feminist standpointtheory’s ability to overcome this anthropocentrism;(2 an exploration of recent developments in virology’s promisingalternatives to anthropocentrism’s narrow definitionof the human; and (3 an analysis of Anzaldúa’s innovativenepantlera subjectivity and onto-epistemology as seen in hertheory of conocimiento. Because scholars have yetto examine the post-anthropocentric (and posthumanistdimensions of Anzaldúa’s thought, but instead generallycategorize her epistemology as an ethnic-specific feministstandpoint theory, her work offers a unique point of entryinto these investigations.

  5. Decentralized Control of Dynamic Routing with a Neural Network Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A state-dependent routing algorithm based on the neural network model, which takes advantage of other dynamic routing algorithm for circuit-switched network, is given in [1]. But, the Algorithm in [1] is a centralized control model with complex O (N7), therefore, is difficult to realize by hardware. A simplified algorithm is put forward in this paper, in which routing can be controlled decentralizedly, and its complexity is reduced to O (10N3). Computer simulations are made in a fully connected test network with eight nodes. The results show that the centralized control model has very effective performance that can match RTNR, and the centralized control model is not as good as the centralized one but better than DAR-1.

  6. Decentralized adaptive synchronization of an uncertain complex delayed dynamical network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weisong ZHONG; Jun ZHAO; Georgi M.DIMIROVSKI

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate the locally and globally adaptive synchronization problem for an uncertain complex dynamical network with time-varying coupling delays based on the decentralized control.The coupling terms here are bounded by high-order polynomials with known gains that are ubiquitous in a large class of complex dynamical networks.We generalize the usual technology of searching for an appropriate coordinates transformation to change the network dynamics into a series of decoupled lower-dimensional systems.Several adaptive synchronization criteria are derived by constructing the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and Barbalat lemma,and the proposed criteria are simple in form and convenient for the practical engineering design.Numerical simulations illustrated by a nearest-neighbor coupling network verify the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme.

  7. Decentralized estimation of sensor systematic error andtarget state vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺明科; 王正明; 朱炬波

    2003-01-01

    An accurate estimation of the sensor systematic error is significant for improving the performance of target tracking system. The existing methods usually append the bias states directly to the variable states to form augmented state vectors and utilize the conventional Kalman estimator to achieve state vectors estimate. So doing is expensive in computation, and much work is devoted to decoupling variable states and systematic error. But the decentralied estimation of systematic errors and reduction of the amount of computation as well as decentralied track fusion are far from being realized. This paper addresses distributed track fusion problem in multi-sensor tracking system in the presence of sensor bias. By this method, variable states and systematic error is decoupled. Decentralized systematic error estimation and track fusion are achieved. Simulation results verify that this method can get accurate estimation of systematic error and state vector.

  8. Techno-economic analysis of decentralized biomass processing depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S; Tumuluru, Jaya S; Jacobson, Jacob J; Cafferty, Kara G; Hansen, Jason K; Kenney, Kevin; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Bals, Bryan

    2015-10-01

    Decentralized biomass processing facilities, known as biomass depots, may be necessary to achieve feedstock cost, quantity, and quality required to grow the future U.S. bioeconomy. In this paper, we assess three distinct depot configurations for technical difference and economic performance. The depot designs were chosen to compare and contrast a suite of capabilities that a depot could perform ranging from conventional pelleting to sophisticated pretreatment technologies. Our economic analyses indicate that depot processing costs are likely to range from ∼US$30 to US$63 per dry metric tonne (Mg), depending upon the specific technology implemented and the energy consumption for processing equipment such as grinders and dryers. We conclude that the benefits of integrating depots into the overall biomass feedstock supply chain will outweigh depot processing costs and that incorporation of this technology should be aggressively pursued. PMID:26196421

  9. Capacity investment and competition in decentralized electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, Nils-Henrik von der; Harbord, David Cameron

    1997-11-01

    With particular reference to the recently deregulated and market-based electricity industries in Norway, the UK and elsewhere the report analyses oligopoly entry and capacity investment decisions as a non-cooperative game in a decentralized electricity market. A two-stage game is considered, with multiple capacity types and uncertain demand, in which capacity decisions are made prior to spot-market, or price competition. Equilibrium outcomes for different pricing mechanisms or regulatory regimes are analysed. The following questions are dealt with in particular: Will industry capacity be sufficient to ensure adequate supply security? Does imperfect competition in the spot-market lead to an inefficient mix of base-load and peak-load technologies? How do different regulatory policies affect the market outcomes? 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A centralized global automation group in a decentralized organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormand, J; Bruner, J; Birkemo, L; Hinderliter-Smith, J; Veitch, J

    2000-01-01

    In the latter part of the 1990s, many companies have worked to foster a 'matrix' style culture through several changes in organizational structure. This type of culture facilitates communication and development of new technology across organizational and global boundaries. At Glaxo Wellcome, this matrix culture is reflected in an automation strategy that relies on both centralized and decentralized resources. The Group Development Operations Information Systems Robotics Team is a centralized resource providing development, support, integration, and training in laboratory automation across businesses in the Development organization. The matrix culture still presents challenges with respect to communication and managing the development of technology. A current challenge for our team is to go beyond our recognized role as a technology resource and actually to influence automation strategies across the global Development organization. We shall provide an overview of our role as a centralized resource, our team strategy, examples of current and past successes and failures, and future directions.

