WorldWideScience

Sample records for actor network perspective

  1. Tourismscapes. An actor-network perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces an alternative way of looking at and researching tourism by translating actor-network theory into the provinces of these studies. Using the concept of tourismscapes, the article argues that people and things become entangled via complex processes of translation. People, organ

  2. Transitions across place and space – Spatial transitions in an Actor Network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerndrup, Søren; Mosgaard, Mette

    2012-01-01

    network perspective in order to develop the spatial dimensions of transitions. The paper is based on an ongoing research project of spatial dimensions of the transitions in energy production and consumption networks in the northern part of Denmark. The paper show by using an actor network perspective...

  3. Transitions across place and space – Spatial transitions in an Actor Network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerndrup, Søren; Mosgaard, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The empirical and theoretical frameworks of transitions focus mainly on specific scale of change e.g. local, regional or national transitions. One reason for this lack of an integrative framework of territorial and spatial distribution of transitions process is the ambition of transition framework...... network perspective in order to develop the spatial dimensions of transitions. The paper is based on an ongoing research project of spatial dimensions of the transitions in energy production and consumption networks in the northern part of Denmark. The paper show by using an actor network perspective...

  4. The gender of science: reflections on the actor-network theory and the feminist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pugliese Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some of the principles that guide the descriptive forms of the actor-network theory (ANT of Bruno Latour and feminist standpoint theory formulated by Sandra Harding and Evelyn Fox Keller, through my research on the "Marie Curie Case". As a singular case between gender and science, the goal of thispaper is to play with ANT certainties against feminist perspective uncertainties. In the other hand, the certainties of feminist perspective are put against the uncertainties of ANT. With this counterpoint we intend to promote a reaction - in the chemical sense of the word – to the descriptive forms of the actor-network theory and feminist perspective taking away the obviousness of some of their assumptions. Doing that, we explore the moves of those reactions and their effects to the description which we do about science.

  5. Actor-Network Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Meadows, Catherine; Ramanujam, R.; Ramaswamy, Srini

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose actor-networks as a formal model of computation in heterogenous networks of computers, humans and their devices, where these new procedures run; and we introduce Procedure Derivation Logic (PDL) as a framework for reasoning about security in actor-networks, as an extension

  6. Towards a new perspective of managing ideas in front-end innovation as actor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn, Anna Rose; Clausen, Christian; Gish, Liv

    2013-01-01

    been identified as front-end innovation processes. The front-end innovation is distinguished from linear product development and characterised as more informal, unstructured, and unpredictable. This paper presents the preliminary results of a PhD project concerning idea management in front......For decades the innovation process in R&D organisations has been discussed. Product development processes is well-established in R&D organisations and improvements has been implemented through theories as Lean product development and agile methods. In recent decades, more diffuse processes have......-end innovation of R&D organisations. Through theoretical and empirical investigations of managing activities of idea processes an indicative analysis in the perspective of actor network theory is performed. The analysis show how managers and employees navigate in a complex environment of organisational...

  7. Gorilla Tourism in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: An Actor-Network Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.; Ampumuza, C.; Ahebwa, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    This article performs actor-network theory (ANT) to examine the development of gorilla tourism at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. We depict a number of translations in which gorillas were designated and enrolled as coexisting with local livelihood practices, as “trophies” in the hunting n

  8. Thinking the "Plan Ceibal" from the perspective of public action and the Actor-Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Elena Da Silva Ramos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will analyze and discuss the Plan Ceibal, from the point of view of the Public Action and the Actor Network Theory. We think that Plan Ceibal, which is implemented in Uruguay since 2007, illustrates the concept of public action, because it involves a multiplicity of governmental and non-governmental organizations, besides human and nonhuman components. According to this, the Actor-network theory (ANT provides elements to reflect on technological appropriation. We believe that a key task in the assembly of the various human and nonhuman components that compose Plan Ceibal, promoting the strength of their associations, where diverse enrollments and multiple translations make the core of the problem. We wonder about what are the theoretical and methodological challenges facing expert intervention, especially psychologists in this field?

  9. Development Sociology. Actor Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Using case studies and empirical material from Africa and Latin America, Development Sociology focuses on the theoretical and methodological foundations of an actor-oriented and social constructionist form of analysis. This style of analysis is opposed to the traditional structuralist/institutional

  10. Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative......, and by doing so they create in humans what in modern play theory is known as a “state of play”...

  11. A human resources project implementation. An actor-network theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibrán Rivera González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene dos objetivos principales. Primero, sugerir el uso de la Teoría del Actor-Red (ANT por sus siglas en inglés como una teoría que puede ser utilizada para analizar la implementación de un proyecto de recursos humanos (llamado ModeCo, Modelo de Competencias; y, segundo, proveer un entendimiento inicial sobre algunos de los principales eventos y situaciones que dieron forma al ritmo de la implementación de este proyecto. Este artículo se basa en una investigación cualitativa, la cual toma una perspectiva informada por la Teoría del Actor-Red (Callon, 1986; Latour, 1987; Law, 1992 que es utilizada como mecanismo de entendimiento para describir cómo un proyecto es implementado en una Universidad con múltiples campus en México. En este trabajo se ofrecen, primero, una serie de enunciados que capturan la manera en cómo la Teoría del Actor-Red fue útil para entender el proceso de implementación; y, segundo, se exponen los principales eventos y situaciones que afectaron dicho proceso de implementación. En esta investigación adoptamos un modelo interpretativo (Walsham, 1995; Walsham, 2006, mismo que se vale del uso de una batería de métodos, principalmente el uso de doce entrevistas semiestructuradas con diferentes actores del proyecto, documentos del proyecto y asistencia virtual a reuniones del Comité Directivo de recursos humanos. En términos de análisis nuestra investigación está basada en los principios propuestos por Klein and Myers (1999 para estudios interpretativos.

  12. Thinking Management and Leadership within Colleges and Schools Somewhat Differently: A Practice-Based, Actor-Network Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Dianne; Perillo, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the significance of materiality for management and leadership in education using resources provided by actor-network theory (ANT). Espousing the idea that human interactions are mediated by material objects and that these objects participate in the production of practices, ANT affords thinking management and leadership in a…

  13. Diasporas and transitions in Actor-Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Callén

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an introduction to the monograph titled Diasporas and Transitions in the Actor-Network Theory. Drawing a parallel with ethnomethodology, its pages present the main features of this theory, a way to figure out its origins and a description of its present. The text ends with a brief look at the state of art of actor-network theory in Spain and an appraisal of a meeting titled Present and Future of Actor-Network Theory, which is the origin of our monograph. In this paper we put forward a very simple idea: Actor-Network Theory was born with certain relevance in Social Sciences when it diffracted in a myriad of different uses and applications. The main corollary of such an idea is also straightforward: the very difference between Actor-Network Theory and other perspectives in Social Sciences resides in the permanent diaspora and transition of the former.

  14. Networks with free actors : encouraging sustainable innovations animal husbandry by using the FAN approach (Free Actors in Networks) : networking is sensing opportunities!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, E.; Zaalmink, W.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Geerling-Eiff, F.A.; Holster, H.C.; Hoogerwerf, L.; Vrolijk, M.; Teenstra, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    After three-and-a-half years of experience with 120 networks of livestock farmers a new approach has arisen which offers good perspectives for encouraging sustainable innovations: the FAN approach (Free Actors in Networks), with actors focusing on energy and connections to steer things along. Part o

  15. Towards a New Framework of Idea Management as Actor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn

    2013-01-01

    investigations of managing activities in front-end idea development, an indicative analysis in the perspective of actor network theory is performed. The analysis show how managers and employees navigate in a complex environment of organizational structures, technical features and design, creativity and social...

  16. The level of participation during the development of a mobile care data application for home-based healthcare in a developing context: An actor-network theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retha de la Harpe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The context of this study is home-based healthcare in a South African resource-restricted community. The research case involved the design and development of a mobile care data application, created to assist community caregivers in their professional activities. The development principles of a suitable application for feature phones (limited functionality in this context are not fully established, however. For the mobile care data application, a participatory design approach was employed. It was observed, conversely, that the level of participation of all stakeholders differed significantly. It was especially observed that the designer and end-users were less involved in the actual development of the prototype. These differences may have an influence on the end product/result. Actor-network theory may provide the mechanism to describe how the human and non-human actors formed relations as they participate in these processes. Considering the alignment of such networks, the coordination, devices and passages during the four translation moments provide valuable insights in the design and development of technology products. This paper will consider these elements in more depth. With a social embeddedness perspective the level of participation was high during the design of the proposed ICT solution with the active participation of the care givers from the developing context. The socio-economic factors of the developing context influenced the development of the mobile application with the complexities of the socio-technical context evident in the difficult translations between the participants

  17. Diásporas y transiciones en la Teoría del Actor-Red Diasporas and transitions in Actor-Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Callén

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este texto es una presentación del monográfico Diásporas y transiciones en la teoría del actor-red. Sus páginas presentan las principales características de esta teoría, una manera de entender sus orígenes y una descripción de su presente estableciendo un paralelismo con la etnometodología. El texto finaliza con una valoración del estado de la teoría del actor-red en España y un comentario sobre un congreso que llevó el título de Presente y futuro de la teoría del actor-red y que constituye el embrión del presente monográfico. En el texto se defiende una tesis muy simple: la teoría del actor-red nace con cierta relevancia para el pensamiento social en el momento en que se difracta en una miríada de usos y aplicaciones diferentes. El principal corolario de este hecho también es muy sencillo: la gran diferencia entre la teoría del actor-red y otras propuestas del pensamiento social es su permanente estado de diáspora y transición.
    This paper is an introduction to the monograph titled Diasporas and Transitions in the Actor-Network Theory. Drawing a parallel with ethnomethodology, its pages present the main features of this theory, a way to figure out its origins and a description of its present. The text ends with a brief look at the state of art of actor-network theory in Spain and an appraisal of a meeting titled Present and Future of Actor-Network Theory, which is the origin of our monograph. In this paper we put forward a very simple idea: Actor-Network Theory was born with certain relevance in Social Sciences when it diffracted in a myriad of different uses and applications. The main corollary of such an idea is also straightforward: the very difference between Actor-Network Theory and other perspectives in Social Sciences resides in the permanent diaspora and transition of the former.

  18. Searching for realism, structure and agency in Actor Network Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder-Vass, Dave

    2008-09-01

    Superficially, Actor Network Theory (ANT) and critical realism (CR) are radically opposed research traditions. Written from a realist perspective, this paper asks whether there might be a basis for finding common ground between these two traditions. It looks in turn at the questions of realism, structure, and agency, analysing the differences between the two perspectives and seeking to identify what each might learn from the other. Overall, the paper argues that there is a great deal that realists can learn from actor network theory; yet ANT remains stunted by its lack of a depth ontology. It fails to recognize the significance of mechanisms, and of their dependence on emergence, and thus lacks both dimensions of the depth that is characteristic of critical realism's ontology. This prevents ANT from recognizing the role and powers of social structure; but on the other hand, realists would do well to heed ANT's call for us to trace the connections through which structures are constantly made and remade. A lack of ontological depth also underpins ANT's practice of treating human and non-human actors symmetrically, yet this remains a valuable provocation to sociologists who neglect non-human entities entirely.

  19. Effective Location Management of Mobile Actors in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Aslam

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed an increasing availability of heterogeneous sensor networks that consist of a large number of resource constrained nodes (sensors and a small number of powerful resource rich nodes (actors. Such heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Actor Network (WSANs offer improvement of sensor networks' capacity/coverage, energy conservation and network lifetime. This paper investigates the case where sensors are organized into clusters and mobile actors are used for maintaining an energy efficient topology by periodically manipulating their geographical position. We present an elegant technique that allows actor nodes to find an optimal geographical location with respect to their associated cluster heads such that the overall energy consumed is minimized. The proposed technique includes a weighted cost function based on the residual energy levels of cluster heads that allows the mobile actor to optimally fine-tune its geographical location. We present simulation results that demonstrate a significant increase of network lifetime over the traditional cluster based WSN deployments.

  20. Actor/Actant-Network Theory as Emerging Methodology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    2005-01-31

    Jan 31, 2005 ... This paper deliberates on actor/actant-network theory (AANT) as ..... entrepreneurs (Keeley & Scoones, 2003), taking centre stage in networking and marketing .... this paper are summarised towards the end of this paper.

  1. Effects of Actor-Network Theory in Accounting Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise Nederland; Mouritsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    number of accounting papers that apply actor-network theory. A different sample might have given a somewhat different picture. Furthermore, it focuses on the influence of Latour's work and refrains from discussing how the writings of Michel Callon, John Law or other thinkers within the actor...

  2. Actor/Actant-Network Theory as Emerging Methodology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actor/Actant-Network Theory as Emerging Methodology for Environmental ... AANT to research environmental policy processes surrounding the formulation and ... or self regulation – preferred by Organised Business and Organised Labour).

  3. Fair-trade network and its main actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisa Ceccon Rocha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly describes fair-trade phenomenon and its share in the worldwide trade. At the same time, examines the role of different actors that participate in fairtrade network, from the producers down to the consumers. Finally it evaluates the relationships among these actors and the challenges that they face in order to ameliorate the system and improve the producer condition of participation, a fundamental elements of this network.

  4. Using actor-network theory to study an educational situation: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using actor-network theory to study an educational situation: an example from information systems at a technikon. ... Actor-network theory allows a researcher to analyse a complex social setting involving both human and non-human actors.

  5. The educational value of improvisational actors to teach communication and relational skills: perspectives of interprofessional learners, faculty, and actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sigall K; Pascucci, Robert; Fancy, Kristina; Coleman, Kelliann; Zurakowski, David; Meyer, Elaine C

    2014-09-01

    To assess the educational value of improvisational actors in difficult conversation simulations to teach communication and relational skills to interprofessional learners. Surveys of 192 interprofessional health care professionals, and 33 teaching faculty, and semi-structured interviews of 10 actors. Descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact test and chi-square test were used for quantitative analyses, and the Crabtree and Miller approach was used for qualitative analyses. 191/192 (99.5%) interprofessional learners (L), and 31/33 (94%) teaching faculty (F) responded to surveys. All 10/10 actors completed interviews. Nearly all participants found the actors realistic (98%L, 96%F), and valuable to the learning (97%L, 100%F). Most felt that role-play with another clinician would not have been as valuable as learning with actors (80%L, 97%F). There were no statistically significant differences in perceived value between learners who participated in the simulations (47%) versus those who observed (53%), or between doctors, nurses, or psychosocial professionals. Qualitative assessment yielded five actor value themes: Realism, Actor Feedback, Layperson Perspective, Depth of Emotion, and Role of Improvisation in Education. Actors independently identified similar themes as goals of their work. The value attributed to actors was nearly universal among interprofessional learners and faculty, and independent of enactment participation versus observation. Authenticity, feedback from actors, patient/family perspectives, emotion, and improvisation were key educational elements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bridging centrality: A new indicator to measure the positioning of actors in R&D networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherngell, T.; Wanzenboeck, I.; Berge, L.

    2016-07-01

    In the recent past, we can observe growing interest in the STI community in the notion of positioning indicators, shifting emphasis to actors in the innovation process and their R&D inter-linkages with other actors. In relation to this, we suggest a new approach for assessing the positioning of actors relying on the notion of bridging centrality (BC). Based on the concept of bridging paths, i.e. a set of two links connecting three actors across three different aggregate nodes (e.g. organisations, regions or countries), we argue that triangulation in networks is a key issue for knowledge recombinations and the extension of an actor's knowledge base. As bridges are most often not empirically observable at the individual level of research teams, we propose an approximated BC measure that provides a flexible framework for dealing with the aggregation problem in positioning actors. Hereby, BC is viewed as a function of an aggregate node's (i) participation intensity in the network, (ii) its openness to other nodes (i.e. the relative outward orientation of network links), and iii) the diversification of links to other nodes. In doing so, we provide an integrative perspective that enables us to achieve a better understanding of the positioning of certain actors in R&D networks. An illustrative example on the co-patent network of European regions demonstrates the performance and usefulness of our BC measure for networks constructed at the aggregated level, i.e. regions in our example. A region's outward orientation and the diversification of its network links moderates the influence of regional scale on network centrality. This is a major strength of the measure, and it paves the way for future studies to examine the role of certain aggregate node's, and, by this, contributes to the debate on positioning indicators in the STI context. (Author)

  7. Actor-networking ceta-sociality, or, what is sociological about contemporary whales?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2007-01-01

    to near-sacrosanct agent, is far from self-evident. This article advocates a change of theoretical perspective, inspired by the work of actor-network theorists Bruno Latour and Michel Callon. Rather than focussing solely on the ‘humanity' of human-animal relations, as does most of sociology, actor......-network theory (ANT) allows for the inclusion of non-human ‘actants' (like whales) into the fabric of sociality. In the ontology of ANT, sociality emerges as semiotic-material configurations of humans, animals and technologies. Starting from a critical review of the work by Adrian Franklin on growing...

  8. Consolidated Deep Actor Critic Networks (DRAFT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Laan, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    The works [Volodymyr et al. Playing atari with deep reinforcement learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.5602, 2013.] and [Volodymyr et al. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning. Nature, 518(7540):529–533, 2015.] have demonstrated the power of combining deep neural networks with Watki

  9. Consolidated Deep Actor Critic Networks (DRAFT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Laan, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    The works [Volodymyr et al. Playing atari with deep reinforcement learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.5602, 2013.] and [Volodymyr et al. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning. Nature, 518(7540):529–533, 2015.] have demonstrated the power of combining deep neural networks with Watki

  10. Consolidated Deep Actor Critic Networks (DRAFT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Laan, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    The works [Volodymyr et al. Playing atari with deep reinforcement learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.5602, 2013.] and [Volodymyr et al. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning. Nature, 518(7540):529–533, 2015.] have demonstrated the power of combining deep neural networks with

  11. Actor Network Procedures as Psi-calculi for Security Ceremonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Prisacariu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The actor network procedures of Pavlovic and Meadows are a recent graphical formalism developed for describing security ceremonies and for reasoning about their security properties. The present work studies the relations of the actor network procedures (ANP to the recent psi-calculi framework. Psi-calculi is a parametric formalism where calculi like spi- or applied-pi are found as instances. Psi-calculi are operational and largely non-graphical, but have strong foundation based on the theory of nominal sets and process algebras. One purpose of the present work is to give a semantics to ANP through psi-calculi. Another aim was to give a graphical language for a psi-calculus instance for security ceremonies. At the same time, this work provides more insight into the details of the ANPs formalization and the graphical representation.

  12. The Evolution of Ultracapital and Actor-Network Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cloke, Jon

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews distinct critical writings on the current global economic crisis in order to suggest that the crisis represents a distinctly new form of actor-network capitalism, originating in the hybrid financial innovations since the 1970s, the explosive growth in cyber-space potential during the 1990s and the subsuming of the State by finance that accompanied these two processes. The paper proposes the evolution of what is referred to as ultracapital (capital beyond capital) from withi...

  13. Disjoint Key Establishment Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    AtaUllah Ghafoor; Muhammad Sher; Muhammad Imran; Imran Baig

    2016-01-01

    Key distribution is essential for providing secure communication between commercial and sensitive applications of wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs). It becomes more challenging when any of the intermediate sensor nodes is compromised by the adversaries as the messages carrying secure keys will be exposed and links will be unreliable. This paper presents a Disjoint Key Establishment Protocol (DKEP) that does not require transmitting keys across the nodes. In DKEP, each node is preload...

  14. Consumer culture theory (re)visits actor-network theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    The vocabulary and tactics developed by actor-network theory (ANT) can shed light on several ontological and epistemological challenges faced by consumer culture theory. Rather than providing ready-made theories or methods, our translation of ANT puts forward a series of questions and proposition...... that, captured through the metaphor of 'flattening', invite a rethinking of how ontologies of consumption-its subjects, objects and devices, content and contexts, materiality and socioculturality-are enacted through precarious networks of heterogeneous relations. © The Author(s) 2013....

  15. Up the ANTe: Understanding Entrepreneurial Leadership Learning through Actor-Network Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sue; Kempster, Steve; Barnes, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the role of educators in supporting the development of entrepreneurial leadership learning by creating peer learning networks of owner-managers of small businesses. Using actor-network theory, the authors think through the process of constructing and maintaining a peer learning network (conceived of as an actor-network) and…

  16. AUTOMATIC RECOVERING NODE FAILURE IN WIRELESS SENSOR ACTOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.Subasini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recovering node failure in wireless sensor actor network to identify the cutvertex and to meet to the node failure. The network consists of many nodes that are constructed into a tree structure. Once the tree has been constructed the shortest path is found by the Aodv protocol.If a node failure occurs in the shortest path then the cut-vertex could be recovered and the data can be securely passed on to the destination in an alternative route obtained from the routing table. Heartbeat messages acknowledge the node failure. The feasible path is not found by the protocol, and then the network is divided into two or many parts. The MLeDir algorithm is used to identify the network failure and disjoint block of the network. The disjoint block is identified by the MLeDir algorithm and to rectify the disjoint block of failure network nodes. MLeDir algorithm is moving only the respective nodes from source to destination.

  17. Think about and intervene in the territory through the Actor Network Theory Pensar e intervenir el territorio a traves de la Teoria del Actor-Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Cabrera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to think about the similarities between the ways of seeing the territory as a network, some theoretical positions about the territory concept and actor network theory.
    After focusing on proposing a way of understanding the relationships between actors when they will intervene in the territory through the public policies and territorial planning, i ll try to apply the ANT model of public policy management through the guidance of ANT El propósito de este artículo es reflexionar sobre las coincidencias entre la forma de ver el territorio como red, algunas posturas teóricas sobre su concepto y la teoría del actor-red.
    Sobre lo anterior se centra en proponer una forma de entender las relaciones entre actores cuando se va a intervenir el territorio a través de políticas públicas como la planificación utilizando un modelo de gestión territorial a través de las orientaciones de la TAR.   

  18. Innovation barriers originating from the differing logics of network actors:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarikka-Stenroos, Leena; Alaranta, Mar

    2016-01-01

    . The heterogeneity can originate also from the differences in the priorities, interests, and interactional goals of companies (and other organizations) that are labelled as “logics” of innovating firms. Since the different organizations' logics set the structural conditions for innovation and cause both positive...... and negative consequences, such as innovation barriers, it is important to capture how logics are interconnected and how certain organizations influence the conditions of others. we lack understanding of how the diversity challenges innovating in innovation networks and systems by setting innovation barriers....... Hence, we will examine innovation barriers originating from the diversity and heterogeneity in an innovation network/system. We draw on a single and extensive multi-actor case study on the national nanoceramics innovation system in Argentina. We will identify innovation barriers at intrafirm/organization...

  19. Visualising Actor Network for Cooperative Systems in Marine Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yushan; Finken, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    are created to tackle challenges concerning human activities and their social interactions with regards to safety concerns in operation. This paper draws on fieldwork conducted in a marine setting of offshore operations. It presents an attempt to visualise the importance of cooperative work activities......Awareness is a concept familiar to specialists within the field of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). It is superior for analysing and describing some of the ad hoc work activities that unfold in cooperation. Such informal activities are outside the scope of engineers’ formal models, which...... that shape computer systems. The aim, thus, is to portray cooperative work in a way that can be valuable for engineers implementing marine technology. We do so by way of presenting a transferring technique (2T) using insights from the CSCW field and Actor Network Theory (ANT)....

  20. Holding-based network of nations based on listed energy companies: An empirical study on two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Yan, Lili

    2016-05-01

    Economic networks in the real world are not homogeneous; therefore, it is important to study economic networks with heterogeneous nodes and edges to simulate a real network more precisely. In this paper, we present an empirical study of the one-mode derivative holding-based network constructed by the two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors using the data of worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders. First, we identify the primitive relationship in the two-mode affiliation network of the two sets of actors. Then, we present the method used to construct the derivative network based on the shareholding relationship between two sets of actors and the affiliation relationship between actors and events. After constructing the derivative network, we analyze different topological features on the node level, edge level and entire network level and explain the meanings of the different values of the topological features combining the empirical data. This study is helpful for expanding the usage of complex networks to heterogeneous economic networks. For empirical research on the worldwide listed energy stock market, this study is useful for discovering the inner relationships between the nations and regions from a new perspective.

  1. Actor-Network Theory and its role in understanding the implementation of information technology developments in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Kathrin M; Worth, Allison; Sheikh, Aziz

    2010-11-01

    Actor-Network Theory (ANT) is an increasingly influential, but still deeply contested, approach to understand humans and their interactions with inanimate objects. We argue that health services research, and in particular evaluations of complex IT systems in health service organisations, may benefit from being informed by Actor-Network Theory perspectives. Despite some limitations, an Actor-Network Theory-based approach is conceptually useful in helping to appreciate the complexity of reality (including the complexity of organisations) and the active role of technology in this context. This can prove helpful in understanding how social effects are generated as a result of associations between different actors in a network. Of central importance in this respect is that Actor-Network Theory provides a lens through which to view the role of technology in shaping social processes. Attention to this shaping role can contribute to a more holistic appreciation of the complexity of technology introduction in healthcare settings. It can also prove practically useful in providing a theoretically informed approach to sampling (by drawing on informants that are related to the technology in question) and analysis (by providing a conceptual tool and vocabulary that can form the basis for interpretations). We draw on existing empirical work in this area and our ongoing work investigating the integration of electronic health record systems introduced as part of England's National Programme for Information Technology to illustrate salient points. Actor-Network Theory needs to be used pragmatically with an appreciation of its shortcomings. Our experiences suggest it can be helpful in investigating technology implementations in healthcare settings.

  2. Actor-Network Theory and its role in understanding the implementation of information technology developments in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Aziz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actor-Network Theory (ANT is an increasingly influential, but still deeply contested, approach to understand humans and their interactions with inanimate objects. We argue that health services research, and in particular evaluations of complex IT systems in health service organisations, may benefit from being informed by Actor-Network Theory perspectives. Discussion Despite some limitations, an Actor-Network Theory-based approach is conceptually useful in helping to appreciate the complexity of reality (including the complexity of organisations and the active role of technology in this context. This can prove helpful in understanding how social effects are generated as a result of associations between different actors in a network. Of central importance in this respect is that Actor-Network Theory provides a lens through which to view the role of technology in shaping social processes. Attention to this shaping role can contribute to a more holistic appreciation of the complexity of technology introduction in healthcare settings. It can also prove practically useful in providing a theoretically informed approach to sampling (by drawing on informants that are related to the technology in question and analysis (by providing a conceptual tool and vocabulary that can form the basis for interpretations. We draw on existing empirical work in this area and our ongoing work investigating the integration of electronic health record systems introduced as part of England's National Programme for Information Technology to illustrate salient points. Summary Actor-Network Theory needs to be used pragmatically with an appreciation of its shortcomings. Our experiences suggest it can be helpful in investigating technology implementations in healthcare settings.

  3. Representing Micro–Macro Linkages by Actor-based Dynamic Network Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Thomas; Steglich, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic actor-based models for network dynamics have the primary aim of statistical inference about processes of network change, but may be regarded as a kind of agent-based models. Similar to many other agent-based models, they are based on local rules for actor behavior. Different from many oth

  4. [A non-classical approach to medical practices: Michel Foucault and Actor-Network Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bińczyk, E

    2001-01-01

    The text presents an analysis of medical practices stemming from two sources: Michel Foucault's conception and the research of Annemarie Mol and John Law, representatives of a trend known as Actor-Network Theory. Both approaches reveal significant theoretical kinship: they can be successfully consigned to the framework of non-classical sociology of science. I initially refer to the cited conceptions as a version of non-classical sociology of medicine. The identity of non-classical sociology of medicine hinges on the fact that it undermines the possibility of objective definitions of disease, health and body. These are rather approached as variable social and historical phenomena, co-constituted by medical practices. To both Foucault and Mol the main object of interest was not medicine as such, but rather the network of medical practices. Mol and Law sketch a new theoretical perspective for the analysis of medical practices. They attempt to go beyond the dichotomous scheme of thinking about the human body as an object of medical research and the subject of private experience. Research on patients suffering blood-sugar deficiency provide the empirical background for the thesis of Actor-Network Theory representatives. Michel Foucault's conceptions are extremely critical of medical practices. The French researcher describes the processes of 'medicalising' Western society as the emergence of a new type of power. He attempts to sensitise the reader to the ethical dimension of the processes of medicalising society.

  5. Actor roles in transition: Insights from sociological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Wittmayer (Julia); F. Avelino (Flor); F. van Steenbergen; D.A. Loorbach (Derk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo date, the field of transition research lacks a suitable vocabulary to analyse the (changing) interactions and relations of actors as part of a sustainability transition. This article addresses this knowledge gap by exploring the potential of the concept of 'roles' from social interact

  6. Actor roles in transition: Insights from sociological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Wittmayer (Julia); F. Avelino (Flor); F. van Steenbergen; D.A. Loorbach (Derk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo date, the field of transition research lacks a suitable vocabulary to analyse the (changing) interactions and relations of actors as part of a sustainability transition. This article addresses this knowledge gap by exploring the potential of the concept of 'roles' from social

  7. Reassembling the Social - An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, Bruno

    2005-09-01

    Reassembling the Social is a fundamental challenge from one of the world's leading social theorists to how we understand society and the 'social'. Bruno Latour's contention is that the world 'social' as used by Social Scientists has become laden with assumptions to the point where it has become misnomer. When the adjective is applied to a phenomenon, it is used to indicate a stabilized state of affairs, a bundle of ties that in due course may be used to account for another phenomenon. But Latour also finds the word used as if it described a type of material, in a comparable way to an adjective such as 'wooden' or 'steely'. Rather than simply indicating what is already assembled together, it is now used in a way that makes assumptions about the nature of what is assembled. It has become a word that designates two distinct things: a process of assembling: and a type of material, distinct from others. Latour shows why 'the social' cannot be thought of as a kind of material or domain, and disputes attempts to provide a 'social explanation' of other states of affairs. While these attempts have been productive (and probably necessary) in the past, the very success of the social sciences mean that they are largely no longer so. At the present stage it is no longer possible to inspect the precise constituents entering the social domain. Latour returns to the original meaning of 'the social' to redefine the notion and allow it to trace connections again. It will then be possible to resume the traditional goal of the social sciences, but using more refined tools. Drawing on his extensive work examining the 'assemblages' of nature, Latour finds it necessary to scrutinize thoroughly the exact content of what is assembled under the umbrella of Society. This approach, a 'sociology of associations' has become known as Actor-Network-Theory, and this book is an essential introduction both for those seeking to understand Actor-Network-Theory, or the ideas of one of its most

  8. Actor-network Procedures: Modeling Multi-factor Authentication, Device Pairing, Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    network model. The state of a configuration is thus the product of the states of its actors, where some of the actors only task is to store some values...Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. Yale Univer- sity Press, 2006. [8] Bruno Blanchet. A computationally sound mechanized prover...and Caroline Haythornthwaite. Computer networks as social networks: Collaborative work, telework , and virtual community. Annual Review of Sociology, 22(1):213–238, 1996.

  9. [Indicators of governance in mental health policies and programmes in Mexico: a perspective of key actors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    To analyse the role of Mexico's mental health system governance in the development of mental health policies and programmes, from the perspective of its own actors. A map was developed for identifying the actors in Mexico's mental health system. A guide was designed for in-depth interviews, which were recorded and arranged in categories for their analysis. The Atlas-ti v.7 software was used for the organisation of qualitative data and Policy Maker v.4 was used to determine the position and influence of actors within the health system. The actors were identified according to their level of influence in mental health policies: high, medium and low. Actors with a high level of influence participate in national policies, actors with medium influence are involved in regional or local policies and the participation of actors with a low level of influence is considered marginal. This study facilitated understanding of governance in mental health. The level of influence of the actors directly affects the scope of governance indicators. Relevant data were obtained to improve policies in mental health care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Actor Network Theory Approach and its Application in Investigating Agricultural Climate Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharifzadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Actor network theory as a qualitative approach to study complex social factors and process of socio-technical interaction provides new concepts and ideas to understand socio-technical nature of information systems. From the actor network theory viewpoint, agricultural climate information system is a network consisting of actors, actions and information related processes (production, transformation, storage, retrieval, integration, diffusion and utilization, control and management, and system mechanisms (interfaces and networks. Analysis of such systemsembody the identification of basic components and structure of the system (nodes –thedifferent sources of information production, extension, and users, and the understanding of how successfully the system works (interaction and links – in order to promote climate knowledge content and improve system performance to reach agricultural development. The present research attempted to introduce actor network theory as research framework based on network view of agricultural climate information system.

  11. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Simon; Waldman, Linda; Bloom, Gerry; Rasheed, Sabrina; Scott, Nigel; Ahmed, Tanvir; Khan, Nazib Uz Zaman; Sharmin, Tamanna

    2015-07-15

    This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a "health knowledge economy", organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term "health knowledge economy" draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups.

  12. Rural development policy: A perspective of local actors in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papić Ružica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Key challenge in transitional countries is effective decentralized local governance with strong capacities for dealing with new rural development programming instruments. In this paper we have examined the attitudes of local rural development actors (RDA in Serbia on rural development policy priorities, in particular their attitudes on beneficiaries of rural development measures, policy objectives, and the most efficient strategies of rural development. We also analysed whether the respondents' attitudes differ depending on the socio-economic characteristic of surveyed regions (South and North of Serbia. Data on attitudes of RDAs were collected through direct survey with representatives of 30 rural communities, and analysed using descriptive statistics methods and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour. Results indicate that respondents' attitudes on rural policy are conservative and oriented towards objectives related to agriculture and interests of farmers and that socio-economic characteristic of the regions contribute to distinction in attitudes of RDAs.

  13. Trustful Relations : a Perspective on Trust in Actor Relations in Forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egestad, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    This work has proposed, exemplified and discussed an existential perspective on trust in actor relations in forestry. The background that has caused the inquiry into social relations is the changes that are taking place in forestry to

  14. Essays on actor models in exchange networks and social dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assen, Marcus Adrianus Leonardus Maria van

    2001-01-01

    A central problem in economics and sociology is that of explaining or predicting phenomena at the macro-level. One possible mode of explanation or prediction of macro-level phenomena entails examining processes internal to the system that involve actors at the micro-level. In this dissertation compl

  15. A New Efficient Key Management Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Yunho

    2009-01-01

    Research on sensor networks has become much more active and is currently being applied to many different fields. However since sensor networks are limited to only collecting and reporting information regarding a certain event, and requires human intervention with that given information, it is often difficult to react to an event or situation immediately and proactively. To overcome this kind of limitation, Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs) with immediate-response actor nodes have been proposed which adds greater mobility and activity to the existing sensor networks. Although WSANs share many common grounds with sensor networks, it is difficult to apply existing security technologies due to the fact that WSANs contain actor nodes that are resource-independent and mobile. Therefore, this research seeks to demonstrate ways to provide security, integrity, and authentication services for WSANs secure operation, by separating networks into hierarchical structure by each node's abilities and provides differ...

  16. Networks: An Economic Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Matthew O; Zenou, Yves

    2016-01-01

    We discuss social network analysis from the perspective of economics. We organize the presentaion around the theme of externalities: the effects that one's behavior has on others' well-being. Externalities underlie the interdependencies that make networks interesting. We discuss network formation, as well as interactions between peoples' behaviors within a given network, and the implications in a variety of settings. Finally, we highlight some empirical challenges inherent in the statistical analysis of network-based data.

  17. Theorising big IT programmes in healthcare: strong structuration theory meets actor-network theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Stones, Rob

    2010-05-01

    The UK National Health Service is grappling with various large and controversial IT programmes. We sought to develop a sharper theoretical perspective on the question "What happens - at macro-, meso- and micro-level - when government tries to modernise a health service with the help of big IT?" Using examples from data fragments at the micro-level of clinical work, we considered how structuration theory and actor-network theory (ANT) might be combined to inform empirical investigation. Giddens (1984) argued that social structures and human agency are recursively linked and co-evolve. ANT studies the relationships that link people and technologies in dynamic networks. It considers how discourses become inscribed in data structures and decision models of software, making certain network relations irreversible. Stones' (2005) strong structuration theory (SST) is a refinement of Giddens' work, systematically concerned with empirical research. It views human agents as linked in dynamic networks of position-practices. A quadripartite approcach considers [a] external social structures (conditions for action); [b] internal social structures (agents' capabilities and what they 'know' about the social world); [c] active agency and actions and [d] outcomes as they feed back on the position-practice network. In contrast to early structuration theory and ANT, SST insists on disciplined conceptual methodology and linking this with empirical evidence. In this paper, we adapt SST for the study of technology programmes, integrating elements from material interactionism and ANT. We argue, for example, that the position-practice network can be a socio-technical one in which technologies in conjunction with humans can be studied as 'actants'. Human agents, with their complex socio-cultural frames, are required to instantiate technology in social practices. Structurally relevant properties inscribed and embedded in technological artefacts constrain and enable human agency. The fortunes

  18. A New Mission for Business Schools: The Development of Actor-Network Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, C. Clinton; Warzynski, Chester C

    2003-01-01

    The lesson of actor-network theory is that to effect desired change, leaders must understand their place in the network and deploy strategies that forge new relationships and strengthen existing connections between individuals, groups, and other entities--both human and nonhuman. In this article, the authors use the Roy H. Park Leadership Fellows…

  19. A New Kind of Symmetry: Actor-Network Theories and the New Literacy Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Discusses concepts and assumptions underlying actor-network theories and the new literacy studies. Identifies lessons for adult education research derived from sociological approaches to scientific knowledge, which examine power circulating in networks of human and nonhuman entities. (Contains 36 references.) (SK)

  20. Beyond Dyadic Interdependence: Actor-Oriented Models for Co-Evolving Social Networks and Individual Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, William J.; Steglich, Christian E. G.; Snijders, Tom A. B.

    2007-01-01

    Actor-oriented models are described as a longitudinal strategy for examining the co-evolution of social networks and individual behaviors. We argue that these models provide advantages over conventional approaches due to their ability to account for inherent dependencies between individuals embedded in a social network (i.e., reciprocity,…

  1. Pessoas sem voz, redes indizíveis e grupos descartáveis: os limites da teoria do actor-rede Voiceless people, unnamable networks and disposable groups: the limits of actor-network theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel de Oliveira Mendes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo procede-se a uma reflexão crítica sobre a teoria do actor-rede de Michel Callon e Bruno Latour. Salienta-se a necessidade de incorporar no estudo do social as emoções e a imponderabilidade.Tendo como referência a análise de situações de catástrofe ou de acontecimentos extremos, propõe-se uma reflexão sobre o trabalho político que coloca fora das redes sociais, como irrecuperáveis e descartáveis, todos os que não criam ou não possuem valor na perspectiva hegemónica e que, por conseguinte, não são construídos como portadores de direitos sociais e políticos, tornando-se invisíveis e ausentes das análises convencionais propostas pela teoria do actor-rede.In this paper a critical analysis of Bruno Latour and Michel Callon’s actor-network theory is proposed. It is argued that studies about the social must incorporate emotions and imponderability. Focusing on the analysis of catastrophes and extreme events, a reflection on the political work that excludes from the social networks, as irretrievable and disposable, all those that do not create or do not carry value in the hegemonic perspective and, therefore, are not construed as having social and political rights is presented. These irretrievable and disposable persons and groups become invisible and absent in the conventional analyses proposed by actor-network theory.

  2. Putting Gino's lesson to work: Actor-network theory, enacted humanity, and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Thomas; Gibson, Barbara E

    2016-02-01

    This article argues that rehabilitation enacts a particular understanding of "the human" throughout therapeutic assessment and treatment. Following Michel Callon and Vololona Rabeharisoa's "Gino's Lesson on Humanity," we suggest that this is not simply a top-down process, but is cultivated in the application and response to biomedical frameworks of human ability, competence, and responsibility. The emergence of the human is at once a materially contingent, moral, and interpersonal process. We begin the article by outlining the basics of the actor-network theory that underpins "Gino's Lesson on Humanity." Next, we elucidate its central thesis regarding how disabled personhood emerges through actor-network interactions. Section "Learning Gino's lesson" draws on two autobiographical examples, examining the emergence of humanity through rehabilitation, particularly assessment measures and the responses to them. We conclude by thinking about how rehabilitation and actor-network theory might take this lesson on humanity seriously. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Using Social Network Analysis to Understand Actor Participation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sylvere

    in wetland management. This paper uses Social Network Analysis (SNA) approach to analyse ... Robins, and Wang 2014). The understanding of this level of influence requires a system ...... Institute of Statistics of Rwanda. Ostrovskaya, E.; W.

  4. Actors and networks of agroecology in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    OpenAIRE

    Castella, Jean-Christophe; Kibler, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    A comparative analysis of agroecology network led to a classification based on their conditions of emergence, their structure and governance mechanisms. The study points the strengths and weaknesses of the existing networks at the different scales. It shows that the different agroecology schools are not necessarily well coordinated at each level (national, regional, global) nor across levels for each agroecology school. The activities of a regional agroecology learning alliance should be grou...

  5. Exploring the social without a separate domain for religion: on actor-network theory and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peik Ingman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In post-secular societies—after secularisation—it may increasingly be the case that the connecting and structuring of religious matter is done outsidedesignated religious sites and without appointed religious experts. The centres of calculation have changed and so the connections between these are different. The former ways of translation and ordering are transforming into new ones. By exiting the designated sites religious matter has found new freedom with the new associations and inventions in the processes of translation. Less control leads to more heterogeneous agencies and facilitates the mobility of religious materials. This less controlled mobility of religious actants can also produce an apparent increase of religious matter, but this does not necessarily mean the return of religion. In any case, this increased plurality combined with increased mobility calls for perspectives which can recognise novelty, andnot just in comparison with previous states of affairs. Actor-network theory (ANT is about tracing the webs of associations between myriad actants whose collective actions produce what we call ‘society’. Dismissing the notion of ‘the social’ as a kind of ‘stuff ’, ANT insists that sociology should focus on the interactional processes—the circulation of ‘the social’ among human and non-human actants—collectively assembling emerging states of affairs.

  6. E-learning objects and actor-networks as configuring information literacy teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Trine Louise

    2017-01-01

    libraries produced and implemented e-learning objects in information literacy teaching. The material was collected through interviews, observations, documents and feedback sessions. Analysis. Latour´s concept of translation and Callon´s four translation moments are used to analyze the network building......Introduction. With actor-network theory (ANT) as the theoretical lens the aim of the paper is to examine attempts to build network for shaping information literacy teaching. Method. The paper is based on a study of a project in 2014-2016 where information professionals representing ten educational...... that a network configuring information literacy teaching based on new interactive roles has not been stabilized. Conclusion. The paper concludes that the strength of ANT is first of all the mediation of an overview of different kinds of actors involved in network building. Further, the paper proposes to combine...

  7. E-learning objects and actor-networks as configuring information literacy teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Trine Louise

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. With actor-network theory (ANT) as the theoretical lens the aim of the paper is to examine attempts to build network for shaping information literacy teaching. Method. The paper is based on a study of a project in 2014-2016 where information professionals representing ten educational...... libraries produced and implemented e-learning objects in information literacy teaching. The material was collected through interviews, observations, documents and feedback sessions. Analysis. Latour´s concept of translation and Callon´s four translation moments are used to analyze the network building...... that a network configuring information literacy teaching based on new interactive roles has not been stabilized. Conclusion. The paper concludes that the strength of ANT is first of all the mediation of an overview of different kinds of actors involved in network building. Further, the paper proposes to combine...

  8. Illuminating the Dark Side of the Internet with Actor-Network Theory: An Integrative Review of Current Cybercrime Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocci Luppicini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime is a relatively new area of research within criminology and media studies. The purpose of this paper is to pull together current research scholarship at the intersection of Actor-Network Theory (ANT and cybercrime by addressing the following question: How does ANT apply to cybercrime research? A selective integrative review of cybercrime research utilizing ANT was conducted to examine recent developments and identify trends. The review draws on core research papers that span 2002 to 2013. Findings provided a strong indication of ANT’s role in key areas of current cybercrime, namely, cyber bullying, cyber theft, and cyber terrorism and cyber espionage. More specifically, ANT was applied within cyber criminology research to address complex problems involving human-technological interactions, advance alternative models and theoretical perspectives, compare ANT with existing models and theoretical perspectives, and leverage understanding of network influences on actors. Recommendations are provided to help optimize the application of ANT to cybercrime research and practice. This paper helps advance knowledge at the intersection of ANT and the study of cyber criminology.