  11. Decentralized Checking Context Inconsistency in Ubiquitous Mobile Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daqiang; Yang, Zhijun; Huang, Hongyu; Zou, Qin

    Contexts are often noisy in ubiquitous mobile computing environments due to user mobility, unreliable wireless connectivity and resource constraints. Various schemes have been proposed to check context inconsistency for ubiquitous mobile applications. However, most of them require central control. This requirement inhibits their working in ubiquitous mobile environments, which are characterized by the asynchronous coordination among computing devices. In this paper, we propose DCCI scheme - Decentralized Checking Context Inconsistency for ubiquitous mobile applications by exploiting the preference-based locality that denotes context inconsistency occurs among the nodes that impose various restrictions on the same context. According to this locality, DCCI constructs a preference-based shortcut structure to check inconsistency within shortcuts. Extensive experiments show that DCCI can accurately and efficiently check context inconsistency in a fully distributed manner.

  12. Agent-Based Decentralized Control Method for Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiang; Chen, Feixiong; Chen, Minyou;

    2016-01-01

    as a local control processor together with communication devices, so agents can collect present states of distributed generators and loads, when communication lines are added between two layers. Moreover, each agent can also exchange information with its neighboring agents of the network. After information......) a systematic method is presented, which can be used to derive a set of control laws for agents from any given communication network, where only local information is needed. Furthermore, it has been seen that the output power supplied by distributed generators satisfies the load demand in the microgrid, when......In this paper, an agent-based decentralized control model for islanded microgrids is proposed, which consists of a two-layer control structure. The bottom layer is the electrical distribution microgrid, while the top layer is the communication network composed of agents. An agent is regarded...

  13. DEPAS: A Decentralized Probabilistic Algorithm for Auto-Scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Calcavecchia, Nicolo M; Di Nitto, Elisabetta; Dubois, Daniel J; Petcu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic provisioning of virtualized resources offered by cloud computing infrastructures allows applications deployed in a cloud environment to automatically increase and decrease the amount of used resources. This capability is called auto-scaling and its main purpose is to automatically adjust the scale of the system that is running the application to satisfy the varying workload with minimum resource utilization. The need for auto-scaling is particularly important during workload peaks, in which applications may need to scale up to extremely large-scale systems. Both the research community and the main cloud providers have already developed auto-scaling solutions. However, most research solutions are centralized and not suitable for managing large-scale systems, moreover cloud providers' solutions are bound to the limitations of a specific provider in terms of resource prices, availability, reliability, and connectivity. In this paper we propose DEPAS, a decentralized probabilistic auto-scaling algorit...

  14. Decentralized health care priority-setting in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maluka, Stephen; Kamuzora, Peter; Sebastiån, Miguel San;

    2010-01-01

    care priorities in Mbarali district, Tanzania, and evaluates the descriptions against Accountability for Reasonableness. Key informant interviews were conducted with district health managers, local government officials and other stakeholders using a semi-structured interview guide. Relevant documents...... were also gathered and group priority-setting in the district was observed. The results indicate that, while Tanzania has a decentralized public health care system, the reality of the district level priority-setting process was that it was not nearly as participatory as the official guidelines suggest...... not satisfy all four conditions of Accountability for Reasonableness; namely relevance, publicity, appeals and revision, and enforcement. This paper aims to make two important contributions to this problematic situation. First, it provides empirical analysis of priority-setting at the district level...

  15. Transnationalism and the Decentralization of the Global Film Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Codó Martínez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As in other aspects of society (politics, economics, the film industry appears to be undergoing a process of decentralization (still in its infancy by which Asia is, if not overtaking, at least matching its level of influence with that of European and American powers. Much of the impetus shifting this balance corresponds to China. The spectacular growth of China‟s domestic market is concentrating a substantial part of the global film business within this Asian giant, resulting in the still sector leader, the United States, conditioning its production in order to maximize profits in that territory. Resolute internationalization policies are also helping Chinese companies gain a foothold in Western countries conditioning film content there, although paradoxically their audiences remain unwilling to consume cinema that is culturally foreign. This essay will attempt to explain how all this has occurred.

  16. Optimal decentralized valley-filling charging strategy for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An implementable charging strategy is developed for electric vehicles connected to a grid. • A two-dimensional pricing scheme is proposed to coordinate charging behaviors. • The strategy effectively works in decentralized way but achieves the systematic valley filling. • The strategy allows device-level charging autonomy, and does not require a bidirectional communication/control network. • The strategy can self-correct when confronted with adverse factors. - Abstract: Uncoordinated charging load of electric vehicles (EVs) increases the peak load of the power grid, thereby increasing the cost of electricity generation. The valley-filling charging scenario offers a cheaper alternative. This study proposes a novel decentralized valley-filling charging strategy, in which a day-ahead pricing scheme is designed by solving a minimum-cost optimization problem. The pricing scheme can be broadcasted to EV owners, and the individual charging behaviors can be indirectly coordinated. EV owners respond to the pricing scheme by autonomously optimizing their individual charge patterns. This device-level response induces a valley-filling effect in the grid at the system level. The proposed strategy offers three advantages: coordination (by the valley-filling effect), practicality (no requirement for a bidirectional communication/control network between the grid and EV owners), and autonomy (user control of EV charge patterns). The proposed strategy is validated in simulations of typical scenarios in Beijing, China. According to the results, the strategy (1) effectively achieves the valley-filling charging effect at 28% less generation cost than the uncoordinated charging strategy, (2) is robust to several potential affecters of the valley-filling effect, such as (system-level) inaccurate parameter estimation and (device-level) response capability and willingness (which cause less than 2% deviation in the minimal generation cost), and (3) is compatible with

  17. Towards a personalized Internet: a case for a full decentralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermarrec, Anne-Marie

    2013-03-28

    The Web has become a user-centric platform where users post, share, annotate, comment and forward content be it text, videos, pictures, URLs, etc. This social dimension creates tremendous new opportunities for information exchange over the Internet, as exemplified by the surprising and exponential growth of social networks and collaborative platforms. Yet, niche content is sometimes difficult to retrieve using traditional search engines because they target the mass rather than the individual. Likewise, relieving users from useless notification is tricky in a world where there is so much information and so little of interest for each and every one of us. We argue that ultra-specific content could be retrieved and disseminated should search and notification be personalized to fit this new setting. We also argue that users' interests should be implicitly captured by the system rather than relying on explicit classifications simply because the world is by nature unstructured, dynamic and users do not want to be hampered in their actions by a tight and static framework. In this paper, we review some existing personalization approaches, most of which are centralized. We then advocate the need for fully decentralized systems because personalization raises two main issues. Firstly, personalization requires information to be stored and maintained at a user granularity which can significantly hurt the scalability of a centralized solution. Secondly, at a time when the 'big brother is watching you' attitude is prominent, users may be more and more reluctant to give away their personal data to the few large companies that can afford such personalization. We start by showing how to achieve personalization in decentralized systems and conclude with the research agenda ahead. PMID:23419849

  18. A decentralized linear quadratic control design method for flexible structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tzu-Jeng; Craig, Roy R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A decentralized suboptimal linear quadratic control design procedure which combines substructural synthesis, model reduction, decentralized control design, subcontroller synthesis, and controller reduction is proposed for the design of reduced-order controllers for flexible structures. The procedure starts with a definition of the continuum structure to be controlled. An evaluation model of finite dimension is obtained by the finite element method. Then, the finite element model is decomposed into several substructures by using a natural decomposition called substructuring decomposition. Each substructure, at this point, still has too large a dimension and must be reduced to a size that is Riccati-solvable. Model reduction of each substructure can be performed by using any existing model reduction method, e.g., modal truncation, balanced reduction, Krylov model reduction, or mixed-mode method. Then, based on the reduced substructure model, a subcontroller is designed by an LQ optimal control method for each substructure independently. After all subcontrollers are designed, a controller synthesis method called substructural controller synthesis is employed to synthesize all subcontrollers into a global controller. The assembling scheme used is the same as that employed for the structure matrices. Finally, a controller reduction scheme, called the equivalent impulse response energy controller (EIREC) reduction algorithm, is used to reduce the global controller to a reasonable size for implementation. The EIREC reduced controller preserves the impulse response energy of the full-order controller and has the property of matching low-frequency moments and low-frequency power moments. An advantage of the substructural controller synthesis method is that it relieves the computational burden associated with dimensionality. Besides that, the SCS design scheme is also a highly adaptable controller synthesis method for structures with varying configuration, or varying mass

  19. On the applicability of the decentralized control mechanism extracted from the true slime mold: a robotic case study with a serpentine robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Takahide; Kano, Takeshi; Ishiguro, Akio, E-mail: tsato@cmplx.riec.tohoku.ac.jp [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    A systematic method for an autonomous decentralized control system is still lacking, despite its appealing concept. In order to alleviate this, we focused on the amoeboid locomotion of the true slime mold, and extracted a design scheme for the decentralized control mechanism that leads to adaptive behavior for the entire system, based on the so-called discrepancy function. In this paper, we intensively investigate the universality of this design scheme by applying it to a different type of locomotion based on a 'synthetic approach'. As a first step, we implement this design scheme to the control of a real physical two-dimensional serpentine robot that exhibits slithering locomotion. The experimental results show that the robot exhibits adaptive behavior and responds to the environmental changes; it is also robust against malfunctions of the body segments due to the local sensory feedback control that is based on the discrepancy function. We expect the results to shed new light on the methodology of autonomous decentralized control systems.

  20. Decentralized H∞ state feedback control for large-scale interconnected uncertain systems with multiple delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宁; 桂卫华; 谢永芳

    2004-01-01

    Decentralized H∞ control was studied for a class of interconnected uncertain systems with multiple delays in the state and control and time varying but norm-bounded parametric uncertainties. A sufficient condition which makes the closed--loop system decentralized asymptotically stable with H∞ performance was derived based on Lyapunov stability theorem. This condition is expressed as the solvability problem of linear matrix inequalities. The method overcomes the limitations of the existing algebraic Riccati equation method. Finally, a numerical example was given to demonstrate the design procedure for the decentralized H∞ state feedback controller.