  9. REDD+ policy networks: exploring actors and power structures in an emerging policy domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Brockhaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy making is often neither rational nor solution-oriented, but driven by negotiations of interests of multiple actors that increasingly tend to take place in policy networks. Such policy networks integrate societal actors beyond the state, which all aim, to different degrees, at influencing ongoing policy processes and outcomes. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ can be considered as such an emerging policy domain, in which actors cooperate and conflict in network structures, build coalitions and try to control information and finance flows relevant for REDD+ decision making. This special feature is the result of an extensive comparative research effort to investigate national level REDD+ policy processes and emerging policy networks. This unique collection of seven country cases and a comparative study provides evidence on how power, coalitions, and different interactions among actors in policy networks enable the transformational change required for an effective, efficient, and equitable national REDD+ design. However, as we will see in most of the cases, where the dominant coalitions fail to tackle the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, they also hinder such major policy reforms required for REDD+. The aim of this editorial serves four purposes: first, we provide an argument about "why" policy network analysis is highly relevant to the study of REDD+ policy processes; second, we explain "how" policy network analysis is used in this special feature to investigate policy processes in this domain; and third, we explore the "so what?" or how a policy network lens helps us understand the political opportunities and challenges for REDD+. Finally, we provide an outlook for the relevance and future research design of policy network analysis when applied to REDD+ and to policy network structures more broadly.

  10. Extended mind and after: socially extended mind and actor-network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2014-03-01

    The concept of extended mind has been impressively developed over the last 10 years by many philosophers and cognitive scientists. The extended mind thesis (EM) affirms that the mind is not simply ensconced inside the head, but extends to the whole system of brain-body-environment. Recently, some philosophers and psychologists try to adapt the idea of EM to the domain of social cognition research. Mind is socially extended (SEM). However, EM/SEM theory has problems to analyze the interactions among a subject and its surroundings with opposition, antagonism, or conflict; it also tends to think that the environment surrounding the subject is passive or static, and to neglect the power of non-human actants to direct and regulate the human subject. In these points, actor-network theory (ANT) proposed by Latour and Callon is more persuasive, while sharing some important ideas with EM/SEM theory. Actor-network is a hybrid community which is composed of a series of heterogeneous elements, animate and inanimate for a certain period of time. I shall conclude that EM/SEM could be best analyzed as a special case of actor-network. EM/SEM is a system which can be controlled by a human agent alone. In order to understand collective behavior, philosophy and psychology have to study the actor-network in which human individuals are situated.

  11. Exchange Studies as Actor-Networks: Following Korean Exchange Students in Swedish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Song-ee

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Korean exchange students organized their studies during exchange programs in Swedish higher education. For most students, the programs became a disordered period in relation to their education. The value of exchange studies seems mainly to be extra-curricular. Drawing upon actor network theory, the article argues that the…

  12. Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso : unravelling actors, networks and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, M.J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Title: Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso: Unravelling Actors, Networks and Practices In Burkina Faso, there is a lot of enthusiasm about Low Cost Drip Irrigation (LCDI) as a tool to irrigate vegetables, and thus improve food security, solve wat

  13. Linking Up the Alps: How Networks of Local Political Actors Build the Pan-Alpine Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive H. Church

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Linking Up the Alps: How Networks of Local Political Actors Build the Pan-Alpine Region By Cristina Del Biaggio. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang, 2016. 370 pp. €52.50. ISBN 978-3-0343-1630-9.

  14. What Critical Media Studies Should Not Take from Actor-Network Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teurlings, J.; Spöhrer, M.; Ochsner, B.

    2017-01-01

    While supportive towards a certain rapprochement between media studies and Actor-Network Theory (ANT) this chapter identi es three main characteristics of the Latourian enterprise that critical media studies should avoid if it wants to remain its critical edge: 1. a methodological descriptivism that

  15. Exchange Studies as Actor-Networks: Following Korean Exchange Students in Swedish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Song-ee

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Korean exchange students organized their studies during exchange programs in Swedish higher education. For most students, the programs became a disordered period in relation to their education. The value of exchange studies seems mainly to be extra-curricular. Drawing upon actor network theory, the article argues that the…

  16. ("un")Doing the Next Generation Science Standards: Climate Change Education Actor-Networks in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Nicole M.; Ivey, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research investigated how science education communities of practice in Oklahoma engage in translations of climate change education (CCE). Applications of actor-network theory to educational policymaking facilitate this analysis of the spaces of prescription and spaces of negotiation that characterize CCE in Oklahoma. Informed by…

  17. From Cybercrime to Cyborg Crime: Botnets as Hybrid Criminal Actor-Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wagen, Wytske; Pieters, Wolter

    2015-01-01

    Botnets, networks of infected computers controlled by a commander, increasingly play a role in a broad range of cybercrimes. Although often studied from technological perspectives, a criminological perspective could elucidate the organizational structure of botnets and how to counteract them.

  18. From Cybercrime to Cyborg Crime : Botnets as Hybrid Criminal Actor-Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wagen, Wytske; Pieters, Wolter

    2015-01-01

    Botnets, networks of infected computers controlled by a commander, increasingly play a role in a broad range of cybercrimes. Although often studied from technological perspectives, a criminological perspective could elucidate the organizational structure of botnets and how to counteract them.

  19. Management in Networks On multi-actor decision making

    CERN Document Server

    de Bruijn, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Getting what you want - even if you are the boss - isn't always easy. Almost every organization, big or small, works among a network of competing interests. Whether it's governments pushing through policies, companies trying to increase profits, or even families deciding where to move house, rarely can decisions be made in isolation from competing interests both within the organization and outside it. In this accessible and straightforward account, Hans de Bruijn and Ernst ten Heuvelhof cast light on multi-stakeholder decision-making. Shunning simplistic model talk, they reveal the nuts and bo

  20. Towards a New Framework of Idea Management as Actor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn

    2013-01-01

    Management of innovation idea development in front-end innovation of R&D organizations has shown to be a challenging task. This paper presents the preliminary results of a PhD project concerning idea management in front-end innovation of R&D organizations. Through theoretical and empirical invest...... interaction. The analysis inputs an initial conceptualization of a new theoretical framework of idea management. The theoretical framework suggests a dynamic network structure comprised of the dimensions of space, content, and process....

  1. Worlds Apart: A Social Theoretical Exploration of Local Networks, Natural Actors, and Practitioners of Rural Development in Southern Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Gareau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the importance of incorporating the socioecological realities of alternative networks into analyses of rural development. Cultural theory is examined, which provides a base upon which rural development can identify difference in worldviews based on difference in sociological conditions and environmental phenomena. Actor-oriented theory problematizes the ideal types of cultural theory, providing a means of give-and-take between actors’ worldviews of different networks. Actor-network theory breaks down the nature-culture dichotomy of actor-oriented theory, so that nature becomes as ‘active’ an actor as people and community. Actor-network theory brings nature and society together, perceiving the two as mutually inclusive and constitutive. Coupled with recognition of power associated with political economic/ecological forces, actor-network theory can encourage us to see the frequency of tropical storms in Honduras as being among the powerful actors that have played a significant, consistent role in shaping the mode of ordering of impoverished Honduran peoples. This paper concludes by exploring how alternative, agroecological networks established in a protected area in southern Honduras with ‘strong’ natural actors can be re-ordered by incorporating autonomy and resiliency into the network.

  2. Monitoring communication outbreaks among an unknown team of actors in dynamic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sparks, Ross

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the detection of communication outbreaks among a small team of actors in time-varying networks. We propose monitoring plans for known and unknown teams based on generalizations of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) statistic. For unknown teams, we propose an efficient neighborhood-based search to estimate a collection of candidate teams. This procedure dramatically reduces the computational complexity of an exhaustive search. Our procedure consists of two steps: communication counts between actors are first smoothed using a multivariate EWMA strategy. Densely connected teams are identified as candidates using a neighborhood search approach. These candidate teams are then monitored using a surveillance plan derived from a generalized EWMA statistic. Monitoring plans are established for collaborative teams, teams with a dominant leader, as well as for global outbreaks. We consider weighted heterogeneous dynamic networks, where the expected communication count between each p...

  3. American Long-Distance Locomobility and the Spaces of Actor-Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Minn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Much of the discourse surrounding national intercity passenger rail service in the United States revolves around why it has lagged so far behind European and Asian counterparts. However, a more interesting question might be why it has survived despite competition from faster, more nimble transport modes, discriminatory public policy, and the ascension of neoliberal discourse hostile to public endeavor. This paper uses the concept of durability in actor-network theory to offer some insights into how the system has achieved a remarkable but problematic stability, and how that durability relates to an imagined role for national intercity passenger rail in a future of increasingly constrained material resources. This paper also demonstrates the application of actor-network theory (ANT in a way that can serve as a useful introduction to and template for the use of that methodology.

  4. Bruno Latour, actor-networks, and the critique of critical sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical opus of Bruno Latour and his treatment of the concept of critique. In the first section "actor-network theory" is presented through its key notions (actant, network, translation, associations together with Latour’s theory of modernity. In the second section various aspects of the relation between Latour and critique are discussed - first his own criticism of others (standard sociology and especially "critical", i.e. Bourdieu’s sociology, then the criticisms aimed at his work, to conclude with the political ambivalences of Latour’s attempt to develop an "acritical" social theory. .

  5. Opening up the solar box: Cultural resource management and actor network theory in solar energy projects in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrie, Bryan F.

    This project considers the ways that Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be brought to bear upon Cultural Resource Management (CRM) practices on renewable energy projects. ANT is a way of making inquiry into scientific knowledge practices and as CRM is intended to preserve environmental, historic, and prehistoric resources, it necessarily involves certain kinds of knowledge generation about regions in which projects are being developed. Because the practice of CRM is complex, involving a range of actors from developers to biologists, native peoples to academics, private landholders to environmental and cultural activists, it is imperative to account for the interests of all stakeholders and to resist devolving into the polemical relations of winners and losers, good and bad participants, or simple situations of right and wrong. This project intends to account for the "matters of concern" of various actors, both primary and secondary, by examining the case study of a single solar installation project in the Mojave Desert. A theoretical description of ANT is provided at the beginning and the concerns of this theory are brought to bear upon the case study project through describing the project, discussing the laws governing CRM on federal lands and in the state of California, and providing the points of view of various interviewees who worked directly or indirectly on various aspects of CRM for the solar project. The creators of ANT claim that it is not a methodology but it does speak to ethnomethodologies in that it insists that there is always something more to learn from inquiring into and describing any given situation. These descriptions avoid generalizations, providing instead various points of entry, from diverse perspectives to the project. There is an invitation to avoid assuming that one knows all there is to know about a given situation and to choose instead to continue investigating and thus give voice to the more obscure, often marginalized, voices in the

  6. From cybercrime to cyborg crime: botnets as hybrid criminal actor-networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagen, van der Wytske; Pieters, Wolter

    2015-01-01

    Botnets, networks of infected computers controlled by a commander, increasingly play a role in a broad range of cybercrimes. Although often studied from technological perspectives, a criminological perspective could elucidate the organizational structure of botnets and how to counteract them. Botnet

  7. From Cybercrime to Cyborg Crime : Botnets as Hybrid Criminal Actor-Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wagen, Wytske; Pieters, Wolter

    2015-01-01

    Botnets, networks of infected computers controlled by a commander, increasingly play a role in a broad range of cybercrimes. Although often studied from technological perspectives, a criminological perspective could elucidate the organizational structure of botnets and how to counteract them. Botnet

  8. From Cybercrime to Cyborg Crime: Botnets as Hybrid Criminal Actor-Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wagen, Wytske; Pieters, Wolter

    2015-01-01

    Botnets, networks of infected computers controlled by a commander, increasingly play a role in a broad range of cybercrimes. Although often studied from technological perspectives, a criminological perspective could elucidate the organizational structure of botnets and how to counteract them. Botnet

  9. From Cybercrime to Cyborg Crime : Botnets as Hybrid Criminal Actor-Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wagen, Wytske; Pieters, Wolter

    2015-01-01

    Botnets, networks of infected computers controlled by a commander, increasingly play a role in a broad range of cybercrimes. Although often studied from technological perspectives, a criminological perspective could elucidate the organizational structure of botnets and how to counteract them. Botnet

  10. Validation of networks derived from snowball sampling of municipal science education actors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Fehr, Ane; Sølberg, Jan; Bruun, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) has been used in many educational studies in the past decade, but what these studies have in common is that the populations in question in most cases are defined and known to the researchers studying the networks. Snowball sampling is an SNA methodology most often used...... to study hidden populations, for example, groups of homosexual people, drug users or people with sexually transmitted diseases. By use of a snowball sampling approach, this study mapped municipal social networks of educational actors, who were otherwise hidden to the researchers. Subsequently......, the resulting networks were validated through interviews with central respondents and by using prior investigations of the municipalities. Our results confirmed that the majority of the designated respondents recognized the resulting sociograms and their own position in these. It was also found that not all...

  11. Finding The Most Important Actor in Online Crowd by Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, I.; Santosa, P. I.; Setiawan, N. A.; Sukirman

    2017-02-01

    Billion of people create trillions of connections through social media every single day. The increasing use of social media has led to dramatic changes in the of way science, government, healthcare, entertainment and enterprise operate. Large-scale participation in Technology-Mediated Social Participation (TMSP) system has opened up incredible new opportunities to deploy online crowd. This descriptive-correlational research used social network analysis (SNA) on data gathered from Fanpage Facebook of Greenpeace Indonesia related to important critical issues, the bushfires in 2015. SNA identifies relations on each member by sociometrics parameter such as three centrality (degree, closeness and betweenesse) for measuring and finding the most important actor in the online community. This paper use Fruchterman Rein-gold algorithm to visualize the online community in a graph, while Clauset-Newman-Moore is a technique to identify groups in community. As the result found 3735 vertices related to actors, 6927 edges as relation, 14 main actors in size order and 22 groups in Greenpeace Indonesia online community. This research contributes to organize some information for Greenpeace Indonesia managing their potency in online community to identify human behaviour.

  12. Actors and networks in resource conflict resolution under climate change in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaruiya, Grace W.; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    The change from consensual decision-making arrangements into centralized hierarchical chieftaincy schemes through colonization disrupted many rural conflict resolution mechanisms in Africa. In addition, climate change impacts on land use have introduced additional socio-ecological factors that complicate rural conflict dynamics. Despite the current urgent need for conflict-sensitive adaptation, resolution efficiency of these fused rural institutions has hardly been documented. In this context, we analyse the Loitoktok network for implemented resource conflict resolution structures and identify potential actors to guide conflict-sensitive adaptation. This is based on social network data and processes that are collected using the saturation sampling technique to analyse mechanisms of brokerage. We find that there are three different forms of fused conflict resolution arrangements that integrate traditional institutions and private investors in the community. To effectively implement conflict-sensitive adaptation, we recommend the extension officers, the council of elders, local chiefs and private investors as potential conduits of knowledge in rural areas. In conclusion, efficiency of these fused conflict resolution institutions is aided by the presence of holistic resource management policies and diversification in conflict resolution actors and networks.

  13. The social value of biodiversity and ecosystem services from the perspectives of different social actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Cáceres

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A vast literature is now available on ecosystem services (ES, their potential as a tool for analyzing intertwined processes of ecological and social change, and their monetary valuation. Much less is known about the social value of different ES for different social actors (SA, and their links with specific components of biodiversity. We unpack the social aspects of an interdisciplinary and multi-SA methodology that allows us to assess how different SA perceive and value different ES, and how they associate them with different components of biodiversity, ecological attributes, and ecosystem types. We apply the methodology to a study area in the Gran Chaco region of South America, presenting original social-ecological information from the field. Being affected by the rapid and widespread expansion of agribusiness over the woody ecosystems of southern South America, this location provides a policy-relevant context in which to test our approach. We identified six major ecosystem types and five relevant SA. We carried out 163 individual in-depth interviews and ran seven single-actor focus groups. We identified 116 ES, which were then aggregated into 22 more general categories. Although all SA perceived all ecosystem types as multifunctional, they showed markedly different perceptions of and interests in the ES provided by them. Subsistence farmers and extension officers valued a large number of ES primarily provided by the most pristine ecosystems. Members of conservation agencies and policymakers also identified a wide range of ES, spanning all ecosystem types. However, large farmers and cattle ranchers recognized a dependency on only a small number of ES. Therefore, the rapid expansion of agribusiness occurring in this region is a threat to a large number of ES considered valuable by a wide range of SA. Without necessarily having to resort to monetary valuation, our methodology provides a rigorous quantitative-qualitative way to compare the

  14. Analysing animal social network dynamics: the potential of stochastic actor-oriented models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David N; Ilany, Amiyaal; Silk, Matthew J; Tregenza, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Animals are embedded in dynamically changing networks of relationships with conspecifics. These dynamic networks are fundamental aspects of their environment, creating selection on behaviours and other traits. However, most social network-based approaches in ecology are constrained to considering networks as static, despite several calls for such analyses to become more dynamic. There are a number of statistical analyses developed in the social sciences that are increasingly being applied to animal networks, of which stochastic actor-oriented models (SAOMs) are a principal example. SAOMs are a class of individual-based models designed to model transitions in networks between discrete time points, as influenced by network structure and covariates. It is not clear, however, how useful such techniques are to ecologists, and whether they are suited to animal social networks. We review the recent applications of SAOMs to animal networks, outlining findings and assessing the strengths and weaknesses of SAOMs when applied to animal rather than human networks. We go on to highlight the types of ecological and evolutionary processes that SAOMs can be used to study. SAOMs can include effects and covariates for individuals, dyads and populations, which can be constant or variable. This allows for the examination of a wide range of questions of interest to ecologists. However, high-resolution data are required, meaning SAOMs will not be useable in all study systems. It remains unclear how robust SAOMs are to missing data and uncertainty around social relationships. Ultimately, we encourage the careful application of SAOMs in appropriate systems, with dynamic network analyses likely to prove highly informative. Researchers can then extend the basic method to tackle a range of existing questions in ecology and explore novel lines of questioning. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  15. Toward an Analytical and Methodological Understanding of Actor-Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Jackson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Actor-Network theory (ANT is well developed within social studies of science and technology. The last two decades have seen an increasing awareness and interest in ANT within the social sciences and it has increasingly been invoked to theorise the role of ‘nonhumans’ in social life.  In this respect the conceptual repertoire of ANT has been increasingly drawn upon to examine the relational dimensions between artefacts and people. Despite this the use of ANT as an analytical and/or methodological approach occupies a peripheral within social science research.  In part, the reticence towards ANT may be explained by its lack of theoretical unity. Analytically and methodologically the application of ANT and thought which is closely associated with the approach is considerably varied. ANT informed research often differs quite considerably in terms of methodological approach and style of analyses. This is further complicated by the disparate emphases of ANT proponents and the proliferation of different versions of ANT. Thus, there is no generic way to ‘apply’ actor-network theory and it lacks methodological prescription. This article intends to articulate the analytical and methodological possibilities of ANT. For those who are encountering ANT for the first time or for whom ANT has been regarded as a somewhat left field and inaccessible theory obscured by its own vocabularies and heterogeneity this article may provide a useful conceptual map through which the key elements of ANT can be navigated.

  16. The flow of IWRM in SADC: The role of regional dynamics, advocacy networks and external actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synne Movik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the entry and spread of IWRM in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region. It traces how the idea of IWRM was promoted and sustained throughout the region by mapping key events, actors and networks that were involved in promoting the approach. It highlights the importance of regional networks in promoting IWRM and shows how regional dynamics, playing out at the interface between the global and local levels, influenced the adoption/adaptation and spread of IWRM. The article finds that the idea of IWRM 'hit the ground running' in SADC due to several contributing factors. These include: historical political connections between the member countries; historically rooted well-established channels and connections with bilateral and multilateral donors; the success of networks such as the Global Water Partnership and WaterNet whose mandate was to promote the concept; and the fact that two-thirds of the region’s population live in transboundary basins with IWRM providing a suitable hook for transboundary cooperation, often inspired by European models. The article further argues that IWRM thrived because of strong donor agendas that were adapted by key SADC actors to suit strategic interests. It thus provided a platform for complex politically charged negotiations to reconcile apparently divergent goals such as infrastructure vs management and regional vs national interests. The practice of IWRM in the region is very much shaped by a conflation of regional, national and donor interests and has now acquired a life of its own, despite changing donor priorities.

  17. Ethics in actor networks, or: what Latour could learn from Darwin and Dewey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelbers, Katinka; Dorstewitz, Philipp

    2014-03-01

    In contemporary Science, Technology and Society (STS) studies, Bruno Latour's Actor Network Theory (ANT) is often used to study how social change arises from interaction between people and technologies. Though Latour's approach is rich in the sense of enabling scholars to appreciate the complexity of many relevant technological, environmental, and social factors in their studies, the approach is poor from an ethical point of view: the doings of things and people are couched in one and the same behaviorist (third person) vocabulary without giving due recognition to the ethical relevance of human intelligence, sympathy and reflection in making responsible choices. This article argues that two other naturalist projects, the non-teleological virtue ethics of Charles Darwin and the pragmatist instrumentalism of John Dewey can enrich ANT-based STS studies, both, in a descriptive and in a normative sense.

  18. Performing Sociology Through Actor-Network Theory: From Impressionist Cartography to the Dirtiness of Mediations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Muriel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I try to outline the existence of certain problems I have found during my research work, within sociology discipline, when it comes to follow some of the main threads of the complex fabric that constitutes the Actor-Network Theory (ANT. In the same way, I suggest some possible subterfuges to go around those problems. Two are the problems and two are the subterfuges as well destined to tackle them. On the one hand, I face the problem of the magnitude and fidelity that ANT's descriptions demand, thoroughly detailed and local, which clashes with the requirements of sociological theory that seeks abstractions and regularities. The subterfuge I propose is the one called "impressionist cartography". On the other hand, I bump into the difficulty of the irreversibility of mediations and the sanitized representations carried out, sometimes, by ANT. In order to fight this, I use the subterfuge oriented to adopt the premise of the "inevitable dirtiness of mediations".

  19. Contracting private sector providers for public sector health services in Jalisco, Mexico: perspectives of system actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Luz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Contracting out health services is a strategy that many health systems in the developing world are following, despite the lack of decisive evidence that this is the best way to improve quality, increase efficiency and expand coverage. A large body of literature has appeared in recent years focusing on the results of several contracting strategies, but very few papers have addressed aspects of the managerial process and how this can affect results. Case description This paper describes and analyses the perceptions and opinions of managers and workers about the benefits and challenges of the contracting model that has been in place for almost 10 years in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. Both qualitative and quantitative information was collected. An open-ended questionnaire was used to obtain information from a group of managers, while information provided by a self-selected group of workers was collected via a closed-ended questionnaire. The analysis contrasted the information obtained from each source. Discussion and Evaluation Findings show that perceptions of managers and workers vary for most of the items studied. For managers the model has been a success, as it has allowed for expansion of coverage based on a cost-effective strategy, while for workers the model also possesses positive elements but fails to provide fair labour relationships, which negatively affects their performance. Conclusion Perspectives of the two main groups of actors in Jalisco's contracting model are important in the design and adjustment of an adequate contracting model that includes managerial elements to give incentives to worker performance, a key element necessary to achieve the model's ultimate objectives. Lessons learnt from this study could be relevant for the experience of contracting models in other developing countries.

  20. On Efficient Link Recommendation in Social Networks Using Actor-Fact Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Ciesielczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Link recommendation is a popular research subject in the field of social network analysis and mining. Often, the main emphasis is put on the development of new recommendation algorithms, semantic enhancements to existing solutions, design of new similarity measures, and so forth. However, relatively little scientific attention has been paid to the impact that various data representation models have on the performance of recommendation algorithms. And by performance we do not mean the time or memory efficiency of algorithms, but the precision and recall of recommender systems. Our recent findings unanimously show that the choice of network representation model has an important and measurable impact on the quality of recommendations. In this paper we argue that the computation quality of link recommendation algorithms depends significantly on the social network representation and we advocate the use of actor-fact matrix as the best alternative. We verify our findings using several state-of-the-art link recommendation algorithms, such as SVD, RSVD, and RRI using both single-relation and multirelation dataset.

  1. Governance, globalization and non-state actors: an analysis from the perspective of international law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Soldano Garcez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to address the connection between governance and non-state actors, phenomenon intensified in the current world scenario of globalization. Undeniably, these actors are part of the implementation mechanisms and efficiency of governance, however they still appear in the center of the doctrinal debate about (the lack or recognition of their legal personalities. According to this background, this article discusses, at first, governance and globalization, studying the three lines of thought about globalization. After, highlights the main non-state actors nowadays, examing the activity of those for the governance processes. Finally, it analyzes the controversy about the recognition of the international legal personality of these non-state actors.

  2. Optical networks a practical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Ramaswami, Rajiv

    2001-01-01

    This fully updated and expanded second edition of Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective succeeds the first as the authoritative source for information on optical networking technologies and techniques. Written by two of the field's most respected individuals, it covers componentry and transmission in detail but also emphasizes the practical networking issues that affect organizations as they evaluate, deploy, or develop optical solutions. This book captures all the hard-to-find information on architecture, control and management, and other communications topics that

  3. Tourism Chains and Pro-Poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that th

  4. Modeling and analyzing gene co-expression in hepatocellular carcinoma using actor-semiotic networks and centrality signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, David C Y

    2008-01-01

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the fifth most common malignancy and the third most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Because of its high prevalence in developing nations, there have been numerous efforts made in the molecular characterization of primary HCC. However, a better understanding into the pathology of HCC required software-assisted network modeling and analysis. In this paper, the author presented his first attempt in exploring the biological implication of gene co-expression in HCC using actor-semiotic network modeling and analysis. The network was first constructed by integrating inter-actor relationships, e.g. gene co-expression, microRNA-to-gene, and protein interactions, with semiotic relationships, e.g. gene-to-Gene Ontology Process. Topological features that are highly discriminative of the HCC phenotype were identified by visual inspection. Finally, the author devised a graph signature-based analysis method to supplement the network exploration.

  5. Modeling and Analyzing Gene Co-Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Actor-Semiotic Networks and Centrality Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C.Y. Fung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is currently the fifth most common malignancy and the third most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Because of its high prevalence in developing nations, there have been numerous efforts made in the molecular characterization of primary HCC. However, a better understanding into the pathology of HCC required software-assisted network modeling and analysis. In this paper, the author presented his first attempt in exploring the biological implication of gene co-expression in HCC using actor-semiotic network modeling and analysis. The network was first constructed by integrating inter-actor relationships, e.g. gene co-expression, microRNA-to-gene, and protein interactions, with semiotic relationships, e.g. gene-to-Gene Ontology Process. Topological features that are highly discriminative of the HCC phenotype were identified by visual inspection. Finally, the author devised a graph signature- based analysis method to supplement the network exploration.

  6. Reseña del blog: Networks & Matters: a blog on Actor-Network Theory and philosophical empirism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Leandro Castillo Sepúlveda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La Teoría del Actor-Red, inscrita en los estudios sociales de la ciencia y la tecnología, constituye una aproximación que ha trascendido el ámbito de las investigaciones sociotécnicas, alcanzando el análisis de las rupturas, formaciones y estabilizaciones de las formas más generales de orden social. Networks & Matters, blog creado por cuatro académicos e investigadores reconocidos en el área, constituye un espacio adecuado para actualizarse en discusiones teóricas en torno a esta teoría y a sus asuntos relacionados. Las posibilidades que brinda el formato para comentar y generar discusiones en torno a las temáticas propuestas y la de establecer vínculos hacia otros sitios  y medios relacionados, se conjugan con la exposición de eventos y de publicaciones, tanto nuevas como clásicas. El estilo prolijo de las notas resulta apropiado para quienes se interesen en el campo de la interacción entre ciencia, tecnología y sociedad, y para quienes se adentren en este.

  7. Tolerance of Practices by Muslim Actors: An Integrative Social-Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieling, Maike; Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2010-01-01

    Using social-cognitive domain theory and social identity theory, tolerance judgments of practices by Muslim actors among Dutch adolescents (12-17) were investigated. The findings for Study 1 (N = 180) demonstrated that participants evaluated 4 practices using different types of reasons: personal, social-conventional, and moral. In Study 2 (N =…

  8. Learning through Civic Participation: Policy Actors' Perspectives on Curriculum Reform Involvement in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    When citizens participate in policy production, the advantages go beyond policy outcomes--though the presumption is that participation leads to better public policy. Robust democracy characterized by agonistic exchanges among policy actors ought to encourage learning, dialogue, empow­erment, equity, and a shared spirit of inquiry. This article…

  9. MAKING THE CASE: AN ACTOR-NETWORK APPROACH TO RHETORIC IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerad Middendorf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento examina los cambios en el lenguaje, asociados con el ascenso y descenso de modelos de desarrollo dominantes. Se apoya en los aportes de Bruno Latour a la retórica, para analizar cómo utilizan el lenguaje, de modo estratégico, los actores en políticas de desarrollo, con el fin de persuadir otros actores de que sus narrativas de desarrollo son las más plausibles posible. Este estudio se enfoca en un período particular de tiempo (1980 – 1990 en el cual vimos la transición del modelo neoliberal. Primero, los reportes anuales del Banco Inter-Americano de Desarrollo, así como otros actores son sistemáticamente analizados para comprender el cambio en el lenguaje asociado con los modelos de desarrollo. De este modo, el análisis de datos de entrevistas muestra cómo los actores individuales interpretan y traducen los cambios de políticas en el lenguaje cotidiano. Lo que emerge es un proceso de circulación en el que el lenguaje del desarrollo es apropiado por actores en redes de políticas y reestructurados para ayudar a cada actor a “llegar al punto”, a fin de avanzar en sus intereses. Una fortaleza de la aproximación de Latour es que nos ayuda a revelar las prácticas discursivas estratégicas de los autores (científicos, hacedores de políticas, investigadores. El artículo intenta extender el análisis de actor-red más allá de los estudios científicos, en donde ha sido desarrollado principalmente, hacia estudios de desarrollo en donde ha recibido, hasta ahora, menor atención.

  10. Making the case: an actor-network approach to rhetoric in agricultural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerad Middendorf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento examina los cambios en el lenguaje, asociados con el ascenso y descenso de modelos de desarrollo dominantes. Se apoya en los aportes de Bruno Latour a la retórica, para analizar cómo utilizan el lenguaje, de modo estratégico, los actores en políticas de desarrollo, con el fin de persuadir otros actores de que sus narrativas de desarrollo son las más plausibles posible. Este estudio se enfoca en un período particular de tiempo (1980 — 1990 en el cual vimos la transición del modelo neoliberal. Primero, los reportes anuales del Banco Inter-Americano de Desarrollo, así como otros actores son sistemáticamente analizados para comprender el cambio en el lenguaje asociado con los modelos de desarrollo. De este modo, el análisis de datos de entrevistas muestra cómo los actores individuales interpretan y traducen los cambios de políticas en el lenguaje cotidiano. Lo que emerge es un proceso de circulación en el que el lenguaje del desarrollo es apropiado por actores en redes de políticas y reestructurados para ayudar a cada actor a "llegar al punto", a fin de avanzar en sus intereses. Una fortaleza de la aproximación de Latour es que nos ayuda a revelar las prácticas discursivas estratégicas de los autores (científicos, hacedores de políticas, investigadores. El artículo intenta extender el análisis de actor-red más allá de los estudios científicos, en donde ha sido desarrollado principalmente, hacia estudios de desarrollo en donde ha recibido, hasta ahora, menor atención.

  11. Consideration of climate change impacts and adaptation in EIA practice — Perspectives of actors in Austria and Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiricka, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.jiricka@boku.ac.at [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Department of Landscape, Spatial and Infrastructure Sciences, Institute for Landscape Development, Recreation and Conservation Planning, Peter-Jordan-Straße 82, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Formayer, Herbert; Schmidt, Anna [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Department of Landscape, Spatial and Infrastructure Sciences, Institute for Landscape Development, Recreation and Conservation Planning, Peter-Jordan-Straße 82, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Völler, Sonja; Leitner, Markus [Environment Agency Austria, Environmental Impact Assessment and Climate Change, Spittelauer Lände 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); Fischer, Thomas B. [Environmental Assessment and Management, School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, 74 Bedford Street South, Liverpool L69 7ZQ (United Kingdom); Wachter, Thomas F. [Büro für Umweltplanung Dr. Wachter, Wiesnerring 2c, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Current political discussions and developments indicate the importance and urgency of incorporating climate change considerations into EIA processes. The recent revision of the EU Directive 2014/52/EU on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) requires changes in the EIA practice of the EU member states. This paper investigates the extent to which the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can contribute to an early consideration of climate change consequences in planning processes. In particular the roles of different actors in order to incorporate climate change impacts and adaptation into project planning subject to EIA at the appropriate levels are a core topic. Semi-structured expert interviews were carried out with representatives of the main infrastructure companies and institutions responsible in these sectors in Austria, which have to carry out EIA regularly. In a second step expert interviews were conducted with EIA assessors and EIA authorities in Austria and Germany, in order to examine the extent to which climate-based changes are already considered in EIA processes. This paper aims to discuss the different perspectives in the current EIA practice with regard to integrating climate change impacts as well as barriers and solutions identified by the groups of actors involved, namely project developers, environmental competent authorities and consultants (EIA assessors/practitioners). The interviews show that different groups of actors consider the topic to different degrees. Downscaling of climate change scenarios is in this context both, a critical issue with regards to availability of data and costs. Furthermore, assistance for the interpretation of relevant impacts, to be deducted from climate change scenarios, on the specific environmental issues in the area is needed. The main barriers identified by the EIA experts therefore include a lack of data as well as general uncertainty as to how far climate change should be considered in the process without

  12. Connecting to Global Production Networks: Challenges for Regional Actors in Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Nilsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, Northern Norway has been perceived as a land of opportunity. Announcements of offshore oil and gas discoveries off the coast of Finnmark have contributed to increased market activity in related sectors like service and construction. However, regional firms continue to score at the bottom of innovation indexes and seldom compete on international markets. Based on in-depth interviews with representatives from key businesses in three sectors in Northern Norway, we examine the bottlenecks that have prevented these firms from gaining new market positions through the interplay of these regional firms and agencies with the Global Production Network (GPN. We adopt the concept of “strategic coupling” and explore whether an actor approach can contribute to an improved understanding of this relationship. The paper demonstrates that regional strategies and public policy differ between the sectors. Public policy is important for regional firms within the petroleum sector. However, the funds available for regional firms continue to be limited due to the size and relevance of the measures. In the construction sector, public policy instruments are important, but not sufficiently adapted to the challenges these firms face. While the petroleum sector receives support and backing from regional agencies in order to connect to GPN, the wind power sector is actively hindered by the same agencies. The former have the opportunity to take part in new regional path creation; the latter have experienced a lack of strategic cooperation and face the risk of reducing strategic couplings to GPN, leading to path dependent processes that lock these firms into traditional and low-tech sectors.

  13. Book review: The success of policy analysis studies: an actor perspective, a search for success definitions based on cases in the field of transport and infrastructure in The Netherlands / by Patricia G.J. Twaalfhoven. - Eburon, Delft, 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, Pieter-Jan

    2001-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation is an attempt to formulate a theory on how different actors define the success of a policy analysis study and on the factors that underlie the various definitions of success. The choice for an actor perspective is motivated by the fact that many actors play different roles

  14. Influences and vulnerabilities in radicalised lone-actor terrorists UK practitioner perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Peddell, Daniel; Eyre, Marie; McManus, MA; Bonworth, James

    2016-01-01

    The threat to national security from terrorists acting on their own initiative is a challenge for law enforcement and intelligence agencies in the UK and elsewhere. The UK Parliament’s 2014 threat assessment noted ‘a trend towards ‘low signature’ terrorism by small, self-directed groups and lone actors’ [House of Commons Home Affairs Committee (2014) Counter-Terrorism – Seventeenth Report of Session 2013–14]. Lone actors have become a higher priority for counter-terrorism professionals (UK po...

  15. Rethinking agency and medical adherence technology: applying Actor Network Theory to the case study of Digital Pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Cabling, Mark L; Sheppard, Vanessa B

    2015-12-01

    Much literature surrounding medical technology and adherence posits that technology is a mechanism for social control. This assumes that the medical establishment can take away patients' agency. Although power relationships and social control can play a key role, medical technology can also serve as an agentive tool to be utilized. We (1) offer the alternative framework of Actor Network Theory to view medical technology, (2) discuss the literature on medication adherence and technology, (3) delve into the ramifications of looking at adherence as a network and (4) use Digital Pills as a case study of dispersed agency.

  16. The Actor-Oriented Transfer Perspective and Its Contributions to Educational Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Although any mainstream thought is subject to theoretical challenges, the challenges to the mainstream cognitive perspective on transfer have had an unfortunate divisive effect. This article takes a pragmatic view that transfer perspectives are simply designed objects (Plomp & Nieveen, 2007), which provide different information for different…

  17. The social network of actors influencing age discrimination in the human resources recruiting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian SOFICĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to map the area where the social construction of age discrimination in the recruiting process is perceived as taking place, especially those individuals or organized groups with enough power and interest to influence this unethical reality. The research was carried out in 2010 and 2011 in Cluj-Napoca, Romania; it uses multiple qualitative methods (focus-group and interviews and covers three layers of perception: candidate’s perception, employer’s perception and recruiter’s perception. Usually, the main social actors publically perceived as influencing age discrimination in the recruiting process are the employers (as the main responsible, some public institutions (as guardians and the candidates (as victims. The findings of the paper show that the number of social actors perceived as interested and with power by the main social actors (employers and candidates is much higher than the number classically targeted by researchers, reaching 20 or more

  18. A Road Network for Freight Transport in Flanders: Multi-Actor Multi-Criteria Assessment of Alternative Ring Ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Macharis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though road transport is an essential part of freight distribution, there is a lack of customized routing networks to convey freight over the road. The present paper addresses this deficit by proposing general principles to elaborate a regional freight route network in Flanders. However, assigning regional freight traffic to a particular road network involves complex trade-offs between multiple interests, such as corporate accessibility, communal livability, additional network links and available space. The paper recommends the multi-actor multi-criteria assessment tool (MAMCA to incorporate stakeholder objectives in the evaluation of possible freight network scenarios. The tool is applied for the specific case of Anzegem, a road village amid regional freight attraction poles that suffers particularly from heavy freight flows. The impact of four alternative ring ways is assessed according to the interests of the involved parties and compared to the reference scenario. Results show that transport companies advocate supra-local accessibility, while governmental and citizen stakeholders value traffic safety and livability. Since the reference scenario does not comply with these critical stakeholder objectives, an alternate scenario is proposed. As such, MAMCA applications assist policy-makers in building consensus among multiple actors in the realization of transportation projects.

  19. Research Note: The consequences of different methods for handling missing network data in Stochastic Actor Based Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, John R; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M

    2015-05-01

    Although stochastic actor based models (e.g., as implemented in the SIENA software program) are growing in popularity as a technique for estimating longitudinal network data, a relatively understudied issue is the consequence of missing network data for longitudinal analysis. We explore this issue in our research note by utilizing data from four schools in an existing dataset (the AddHealth dataset) over three time points, assessing the substantive consequences of using four different strategies for addressing missing network data. The results indicate that whereas some measures in such models are estimated relatively robustly regardless of the strategy chosen for addressing missing network data, some of the substantive conclusions will differ based on the missing data strategy chosen. These results have important implications for this burgeoning applied research area, implying that researchers should more carefully consider how they address missing data when estimating such models.

  20. Actors', partners', and observers' perceptions of sarcasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, P

    2000-10-01

    This study compared actors', partners', and observers' perceptions of the amount of sarcasm used by participants (n = 80) in videotaped conversations. Significant differences were found among perceptions of actors, partners, and observers. Of the three perspectives, actors perceived themselves as using the greatest amount of sarcasm, followed by partners' perceptions of actors. Observers perceived actors as using the least amount of sarcasm. Correlations conducted to assess whether partners and observers recognized actors' individual attempts at sarcasm during the conversations were generally low.

  1. Network structures as a model of interaction between state and non-state actors in EU foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinegubov Alexey Leonidovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the role of network structures in EU foreign policy. The role of networks in functioning of EU is analyzed as the model of interaction between state and non-state actors in contemporary world politics. Some studies, including the project of National Intelligence Council of USA, demonstrate that there is a tendency of growing influence of non-state actors. The model of interaction that has developed in EU can be considered as a model of the future. That’s why the type of force used by EU is called “post-modern”. This model is conductive to wide use of “soft power” and some of its variants including “normative” and “network” power. Quasi-federal character of EU’s structure, whiсh is characterized by many intersecting and delegated sovereign functions, is a reason of appearance of the analyzed model. Network practices and network technologies are widely used in the process of developing and realization of EU’s policy on three levels: 1 development and realization of EU’s general policy; 2 the policy of EU’s enlargement and deeper integration of the newcomers into Europe’s life; 3 the neighborhood policy and “Europeanization” of neighboring to EU states that cannot become EU members. The last dimension of EU policy causes a conflict with Russia, which makes this analysis politically relevant.

  2. An Actor-Oriented Transfer Perspective on High School Students' Development of the Use of Procedures to Solve Problems on Rate of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roorda, Gerrit; Vos, Pauline; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal observation study about students' development in their use of procedures to calculate instantaneous rate of change. Different procedures for solving tasks on rate of change are taught in mathematics and physics classes, and together they form a repertoire. Our study took an actor-oriented perspective, which…

  3. Tourism Chains and Pro-Poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Duim, van der, V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that the tangible results in terms of pro-poor tourism of the project itself were meagre, as, initially, only three and later only one out of 24 projects was included in the tourism chain. However, the an...

  4. Teoria de sistemas autopoiéticos y la “actor network theory”: ¿Hacia una convergencia posestructuralista?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Pont Vidal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2016v13n2p38 Desde hace unos años se manifiesta un creciente interés entre los sociólogos en establecer un nexo entre la Teoría de sistemas sociales autorreferenciales de Niklas Luhmann con los marcos teóricos que componen la filosofía social posestructuralista. Aunque existe una autodefinición común estructural-funcionalista aparecen insoslayables diferencias entre la teoría sistémica de Luhmann y el constructivismo de la Actor Network Theory.

  5. Teachers' professional development in a community: A study of the central actors, their networks and web-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Lallimo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article was to study teachers' professional development related to web-based learning in the context of the teacher community. The object was to learn in what kind of networks teachers share the knowledge of web-based learning and what are the factors in the community that support or challenge teachers professional development of web-based learning. The findings of the study revealed that there are teachers who are especially active, called the central actors in this study, in the teacher community who collaborate and share knowledge of web-based learning. These central actors share both technical and pedagogical knowledge of web-based learning in networks that include both internal and external relations in the community and involve people, artefacts and a variety of media. Furthermore, the central actors appear to bridge different fields of teaching expertise in their community.According to the central actors' experiences the important factors that support teachers' professional development of web-based learning in the community are; the possibility to learn from colleagues and from everyday working practices, an emotionally safe atmosphere, the leader's personal support and community-level commitment. Also, the flexibility in work planning, challenging pupils, shared lessons with colleagues, training events in an authentic work environment and colleagues' professionalism are considered meaningful for professional development. As challenges, the knowledge sharing of web-based learning in the community needs mutual interests, transactive memory, time and facilities, peer support, a safe atmosphere and meaningful pedagogical practices.On the basis of the findings of the study it is suggested that by intensive collaboration related to web-based learning it may be possible to break the boundaries of individual teachership and create such sociocultural activities which support collaborative professional development in the teacher

  6. Positive Development, Sense of Belonging, and Support of Peers among Early Adolescents: Perspectives of Different Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Marie; Arcand, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Trusting relationships at school and within other social networks emerge as protective factors that are crucial to the positive development of early adolescents. School is one of the critical environments where they can develop a sense of belonging. This study involved 20 qualitative interviews with school staff and youth workers recruited from…

  7. Perspectiva de algunos actores sobre los modelos de educación para la salud subyacentes en programas de salud sexual y reproductiva dirigidos a adolescentes, Medellín 2004-2007/The perspective of some actors regarding the health education models underlying sexual and reproductive health programs for adolescents, Medellín 2004-2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diana P Molina-Berrío; Isabel C Posada-Zapata

    2013-01-01

      This study aims to describe the perspective that some actors have on the health education models of the sexual and reproductive health programs aimed at the adolescents of the city of Medellin from 2004 to 2007...

  8. Learning about a fish from an ANT: actor network theory and science education in the postgenomic era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Clayton

    2015-03-01

    This article uses actor network theory (ANT) to develop a more appropriate model of scientific literacy for students, teachers, and citizens in a society increasingly populated with biotechnological and bioscientific nonhumans. In so doing, I take the recent debate surrounding the first genetically engineered animal food product under review by the FDA, AquaBounty Technologies' AquAdvantage® salmon, as a vehicle for exploring the ways in which the biosciences have fundamentally altered the boundary between nature and culture and thus the way the public understands both. In response to the new challenges of a postgenomic society, I outline three frameworks for using ANT literacies in classroom settings. Each frame, I argue, is foundational to the development of a scientific literacy that can trace and map actors involved in controversies such as the AquAdvantage® salmon. In examining these frames I follow the actor of a salmon through an environmental history lens, the technoscientific literacy operating in AquaBounty's FDA application and the National Academies new science education framework, and finally to a model of democracy rooted in an ethic of the common. The ultimate claim of this article is that until science education (and education in general) can begin to include nonhumans such as the AquAdvantage® salmon as part of a common political framework, students, educators, and community members will continue to be at the mercy of experts and corporate stakeholders for defining the terms in which people heal, feed, and educate themselves now and in the future.