  1. Decentralized energy: technology assessment and systems description. [Potential for implementation for years 2000 and 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckard, M K

    1979-06-01

    Decentralized energy systems and their characteristic features are examined in the report. These systems have been divided into six groups for the purpose of analysis: solar, wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal, and coproduction (total energy). The technical and economic potential for the implementation of these systems is discussed for the years 2000 and 2025. The results of a comparison of base-case and decentralized scenarios for the year 2000, using a computer systems model, are presented. Social and institutional factors are also addressed, both as motivations for and results of energy system decentralization. Appendices are included with more detailed technical information on each of the systems groups.

  2. Fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making for Sustainability Assessment of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Fedele, Andrea; Mason, Marco;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a sustainability assessment method to rank the prior sequence of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production. A novel fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making method which allows multiple groups of decision-makers to use linguistic variables...... to assess the biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production has been developed. Fifteen criteria relevant to in economic, environmental, technological and social-political aspects have been used in sustainability assessment. Four biomass-based technologies including pyrolysis, conventional gasification...

  3. Towards a New Framework of Idea Management as Actor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn

    2013-01-01

    Management of innovation idea development in front-end innovation of R&D organizations has shown to be a challenging task. This paper presents the preliminary results of a PhD project concerning idea management in front-end innovation of R&D organizations. Through theoretical and empirical...... investigations of managing activities in front-end idea development, an indicative analysis in the perspective of actor network theory is performed. The analysis show how managers and employees navigate in a complex environment of organizational structures, technical features and design, creativity and social...... interaction. The analysis inputs an initial conceptualization of a new theoretical framework of idea management. The theoretical framework suggests a dynamic network structure comprised of the dimensions of space, content, and process....

  4. Ship Finds and Their Management as Actor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuddenham, David Berg

    2012-12-01

    Ship finds in Norwegian waters that are more than 100 years old came under the jurisdiction of the Cultural Heritage Management (CHM) in 1963, when section 12a of the Norwegian Cultural Heritage Act was implemented. As a consequence, a functional division between land and sea was created where management objects receive different values depending on whether or not they belong to a ship. The objective of this paper is to review Norwegian CHM underwater policy, and discuss the creation of a new management object and its borders with the introduction of a section on ship finds specifically focusing on Actor Network Theory. It is argued that the understanding of the ship find and its belongings can not be understood as something based on inherent qualities to the management object. Instead this paper proposes to comprehend the ship find as a phenomenon held together within a heterogeneous network.

  5. An Actor's Approach to Management Conceptual framework and company practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    & Hanne Nørreklit) Chapter 6. Colliding and disintegrated topoi as the result of intended integration (Peter Beusch) Chapter 7. Managerial knowledge in a research-based medical company (Hanne Nørreklit & Lennart Nørreklit) Chapter 8. Communication as means for deciding about realistic possibilities (Sten...... in a constructive way in his/her daily work-life and that organisations can become more competitive if the management is capable of acknowledging these abilities. The challenge for management is to encourage employees to be innovative and to take on responsibility for organisational concerns in their work. Table......-based strategy of growth - becoming a nationwide bank (Lennart Nørreklit & Poul Israelsen) Chapter 4. Constructing topos in inter-organisational relationships by means of management technologies (Morten Jakobsen) Chapter 5. Actor-based management - the Tesco way (Gudrun Baldvinsdottir, Inga-Lill Johansson...

  6. Temporal Logic Motion Control using Actor-Critic Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Xu Chu; Lahijanian, Morteza; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch; Belta, Calin A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of deploying a robot from a specification given as a temporal logic statement about some properties satisfied by the regions of a large, partitioned environment. We assume that the robot has noisy sensors and actuators and model its motion through the regions of the environment as a Markov Decision Process (MDP). The robot control problem becomes finding the control policy maximizing the probability of satisfying the temporal logic task on the MDP. For a large environment, obtaining transition probabilities for each state-action pair, as well as solving the necessary optimization problem for the optimal policy are usually not computationally feasible. To address these issues, we propose an approximate dynamic programming framework based on a least-square temporal difference learning method of the actor-critic type. This framework operates on sample paths of the robot and optimizes a randomized control policy with respect to a small set of parameters. The transition proba...

  7. MULTIMODAL REPRESENTATION OF SOCIAL ACTORS IN THE DISCOURSE OF BRANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Maria Machado SOARES

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article, contemplating a theoretical dialogue between SystemicFunctional Theory (SFL (Halliday, 1994, 2004, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA (Fairclough, 1992, 2006, 2012 and Multimodality (Kress, van Leeuwen, 2006 van Leeuwen, 2008, Brands (Gobe, 2010, ALLEN; SIMMONS, 2005 and Sustainability (DIAS, 2009, 2011, aims to investigate the relationships established between visual and discursive event participants a hybrid text speech (advertising and information. Theories have specific and complementary methodologies adopted to delineate the pathways analysis with qualitative approach. Research shows that social actors, visually represented in the texts in advertising or informational texts, are mitigated by the power of institutions, revealing not only as artifice communicative, but also ideological to meet sustainable prerogatives.

  8. La disciplina entre las disposiciones legales y los actores escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Palacios Mena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una descripción del funcionamiento de la disciplina escolar en una institución educativa de secundaria en Colombia. Tiene como objetivo explicar el origen del conflicto disciplinario, las situaciones que lo generan, la forma como la institución trata de lograr y mantener la disciplina, las explicaciones que cada uno de los actores da a las situaciones conflictivas y la manera como son vividas por ellos. El diseño metodológico de la investigación combinó una encuesta, entrevistas y el análisis de documentos de la institución educativa. El análisis de los datos se hace a la luz de planteamientos sociológicos que reconocen la enorme importancia que ejercen las estructuras sociales sobre la forma de pensar y actuar de los individuos, pero también resaltan la gran capacidad de los actores sociales para amoldarse a dichas estructuras y a través de sus ideas y acciones darle una dinámica propia al tipo de relaciones que establecen entre individuos en sus entornos de vida más inmediatos. Se pudo concluir que sobre la disciplina escolar no hay unidad de criterio entre los docentes, los directivos y los estudiantes, ni en su definición, ni en su importancia, ni en los medios para conseguirla; dichas diferencias producen tensiones y desacuerdos entre los miembros de la comunidad educativa.

  9. Role of Actors and Gender Factor in Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Oguz; Isik, Ozden; Ozcep, Ferhat; Goksu, Goksel

    2014-05-01

    In Turkey, the discussions in the modern sense about disaster management begun after the 1992 Erzincan and the 1995 Dinar earthquakes, faulting in terms of features and effects. These earthquakes are "Urban Earthquakes'' with effects and faulting charectristics, and have led to radical changes in terms of disaster and disaster management. Disaster Management, to become a science in the world, but with the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes in Turkey has begun to take seriously on the agenda. Firstly, such as Civil Defense and Red Crescent organizations, by transforming its own, have entered into a new organizing effort. By these earthquakes, NGO's have contributed the search-rescue efforts in the field and to the process of normalization of life. Because "the authority and responsibilities" of NGO's could not be determined, and could not be in planning and scenario studies, we faced the problems. Thus, to the citizens of our country-specific "voluntary" has not benefited enough from the property. The most important development in disaster management in 2009, the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) has been the establishment. However, in terms of coordination and accreditation to the target point has been reached yet. Another important issue in disaster management (need to be addressed along with disaster actors) is the role of women in disasters. After the Golcuk Earthquake, successful field works of women and women's victimization has attracted attention in two different directions. Gender-sensitive policies should be noted by the all disaster actors due to the importance of the mitigation, and these policies should take place in laws, regulations and planning.

  10. The Importance of Actor Cleavages in Negotiating the European Constitutional Treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Hosli, Madeleine O.; Arnold, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to explore government preferences, cleavages, and pat-terns of coalition-formation among a variety of actors in the bargaining process on the European Constitution, across the range of twenty-five European Union (EU) member states. The study focuses on preferences concerning socio-economic policy-making and explores whether divisions can be discerned between preferences held by actors according to locations on the left-right policy scale, actors in older as compared to newer E...

  11. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems? On rationale, context, actors, impact and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous 'unilateral' attempts to address them have not been particularly successful, and there are limits to what a single actor can do. Cooperation also enables different actors to leverage their resourc...

  12. Framing by Actors in the Human Rights Debate: the Kony 2012 Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Meriläinen, Niina; Vos, Marita

    2014-01-01

    Human rights actors form networks and debate in issue arenas to find solutions to violations. Framing can be used to create and increase issue salience as well as organisational importance, thus influencing power relations and the human rights debate. Not all the actors are equally powerful, meaning that the more dominant actors function as gatekeepers, controlling the debate and the subsequent decision-making process. The campaign Kony 2012 by Invisible Children (IC) is u...

  13. The Interactive Constitution of Actors in Industrial Networks: The Case of the Norwegian City of Alesund

    OpenAIRE

    Frans Prenkert

    2013-01-01

    The actor-dimension of the Activitiy-Resource-Actor (ARA)-model has not gained the same attention among Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) scholars as the resource and activity dimensions. However, the issue of what an actor actually is, in the sense of its interactive constitution, is important from an industrial marketing and purchasing perspective that emphasizes the interactive character of the business landscape. This is adressed in this paper. As a concequence of their interactiv...

  14. Clarifying the role of actor network theory (ANT) for the accounting of information system in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    DEHKORDI, Bahareh Banitalebi; ROODPOSHTI, Fraydoon Rahnamay; NIKOMARAM, Hashem; TALEBNIA, Ghodratollah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. In this research is paid to clarify the role of actor network theory (ANT) for the accounting of information system in Iran with the aim of the determining of the human and non-human actors effective on the accounting information systems, the analysis of relationships between the human and non-human actors on the net and to determine the effective factors on the accounting information systems in terms of types of actors for the first time in Iran. In this research which is done in t...

  15. European environmental policy: The pioneers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    environmental politics at the European Union level. Following Robert Putnam's theory, environmental policymaking in the EU is viewed as a reciprocal two-level game in which activities, actors and politics in domestic and EU arenas affect each other. Governments at times need to build domestic political support...