  9. Network anomaly detection a machine learning perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid rise in the ubiquity and sophistication of Internet technology and the accompanying growth in the number of network attacks, network intrusion detection has become increasingly important. Anomaly-based network intrusion detection refers to finding exceptional or nonconforming patterns in network traffic data compared to normal behavior. Finding these anomalies has extensive applications in areas such as cyber security, credit card and insurance fraud detection, and military surveillance for enemy activities. Network Anomaly Detection: A Machine Learning Perspective presents mach

  10. Finding The Limit: The Strategic Potential Of The Network Based Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    how the network interacts with other networks. The interaction of networks is addressed by Mark Granovetter, a Professor of Economic Sociology at...American Journal of Sociology 78, no. 6 (1973): 1363, doi:10.1086/225469. 9 Ibid. 10 John Arquilla and David F. Ronfeldt, The Advent of Netwar (Santa...criminal-justice-law-society/. Granovetter, Mark S. “The Strength of Weak Ties.” American Journal of Sociology 78, no. 6 (1973): 1360–1380. doi:10.1086

  11. Validation of networks derived from snowball sampling of municipal science education actors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Fehr, Ane; Sølberg, Jan; Bruun, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) has been used in many educational studies in the past decade, but what these studies have in common is that the populations in question in most cases are defined and known to the researchers studying the networks. Snowball sampling is an SNA methodology most often us...

  12. Networks in Action: New Actors and Practices in Education Policy in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroma, Eneida Oto

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of networks in the policy-making process in education and discusses the potential of network analysis as an analytical tool for education policy research. Drawing on publically available data from personal or institutional websites, this paper reports the findings from research carried out between 2005 and 2011.…

  13. Memory and Actor-Network Theory: Mediation in Websites of Estadão and Folha de S. Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allysson Viana Martins

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how the ideas that guide the Actor-Network Theory (ANT can be the basis for studies from journalism produced for the internet. We seek to apply the principles of ANT to understand the resource mnemonics uses in web journalism and understand which modalities of mediation characterize these uses. The websites of the Estadão and Folha de S. Paulo formed the corpusto be among the main Brazilian (web newspapers, regarding the trials of the specificities of web journalism. The study was conducted in a typical weekin which there has been no event or event featured so as not to corrupt or emphasize some associations. We realize how much can be misleading to consider the mere presence of memory as an indication of quality or depth content.

  14. An actor-network theory analysis of policy innovation for smoke-free places: understanding change in complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David; Borland, Ron; Coghill, Ken

    2010-07-01

    Complex, transnational issues like the tobacco epidemic are major challenges that defy analysis and management by conventional methods, as are other public health issues, such as those associated with global food distribution and climate change. We examined the evolution of indoor smoke-free regulations, a tobacco control policy innovation, and identified the key attributes of those jurisdictions that successfully pursued this innovation and those that to date have not. In doing so, we employed the actor-network theory, a comprehensive framework for the analysis of fundamental system change. Through our analysis, we identified approaches to help overcome some systemic barriers to the solution of the tobacco problem and comment on other complex transnational problems.

  15. Actor-network procedures: Modeling multi-factor authentication, device pairing, social interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Dusko

    2011-01-01

    As computation spreads from computers to networks of computers, and migrates into cyberspace, it ceases to be globally programmable, but it remains programmable indirectly: network computations cannot be controlled, but they can be steered by local constraints on network nodes. The tasks of "programming" global behaviors through local constraints belong to the area of security. The "program particles" that assure that a system of local interactions leads towards some desired global goals are called security protocols. As computation spreads beyond cyberspace, into physical and social spaces, new security tasks and problems arise. As networks are extended by physical sensors and controllers, including the humans, and interlaced with social networks, the engineering concepts and techniques of computer security blend with the social processes of security. These new connectors for computational and social software require a new "discipline of programming" of global behaviors through local constraints. Since the n...

  16. Structuring an integrated care system: interpreted through the enacted diversity of the actors involved – the case of a French healthcare network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Grenier

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research question: We are looking at the process of structuring an integrated care system as an innovative process that swings back and forth between the diversity of the actors involved, local aspirations and national and regional regulations. We believe that innovation is enriched by the variety of the actors involved, but may also be blocked or disrupted by that diversity. Our research aims to add to other research, which, when questioning these integrated systems, analyses how the actors involved deal with diversity without really questioning it. Case study: The empirical basis of the paper is provided by case study analysis. The studied integrated care system is a French healthcare network that brings together healthcare professionals and various organisations in order to improve the way in which interventions are coordinated and formalised, in order to promote better detection and diagnosis procedures and the implementation of a care protocol. We consider this case as instrumental in developing theoretical proposals for structuring an integrated care system in light of the diversity of the actors involved. Results and discussion: We are proposing a model for structuring an integrated care system in light of the enacted diversity of the actors involved. This model is based on three factors: the diversity enacted by the leaders, three stances for considering the contribution made by diversity in the structuring process and the specific leading role played by those in charge of the structuring process.  Through this process, they determined how the actors involved in the project were differentiated, and on what basis those actors were involved. By mobilizing enacted diversity, the leaders are seeking to channel the emergence of a network in light of their own representation of that network. This model adds to published research on the structuring of integrated care systems.

  17. Structuring an integrated care system: interpreted through the enacted diversity of the actors involved – the case of a French healthcare network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Grenier

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research question: We are looking at the process of structuring an integrated care system as an innovative process that swings back and forth between the diversity of the actors involved, local aspirations and national and regional regulations. We believe that innovation is enriched by the variety of the actors involved, but may also be blocked or disrupted by that diversity. Our research aims to add to other research, which, when questioning these integrated systems, analyses how the actors involved deal with diversity without really questioning it.Case study: The empirical basis of the paper is provided by case study analysis. The studied integrated care system is a French healthcare network that brings together healthcare professionals and various organisations in order to improve the way in which interventions are coordinated and formalised, in order to promote better detection and diagnosis procedures and the implementation of a care protocol. We consider this case as instrumental in developing theoretical proposals for structuring an integrated care system in light of the diversity of the actors involved.Results and discussion: We are proposing a model for structuring an integrated care system in light of the enacted diversity of the actors involved. This model is based on three factors: the diversity enacted by the leaders, three stances for considering the contribution made by diversity in the structuring process and the specific leading role played by those in charge of the structuring process.  Through this process, they determined how the actors involved in the project were differentiated, and on what basis those actors were involved. By mobilizing enacted diversity, the leaders are seeking to channel the emergence of a network in light of their own representation of that network. This model adds to published research on the structuring of integrated care systems.

  18. Why Network? Theoretical Perspectives on Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel; West, Mel; Ainscow, Mel

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, networking and collaboration have become increasingly popular in education. However, there is at present a lack of attention to the theoretical basis of networking, which could illuminate when and when not to network and under what conditions networks are likely to be successful. In this paper, we will attempt to sketch the…

  19. Green mobile networks a networking perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Nirwan

    2016-01-01

    Combines the hot topics of energy efficiency and next generation mobile networking, examining techniques and solutions. Green communications is a very hot topic. Ever increasing mobile network bandwidth rates significantly impacts on operating costs due to aggregate network energy consumption. As such, design on 4G networks and beyond has increasingly started to focus on 'energy efficiency' or so-called 'green' networks. Many techniques and solutions have been proposed to enhance the energy efficiency of mobile networks, yet no book has provided an in-depth analysis of the energy consumption issues in mobile networks nor offers detailed theories, tools and solutions for solving the energy efficiency problems.

  20. Representing humans in system security models: An actor-network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    System models to assess the vulnerability of information systems to security threats typically represent a physical infrastructure (buildings) and a digital infrastructure (computers and networks), in combination with an attacker traversing the system while acquiring credentials. Other humans are ge

  1. Representing humans in system security models: An actor-network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    System models to assess the vulnerability of information systems to security threats typically represent a physical infrastructure (buildings) and a digital infrastructure (computers and networks), in combination with an attacker traversing the system while acquiring credentials. Other humans are ge

  2. Collaboration and entanglement: An actor-network theory analysis of team-based intraprofessional care for patients with advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, A; Goldszmidt, M; Kinsella, E A; Smith, S; Lingard, L

    2016-09-01

    Despite calls for more interprofessional and intraprofessional team-based approaches in healthcare, we lack sufficient understanding of how this happens in the context of patient care teams. This multi-perspective, team-based interview study examined how medical teams negotiated collaborative tensions. From 2011 to 2013, 50 patients across five sites in three Canadian provinces were interviewed about their care experiences and were asked to identify members of their health care teams. Patient-identified team members were subsequently interviewed to form 50 "Team Sampling Units" (TSUs), consisting of 209 interviews with patients, caregivers and healthcare providers. Results are gathered from a focused analysis of 13 TSUs where intraprofessional collaborative tensions involved treating fluid overload, or edema, a common HF symptom. Drawing on actor-network theory (ANT), the analysis focused on intraprofessional collaboration between specialty care teams in cardiology and nephrology. The study found that despite a shared narrative of common purpose between cardiology teams and nephrology teams, fluid management tools and techniques formed sites of collaborative tension. In particular, care activities involved asynchronous clinical interpretations, geographically distributed specialist care, fragmented forms of communication, and uncertainty due to clinical complexity. Teams 'disentangled' fluid in order to focus on its physiological function and mobilisation. Teams also used distinct 'framings' of fluid management that created perceived collaborative tensions. This study advances collaborative entanglement as a conceptual framework for understanding, teaching, and potentially ameliorating some of the tensions that manifest during intraprofessional care for patients with complex, chronic disease.

  3. Simposio Internacional "Changing politics through digital networks: the role of ICTs in the formation of new social and political actors and actions"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Borge

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Participación en el Simposio Internacional "Changing Politics through digital networks: the role of ICTs in the formation of new social and political actors and actions", que tuvo lugar en la Universidad de Florencia los días 5 y 6 de octubre del 2007.

  4. Financial stability from a network perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Rincon, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of six chapters related to applications of network analysis’ methods for financial stability. The first chapter introduces the network perspective as a new mapping technique for studying and understanding financial markets’architecture. The second chapter breaks down the Colombi

  5. Financial stability from a network perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Rincon, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of six chapters related to applications of network analysis’ methods for financial stability. The first chapter introduces the network perspective as a new mapping technique for studying and understanding financial markets’architecture. The second chapter breaks down the

  6. An actor-based model of social network influence on adolescent body size, screen time, and playing sports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Shoham

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that obesity may be "contagious" between individuals in social networks. Social contagion (influence, however, may not be identifiable using traditional statistical approaches because they cannot distinguish contagion from homophily (the propensity for individuals to select friends who are similar to themselves or from shared environmental influences. In this paper, we apply the stochastic actor-based model (SABM framework developed by Snijders and colleagues to data on adolescent body mass index (BMI, screen time, and playing active sports. Our primary hypothesis was that social influences on adolescent body size and related behaviors are independent of friend selection. Employing the SABM, we simultaneously modeled network dynamics (friendship selection based on homophily and structural characteristics of the network and social influence. We focused on the 2 largest schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health and held the school environment constant by examining the 2 school networks separately (N = 624 and 1151. Results show support in both schools for homophily on BMI, but also for social influence on BMI. There was no evidence of homophily on screen time in either school, while only one of the schools showed homophily on playing active sports. There was, however, evidence of social influence on screen time in one of the schools, and playing active sports in both schools. These results suggest that both homophily and social influence are important in understanding patterns of adolescent obesity. Intervention efforts should take into consideration peers' influence on one another, rather than treating "high risk" adolescents in isolation.

  7. Psychology and social networks: a dynamic network theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Organic foods from family farms in the National School Food Program: Perspectives of social actors from Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Andrade Silverio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze suggestions that facilitate the use of organic foods produced by family farms made by the social actors responsible for Santa Catarina's school meals. METHODS: This qualitative and exploratory study used an electronic questionnaire for surveying 293 municipalities in the state of Santa Catarina in 2010 and identified the percentage of organic school foods purchased from family farms. The social actors from 52 municipalities who were responsible for organic food acquisition were interviewed in person. Their suggestions were categorized and analyzed by content analysis. RESULTS: A total of 446 social actors made 684 suggestions categorized into four themes: Awareness strategies for the use of organic foods (n=286 were proposed by principals and dieticians, who emphasized the need of educating social actors and community and raising community awareness; Better Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar management (n=148 was suggested by principals and family farmers, who wanted less bureaucracy and outsourcing, fewer taxes, and more management involvement; Better coordination between the demand and supply of organic foods (n=130 was suggested by principals, family farmers, and cooks because of logistic and supply problems; and Better management of school food production (n=120 was suggested by principals and cooks, who reported problems with the supply of specific foods, low organic food diversity, and lack of certification. CONCLUSION: For the social actors, the use of organic foods in the schools of Santa Catarina requires the education of those involved (technical support, educational strategies, and community awareness, government support, coordination between demand and supply, and better management of organic food production.

  9. Application of actor level social characteristic indicator selection for the precursory detection of bullies in online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Holly M.; Fields, Jeremy; Hall, Robert T.; White, Joshua S.

    2016-05-01

    Bullying is a national problem for families, courts, schools, and the economy. Social, educational, and professional lives of victims are affected. Early detection of bullies mitigates destructive effects of bullying. Our previous research found, given specific characteristics of an actor, actor logics can be developed utilizing input from natural language processing and graph analysis. Given similar characteristics of cyberbullies, in this paper, we create specific actor logics and apply these to a select social media dataset for the purpose of rapid identification of cyberbullying.

  10. Social determinants for health (mental: evaluating a non-governmental experience from the perspective of actors involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia Magalhães Bosi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Brazilian Psychiatric Reform, an ongoing process, and its developments involve the construction of new ways of seeing the subject in illness, establishing the mental health field in a new way of understanding the social determinants that reflect in the deinstitutionalization and social inclusion. OBJECTIVE: This study, multidimensional analysis of the relationship between social determinants and deinstitutionalization in mental health focusing on a community movement in Northeast Brazil, whose proposed work is subjective and psychosocial dimensions, aims to explore and analyze how the experiences in course of the Movement highlights the importance of social determinants, the perspective of professionals. METHODS: The methodological approach outlined in the qualitative approach in the form of case studies, employing techniques such as interviews and focus groups. The categorization of analytical information was built from the relationship established between a model based on the constituent dimensions of the psychiatric reform, covering different planes, namely epistemological, healthcare, legal and socio-political, and social determinants of health - living conditions, and work environment, community networks and support, economic, cultural and environmental behaviors and lifestyles. RESULTS: The results show emphasis on the social subject, making the processing and knowledge of professionals, adding new ways to produce health; dialogue with multiple stakeholders, building autonomy, participative management, concern for professionalization; reorganizing the work process; appreciation of the everyday activities that weave and; invention of a new social site, among other elements in close interface with the determinants of health. CONCLUSION: These elements indicate that care practices woven into the daily life of the Movement involve the disassembling the traditional model of mental health care, stimulating new forms of

  11. Blowing against the wind-An exploratory application of actor network theory to the analysis of local controversies and participation processes in wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolivet, Eric, E-mail: eric.jolivet@iae-toulouse.f [CRM-CNRS Centre for Research in Management, University of Toulouse I Capitole, 2, rue du Doyen Marty, 31 042 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France); Heiskanen, Eva, E-mail: eva.heiskanen@ncrc.f [National Consumer Research Centre and Helsinki School of Economics, P.O. Box, 00531 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-11-15

    This paper analyses the deployment of wind power and the related local controversies using actor-network theory (ANT). ANT provides conceptual instruments for a fine-tuned analysis of the contingencies that condition a project's success or failure by focusing on the micro-decisions that intertwine the material aspects of the technology, the site where it is implemented, the participation process, and the social relations in which they are embedded. By considering controversies as alternative efforts of competing networks of actors to 'frame' the reality and enroll others, ANT sheds light on the complex and political nature of planning a wind farm project, insofar as it consist in aligning material and human behaviours into a predictable scenario. 'Overflows' occur when actors do not conform to expectations, adopt conflicting positions and develop their own interpretations of the project, thus obliging designers to adapt their frames and change their plans. To demonstrate this framework, we apply it to the case of a wind farm project in the South of France, near Albi. Our analysis suggests a new approach to examining wind power projects in terms of the interaction between globally circulating technologies, unique characteristics of the site, the participation process and the social dynamics that emerge when these are combined.

  12. Blowing against the wind - An exploratory application of actor network theory to the analysis of local controversies and participation processes in wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolivet, Eric [CRM-CNRS Centre for Research in Management, University of Toulouse I Capitole, 2, rue du Doyen Marty, 31 042 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France); Heiskanen, Eva [National Consumer Research Centre and Helsinki School of Economics, P.O. Box, 00531 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-11-15

    This paper analyses the deployment of wind power and the related local controversies using actor-network theory (ANT). ANT provides conceptual instruments for a fine-tuned analysis of the contingencies that condition a project's success or failure by focusing on the micro-decisions that intertwine the material aspects of the technology, the site where it is implemented, the participation process, and the social relations in which they are embedded. By considering controversies as alternative efforts of competing networks of actors to 'frame' the reality and enroll others, ANT sheds light on the complex and political nature of planning a wind farm project, insofar as it consist in aligning material and human behaviours into a predictable scenario. 'Overflows' occur when actors do not conform to expectations, adopt conflicting positions and develop their own interpretations of the project, thus obliging designers to adapt their frames and change their plans. To demonstrate this framework, we apply it to the case of a wind farm project in the South of France, near Albi. Our analysis suggests a new approach to examining wind power projects in terms of the interaction between globally circulating technologies, unique characteristics of the site, the participation process and the social dynamics that emerge when these are combined. (author)

  13. A network perspective on metabolic inconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnenschein Nikolaus

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating gene expression profiles and metabolic pathways under different experimental conditions is essential for understanding the coherence of these two layers of cellular organization. The network character of metabolic systems can be instrumental in developing concepts of agreement between expression data and pathways. A network-driven interpretation of gene expression data has the potential of suggesting novel classifiers for pathological cellular states and of contributing to a general theoretical understanding of gene regulation. Results Here, we analyze the coherence of gene expression patterns and a reconstruction of human metabolism, using consistency scores obtained from network and constraint-based analysis methods. We find a surprisingly strong correlation between the two measures, demonstrating that a substantial part of inconsistencies between metabolic processes and gene expression can be understood from a network perspective alone. Prompted by this finding, we investigate the topological context of the individual biochemical reactions responsible for the observed inconsistencies. On this basis, we are able to separate the differential contributions that bear physiological information about the system, from the unspecific contributions that unravel gaps in the metabolic reconstruction. We demonstrate the biological potential of our network-driven approach by analyzing transcriptome profiles of aldosterone producing adenomas that have been obtained from a cohort of Primary Aldosteronism patients. We unravel systematics in the data that could not have been resolved by conventional microarray data analysis. In particular, we discover two distinct metabolic states in the adenoma expression patterns. Conclusions The methodology presented here can help understand metabolic inconsistencies from a network perspective. It thus serves as a mediator between the topology of metabolic systems and their dynamical

  14. Consequences of Strategic Choices within an e-Procurement Implementation Process -From an Actor Network Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Lotte; Thomsen, Mette; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many companies have changed their IT strategy from developing systems in-house to implementing integrated software solutions. Along with the implementation of large Management Information Systems (MIS) such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, several strategic choices...... have to be made in order to ensure the success of the implementation in terms of the technical aspects, the business model and the organisation. This article deals with three strategic choices made by the management in the case company, a large European medical company, regarding the process...... of implementing an e-Procurement system - more specifically, an Enterprise Buyer Professional (EBP) module in SAP R/3 for commercial purchasing. These strategic choices are (1) outsourcing the electronic catalogue of the EBP system to an electronic market place, (2) constituting a change management group...

  15. Consequences of Strategic Choices within an e-Procurement Implementation Process -From an Actor Network Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Lotte; Thomsen, Mette; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2004-01-01

    of implementing an e-Procurement system - more specifically, an Enterprise Buyer Professional (EBP) module in SAP R/3 for commercial purchasing. These strategic choices are (1) outsourcing the electronic catalogue of the EBP system to an electronic market place, (2) constituting a change management group...... tasks to the EBP system, strategies for establishing the EBP system as a black box and, finally, strategies for enrolling external partners in the implementation process in the case company are analysed. Through these concepts of ANT, the article demonstrates how strategic choices influence...

  16. Fractal actors and infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom

    2011-01-01

    -network-theory (ANT) into surveillance studies (Ball 2002, Adey 2004, Gad & Lauritsen 2009). In this paper, I further explore the potential of this connection by experimenting with Marilyn Strathern’s concept of the fractal (1991), which has been discussed in newer ANT literature (Law 2002; Law 2004; Jensen 2007). I...... under surveillance. Based on fieldwork conducted in 2008 and 2011 in relation to my Master’s thesis and PhD respectively, I illustrate fractal concepts by describing the acts, actors and infrastructure that make up the ‘DNA surveillance’ conducted by the Danish police....

  17. Enterprise Social Networks from a Manager's Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Alexander; Hetmank, Corinna; Müller, Maria

    2016-01-01

    be supported best to trigger both learning and change processes in the enterprise. For such processes, managers have a strong multiplying and "role model" effect. Therefore, following a case study approach, we conducted 15 interviews with managers at different hierarchical levels at a financial services......The increasing use of Enterprise Social Networks (ESN) has been resulting in important changes in individual work practices, and is subject of numerous studies. From both a theoretical and a practical perspective, there is a lack of well-founded knowledge on how the implementation of ESN can...

  18. Developing a grounded theory for interprofessional collaboration acquisition using facilitator and actor perspectives in simulated wilderness medical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather A; Reade, Maurianne; Marr, Marion; Jeeves, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Interprofessional collaboration is a complex process that has the potential to transform patient care for the better in urban, rural and remote healthcare settings. Simulation has been found to improve participants' interprofessional competencies, but the mechanisms by which interprofessionalism is learned have yet to be understood. A rural wilderness medicine conference (WildER Med) in northern Ontario, Canada with simulated medical scenarios has been demonstrated to be effective in improving participants' collaboration without formal interprofessional education (IPE) curriculum. Interprofessionalism may be taught through rural and remote medical simulation, as done in WildER Med where participants' interprofessional competencies improved without any formal IPE curriculum. This learning may be attributed to the informal and hidden curriculum. Understanding the mechanism by which this rural educational experience contributed to participants' learning to collaborate requires insight into the events before, during and after the simulations. The authors drew upon feedback from facilitators and patient actors in one-on-one interviews to develop a grounded theory for how collaboration is taught and learned. Sharing emerged as the core concept of a grounded theory to explain how team members acquired interprofessional collaboration competencies. Sharing was enacted through the strategies of developing common goals, sharing leadership, and developing mutual respect and understanding. Further analysis of the data and literature suggests that the social wilderness environment was foundational in enabling sharing to occur. Medical simulations in other rural and remote settings may offer an environment conducive to collaboration and be effective in teaching collaboration. When designing interprofessional education, health educators should consider using emergency response teams or rural community health teams to optimize the informal and hidden curriculum contributing to

  19. Evidence for Informing Health Policy Development in Low- Income Countries (LICS: Perspectives of Policy Actors in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Nabyonga-Orem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Although there is a general agreement on the benefits of evidence informed health policy development given resource constraints especially in Low-Income Countries (LICs, the definition of what evidence is, and what evidence is suitable to guide decision-making is still unclear. Our study is contributing to filling this knowledge gap. We aimed to explore health policy actors’ views regarding what evidence they deemed appropriate to guide health policy development. Methods Using exploratory qualitative methods, we conducted interviews with 51 key informants using an indepth interview guide. We interviewed a diverse group of stakeholders in health policy development and knowledge translation in the Uganda health sector. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis techniques. Results Different stakeholders lay emphasis on different kinds of evidence. While donors preferred international evidence and Ministry of Health (MoH officials looked to local evidence, district health managers preferred local evidence, evidence from routine monitoring and evaluation, and reports from service providers. Service providers on the other hand preferred local evidence and routine monitoring and evaluation reports whilst researchers preferred systematic reviews and clinical trials. Stakeholders preferred evidence covering several aspects impacting on decision-making highlighting the fact that although policy actors look for factual information, they also require evidence on context and implementation feasibility of a policy decision. Conclusion What LICslike Uganda categorize as evidence suitable for informing policy encompasses several types with no consensus on what is deemed as most appropriate. Evidence must be of high quality, applicable, acceptable to the users, and informing different aspects of decision-making.

  20. Revealing the neural networks associated with processing of natural social interaction and the related effects of actor-orientation and face-visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggar, Manish; Shelly, Elizabeth Walter; Lepage, Jean-Francois; Hoeft, Fumiko; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the intentions and desires of those around us is vital for adapting to a dynamic social environment. In this paper, a novel event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) paradigm with dynamic and natural stimuli (2s video clips) was developed to directly examine the neural networks associated with processing of gestures with social intent as compared to nonsocial intent. When comparing social to nonsocial gestures, increased activation in both the mentalizing (or theory of mind) and amygdala networks was found. As a secondary aim, a factor of actor-orientation was included in the paradigm to examine how the neural mechanisms differ with respect to personal engagement during a social interaction versus passively observing an interaction. Activity in the lateral occipital cortex and precentral gyrus was found sensitive to actor-orientation during social interactions. Lastly, by manipulating face-visibility we tested whether facial information alone is the primary driver of neural activation differences observed between social and nonsocial gestures. We discovered that activity in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and fusiform gyrus (FFG) was partially driven by observing facial expressions during social gestures. Altogether, using multiple factors associated with processing of natural social interaction, we conceptually advance our understanding of how social stimuli is processed in the brain and discuss the application of this paradigm to clinical populations where atypical social cognition is manifested as a key symptom. © 2013.

  1. Technologies for learning? An actor-network theory critique of ‘affordances' in research on mobile learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale Parchoma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How is the link between learner and technology made in mobile learning? Whatis the value of the concept of ‘affordances'? And how does research articulatingthis concept act to position mobile devices as ‘technologies for learning'? Thisliterature review used both unstructured and structured search samples of publishedresearch on mobile learning to critically evaluate the prevalence and influenceof the concept of the affordances of mobile technologies. Actor-networktheory is drawn on as a theoretical lens through which to critically considerhow this concept is articulated, and in particular to explore the way it positionsand controls mobile devices as technologies for learning. Parallels in contemporaryaccounts of mobile learning are drawn with classifications of previous discoursesaround the introduction of computers into schools. An alternativeagenda for mobile learning research is suggested with a focus on authentic andinformal contexts rather than controlled experiments.

  2. Performing Sociology Through Actor-Network Theory: From Impressionist Cartography to the Dirtiness of Mediations Hacer sociología a través de la teoría del actor-red: de la cartografía impresionista a la suciedad de las mediaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Muriel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I try to outline the existence of certain problems I have found during my research work, within sociology discipline, when it comes to follow some of the main threads of the complex fabric that constitutes the Actor-Network Theory (ANT. In the same way, I suggest some possible subterfuges to go around those problems. Two are the problems and two are the subterfuges as well destined to tackle them. On the one hand, I face the problem of the magnitude and fidelity that ANT's descriptions demand, thoroughly detailed and local, which clashes with the requirements of sociological theory that seeks abstractions and regularities. The subterfuge I propose is the one called "impressionist cartography". On the other hand, I bump into the difficulty of the irreversibility of mediations and the sanitized representations carried out, sometimes, by ANT. In order to fight this, I use the subterfuge oriented to adopt the premise of the "inevitable dirtiness of mediations". En este artículo intento proponer un esbozo de ciertos problemas que me he encontrado en el transcurro de mi investigación, dentro de la disciplina de la sociología, cuando he intentado seguir algunas de las principales tramas del complejo entramado de la teoría del actor-red (ANT, así como de los subterfugios que planteo para bordearlos. Dos son los problemas y dos los posibles subterfugios para abordarlos. Por un lado, me encuentro con el problema de la envergadura y fidelidad de las descripciones que exige la ANT, muy localizadas y minuciosas, que choca con los requerimientos de la teoría sociológica que busca regularidades y abstracciones. El subterfugio que planteo es el de la "cartografía impresionista". Por otro lado, me topo con la dificultad de la

  3. Networks and Fault Lines: Understanding the role of housing associations in neighbourhood regeneration: a network governance perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard van Bortel

    2016-03-01

    economic objectives. They have largely similar tasks and responsibilities, but work in very divergent contexts. This study devotes careful attention to the contingencies of time and place of decisionmaking in order to regenerate insights that are also relevant outside the case-study areas. Therefore, this study places Dutch and English housing associations in their respective political economies, welfare regimes and rental housing systems. The study also highlights the ambiguous position—between state, market, and society—of housing associations.Neighbourhood regeneration evolved from slum clearance and complete area redevelopment in the 1950s and 1960s, towards more integral place-based approaches—in the 1970s and 1980s—with a stronger emphasis on improving the existing housing stock and involving local communities. The nature of the involvement of housing associations in neighbourhood regeneration has changed over time in response to government policies, public opinion, their own strategies, and the strategies of their umbrella organisations. In both England and the Netherlands, their increasingly prominent role —especially after the start of the new millennium—was driven by pressures on housing associations to take a leading role in neighbourhood regeneration.A governance network perspective on neighbourhood regenerationThe emergence of the ‘network society’ has led to a fragmentation of power and resources. This fragmentation has led to increased interdependence of actors; public, private and community actors need to collaborate to solve problems. This study uses a governance network approach to explore the complexity and uncertainties involved in neighbourhood regeneration decision-making. The study explores five interrelated questions [see Chapter 1, §1.2], each related to a component of a theoretical framework on decision-making in a network setting. These questions involve context, networks, actors, processes and outcomes.In order to answer the

  4. Mobilizing Workplaces: Actors, Discipline and Governmentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Nicoll, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Foucault, and to a lesser extent actor-network theory, this article examines some of their methodological and theoretical implications for conceptions of workplace learning. We suggest that workplaces need to be examined for the spatio-temporal ordering of practices and the actors drawn into them in order to move beyond the…

  5. The shaping of healthy & organic school meal programs in three Danish municipalities can be understood as a proces of "translation" in actor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2009-01-01

    that define actors in the shaping process of school meal programs and influences then together to achieve the aim. Then distributes and locks each actor into its proper group: municipality, school or food provision. Afterwards interaction and relationship among all actors in three groups is illustrated...

  6. Bullying in classrooms : Participant roles from a social network perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitsing, Gijs; Veenstra, René

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate if and how the group process of bullying can be examined using a social network perspective. In two studies, bullying was investigated using a social network version of the participant-role questionnaire. Study 1 explored the social network structure of on

  7. Constructing Careers: Actor, Agent, and Author

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    When individuals seek career counseling, they have stories to tell about their working lives. The aim of career construction theory is to be comprehensive in encouraging employment counselors to listen for a client's career story from the perspectives of actor, agent, and author. Taking multiple perspectives on career stories enables counselors to…

  8. Intelligent policy making? Key actors' perspectives on the development and implementation of an early years' initiative in Scotland's public health arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deas, L; Mattu, L; Gnich, W

    2013-11-01

    Increased political enthusiasm for evidence-based policy and action has re-ignited interest in the use of evidence within political and practitioner networks. Theories of evidence-based policy making and practice are being re-considered in an attempt to better understand the processes through which knowledge translation occurs. Understanding how policy develops, and practice results, has the potential to facilitate effective evidence use. Further knowledge of the factors which shape healthcare delivery and their influence in different contexts is needed. This paper explores the processes involved in the development of a complex intervention in Scotland's National Health Service (NHS). It uses a national oral health programme for children (Childsmile) as a case study, drawing upon key actors' perceptions of the influence of different drivers (research evidence, practitioner knowledge and values, policy, and political and local context) to programme development. Framework analysis is used to analyse stakeholder accounts from in-depth interviews. Documentary review is also undertaken. Findings suggest that Childsmile can be described as an 'evidence-informed' intervention, blending available research evidence with knowledge from practitioner experience and continual learning through evaluation, to plan delivery. The importance of context was underscored, in terms of the need to align with prevailing political ideology and in the facilitative strength of networks within the relatively small public health community in Scotland. Respondents' perceptions support several existing theoretical models of translation, however no single theory offered a comprehensive framework covering all aspects of the complex processes reported. Childsmile's use of best available evidence and on-going contribution to knowledge suggest that the programme is an example of intelligent policy making with international relevance.

  9. Theoretical perspectives of terrorist enemies as networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spulak, Robert George, Jr.; Glicken, Jessica

    2005-08-01

    This perspective of terrorist enemies as networks by two distinguished associate fellows of the Joint Special Operations University (JSOU) follows as a result of its recent initiative to support USSOCOM strategic planning for the Global War on Terrorism. The paper is a manifestation of JSOU's goals for contributing products that will advance SOF strategic art and generating strategic outreach to the military, civilian, and academic communities to enrich those products. Dr. Robert Spulak and Dr. Jessica Glicken Turnley presented the findings of this paper to assembled strategic planners from USSOCOM, other combatant commands, and interagency players at the Center for Special Operations plan development conference, September 2005, in Tampa, Florida. At that meeting, the authors put forward a number of helpful planning concepts based on their professional studies in science and the humanities and their experiences in government and business. The JSOU Strategic Studies Department is pleased to facilitate the association of USSOCOM strategic planners with civilian expertise and insights that can broaden military thought and encourage planning decisions directly relevant to the changing global environment. Through JSOU's strategic outreach initiative, experts in many professional disciplines have signaled their willingness to support the Nation's counterterrorism efforts. In that spirit, JSOU is proud to commend this paper to SOF readers and appreciates the support of Dr. Spulak and Dr. Turnley.

  10. A review on the application of actor network theory to human geography%行动者网络理论在人文地理领域应用研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宣; 王小依

    2013-01-01

    行动者网络理论以一种结构化的方式来构建行为主体之间的关系,并将要素流动和网络化互动形态纳入分析范畴,为各学科研究提供了全新的视角,在人文地理领域的应用也日渐增多.本文在总结行动者网络理论主要内容的基础上,分类归纳评述了行动者网络理论在不同分支研究领域的应用主题和方式,并就研究的深度、广度、影响力进行国内外对比.研究表明,行动者网络理论对人与非人行动者的一致看待及其通过转译过程解析网络关系的研究模式,除强化了经济地理等领域的理论建构之外,也为乡村地理、城市地理、经济地理、旅游地理等领域的地方发展、政策实践研究提供了一种有效的分析方法.引入该理论的人文地理研究引用频次高,有较大的学术影响.目前国内研究多停留在行动者网络理论分析框架的直接套用,极少涉及分析框架改进和理论思考,在广度和深度上与国际研究仍有差距.%Recently,the actor-network theory (ANT) was widely applied to the field of human geography.ANT approach provides a new perspective by allowing researchers to take into consideration the flow of factors and network interaction.After a brief introduction of ANT,this paper summarizes the progress of ANT applications to human geography by summing up the application topics and methods in different branches,and compares the gap between international and domestic researches.This paper reveals that ANT promotes the progress of human geography in both theory and application.Most theoretic explorations happened in the field of economic geography:the relational economic geography based on ANT provides new angle for the reconstruction of "postmodernism" economic geography theory system.In application,analytical framework of ANT applied to the field of human geography emphasizes actors,translation process,and the result,with special attention to the spatial

  11. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  12. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer......-supplier relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...

  13. A Complex-Network Perspective on Alexander's Wholeness

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The wholeness, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, is what exists to some degree or other in space and matter, and can be described by precise mathematical language. However, it remains mysterious and hard to grasp. This paper develops a complex network perspective on the wholeness to better understand the nature of order or beauty, and apply it into sustainable design. I bring together a set of complexity-science subjects such as complex networks, fractal geometry, and in particular underlying scaling hierarchy derived by head/tail breaks, in order to make Alexander's profound thoughts more accessible to design practitioners and complexity-science researchers. Through several case studies (some of which Alexander studied), I demonstrate that the complex-network perspective helps reduce the mystery of wholeness and brings new insights to Alexander's thoughts on the concept of wholeness or objective beauty in fine structures. The complex-network perspective enables us to see things in their whole...

  14. The political history of biofuels in the European Union - Actors, Networks and Strategies; Den politiska historien om biodrivmedel i den Europeiska Unionen - Aktoerer, naetverk och strategier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordangaard, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    The story of biofuels in the European Union is about much more than simply replace petroleum in the transport sector. It is rather a complex story accompanied by an overall desire to change the world's political architecture. This change has been made in order to address global environmental problems such as climate change while creating frameworks and certifications for the global trade in commodities such as palm oil and soy. The process has been full of contradictions in what biofuels can solve and given rise to exaggerated rhetoric about the fuel's environmental benefits versus its harmful impact on the environment and food prices. Doomsday reeking arguments about climate disasters, oil shortages and the destruction of the world's rain forests have been used alternately in diverse contexts. In this process, various market interests have come to stand against each other in the battle for the raw materials used in biofuel production. Good intentions to protect the priceless nature from industrial exploitation has been used as a way to disadvantage certain raw materials as an energy crop. This has given rise to the unholy alliances between environmentalists and corporations to create broad support for positions while individual nations have assisted with capital and resources to promote various self-interests. In the end it has been a matter of building so powerful network as possible, and present a hard hitting problem requiring a solution for success. Out of chaos, it has been born order. This thesis describes the process and the main actors and networks that have driven this.

  15. 基于行动者网络理论的中国医疗器械标准化建设研究%Standardization development of medical devices in China based on the actor network theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜然然; 欧阳昭连; 郭柯磊; 池慧

    2012-01-01

    目的对中国医疗器械标准化建设进行概念性梳理和动力机制揭示,探讨中国医疗器械标准化建设中应注意的问题.方法以行动者网络理论(actor network theory,ANT)为视角,通过对中国医疗器械领域战略性新兴产业的标准化进程进行分析,构建出标准化建设中的行动者网络框架,梳理医疗器械标准化进程中的主要行动者.结果 理顺了行动者之间的普遍关系,归纳出当前标准化建设中应注意的重要问题.结论基于ANT的中国医疗器械标准化建设研究为医疗器械标准化管理工作提供理论支持.%Objective The important issues in the process of standardization development of medical devices in China were discussed through the conceptual carding and the analysis of dynamic mechanism. Methods In the view of the actor network theory (ANT) , firstly, the standardization process of the strategic new industry in Chinese medical devices was discussed. Then the standardization framework of the actor network was constructed, the main actors in the standardization process of medical devices were organized. Results The general relationship of the main actors was recognized, and the important issues in the current standardization process were summarized. Conclusions The theoretical support for the standardization management of the medical devices was provided through the standardization development of medical devices in China based on the ANT.

  16. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  17. The greatest happiness of the greatest number? Policy actors' perspectives on the limits of economic evaluation as a tool for informing health care coverage decisions in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Steve

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents qualitative findings from an assessment of the acceptability of using economic evaluation among policy actors in Thailand. Using cost-utility data from two economic analyses a hypothetical case scenario was created in which policy actors had to choose between two competing interventions to include in a public health benefit package. The two competing interventions, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC for gallbladder disease versus renal dialysis for chronic renal disease, were selected because they highlighted conflicting criteria influencing the allocation of healthcare resources. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role in resource allocation decisions within the Thai healthcare system. These included 14 policy makers at the national level, five hospital directors, ten health professionals and seven academics. Results Twenty six out of 36 (72% respondents were not convinced by the presentation of economic evaluation findings and chose not to support the inclusion of a proven cost-effective intervention (LC in the benefit package due to ethical, institutional and political considerations. There were only six respondents, including three policy makers at national level, one hospital director, one health professional and one academic, (6/36, 17% whose decisions were influenced by economic evaluation evidence. Conclusion This paper illustrates limitations of using economic evaluation information in decision making priorities of health care, perceived by different policy actors. It demonstrates that the concept of maximising health utility fails to recognise other important societal values in making health resource allocation decisions.

  18. The greatest happiness of the greatest number? Policy actors' perspectives on the limits of economic evaluation as a tool for informing health care coverage decisions in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Russell, Steve

    2008-09-26

    This paper presents qualitative findings from an assessment of the acceptability of using economic evaluation among policy actors in Thailand. Using cost-utility data from two economic analyses a hypothetical case scenario was created in which policy actors had to choose between two competing interventions to include in a public health benefit package. The two competing interventions, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for gallbladder disease versus renal dialysis for chronic renal disease, were selected because they highlighted conflicting criteria influencing the allocation of healthcare resources. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role in resource allocation decisions within the Thai healthcare system. These included 14 policy makers at the national level, five hospital directors, ten health professionals and seven academics. Twenty six out of 36 (72%) respondents were not convinced by the presentation of economic evaluation findings and chose not to support the inclusion of a proven cost-effective intervention (LC) in the benefit package due to ethical, institutional and political considerations. There were only six respondents, including three policy makers at national level, one hospital director, one health professional and one academic, (6/36, 17%) whose decisions were influenced by economic evaluation evidence. This paper illustrates limitations of using economic evaluation information in decision making priorities of health care, perceived by different policy actors. It demonstrates that the concept of maximising health utility fails to recognise other important societal values in making health resource allocation decisions.

  19. Information theory perspective on network robustness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, Tiago A. [Departmento de Engenharia de Produção, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Carpi, Laura [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, Terrassa, 08222, Barcelona (Spain); Frery, Alejandro C. [Laboratório de Computação Científica e Análise Numérica (LaCCAN), Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, Alagoas (Brazil); Rosso, Osvaldo A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, Alagoas (Brazil); Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires (ITBA), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pardalos, Panos M. [Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ravetti, Martín G., E-mail: martin.ravetti@dep.ufmg.br [Departmento de Engenharia de Produção, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Departament de Física Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-01-28

    A crucial challenge in network theory is the study of the robustness of a network when facing a sequence of failures. In this work, we propose a dynamical definition of network robustness based on Information Theory, that considers measurements of the structural changes caused by failures of the network's components. Failures are defined here as a temporal process defined in a sequence. Robustness is then evaluated by measuring dissimilarities between topologies after each time step of the sequence, providing a dynamical information about the topological damage. We thoroughly analyze the efficiency of the method in capturing small perturbations by considering different probability distributions on networks. In particular, we find that distributions based on distances are more consistent in capturing network structural deviations, as better reflect the consequences of the failures. Theoretical examples and real networks are used to study the performance of this methodology. - Highlights: • A novel methodology to measure the robustness of a network to component failure or targeted attacks is proposed. • The use of the network's distance PDF allows a precise analysis. • The method provides a dynamic robustness profile showing the response of the topology to each failure event. • The measure is capable to detect network's critical elements.

  20. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  1. Design Management in the Textile Industry - A Network Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Bang, Anne Louise

    2013-01-01

    on design management are framed inside the organisational context of the firm. In this study the role and practice of textile design is addressed in perspective of the global textile production network. The empirical data stems from six case studies exploring how different types of enterprises are organised...... in larger networks of suppliers, customers and other relations. Comparing the organisational networks we discuss how design activities unfold under different organisational settings. We also demonstrate that it is crucial for the companies who rely on external production facilities to have a strong design......In this paper we explore textile design activities and textile design management from an industrial network perspective. The textile industry is probably one of the most globalized manufacturing industries in the world and thus one of the most dispersed industries on the globe. Most studies...

  2. Plant Evolution: A Manufacturing Network Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John; Boer, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Viewing them as portfolios of products and processes, we aim to address how plants evolve in the context of a manufacturing network and how the evolution of one plant impacts other plants in the same manufacturing network. Based on discussions of ten plants from three Danish companies, we identify...

  3. Computational social networks tools, perspectives and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith

    2012-01-01

    Provides the latest advances in computational social networks, and illustrates how organizations can gain a competitive advantage by applying these ideas in real-world scenarios Presents a specific focus on practical tools and applications Provides experience reports, survey articles, and intelligence techniques and theories relating to specific problems in network technology

  4. Firm Performance-A Social Networks Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Tung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The study aims to offer a discussion on social networks and their effect on firm performance and also to illustrate the ways by which the firms utilize social capital through networks. Approach: The literature review and arguments were conducted to provide a systematic discussion of social networks and their effects. Results: The study had provided with a detailed understanding of the strategies that had been found to be highly significant in successful organizational performance. The results of this discussion suggested that social networks affect firm performance in a positive manner and can contribute to sustainable competitive advantage. Conclusion: It confirms that building up of social networks for big and small firms provides valuable links and solves numerous issues which auger well for the companies and should be treated with great importance.