  16. Assessment and evaluation of PV based decentralized rural electrification: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenges of providing electricity to rural households are manifold. Ever increasing demand-supply gap, crumbling electricity transmission and distribution infrastructure, high cost of delivered electricity are a few of these. Use of renewable energy technologies for meeting basic energy needs of rural communities has been promoted by the Governments world over for many decades. Photovoltaic (PV) technology is one of the first among several renewable energy technologies that was adopted globally as well as in India for meeting basic electricity needs of rural areas that are not connected to the grid. This paper attempts at reviewing and analyzing PV literature pertaining to decentralized rural electrification into two main categories - (1) experiences from rural electrification and technology demonstration programmes covering barriers and challenges in marketing and dissemination; institutional and financing approaches; and productive and economic applications, (2) techno-economic aspects including system design methodologies and approaches; performance evaluation and monitoring; techno-economic comparison of various systems; and environmental implications and life cycle analysis. The paper discusses the emerging trends in its concluding remarks. (author)

  17. Comparing centralized and decentralized bio-energy systems in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the dual pressures of an energy crisis and rising greenhouse gas emissions, biomass energy development and utilisation has become part of the national energy strategy in China. The last decade has witnessed a strong promotion of both centralised and decentralised bio-energy systems in rural China. The government seems to have a strong preference for centralised (village-based) bio-energy systems in recent years. However, these government-driven systems have not worked without difficulties, particularly regarding economic and technological viability and maintenance. Studies on the advantages and disadvantages of decentralised and centralised bio-energy systems are rare. This study aims to shed light on the performances of these two systems in terms of social, economic and environmental effects. Through interviewing local officials and village leaders and surveying farmers in 12 villages in Shandong Province, it was found that bio-energy systems should be selected based on the local circumstances. The diversity of the local natural, economic and social situations determines the size, place, technology and organisational model of the bio-energy system. - Highlights: • Biomass energy development has become part of the national energy strategy in China. • The dis-/advantages of decentralized and centralized bio-energy systems are evaluated. • Bio-energy systems should be selected based on the local circumstances

  18. Seeing the light : adapting to climate change with decentralized renewable energy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents innovative and sustainable ways to respond to climate change with particular reference to decentralized renewable energy (DRE) projects. It presents the experience of developing DRE projects in five developing countries, Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Senegal and Zimbabwe. The conditions under which these countries can support DRE through the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism were also examined. Some policy recommendations were proposed for more dynamic DRE support for the Kyoto era. The Clean Development Mechanism was examined as a key financial tool for supporting DRE. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that the least developed countries are the least equipped with adaptive capacity, and therefore most vulnerable to climate change. The IPCC claims that climate adaptation and sustainable development can be compatible if policies are made to lessen resource pressure, improve environmental risk management and improve the prosperity of the poorest members of society. This book presents a framework for introducing modern energy services through DRE that can stabilize the socio-economics of a developing country. The main implications of rural energy deprivation include deforestation and ecosystem degradation, chronic rural poverty and high vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change. refs., tabs., figs

  19. [Decentralization of the health sector in Mexico. Scope and limitations of local health systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Block, M A

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a product of the reflection on the decentralization and sectorization experiences in Mexico since 1917 with particular emphasis on the 1980s. The historical analysis included the creation of an analytical model designed to identify the relationship between the distinct sanitary policies implemented in Mexico and the tendencies towards decentralization and integration. This analysis is combined with a critical review of the recent decentralization experiences undertaken in the states of Guerrero, Oaxaca and Nuevo León. While comparing Guerrero and Oaxaca, restitution and deconcentration under similar socio-economic conditions were discussed. The comparison between Guerrero and Nuevo Leon allowed the discussion of the benefits and limits of restitution under different socio-economic conditions. In addition, with this model the author discusses a few generalizations regarding the possible future of decentralization.

  20. The Politics of Fiscal Decentralization Revisited: a Typology and Comparative Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge P. Gordin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the practice of fiscal decentralization is worldwide and its implementation and effects vary from country to country, its political significance has been often neglected, or worse, treated as implicit to decentralization. This study considers the sources of politicization of fiscal decentralization, focusing on the determination and manipulation of intergovernmental transfers. It develops a new index of fiscal politicization and proposes an explanatory typology that takes into account subnational transfer dependency and the extent to which transfers are politically determined. This analysis renders a conceptual tool that captures nuanced facts about the intergovernmental level of conflict to a larger extent than conventional measures of fiscal decentralization do. We found that the effects of fiscal dependency are intertwined with political asymmetries derived from legislative overrepresentation of territorial units and intergovernmental bargaining strategies.

  1. Decentralized Nonlinear Controller Based SiC Parallel DC-DC Converter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of a Decentralized Control based SiC Parallel DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU) with targeted application for...

  2. Engaging Social Capital for Decentralized Urban Stormwater Management (Paper in Non-EPA Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decentralized approaches to urban stormwater management, whereby installations of green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens, bioswales, constructed wetlands) are dispersed throughout a management area, are cost-effective solutions with co-benefits beyond just water abatement. Inst...

  3. Structural distortions and decentralized fiscal policies in EMU: Unpublished technical appendices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.W.J. Beetsma; L. Bovenberg

    2004-01-01

    Unpublished technical appedix for the article "Structural Distortions and Decentralized Fiscal Policies in EMU", (with Lans Bovenberg), 2005, Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 37, 6, 1001-1018.

  4. Decentralized substations for low-temperature district heating with no Legionella risk, and low return temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    To improve energy efficiency and give more access to renewable energy sources, low-temperature district heating (LTDH) is a promising concept to be realized in the future. However, concern about Legionella proliferation restricts applying low-temperature district heating in conventional systems...... with domestic hot water (DHW) circulation. In this study, a system with decentralized substations was analysed as a solution to this problem. Furthermore, a modification for the decentralized substation system were proposed in order to reduce the average return temperature. Models of conventional system...... with medium-temperature district heating, decentralized substation system with LTDH, and innovative decentralized substation system with LTDH were built based on the information of a case building. The annual distribution heat loss and the operating costs of the three scenarios were calculated and compared...