  5. A User Perspective on Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Porras, Jari; Hajikhani, Arash

    2014-01-01

    For years, social media have been a part of daily life. Within the last 5-10 years, the use of social media (and in particular social networking sites) has expanded to almost all sides of life: private people, businesses and public institutions. This paper presents an overview of different uses...... of social networks to give a picture of the variety in use. The paper describes differences in private persons’ use of social networking sites, different business purposes, and how social networking sites can challenge public administrations. Throughout the paper there are provided small cases...... and situations where the social networking sites have been used in a remarkable way. The paper is made in collaboration between partners in the World Wide Research Forum....

  6. A User Perspective on Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Porras, Jari; Hajikhani, Arash

    2014-01-01

    For years, social media have been a part of daily life. Within the last 5-10 years, the use of social media (and in particular social networking sites) has expanded to almost all sides of life: private people, businesses and public institutions. This paper presents an overview of different uses...... of social networks to give a picture of the variety in use. The paper describes differences in private persons’ use of social networking sites, different business purposes, and how social networking sites can challenge public administrations. Throughout the paper there are provided small cases...... and situations where the social networking sites have been used in a remarkable way. The paper is made in collaboration between partners in the World Wide Research Forum....

  7. Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria: Opiniones y expectativas sobre estrategias de prevención y tratamiento desde la perspectiva de diferentes actores sociales Dietary behavior disorders: Opinions and expectancies on prevention and treatment strategies from the perspective of the several social actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. March

    2006-02-01

    circuito asistencial, así como el seguimiento posthospitalario se identifican como cuestiones abiertas a futuras investigaciones.AIMS: The prevalence increase of Eating Disorders in the last decades emphasizes the necessity to develop strategies from the public healthcare system which include the perspective of the principal implicated social actors. The present study aims to know their opinions and expectations regarding the prevention and treatment of Eating Disorders. METHODS: Realization of 5 focus groups (with relatives, adolescents, professionals from the health and educational sector, representatives from institutions and support groups and 14 semi-structured interviews (with Eating Disorder patients and relatives about strengths and weaknesses of actual prevention and treatment programs, expectations of change and suggestions for improvement. Analysis of contents and triangulation of results. RESULTS: The absence of resources and knowledge about Eating Disorders, the scarcity of transversal programs and insufficient coordination were named as the main weaknesses whereas interdisciplinary pilot programs were positively valued. As principal demands, major endowment of human and material resources, increased coverage of specialized services, promotion of specific training and improvement of coordination was asked for. Regarding prevention, preference toward an unspecific approach to the subject in order to hinder imitation between young people was highlighted. The care in Day Hospitals was considered one of the most appropriate treatment modalities for the characteristics of this disease being valued the potentially therapeutic effect of contact between Eating Disorder patients. The support network, the education field and the family were named as other important pillars in a multidisciplinary approach to the disease. There was also a demand for the development of combined programs. CONLCUSIONS: The discussion of different psychotherapeutic approaches, the role of

  8. Federal Information in the Networked Environment: A Perspective from the Coalition for Networked Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheverie, Joan F.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the development of strategies for providing access to and services for U.S. federal government information in higher education using the global information infrastructure, from the perspective of the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI). Discusses the preservation of electronic information and networked information discovery and…

  9. A Network of Networks Perspective on Global Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluck, Julian; Donner, Reik V

    2015-01-01

    Mutually intertwined supply chains in contemporary economy result in a complex network of trade relationships with a highly non-trivial topology that varies with time. In order to understand the complex interrelationships among different countries and economic sectors, as well as their dynamics, a holistic view on the underlying structural properties of this network is necessary. This study employs multi-regional input-output data to decompose 186 national economies into 26 industry sectors and utilizes the approach of interdependent networks to analyze the substructure of the resulting international trade network for the years 1990-2011. The partition of the network into national economies is observed to be compatible with the notion of communities in the sense of complex network theory. By studying internal versus cross-subgraph contributions to established complex network metrics, new insights into the architecture of global trade are obtained, which allow to identify key elements of global economy. Specifically, financial services and business activities dominate domestic trade whereas electrical and machinery industries dominate foreign trade. In order to further specify each national sector's role individually, (cross-)clustering coefficients and cross-betweenness are obtained for different pairs of subgraphs. The corresponding analysis reveals that specific industrial sectors tend to favor distinct directionality patterns and that the cross-clustering coefficient for geographically close country pairs is remarkably high, indicating that spatial factors are still of paramount importance for the organization of trade patterns in modern economy. Regarding the evolution of the trade network's substructure, globalization is well-expressed by trends of several structural characteristics (e.g., link density and node strength) in the interacting network framework. Extreme events, such as the financial crisis 2008/2009, are manifested as anomalies superimposed to

  10. Spatial price dynamics: From complex network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. L.; Bi, J. T.; Sun, H. J.

    2008-10-01

    The spatial price problem means that if the supply price plus the transportation cost is less than the demand price, there exists a trade. Thus, after an amount of exchange, the demand price will decrease. This process is continuous until an equilibrium state is obtained. However, how the trade network structure affects this process has received little attention. In this paper, we give a evolving model to describe the levels of spatial price on different complex network structures. The simulation results show that the network with shorter path length is sensitive to the variation of prices.

  11. Network design management and technical perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Piliouras, Teresa C

    2004-01-01

    MAKING THE BUSINESS CASE FOR THE NETWORKManagement Overview of Network DesignDefine the Business ObjectivesDetermine Potential Risks, Dependencies, Costs andBenefitsIdentify Project RequirementsDevelop Project Implementation ApproachStrategic Positioning Using NetworksCase StudiesCalculation of Technology's Strategic ValueDealing with Major Design ChallengesOrganizational Concerns and RecommendationsTechnology Concerns and RecommendationsSimilarities and Differences between Voice and DataNetwork Design and PlanningMajor Trends and Technology EnablersSocietal TrendsService Provider TrendsMajor

  12. Viewing Attractiveness Socialization from a Social Network Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, A. Chris

    Providing a framework for a symposium exploring the influence of physical attractiveness on the socialization process, this paper (1) offers a working definition of physical attractiveness, (2) reviews stereotypes associated with attractiveness, and (3) discusses a social network perspective on the influence of attractiveness. Physical…

  13. Animal welfare: a social networks perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhappel, Tanja K; John, Elizabeth A; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna; Burman, Oliver H P

    2016-01-01

    Social network theory provides a useful tool to study complex social relationships in animals. The possibility to look beyond dyadic interactions by considering whole networks of social relationships allows researchers the opportunity to study social groups in more natural ways. As such, network-based analyses provide an informative way to investigate the factors influencing the social environment of group-living animals, and so has direct application to animal welfare. For example, animal groups in captivity are frequently disrupted by separations, reintroductions and/or mixing with unfamiliar individuals and this can lead to social stress and associated aggression. Social network analysis ofanimal groups can help identify the underlying causes of these socially-derived animal welfare concerns. In this review we discuss how this approach can be applied, and how it could be used to identify potential interventions and solutions in the area of animal welfare.

  14. Consciousness, cognition and brain networks: New perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, E M; Valverde, J L; Fábregas, N

    2016-10-01

    A detailed analysis of the literature on consciousness and cognition mechanisms based on the neural networks theory is presented. The immune and inflammatory response to the anesthetic-surgical procedure induces modulation of neuronal plasticity by influencing higher cognitive functions. Anesthetic drugs can cause unconsciousness, producing a functional disruption of cortical and thalamic cortical integration complex. The external and internal perceptions are processed through an intricate network of neural connections, involving the higher nervous activity centers, especially the cerebral cortex. This requires an integrated model, formed by neural networks and their interactions with highly specialized regions, through large-scale networks, which are distributed throughout the brain collecting information flow of these perceptions. Functional and effective connectivity between large-scale networks, are essential for consciousness, unconsciousness and cognition. It is what is called the "human connectome" or map neural networks. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. A complex-network perspective on Alexander's wholeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    The wholeness, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, is what exists to some degree or other in space and matter, and can be described by precise mathematical language. However, it remains somehow mysterious and elusive, and therefore hard to grasp. This paper develops a complex network perspective on the wholeness to better understand the nature of order or beauty for sustainable design. I bring together a set of complexity-science subjects such as complex networks, fractal geometry, and in particular underlying scaling hierarchy derived by head/tail breaks - a classification scheme and a visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution, in order to make Alexander's profound thoughts more accessible to design practitioners and complexity-science researchers. Through several case studies (some of which Alexander studied), I demonstrate that the complex-network perspective helps reduce the mystery of wholeness and brings new insights to Alexander's thoughts on the concept of wholeness or objective beauty that exists in fine and deep structure. The complex-network perspective enables us to see things in their wholeness, and to better understand how the kind of structural beauty emerges from local actions guided by the 15 fundamental properties, and in particular by differentiation and adaptation processes. The wholeness goes beyond current complex network theory towards design or creation of living structures.

  16. A Network of Networks Perspective on Global Trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Maluck

    Full Text Available Mutually intertwined supply chains in contemporary economy result in a complex network of trade relationships with a highly non-trivial topology that varies with time. In order to understand the complex interrelationships among different countries and economic sectors, as well as their dynamics, a holistic view on the underlying structural properties of this network is necessary. This study employs multi-regional input-output data to decompose 186 national economies into 26 industry sectors and utilizes the approach of interdependent networks to analyze the substructure of the resulting international trade network for the years 1990-2011. The partition of the network into national economies is observed to be compatible with the notion of communities in the sense of complex network theory. By studying internal versus cross-subgraph contributions to established complex network metrics, new insights into the architecture of global trade are obtained, which allow to identify key elements of global economy. Specifically, financial services and business activities dominate domestic trade whereas electrical and machinery industries dominate foreign trade. In order to further specify each national sector's role individually, (cross-clustering coefficients and cross-betweenness are obtained for different pairs of subgraphs. The corresponding analysis reveals that specific industrial sectors tend to favor distinct directionality patterns and that the cross-clustering coefficient for geographically close country pairs is remarkably high, indicating that spatial factors are still of paramount importance for the organization of trade patterns in modern economy. Regarding the evolution of the trade network's substructure, globalization is well-expressed by trends of several structural characteristics (e.g., link density and node strength in the interacting network framework. Extreme events, such as the financial crisis 2008/2009, are manifested as anomalies

  17. Viewing engineering offshoring in a network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Zhang, Yufeng; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Companies are increasingly engaged with global engineering networks through offshoring of product development activities from R&D to production. This creates many new challenges as operations get physically and culturally decoupled. The purpose of this paper is to improve understanding...... of how to effectively manage engineering offshoring activities in a context of global engineering networks. The main research question, therefore, is: “Can offshoring of engineering tasks be explained and managed using the concept of Global Engineering Networks (GEN)?” Effective approaches to handling...... the associated risks of engineering offshoring will be a key area of the investigation. Design/methodology/approach – The research approach is based on the engineering design research methodology developed by Blessing and Chakrabarti, including a descriptive phase and a prescriptive phase. Four case studies...

  18. An ensemble perspective on multi-layer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wider, Nicolas; Scholtes, Ingo; Schweitzer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We study properties of multi-layered, interconnected networks from an ensemble perspective, i.e. we analyze ensembles of multi-layer networks that share similar aggregate characteristics. Using a diffusive process that evolves on a multi-layer network, we analyze how the speed of diffusion depends on the aggregate characteristics of both intra- and inter-layer connectivity. Through a block-matrix model representing the distinct layers, we construct transition matrices of random walkers on multi-layer networks, and estimate expected properties of multi-layer networks using a mean-field approach. In addition, we quantify and explore conditions on the link topology that allow to estimate the ensemble average by only considering aggregate statistics of the layers. Our approach can be used when only partial information is available, like it is usually the case for real-world multi-layer complex systems.

  19. User-centric networking future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Aldini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This work represents a milestone for the? 'ULOOP User-centric Wireless Local Loop' project funded by the EU IST Seventh Framework Programme.ULOOP is focused on the robust, secure, and autonomic deployment of user-centric wireless networks. Contributions by ULOOP partners as well as invited tutorials by international experts in the field. The expected impact is to increase awareness to user-centric networking in terms, e.g., of business opportunities and quality of experience, and to present adequate technology to sustain the growth of user-friendly wireless architectures.Throughout the last 3

  20. Network Modeling and Simulation A Practical Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Guizani, Mohsen; Khan, Bilal

    2010-01-01

    Network Modeling and Simulation is a practical guide to using modeling and simulation to solve real-life problems. The authors give a comprehensive exposition of the core concepts in modeling and simulation, and then systematically address the many practical considerations faced by developers in modeling complex large-scale systems. The authors provide examples from computer and telecommunication networks and use these to illustrate the process of mapping generic simulation concepts to domain-specific problems in different industries and disciplines. Key features: Provides the tools and strate

  1. The business incubator in a network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2003-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a new incubator model, the "networked incubator", which is a hybrid form of the archetypal business incubators, based on territorial synergy, relational symbiosis and economices of scale, to the benefit of the participating 'incubatees'. The question...... addressed in this paper is why this new model has emerged and what distinguishes it from the more traditional incubator model. The theoretical basis of the research is social capital theory. Empirically, the paper is based on 6 months' ethnographic data collected in one of the first known networked...... incubators. The closing section of the paper addresses the implications for research and practitioners....

  2. La teoría del actor-red y la tesis de la tecnociencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverría, Javier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Actor-network theory and the analysis of technoscience developed by Javier Echeverría (2003 have many features in common, but they also diverge in a number of points. While the analysis of technoscience amounts to the attempt of classifying and characterizing the modalities of contemporary scientific and technological practices, the set of methodological tools of actor-network theory brings to the forefront the disorder hidden behind the ordered image of both contemporary and past technoscience. However, actor-network theory may be useful to describe the complex networks woven by research centres, institutions, universities, and companies, and their products in terms of natural and social order. In this paper, we characterize actor-network theory as well as technoscience and we identify how both, in spite of their differences, might benefit each other.La teoría del actor-red y el análisis de la tecnociencia desarrollado por Javier Echeverría (2003 presentan múltiples puntos comunes, pero también importantes divergencias. Mientras que el análisis de la tecnociencia responde al intento filosófico de clasificar y caracterizar las modalidades de práctica científico-tecnológica contemporánea, el conjunto de herramientas metodológicas de la teoría del actor-red trae al primer plano el desorden oculto tras la ordenada apariencia de la tecnociencia, la contemporánea y la de épocas pasadas. Sin embargo, la teoría del actor-red se muestra útil para describir las complejas redes tejidas por centros de investigación, instituciones, universidades y empresas, y los productos resultantes de las mismas en términos de orden natural y social. En este trabajo caracterizamos someramente tanto la teoría del actorred como la tecnociencia, para identificar de qué modo ambas, pese a sus diferencias, pueden beneficiarse mutuamente.

  3. The performance of public corporate actors: Essays on effects of institutional and network embeddedness in supranational, national, and local collaborative contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, J.

    2012-01-01

    Public corporate actors – governments, government bureaucracies, and nongovernmental organizations strongly involved in the delivery of public services – address key social problems in society. They permeate many dimensions of our personal lives. They impact our health care, education, and social

  4. The performance of public corporate actors: Essays on effects of institutional and network embeddedness in supranational, national, and local collaborative contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, J.

    2012-01-01

    Public corporate actors – governments, government bureaucracies, and nongovernmental organizations strongly involved in the delivery of public services – address key social problems in society. They permeate many dimensions of our personal lives. They impact our health care, education, and social se

  5. Exploring the Relations, Bargaining Forms and Dynamics of the EU Food Supply Chain under the Perspective of the Key Actors: Evidence from Greece and Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Galanopoulos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  The objective of this paper is to offer qualitative and quantitative insights on the perceptions of the actors in the EU food supply chain on a broad spectrum of topics that characterise its operation and conduct, highlighting also potential differences in North and South European countries. Issues explored pertained to actors’ relations with up- and downstream partners, the future dynamic and challenges of the food sector, the influence of policy intervention and attitudes towards genetically modified products (GMPs and organic production. For this purpose, a total of 34 food supply chain actors in Denmark and Greece were interviewed using a semi-structured interview process. A comparative analysis of the interviews pinpointed many similarities in the behaviour and the perceptions of the Greek and Danish farmers, cooperatives, processors and retailers alike. Still, while it is evident that companies and farmers of both countries struggle with a lot of the same problems, several differences in perceptions are also identified. These refer mainly to attitudes towards mergers and acquisitions, innovations, GMPs and the effects and limitations of EU policy intervention.

  6. Perspective: network-guided pattern formation of neural dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütt, Marc-Thorsten; Kaiser, Marcus; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2014-10-05

    The understanding of neural activity patterns is fundamentally linked to an understanding of how the brain's network architecture shapes dynamical processes. Established approaches rely mostly on deviations of a given network from certain classes of random graphs. Hypotheses about the supposed role of prominent topological features (for instance, the roles of modularity, network motifs or hierarchical network organization) are derived from these deviations. An alternative strategy could be to study deviations of network architectures from regular graphs (rings and lattices) and consider the implications of such deviations for self-organized dynamic patterns on the network. Following this strategy, we draw on the theory of spatio-temporal pattern formation and propose a novel perspective for analysing dynamics on networks, by evaluating how the self-organized dynamics are confined by network architecture to a small set of permissible collective states. In particular, we discuss the role of prominent topological features of brain connectivity, such as hubs, modules and hierarchy, in shaping activity patterns. We illustrate the notion of network-guided pattern formation with numerical simulations and outline how it can facilitate the understanding of neural dynamics. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Uncovering Influence through Social Network Analysis: The Role of Schools in Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolleck, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Germany and explores the possibilities of Social Network Analysis (SNA) for uncovering influential actors in educational policy innovation processes. From the theoretical perspective, an actor's influence is inferred from its relative position within…

  8. Actors at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobakht, Behrooz

    2016-01-01

    The core contributions of this thesis target the intersection of object orientation, actor model, and concurrency. We choose Java as the main target programming language and as one of the mainstream object-oriented languages. We formalize a subset of Java and its concurrency API to facilitate formal

  9. The rising influence of urban actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    It is time to recognize cities as global actors. City networks are reaching across the globe and local city governments are collaborating on crucial environmental issues. Coordinating policy at a local level, they are increasingly taking the lead in tackling global problems such as climate change.

  10. The rising influence of urban actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    It is time to recognize cities as global actors. City networks are reaching across the globe and local city governments are collaborating on crucial environmental issues. Coordinating policy at a local level, they are increasingly taking the lead in tackling global problems such as climate change.

  11. Energy Efficiency Perspectives of PMR Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dolfi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the concern about energy efficiency in wireless communications has been growing rapidly. Manufacturers and researchers have developed innovative solutions, highlighting the benefits in reducing operational expenditures (OPEX and carbon footprint. Professional Mobile Radio (PMR systems, like Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA, have been designed to provide voice and data services to professional users. The energy consumption is one of the critical aspects of PMR broadband solutions and a major constraint for PMR services. The future convergence of PMR to the LTE system introduces a new topic in the research discussion about the energy efficiency of wireless systems. This paper focuses on the feasibility of energy efficient solutions for current and potentially future PMR networks, by providing a mathematical formulation of power consumption in TETRA base stations and assessing possible business models and energy saving solutions for enhanced mission-critical operations. The energy efficiency evaluation has been performed by taking into account the traffic load of a deployed TETRA regional network: in the considered network scenario with 150 base stations, significant OPEX savings up to 70 thousand Euros per year of operation are achieved. Moreover, the proposed solutions allow for saving more than 1 ton of CO 2 per year.

  12. Small-world networks in neuronal populations: a computational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippo, Antonio G; Gelsomino, Giuliana; Van Duin, Pieter; Nencini, Sara; Caramenti, Gian Carlo; Valente, Maurizio; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2013-08-01

    The analysis of the brain in terms of integrated neural networks may offer insights on the reciprocal relation between structure and information processing. Even with inherent technical limits, many studies acknowledge neuron spatial arrangements and communication modes as key factors. In this perspective, we investigated the functional organization of neuronal networks by explicitly assuming a specific functional topology, the small-world network. We developed two different computational approaches. Firstly, we asked whether neuronal populations actually express small-world properties during a definite task, such as a learning task. For this purpose we developed the Inductive Conceptual Network (ICN), which is a hierarchical bio-inspired spiking network, capable of learning invariant patterns by using variable-order Markov models implemented in its nodes. As a result, we actually observed small-world topologies during learning in the ICN. Speculating that the expression of small-world networks is not solely related to learning tasks, we then built a de facto network assuming that the information processing in the brain may occur through functional small-world topologies. In this de facto network, synchronous spikes reflected functional small-world network dependencies. In order to verify the consistency of the assumption, we tested the null-hypothesis by replacing the small-world networks with random networks. As a result, only small world networks exhibited functional biomimetic characteristics such as timing and rate codes, conventional coding strategies and neuronal avalanches, which are cascades of bursting activities with a power-law distribution. Our results suggest that small-world functional configurations are liable to underpin brain information processing at neuronal level.

  13. Tacos, Tiendas and Mezcal: An actor-network perspective on small-scale entrepreneurial projects in Western Mexico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The role of small firms in developing countries is a subject of continuous interest in both academic and policy circles. Small firms account for a large part of economic activity, and their employment share is remarkable. Yet, although considerable knowledge about them exists, some of the key issues

  14. Tacos, tiendas and mezcal : an actor-network perspective on small-scale entrepreneurial projects in Western mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The role of small firms in developing countries is a subject of continuous interest in both academic and policy circles. Small firms account for a large part of economic activity, and their employment share is remarkable. Yet, although considerable knowledge about them exists, some of the k

  15. Tacos, tiendas and mezcal : an actor-network perspective on small-scale entrepreneurial projects in Western mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The role of small firms in developing countries is a subject of continuous interest in both academic and policy circles. Small firms account for a large part of economic activity, and their employment share is remarkable. Yet, although considerable knowledge about them exists, some of the

  16. Edge anisotropy and the geometric perspective on flow networks

    CERN Document Server

    Molkenthin, Nora; Tupikina, Liubov; Marwan, Norbert; Donges, Jonathan F; Feudel, Ulrike; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V

    2016-01-01

    Spatial networks have recently attracted great interest in various fields of research. While the traditional network-theoretic viewpoint is commonly restricted to their topological characteristics (often disregarding existing spatial constraints), this work takes a geometric perspective, which considers vertices and edges as objects in a metric space and quantifies the corresponding spatial distribution and alignment. For this purpose, we introduce the concept of edge anisotropy and define a class of measures characterizing the spatial directedness of connections. Specifically, we demonstrate that the local anisotropy of edges incident to a given vertex provides useful information about the local geometry of geophysical flows based on networks constructed from spatio-temporal data, which is complementary to topological characteristics of the same flow networks. Taken both structural and geometric viewpoints together can thus assist the identification of underlying flow structures from observations of scalar v...

  17. Edge anisotropy and the geometric perspective on flow networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molkenthin, Nora; Kutza, Hannes; Tupikina, Liubov; Marwan, Norbert; Donges, Jonathan F.; Feudel, Ulrike; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-03-01

    Spatial networks have recently attracted great interest in various fields of research. While the traditional network-theoretic viewpoint is commonly restricted to their topological characteristics (often disregarding the existing spatial constraints), this work takes a geometric perspective, which considers vertices and edges as objects in a metric space and quantifies the corresponding spatial distribution and alignment. For this purpose, we introduce the concept of edge anisotropy and define a class of measures characterizing the spatial directedness of connections. Specifically, we demonstrate that the local anisotropy of edges incident to a given vertex provides useful information about the local geometry of geophysical flows based on networks constructed from spatio-temporal data, which is complementary to topological characteristics of the same flow networks. Taken both structural and geometric viewpoints together can thus assist the identification of underlying flow structures from observations of scalar variables.

  18. Network robustness assessed within a dual connectivity perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Zaliapin, Ilya; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2014-01-01

    Network robustness against attacks has been widely studied in fields as diverse as the Internet, power grids and human societies. Typically, in these studies, robustness is assessed only in terms of the connectivity of the nodes unaffected by the attack (the harder it is to destroy the connectivity of the 'healthy' nodes, the more robust the network is considered). However, in many systems, the connectivity of the affected nodes too may play a significant role in evaluating the overall network robustness. Here, we propose a dual perspective approach, wherein at any instant in the network evolution under attack, two distinct networks are defined: (i) the Active Network (AN) composed of the unaffected nodes and (ii) the Idle Network (IN) composed of the affected nodes. The proposed robustness metric considers both the efficiency of destroying the AN and the efficiency of building-up the IN. We show that trade-offs between the efficiency of Active and Idle network dynamics give rise to surprising crossovers and ...

  19. Empathy and attribution: turning observers into actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, D T; Totten, J

    1975-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to test Jones and Nisbett's information-processing explanation of the often-observed tendency for individuals (actors) to provide relatively more situational and less dispositional causal attributions for their behavior than those provided by observers of the same behavior. According to this explanation, aspects of the situation are phenomenologically more salient for actors, whereas characteristics of the actor and his behavior are more salient for observers. To test this explanation, the phenomenological perspective of observers are altered without making available any additional information. Subjects watched a videotape of a get-acquainted conversation after instructions either to observe a target conversant or to empathize with her. As predicted, taking the perspective of the target through empathy resulted in attributions that were relatively more situational and less dispositional than attributions provided by standard observers. The results support Jones and Nisbett's information-processing explanation of actor-observer attributional differences, and shed additional light on the process of empathy.

  20. Perspectives for parasitology and parasitology networks in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Olesen, Ole F; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Loiseau, Philippe M; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    This article describes networks of parasitologists in Europe. Some research networks are supported by the European Commission within highly diverse framework programs. The European Federation of Parasitologists aims to promote the exchange of knowledge and the coordination of research in the fields of basic, veterinary and medical parasitology, particularly via meetings (e.g. the European Multicolloquium of Parasitology) that offer an unparalleled opportunity to assess the development of the discipline on the continent. The present situation is discussed here and some perspectives are proposed.

  1. Exploring the locus of invention : The dynamics of network communities and firms’ invention productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sytch, M.; Tatarynowicz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Departing from prior research analyzing the implications of social structure for actors' outcomes by applying either an ego network or a global network perspective, this study examines the implications of network communities for the invention productivity of firms. Network communities represent

  2. 基于熵权的传感反应网络任务分派算法%Tasks Assignment Algorithm Based on Entropy for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易军; 许磊

    2011-01-01

    针对无线传感反应网络中事件频发区域内执行器节点能耗过大问题,提出一种基于熵权的任务分派算法,利用拍卖机制,建立基于熵权的执行代价评估模型,并根据网络的实际情况,将任务元分派建模成平衡或者非平衡整数规划问题,使任务并发执行.仿真实验表明,网络实时性和能耗均衡性都得到了改善.%Aimed at "hot zone" problem of wireless sensor and actor networks, a tasks assignment algorithm based on entropy was proposed to make the whole network energy consumption more balanced. Considering network situation,the entropy-based cost of taking action model was established by using auction method. The task assignment problem among actors was formulated as a balanced or non-balanced task assignment optimization problem, different task units were executed in parallel to enhance higher real-time response. The result of simulation shows that the algorithm can provide more balance in energy consumption and higher real-time performance.

  3. Conference Report: Actor Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naziker Bayram

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable progress in neuroscience contributes a great deal to the debate about topics such as "free will" and "intersubjectivity." The brain is considered to be the initial basis, the superior entity of human action and evolves more and more into an autonomous actor challenging the social and philosophical sciences to a somatic turn. The main aim of the symposium "Actor Brain" at Duisburg-Essen University, was to more precisely conceive the approaches taken by neuroscience in order to arrive at a better understanding of them and their implications. Due to the scientific diversity of the speakers, the final discussion could point out that the positions taken by the participants were not as incompatible as may be first assumed. The need for accurate and precise definitions of terms such as "action", "decision-making", and "free will" is accentuated as the complexity of the debate increases. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0603241

  4. New Actors and Alliances in Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    a changing set of key relations and alliances in development – those between business and consumers; ngos and celebrities; philanthropic organisations and the state; diaspora groups and transnational advocacy networks; ruling elites and productive capitalists; and ‘new donors’ and developing country......‘New actors and alliances in development’ brings together an interdisciplinary group of scholars exploring how development financing and interventions are being shaped by a wider and more complex platform of actors than usually considered in the existing literature. The contributors also trace...... governments. Despite the diversity of these actors and alliances, several commonalities arise: they are often based on hybrid transnationalism and diffuse notions of development responsibility; rather than being new per se, they are newly being studied as practices that are now coming to be understood...

  5. Public-Private Partnerships for the Provision of Port Infrastructure: An Explorative Multi-Actor Perspective on Critical Success Factors1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Aerts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public-private cooperation on the level of project finance, and provision of large-scale infrastructure projects, is increasing on the global level. This paper uses a multi-actor analysis, in order to explore the critical success factors (CSFs for sound implementation of public-private partnerships (PPPs in the port context, and to determine the diverging opinions of stakeholders with regard to the importance of these CSFs. The results indicate that eight CSFs are of superior importance in port PPPs: the concreteness and preciseness of the concession agreement, the ability to appropriately allocate and share risk, the technical feasibility of the project, the commitment made by partners, the attractiveness of the financial package, a clear definition of responsibilities, the presence of a strong private consortium and a realistic cost/benefit assessment. The reason for their importance is their deal-breaking character, which can lead to a total failure of PPP projects during the early stages of project conception.

  6. A solution for actors' viewpoints representation with collaborative product development

    CERN Document Server

    Geryville, Hichem; Ouzrout, Yacine; Sapidis, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    As product complexity and marketing competition increase, a collaborative product development is necessary for companies which develop high quality products in short lead-times. To support product actors from different fields, disciplines, and locations, wishing to exchange and share information, the representation of the actors' viewpoints is the underlying requirement of the collaborative product development. The actors' viewpoints approach was designed to provide an organisational framework following the actors' perspectives in the collaboration, and their relationships, could be explicitly gathered and formatted. The approach acknowledges the inevitability of multiple integration of product information as different views, promotes gathering of actors' interests, and encourages retrieved adequate information while providing support for integration through PLM and/or SCM collaboration. In this paper, a solution for neutral viewpoints representation is proposed. The product, process, and organisation informa...

  7. A Complex Systems Science Perspective on Wireless Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MACALUSO Irene; GALIOTTO Carlo; MARCHETTI Nicola; DOYLE Linda

    2016-01-01

    The paper targets a future world where all wireless networks are self-organising entities and in which the predominant mode of spectrum access is dynamic.The paper explores whether the behaviour of a collection of autonomous self-organising wireless systems can be treated as a complex system and whether complex systems science can shed light on the design and deployment of these networks.The authors focus on networks that self-organise from a frequency perspective to understand the behaviour of a collection of wireless self-organising nodes.Each autonomous network is modelled as a cell in a lattice and follows a simple set of self-organisation rules.Two scenarios are considered,one in which each cell is based on cellular automata and which provides an abstracted view of interference and a second in which each cell uses a self-organising technique which more accurately accounts for interference.The authors use excess entropy to measure complexity and in combination with entropy gain an understanding of the structure emerging in the lattice for the self-organising networks.The authors show that the self-organising systems presented here do exhibit complex behaviour.Finally,the authors look at the robustness of these complex systems and show that they are robust against changes in the environment.

  8. ActorDroid

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Ce projet de diplôme a pour but de tester les possibilités d'utilisaton du langage de programmation Scala sur un environnement Android, notamment pour l'utilisation des "remote actors". L'objectif final était de créer un démonstrateur constitué d'appareils mobiles sous Android au sein d'un système distribué mettant à disposition des services basés sur des acteurs, permettant d'une part de faire du calcul distribué parallèle et, d'autr part, d partager des informations de metering en temps rée...

  9. Virtual water trade and country vulnerability: A network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Martina; Schiavo, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    This work investigates the relationship between countries' participation in virtual water trade and their vulnerability to external shocks from a network perspective. In particular, we investigate whether (i) possible sources of local national crises may interact with the system, propagating through the network and affecting the other countries involved; (ii) the topological characteristics of the international agricultural trade network, translated into virtual water-equivalent flows, may favor countries' vulnerability to external crises. Our work contributes to the debate on the potential merits and risks associated with openness to trade in agricultural and food products. On the one hand, trade helps to ensure that even countries with limited water (and other relevant) resources have access to sufficient food and contribute to the global saving of water. On the other hand, there are fears that openness may increase the vulnerability to external shocks and thus make countries worse off. Here we abstract from political considerations about food sovereignty and independence from imports and focus instead on investigating whether the increased participation in global trade that the world has witnessed in the last 30 years has made the system more susceptible to large shocks. Our analysis reveals that: (i) the probability of larger supply shocks has not increased over time; (ii) the topological characteristics of the VW network are not such as to favor the systemic risk associated with shock propagation; and (iii) higher-order interconnections may reveal further important information about the structure of a network. Regarding the first result, fluctuations in output volumes, among the sources of shock analyzed here, are more likely to generate some instability. The first implication is that, on one side, past national or regional economic crises were not necessarily brought about or strengthened by global trade. The second, more remarkable, implication is that, on

  10. In search of relevance: Perspectives on the contribution of academic-practitioner networks

    OpenAIRE

    Knights, D.; Scarbrough, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper contributes to the current debate on the relevance of academic research to organizational practice but departs from the conventional view of perceiving the problem as one of improving the diffusion of knowledge from research to practice. Two theoretical lenses - Mode 2 and actor network theory - are drawn upon to examine case vignettes of the authors' involvement in academic-practitioner collaborations. The resulting analysis assists us in understanding the production of knowledge ...

  11. The World Trade Web: A Multiple-Network Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sgrignoli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    International Trade (IT) plays a fundamental role in today's economy: by connecting world countries production and consumption processes, it radically contributes in shaping their economy and development path. Although its evolving structure and determinants have been widely analyzed in the literature, much less has been done to understand its interplay with other complex phenomena. The aim of this work is, precisely in this direction, to study the relations of IT with International Migration (IM) and Foreign Direct Investments (FDI). In both cases the procedure used is to first approach the problem in a multiple-networks perspective and than deepen the analysis by using ad hoc econometrics techniques. With respect to IM, a general positive correlation with IT is highlighted and product categories for which this effect is stronger are identified and cross-checked with previous classifications. Next, employing spatial econometric techniques and proposing a new way to define country neighbors based on the most ...

  12. Community, Collective or Movement? Evaluating Theoretical Perspectives on Network Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, W.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, the New England Aquarium has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science venues to effectively communicate about climate change. We are now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. NNOCCI enables teams of informal science interpreters across the country to serve as "communication strategists" - beyond merely conveying information they can influence public perceptions, given their high level of commitment, knowledge, public trust, social networks, and visitor contact. We provide in-depth training as well as an alumni network for ongoing learning, implementation support, leadership development, and coalition building. Our goals are to achieve a systemic national impact, embed our work within multiple ongoing regional and national climate change education networks, and leave an enduring legacy. What is the most useful theoretical model for conceptualizing the work of the NNOCCI community? This presentation will examine the pros and cons of three perspectives -- community of practice, collective impact, and social movements. The community of practice approach emphasizes use of common tools, support for practice, social learning, and organic development of leadership. A collective impact model focuses on defining common outcomes, aligning activities toward a common goal, structured collaboration. A social movement emphasizes building group identity and creating a sense of group efficacy. This presentation will address how these models compare in terms of their utility in program planning and evaluation, their fit with the unique characteristics of the NNOCCI community, and their relevance to our program goals.

  13. Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions and their actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Omar Ron

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The work exposed here seeks to display, as a synthesis, the general characteristics and some conclusions of the investigation project "Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions through actors' perspective", developed between 2003 and 2005. It is through it that we sought to recognize the ideas and concepts that coexist in everyday institutional life, by recovering the voice of sport institutions' actors - parents, leaders, trainers and teachers, practising and players-, and also by analyzing speeches and practices; those institutions' distinguishing forms of organization; the ways that diverse actors relate and the social forms acting on them. We investigated sport institutions with the purpose of tracking the senses and meaning that actors grant them, their organization and dynamics, the reasons for their behaviour, the principles and logics that shape them. We also analyzed the joints that link them to external macroinstitutions, their autonomy or dependency with regard to the latter, and their incidence on sport institutions' logics

  14. New Actors and Alliances in Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    as ‘development’; and they are limited in their ability to act as agents of development by their lack of accountability or pro-poor commitment. The articles in this collection point to images and representations as increasingly important in development ‘branding’ and suggest fruitful new ground for critical......‘New actors and alliances in development’ brings together an interdisciplinary group of scholars exploring how development financing and interventions are being shaped by a wider and more complex platform of actors than usually considered in the existing literature. The contributors also trace...... a changing set of key relations and alliances in development – those between business and consumers; ngos and celebrities; philanthropic organisations and the state; diaspora groups and transnational advocacy networks; ruling elites and productive capitalists; and ‘new donors’ and developing country...

  15. “M—C—K”群体行动者网络模型与跨学科创新团队知识生产机制%'M-C-K' Group Actor Network Model and Knowledge Production Mechanism of Interdisciplinary Innovation Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳洲

    2012-01-01

    Based on network - Interdisciplinary innovation team is an important organization for contemporary knowledge production. Actor-Network Theory and Knowledge Network Theory, the paper builds a 'material network -knowledge cultural network (M-C-K)' coupling actor network model and group actor network model of interdisciplin- ary innovation team, analyzes 'M-C-K' network co-evolutionary mechanism interdisciplinary innovation team's knowledge production, points out the process,forms and powers of interdisciplinary innovation team's knowledge pro- duction.%跨学科创新团队是当代知识生产的重要组织形式。基于行动者网络和知识网络理论,构建了“物质网-知识网-文化网(M—C—K)”耦合的行动者网络模型和跨学科创新团队“M—c—K”群体行动者网络模型,分析了跨学科创新囱队知识生产的“M—C—K”网络协同进化机制,论述了跨学科创新团队知识生产的过程、形式和动力。

  16. Les institutions et les acteurs en santé au travail au Québec et en France : regard croisé Occupational health institutions and actors in Québec and in France: new comparative perspective Las instituciones y los actores en salud laboral en Quebec y en Francia : una mirada cruzada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Ferré

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Au Québec comme en France, l’environnement institutionnel dans le domaine de la santé et de la sécurité au travail présente une grande densité. La loi québécoise du 21 décembre 1979, orchestrant l’ensemble du dispositif, a placé en son cœur la Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail. Elle cumule toutes les fonctions constitutionnelles en matière de prévention et de réparation. Elle est assistée par un corps d’inspection et s’appuie sur le réseau public de santé. En France, le paysage est plus éclaté. Il n’existe pas d’organisme équivalent. L’inspection du travail intervient pour s’assurer du respect des normes. Les organismes de sécurité sociale, qui prennent en charge les lésions professionnelles, incitent les employeurs à faire de la prévention. Les médecins du travail sont des travailleurs subordonnés, liés aux entreprises dans lesquelles ils interviennent. Dans les établissements, plusieurs acteurs héritent de missions diverses. L’étendue de la responsabilité de l’employeur est plus importante en France.In Québec, as in France, the institutional environment in the occupational health and safety field is extremely important. The Québec law of December 21, 1979, orchestrating its entire organization, placed the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (workers’ compensation board at its centre. It encompasses all the constitutional prevention and repair functions. It is assisted by an inspection body and is supported by the public health network. In France, the landscape is more dispersed. There is no equivalent organization. Work inspection comes into play to ensure compliance with standards. Social security organizations, which take charge of occupational injuries, encourage employers to do prevention. Occupational health physicians are subordinate workers, linked to the companies in which they work. In establishments, several actors inherit various missions

  17. Determinants of Research and Development Intensity from a Network Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Joe K.L.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We model and examine the research and development (R&D intensity of a focal industry from an inter-industry network perspective. More specifically, we estimate how a focal industry’s R&D investment is affected by partner (suppliers and customers industries’ R&D expenditure. We also investigate the impact of the overall economy on the focal industry’s R&D expenditure and finally how a focal industry’s position in the supply chain network moderates the overall economy’s impact on the focal industry’s R&D expenditure. We found that, in general, a focal industry’s R&D intensity is positively associated with its partner industries’ R&D intensity. In addition, an industry’s R&D intensity is positively associated with the growth rate of the overall economy. Finally, we found that a more central industry is subjected to a stronger impact of macroeconomic shocks on its R&D intensity though there is no significant association between an industry’s centrality and its R&D intensity.

  18. Toward next-generation optical networks: a network operator perspective based on experimental tests and economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaojun; Du, Chunsheng; Zhou, Rongsheng

    2004-04-01

    As a result of data traffic"s exponential growth, network is currently evolving from fixed circuit switched services to dynamic packet switched services, which has brought unprecedented changes to the existing transport infrastructure. It is generally agreed that automatic switched optical network (ASON) is one of the promising solutions for the next generation optical networks. In this paper, we present the results of our experimental tests and economic analysis on ASON. The intention of this paper is to present our perspective, in terms of evolution strategy toward ASON, on next generation optical networks. It is shown through experimental tests that the performance of current Pre-standard ASON enabled equipments satisfies the basic requirements of network operators and is ready for initial deployment. The results of the economic analysis show that network operators can be benefit from the deployment of ASON from three sides. Firstly, ASON can reduce the CAPEX for network expanding by integrating multiple ADM & DCS into one box. Secondly, ASON can reduce the OPEX for network operation by introducing automatic resource control scheme. Finally, ASON can increase margin revenue by providing new optical network services such as Bandwidth on Demand, optical VPN etc. Finally, the evolution strategy is proposed as our perspective toward next generation optical networks. We hope the evolution strategy introduced may be helpful for the network operators to gracefully migrate their fixed ring based legacy networks to next generation dynamic mesh based network.

  19. Sharing, caring, and surveilling: an actor-partner interdependence model examination of Facebook relational maintenance strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Bree

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Relational maintenance is connected to high quality friendships. Friendship maintenance behaviors may occur online via social networking sites. This study utilized an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine how Facebook maintenance and surveillance affect friendship quality. Bryant and Marmo's (2012) Facebook maintenance scale was evaluated, revealing two factors: sharing and caring. Facebook surveillance was also measured. For friendship satisfaction and liking, significant positive actor and partner effects emerged for caring; significant negative actor, partner, and interaction effects emerged for sharing; and significant positive actor effects emerged for surveillance. For friendship closeness, significant positive actor effects emerged for caring and surveillance.

  20. The role of vascular actors in two dimensional dialogue of human bone marrow stromal cell and endothelial cell for inducing self-assembled network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Li

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is very important for vascularized tissue engineering. In this study, we found that a two-dimensional co-culture of human bone marrow stromal cell (HBMSC and human umbical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC is able to stimulate the migration of co-cultured HUVEC and induce self-assembled network formation. During this process, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF₁₆₅ was upregulated in co-cultured HBMSC. Meanwhile, VEGF₁₆₅-receptor2 (KDR and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA were upregulated in co-cultured HUVEC. Functional studies show that neutralization of VEGF₁₆₅ blocked the migration and the rearrangement of the cells and downregulated the expression of uPA and its receptor. Blocking of vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cad did not affect the migration of co-cultured HUVEC but suppressed the self-assembled network formation. In conclusion, co-cultures upregulated the expression of VEGF₁₆₅ in co-cultured HBMSC; VEGF₁₆₅ then activated uPA in co-cultured HUVEC, which might be responsible for initiating the migration and the self-assembled network formation with the participation of VE-cad. All of these results indicated that only the direct contact of HBMSC and HUVEC and their respective dialogue are sufficient to stimulate secretion of soluble factors and to activate molecules that are critical for self-assembled network formation which show a great application potential for vascularization in tissue engineering.

  1. Los diferentes actores del conflicto

    OpenAIRE

    Consani, Norberto E.

    1991-01-01

    Los acontecimientos del Medio Oriente es el resultado de la acción de un país o de conyunturas históricas y geopolíticas complejas en las cuales varios actores juegan su rol? Nosotros vamos a analizar el comportamiento de algunos actores, individual y colectivamente para intentar tener una mejor comprensión del conflicto. Instituto de Relaciones Internacionales (IRI)

  2. Sociología del desarrollo: una perspectiva centrada en el actor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    This is a translation of : Development sociology : actor perspectives / London [etc.] : Routledge, 2001. - 294 p. ISBN 0415235359 Using case studies and empirical material from Africa and Latin America, this book focuses on the theoretical and methodological foundations of an actor-oriented and soci

  3. A Social Network Perspective on Turnover Intentions : The Role of Distributive Justice and Social Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soltis, Scott M.; Agneessens, Filip; Sasovova, Zuzana; Labianca, Giuseppe (Joe)

    Organizations are increasingly concerned about retaining human talent, particularly within knowledge-based industries where turnover is expensive. Our study employs a social network perspective to explore the influence of employees' formal and informal workplace relationships on their turnover

  4. Effect of using peer tutoring to support knowledge sharing in Learning Networks: A cognitive load perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Hsiao, Y. P., Brouns, F., & Sloep, P. B. (2010, 4 November). Effect of using peer tutoring to support knowledge sharing in Learning Networks: A cognitive load perspective. Presentation at ICO-Toogdag, Amstelveen, The Netherlands: VU Amsterdam.

  5. Effect of using peer tutoring to support knowledge sharing in Learning Networks: A cognitive load perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Hsiao, Y. P., Brouns, F., & Sloep, P. B. (2010). Effect of using peer tutoring to support knowledge sharing in Learning Networks: A cognitive load perspective. ICO-Toogdag. November, 4, 2010, Amstelveen, The Netherlands: VU Amsterdam.

  6. Pedophilia: neuropsychological evidence encouraging a brain network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tost, Heike; Vollmert, Christian; Brassen, Stefanie; Schmitt, Andrea; Dressing, Harald; Braus, Dieter F

    2004-01-01

    Although the vast majority of current pathogenetic theories support a neurobiological understanding of psychiatric disorders, the brain functional correlates of pedophilia are largely unknown. Based on prior behavior genetics research on human sexual orientation and phenomenology as well as the phenotypical intersection of pedophilia with other psychiatric spectrum disorders, we hypothesize the involvement of striato-thalamo-cortical processing loops in the formation of pedophilic urges and behaviors. Data from a current neuropsychological pilot study in four pedophiles encourage our brain functional perspective. As deduced from the network model, all four patients exhibited pronounced and circumscribed deficits in cognitive domains mediated by striato-thalamically controlled areas of the frontal cortex. All patients were especially impaired in neuropsychological functions associated with the prefrontal and motor processing loops (e.g., response inhibition, working memory and cognitive flexibility), with a performance level located up to five standard deviations below the normative data. Contrary to this, neuropsychological performances in cognitive domains without a comparable high frontal loading were in all participants unobtrusive. In future, studying gene by environment interactions in combination with functional neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment is promising to elucidate the pathophysiological relationship of psychiatric disorders that are characterized by inadequate urges and poor behavioral inhibition.

  7. You're a What? Voice Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  8. A National Perspective on Women Owning Woodlands (WOW) Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Emily S.

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a national overview of women owning woodlands (WOW) networks and the barriers and successes they encounter. Qualitative interview data with key network leaders were used for increasing understanding of how these networks operate. Network leaders were all connected professionally, and all successful WOW networks involved…

  9. Topological Structure of Urban Street Networks from the Perspective of Degree Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin; Lu, Feng; Yang, Tinghong; Zhao, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks demonstrate a phenomenon of striking degree correlations, i.e., a node tends to link to other nodes with similar (or dissimilar) degrees. From the perspective of degree correlations, this paper attempts to characterize topological structures of urban street networks. We adopted six urban street networks (three European and three North American), and converted them into network topologies in which nodes and edges respectively represent individual streets and street intersections, and compared the network topologies to three reference network topologies (biological, technological, and social). The urban street network topologies (with the exception of Manhattan) showed a consistent pattern that distinctly differs from the three reference networks. The topologies of urban street networks lack striking degree correlations in general. Through reshuffling the network topologies towards for example maximum or minimum degree correlations while retaining the initial degree distributions, we found...

  10. Multicultural Monologues for Young Actors. The Young Actors Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaight, Craig, Ed.; Sharrar, Jack, Ed.

    This book presents 62 monologue selections from diverse cultures for young actors to perform. The book's selections offer "quality literature by significant writers." Some of the writers represented in the book are George C. Wolfe, Miguel Pinero, Lorraine Hansberry, Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones), John M. Synge, Yukio Mishima, Reynolds…

  11. Review Essay: Does Qualitative Network Analysis Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis was formed and established in the 1970s as a way of analyzing systems of social relations. In this review the theoretical-methodological standpoint of social network analysis ("structural analysis" is introduced and the different forms of social network analysis are presented. Structural analysis argues that social actors and social relations are embedded in social networks, meaning that action and perception of actors as well as the performance of social relations are influenced by the network structure. Since the 1990s structural analysis has integrated concepts such as agency, discourse and symbolic orientation and in this way structural analysis has opened itself. Since then there has been increasing use of qualitative methods in network analysis. They are used to include the perspective of the analyzed actors, to explore networks, and to understand network dynamics. In the reviewed book, edited by Betina HOLLSTEIN and Florian STRAUS, the twenty predominantly empirically orientated contributions demonstrate the possibilities of combining quantitative and qualitative methods in network analyses in different research fields. In this review we examine how the contributions succeed in applying and developing the structural analysis perspective, and the self-positioning of "qualitative network analysis" is evaluated. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701287

  12. Spontaneous Strategies in Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Husted, Emil Krastrup

    of materiality in relation to the organization and structuring of virtual worlds. We examine various innovation processes in five Danish entrepreneurial companies where actors continuously struggle to stabilize virtual worlds as platforms for professional communication. With inspiration from actor-network theory...... and a site ontology, we show how physical sites and objects become constitutive of the inside of virtual worlds through innovation processes. This argument is in line with ANT’s perspective on strategy, where sites and objects are considered a strategically relevant resource in the innovation process...... about virtual worlds and how these worlds should be organized....

  13. Actor Bonds in Situations of Discontinuous Business Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    . Furthermore the governance structure of markets characterized by discontinuous business activities is either that of the "socially constructed market" (Skaates, 2000) or that of the (socially constructed) network (Håkansson and Johanson, 1993). Additionally relationships and actor bonds vary substantially...... in situations of discontinuity. Therefore an analysis and comparison of relevant concepts that capture the key generative features of actor bonds in both socially constructed networks and socially constructed markets is undertaken. These concepts include the "milieu" of project marketing (Cova et al., 1996......) and the institutional concept of the "field". Finally this paper introduces the concept of "social capital" (Bourdieu, 1983) and discusses whether it can be used to conceptualize the dynamic features of actor bonds in situations of discontinuity....

  14. Nociones del conflicto en actores escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Valderrama H

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca contribuir a la reflexión sobre la problemática del conflicto escolar a partir de algunas nociones que ciertos actores escolares tienen sobre el mismo, sus manifestaciones, sus causas u orígenes y las maneras como afirman se resuelve en sus instituciones. Desde una perspectiva que pretende inscribirse en el campo de la comunicación-educación, se describe la heterogeneidad de las posturas manifestadas por estudiantes, docentes y directivos y se intentan comprender éstas a partir de algunos postulados teóricos planteados por la sociología del conflicto y la pedagogía crítica.This essay contributes to an ongoing debate on the problematic of school conflict, working from certain concepts that some of the actors in schools have about conflict, its manifestations, causes or origins, and the manners in which they manifest that they are resolved. From a perspective that wants to inscribe itself in the field of communication-education, it describes the heterogeneity of the different views put forward by students, teaches, and school directors, and searches to understand these based on certain theoretical postulates derived from the fields of sociology of conflict and critical pedagogy.

  15. [Health system sustainability from a network perspective: a proposal to optimize healthy habits and social support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqués Sánchez, Pilar; Fernández Peña, Rosario; Cabrera León, Andrés; Muñoz Doyague, María F; Llopis Cañameras, Jaime; Arias Ramos, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The search of new health management formulas focused to give wide services is one of the priorities of our present health policies. Those formulas examine the optimization of the links between the main actors involved in public health, ie, users, professionals, local socio-political and corporate agents. This paper is aimed to introduce the Social Network Analysis as a method for analyzing, measuring and interpreting those connections. The knowledge of people's relationships (what is called social networks) in the field of public health is becoming increasingly important at an international level. In fact, countries such as UK, Netherlands, Italy, Australia and U.S. are looking formulas to apply this knowledge to their health departments. With this work we show the utility of the ARS on topics related to sustainability of the health system, particularly those related with health habits and social support, topics included in the 2020 health strategies that underline the importance of the collaborative aspects in networks.

  16. Graduate Employability: The Perspective of Social Network Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong

    2017-01-01

    This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding how the graduate acquire employability through the social network in the Chinese context, using insights from the social network theory. This paper builds a conceptual model of the relationship among social network, social network learning and the graduate employability, and uses…

  17. Uncertainty and confidence from the triple-network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Thomas P.; Engen, Nina Helkjær; Sørensen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    was consistently observed in the salience (anterior cingulate cortex and insula) and central executive network (dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices) in conditions of increased uncertainty; by contrast, default mode network (midline cortical and medial temporal lobe) regions robustly exhibited...

  18. Perspective: network-guided pattern formation of neural dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hütt, Marc-Thorsten; Kaiser, Marcus; Claus C Hilgetag

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of neural activity patterns is fundamentally linked to an understanding of how the brain's network architecture shapes dynamical processes. Established approaches rely mostly on deviations of a given network from certain classes of random graphs. Hypotheses about the supposed role of prominent topological features (for instance, the roles of modularity, network motifs or hierarchical network organization) are derived from these deviations. An alternative strategy could be to...

  19. Hamiltonian perspective on compartmental reaction-diffusion networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seslija, Marko; van der Schaft, Arjan; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the recent developments in modeling and analysis of reaction networks, we provide a geometric formulation of the reversible reaction networks under the influence of diffusion. Using the graph knowledge of the underlying reaction network, the obtained reaction diffusion system is a distri

  20. Picture this: Managed change and resistance in business network settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses change management in networks. The literature on business networks tends to downplay the role of managerial initiative in network change. The change management literature addresses such initiative, but with its single-firm perspective it overlooks the interdependence of network...... actors. In exploring the void between these two streams of literature, we deploy the concept of network pictures to discuss managed change in network settings. We analyze a change project from the furniture industry and address the consequences of attempting to manage change activities in a network...... context characterized by limited managerial authority over these activities. Our analysis suggests that change efforts unfold as a negotiated process during which the change project is re-negotiated to fit the multiple actor constituencies. The degree of overlap in the co-existing network pictures...

  1. Public utilities in networks: competition perspectives and new regulations; Services publics en reseau: perspectives de concurrence et nouvelles regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergougnoux, J

    2000-07-01

    This report makes first a status about the historical specificities, the present day situation and the perspectives of evolution of public utilities in networks with respect to the European directive of 1996 and to the 4 sectors of electricity, gas, railway transport and postal service. Then, it wonders about the new institutions and regulation procedures to implement to conciliate the public utility mission with the honest competition. (J.S.)

  2. Transnational corporations as 'keystone actors' in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österblom, Henrik; Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Crona, Beatrice; Troell, Max; Merrie, Andrew; Rockström, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons) and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems.

  3. Transnational corporations as 'keystone actors' in marine ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Österblom

    Full Text Available Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems.

  4. Perspective Application of Passive Optical Network with Optimized Bus Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lafata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive optical networks (PONs represent a promising solution for modern access telecommunication networks.These networks are able to meet the increasing demands on transmission rate for demanding multimedia services,while they can offer typical shared transmission speed of 1.25 or 2.5 Gbps. The major role in deploying opticaldistribution networks ODNs plays the maximum attenuable loss, which is caused mainly by passive optical splitters.This paper proposes an innovative application of passive optical networks with optimized bus topology especially forlocal backbone data networks. Due to using only passive components, it is necessary to optimize certain parameters,especially an overall attenuation balance. Considering the possibility of such optimization, the passive optical networkwith optimized bus topology provides several interesting opportunities for specific applications. This paper will presentselected aspects of passive optical networks and splitters with asymmetric splitting ratio. The essential part is focusedon the practical demonstration of their use to optimize the passive optical network with bus topology, which acts as alocal backbone network for structured cabling systems, and for local data networks in large buildings.

  5. Acting discursively: the development of UK organic food and farming policy networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOMLINSON, Isobel Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the early evolution of UK organic food and farming policy networks and locates this empirical focus in a theoretical context concerned with understanding the contemporary policy-making process. While policy networks have emerged as a widely acknowledged empirical manifestation of governance, debate continues as to the concept's explanatory utility and usefulness in situations of network and policy transformation since, historically, policy networks have been applied to "static" circumstances. Recognizing this criticism, and in drawing on an interpretivist perspective, this paper sees policy networks as enacted by individual actors whose beliefs and actions construct the nature of the network. It seeks to make links between the characteristics of the policy network and the policy outcomes through the identification of discursively constructed "storylines" that form a tool for consensus building in networks. This study analyses the functioning of the organic policy networks through the discursive actions of policy-network actors.

  6. Balancing Renewable Electricity Energy Storage, Demand Side Management, and Network Extension from an Interdisciplinary Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Droste-Franke, Bert; Rehtanz, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Schneider, Jens-Peter; Schreurs, Miranda; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A significant problem of integrating renewable energies into the electricity system is the temporally fluctuating energy production by wind and solar power plants. Thus, in order to meet the ambitious long-term targets on CO2 emission reduction, long-term viable low-carbon options for balancing electricity will be needed. This interdisciplinary study analyses published future energy scenarios in order to get an impression of the required balancing capacities and shows which framework conditions should be modified to support their realisation. The authors combine their perspectives from energy engineering, technology assessment, political science, economical science and jurisprudence and address science, politics, actors in the energy sector and the interested public. Respectively, requirements for the balancing systems are analysed, considering the case of Germany as a large country with high ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, an approach to investigate the optimal design of the techn...

  7. Governing the global corporation: A critical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, S. B.

    2010-01-01

    In this article I provide a critical perspective on governing the global corporation. While the papers in the 2009 special issue of Business Ethics Quarterly explore the political role of corporations I argue that they lack a sophisticated analysis of power across institutional and actor networks. The argument that corporate engagement with deliberative democracy can enhance the legitimacy of corporations does not take into account the effects of institutional, material and discursive forms o...

  8. A social network perspective of lead users and creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratzer, Jan; Lettl, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    closely correlates to individual creativity, and both, in turn, to the provision of information in social networks. This study, guided by lead user theory, creativity research and network theory, investigates 16 school-groups of children examining the relationship between the children's social networks...... and their resulting creativity and lead userness. In addition, the interplay between lead userness and creativity is discussed and empirically tested. The main result of this study is that children who are positioned as bridging links between different groups in social networks reveal both a high degree of lead...

  9. Problematization of perspectives on health promotion and empowerment in mental health nursing--within the research network "MeHNuRse" and the Horatio conference, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Patrik D; Nunstedt, Håkan; Berglund, Inger J; Ahlström, Britt H; Hedelin, Birgitta; Skärsäter, Ingela; Jormfeldt, Henrika

    2014-01-01

    Mental illness is increasing worldwide, while society's response seems to be a trend toward narrower and more specialized mental health care. This development is creating great demands on mental health nurses to include a health promotion perspective in care and support of persons with mental illness. A health promotion perspective emphasizes cooperation and communication with people who suffer from long-term mental illness, focusing on their independence and health. From a health perspective, every human being is an actor in his/her own life, with an inherent ability to make his/her own choices. However, persons who suffer from long-term mental illness are at risk of losing power and control over areas of their lives and their health. Mental health nurses are in a position to support these individuals in promoting health and in maintaining or regaining control over their lives. The emphasis of this paper is to problematize mental health nurses' responsibility to provide health-promoting nursing care in relation to empowerment by means of emancipation, self-efficacy, and self-management. We argue that mental health nurses can work from a health-promoting perspective by using these concepts and that this challenges some of the traditional ideas of health promotion in mental health nursing. The theoretical background discussions in this paper have their origin in the research network "Mental Health Nursing Research in Scandinavia" (MeHNuRse) and from the professional discussions developed during a 2012 workshop that included mental health nurses and researchers at the European Horatio Festival in Stockholm.

  10. Problematization of perspectives on health promotion and empowerment in mental health nursing—Within the research network “MeHNuRse” and the Horatio conference, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Patrik D.; Nunstedt, Håkan; Berglund, Inger J.; Ahlström, Britt H.; Hedelin, Birgitta; Skärsäter, Ingela; Jormfeldt, Henrika

    2014-01-01

    Mental illness is increasing worldwide, while society's response seems to be a trend toward narrower and more specialized mental health care. This development is creating great demands on mental health nurses to include a health promotion perspective in care and support of persons with mental illness. A health promotion perspective emphasizes cooperation and communication with people who suffer from long-term mental illness, focusing on their independence and health. From a health perspective, every human being is an actor in his/her own life, with an inherent ability to make his/her own choices. However, persons who suffer from long-term mental illness are at risk of losing power and control over areas of their lives and their health. Mental health nurses are in a position to support these individuals in promoting health and in maintaining or regaining control over their lives. The emphasis of this paper is to problematize mental health nurses’ responsibility to provide health-promoting nursing care in relation to empowerment by means of emancipation, self-efficacy, and self-management. We argue that mental health nurses can work from a health-promoting perspective by using these concepts and that this challenges some of the traditional ideas of health promotion in mental health nursing. The theoretical background discussions in this paper have their origin in the research network “Mental Health Nursing Research in Scandinavia” (MeHNuRse) and from the professional discussions developed during a 2012 workshop that included mental health nurses and researchers at the European Horatio Festival in Stockholm. PMID:24717267

  11. Next generation network performance management: a business perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harding, C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a Next Generation Network (NGN) performance management model in a business context. The CSIR is currently in the process of the concept design for the new Next Generation Communications Network (NGCN) for a large South African...

  12. Collective Learning: Theoretical Perspectives and Ways To Support Networked Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Maarten; Simons, Robert-Jan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews three types of collective learning networks, teams, and communities. Advocates learning communities as a powerful way to stimulate shared learning. Warns that, although technology enables networked learning, group dynamics are crucial and must be considered. Describes progressive inquiry and team roles as ways to support collective…

  13. China's Education Policy-Making: A Policy Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuangmiao; Ye, Fugui

    2017-01-01

    Policy network approach has become a broadly accepted and frequently adopted practice in modern state governance, especially in the public sector. The study utilises a broadly defined policy network conceptual frame and categories of reference to trace the evolution of education policy-making in China. The study uses "The Outline of China's…

  14. Ocean-atmosphere coupling from a climate network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    In recent years extensive studies on the climate system have been carried out making use of advanced complex network statistics. However, most previous studies have been characterized by two conceptual restrictions: First, in most cases network measures have been computed without taking into account the topology of the discrete grid, regular or irregular, that climate data is typically stored on. To overcome this problem, the concept of node splitting invariant network measures has been introduced considering individual node weights, for example according to the surface area a node represents, when computing network measures [1]. Second, the great majority of recent studies have been focussing on single climatological fields located on surfaces parallel to or directly on the Earth's surface. A recent work introduced a methodology for quantifying interaction structures between geopotential height fields at different isobaric surfaces by proposing general definitions for network measures dealing with a network of networks composed from distinct subnetworks [2]. In this work, we combine both, the node-weighting scheme as well as the interacting network measure approach. For this purpose, we invent new node-weighted cross-network measures that provide a general tool for quantifying interaction structures in multilayer networks that is applicable to many fields beyond the study of the climate system, such as communication, social or trade networks. Our new approach is utilized for studying ocean-atmosphere coupling in the northern hemisphere. Specifically, we construct 18 coupled climate networks based on monthly data from the ERA 40 reanalysis, each consisting of two subnetworks. In all cases, one subnetwork represents sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies while the other is based on the geopotential height (HGT) of isobaric surfaces at different pressure levels. By investigating the connectivity of the resulting interdependent network structures, we identify a

  15. Evolution based on chromosome affinity from a network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, R. L. S.; Fontoura, J. R. A.; Carneiro, T. K. G.; Moret, M. A.; Pereira, H. B. B.

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have focused on models to simulate the complex phenomenon of evolution of species. Several studies have been performed with theoretical models based on Darwin's theories to associate them with the actual evolution of species. However, none of the existing models include the affinity between individuals using network properties. In this paper, we present a new model based on the concept of affinity. The model is used to simulate the evolution of species in an ecosystem composed of individuals and their relationships. We propose an evolutive algorithm that incorporates the degree centrality and efficiency network properties to perform the crossover process and to obtain the network topology objective, respectively. Using a real network as a starting point, we simulate its evolution and compare its results with the results of 5788 computer-generated networks.

  16. Complex network perspective on structure and function of Staphylococcus aureus metabolic network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Ying; D W Ding

    2013-02-01

    With remarkable advances in reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks, uncovering complex network structure and function from these networks is becoming one of the most important topics in system biology. This work aims at studying the structure and function of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) metabolic network by complex network methods. We first generated a metabolite graph from the recently reconstructed high-quality S. aureus metabolic network model. Then, based on `bow tie' structure character, we explain and discuss the global structure of S. aureus metabolic network. The functional significance, global structural properties, modularity and centrality analysis of giant strong component in S. aureus metabolic networks are studied.

  17. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature...... of the actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  18. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature...... of the actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  19. Integrating proteomics profiling data sets: a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Akshay; Dakna, Mohammed; Mischak, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disease mechanisms often requires complex and accurate integration of cellular pathways and molecular networks. Systems biology offers the possibility to provide a comprehensive map of the cell's intricate wiring network, which can ultimately lead to decipher the disease phenotype. Here, we describe what biological pathways are, how they function in normal and abnormal cellular systems, limitations faced by databases for integrating data, and highlight how network models are emerging as a powerful integrative framework to understand and interpret the roles of proteins and peptides in diseases.

  20. Social Network Perspectives Reveal Strength of Academic Developers as Weak Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kelly E.; Crampton, Andrea; Hill, Matthew; Johnson, Elizabeth D.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Varsavsky, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Social network perspectives acknowledge the influence of disciplinary cultures on academics' teaching beliefs and practices with implications for academic developers. The contribution of academic developers in 18 scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) projects situated in the sciences are explored by drawing on data from a two-year national…

  1. In search of a network theory of innovations: relations, positions, and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Ahrweiler, P.

    2014-01-01

    As a complement to Nelson and Winter's (1977) article titled "In Search of a Useful Theory of Innovation," a sociological perspective on innovation networks can be elaborated using Luhmann's social systems theory, on the one hand, and Latour's "sociology of translations," on the other. Because of a

  2. Social Network Perspectives Reveal Strength of Academic Developers as Weak Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kelly E.; Crampton, Andrea; Hill, Matthew; Johnson, Elizabeth D.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Varsavsky, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Social network perspectives acknowledge the influence of disciplinary cultures on academics' teaching beliefs and practices with implications for academic developers. The contribution of academic developers in 18 scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) projects situated in the sciences are explored by drawing on data from a two-year national…

  3. El entrenamiento como base de la formación actoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Araque Osorio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The text presents a reflection on the actor’s training and its implications, virtues and contributions to the professional formation of actors. It starts from the experience that the author has assimilated as teacher and director, but mainly as an active actor, that appeals to his body as a work tool. From this perspective, the relationships between exercise, system and rehearsal are analyzed. Performance is not an esoteric and mystic act propitiated by the gods, it is a work that requires preparation, dedication and conscious inquiry. The actor or the actress that are unable to train in solitude, cannot contribute to a group, perhaps, this should be done without losing the perspective that theater is a collective act, in which communication plays an important role. For this reason, is fundamental to know how it is expressed, how it is signified and how a communication is begun between the actor and the spectator.

  4. Women in formal corporate networks: an organisational citizenship perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Val; Vinnicombe, Susan; Kumra, Savita

    2006-01-01

    To investigate women's corporate networks, and the reported benefits for the women and their employers. To gain insight into the motivation for these voluntary activities, by drawing on organisational citizenship theory.

  5. Uncertainty and confidence from the triple-network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Thomas P.; Engen, Nina Helkjær; Sørensen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    was consistently observed in the salience (anterior cingulate cortex and insula) and central executive network (dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices) in conditions of increased uncertainty; by contrast, default mode network (midline cortical and medial temporal lobe) regions robustly exhibited...... of environmental certainty. The functional and methodological implications of these findings are discussed with a view to improving future investigation of the neural basis of metacognitive judgement....

  6. A Network Perspective on Individual-Level Ambidexterity in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogan, Michelle; Mors, Marie Louise

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the call for a deeper understanding of ambidexterity at the individual level, we propose that managers’ networks are an important yet understudied factor in the ability to balance the trade-off between exploring for new business and exploiting existing business. Analyses of 1,449 ties ...... explored or exploited. The findings suggest that managers’ networks are important levers for their ability to behave ambidextrously and offer insights into the microfoundations of organizational ambidexterity....

  7. INDICADORES ESTRUCTURALES Y CONGLOMERADOS DE ACTORES EN LA RED SOCIAL DE UNA SUBCULTURA URBANA/STRUCTURAL INDICATORS AND CLUSTERS OF ACTORS IN THE SOCIAL NETWORK OF AN URBAN SUBCULTURE/ INDICADORES ESTRUTURAIS E CONGLOMERADOS DE ATORES NA REDE SOCIAL DE UMA SUBCULTURA URBANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hernando Ávila-Toscano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio buscó identificar la estructura de socialización de una subcultura urbana con la medición de indicadores estructurales de su red social e identificación de subagrupaciones. Se empleó el instrumento Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (ISSIS con 11 miembros de la subcultura roqueros. Se procesaron los datos mediante el análisis de redes sociales (ARS con el software Ucinet, para detectar conjuntos de actores con el procedimiento de conglomerados jerárquicos; y los gráficos de la red se crearon con NetDraw. Se identificaron niveles moderados de indicadores estructurales y las agrupaciones presentaron un número amplio de actores según el criterio de atracción por similaridad. Los subgrupos en la red fueron escasos, lo que muestra a la subcultura como una unidad social cuya integración se da por vinculaciones estrechas entre sus miembros.

  8. AN INSTITUTIONAL AND NETWORK PERSPECTIVE OF ORGANISATIONAL LEGITIMACY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CHINA′S TELECOMMUNICATIONS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Low

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This perspective paper combines institutional and industrial network theory to develop a framework for analysing organisational legitimacy. The main subject, Nokia China, is found to be sensitive to network-legitimating initiatives, with consequences that accommodate multiple, conflicting stakeholders′ interests in China′s politically sensitive and protective telecommunications market. This paper offers new insights into institutional isomorphism that is manifested empirically as incremental conformity to regulative processes, institutional norms and cognitive knowledge and meanings within the environment, thereby extending commonly held views of institutional theory to include organisational legitimacy in industrial networks.

  9. Mimicking Nature´s way of organizing in industry: a network learning perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Madsen, Henning

    The purpose of this paper is to further advance existing theory on industrial ecology, organisational network and organisational learning in order to speed up the development towards increased environmental awareness and behavior. It is argued that such a perspective offers a unique opportunity...... to reconsider organisational learning as being both an internal as well as an external phenomenon. By bringing network learning into an existing interorganisational setting (such as industrial ecology) new potentials for increased learning emerge for the participating companies. The concept of network learning...

  10. tradicional: Conflictos y actores laborales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Lucena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo forma parte de una línea de investigación más general que se ocupa de analizar las transformaciones en las Relaciones de Trabajo. El presente documento centra su atención en los cambios que experimenta la Organización del Trabajo y como ellos repercuten en la conflictividad laboral. Se parte de reconocer que la relación capital-trabajo es de naturaleza conflictiva, pero que los mecanismos de convivencia entre las partes y todo el marco regulatorio, permiten y facilitan el desenvolvimiento y la convivencia productiva. Sin embargo, los cambios en la Organización del Trabajo que reducen la fuerza de trabajo y lesionan conquistas históricas de los trabajadores, estimulan el desarrollo de conflictos colectivos, los que materializan en tanto existan constituidos los actores laborales. En el proceso de investigación seguido en esta línea, se revisa la literatura pertinente, se analizan casos de la realidad laboral venezolana reciente vía hemeroteca y entrevistas, privilegiándose la huelga de Sidor en el 2004. Se concluye, destacando que los cambios que paulatinamente se emprenden desde la empresa para modificar la Organización del Trabajo, erosionan la capacidad de respuesta de los actores laborales representativos de los trabajadores.

  11. Evolution after whole-genome duplication: a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Lin, Zhenguo; Nakhleh, Luay

    2013-11-06

    Gene duplication plays an important role in the evolution of genomes and interactomes. Elucidating how evolution after gene duplication interplays at the sequence and network level is of great interest. In this work, we analyze a data set of gene pairs that arose through whole-genome duplication (WGD) in yeast. All these pairs have the same duplication time, making them ideal for evolutionary investigation. We investigated the interplay between evolution after WGD at the sequence and network levels and correlated these two levels of divergence with gene expression and fitness data. We find that molecular interactions involving WGD genes evolve at rates that are three orders of magnitude slower than the rates of evolution of the corresponding sequences. Furthermore, we find that divergence of WGD pairs correlates strongly with gene expression and fitness data. Because of the role of gene duplication in determining redundancy in biological systems and particularly at the network level, we investigated the role of interaction networks in elucidating the evolutionary fate of duplicated genes. We find that gene neighborhoods in interaction networks provide a mechanism for inferring these fates, and we developed an algorithm for achieving this task. Further epistasis analysis of WGD pairs categorized by their inferred evolutionary fates demonstrated the utility of these techniques. Finally, we find that WGD pairs and other pairs of paralogous genes of small-scale duplication origin share similar properties, giving good support for generalizing our results from WGD pairs to evolution after gene duplication in general.

  12. You are so kind – and I am kind and smart: Actor – Observer Differences in the Interpretation of On-going Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abele Andrea E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : The dual perspective model of agency and communion predicts that observers tend to interpret a target’s behavior more in terms of communion than agency, whereas actors interpret their behavior more in terms of agency. The present research for the first time tests this model in real interactions. Previously unacquainted participants had a short conversation and afterwards rated their own behavior (actor perspective and their interaction partner’s behavior (observer perspective in terms of agency(self-confident, assertive and communion(trustworthy, empathic. Supporting the dual perspective model, observers rated the actor’s behavior higher on communion than on agency, and higher on communion than actors themselves did. Findings for actors were more complex: Actors rated their own behavior as more agentic than observers did. However, they also rated their behavior high on communion. We discuss implications for the dual perspective model as well as for (misunderstandings in social interactions.

  13. Actor Bonds in Situations of Discontinuous Business Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    in situations of discontinuity. Therefore an analysis and comparison of relevant concepts that capture the key generative features of actor bonds in both socially constructed networks and socially constructed markets is undertaken. These concepts include the "milieu" of project marketing (Cova et al., 1996......Demand in many industrial buying situations, e.g. project purchases or procurement related to virtual organizations, is discontinuous. In situations of discontinuity, networks are often more of an ad hos informational and social nature, as strong activity and resource links are not present......) and the institutional concept of the "field". Finally this paper introduces the concept of "social capital" (Bourdieu, 1983) and discusses whether it can be used to conceptualize the dynamic features of actor bonds in situations of discontinuity....

  14. A financial network perspective of financial institutions' systemic risk contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Qiang; Zhuang, Xin-Tian; Yao, Shuang; Uryasev, Stan

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the effects of the financial institutions' local topology structure in the financial network on their systemic risk contribution using data from the Chinese stock market. We first measure the systemic risk contribution with the Conditional Value-at-Risk (CoVaR) which is estimated by applying dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH model (DCC-MVGARCH). Financial networks are constructed from dynamic conditional correlations (DCC) with graph filtering method of minimum spanning trees (MSTs). Then we investigate dynamics of systemic risk contributions of financial institution. Also we study dynamics of financial institution's local topology structure in the financial network. Finally, we analyze the quantitative relationships between the local topology structure and systemic risk contribution with panel data regression analysis. We find that financial institutions with greater node strength, larger node betweenness centrality, larger node closeness centrality and larger node clustering coefficient tend to be associated with larger systemic risk contributions.

  15. Mixed transportation network design under a sustainable development perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Ni, Ling-lin; Shi, Feng

    2013-01-01

    A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%.

  16. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%.

  17. Interleukin-7 Receptor Signaling Network: An Integrated Systems Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Megan J. Palmer; Vinay S. Mahajan; Lily C. Trajman; Darrell J. Irvine; Douglas A.Lauffenburger; Jianzhu Chen

    2008-01-01

    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is an essential cytokine for the development and homeostatic maintenance of T and B lymphocytes. Binding of IL-7 to its cognate receptor, the IL-7 receptor (IL-7R), activates multiple pathways that regulate lymphocyte survival, glucose uptake, proliferation and differentiation. There has been much interest in understanding how IL-7 receptor signaling is modulated at multiple interconnected network levels. This review examines how the strength of the signal through the IL-7 receptor is modulated in T and B cells, including the use of shared receptor components, signaling crosstaik, shared interaction domains, feedback loops, integrated gene regulation, muitimerization and ligand competition. We discuss how these network control mechanisms could integrate to govern the properties of IL-7R signaling in lymphocytes in health and disease. Analysis of IL-7receptor signaling at a network level in a systematic manner will allow for a comprehensive approach to understanding the impact of multiple signaling pathways on lymphocyte biology.

  18. Three perspectives on the evolving electric vehicles innovation network of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasanen, R.-S.; Temmes, A.; Lovio, R.

    2013-06-01

    This report compiles the electric vehicle related work done in 2012 in the project: Future innovation and technology policy for sustainable system-level transitions: the case of transport (FIP-Trans). The project focuses on researching alternative and complementary socio-technical pathways and related policy options for sustainable transition in the Finnish transport sector. The project is financed by Tekes - the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation. Analysis is continued in 2013. In this paper we study the evolving electric vehicle innovation network of Finland. The analysis is built on combining the theoretical aspects of Strategic Niche Management and Technology Innovation Systems. Based on the literature we develop a framework for analyzing the development of innovation networks. The framework contains four steps. The first step is the identification and analysis of the main actors and their activities. The second step is the identification and analysis of the main events affecting the development of the industry. This step is based on the use of event structure analysis. The third step consists of the analysis of development of the architecture of the system while the fourth step deals with the description and analysis of the niche and innovation system development processes in a combined manner. The data consists of interviews, policy and consultation papers, newspaper articles, press releases and other enterprise publications and of private databases containing financial information of the enterprises. Based on the theoretical framework, the four separate, but complementing qualitative analyses were made. The electric vehicle niche has evolved through the interaction of private and public sector actors. The involvement of public sector affected strongly on the evolution of the system arenas and was an important event for the resource mobilization of the industry. As with other Finnish industries, the importance of the international dimension

  19. Hybrid Networks and Risk Management in a System Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Katrine

    new possibilities and new types of risk, as well as legal and ethical concerns. At the same time, the rapid acceleration and hybridization of the battlespace challenges the classical military bureaucracies and its legal-rational decision-making processes. This paper will address some of the legal...... intelligent, autonomous systems and human operators in multi-domain Battle Management Networks, (i.e Command, Control, Communications, Computer and Intelligence (C4I) networks/sensor grids). However, the incorporation of intelligent and autonomous weapon systems in complex military operations introduces both...

  20. Who are the objects of positive and negative gossip at work? A social network perspective on workplace gossip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellwardt, Lea; Labianca, Giuseppe (Joe); Wittek, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Gossip is informal talking about colleagues. Taking a social network perspective, we argue that group boundaries and social status in the informal workplace network determine who the objects of positive and negative gossip are. Gossip networks were collected among 36 employees in a public child care

  1. Idea Management: Perspectives from Leadership, Learning, and Network Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Deichmann (Dirk)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, we focus on how leadership styles, individual learning behaviors, and social network structures drive or inhibit organizational members to repeatedly generate and develop innovative ideas. Taking the idea management programs of three multinational companies as the r

  2. Evolution of enzymes in metabolism: a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rui; Chaleil, Raphael A G; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2002-07-19

    Several models have been proposed to explain the origin and evolution of enzymes in metabolic pathways. Initially, the retro-evolution model proposed that, as enzymes at the end of pathways depleted their substrates in the primordial soup, there was a pressure for earlier enzymes in pathways to be created, using the later ones as initial template, in order to replenish the pools of depleted metabolites. Later, the recruitment model proposed that initial templates from other pathways could be used as long as those enzymes were similar in chemistry or substrate specificity. These two models have dominated recent studies of enzyme evolution. These studies are constrained by either the small scale of the study or the artificial restrictions imposed by pathway definitions. Here, a network approach is used to study enzyme evolution in fully sequenced genomes, thus removing both constraints. We find that homologous pairs of enzymes are roughly twice as likely to have evolved from enzymes that are less than three steps away from each other in the reaction network than pairs of non-homologous enzymes. These results, together with the conservation of the type of chemical reaction catalyzed by evolutionarily related enzymes, suggest that functional blocks of similar chemistry have evolved within metabolic networks. One possible explanation for these observations is that this local evolution phenomenon is likely to cause less global physiological disruptions in metabolism than evolution of enzymes from other enzymes that are distant from them in the metabolic network.

  3. Networking behaviour, graduate employability : A social capital perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batistic, S.; Tymon, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Drawing on the overarching framework of social capital theory this study develops and empirically examines networking behaviour and employability within the higher education context. Design/methodology/approach In a sample of 376 full-time business students we measured perceived

  4. Networking Behaviour, Graduate Employability: A Social Capital Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistic, Saša; Tymon, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Drawing on the overarching framework of social capital theory, the purpose of this paper is to develop and empirically examine networking behaviour and employability within the higher education context. Design/methodology/approach: In a sample of 376 full-time business students the authors measured perceived employability, networking…

  5. Characterizing air quality data from complex network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinghua; Wang, Li; Xu, Huihui; Li, Shasha; Tian, Lixin

    2016-02-01

    Air quality depends mainly on changes in emission of pollutants and their precursors. Understanding its characteristics is the key to predicting and controlling air quality. In this study, complex networks were built to analyze topological characteristics of air quality data by correlation coefficient method. Firstly, PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) indexes of eight monitoring sites in Beijing were selected as samples from January 2013 to December 2014. Secondly, the C-C method was applied to determine the structure of phase space. Points in the reconstructed phase space were considered to be nodes of the network mapped. Then, edges were determined by nodes having the correlation greater than a critical threshold. Three properties of the constructed networks, degree distribution, clustering coefficient, and modularity, were used to determine the optimal value of the critical threshold. Finally, by analyzing and comparing topological properties, we pointed out that similarities and difference in the constructed complex networks revealed influence factors and their different roles on real air quality system.

  6. The CE3R Network: current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Pesaresi, Damiano; Živčić, Mladen; Costa, Giovanni; Kuk, Kresimir; Bondár, István; Duni, Llambro; Spacek, Petr

    2016-04-01

    In order to improve the monitoring of seismic activities in the border regions and to enhance the collaboration between countries and seismological institutions in Central Europe, the Environment Agency of the Slovenian Republic (ARSO), the Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics (OGS), the University of Trieste (UniTS) and the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) established in 2001 the "South Eastern Alps Transfrontier Seismological Network". In May 2014 ARSO, OGS, UniTS and ZAMG agreed to formalize the transfrontier network, to name it "Central and East European Earthquake Research Network", (CE3RN or CE3R Network) in order to locate it geographically since cross-border networks can be established in other areas of the world and to expand their cooperation, including institutions in other countries. The University of Zagreb (UniZG) joined CE3RN in October 2014. The Kövesligethy Radó Seismological Observatory (KRSZO) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences joined CE3RN in October 2015. The Institute of Geosciences, Energy, Water and Environment (IGEWE) of the Polytechnic University of Tirana joined CE3RN in November 2015. The Institute of Physics of the Earth (IPE) of the Masaryk University in Brno joined CE3RN in November 2015. CE3RN Parties intend to formalize and possibly extend their ongoing cooperation in the field of seismological data acquisition, exchange and use for seismological and earthquake engineering and civil protection purposes. The purpose of this cooperation is to retain and expand the existing cross-border network, specify the rules of conduct in the network management, improvements, extensions and enlargements, enhance seismological research in the region, and support civil protection activities. Since the formal establishment of CE3RN, several common projects have been completed, like the SeismoSAT project for the seismic data center connection over satellite funded by the Interreg

  7. Mechanics of composite actin networks: in vitro and cellular perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Arpita

    2014-03-01

    Actin filaments and associated actin binding proteins play an essential role in governing the mechanical properties of eukaryotic cells. Even though cells have multiple actin binding proteins (ABPs) that exist simultaneously to maintain the structural and mechanical integrity of the cellular cytoskeleton, how these proteins work together to determine the properties of actin networks is not well understood. The ABP, palladin, is essential for the integrity of cell morphology and movement during development. Palladin coexists with alpha-actinin in stress fibers and focal adhesions and binds to both actin and alpha-actinin. To obtain insight into how mutually interacting actin crosslinking proteins modulate the properties of actin networks, we have characterized the micro-structure and mechanics of actin networks crosslinked with palladin and alpha-actinin. Our studies on composite networks of alpha-actinin/palladin/actin show that palladin and alpha-actinin synergistically determine network viscoelasticity. We have further examined the role of palladin in cellular force generation and mechanosensing. Traction force microscopy revealed that TAFs are sensitive to substrate stiffness as they generate larger forces on substrates of increased stiffness. Contrary to expectations, knocking down palladin increased the forces generated by cells, and also inhibited the ability to sense substrate stiffness for very stiff gels. This was accompanied by significant differences in the actin organization and adhesion dynamics of palladin knock down cells. Perturbation experiments also suggest altered myosin activity in palladin KD cells. Our results suggest that the actin crosslinkers such as palladin and myosin motors coordinate for optimal cell function and to prevent aberrant behavior as in cancer metastasis.

  8. Toward a Network Perspective of the Study of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R. J. McAllister

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Formal models used to study the resilience of social-ecological systems have not explicitly included important structural characteristics of this type of system. In this paper, we propose a network perspective for social-ecological systems that enables us to better focus on the structure of interactions between identifiable components of the system. This network perspective might be useful for developing formal models and comparing case studies of social-ecological systems. Based on an analysis of the case studies in this special issue, we identify three types of social-ecological networks: (1 ecosystems that are connected by people through flows of information or materials, (2 ecosystem networks that are disconnected and fragmented by the actions of people, and (3 artificial ecological networks created by people, such as irrigation systems. Each of these three archytypal social-ecological networks faces different problems that influence its resilience as it responds to the addition or removal of connections that affect its coordination or the diffusion of system attributes such as information or disease.

  9. Social Work in Ghana : Engaging Traditional Actors in Professional Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Avendal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary Ghana, the traditional system and professional social work operate as two parallel systems within the field of social work. The aim of this study was to investigate if and how the teaching of contemporary professional social work in Ghana takes into account traditional actors and practices. The traditional system includes extended family members and traditional authorities such as chiefs or family heads. It formed the social institution that protected and cared for the vulnerable before (Western social work was introduced as a formal profession in Ghana. A 10-week ethnographic field study was conducted at the Department of Social Work at the University of Ghana. The study employed a qualitative, social constructionist approach, interpreting the results within a theoretical framework of social world theory. The empirical material consisted of interviews with students and teachers, participant observation at lectures, and various documents. The main findings of the study were that professional social workers and traditional actors can be seen as members of two subworlds – the subworld of professional social workers and the subworld of traditional actors. Students and teachers discuss interventions from the perspective of social workers and traditional actors. Their ability to take different perspectives seems to be crucial for localisation – the process by which social work is made relevant to local culture and traditions. The interviewees’ accounts reveal how localisation is not only about culture, but also about social structures and practical considerations. The poor state of the social work profession in Ghana affects interventions in a profound way.

  10. Picture this: Managed change and resistance in business network settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses change management in networks. The literature on business networks tends to downplay the role of managerial initiative in network change. The change management literature addresses such initiative, but with its single-firm perspective it overlooks the interdependence of network...... context characterized by limited managerial authority over these activities. Our analysis suggests that change efforts unfold as a negotiated process during which the change project is re-negotiated to fit the multiple actor constituencies. The degree of overlap in the co-existing network pictures...

  11. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia

    2015-02-01

    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers' strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed.

  12. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers’ strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed. PMID:25866421

  13. Understanding crowd-powered search groups: a social network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingpeng Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crowd-powered search is a new form of search and problem solving scheme that involves collaboration among a potentially large number of voluntary Web users. Human flesh search (HFS, a particular form of crowd-powered search originated in China, has seen tremendous growth since its inception in 2001. HFS presents a valuable test-bed for scientists to validate existing and new theories in social computing, sociology, behavioral sciences, and so forth. METHODOLOGY: In this research, we construct an aggregated HFS group, consisting of the participants and their relationships in a comprehensive set of identified HFS episodes. We study the topological properties and the evolution of the aggregated network and different sub-groups in the network. We also identify the key HFS participants according to a variety of measures. CONCLUSIONS: We found that, as compared with other online social networks, HFS participant network shares the power-law degree distribution and small-world property, but with a looser and more distributed organizational structure, leading to the diversity, decentralization, and independence of HFS participants. In addition, the HFS group has been becoming increasingly decentralized. The comparisons of different HFS sub-groups reveal that HFS participants collaborated more often when they conducted the searches in local platforms or the searches requiring a certain level of professional knowledge background. On the contrary, HFS participants did not collaborate much when they performed the search task in national platforms or the searches with general topics that did not require specific information and learning. We also observed that the key HFS information contributors, carriers, and transmitters came from different groups of HFS participants.