  5. Decentralized control of units in smart grids for the support of renewable energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenschein, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Sonnenschein@Uni-Oldenburg.DE [University of Oldenburg, Department of Computing Science, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Lünsdorf, Ontje, E-mail: Ontje.Luensdorf@OFFIS.DE [OFFIS Institute for Information Technology, Escherweg 2, D-26121 Oldenburg (Germany); Bremer, Jörg, E-mail: Joerg.Bremer@Uni-Oldenburg.DE [University of Oldenburg, Department of Computing Science, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Tröschel, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Troeschel@OFFIS.DE [OFFIS Institute for Information Technology, Escherweg 2, D-26121 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Due to the significant environmental impact of power production from fossil fuels and nuclear fission, future energy systems will increasingly rely on distributed and renewable energy sources (RES). The electrical feed-in from photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind energy converters (WEC) varies greatly both over short and long time periods (from minutes to seasons), and (not only) by this effect the supply of electrical power from RES and the demand for electrical power are not per se matching. In addition, with a growing share of generation capacity especially in distribution grids, the top-down paradigm of electricity distribution is gradually replaced by a bottom-up power supply. This altogether leads to new problems regarding the safe and reliable operation of power grids. In order to address these challenges, the notion of Smart Grids has been introduced. The inherent flexibilities, i.e. the set of feasible power schedules, of distributed power units have to be controlled in order to support demand–supply matching as well as stable grid operation. Controllable power units are e.g. combined heat and power plants, power storage systems such as batteries, and flexible power consumers such as heat pumps. By controlling the flexibilities of these units we are particularly able to optimize the local utilization of RES feed-in in a given power grid by integrating both supply and demand management measures with special respect to the electrical infrastructure. In this context, decentralized systems, autonomous agents and the concept of self-organizing systems will become key elements of the ICT based control of power units. In this contribution, we first show how a decentralized load management system for battery charging/discharging of electrical vehicles (EVs) can increase the locally used share of supply from PV systems in a low voltage grid. For a reliable demand side management of large sets of appliances, dynamic clustering of these appliances into uniformly

  6. Decentralized control of units in smart grids for the support of renewable energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the significant environmental impact of power production from fossil fuels and nuclear fission, future energy systems will increasingly rely on distributed and renewable energy sources (RES). The electrical feed-in from photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind energy converters (WEC) varies greatly both over short and long time periods (from minutes to seasons), and (not only) by this effect the supply of electrical power from RES and the demand for electrical power are not per se matching. In addition, with a growing share of generation capacity especially in distribution grids, the top-down paradigm of electricity distribution is gradually replaced by a bottom-up power supply. This altogether leads to new problems regarding the safe and reliable operation of power grids. In order to address these challenges, the notion of Smart Grids has been introduced. The inherent flexibilities, i.e. the set of feasible power schedules, of distributed power units have to be controlled in order to support demand–supply matching as well as stable grid operation. Controllable power units are e.g. combined heat and power plants, power storage systems such as batteries, and flexible power consumers such as heat pumps. By controlling the flexibilities of these units we are particularly able to optimize the local utilization of RES feed-in in a given power grid by integrating both supply and demand management measures with special respect to the electrical infrastructure. In this context, decentralized systems, autonomous agents and the concept of self-organizing systems will become key elements of the ICT based control of power units. In this contribution, we first show how a decentralized load management system for battery charging/discharging of electrical vehicles (EVs) can increase the locally used share of supply from PV systems in a low voltage grid. For a reliable demand side management of large sets of appliances, dynamic clustering of these appliances into uniformly

  7. New Structural Forms In Multinationals: Decentralization At The Expense Of Personal Communication Networks?

    OpenAIRE

    Marschan, R

    1994-01-01

    Recent literature on decentralized power structures within multinationals suggests that these structures encourage the development of personal and horizontal communication networks. Based on an in-depth case study on twelve units of one Finnish multinational the findings show that the decentralization process enhanced personal communication networks among top managers, while middle management and operating employees perceived limited opportunities to extend their personal contacts with other ...

  8. Should Welfare Administration be Centralized or Decentralized? Evidence from a Policy Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The 2005 reform of the German welfare system introduced two competing organizational models for welfare administration. In most districts, a centralized organization was established where local welfare agencies are bound to central directives. At the same time, 69 districts were allowed to opt for a decentralized organization. We evaluate the relative success of both types in terms of integrating welfare recipients into employment. Com-pared to centralized organization, decentralized organiza...

  9. Should welfare administration be centralized or decentralized? Evidence from a policy experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Boockmann, Bernhard; Thomsen, Stephan L.; Walter, Thomas; Göbel, Christian; Huber, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The 2005 reform of the German welfare system introduced two competing organizational models for welfare administration. In most districts, a centralized organization was established where local welfare agencies are bound to central directives. At the same time, 69 districts were allowed to opt for a decentralized organization. We evaluate the relative success of both types of organizations. Compared to centralized organization, decentralized organization of welfare administration has a negati...