  14. A physical layer perspective on access network sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Unlike in copper or wireless networks, there is no sharing of resources in fiber access networks yet, other than bit stream access or cable sharing, in which the fibers of a cable are let to one or multiple operators. Sharing optical resources on a single fiber among multiple operators or different services has not yet been applied. While this would allow for a better exploitation of installed infrastructures, there are operational issues which still need to be resolved, before this sharing model can be implemented in networks. Operating multiple optical systems and services over a common fiber plant, autonomously and independently from each other, can result in mutual distortions on the physical layer. These distortions will degrade the performance of the involved systems, unless precautions are taken in the infrastructure hardware to eliminate or to reduce them to an acceptable level. Moreover, the infrastructure needs to be designed such as to support different system technologies and to ensure a guaranteed quality of the end-to-end connections. In this paper, suitable means are proposed to be introduced in fiber access infrastructures that will allow for shared utilization of the fibers while safeguarding the operational needs and business interests of the involved parties.

  15. Characterization of chaotic attractors under noise: A recurrence network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Rinku; Harikrishnan, K. P.; Misra, R.; Ambika, G.

    2016-12-01

    We undertake a detailed numerical investigation to understand how the addition of white and colored noise to a chaotic time series changes the topology and the structure of the underlying attractor reconstructed from the time series. We use the methods and measures of recurrence plot and recurrence network generated from the time series for this analysis. We explicitly show that the addition of noise obscures the property of recurrence of trajectory points in the phase space which is the hallmark of every dynamical system. However, the structure of the attractor is found to be robust even upto high noise levels of 50%. An advantage of recurrence network measures over the conventional nonlinear measures is that they can be applied on short and non stationary time series data. By using the results obtained from the above analysis, we go on to analyse the light curves from a dominant black hole system and show that the recurrence network measures are capable of identifying the nature of noise contamination in a time series.

  16. The Phenological Network of Catalonia: an historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busto, Montserrat; Cunillera, Jordi; de Yzaguirre, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    The Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) began systematic phenological observation in 1932. Forty-four observers registered the phenophases of 45 plant species, the first or last sighting of six bird species and the first sighting of one species of butterfly. The study First results of phenological observation in Catalonia was published in 1936, showing the different behaviour of the vegetal species and birds according to geographical location. The SMC worked against the military fascist uprising during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). Therefore, once the war was finished, the organisation was quickly closed by the Franco dictatorship and the National Meteorological Service became the official institution in Spain. This organization created the Spanish Phenological Network in 1943 following similar standards to the former Catalan network. The reintroduction of democracy and the return of the Catalan self-government structures (1977) allowed the re-foundation of the SMC in 1996. The Climatology Department needed phenological data to complement the study of climatic indicators and realised the fragile situation of phenology observations in Catalonia, with very few operational series. Following a preliminary analysis of the different systems of recording and saving data, the Phenological network of Catalonia (Fenocat) was re-established in 2013. Fenocat is an active partner of the Pan European Phenology Database (PEP725) that uses BBCH-scale coding and the USA National Phenology Network observation system. It is an example of citizen science. As at December 2016, Fenocat had recorded more than 450,000 data. The extension of summer climatic conditions in the Western Mediterranean region has resulted in repetition of phenopases in the same year, such as the second flowering of the holm oak (Quercus ilex), almond tree (Prunus dulcis) and sweet cherry tree (Prunus avium), or the delay in the departure data of the swallow (Hirundo rustica) and hoopoe (Upupa epops

  17. Foundational perspectives on causality in large-scale brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Michael; Bressler, Steven L.

    2015-12-01

    A profusion of recent work in cognitive neuroscience has been concerned with the endeavor to uncover causal influences in large-scale brain networks. However, despite the fact that many papers give a nod to the important theoretical challenges posed by the concept of causality, this explosion of research has generally not been accompanied by a rigorous conceptual analysis of the nature of causality in the brain. This review provides both a descriptive and prescriptive account of the nature of causality as found within and between large-scale brain networks. In short, it seeks to clarify the concept of causality in large-scale brain networks both philosophically and scientifically. This is accomplished by briefly reviewing the rich philosophical history of work on causality, especially focusing on contributions by David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Bertrand Russell, and Christopher Hitchcock. We go on to discuss the impact that various interpretations of modern physics have had on our understanding of causality. Throughout all this, a central focus is the distinction between theories of deterministic causality (DC), whereby causes uniquely determine their effects, and probabilistic causality (PC), whereby causes change the probability of occurrence of their effects. We argue that, given the topological complexity of its large-scale connectivity, the brain should be considered as a complex system and its causal influences treated as probabilistic in nature. We conclude that PC is well suited for explaining causality in the brain for three reasons: (1) brain causality is often mutual; (2) connectional convergence dictates that only rarely is the activity of one neuronal population uniquely determined by another one; and (3) the causal influences exerted between neuronal populations may not have observable effects. A number of different techniques are currently available to characterize causal influence in the brain. Typically, these techniques quantify the statistical

  18. Estimation with Wireless Sensor Networks: Censoring and Quantization Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msechu, Eric James

    In the last decade there has been an increase in application areas for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which can be attributed to the advances in the enabling sensor technology. These advances include integrated circuit miniaturization and mass-production of highly-reliable hardware for sensing, processing, and data storage at a lower cost. In many emerging applications, massive amounts of data are acquired by a large number of low-cost sensing devices. The design of signal processing algorithms for these WSNs, unlike in wireless networks designed for communications, face a different set of challenges due to resource constraints sensor nodes must adhere to. These include: (i) limited on-board memory for storage; (ii) limited energy source, typically based on irreplaceable battery cells; (iii) radios with limited transmission range; and (iv) stringent data rates either due to a need to save energy or due to limited radio-frequency bandwidth allocated to sensor networks. This work addresses distributed data-reduction at sensor nodes using a combination of measurement-censoring and measurement quantization. The WSN is envisioned for decentralized estimation of either a vector of unknown parameters in a maximum likelihood framework, or, for decentralized estimation of a random signal using Bayesian optimality criteria. Early research effort in data-reduction methods involved using a centralized computation platform directing selection of the most informative data and focusing computational and communication resources toward the selected data only. Robustness against failure of the central computation unit, as well as the need for iterative data-selection and data-gathering in some applications (e.g., real-time navigation systems), motivates a rethinking of the centralized data-selection approach. Recently, research focus has been on collaborative signal processing in sensor neighborhoods for the data-reduction step. It is in this spirit that investigation of methods

  19. Foundational perspectives on causality in large-scale brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Michael; Bressler, Steven L

    2015-12-01

    A profusion of recent work in cognitive neuroscience has been concerned with the endeavor to uncover causal influences in large-scale brain networks. However, despite the fact that many papers give a nod to the important theoretical challenges posed by the concept of causality, this explosion of research has generally not been accompanied by a rigorous conceptual analysis of the nature of causality in the brain. This review provides both a descriptive and prescriptive account of the nature of causality as found within and between large-scale brain networks. In short, it seeks to clarify the concept of causality in large-scale brain networks both philosophically and scientifically. This is accomplished by briefly reviewing the rich philosophical history of work on causality, especially focusing on contributions by David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Bertrand Russell, and Christopher Hitchcock. We go on to discuss the impact that various interpretations of modern physics have had on our understanding of causality. Throughout all this, a central focus is the distinction between theories of deterministic causality (DC), whereby causes uniquely determine their effects, and probabilistic causality (PC), whereby causes change the probability of occurrence of their effects. We argue that, given the topological complexity of its large-scale connectivity, the brain should be considered as a complex system and its causal influences treated as probabilistic in nature. We conclude that PC is well suited for explaining causality in the brain for three reasons: (1) brain causality is often mutual; (2) connectional convergence dictates that only rarely is the activity of one neuronal population uniquely determined by another one; and (3) the causal influences exerted between neuronal populations may not have observable effects. A number of different techniques are currently available to characterize causal influence in the brain. Typically, these techniques quantify the statistical

  20. Microarchitecture of network-on-chip routers a designer's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrakopoulos, Giorgos; Seitanidis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a unified overview of network-on-chip router micro-architecture, the corresponding design opportunities and challenges, and existing solutions to overcome these challenges. The discussion focuses on the heart of a NoC, the NoC router, and how it interacts with the rest of the system. Coverage includes both basic and advanced design techniques that cover the entire router design space including router organization, flow control, pipelined operation, buffering architectures, as well as allocators' structure and algorithms. Router micro-architectural options are presented in a

  1. Actors in Academia--Roles Professors Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Mary Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    In order to set the stage for the "actors in academia," the author suggests that the following roles and responsibilities are the most significant ones for the college/university professor, including some for students: (1) Actor; (2) Communicator; (3) Facilitator; (4) Trainer/Coach; (5) Craftsman (craft of teaching); and (6) Manager. After 40…

  2. Drug Target Protein-Protein Interaction Networks: A Systematic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanghe Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification and validation of drug targets are crucial in biomedical research and many studies have been conducted on analyzing drug target features for getting a better understanding on principles of their mechanisms. But most of them are based on either strong biological hypotheses or the chemical and physical properties of those targets separately. In this paper, we investigated three main ways to understand the functional biomolecules based on the topological features of drug targets. There are no significant differences between targets and common proteins in the protein-protein interactions network, indicating the drug targets are neither hub proteins which are dominant nor the bridge proteins. According to some special topological structures of the drug targets, there are significant differences between known targets and other proteins. Furthermore, the drug targets mainly belong to three typical communities based on their modularity. These topological features are helpful to understand how the drug targets work in the PPI network. Particularly, it is an alternative way to predict potential targets or extract nontargets to test a new drug target efficiently and economically. By this way, a drug target’s homologue set containing 102 potential target proteins is predicted in the paper.

  3. Modelling Spiking Neural Network from the Architecture Evaluation Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ji; You-Hui Zhang; Wei-Min Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The brain-inspired spiking neural network (SNN) computing paradigm offers the potential for low-power and scalable computing, suited to many intelligent tasks that conventional computational systems find difficult. On the other hand, NoC (network-on-chips) based very large scale integration (VLSI) systems have been widely used to mimic neuro-biological architectures (including SNNs). This paper proposes an evaluation methodology for SNN applications from the aspect of micro-architecture. First, we extract accurate SNN models from existing simulators of neural systems. Second, a cycle-accurate NoC simulator is implemented to execute the aforementioned SNN applications to get timing and energy-consumption information. We believe this method not only benefits the exploration of NoC design space but also bridges the gap between applications (especially those from the neuroscientists’ community) and neuromorphic hardware. Based on the method, we have evaluated some typical SNNs in terms of timing and energy. The method is valuable for the development of neuromorphic hardware and applications.

  4. Towards the integration of social network analysis in an inter-organizational networks perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten; Waldstrøm, Christian

    This conceptual paper deals with the issue of studying inter-organizational networks while applying social network analysis (SNA). SNA is a widely recognized technique in network research, particularly within intra-organizational settings, while there seems to be a significant gap in the inter......-organizational setting. Based on a literature review of both SNA as a methodology and/or theory and the field of inter-organizational networks, the aim is to gain an overview in order to provide a clear setting for SNA in inter-organizational research....

  5. E-learning networked environments and architectures a knowledge processing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xindong; Pierre, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    This book provides state-of-the-art e-learning networked environments and architectures carried out over the last few years from a knowledge management perspective. It contains a comprehensive discussion of e-learning concepts, models, experiments and best practices. Presenting a wide-ranging survey of methods and applications from contributors from around the world, this book will be a valuable resource for researchers, practitioners and graduates.

  6. Following the actors and avatars of massively multi-user online role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    2007-01-01

    this way? What can we learn from this? Simple questions such as these have initiated the ongoing research project on ‘Actors and avatars communicating in virtual worlds’ [1], which is reported in this paper. In the project, five foci are dealt with: 1) the actors......), video-ethnography and visual anthropology (Banks 2001, Pink 2001), and it also draws on actor-network theory (Latour 2005). Finally, with reference to the empirical findings presented, the paper suggests a reflective designing strategy for organizational and educative learning environments (see figure 1...

  7. Memorias, subjetividades y actores sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Marlene Sánchez Moncada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una síntesis temática a modo de balance sobre la producción desarrollada en cinco años de la Maestría en Estudios Sociales de la Universidad Pedagógica Nacional. De hecho, los estudiantes de la línea ''Memoria, identidades y actores sociales'' han adelantado sus respectivas investigaciones en torno a estas temáticas con sus correspondientes especificidades. En cuanto a las memorias, han trabajado indagaciones sobre ciencias sociales escolares y la configuración de memoria nacional, en las cuales se han acompañado procesos de construcción de memoria con organizaciones sociales, además de analizar procesos de construcción de memorias sobre el conflicto armado colombiano. Asimismo, se ha abordado una variedad de temas en el enfoque dado a los individuos con potencial de cambio y transformación social. Finalmente, en relación con las subjetividades se han explorado temas como: performatividad, identidades atribuidas, identidades autoatribuidas y la constitución de sujeto.

  8. Environmental governance as inclusion and exclusion of actors and issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2016-01-01

    The chapter analyses recent governance in Denmark of the interaction between climate, energy and land use. Governance is seen as inclusion and exclusion of actors and their perspectives in decisions about problems and solutions. Inclusion and exclusion are discussed as decisions about members...... and focus of public commissions. Furthermore, inclusion and exclusion are discussed as an aspect of NGOs’ development of climate plans and the societal role of such plans. The chapter concludes that governance of this field is balancing the interests of established and polluting sectors and the interest...

  9. Environmental governance as inclusion and exclusion of actors and issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2016-01-01

    The chapter analyses recent governance in Denmark of the interaction between climate, energy and land use. Governance is seen as inclusion and exclusion of actors and their perspectives in decisions about problems and solutions. Inclusion and exclusion are discussed as decisions about members...... and focus of public commissions. Furthermore, inclusion and exclusion are discussed as an aspect of NGOs’ development of climate plans and the societal role of such plans. The chapter concludes that governance of this field is balancing the interests of established and polluting sectors and the interest...

  10. The Italian VLBI Network: First Results and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, Matteo; Negusini, Monia; Bianco, Giuseppe; Sarti, Pierguido

    2016-12-01

    A first 24-hour Italian VLBI geodetic experiment, involving the Medicina, Noto, and Matera antennas, shaped as an IVS standard EUROPE, was successfully performed. In 2014, starting from the correlator output, a geodetic database was created and a typical solution of a small network was achieved, here presented. From this promising result we have planned new observations in 2016, involving the three Italian geodetic antennas. This could be the beginning of a possible routine activity, creating a data set that can be combined with GNSS observations to contribute to the National Geodetic Reference Datum. Particular care should be taken in the scheduling of the new experiments in order to optimize the number of usable observations. These observations can be used to study and plan future experiments in which the time and frequency standards can be given by an optical fiber link, thus having a common clock at different VLBI stations.

  11. Operating a global seismic network - perspectives from the USGS GSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, L. S.; Derr, J. S.; Hutt, C. R.; Bolton, H.; Ford, D.; Gyure, G. S.; Storm, T.; Leith, W.

    2007-05-01

    The Global Seismographic Network (GSN) is a permanent digital network of state-of-the-art seismological and geophysical sensors connected by a global telecommunications network, serving as a multi-use scientific facility used for seismic monitoring for response applications, basic and applied research in solid earthquake geophysics, and earth science education. A joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Science Foundation, and Incorporated Research Institutions in Seismology (IRIS), the GSN provides near- uniform, worldwide monitoring of the Earth through 144 modern, globally distributed seismic stations. The USGS currently operates 90 GSN or GSN-affiliate stations. As a US government program, the USGS GSN is evaluated on several performance measures including data availability, data latency, and cost effectiveness. The USGS-component of the GSN, like the GSN as a whole, is in transition from a period of rapid growth to steady- state operations. The program faces challenges of aging equipment and increased operating costs at the same time that national and international earthquake and tsunami monitoring agencies place an increased reliance on GSN data. Data acquisition of the USGS GSN is based on the Quanterra Q680 datalogger, a workhorse system that is approaching twenty years in the field, often in harsh environments. An IRIS instrumentation committee recently selected the Quanterra Q330 HR as the "next generation" GSN data acquisition system, and the USGS will begin deploying the new equipment in the middle of 2007. These new systems will address many of the issues associated with the ageing Q680 while providing a platform for interoperability across the GSN.. In order to address the challenge of increasing operational costs, the USGS employs several tools. First, the USGS benefits from the contributions of local host institutions. The station operators are the first line of defense when a station experiences problems, changing boards

  12. Underground metabolism: network-level perspective and biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notebaart, Richard A; Kintses, Bálint; Feist, Adam M; Papp, Balázs

    2017-08-21

    A key challenge in molecular systems biology is understanding how new pathways arise during evolution and how to exploit them for biotechnological applications. New pathways in metabolic networks often evolve by recruiting weak promiscuous activities of pre-existing enzymes. Here we describe recent systems biology advances to map such 'underground' activities and to predict and analyze their contribution to new metabolic functions. Underground activities are prevalent in cellular metabolism and can form novel pathways that either enable evolutionary adaptation to new environments or provide bypass to genetic lesions. We also illustrate the potential of integrating computational models of underground metabolism and experimental approaches to study the evolution of novel metabolic phenotypes and advance the field of biotechnology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Urban Traffic Dynamics: A Scale-Free Network Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, M B; Jiang, R; Wu, Q S; Wang, B H; Wu, Y H; Hu, Mao-Bin; Wang, Wen-Xu; Jiang, Rui; Wu, Qing-Song; Wang, Bing-Hong; Wu, Yong-Hong

    2006-01-01

    This letter propose a new model for characterizing traffic dynamics in scale-free networks. With a replotted road map of cities with roads mapped to vertices and intersections to edges, and introducing the road capacity L and its handling ability at intersections C, the model can be applied to urban traffic system. Simulations give the overall capacity of the traffic system which is quantified by a phase transition from free flow to congestion. Moreover, we report the fundamental diagram of flow against density, in which hysteresis is found, indicating that the system is bistable in a certain range of vehicle density. In addition, the fundamental diagram is significantly different from single-lane traffic model and 2-D BML model with four states: free flow, saturated flow, bistable and jammed.

  14. A European perspective--the European clinical research infrastructures network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demotes-Mainard, J; Kubiak, C

    2011-11-01

    Evaluating research outcomes requires multinational cooperation in clinical research for optimization of treatment strategies and comparative effectiveness research, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) is a distributed ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific potential. Servicing multinational trials started during its preparatory phase, and ECRIN will now apply for an ERIC (European Research Infrastructures Consortium) status by 2011. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this achievement will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of the research and education capacity, tackling the major societal challenges starting with the area of healthy ageing, and removing barriers to bring ideas to the market.

  15. Underground metabolism: network-level perspective and biotechnological potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Notebaart, Richard A; Kintses, Bálint; Feist, Adam

    2018-01-01

    A key challenge in molecular systems biology is understanding how new pathways arise during evolution and how to exploit them for biotechnological applications. New pathways in metabolic networks often evolve by recruiting weak promiscuous activities of pre-existing enzymes. Here we describe recent...... systems biology advances to map such ‘underground’ activities and to predict and analyze their contribution to new metabolic functions. Underground activities are prevalent in cellular metabolism and can form novel pathways that either enable evolutionary adaptation to new environments or provide bypass...... to genetic lesions. We also illustrate the potential of integrating computational models of underground metabolism and experimental approaches to study the evolution of novel metabolic phenotypes and advance the field of biotechnology....

  16. Evolution and Controllability of Cancer Networks: A Boolean Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srihari, Sriganesh; Raman, Venkatesh; Leong, Hon Wai; Ragan, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Cancer forms a robust system capable of maintaining stable functioning (cell sustenance and proliferation) despite perturbations. Cancer progresses as stages over time typically with increasing aggressiveness and worsening prognosis. Characterizing these stages and identifying the genes driving transitions between them is critical to understand cancer progression and to develop effective anti-cancer therapies. In this work, we propose a novel model for the `cancer system' as a Boolean state space in which a Boolean network, built from protein-interaction and gene-expression data from different stages of cancer, transits between Boolean satisfiability states by "editing" interactions and "flipping" genes. Edits reflect rewiring of the PPI network while flipping of genes reflect activation or silencing of genes between stages. We formulate a minimization problem min flip to identify these genes driving the transitions. The application of our model (called BoolSpace) on three case studies-pancreatic and breast tumours in human and post spinal-cord injury (SCI) in rats-reveals valuable insights into the phenomenon of cancer progression: (i) interactions involved in core cell-cycle and DNA-damage repair pathways are significantly rewired in tumours, indicating significant impact to key genome-stabilizing mechanisms; (ii) several of the genes flipped are serine/threonine kinases which act as biological switches, reflecting cellular switching mechanisms between stages; and (iii) different sets of genes are flipped during the initial and final stages indicating a pattern to tumour progression. Based on these results, we hypothesize that robustness of cancer partly stems from "passing of the baton" between genes at different stages-genes from different biological processes and/or cellular components are involved in different stages of tumour progression thereby allowing tumour cells to evade targeted therapy, and therefore an effective therapy should target a "cover set" of

  17. Sentiment Polarization and Balance among Users in Online Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillmann, Robert; Trier, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Communication within online social network applications enables users to express and share sentiments electronically. Existing studies examined the existence or distribution of sentiments in online communication at a general level or in small-observed groups. Our paper extends this research...... by analyzing sentiment exchange within social networks from an ego-network perspective. We draw from research on social influence and social attachment to develop theories of node polarization, balance effects and sentiment mirroring within communication dyads. Our empirical analysis covers a multitude...... of social networks in which the sentiment valence of all messages was determined. Subsequently we studied ego-networks of focal actors (ego) and their immediate contacts. Results support our theories and indicate that actors develop polarized sentiments towards individual peers but keep sentiment in balance...

  18. Sentiment Polarization and Balance among Users in Online Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillmann, Robert; Trier, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Communication within online social network applications enables users to express and share sentiments electronically. Existing studies examined the existence or distribution of sentiments in online communication at a general level or in small-observed groups. Our paper extends this research...... by analyzing sentiment exchange within social networks from an ego-network perspective. We draw from research on social influence and social attachment to develop theories of node polarization, balance effects and sentiment mirroring within communication dyads. Our empirical analysis covers a multitude...... of social networks in which the sentiment valence of all messages was determined. Subsequently we studied ego-networks of focal actors (ego) and their immediate contacts. Results support our theories and indicate that actors develop polarized sentiments towards individual peers but keep sentiment in balance...

  19. Interests and Actors in European Police and Criminal Justice Cooperation : Legal and Practical Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The speeches included in this working paper were presented at the conference “Interests and Actors in European Police and Criminal Justice Cooperation: Legal and Practical Challenges” hosted by the Swedish Network for European Legal Studies in collaboration with the Faculty of Law at Uppsala University. The working paper includes the key speeches by some of the most prominent actors in Sweden in this field. After a brief introduction by the editors, the second section includes the speech by M...

  20. Vulnerability analysis for airport networks based on fuzzy soft sets: From the structural and functional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shanmei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to the reliability and vulnerability of critical infrastructure. In air traffic systems, the vulnerability analysis for airport networks can be used to guide air traffic administrations in their prioritization of the maintenance and repair of airports, as well as to avoid unnecessary disturbances in the planning of flight schedules. In this paper, the evaluation methods of airport importance and network efficiency are established. Firstly, the evaluation indices of airport importance are proposed from both the topological and functional perspectives. The topological characteristics come from the structure of airport network and the functional features stem from the traffic flow distribution taking place inside the network. Secondly, an integrated evaluation method based on fuzzy soft set theory is proposed to identify the key airports, which can fuse together importance indices over different time intervals. Thirdly, an airport network efficiency method is established for the purpose of assessing the accuracy of the evaluation method. Finally, empirical studies using real traffic data of US and China’s airport networks show that the evaluation method proposed in this paper is the most accurate. The vulnerability of US and China’s airport networks is compared. The similarities and differences between airport geography distribution and airport importance distribution are discussed here and the dynamics of airport importance is studied as well.

  1. Aging brain from a network science perspective: something to be positive about?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle W Voss

    Full Text Available To better understand age differences in brain function and behavior, the current study applied network science to model functional interactions between brain regions. We observed a shift in network topology whereby for older adults subcortical and cerebellar structures overlapping with the Salience network had more connectivity to the rest of the brain, coupled with fragmentation of large-scale cortical networks such as the Default and Fronto-Parietal networks. Additionally, greater integration of the dorsal medial thalamus and red nucleus in the Salience network was associated with greater satisfaction with life for older adults, which is consistent with theoretical predictions of age-related increases in emotion regulation that are thought to help maintain well-being and life satisfaction in late adulthood. In regard to cognitive abilities, greater ventral medial prefrontal cortex coherence with its topological neighbors in the Default Network was associated with faster processing speed. Results suggest that large-scale organizing properties of the brain differ with normal aging, and this perspective may offer novel insight into understanding age-related differences in cognitive function and well-being.

  2. Balancing renewable electricity. Energy storage, demand side management, and network extension from an interdisciplinary perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste-Franke, Bert [Europaeische Akademie zur Erforschung von Folgen Wissenschaftlich-Technischer Entwicklungen GmbH, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler (Germany); Paal, Boris P.; Rehtanz, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Schneider, Jens-Peter; Schreurs, Miranda; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    A significant problem of integrating renewable energies into the electricity system is the temporally fluctuating energy production by wind and solar power plants. Thus, in order to meet the ambitious long-term targets on CO{sub 2} emission reduction, long-term viable low-carbon options for balancing electricity will be needed. This interdisciplinary study analyses published future energy scenarios in order to get an impression of the required balancing capacities and shows which framework conditions should be modified to support their realisation. The authors combine their perspectives from energy engineering, technology assessment, political science, economical science and jurisprudence and address science, politics, actors in the energy sector and the interested public. Respectively, requirements for the balancing systems are analysed, considering the case of Germany as a large country with high ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, an approach to investigate the optimal design of the technical system for balancing electricity over Europe is sketched. Looking at the challenges of a future energy system a mix of complementary technologies will prospectively become prevalent. In order to foster the needed innovation processes adequately, several funding mechanisms and legal regulations should be adapted. The authors give recommendations to handle major challenges in the development of the technical infrastructure, for the design of market conditions and for specific support of the application of balancing technologies. (orig.)

  3. Using networks to enhance health services delivery: perspectives, paradoxes and propositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Timothy R; Casebeer, Ann; Vanderplaat, Madine

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing need to better understand and address the consequences of an increasing reliance on networks used to enhance health services delivery. Networks seem to have emerged as the definitive solution for tackling complex healthcare problems together that we have not been able to adequately address separately. Emphasizing the collective and the collaborative, networks are assumed to address healthcare issues in ways that are superior to previous service-delivery models. While this assumption would appear to be sound theoretically, we have little empirical information available to actually understand what networks are, what they do and whether they achieve their stated goals--truly making a difference in the delivery of care and the maintenance of health. With a diversity of networks within Canada focused on health services delivery, this paper offers a multi-dimensional framework for conceptualizing how these complex inter-organizational relationships generate both challenges and opportunities. We identify six paradoxes that the networks create when used to enhance the delivery of health services and posit several propositions concerning the evaluative work that needs to be done to enhance our understanding of and confidence in this inter-organizational form. Unless these paradoxes are adequately recognized and addressed, the value and costs associated with developing and using networks in healthcare contexts will remain unclear at best. Given the broad interest in and use of networks proliferating in health-related arenas, it is time to amass the evidence and than align the perspectives. Are networks here to stay in healthcare because they make a difference or because we got tired of talking about the need for greater collaboration and so gave it a new name and frame? At the very least, it will be important to build on what we have already learned through research into collaboration in healthcare and related fields, and even more critical to be mindful

  4. Packing induced bistable phenomenon in granular flow:analysis from complex network perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡茂彬; 刘启一; 孙王平; 姜锐; 吴清松

    2014-01-01

    The effects of packing configurations on the phase transition of straight granular chute flow with two bottlenecks are studied. The granular flow shows a dilute-to-dense flow transition when the channel width is varied, accompanied with a peculiar bistable phenomenon. The bistable phenomenon is induced by the initial packing config-uration of particles. When the packing is dense, the initial flux is small and will induce a dense flow. When the packing is loose, the initial flux is large and will induce a di-lute flow. The fabric network of granular packing is analyzed from a complex network perspective. The degree distribution shows quantitatively different characteristics for the configurations. A two-dimensional (2D) packing clustering coefficient is defined to better quantify the fabric network.

  5. MAXIMIZING NETWORK INTERRUPTION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK: AN INTRUDER’S PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahfuzul Islam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the colossal growth of wireless sensor networks (WSNs in different applications starting from home automation to military affairs, the pressure on ensuring security in such a network is paramount. Considering the security challenges, it is really a hard-hitting effort to develop a secured WSN system. Moreover, as the information technology is getting popular, the intruders are also planning new ideas to break the system security, to harm the network and to make the system quality down with the target of taking the control of the network to corrupt it or to get benefits from it anyway. The intruders corrupt the system only when the security breaking cost (SBC is lower compared with the benefits they attained or the harm it can make to others. In this paper, the authors define the term “maximizing network interruption problem” and propose a technique, called the grid point approximation algorithm, to estimate the SBC of a multi-hop WSN so that it can be made tougher for an intruder to break the system security. It is assumed that the intruder has the complete picture of the entire network. The technique is designed from the intruder’s point of view for completely jamming all the sensor nodes in the network through placing jammers or malicious nodes strategically and at the same time keeping the number of jammer nodes to minimum or near minimum. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is no work proposed so far of the same kind. Experimental results with the changes of the different network parameters show that the proposed algorithm is able to provide excellent performances to achieve the targets.

  6. ANALYZING SOCIAL NETWORKS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MARKETING DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logica BANICA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Web became more than a space for product presentation, but also a capitalization market (e-commerce and an efficient way to know the customer preferences and to meet their requirements. Large companies have the financial potential to use various marketing strategies and, in particular, digital-marketing. Instead, small businesses are looking for lower cost or no cost methods (also called guerrilla marketing. A small company can compete with a large company by approaching a particular range of products that excel in quality, and also by inventiveness in the marketing strategy. During 2010-2015 the potential of Information Technology and Communications (IT&C sector was proved for the companies which aimed towards modernization of technologies and introduced new strategies in order to commercialize new products. An important challenge for companies was to be aware of the changes in customer behaviour, using social networks software. Finally, research centers have set up new IT&C services and improved marketing and communications following the crisis. More and more companies invest in analytic tools to monitor their marketing strategies and Big Data becomes extremely useful for this purpose, using information like customer demographics and spending habits, oscillation between simplicity, comfort and glamour. There are various tools that can transform in a very short time, massive amounts of data into real business value in a very short time, helping companies and retailers to understand, at any point in the product lifecycle, which trends are gaining and which are losing ground. These insights give them the possibility to reduce the risk of not selling their products by making adjustments to the design, production or promotional strategies, before putting the goods on the market. In this paper we aim to present the advantages of exploring customer requirements from social media for marketing strategy of an enterprise, by using SNA

  7. Resistance and Security Index of Networks: Structural Information Perspective of Network Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Hu, Qifu; Liu, Jun; Pan, Yicheng

    2016-06-01

    Recently, Li and Pan defined the metric of the K-dimensional structure entropy of a structured noisy dataset G to be the information that controls the formation of the K-dimensional structure of G that is evolved by the rules, order and laws of G, excluding the random variations that occur in G. Here, we propose the notion of resistance of networks based on the one- and two-dimensional structural information of graphs. Given a graph G, we define the resistance of G, written , as the greatest overall number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible via random walks with stationary distribution in G, from which the random walks cannot escape. We show that the resistance of networks follows the resistance law of networks, that is, for a network G, the resistance of G is , where and are the one- and two-dimensional structure entropies of G, respectively. Based on the resistance law, we define the security index of a network G to be the normalised resistance of G, that is, . We show that the resistance and security index are both well-defined measures for the security of the networks.

  8. Resistance and Security Index of Networks: Structural Information Perspective of Network Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Hu, Qifu; Liu, Jun; Pan, Yicheng

    2016-06-03

    Recently, Li and Pan defined the metric of the K-dimensional structure entropy of a structured noisy dataset G to be the information that controls the formation of the K-dimensional structure of G that is evolved by the rules, order and laws of G, excluding the random variations that occur in G. Here, we propose the notion of resistance of networks based on the one- and two-dimensional structural information of graphs. Given a graph G, we define the resistance of G, written , as the greatest overall number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible via random walks with stationary distribution in G, from which the random walks cannot escape. We show that the resistance of networks follows the resistance law of networks, that is, for a network G, the resistance of G is , where and are the one- and two-dimensional structure entropies of G, respectively. Based on the resistance law, we define the security index of a network G to be the normalised resistance of G, that is, . We show that the resistance and security index are both well-defined measures for the security of the networks.

  9. Investment dimensions in a universal service perspective: Next generation networks, alternative funding mechanisms and public-private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the investment dimensions of next generation networks from a universal service perspective in a European context. The question is how new network infrastructures for providing access for everyone to communication, information and entertainment services in the present...

  10. Photonic Network R&D Activities in Japan-Current Activities and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Ken-Ichi; Miki, Tetsuya; Morioka, Toshio; Tsushima, Hideaki; Koga, Masafumi; Mori, Kazuyuki; Araki, Soichiro; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Onaka, Hiroshi; Namiki, Shu; Aoyama, Tomonori

    2005-10-01

    R&D activities on photonic networks in Japan are presented. First, milestones in current ongoing R&D programs supported by Japanese government agencies are introduced, including long-distance and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) fiber transmission, wavelength routing, optical burst switching (OBS), and control-plane technology for IP backbone networks. Their goal was set to evolve a legacy telecommunications network to IP-over-WDM networks by introducing technologies for WDM and wavelength routing. We then discuss the perspectives of so-called PHASE II R&D programs for photonic networks over the next 5 years until 2010, by focusing on the report that has been recently issued by the Photonic Internet Forum (PIF), a consortium that has major carriers, telecom vendors, and Japanese academics as members. The PHASE II R&D programs should serve to establish a photonic platform to provide abundant bandwidth on demand, at any time on a real-time basis, through the customer's initiative to promote bandwidth-rich applications, such as grid computing, real-time digital-cinema streaming, medical and educational applications, and network storage in e-commerce.

  11. Ocean Research - Perspectives from an international Ocean Research Coordination Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Jay; Williams, Albert, III

    2013-04-01

    The need for improved coordination in ocean observations is more urgent now given the issues of climate change, sustainable food sources and increased need for energy. Ocean researchers must work across disciplines to provide policy makers with clear and understandable assessments of the state of the ocean. With advances in technology, not only in observation, but also communication and computer science, we are in a new era where we can answer questions asked over the last 100 years at the time and space scales that are relevant. Programs like GLOBEC moved us forward but we are still challenged by the disciplinary divide. Interdisciplinary problem solving must be addressed not only by the exchange of data between the many sides, but through levels where questions require day-to-day collaboration. A National Science Foundation-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is addressing approaches for improving interdisciplinary research capabilities in the ocean sciences. During the last year, the RCN had a working group for Open Data led by John Orcutt, Peter Pissierssens and Albert Williams III. The teams has focused on three areas: 1. Data and Information formats and standards; 2. Data access models (including IPR, business models for open data, data policies,...); 3. Data publishing, data citation. There has been a significant trend toward free and open access to data in the last few years. In 2007, the US announced that Landsat data would be available at no charge. Float data from the US (NDBC), JCOMM and OceanSites offer web-based access. The IODE is developing its Ocean Data Portal giving immediate and free access to ocean data. However, from the aspect of long-term collaborations across communities, this global trend is less robust than might appear at the surface. While there are many standard data formats for data exchange, there is not yet widespread uniformity in their adoption. Use of standard data formats can be encouraged in several ways: sponsors of

  12. Lone-Actor Terrorist Target Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Corner, Emily

    2016-09-01

    Lone-actor terrorist attacks have risen to the forefront of the public's consciousness in the past few years. Some of these attacks were conducted against public officials. The rise of hard-to-detect, low-tech attacks may lead to more public officials being targeted. This paper explores whether different behavioral traits are apparent within a sample of lone-actor terrorists who plotted against high-value targets (including public officials) than within a sample of lone actors who plotted against members of the public. Utilizing a unique dataset of 111 lone-actor terrorists, we test a series of hypotheses related to attack capability and operational security. The results indicate that very little differentiates those who attack high-value targets from those who attack members of the public. We conclude with a series of illustrations to theorize why this may be the case. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. From Gut Knowing: Every Silver Cloud Has a Black Lining. Actor Reflections on "Ties That Bind."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Makes sense of the performance of Steve Taylor's play, "Ties That Bind," from the perspective of the actors, 14 faculty members, and doctoral students from various universities in the United States by using the interpretive lens of Erving Goffman's Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. (SG)

  14. Diásporas y transiciones en la Teoría del Actor-Red

    OpenAIRE

    Callén, Blanca; Tirado Serrano, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    Este texto es una presentación del monográfico Diásporas y transiciones en la teoría del actor-red. Sus páginas presentan las principales características de esta teoría, una manera de entender sus orígenes y una descripción de su presente estableciendo un paralelismo con la etnometodología. El texto finaliza con una valoración del estado de la teoría del actor-red en España y un comentario sobre un congreso que llevó el título de Presente y futuro de la teoría del actor-red y que constituye e...

  15. Network Threat Characterization in Multiple Intrusion Perspectives using Data Mining Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Oriola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For effective security incidence response on the network, a reputable approach must be in place at bothprotected and unprotected region of the network. This is because compromise in the demilitarized zonecould be precursor to threat inside the network. The improved complexity of attacks in present times andvulnerability of system are motivations for this work. Past and present approaches to intrusion detectionand prevention have neglected victim and attacker properties despite the fact that for intrusion to occur,an overt act by an attacker and a manifestation, observable by the intended victim, which results fromthat act are required. Therefore, this paper presents a threat characterization model for attacks from thevictim and the attacker perspective of intrusion using data mining technique. The data mining techniquecombines Frequent Temporal Sequence Association Mining and Fuzzy Logic. Apriori Association Miningalgorithm was used to mine temporal rule patterns from alert sequences while Fuzzy Control System wasused to rate exploits. The results of the experiment show that accurate threat characterization in multipleintrusion perspectives could be actualized using Fuzzy Association Mining. Also, the results proved thatsequence of exploits could be used to rate threat and are motivated by victim properties and attackerobjectives.

  16. Measurement and Analysis of Quality of Service of Mobile Networks in Afghanistan – End User Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced Quality of Service (QoS and satisfaction of mobile phone user are major concerns of a service provider. In order to manage network efficiently and to provide enhanced end – to – end Quality of Experience (QoE, operator is expected to measure and analyze QoS from various perspectives and at different relevant points of network. The scope of this paper is measurement and statistically analysis of QoS of mobile networks from end user perspective in Afghanistan. The study is based on primary data collected on random basis from 1,515 mobile phone users of five cellular operators. The paper furthermore proposes adequate technical solutions to mobile operators in order to address existing challenges in the area of QoS and to remain competitive in the market. Based on the result of processed data, considering geographical locations, population and telecom regulations of the government, authors recommend deployment of small cells (SCs, increasing number of regular performance tests, optimal placement of base stations, increasing number of carriers, and high order sectorization as proposed technical solutions.

  17. Exploring empowerment in settings: mapping distributions of network power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2014-06-01

    This paper brings together two trends in the empowerment literature-understanding empowerment in settings and understanding empowerment as relational-by examining what makes settings empowering from a social network perspective. Specifically, extending Neal and Neal's (Am J Community Psychol 48(3/4):157-167, 2011) conception of network power, an empowering setting is defined as one in which (1) actors have existing relationships that allow for the exchange of resources and (2) the distribution of network power among actors in the setting is roughly equal. The paper includes a description of how researchers can examine distributions of network power in settings. Next, this process is illustrated in both an abstract example and using empirical data on early adolescents' peer relationships in urban classrooms. Finally, implications for theory, methods, and intervention related to understanding empowering settings are explored.

  18. Emotional labor actors: a latent profile analysis of emotional labor strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Allison S; Daniels, Michael A; Diefendorff, James M; Greguras, Gary J

    2015-05-01

    Research on emotional labor focuses on how employees utilize 2 main regulation strategies-surface acting (i.e., faking one's felt emotions) and deep acting (i.e., attempting to feel required emotions)-to adhere to emotional expectations of their jobs. To date, researchers largely have considered how each strategy functions to predict outcomes in isolation. However, this variable-centered perspective ignores the possibility that there are subpopulations of employees who may differ in their combined use of surface and deep acting. To address this issue, we conducted 2 studies that examined surface acting and deep acting from a person-centered perspective. Using latent profile analysis, we identified 5 emotional labor profiles-non-actors, low actors, surface actors, deep actors, and regulators-and found that these actor profiles were distinguished by several emotional labor antecedents (positive affectivity, negative affectivity, display rules, customer orientation, and emotion demands-abilities fit) and differentially predicted employee outcomes (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and felt inauthenticity). Our results reveal new insights into the nature of emotion regulation in emotional labor contexts and how different employees may characteristically use distinct combinations of emotion regulation strategies to manage their emotional expressions at work. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Innovation in the plural of the alpine cre-actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Finger-Stich

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to innovate for a sustainable development of alpine territories cannot depend only on economic, legal and political conditions defined by the State at national and international levels. It depends also on local conditions that situate historically and geographically the actors in a continuity of social and ecological relationships. This approach highlights the collective – thus organisational – dimensions of the innovation process, including the imagination, the development, the implementation and even the diffusion of a new practice. Our point of view is that for contributing to the sustainable development of the Alps, innovations need to change the ecological, political, social and cultural relationships engaging the actors in these territories. This change affects as much the object territory as the subject actor of the territory. This is why innovating in the Alps means also innovating the Alps and the alpine actors (Cosalp, 2008. Based on a research about local people’s participation in the management of alpine communal forests, the article shows the importance of local interactions involving actors of diverse occupation, gender, age and origins1.La capacité d’innovation pour un développement durable des territoires alpins ne peut dépendre uniquement de conditions économiques, légales et politiques définies par les Etats aux échelles nationale et internationale. Elle dépend aussi de conditions locales, qui situent historiquement et géographiquement les acteurs dans une continuité de relations sociales et écologiques. Cette perspective accentue l’importance de la dimension collective, donc organisationnelle, du processus d’innovation, allant de l’imagination, puis au développement, à la réalisation – voire la diffusion – d’une nouvelle pratique. Le point de vue de cet article est qu’une innovation, pour contribuer au développement durable des Alpes, doit changer les relations

  20. Clock Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks: A New Model and Analysis Approach Based on Networked Control Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ting

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the importance of the clock synchronization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, this paper proposes a new research approach and model approach, which quantitatively analyzes clock synchronization from the perspective of modern control theory. Two kinds of control strategies are used as examples to analyze the effect of the control strategy on clock synchronization from different perspectives, namely, the single-step optimal control and the LQG global optimal control. The proposed method establishes a state space model for clock relationship, thus making dimension extension and parameter identification easier, and is robust to changes under the condition of node failures and new nodes. And through the design of different control strategies and performance index functions, the method can satisfy various requirements of the synchronization precision, convergence speed, energy consumption and the computational complexity, and so on. Finally, the simulations show that the synchronization accuracy of the proposed method is higher than that of the existing protocol, and the former convergence speed of the synchronization error is faster.

  1. UNDERSTANDING URBAN TRAFFIC FLOW CHARACTERISTICS FROM THE NETWORK CENTRALITY PERSPECTIVE AT DIFFERENT GRANULARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. X. Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze urban traffic flow using taxi trajectory data to understand the characteristics of traffic flow from the network centrality perspective at point (intersection, line (road, and area (community granularities. The entire analysis process comprises three steps. The first step utilizes the taxi trajectory data to evaluate traffic flow at different granularities. Second, the centrality indices are calculated based on research units at different granularities. Third, correlation analysis between the centrality indices and corresponding urban traffic flow is performed. Experimental results indicate that urbaxperimental results indicate that urbaxperimental results indicate that urban traffic flow is relatively influenced by the road network structure. However, urban traffic flow also depends on the research unit size. Traditional centralities and traffic flow exhibit a low correlation at point granularity but exhibit a high correlation at line and area granularities. Furthermore, the conclusions of this study reflect the universality of the modifiable areal unit problem.

  2. A Networked Perspective on the Engineering Design Process: At the Intersection of Process and Organisation Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parraguez, Pedro

    projects often fail to be on time, on budget, and meeting specifications. Despite the wealth of process models available, previous approaches have been insufficient to provide a networked perspective that allows the challenging combination of organisational and process complexity to unfold. The lack...... the process. This combination of process structure—how people and activities are connected—and composition—the functional diversity of the groups participating in the process—is referred to as the actual design process architecture. This thesis reports on research undertaken to develop, apply and test......-driven reflection of the relationship between process architecture and performance, and to provide the means to compare process plans against the actual process. The framework is based on a multi-domain network approach to process architecture and draws on previous research using matrix-based and graph...