  10. Fiscal decentralization and regional disparity: evidence from cross-section and panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Lessmann, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of public sector decentralization are widely discussed in economics and political science. Some authors argue that decentralization leads to an optimal provision of public services and promotes economic growth, while others emphasize the dangers of competition between subnational governments, especially those associated with interregional redistribution. Using cross-section and panel data for twenty-three OECD countries, from 1982 to 2000, this paper empirical...

  11. A local DLP-GIS-LP system for geographically decentralized wood procurement planning and decision making.

    OpenAIRE

    Palander, Teijo

    1997-01-01

    LP is an important method for allocation of wood inventory stock. It is, for instance, used alone in tactical planning systems, which currently are in wide use at the higher hierarchical level in the functionally decentralized planning of the Finnish forest industry. Unfortunately, LP as a solution method has not been capable of handling spatial data that seem to characterize planning systems in geographical decentralization. In the present study, a GIS was used to assimilate data from differ...

  12. Human resources for health at the district level in Indonesia: the smoke and mirrors of decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap Nida P; Heywood Peter F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2001 Indonesia embarked on a rapid decentralization of government finances and functions to district governments. One of the results is that government has less information about its most valuable resource, the people who provide the services. The objective of the work reported here is to determine the stock of human resources for health in 15 districts, their service status and primary place of work. It also assesses the effect of decentralization on management of huma...

  13. Guidelines on the Implementation of the Decentralization Principle in Local Public Administration Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bilouseac Irina; Zaharia Petronela

    2012-01-01

    Are of recent date the multiple attempts of reformation and modernization of the public administration. An important objective of the process of reformation oversees the implementation of the decentralization measures to make the public administration in general more efficient. The current article brings to the attention of the readers the pros but also the cons that the application of the principle of decentralization may bring. As a basic rule in the organizing function of the local adminis...

  14. Decentralized Wastewater Management Solutions for Improved Public Health Protection and Reclamation: Optimization and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Kartiki Shirish

    2014-01-01

    Centralized wastewater treatment, widely practiced in developed areas, involves transporting wastewater from large urban or industrial areas to a large capacity plant using a single network of sewers. Alternatively, the concept of wastewater collection, treatment and reuse at or near its point of generation is called decentralized wastewater treatment. Smaller decentralized plants with energy-efficient reclaimed water pumping, modularization of expansion and minimum capital investment can mee...

  15. Key Technologies for Decentralized Control Platform with Dynamic Evolution for Railway Transportation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Yongdong; GuiXun; Qian Qingquan

    2006-01-01

    Key technologies as well as their principles were discussed for a decentralized control platform capable of dynamic evolution.The primary content includes the automatic decision-making mechanism and the algorithm of the control center migration, the principle and technology of system self-monitoring, the principle and technology of the switch-mode of remote control station, the information transmission technology, and the data consistency technology. These key technologies have shown a series of advanced characteristics for decentralized control platform.

  16. Decentralization in regional fiscal systems in Russia - trends and links to economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Freinkman, Lev; Yossifov, Plamen

    1999-01-01

    To shed light on decentralization in Russia, the authors examine intergovernmental fiscal relations within regions. To analyze trends, they review channels of fiscal allocation within regions - tax sharing and local transfer schemes. To evaluate the potential impact of various fiscal decentralization patterns on regional economic performance (including growth and the budget deficit), the authors study data on the structure of 89 Russian consolidated regional budgets for 1992-96. They find tha...

  17. Decision making under the tree: gender perspectives on decentralization reforms in service delivery in rural Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Masanyiwa, Z.S.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, decentralization has been upheld by governments, donors and policy makers in many developing countries as a means of improving people’s participation and public services delivery. In 1996, the government of Tanzania embarked on major local government reforms reflecting the global trends and as part of the wider public sector reforms. The reforms aim at improving the access, quality and equitable delivery of public services through a policy of ‘decentralization b...

  18. DECENTRALIZATION, GROWTH AND OPTIMAL GOVERNMENT SIZE IN THE ITALIAN REGIONAL FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Di Liddo; Cosimo Magazzino; Francesco Porcelli

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to empirically assess the existence of the BARS curve (Barro, Armey, Rahn, and Scully), as well as the relationship between public expenditure and decentralization, for Italian regions in the 1997-2009 period. Using panel data methodologies, we inspect the nexus between Regional government size (measured by the share of public expenditure on GDP) and the economic growth rate. The main results are twofold. First, when the degree of decentralization is reasonably low (b...

  19. State fragility and fiscal decentralization in EU ex-communist countries in a public choice approach

    OpenAIRE

    Forte, Francesco; Mutascu, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    While in J. Buchanan clubs theory, the decentralized governments should supply only public goods suited to their spatial dimension, for G. Tullock the decentralization should prevail over spatial dimension of the public goods to broaden individuals" control on government. For A. Peacock too, devolution responds to the demand of participation against the irrelevance of the individuals in centralization, but an extended "dispersive revolution" might increase rather than decrease the "government...

  20. DECENTRALIZATION OF PUBLIC SPENDING AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay Patonov

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of fiscal decentralization on the economic growth in the European Union. The emphasis has been put on the public spending carried out at a local level. The empirical investigation is based on regression analysis. The regression model includes the GDP growth rate as a dependent variable and fiscal decentralization indicators as independent variables. The results support the conventional understanding among scientists and politicians for a positiv...