  3. Survey on Wireless Sensor Network Technologies for Industrial Automation: The Security and Quality of Service Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Christin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are gradually adopted in the industrial world due to their advantages over wired networks. In addition to saving cabling costs, WSNs widen the realm of environments feasible for monitoring. They thus add sensing and acting capabilities to objects in the physical world and allow for communication among these objects or with services in the future Internet. However, the acceptance of WSNs by the industrial automation community is impeded by open issues, such as security guarantees and provision of Quality of Service (QoS. To examine both of these perspectives, we select and survey relevant WSN technologies dedicated to industrial automation. We determine QoS requirements and carry out a threat analysis, which act as basis of our evaluation of the current state-of-the-art. According to the results of this evaluation, we identify and discuss open research issues.

  4. Medicine, religion and ayahuasca in Catalonia. Considering ayahuasca networks from a medical anthropology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apud, Ismael; Romaní, Oriol

    2017-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychoactive beverage from the Amazon, traditionally used by indigenous and mestizo populations in the region. Widespread international use of the beverage began in the 1990s in both secular contexts and religious/spiritual networks. This article offers an analysis of these networks as health care systems in general and for the case of Spain and specifically Catalonia, describing the emergence and characteristics of their groups, and the therapeutic itineraries of some participants. The medical anthropology perspective we take enables us to reflect on the relationship between medicine and religion, and problematize the tensions between medicalization and medical pluralism. Closely linked to the process of medicalization, we also analyze prohibitionist drug policies and their tensions and conflicts with the use of ayahuasca in ritual and 'health care' contexts. The paper ends with a reflection on the problem of ayahuasca as 'medicine', since the connection between religion and medicine is a very difficult one to separate.

  5. A Technical and Business Perspective on Wireless Sensor Network for Manufacturing Execution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the complex production management with difficulties in error-prone assembly system and inaccurate supply chain inventory, this paper designs a novel manufacturing execution system (MES architecture for intelligent monitoring based on wireless sensor network (WSN. The technical perspective includes analysis on the proposed manufacturing resource mutual inductance method under active sensing network, appreciation technology of multisource information, and dynamic optimization technology for manufacturing execution processes. From business perspective, this paper elaborates the impact of RFID investment on complex product by establishing a three-stage supply chain model that involves two suppliers carrying out Stackelberg games (manufacturer and retailer. The optimal cost threshold values of technology investment are examined for both the centralized and the decentralized scenarios utilizing quantitative modeling methods. By analyzing and comparing the optimal profit with or without investment on WSN, this paper establishes a supply chain coordination and boosting model. The results of this paper have contributed significantly for one to make decision on whether RFID should be adopted among its members in supply chain. The system performance and model extension are verified via numerical analyses.

  6. Beyond the actor's traits: forming impressions of actors, targets, and relationships from social behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, K P; Smith, E R

    1993-09-01

    Perceivers who observe social behaviors may form impressions not only of actors' traits but also of people as targets and of interpersonal relationships. In Study 1, Ss read about 4 individuals' behaviors under instructions to form actor-, target-, and relationship-based impressions. Ss then read additional behavioral information that they later tried to recall. Ss accurately perceived actor, target, and relationship effects in the presented information, and they better recalled subsequent behaviors that were consistent with all 3 types of impressions. In Study 2, Ss thought of 4 people they knew and judged how much each liked the other 3. These ratings revealed actor, target, and relationship effects as well as individual and dyadic reciprocity. Perceivers can form relatively accurate impressions of people as actors and as targets and accurate impressions of relationships between people, and these impressions influence memory for further behaviors.

  7. Spontaneous Strategies in Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Husted, Emil Krastrup

    of materiality in relation to the organization and structuring of virtual worlds. We examine various innovation processes in five Danish entrepreneurial companies where actors continuously struggle to stabilize virtual worlds as platforms for professional communication. With inspiration from actor-network theory......To date, a fairly large amount of research has explored how social and organizational processes function and change ‘inside’ virtual spaces. In this article, add to the literature dismantling the longstanding dichotomy between the virtual world and the real world, by analyzing the importance...... and a site ontology, we show how physical sites and objects become constitutive of the inside of virtual worlds through innovation processes. This argument is in line with ANT’s perspective on strategy, where sites and objects are considered a strategically relevant resource in the innovation process...

  8. Understanding Online Health Groups for Depression: Social Network and Linguistic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental health problems have become increasingly prevalent in the past decade. With the advance of Web 2.0 technologies, social media present a novel platform for Web users to form online health groups. Members of online health groups discuss health-related issues and mutually help one another by anonymously revealing their mental conditions, sharing personal experiences, exchanging health information, and providing suggestions and support. The conversations in online health groups contain valuable information to facilitate the understanding of their mutual help behaviors and their mental health problems. Objective We aimed to characterize the conversations in a major online health group for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in a popular Chinese social media platform. In particular, we intended to explain how Web users discuss depression-related issues from the perspective of the social networks and linguistic patterns revealed by the members’ conversations. Methods Social network analysis and linguistic analysis were employed to characterize the social structure and linguistic patterns, respectively. Furthermore, we integrated both perspectives to exploit the hidden relations between them. Results We found an intensive use of self-focus words and negative affect words. In general, group members used a higher proportion of negative affect words than positive affect words. The social network of the MDD group for depression possessed small-world and scale-free properties, with a much higher reciprocity ratio and clustering coefficient value as compared to the networks of other social media platforms and classic network models. We observed a number of interesting relationships, either strong correlations or convergent trends, between the topological properties and linguistic properties of the MDD group members. Conclusions (1) The MDD group members have the characteristics of self-preoccupation and negative thought content, according to Beck

  9. Working on gender issues with partners and other actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Discussions at the workshop centered around the Oxfam UK/1 program work on gender with its partners and other actors. Gender issues have been part of the program since 1985. Around 80% of the program involves mixed partners (men and women), while around 15% involves women-only groups. Strategies for working with partners include training, ongoing dialogue, involvement in planning, networking, lobbying, advocacy work, sectoral interventions, and research to highlight issues. Improving the gender work of existing counterparts and building new relationships are the goals of the Oxfam UK/1 program. Gender awareness should be used as a criterion in choosing those with whom work is done. Time-bound strategies are needed to persuade partners to respond to the gender-related needs of target groups. Resources are needed to enhance the capacity skills of willing partners. The workshop produced the following recommendations: 1) program managers must take conscious steps to invest time and resources in seeking out new relationships with new potential actors; 2) local culture should be analyzed to develop a locally appropriate approach to gender discrimination, and strategies have to synchronize policy directives with what is happening on the ground; 3) in seeking new relationships, centers of positive energy, which can create a domino effect and break down resistance, should be identified; and 4) networking should be broadened to outside the current universe of counterparts.

  10. When Danish industry relocates – globalisation in an everyday perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Karlskov Skyggebjerg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When Danish companies move their production abroad, it is often verbalised as a tragedy with focus on the loss of production workplaces in Denmark. This article instead examines what explicitly happens when a company relocates. Based on a study of Royal Copenhagen’s relocation to Thailand as well as a study of a number of Danish companies’ production units in China (Grundfos, RMG Steel, MCI and Fiberline, the focus of this article is on relocation in an everyday perspective with special emphasis on communication, transfer of competencies, company culture and differences in culture.It is concluded – inspired by actor-network theory – that relocation is a complicated process which is not concluded with the opening of a new factory. Many different actor types play significant roles in relation to the manner in which the relocation is carried out in practice; both in the short term during the actual relocation process and in the long term when the relocation has become commonplace. Among the key actor types are human actors such as cultural bridge builders, but not least material actors such as raw materials and buildings as well as immaterial actors such as ‘Danishness’ and ‘the history of the company’. The many actor types indicate, among other, that the dream of relocating becoming a simple process - providing working procedures and products are documented and described to an adequate degree - must be rejected.This article draws inspiration from theories and research about knowledge (transfer, differences in culture, companies’ (historical narratives and recent materiality studies. Methodically, this article is based on two interview based contemporary documentary studies.

  11. Proposed use of social network analysis of public policies for the integration of the Unaccompanied Foreign Minors (UFM. Study of the case of the Valencia Region. Propuesta de uso del análisis de redes de actores de políticas públicas para la gestión de la integración de los Menores Inmigrantes No Acompañados (MINA. Estudio del caso de la Comunidad Valenciana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Miguel Molina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Social Network Analysis (SNA has been applied by the literature in different cases in which it is highlighted the need to create, in certain situations of complex management, stable relations among the stakeholders when these relations are not formal. Therefore, to analyze these relations could improve the management of those public organizations responsible for carrying out public policies for the integration of the Unaccompanied Foreign Minors (UFM. Thus, the objective of this study is to raise the possibility of applying social network analysis with the aim of improving the final integration of UFM in the Spanish society, through the study of all the stakeholders involved in the case of the Valencia Region.

    El análisis de redes de actores de políticas públicas ha sido aplicado por la literatura en diferentes casos en los que se pone de manifiesto la necesidad de crear, en determinadas situaciones de gestión compleja, relaciones estables entre los actores intervinientes que no siempre son necesariamente de tipo formal. Analizar estas relaciones podría mejorar la propia gestión de las organizaciones públicas responsables de llevar a cabo las políticas públicas para la integración de los MINA. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo es plantear la posibilidad de aplicar el análisis de redes de actores con la finalidad de mejorar la integración final de los MINA en la sociedad española, a través del estudio de los actores intervinientes en el caso de la Comunidad Valenciana.

  12. What Determines Social Capital in a Social-Ecological System? Insights from a Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Mauthe, Michele; Gray, Steven Allen; Arita, Shawn; Lynham, John; Leung, PingSun

    2015-02-01

    Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social-ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others. Despite its importance, the factors that contribute to variation in social capital among individuals have not been widely studied. We adopt a network perspective to examine what determines social capital among individuals in social-ecological systems. We begin by identifying network measures of social capital relevant for individuals in this context, and review existing evidence concerning their determinants. Using a complete social network dataset from Hawaii's longline fishery, we employ social network analysis and other statistical methods to empirically estimate these measures and determine the extent to which individual stakeholder attributes explain variation within them. We find that ethnicity is the strongest predictor of social capital. Measures of human capital (i.e., education, experience), years living in the community, and information-sharing attitudes are also important. Surprisingly, we find that when controlling for other factors, industry leaders and formal fishery representatives are generally not well connected. Our results offer new quantitative insights on the relationship between stakeholder diversity, social networks, and social capital in a coupled social-ecological system, which can aid in identifying barriers and opportunities for action to overcome resource management problems. Our results also have implications for achieving resource governance that is not only ecologically and economically sustainable, but also equitable.

  13. What determines social capital in a social-ecological system? Insights from a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Mauthe, Michele; Gray, Steven Allen; Arita, Shawn; Lynham, John; Leung, PingSun

    2015-02-01

    Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social-ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others. Despite its importance, the factors that contribute to variation in social capital among individuals have not been widely studied. We adopt a network perspective to examine what determines social capital among individuals in social-ecological systems. We begin by identifying network measures of social capital relevant for individuals in this context, and review existing evidence concerning their determinants. Using a complete social network dataset from Hawaii's longline fishery, we employ social network analysis and other statistical methods to empirically estimate these measures and determine the extent to which individual stakeholder attributes explain variation within them. We find that ethnicity is the strongest predictor of social capital. Measures of human capital (i.e., education, experience), years living in the community, and information-sharing attitudes are also important. Surprisingly, we find that when controlling for other factors, industry leaders and formal fishery representatives are generally not well connected. Our results offer new quantitative insights on the relationship between stakeholder diversity, social networks, and social capital in a coupled social-ecological system, which can aid in identifying barriers and opportunities for action to overcome resource management problems. Our results also have implications for achieving resource governance that is not only ecologically and economically sustainable, but also equitable.

  14. The stability of the international oil trade network from short-term and long-term perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingru; Gao, Xiangyun; Zhong, Weiqiong; Liu, Nairong

    2017-09-01

    To examine the stability of the international oil trade network and explore the influence of countries and trade relationships on the trade stability, we construct weighted and unweighted international oil trade networks based on complex network theory using oil trading data between countries from 1996 to 2014. We analyze the stability of international oil trade network (IOTN) from short-term and long-term aspects. From the short-term perspective, we find that the trade volumes play an important role on the stability. Moreover, the weighted IOTN is stable; however, the unweighted networks can better reflect the actual evolution of IOTN. From the long-term perspective, we identify trade relationships that are maintained during the whole sample period to reveal the situation of the whole international oil trade. We provide a way to quantitatively measure the stability of complex network from short-term and long-term perspectives, which can be applied to measure and analyze trade stability of other goods or services.

  15. Corporate actors in Western European television news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    News about corporations can be understood as an interdependent relationship among the public relations function, organizational logic and the logic of the media. This research addresses the visibility and role of corporate actors in Western European public television news. A quantitative content ana

  16. Public Policies and Strategies of Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiret, Pierre-Jean

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis "Public Policies and Strategies of Actors" concerns the same theme as Part 4 of the "Handbook of Distance Education" (Moore 2007), which deals with policies, administration, and management. Eleven articles illustrate the theme. Three articles are studies about the experience in France between 2000 and 2003 of the…

  17. Public Policies and Strategies of Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiret, Pierre-Jean

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis "Public Policies and Strategies of Actors" concerns the same theme as Part 4 of the "Handbook of Distance Education" (Moore 2007), which deals with policies, administration, and management. Eleven articles illustrate the theme. Three articles are studies about the experience in France between 2000 and 2003 of the…

  18. Corporate actors in Western European television news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    News about corporations can be understood as an interdependent relationship among the public relations function, organizational logic and the logic of the media. This research addresses the visibility and role of corporate actors in Western European public television news. A quantitative content

  19. Off-Policy Actor-Critic

    CERN Document Server

    Degris, Thomas; Sutton, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first actor-critic algorithm for off-policy reinforcement learning. Our algorithm is online and incremental, and its per-time-step complexity scales linearly with the number of learned weights. Previous work on actor-critic algorithms is limited to the on-policy setting and does not take advantage of the recent advances in off-policy gradient temporal-difference learning. Off-policy techniques, such as Greedy-GQ, enable a target policy to be learned while following and obtaining data from another (behavior) policy. For many problems, however, actor-critic methods are more practical than action value methods (like Greedy-GQ) because they explicitly represent the policy; consequently, the policy can be stochastic and utilize a large action space. In this paper, we illustrate how to practically combine the generality and learning potential of off-policy learning with the flexibility in action selection given by actor-critic methods. We derive an incremental, linear time and space complexi...

  20. An Erlang Implementation of Multiparty Session Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fowler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By requiring co-ordination to take place using explicit message passing instead of relying on shared memory, actor-based programming languages have been shown to be effective tools for building reliable and fault-tolerant distributed systems. Although naturally communication-centric, communication patterns in actor-based applications remain informally specified, meaning that errors in communication are detected late, if at all. Multiparty session types are a formalism to describe, at a global level, the interactions between multiple communicating entities. This article describes the implementation of a prototype framework for monitoring Erlang/OTP gen_server applications against multiparty session types, showing how previous work on multiparty session actors can be adapted to a purely actor-based language, and how monitor violations and termination of session participants can be reported in line with the Erlang mantra of "let it fail". Finally, the framework is used to implement two case studies: an adaptation of a freely-available DNS server, and a chat server.

  1. Pensar e intervenir el territorio a traves de la Teoria del Actor-Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Cabrera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es reflexionar sobre las coincidencias entre la forma de ver el territorio como red, algunas posturas teóricas sobre su concepto y la teoría del actor-red. Sobre lo anterior se centra en proponer una forma de entender las relaciones entre actores cuando se va a intervenir el territorio a través de políticas públicas como la planificación utilizando un modelo de gestión territorial a través de las orientaciones de la TAR.   

  2. Interactive Actor Analysis for Rural Water Management in The Netherlands : An Application of the Transactional Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Timmermans (Jos)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractRecent developments in the policy sciences emphasize the social environment in which decisions are made. The ‘network metaphor’ is often used to describe the key role of interactions between interdependent actors involved in decision making. These interactions take place in a policy aren

  3. Interactive Actor Analysis for Rural Water Management in The Netherlands : An Application of the Transactional Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Timmermans (Jos)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRecent developments in the policy sciences emphasize the social environment in which decisions are made. The ‘network metaphor’ is often used to describe the key role of interactions between interdependent actors involved in decision making. These interactions take place in a policy aren

  4. The Rise of the Video-Recorder Teacher: The Sociomaterial Construction of an Educational Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Carlo; Czerniewicz, Laura; Beetham, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on actor-network theory and on the sociology of cultural consumption to examine the phenomenon of corporate Massive Open Online Courses. Through an analysis of texts available in the public domain, the paper argues that over a short period (between 2012 and 2013) digitisation technology became associated with the emergence of a…

  5. A Framework and Classification for Fault Detection Approaches in Wireless Sensor Networks with an Energy Efficiency Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yue; Dragoni, Nicola; Wang, Jiangtao

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are more and more considered a key enabling technology for the realisation of the Internet of Things (IoT) vision. With the long term goal of designing fault-tolerant IoT systems, this paper proposes a fault detection framework for WSNs with the perspective of energy...

  6. The utility of satellite fire product accuracy information - Perspectives and recommendations from the southern Africa fire network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, D.P.; Trigg, S.N.; Bhima, R.; Brockett, B.H.; Mutanga, O.; Virgilo, S.

    2006-01-01

    This correspondence gives Southern Africa Fire Network (SAFNet) perspectives on the utility of satellite fire product accuracy information, drawing on two main sources: insights gained during SAFNet's six years of working together, and relevant findings from a SAFNet focus group study that explored

  7. The moral problem of worse actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals and institutions sometimes have morally stringent reasons to not do a given action. For example, an oil company might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing revenue to a genocidal regime, or an engineer might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing her expertise in the development of weapons of mass destruction. But in some cases, if the agent does not do the action, another actor will do it with much worse consequences. For example, the oil company might know their assets will be bought by a company with worse environmental and labor practices. Or the engineer might know her position will be filled by a more ambitious and amoral engineer. I call this the moral problem of worse actors (MPWA. MPWA gives reason, at least some of the time, to consider otherwise morally impermissible actions permissible or even obligatory. On my account, doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA remains morally objectionable even if permissible or obligatory, and this brings additional moral responsibilities and obligations to the actor. Similarly, not doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA may also bring additional (but different moral responsibilities and obligations. Acknowledging MPWA creates considerable challenges, as many bad actors may appeal to it to justify morally objectionable action. In this paper, I develop a set of strategies for individuals and institutions to handle MPWA. This includes appeals to integrity and the proper attribution of expressive responsibility, regulatory responsibility, and compensatory responsibility. I also address a set of related concerns, including worries about incentivizing would-be bad actors, concerns about epistemic uncertainty, and the problem of mala in se exceptions.

  8. Alteration and reorganization of functional networks: a new perspective in brain injury study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazareth P. Castellanos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity is the mechanism underlying brain’s potential capability to compensate injury. Recently several studies have shown that functional connections among brain areas are severely altered by brain injury and plasticity leading to a reorganization of the networks. This new approach studies the impact of brain injury by means of alteration of functional interactions. The concept of functional connectivity refers to the statistical interdependencies between physiological time series simultaneously recorded in various brain areas and it could be an essential tool for brain function studies, being its deviation from healthy reference an indicator for damage. In this article, we review studies investigating functional connectivity changes after brain injury and subsequent recovery, providing an accessible introduction to common mathematical methods to infer functional connectivity, exploring their capabilities, future perspectives and clinical uses in brain injury studies.

  9. Network-based Modeling of Mesoscale Catchments - The Hydrology Perspective of Glowa-danube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, R.; Escher-Vetter, H.; Hennicker, R.; Mauser, W.; Niemeyer, S.; Reichstein, M.; Tenhunen, J.

    Within the GLOWA initiative of the German Ministry for Research and Educa- tion (BMBF), the project GLOWA-Danube is funded to establish a transdisciplinary network-based decision support tool for water related issues in the Upper Danube wa- tershed. It aims to develop and validate integration techniques, integrated models and integrated monitoring procedures and to implement them in the network-based De- cision Support System DANUBIA. An accurate description of processes involved in energy, water and matter fluxes and turnovers requires an intense collaboration and exchange of water related expertise of different scientific disciplines. DANUBIA is conceived as a distributed expert network and is developed on the basis of re-useable, refineable, and documented sub-models. In order to synthesize a common understand- ing between the project partners, a standardized notation of parameters and functions and a platform-independent structure of computational methods and interfaces has been established using the Unified Modeling Language UML. DANUBIA is object- oriented, spatially distributed and raster-based at its core. It applies the concept of "proxels" (Process Pixel) as its basic object, which has different dimensions depend- ing on the viewing scale and connects to its environment through fluxes. The presented study excerpts the hydrological view point of GLOWA-Danube, its approach of model coupling and network based communication (using the Remote Method Invocation RMI), the object-oriented technology to simulate physical processes and interactions at the land surface and the methodology to treat the issue of spatial and temporal scal- ing in large, heterogeneous catchments. The mechanisms applied to communicate data and model parameters across the typical discipline borders will be demonstrated from the perspective of a land-surface object, which comprises the capabilities of interde- pendent expert models for snowmelt, soil water movement, runoff formation, plant

  10. Establishing Networks to Lever Investments in Developing Capacity for Agricultural Monitoring: A GEOGLAM Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture. A key component of GEOGLAM is the development of individual and institutional capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global, in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Despite the fact that the need for enhancing capacity is frequently acknowledged, there is little formal or informal literature documenting best practices for developing and implementing comprehensive capacity development strategies around Earth observations knowledge sharing. As a result, many projects and activities develop knowledge-sharing strategies on an ad hoc basis, and may be missing out on levering lessons, techniques, and toolsets already developed. In the past year, GEOGLAM has aimed to spur relationships and collaborations with capacity development initiatives and networks, toward sharing and documenting strategies and tactical experiences in this domain. This presentation will provide some perspective on challenges and opportunities encountered so far, from the GEOGLAM perspective, with the goal of continued dialogue and coordination with other session participants.

  11. Digital Citizen Participation within Schools in the United Kingdom and Indonesia: An Actor–Network Theory (ANT Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Citizen engagement and participation are a key focus for government and government agencies, and with the advent of Internet technologies questions arise about the role and impact of technology on citizen participation. This paper aims to explore the role of technology in citizen participation within schools. This research used in-depth comparative case studies using examples from two different schools and school systems, one in the United Kingdom and one in Indonesia. The wider school systems are complex and dynamic environments with multiple stakeholders, media, and supporting systems, and the schools operate under geopolitical and social influences. This paper provides a framework, based on Actor-Network Theory (ANT, for capturing e-participation in schools, particularly identifying the influence of technology as a conduit for enabling, engaging, and empowering stakeholders.

  12. A network perspective on the calamity, induced inaccessibility of communities and the robustness of centralized, landbound relief efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Jesus Felix; Legara, Erika Fille; Fu, Xiuju; Goh, Rick Siow Mong; de Souza, Robert; Monterola, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    We examine the robustness of centralized, landbound relief operations' capability to promptly reach areas affected by a disaster event from a network perspective. We initially look at two idealized road networks: a two-dimensional grid and a scale-free network, and compare them to an actual road network obtained from OpenStreetMap. We show that, from a node designated as the center for relief operations (a "relief center"), damage to a road network causes a substantial fraction of the other nodes (about 20% in the three networks we examined) to become initially inaccessible from any relief effort, although the remaining majority can still be reached readily. Furthermore, we show the presence of a threshold in the two idealized road networks but not in the real one. Below this threshold, all nodes can robustly be reached in a short span of time, and above it, not only the partitioning mentioned above sets in, but also the time needed to reach the nodes becomes susceptible to the amount of damage sustained by the road network. Under damage sustained by random segments of the network, this threshold is higher in the scale-free network compared to the grid, due to the robustness of the former against random attacks. Our results may be of importance in formulating contingency plans for the logistics of disaster relief operations.

  13. Business Development in Interfirm Collaborations: Proposing a theory of Social Creativity in Service Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peronard, Jean-Paul; Brix, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    is the creation of a normative theory of ‘social creativity in service networks’. The theory explains how to design and organize an event (or a series of events) in which service network actors can convene to create new ideas that stimulate business development and innovation.......Recent research has determined that new perspectives concerning business development and innovation are needed in the service network literature. In response, we propose a conceptual, theory-building study that sheds light on the following research question: ‘How can we mobilize actors in a service...... network and create ideas for interfirm collaborations that aspire to deliver business development and innovation?’. To answer this question, we build a new theory by introducing social creativity into the service network literature, which represents a new contextual arena. Our study’s key contribution...

  14. [The emergence and institutionalization of sexology in Portugal: processes, actors, and specificities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcão, Violeta; Machado, Fernando Luís; Giami, Alain

    2016-09-05

    Based on Bourdieu's field theory, this article analyzes the emergence and institutionalization of sexology as a science and profession in Portugal, identifying relevant institutions, actors, and professional practices and discussing its relations and specificities. The analysis begins by contextualizing the emergence of modern Western sexology in order to comprehend the Portuguese case in the international sexology context. The second section describes the social, cultural, and institutional factors that have driven the professionalization of sexology. The third section describes the emergence of Portuguese sexology and its principal historical milestones, institutions, and actors. Finally, the article discusses some implications of this process for the role of sexology as a science and profession. The study reveals the dynamics of national and international processes in the field, in the transition from a holistic perspective of sexology to the hegemony of sexual medicine, and sheds light on its mechanisms of legitimation as a transdisciplinary science of sexuality, suggesting future perspectives.

  15. The Stability of Interbank Market Network: A Perspective on Contagion and Risk Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the financial system, interbank market provides banks with liquidity and credit lending and also is the main channel for risk contagion. In this paper, we test the existence of systematic risk contagion within the Chinese interbank market. By building the networks of the Chinese interbank market for each year and using the measure of mutual information, we quantitatively detect the changes of interbank market networks and observe that the correlations between banks become increasingly tighter in recent years. With the bilateral risk exposure among Chinese listed commercial banks, we find that the possibility of systemic risk contagion in Chinese interbank market is fairly small. But of great concern on each individual bank, the matter is different. Our simulation shows that the failures of three special banks (i.e., Agricultural Bank of China and Bank of China and Industrial and Commercial Bank of China most likely lead to systemic risk contagion. Furthermore, we test the antirisk ability of the Chinese interbank market from the perspective of risk sharing and discover that the interbank market is stable when the loss scale is lower than forty percent of banks’ total core capital.

  16. State of the Art of Network Security Perspectives in Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tae Hwan; Lim, Shinyoung; Choi, Young B.; Park, Kwang-Roh; Lee, Heejo; Choi, Hyunsang

    Cloud computing is now regarded as one of social phenomenon that satisfy customers' needs. It is possible that the customers' needs and the primary principle of economy - gain maximum benefits from minimum investment - reflects realization of cloud computing. We are living in the connected society with flood of information and without connected computers to the Internet, our activities and work of daily living will be impossible. Cloud computing is able to provide customers with custom-tailored features of application software and user's environment based on the customer's needs by adopting on-demand outsourcing of computing resources through the Internet. It also provides cloud computing users with high-end computing power and expensive application software package, and accordingly the users will access their data and the application software where they are located at the remote system. As the cloud computing system is connected to the Internet, network security issues of cloud computing are considered as mandatory prior to real world service. In this paper, survey and issues on the network security in cloud computing are discussed from the perspective of real world service environments.

  17. Smart Distribution Networks: A Review of Modern Distribution Concepts from a Planning Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ali Abbas Kazmi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart grids (SGs, as an emerging grid modernization concept, is spreading across diverse research areas for revolutionizing power systems. SGs realize new key concepts with intelligent technologies, maximizing achieved objectives and addressing critical issues that are limited in conventional grids. The SG modernization is more noticeable at the distribution grid level. Thus, the transformation of the traditional distribution network (DN into an intelligent one, is a vital dimension of SG research. Since future DNs are expected to be interconnected in nature and operation, hence traditional planning methods and tools may no longer be applicable. In this paper, the smart distribution network (SDN concept under the SG paradigm, has presented and reviewed from the planning perspective. Also, developments in the SDN planning process have been surveyed on the basis of SG package (SGP. The package presents a SDN planning foundation via major SG-enabling technologies (SGTF, anticipated functionalities (SGAF, new consumption models (MDC as potential SDN candidates, associated policies and pilot projects and multi-objective planning (MOP as a real-world optimization problem. In addition, the need for an aggregated SDN planning model has also been highlighted. The paper discusses recent notable related works, implementation activities, various issues/challenges and potential future research directions; all aiming at SDN planning.

  18. Technology strategy as macro-actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    outcomes.Three cases are presented, each of them with a particular bearing on how materials participate in the making of emerging strategic identities and outcomes:The first case account for strategies transforming plans into anti-plans. This is a case of how a strategic plan is betrayed (or rejected......The aim of this article is to inquire into the possible significance of materials in the production of emerging strategic outcomes. The article first sets out to discuss the different ways contemporary strategy research define the identity of strategic actors. It is argued that the various schools...... of strategy research, although different in important respects, operate with a common human centered assumption: Humanity is treated as given - the strategic actor or subject is assumed to be an individual human or a collective of humans.By adding the possible significance of materials and other non...

  19. A Method for Studying Social Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaine Touraine

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available So little agreement exists on what constitutes sociology that it seems impossible to de?ne its speci?c methods. We can however proceed through a series of eliminations. Light has been shed on many types of social behavior as economic studies have taken more interest in issues of social strati?cation and mobility or in consumer behavior, and as they increasingly incorporate elaborate quantitative analysis into this type of data. Correlations between social statuses and social behavior tell us about the logic of the system, yet not about that of the actors. Hence, we must imagine other methods in order to reach the actor as an autonomous being, as an agent of transformation of his environment and of his own situation, as a creator of imaginary worlds, as capable of referring to absolute values or of being involved in love relations.

  20. Global health law: issues, actors and processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas R.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Protection of public health and improvement individual health indicators increasingly involve innovation in national and international legislation. In addition to traditional international organizations focused on health (Pan American Health Organization, World Health Organization, an increase has been observed among other actors with their own rules and regulations that directly or indirectly have repercussion and impact on healthcare, such as the World Trade Organization, the World Bank, private foundations, etc. This article does not intend to provide an exhaustive account of a conceptual thought on Global Health Law, but aims to give an overview of it according to three of its essential features: themes, actors and polítical processes of negotiation.

  1. Non-compliant Actors (NONCAS) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    presence that induces the emergence or entrenchment of NONCAS. We need to realise that actors have different motivations, contexts and means, which in...all or nothing terms and often suffer from pathological tendencies that prevent the pragmatism necessary for compromise settlements of conflict. Total...differences in values and ideas in relation to the central state and more or less specific political grievances and needs. Insurgencies may vary in

  2. Geographical impacts on social networks from perspectives of space and place: an empirical study using mobile phone data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li; Wu, Lun; Chi, Guanghua; Liu, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Space and place are two fundamental concepts in geography. Geographical factors have long been known as drivers of many aspects of people's social networks. But whether and how space and place affect social networks differently are still unclear. The widespread use of location-aware devices provides a novel source for distinguishing the mechanisms of their impacts on social networks. Using mobile phone data, this paper explores the effects of space and place on social networks. From the perspective of space, we confirm the distance decay effect in social networks, based on a comparison between synthetic social ties generated by a null model and actual social ties derived from real-world data. From the perspective of place, we introduce several measures to evaluate interactions between individuals and inspect the trio relationship including distance, spatio-temporal co-occurrence, and social ties. We found that people's interaction is a more important factor than spatial proximity, indicating that the spatial factor has a stronger impact on social networks in place compared to that in space. Furthermore, we verify the hypothesis that interactions play an important role in strengthening friendships.

  3. Framing of Issues Across Actors: Exploring Competing Discourses in Digital Arenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia; Maier, Carmen Daniela

    2017-01-01

    , digital issue arenas and critical discourse, this study is based upon detailed explorations of qualitative hypermodal data retrieved from two websites, Protect Mauna Kea and Maunakea and TMT, which frame from alternative perspectives the internationally renowned Thirty Meter Telescope’s construction...... amplification concretized in selected discursive and interactive strategies that highlight or downplay the issue from particular perspectives. Originality/value The study offers a deep insight into the complexity and dynamic nature of framing, in particular into how framing can vary and compete across actors...

  4. Colorectal cancer prevention: Perspectives of key players from social networks in a low-income rural US region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E. Schoenberg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social networks influence health behavior and health status. Within social networks, “key players” often influence those around them, particularly in traditionally underserved areas like the Appalachian region in the USA. From a total sample of 787 Appalachian residents, we identified and interviewed 10 key players in complex networks, asking them what comprises a key player, their role in their network and community, and ideas to overcome and increase colorectal cancer (CRC screening. Key players emphasized their communication skills, resourcefulness, and special occupational and educational status in the community. Barriers to CRC screening included negative perceptions of the colonoscopy screening procedure, discomfort with the medical system, and misinformed perspectives on screening. Ideas to improve screening focused on increasing awareness of women's susceptibility to CRC, providing information on different screening tests, improving access, and the key role of health-care providers and key players themselves. We provide recommendations to leverage these vital community resources.

  5. Shaping or shaking the learning network? Insights into teaching practices using Virtual Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Habib

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article carries out an analysis of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE in an institution of Higher Education using Actor Network Theory (ANT. The ANT perspective is used to help explore the complex processes that come into play when a VLE is introduced in an organisation, especially as pedagogical goals, administrative procedures and technological artefacts are interwoven in a heterogeneous web or “network”. The article identifies new actors that emerge in the traditional teacher-student, teacher-teacher and student-student relationships as a result of the presence and active usage of the VLE. It also describes how already existing actors may change roles or status in connection with VLE use.

  6. The establishment of heterogeneous networks in performative spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suenson, Valinka; Harder, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical research combining the Actor Network Theory with a development of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology for tracking indoor movement behavior. The aim of the paper is to disucss the value of RFID technology as a method for observing heterogeneous networks...... and architecture through this theoretical perspective, it highlights the importance of the user involvement in the performative spaces where materiality becomes an actant on equal terms with the users. This paper discusses the use of RFID technology for tracking indoor movenment behavior as a method for examining...

  7. The simulation and optimization research on manufacturing enterprise’s supply chain process from the perspective of social network

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Chun; Shuai, Zhenzhen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: By studying the case of a Changsha engineering machinery manufacturing firm, this paper aims to find out the optimization tactics to reduce enterprise’s logistics operational cost. Design/methodology/approach: This paper builds the structure model of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational costs from the perspective of social firm network and simulates the model based on system dynamics. Findings: It concludes that applying system dynamics in the research o...

  8. Sexual Politics and Religious Actors in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pecheny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of religious actors in sexual politics in Argentina. Sexual politics has become a critical battlefield when it comes to the role of religion in the Argentinean liberal-democratic regime, while gender and sexuality have been the main political targets of religious institutions since the 1980s and 1990s. In this context, progressive legislation on gender, sexual, and reproductive rights was passed, including same-sex marriage and the recognition of transgender identities, despite the opposition of the Catholic Church. Paradoxically, abortion remains largely illegal, allowed only in exceptional circumstances.

  9. Neoliberalism and political actors in contemporary Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Reynares

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we set out a critical reading of the literature on political neoliberal actors in Argen­tina. We consider that the concentration of these studies in the national level has to do with a definition of neoliberalism as a set of economical and structural macro politics. We propose to define neoliberalism as a technology of government that intends to hegemonize an “enterprise form” in different social spheres, articulating a symbolical framework in a contingent and con­tentious way. This insight allows analyzing neoliberal identification processes as heterogeneous trajectories with diverse geographic and temporal scopes.

  10. Policy analysis of multi-actor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Enserink, Bert; Kwakkel, Jan; Thissen, Wil; Koppenjan, Joop; Bots, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Policy analysts love solving complex problems. Their favorite problems are not just technically complex but also characterized by the presence of many different social actors that hold conflicting interests, objectives, and perceptions and act strategically to get the best out of a problem situation. This book offers guidance for policy analysts who want to assess if and how their analysis could be of help, based on the premise that problem formulation is the cornerstone in addressing complex problems. This book positions policy analysis within the theories on processes of policy making, and f

  11. El terrorismo: ¿nuevo actor internacional?

    OpenAIRE

    Zeraoui, Zidane

    2002-01-01

    Los cambios mundiales desde el fin de la bipolaridad y la caída de la Unión Soviética han conllevando a la aparición de nuevos actores en el escenario internacional. El enfoque estatocéntrico hegemónico durante la Guerra Fría en las teorías realistas e idealistas está cediendo espacio a la pluralidad paradigmática que reconoce la emergencia de los nuevos entes. Además de los Estados, de las organizaciones tanto gubernamentales como no gubernamentales, de los organismos internacionales y de...

  12. Investigation of rotated PCA from the perspective of network communities applied to climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, David; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Vejmelka, Martin; Palus, Milan

    2013-04-01

    , seasonality, and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Monthly Weather Review 115:1083-1126. Feldstein, SB (2000) The timescale, power spectra, and climate noise properties of teleconnection patterns. Journal of Climate 13(24), 4430-4440. Fortunato, S (2010) Community detection in graphs. Physics Report-Review Section of Physics Letters 486(3-5), 75-174. Kistler, R and Coauthors (2001) The NCEP-NCAR 50-Year Reanalysis: Monthly means CD-ROM and documentation. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 82, 247-267. Hlinka J, Hartman D, Vejmelka M, Novotna D and Palus M. Non-linear dependence and teleconnections in climate data: sources, relevance, nonstationarity. Submitted preprint, available at arXiv:1211.6688. Girvan, M ; Newman, MEJ (2002) Community structure in social and biological networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United State of America 99(12), 7821-7826. Newman, MEJ and Girvan N (2004) Finding and evaluating community structure in networks. Physical Review E 69(2), 026113. Tsonis, AA; Swanson, KL (2012) On the origins of decadal climate variability: a network perspective. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 19(5), 559-568. Tsonis, AA; Wang, G; Swanson, KL ; Rodrigues, FA; Costa, LD (2011) Community structure and dynamics in climate networks. Climate Dynamics 37(5-6), 933-940.

  13. Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  14. Urban Poverty and Neighborhood Effects on Crime: Incorporating Spatial and Network Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graif, Corina; Gladfelter, Andrew S; Matthews, Stephen A

    2014-09-01

    Research on neighborhoods and crime is on a remarkable growth trajectory. In this article, we survey important recent developments in the scholarship on neighborhood effects and the spatial stratification of poverty and urban crime. We advance the case that, in understanding the impact of neighborhoods and poverty on crime, sociological and criminological research would benefit from expanding the analytical focus from residential neighborhoods to the network of neighborhoods individuals are exposed to during their daily routine activities. This perspective is supported by reemerging scholarship on activity spaces and macro-level research on inter-neighborhood connections. We highlight work indicating that non-residential contexts add variation in criminogenic exposure, which in turn influence offending behavior and victimization risk. Also, we draw on recent insights from research on gang violence, social and institutional connections, and spatial mismatch, and call for advancements in the scholarship on urban poverty that investigates the salience of inter-neighborhood connections in evaluating the spatial stratification of criminogenic risk for individuals and communities.

  15. Field Study of all GSM and WiFi Networks in Amman City from Geospatial Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawarey, Mosab; Alibrahim, Mustafa; Jetto, Hamza; Salah Mahmoud, Firas

    2016-04-01

    A thorough field study over multiple months has been conducted in the streets of Amman, the capital city of Jordan, in order to collect massive amounts of GSM and WiFi data and analyze them from geospatial perspective. Some interesting realities have been detected; e.g. the North and West of Amman are much better served by GSM operators than the East, South, and Center. Also, the security measures taken to protect WiFi networks in the North and West are much better than those in the East, South, and Center. This has led to the recognition of an interesting pattern that groups the North and West together, while the East, South, and Center constitute another group. Extremely interesting finding was found; the GSM signals are so strong at certain locations that they constitute direct lethal threat to human health; it is scientifically documented that such strengths would lead to certain human cell mutations and cancer. The exact locations and contributors of such hazards will be disclosed in this paper for the first time. Many tabular and graphical presentations of the data will be presented.

  16. Reviewing Bayesian Networks potentials for climate change impacts assessment and management: A multi-risk perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperotto, Anna; Molina, José-Luis; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    The evaluation and management of climate change impacts on natural and human systems required the adoption of a multi-risk perspective in which the effect of multiple stressors, processes and interconnections are simultaneously modelled. Despite Bayesian Networks (BNs) are popular integrated modelling tools to deal with uncertain and complex domains, their application in the context of climate change still represent a limited explored field. The paper, drawing on the review of existing applications in the field of environmental management, discusses the potential and limitation of applying BNs to improve current climate change risk assessment procedures. Main potentials include the advantage to consider multiple stressors and endpoints in the same framework, their flexibility in dealing and communicate with the uncertainty of climate projections and the opportunity to perform scenario analysis. Some limitations (i.e. representation of temporal and spatial dynamics, quantitative validation), however, should be overcome to boost BNs use in climate change impacts assessment and management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavioral Patterns among (Violent Non-State Actors: A Study of Complementary Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Iris Idler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a multi-year study of governance structures in the midst of insecurity and organized crime in fragile sub-state regions, where in the absence of a strong state, non-state actors (like insurgents, traffickers and tribal warlords engage in political and socioeconomic governance. Building on our prior work on West Africa and the Afghanistan-Pakistan tribal belt, this paper focuses on the Andean borderlands, drawing on recent fieldwork in Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. We explore patterns of behavior in which competition among violent non-state actors is not the norm. Instead, several instances were found in which violent non-state actors work collaboratively or have tacit non-interference agreements to provide public goods through arrangements we characterize as “complementary governance.” We therefore argue that, to understand how illicit authority emerges, it is not sufficient to consider one armed non-state actor in isolation or in a dichotomy to the state. As we contend, we have to take into account the complex connections and interactions among different (violent non-state structures. Moving beyond state versus non-state governance to governance that is constitutive of various non-state groups, the perspective put forward in this article thus is aimed to enrich the current debate on governance and security.

  18. An alter-centric perspective on employee innovation: The importance of alters' creative self-efficacy and network structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Travis J; Venkataramani, Vijaya; Labianca, Giuseppe Joe

    2017-09-01

    While most social network studies of employee innovation behavior examine the focal employees' ("egos'") network structure, we employ an alter-centric perspective to study the personal characteristics of employees' network contacts-their "alters"-to better understand employee innovation. Specifically, we examine how the creative self-efficacy (CSE) and innovation behavior of employees' social network contacts affects their ability to generate and implement novel ideas. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 144 employees in a U.S.-based product development organization. We find that the average CSE of alters in an employee's problem solving network is positively related to that employee's innovation behavior, with this relationship being mediated by these alters' average innovation behavior. The relationship between the alters' average innovation behavior and the employee's own innovation behavior is strengthened when these alters have less dense social networks. Post hoc results suggest that having network contacts with high levels of CSE also leads to an increase in ego's personal CSE 1 year later in cases where the employee's initial level of CSE was relatively low. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Prospect Theory: Contributions to Understanding Actors, Causes and Consequences of Conflict in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Trott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite many recognized shortcomings, Rational Choice Theory remains the dominant perspective on decision-making in the literature on African conflict, whether overtly acknowledged or not. Prospect Theory, originally derived from the field of behavioural economics, can complement and advance this perspective not only by explaining the behaviour of actors, but also by allowing for predictions and the devising of strategies to avoid or end on-going conflicts based on a set of systematic biases that influence how actors make decisions. After a brief definition of Prospect Theory, this work will begin with an overview of the existing literature on decision-making as it relates to conflict, examine how Rational Choice is inadequate in explaining much human behaviour and thus how Prospect Theory can fill this gap. It will then move on to give a fuller definition of the various hypotheses derived from Prospect Theory that pertain to the study of conflict. An example of the application of Prospect Theory to a related field in which thorough research has been conducted, Deterrence Theory, will be used to demonstrate the model’s potential for study in other areas. This will be followed by a more in-depth analysis of the ways in which Prospect Theory can contribute to understanding the behaviour of actors in war, the causes of conflict, and the consequences in the African context. It will conclude with a summary and proposition for further research that can advance this analysis.

  20. Humanoids Learning to Walk: a Natural CPG-Actor-Critic Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI eLI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of learning mechanisms for locomotion has been the subject of much researchfor some time but many challenges remain. Dynamic systems theory (DST offers a novel approach to humanoid learning through environmental interaction. Reinforcement learning (RL has offered a promising method to adaptively link the dynamic system to the environment it interacts with via a reward-based value system.In this paper, we propose a model that integrates the above perspectives and applies it to the case of a humanoid (NAO robot learning to walk the ability of which emerges from its value-based interaction with the environment. In the model,a simplified central pattern generator (CPG architecture inspired by neuroscientific research and DST is integrated with an actor-critic approach to RL (cpg-actor-critic. In the cpg-actor-critic architecture, least-square-temporal-difference (LSTD based learning converges to the optimal solution quickly by using natural gradient and balancing exploration and exploitation. Futhermore, rather than using a traditional (designer-specified reward it uses a dynamic value function as a stability indicator (SI that adapts to the environment.The results obtained are analyzed and explained by using a novel DST embodied cognition approach. Learning to walk, from this perspective, is a process of integrating sensorimotor levels and value.

  1. Collective action and network change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takacs, Karoly; Janky, Bela; Flache, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Network models of collective action commonly assume fixed social networks in which ties influence participation through social rewards. This implies that only certain ties are beneficial from the view of individual actors. Accordingly, in this study we allow that actors strategically revise their re

  2. On radio access network slicing from a radio resource management perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sallent Roig, José Oriol; Pérez Romero, Jordi; Ferrús Ferré, Ramón Antonio; Agustí Comes, Ramon

    2017-01-01

    Network slicing is a fundamental capability for future 5G networks to properly support current and envisioned future application scenarios. Network slicing facilitates a cost-effective deployment and operation of multiple logical networks over a common physical network infrastructure such that each network is customized to best serve the needs of specific applications (e.g., mobile broadband, Internet of Things applications) and/or communications service providers (e.g., special purpose servi...

  3. Transnational Ideologies and Actors at the Level of Society in South and Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    of these movements, in general, giving particular attention to their embeddedness in everyday life. The paper observes these movements’ recruitment and training strategies as well as the patterns of socialization taking place within these movements. A global market has emerged in response to the phenomenal growth...... of these transnational movements wherein Islamic actors compete for followers and authority while local Muslim communities negotiate their ties with transnational Islamic networks....

  4. Human Dopamine Receptors Interaction Network (DRIN): a systems biology perspective on topology, stability and functionality of the network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Avijit; Jatana, Nidhi; Latha, N

    2014-09-21

    Dopamine receptors (DR) are one of the major neurotransmitter receptors present in human brain. Malfunctioning of these receptors is well established to trigger many neurological and psychiatric disorders. Taking into consideration that proteins function collectively in a network for most of the biological processes, the present study is aimed to depict the interactions between all dopamine receptors following a systems biology approach. To capture comprehensive interactions of candidate proteins associated with human dopamine receptors, we performed a protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) analysis of all five receptors and their protein partners by mapping them into human interactome and constructed a human Dopamine Receptors Interaction Network (DRIN). We explored the topology of dopamine receptors as molecular network, revealing their characteristics and the role of central network elements. More to the point, a sub-network analysis was done to determine major functional clusters in human DRIN that govern key neurological pathways. Besides, interacting proteins in a pathway were characterized and prioritized based on their affinity for utmost drug molecules. The vulnerability of different networks to the dysfunction of diverse combination of components was estimated under random and direct attack scenarios. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is unique to put all five dopamine receptors together in a common interaction network and to understand the functionality of interacting proteins collectively. Our study pinpointed distinctive topological and functional properties of human dopamine receptors that have helped in identifying potential therapeutic drug targets in the dopamine interaction network.

  5. Influence Activation Model: A New Perspective in Social Influence Analysis and Social Network Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yang; Lichtenwalter, Ryan N; Dong, Yuxiao

    2016-01-01

    What drives the propensity for the social network dynamics? Social influence is believed to drive both off-line and on-line human behavior, however it has not been considered as a driver of social network evolution. Our analysis suggest that, while the network structure affects the spread of influence in social networks, the network is in turn shaped by social influence activity (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's). To that end, we develop a novel model of network evolution where the dynamics of network follow the mechanism of influence propagation, which are not captured by the existing network evolution models. Our experiments confirm the predictions of our model and demonstrate the important role that social influence can play in the process of network evolution. As well exploring the reason of social network evolution, different genres of social influence have been spotted having different effects on the network dynamics. These findings and ...

  6. The Corporation as a Political Actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    . On the other hand, European scholars have recently promoted an understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) emphasizing that firms often assume a political role because they increasingly provide public goods and become involved in multi-actor governance processes. This article contrasts both......This article distinguishes two approaches to study the political role of corporations. On the one hand, North American scholars have primarily understood the link between business and politics through the lens of corporate political activity (CPA) looking at how firms influence government policy...... approaches and suggests that differences in the way the political role of corporations are understood can at least, in part, be explained by the distinct nature of European/North American management scholarship as well as by the political environment in both regions. It is also suggested that both...

  7. Innovation in Multi-Actor Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David

    2014-01-01

    Access2innovation is an initiative based in Denmark that develops and tests innovative new ways to build and implement strategic partnerships between civil society, business and academia. The objective is to meet perceived market opportunities and challenges in developing countries by developing...... innovative sustainable technological solutions and business models through partnerships. In this paper, an action research study is presented involving the early stage development of a commercial venture addressing waste problems in Vietnam involving CARE International and Danish companies in the waste...... to success lie in providing actors with a sound base for decision-making as well as active bi- and multilateral negotiations. As a novel experiment, the study shows that access2innovation can provide a platform conducive for partnership-based innovation for development....

  8. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such "intrinsic" brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to "mind". However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the "classical" definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and "free-energy" (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm of "variational

  9. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... of the complexity of T2DM, we propose a systems biology approach to advance the understanding of origin, onset, development, prevention, and treatment of this complex disease. This systems-based strategy is based on new study design principles and the integrated application of omics technologies: we pursue...

  10. Drivers' social-work relationships as antecedents of unsafe driving: A social network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizon Peretz, Renana; Luria, Gil

    2017-07-13

    In order to reduce road accidents rates, studies around the globe have attempted to shed light on the antecedents for unsafe road behaviors. The aim of the current research is to contribute to this literature by offering a new organizational antecedent of driver's unsafe behavior: The driver's relationships with his or her peers, as reflected in three types of social networks: negative relationships network, friendship networks and advice networks (safety consulting). We hypothesized that a driver's position in negative relationship networks, friendship networks, and advice networks will predict unsafe driving. Additionally, we hypothesized the existence of mutual influences among the driver's positions in these various networks, and suggested that the driver's positions interact to predict unsafe driving behaviors. The research included 83 professional drivers from four different organizations. Driving behavior data were gathered via the IVDR (In-Vehicle Data Recorder) system, installed in every truck to measure and record the driver's behavior. The findings indicated that the drivers' position in the team networks predicts safe driving behavior: Centrality in negative relationship networks is positively related to unsafe driving, and centrality in friendship networks is negatively related to unsafe driving, while centrality in advice networks is not related to unsafe driving. Furthermore, we found an interaction effect between negative network centrality and centrality in friendship networks. The relation between negative networks and unsafe behavior is weaker when high levels of friendship network centrality exist. The implications will be presented in the Discussion section. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of Three Actors: Roles of Government, Private Sector, and University toward Startup Growth in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinintya Audori Fathin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information, communication, and technology advancements in 21st century encourage startups to innovate and develop their business further. Because it’s an ICT based business which is supported by the existence of internet, this kind of business starts to become borderless. As a result, the distributions of the products start to become unlimited. The conveniences offered by these advancements invite more ICT based product developers. The positive impact as a result of that such as more new jobs, easier way to access the markets, and also cheaper production cost with guaranteed profits. In addition to that, this of course also becomes an added value to the country because it increases Network Readiness Index and nation’s income from taxes. This research aims to analyze startup’s growth, in addition to its relation with related actors such as government, private sectors, and universities. Analysis on every actor will emphasize on their contribution to startup developments in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta directly or indirectly. In conclusion, there will be an illustration about how big the contributions and how close the actors are between startups and the three actors.

  12. Evolution and prospects cable networks for broadband services : A technical perspective of the European and specifically the Dutch cable networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous

    2012-01-01

    European cable networks have played an important role in the development of broadcast television and broadband services. The delivery of Gigabit broadband services is considered to be the next access network challenge in the development of broadband services. In this whitepaper we have studied and

  13. Evolution and prospects cable networks for broadband services : A technical perspective of the European and specifically the Dutch cable networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous

    2012-01-01

    European cable networks have played an important role in the development of broadcast television and broadband services. The delivery of Gigabit broadband services is considered to be the next access network challenge in the development of broadband services. In this whitepaper we have studied and a

  14. Brain systems for visual perspective taking and action perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Elisabetta; Ramsey, Richard; Conson, Massimiliano; Hamilton, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Taking another person's viewpoint and making sense of their actions are key processes that guide social behavior. Previous neuroimaging investigations have largely studied these processes separately. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how the brain incorporates another person's viewpoint and actions into visual perspective judgments. Participants made a left-right judgment about the location of a target object from their own (egocentric) or an actor's visual perspective (altercentric). Actor location varied around a table and the actor was either reaching or not reaching for the target object. Analyses examined brain regions engaged in the egocentric and altercentric tasks, brain regions where response magnitude tracked the orientation of the actor in the scene and brain regions sensitive to the action performed by the actor. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) was sensitive to actor orientation in the altercentric task, whereas the response in right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was sensitive to actor orientation in the egocentric task. Thus, dmPFC and right IFG may play distinct but complementary roles in visual perspective taking (VPT). Observation of a reaching actor compared to a non-reaching actor yielded activation in lateral occipitotemporal cortex, regardless of task, showing that these regions are sensitive to body posture independent of social context. By considering how an observed actor's location and action influence the neural bases of visual perspective judgments, the current study supports the view that multiple neurocognitive "routes" operate during VPT.

  15. Observing workplace incivility towards women: The roles of target reactions, actor motives, and actor-target relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Chui, C. W. S.; Dietz,J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study conceptualized observer reactions to uncivil behavior towards women as an ethical behavior and examined three factors (target reaction, actor motive, and actor-target relationship) that influence these reactions. Two vignette studies with women and men undergraduate and graduate students in western Switzerland were conducted. Study 1 (N=148) was a written vignette study that assessed how the reaction of female targets to incivility and the motives of actors influenced observ...

  16. Actores sociales y ambitos de construccion de politicas ambientales Social actors and scenarios in the generation of environmental politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gudynas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el concepto de "actores claves" en la generación de políticas ambientales. Independientemente de la definición de actor social que se maneje, el asumir la existencia de actores claves ofrece limitaciones conceptuales y prácticas, ya que éstos son coyunturales a cada situación específica. Todos pueden ser actores claves en generar políticas ambientales cumpliendo papeles diferenciales. Como alternativa se utiliza el término de "actores destacados" y se revisan aspectos sobresalientes de varios de ellos en América Latina. Seguidamente se postula que el análisis se debe centrar en los escenarios sociales donde esos actores se pueden manifestar. Se ofrece una distinción preliminar de escenarios que permite integrar a nuevos y viejos movimientos sociales y establecer relaciones de articulación y equivalencia.The concept of "key actors" in the field of environmental politics is analyzed. Beyond the definition of social actor, the assumption of the existence of key actors implies conceptual and practical limitations, as it depends of each specific situation. Everyone could be a key actor under differential roles in the generation of environmental politics. As an alternative, the term "noteworthy actors" is used and a brief review of them in Latin America is presented. The relevant question should address the social scenarios from where these actors can express themselves. A preliminary distinction of scenarios is presented, in which old and new social movements could be integrated and relationships of articulation and equivalence could be established.

  17. Literacy testing objects as co-actors in framing bilingual childrens literacy development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    Literacy testing objects as co-actors in framing bilingual children´s literacy development Based on Latour´s theoretical perspective that human beings delegate roles and responsibility to artifacts, it becomes important to track and research the objects that circulate within and between “sites...... perspectives is needed. The object in this presentation is literacy testing and the focus is on the function of literacy testing objects in framing bilingual children’s´ literacy development. Based on interviews and observations from three primary schools in Denmark the central research interest is to reveal...... the meaning that is delegated to the literacy testing objects in regard to bilingual children´s literacy development and to explore the narratives that are constructed about the children´s literacy. Based on Latour´s theoretical perspective that human beings delegate roles and responsibility to artifacts...

  18. Los Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje como estrategia de aprendizaje desde la Teoría del Actor-Red

    OpenAIRE

    Meza Cano, José Manuel; Cejas León, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende visualizar los Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje desde el punto de vista de la Teoría del Actor-Red. En primer lugar, se describen los elementos centrales de la Teoría del Actor-Red, la visión de aprendizaje desde este enfoque, así como el concepto de actante y de simetría generalizada. Posteriormente se exponen los elementos clave de las definiciones sobre Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje y la visión del aprendizaje que defienden, centrada principalmente en el estudi...

  19. Complexity in Decision Making: The Case of the Rotterdam Harbour Expansion : Connecting Decisions, Arenas and Actors in Spatial Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans); M.K.A. van Gils (Marcel)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDecision making about spatial projects is very complex. Decisions to develop the Rotterdam harbour are taken in the context of a network of local, regional, national, European and international actors, both public and private. These decision-making processes exhibit a lot of complexity a

  20. Multiple actor-critic structures for continuous-time optimal control using input-output data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank; Wei, Qinglai; Zhang, Hua-Guang; Jiang, Zhong-Ping; Levine, Dan

    2015-04-01

    In industrial process control, there may be multiple performance objectives, depending on salient features of the input-output data. Aiming at this situation, this paper proposes multiple actor-critic structures to obtain the optimal control via input-output data for unknown nonlinear systems. The shunting inhibitory artificial neural network (SIANN) is used to classify the input-output data into one of several categories. Different performance measure functions may be defined for disparate categories. The approximate dynamic programming algorithm, which contains model module, critic network, and action network, is used to establish the optimal control in each category. A recurrent neural network (RNN) model is used to reconstruct the unknown system dynamics using input-output data. NNs are used to approximate the critic and action networks, respectively. It is proven that the model error and the closed unknown system are uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed optimal control scheme for the unknown nonlinear system.

  1. A network analysis of Sibiu County, Romania

    CERN Document Server

    Grama, Cristina-Nicol

    2013-01-01

    Network science methods have proved to be able to provide useful insights from both a theoretical and a practical point of view in that they can better inform governance policies in complex dynamic environments. The tourism research community has provided an increasing number of works that analyse destinations from a network science perspective. However, most of the studies refer to relatively small samples of actors and linkages. With this note we provide a full network study, although at a preliminary stage, that reports a complete analysis of a Romanian destination (Sibiu). Our intention is to increase the set of similar studies with the aim of supporting the investigations in structural and dynamical characteristics of tourism destinations.

  2. Social networks in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    and practice have focused on conceptual frameworks and practical techniques of promoting reflection through conversation in general and questioning in particular. However, in recent years, supervision research has started to focus on the social and technological aspects of supervision. This calls...... is constituted by the relationality of the actors, not by the actors themselves. In other words, no one acts in a vacuum but rather always under the influence of a wide range of surrounding and interconnected factors. Actors are actors because they are in a networked relationship. Thus, focusing on social...... and space. That involves mobilised an denrolled actos, both animate and inanimate (e.g. books, computers, etc. Actor-network theory defines a symmetry between animate and inanimate, i.e. subjects and objects, because ”human powers increasingly derive from the complex interconnections if human with material...

  3. The semiotic actor : From signs to socially constructed meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmhout, M.; Jorna, R.J.J.M.; Gazendam, H.W.M.

    A semiotic actor creates, uses and transfers or communicates meaning with the help of signs in order to interact with other actors and society. For a complete understanding of the cognitive and social phenomena related to this process, we state that social science and cognitive science cannot stay

  4. The Dynamics of Friendships and Victimization in Adolescence : A Longitudinal Social Network Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Salmivalli, Christina; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of relational and physical victimization in adolescent friendship networks over time. Using longitudinal social network analysis (SIENA) it was simultaneously tested whether similarity in victimization contributed to friendship formation (selection effects)

  5. Transnational Diaspora and Civil Society Actors Driving MNE Internationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Elo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    ) in Bangladesh. This case study analyses and describes the stages of development, documenting how Norwegian Telenor, American Gonophone, Japanese Marubeni and Bangladeshi Grameen Bank created an IJV named Grameenphone in Bangladesh, and how diaspora and civil society actors made up the prime movers......Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are viewed as proactive global economic actors that enter new and emerging markets with intentional strategies, building on their inherent resources and firm-specific advantages. However, an international joint venture involves numerous actors in the market entry...... and civil society actors. It provides evidence of the reactive internationalisation of an MNE, showing how the transnational diaspora drove the MNE’s internationalisation and how a civil society actor, in conjunction with a diaspora member, facilitated the creation of an international joint venture (IJV...

  6. CONTINUING EDUCATION TEACHER OF INDIGENOUS AND NON-INDIGENOUS MEDIATED SOCIAL NETWORK ON THE INTERNET: A PERSPECTIVE INTERCULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Lima Paniago Lopes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze continuous training of teachers indigenous and non-indigenous, mediated by a social network on Ning called Internet under an intercultural perspective. This social network has come up as a virtual community as they have been established emotional ties, webs of connections and relationships between its participants. This is a qualitative research and collaborative in the sense that the experiences of researchers and teachers are valued and shared within a social context. The results show that participants in the group continuing of education, despite their difficulties using the technology itself and with little technological infrastructure, they see these virtual spaces as a possibility for new discoveries, creations and knowledge production, not forsaking the customs, traditions and their own culture.

  7. Unravelling 21st Century Riddles – Universal Network Visions from a Human Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baken, N.; Van Belleghem, N.; Van Boven, E.; De Korte, A.

    2006-01-01

    Networks are omnipresent and universal. Mankind, for example, forms a social network. Today, information and communications technology (ICT) exponentially accelerates the interaction between the human nodes of this global social network. In that way, ICT appears to evoke a phase transformation,

  8. Gender perspective on the social networks of household heads and community leaders after involuntary resettlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quetulio-Navarra, Melissa; Znidarsic, Anja; Niehof, A.

    2017-01-01

    The study of social network analysis in Indonesia and the Philippines reveals that after a certain period in a new community and living among involuntarily resettled strangers, household heads and community leaders will eventually replace their disrupted previous networks with new network ties. The

  9. NGO - PRIVATE ACTORS AT AN INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAILA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available International law, taken by globalization, helps emerge “private actors at an international level” by generating “a removal from territories of problems and solutions”. The question of NGO accessing international jurisdictions is situated at this intersection, which is a dangerous one for jurists. The ways of national laws intersect, in fact, with those of international law. More over, private international law, more specifically, the private judicial nature of NGOs that enter into contact with public international law, an intersection that will imprint a plural-disciplinary character that marks this study. Thus, we must follow this rocky road and try a private approach of a question disputed by public law, which is also a part of international law. The risks of maladroitness are numerous, but must be assumed according to their importance and of the rarity of clarification attempts. NGOs, legal persons from private law exercising their activities in international context contain, in fact, elements of foreign origin that result in specific problems of international law. And if “international law can not be the domain of perfect solutions” it can allow however the adoption of others which, that can seem less perfect to some, will possess the aptitude of “creating the laws of a state”. Thus, only by allying public international law to private law, the question of NGOs access to international jurisdictions can receive an answer.

  10. State-owned Enterprises as Institutional Market Actors in the Marketization of Public Service Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup Christensen, Lene

    This doctoral thesis (PhD) explores from a public governance perspective the role of stateowned enterprises (SOEs) in an era of marketization of public service provision and thus contributes to the renewed academic interest in contemporary SOEs. It builds on an explorative comparative case study...... of DSB SOV and SJ AB in the marketization of passenger rail in Denmark and Sweden respectively from the 1990s to 2015. In the period both cases kept full state ownership and Sweden gradually exposed all services to competition whereas in Denmark with time competition was put on hold. The case study...... as an institutional market actor (IMA)....

  11. Networks in Social Policy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco

    2012-08-01

    1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.

  12. Networking in the Transport Sector: Inter-Firm vs Intra-Firm Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justas Nugaras

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the global economic environment have a huge impact on the transport and logistics sector. Experts in the sector emphasize the role of collaboration in order to reach common goals. In theory such phenomena is analyzed through the networking viewpoint. Among the major groups of players in the sector, two types of networks are dominant: inter-firm networking and intra-firm networking. Empirical pilot research is done by comparing two types of networking in global and local companies. Following the results of the pilot research the conclusion was made that inter-firm networking and intra-firm networking in the companies complement each other and require further research.Article in English

  13. Segmentation and Classification of Human Actions and Actor Characteristics with 3d Motion Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ali Etemad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have used 3D motion capture data with the aim of detecting and classifying specifichuman actions. In addition to recognition of basic action classes, actor styles and characteristics such asgender, age, and energy level have also been subject to classification. We have applied and compared threemain methods: nearest neighbour search, hidden Markov models, and artificial neural networks. Usingthese techniques, we have proposed exhaustive algorithms for detection of actions in a motion piece andsubsequently classifying the segmented actions and respective characteristics of the actors. We have testedthe methods for various sequences and compared the results for a comprehensive evaluation of each of theproposed techniques. Our findings can be largely used for general classification of human motion data formultimedia applications as well as sorting and classifying data sets of human motion data especially thoseacquired using visual marker-based motion capture systems such as the one employed in this research.

  14. Manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational cost simulation and optimization from the perspective of inter-firm network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Fu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: By studying the case of a Changsha engineering machinery manufacturing firm, this paper aims to find out the optimization tactics to reduce enterprise’s logistics operational cost. Design/methodology/approach: This paper builds the structure model of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational costs from the perspective of inter-firm network and simulates the model based on system dynamics. Findings: It concludes that applying system dynamics in the research of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics cost control can better reflect the relationship of factors in the system. And the case firm can optimize the logistics costs by implement joint distribution. Research limitations/implications: This study still lacks comprehensive consideration about the variables quantities and quantitative of the control factors. In the future, we should strengthen the collection of data and information about the engineering manufacturing firms and improve the logistics operational cost model. Practical implications: This study puts forward some optimization tactics to reduce enterprise’s logistics operational cost. And it is of great significance for enterprise’s supply chain management optimization and logistics cost control. Originality/value: Differing from the existing literatures, this paper builds the structure model of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational costs from the perspective of inter-firm network and simulates the model based on system dynamics.

  15. A Study on Relationship between Modularity and Diffusion Dynamics in Networks from Spectral Analysis Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka Ide

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Modular structure is a typical structure that is observed in most of real networks. Diffusion dynamics in network is getting much attention because of dramatic increasing of the data flows via the www. The diffusion dynamics in network have been well analysed as probabilistic process, but the proposed frameworks still shows the difference from the real observations. In this paper, we analysed spectral properties of the networks and diffusion dynamics. Especially, we focus on studying the relationship between modularity and diffusion dynamics. Our analysis as well as simulation results show that the relative influences from the non-largest eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors increase when modularity of network increases. These results have the implication that, although network dynamics have been often analysed with the approximation manner utilizing only the largest eigenvalue, the consideration of the other eigenvalues is necessary for the analysis of the network dynamics on real networks. We also investigated Node-level Eigenvalue Influence Index (NEII which can quantify the relative influence from each eigenvalues on each node. This investigation indicates that the influence from each eigenvalue is confined within the modular structures in the network. These findings should be made consideration by researchers interested in diffusion dynamics analysis on real networks for deeper analysis.

  16. The RAFT Telemedicine Network in Low and Middle Income Countries: Educational and Clinical Services, Lessons Learnt and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges eBediang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectives of this paper are to: i provide an overview of the educational and clinical experiences of the RAFT network, ii analyse key challenges and lessons learnt throughout a decade of activity and, iii draw a vision and perspectives of its sustainability.Methods: The study was carried out following three main stages: i a literature review, ii the analysis of key documents and iii discussions with key collaborators of the RAFT.Results: RAFT has been offering an important quantity of educational, clinical and public health activities during the last decade. The educational activities include: the weekly delivery of video-lectures for continuing and postgraduate medical education, the use of virtual patients for training in clinical decision making, research training activities using ICTs and other e-learning activities. The clinical and public health activities include: tele-expertise to support health professionals in the management of difficult clinical cases, the implementation of clinical information systems in African hospitals, the deployment of mHealth projects, etc. Since 2010, the RAFT has been extended to the Altiplano in Bolivia and Nepal (in progress. Lessons learnt and perspectives: Important lessons have been learnt from the accumulated experiences throughout these years. These lessons concern: social and organization, human resources, technologies and data security, policy and legislation, and economy and financing. Also, given the increase of the activities and the integration of eHealth and telemedicine in the health system of most of the countries, the RAFT network faces many other challenges and perspectives such as: learning throughout life, recognition and valorisation of teaching or learning activities, the impact evaluation of interventions, and the scaling up and transferability out of Africa of RAFT activities. Based on the RAFT experience, effective integration and optimum use of eHealth and

  17. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature.

  18. Towards a systemic culture in global manufacturing virtual networks; Hacia una cultura sistemica en las redes virtuales de fabricacion global

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Monroy, C.; Vilana-Arto, J. R.

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyzes the most relevant factors of organizational culture that appear in Global Manufacturing Virtual Networks (GMVNs). These organizations are formed by very dynamic companies that manufacture all types of products or services and establish horizontal and vertical relations among themselves, and may even be competitors: within these organizations, it is not necessary maintaining large internal manufacturing resources but managing and sharing efficiently them with the network. The study of organizational culture at the network level includes aspects such as the similarity of cultural practices among its actors, social embeddedness, tacit knowledge transfer or the impertinence of trust in the network. They are ultimately the soft factors of GMVNs and are one of the key aspects for their efficient operation. By applying the proposed theoretical model, all the relevant cultural factors within inter-firm collaborations will be analyzed, as well as the possible existence of an organizational culture at the network level. The presence, under a systemic perspective, of homogeneous cultural values and practices, where actor scan be identified, would strengthen the group membership and would facilitate the establishment of a social network that underlies the awn GMVN and increases interactions among its members. The feasibility of this approach would facilitate the formation of new GMVNs by establishing, ex ante, a cultural perspectives model at the network level. (Author) 23 refs.

  19. Does human migration affect international trade? A complex-network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Fagiolo

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade, using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960-2000. Next, we ask whether the position of any pair of countries in the migration network affects their bilateral trade flows. We show that: (i both weighted and binary versions of the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated; (ii such correlations can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; and (iii pairs of countries that are more central in the international-migration network trade more. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration.

  20. Valuable connections: a social capital perspective on teachers’ social networks, commitmentand self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke M. Moolenaar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In research on educational reform implementation, scholars have highlighted the importance of teacher collaboration in support of increased student achievement. In this study, we examine whether teachers’ knowledge exchange in social networks is related to key elements that have been associated with increased student achievement, namely teacher self-efficacy and commitment. Drawing on social capital theory, we study teachers’ social networks to assess whether greater access to resources, as captured by a more central network position, is related to a greater sense of teacher efficacy and commitment. We collected survey and social network data from eight elementary schools in the Netherlands (N=114, which were then analyzed using social network analysis and correlational analysis. Results suggest positive relationships between teachers’ social network indicators, teacher self-efficacy, and commitment to the organization and to students. Our findings yield directions for more relationally oriented educational policy instruments.

  1. Does human migration affect international trade? A complex-network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagiolo, Giorgio; Mastrorillo, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade, using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960-2000. Next, we ask whether the position of any pair of countries in the migration network affects their bilateral trade flows. We show that: (i) both weighted and binary versions of the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated; (ii) such correlations can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; and (iii) pairs of countries that are more central in the international-migration network trade more. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration.

  2. Time matters: Temporal harmony and dissonance in nanotechnology networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selin, Cynthia Lea

    2006-01-01

    . What is missing is a recognition and confrontation of the diversity of temporal horizons and, more broadly, the constructions of time that are negotiated by heterogeneous actors within any technological frame. This article delves into the anatomy of time in new technologies and seeks to understand...... the coding mediations that occur in the nanotechnology arena. The case of nanotechnology – due to its emergent properties, affinity with science fiction and inexhaustible promises – is taken up with an analytic exploration of network participants’ perspectives on time. Departing from empirical evidence...

  3. Framing REDD+ at National Level: Actors and Discourse around Nepal’s Policy Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi R. Bastakoti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Forests and carbon sequestration have become fundamental themes in climate change mitigation. The idea of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ has generated significant interest in forest governance from United Nations (UN climate strategies over the past decade. REDD+ was initially hailed as a smart and cost-effective way to mitigate climate change. As it is rolling out, ambiguities and controversies are increasingly surfacing to the stakeholders at different levels. Examining the forest governance of Nepal in detail, this research examines how relationships between national and local forest actors have changed, and how REDD+ discourses have evolved among them at the interface between global interests in carbon commodification on one hand, and local realities of community forestry on the other hand. To better understand these competing positions, the study uses a post-structural political ecology perspective with elements of discourse analysis. Using data from interviews with policy actors and members of three local community forest user groups, focus group discussions, policy event observations, and document reviews, this paper highlights how global forest carbon commodification has been affecting community forestry governance. It also illustrates different storylines that actors employ to influence policy discourse and REDD+ debates, indicating a considerable range of problem definitions and policy solutions of climate change among the actors. The analysis highlights the connection between power relationships and the evolution of discourses surrounding REDD+, and how an external discourse can reinforce or challenge local governance and the centralization of forest authority. As such, the research also offers a new application of discursive storylines to climate change discourse analysis across national and local scales. The findings emphasize the importance of a more open and transparent dialogue across Nepal

  4. Optimizing the District Heating Primary Network from the Perspective of Economic-Specific Pressure Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A district heating (DH system is one of the most important components of infrastructures in cold areas. Proper DH network design should balance the initial investment and the heat distribution cost of the DH network. Currently, this design is often based on a recommended value for specific pressure loss (R = ∆P/L in the main lines. This will result in a feasible network design, but probably not be optimal in most cases. The paper develops a novel optimization model to facilitate the design by considering the initial investment in the pipes and the heat distribution costs. The model will generate all possible network scenarios consisting of different series of diameters for each pipe in the flow direction of the network. Then, the annuity on the initial investment, the heat distribution cost, and the total annual cost will be calculated for each network scenario, taking into account the uncertainties of the material prices and the yearly operating time levels. The model is applied to a sample DH network and the results indicate that the model works quite well, clearly identifying the optimal network design and demonstrating that the heat distribution cost is more important than the initial investment in DH network design.

  5. Cloud for Distributed Data Analysis Based on the Actor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kholod

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the construction of a Cloud for Distributed Data Analysis (CDDA based on the actor model. The design uses an approach to map the data mining algorithms on decomposed functional blocks, which are assigned to actors. Using actors allows users to move the computation closely towards the stored data. The process does not require loading data sets into the cloud and allows users to analyze confidential information locally. The results of experiments show that the efficiency of the proposed approach outperforms established solutions.

  6. Research on Business Model Innovations for Electric Vehicles:From the Perspective of Value Network%基于价值网络的电动汽车商业模式创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛奕曦; 陈翌; 孔德洋

    2014-01-01

    Business model innovation for electric vehicles (EVs) is an important way to promote the innovation diffusion of EVs. Consumer utility and profitability of business entities in the value network determines the sus-tainability of business models for EVs. So this paper adopts comparison and dynamic break-even analysis (BEP) methods to analyze the 'Shenzhen Model' from the perspective of economics. The results reveal that markup price between purchasing and charging, charging time and EV market penetration in the charging operational aspect are key factors of influencing the sustainability of the business model. Based on these, the profitability of each key actor is integrated to summarize and evaluate other domestic business models and some suggestions are proposed.%电动汽车商业模式是推动电动汽车技术创新扩散的重要途径,而商业模式价值网络中消费者效用和经营主体盈利性决定了该模式是否可持续。运用比较法和动态盈亏平衡分析法(BEP),从经济性视角重点对“深圳模式”进行剖析,发现充电运营环节的购电和充电差价、充电时间、充电需求量是影响商业模式可持续发展的关键参数。并以此为基础,对国内电动汽车商业模式中各主体的盈利能力进行考察和评价,总结存在的问题,并提出对策建议。

  7. Research on spatial economic structure for different economic sectors from a perspective of a complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sen; Yang, Hualei; Cai, Boliang; Yang, Chunxia

    2013-09-01

    The economy system is a complex system, and the complex network is a powerful tool to study its complexity. Here we calculate the economic distance matrices based on annual GDP of nine economic sectors from 1995-2010 in 31 Chinese provinces and autonomous regions,1 then build several spatial economic networks through the threshold method and the Minimal Spanning Tree method. After the analysis on the structure of the networks and the influence of geographic distance, some conclusions are drawn. First, connectivity distribution of a spatial economic network does not follow the power law. Second, according to the network structure, nine economic sectors could be divided into two groups, and there is significant discrepancy of network structure between these two groups. Moreover, the influence of the geographic distance plays an important role on the structure of a spatial economic network, network parameters are changed with the influence of the geographic distance. At last, 2000 km is the critical value for geographic distance: for real estate and finance, the spearman’s rho with l2000, and the case is opposite for other economic sectors.

  8. Repetitive Behaviors in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: New Perspectives from a Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's…

  9. Home-Based Peer Social Networks of Young Children with Down Syndrome: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Connor, Robert T.; Johnson, L. Clark

    2009-01-01

    Numerous dimensions of the peer social networks of children with Down syndrome were examined within a developmental framework. Results revealed that for many key measures, particularly involvement in play, linkages to other settings, and control of play, children with Down syndrome have less well-developed peer networks even in comparison to a…

  10. The Global Special Operations Forces Network from a Partner-Nation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Network Leadership ................................................................28  g.  Network Style/ Culture ...MEMBERSHIP BENEFITS IDENTIFIED FOR NORWAY AND SWEDEN .........................................................................126  LIST OF REFERENCES...and its critical partners. The national strategies of Norway, Sweden , and the United States describe corresponding security threats for the 21st

  11. A Social Network Perspective on Teacher Collaboration in Schools: Theory, Methodology, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolenaar, Nienke M.

    2012-01-01

    An emerging trend in educational research is the use of social network theory and methodology to understand how teacher collaboration can support or constrain teaching, learning, and educational change. This article provides a critical synthesis of educational literature on school social networks among educators to advance our understanding of the…

  12. Modes of governance of new service development for mobile networks. A life cycle perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on governance modes for service development of mobile telephone networks (GSM, WAP, GPRS, UMTS). 'Services' refer to services embodying a specific content. The paper shows that the phase of the life cycle of the network and the service affects the choice of governance

  13. Collaboration on technological innovation in Danish fashion chains: A network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2014-01-01

    maintains branded stores as primary retail channels better than other industries. In order to approach the retail network as an important organisational innovation system in relation to brand owners, the aim of this paper is to characterise key elements of innovation in retail networks. The approach......With brand owners struggling to compete with new products, physical production processes and sourcing logistics, innovation taking place in retail networks is often overlooked. Networks in retailing are comprised by the brand owner, the varieties of single- and multi-brand stores, chains...... of this work is based on four qualitative studies of medium/larger fashion brand owners and their respective retail and service provider networks. The study shows that innovation in retailing has a continuously emergent character with open-ended strategic design requirements and strong utilisation of relations...

  14. Engaging armed non-state actors in mechanisms for protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Lacroix

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Experience of engagement with armed non-state actors on the landmine ban may point the way to innovative approaches to preventing forced displacement and other abuses of human rights....

  15. Resenha: Power, Interdependence and Nonstate Actors in World Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuscia Moreno Galhera Espósito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resenha do livro: Moravcsik, Andrew; Milner, Helen V. (org.. Power, Interdependence and Nonstate Actors in World Politics. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-691-14027-8

  16. Research on virtual actor action editing and movement control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhu QIN; Yuhui WU; Zhengxu ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    To directly use a virtual surface model for action editing and movement control, a general method for creating virtual actor skeleton models and controlling movement is presented. The method includes judging borderlines of the block virtual surface model, calculat-ing the joints, confirming the above block, and using the block hierarchical layout to create the skeleton model. Then, according to the virtual actor model and move-ment restriction, the study focuses on the generation of movement animation using the key frame technique and smoothing movement technique by automatically adding animation and adjusting the actor's pose by different weights on movement amplitude. Finally, movement control of the actor in the virtual environment is implemented by real-time control and path point control, which achieve a good result.

  17. A model for the multiplex dynamics of two-mode and one-mode networks, with an application to employment preference, friendship, and advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Tom A. B.; Lomi, Alessandro; Torlo, Vanina Jasmine

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new stochastic actor-oriented model for the co-evolution of two-mode and one-mode networks. The model posits that activities of a set of actors, represented in the two-mode network, co-evolve with exchanges and interactions between the actors, as represented in the one-mode network. The

  18. Actors' positions and inclinations towards the electromobility system in France

    OpenAIRE

    SADEGHIAN, Sahdi; THEBERT, Marianne; LEURENT, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    The electromobility system of actors not only comprises the usual stakeholders involved in individual mobility, such as car manufacturers and drivers, but also electricity suppliers, service providers and above all public authorities. With the rising number of actors concerned, the electromobility system will require greater coordination and closer cooperation between existing and new, developing stakeholders than is currently the case. This paper aims to present a typology of the electromobi...

  19. The importance of social networks on smoking: perspectives of women who quit smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Stephanie N; Von Kohorn, Isabelle; Schulman-Green, Dena; Colson, Eve R

    2012-08-01

    While up to 45% of women quit smoking during pregnancy, nearly 80% return to smoking within a year after delivery. Interventions to prevent relapse have had limited success. The study objective was to understand what influences return to smoking after pregnancy among women who quit smoking during pregnancy, with a focus on the role of social networks. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews during the postpartum hospital stay with women who quit smoking while pregnant. Over 300 pages of transcripts were analyzed using qualitative methods to identify common themes. Respondents [n = 24] were predominately white (63%), had at least some college education (54%) and a mean age of 26 years (range = 18-36). When reflecting on the experience of being a smoker who quit smoking during pregnancy, all participants emphasized the importance of their relationships with other smokers and the changes in these relationships that ensued once they quit smoking. Three common themes were: (1) being enmeshed in social networks with prominent smoking norms (2) being tempted to smoke by members of their social networks, and (3) changing relationships with the smokers in their social networks as a result of their non-smoking status. We found that women who quit smoking during pregnancy found themselves confronted by a change in their social network since most of those in their social network were smokers. For this reason, smoking cessation interventions may be most successful if they help women consider restructuring or reframing their social network.

  20. Building new Knowledge Networks: A Europe–China Perspective on R&D Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harryson, Sigvald; Søberg, Peder Veng; Åkerman, Niklas

    2009-01-01

    to improve their innovation performance within distribution equipment. Two other Scandinavia originated companies – now global leaders within robotics and diabetes treatment – did on the other hand not co-operate as closely with local universities when they transferred R&D to China – and captured less...... innovation performance. By combining theories on ambidexterity, knowledge transfer and networking, a theoretical framework is developed to analyze the different strategies for local knowledge network interaction that are deployed by the case companies. The analysis suggests that close interaction and cross......-fertilization with local knowledge networks are of eminent importance if newly established R&D offsprings are to improve overall innovation performance....

  1. Iranian Sanctions: An Actor-Centric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    nuclear route as Iran; signaling international disapproval [for Iran’s foreign and domestic policies]; delaying and disrupting Tehran’s nuclear and...around for a long time. The gossip on the street, going well beyond the observable facts, has the Rafsanjani’s stashing billions of dollars in bank...chances of success are slim since it would take time to build up these trade networks and alternate routes of supply—around the IRGC-controlled points

  2. Visualizing stakeholder perspectives for reflection and dialogue on scale dynamics in social–ecological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, J.M.; Hoogstra, M.A.; Kok, K.; Lammeren, van R.J.A.; Bregt, A.K.; Janssen, R.

    2014-01-01

    An understanding among societal actors of how social–ecological systems interact across multiple levels and scales contributes to better governance of those systems. This paper introduces a tool, Scale Perspectives, developed to help societal actors share their perspectives on issues of social–ecolo

  3. Research on the tourism resource development from the perspective of network capability-Taking Wuxi Huishan Ancient Town as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yanli; Hua, Hefeng

    2017-03-01

    Network capability is the enterprise's capability to set up, manage, maintain and use a variety of relations between enterprises, and to obtain resources for improving competitiveness. Tourism in China is in a transformation period from sightseeing to leisure and vacation. Scenic spots as well as tourist enterprises can learn from some other enterprises in the process of resource development, and build up its own network relations in order to get resources for their survival and development. Through the effective management of network relations, the performance of resource development will be improved. By analyzing literature on network capability and the case analysis of Wuxi Huishan Ancient Town, the role of network capacity in the tourism resource development is explored and resource development path is built from the perspective of network capability. Finally, the tourism resource development process model based on network capacity is proposed. This model mainly includes setting up network vision, resource identification, resource acquisition, resource utilization and tourism project development. In these steps, network construction, network management and improving network center status are key points.

  4. An Algorithmic Perspective on Some Network Design, Construction and Analysis Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Andreica, Mugurel Ionut; Andreica, Romulus; Andreica, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Efficient network design, construction and analysis are important topics, considering the highly dynamic environment in which data communication occurs nowadays. In this paper we address several problems concerning these topics from an algorithmic point of view.

  5. Modeling epidemics on adaptively evolving networks: A data-mining perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattis, Assimakis A; Holiday, Alexander; Stoica, Ana-Andreea; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G

    2016-01-01

    The exploration of epidemic dynamics on dynamically evolving ("adaptive") networks poses nontrivial challenges to the modeler, such as the determination of a small number of informative statistics of the detailed network state (that is, a few "good observables") that usefully summarize the overall (macroscopic, systems-level) behavior. Obtaining reduced, small size accurate models in terms of these few statistical observables--that is, trying to coarse-grain the full network epidemic model to a small but useful macroscopic one--is even more daunting. Here we describe a data-based approach to solving the first challenge: the detection of a few informative collective observables of the detailed epidemic dynamics. This is accomplished through Diffusion Maps (DMAPS), a recently developed data-mining technique. We illustrate the approach through simulations of a simple mathematical model of epidemics on a network: a model known to exhibit complex temporal dynamics. We discuss potential extensions of the approach, as well as possible shortcomings.

  6. A Combinational Perspective in Stimulating Cooperation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahshid Rahnamay-Naeini; Masoud Sabaei

    2011-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks cooperation among nodes cannot always be assumed since nodes with limited resources and different owners are capable of making independent decisions. Cooperation problems in topology control and packet forwarding tasks have been mostly studied separately but these two tasks are not independent. Considering a joint cooperation problem by taking into account dependencies between tasks will result in more reliable and efficient networks. In this paper topology control definition is extended to cover cooperation problem in both packet forwarding and topology control in a single problem. In this definition nodes have to adjust their transmission power and decide on their relay role. This paper models the interactions of nodes as a potential game with two-dimensional utility function. The presented model, named TCFORCE (Topology Control packet FORwarding Cooperation Enforcement), preserves the network connectivity and reduces the energy consumption by providing cooperative paths between all pairs of nodes in the network.

  7. Thermostability of in vitro evolved Bacillus subtilis lipase A: a network and dynamics perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Srivastava

    Full Text Available Proteins in thermophilic organisms remain stable and function optimally at high temperatures. Owing to their important applicability in many industrial processes, such thermostable proteins have been studied extensively, and several structural factors attributed to their enhanced stability. How these factors render the emergent property of thermostability to proteins, even in situations where no significant changes occur in their three-dimensional structures in comparison to their mesophilic counter-parts, has remained an intriguing question. In this study we treat Lipase A from Bacillus subtilis and its six thermostable mutants in a unified manner and address the problem with a combined complex network-based analysis and molecular dynamic studies to find commonality in their properties. The Protein Contact Networks (PCN of the wild-type and six mutant Lipase A structures developed at a mesoscopic scale were analyzed at global network and local node (residue level using network parameters and community structure analysis. The comparative PCN analysis of all proteins pointed towards important role of specific residues in the enhanced thermostability. Network analysis results were corroborated with finer-scale molecular dynamics simulations at both room and high temperatures. Our results show that this combined approach at two scales can uncover small but important changes in the local conformations that add up to stabilize the protein structure in thermostable mutants, even when overall conformation differences among them are negligible. Our analysis not only supports the experimentally determined stabilizing factors, but also unveils the important role of contacts, distributed throughout the protein, that lead to thermostability. We propose that this combined mesoscopic-network and fine-grained molecular dynamics approach is a convenient and useful scheme not only to study allosteric changes leading to protein stability in the face of negligible

  8. Architecture and biological applications of artificial neural networks: a tuberculosis perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsey, Jerry A; Griffin, William O; Joginipelli, Sravanthi; Melapu, Venkata Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Advancement of science and technology has prompted researchers to develop new intelligent systems that can solve a variety of problems such as pattern recognition, prediction, and optimization. The ability of the human brain to learn in a fashion that tolerates noise and error has attracted many researchers and provided the starting point for the development of artificial neural networks: the intelligent systems. Intelligent systems can acclimatize to the environment or data and can maximize the chances of success or improve the efficiency of a search. Due to massive parallelism with large numbers of interconnected processers and their ability to learn from the data, neural networks can solve a variety of challenging computational problems. Neural networks have the ability to derive meaning from complicated and imprecise data; they are used in detecting patterns, and trends that are too complex for humans, or other computer systems. Solutions to the toughest problems will not be found through one narrow specialization; therefore we need to combine interdisciplinary approaches to discover the solutions to a variety of problems. Many researchers in different disciplines such as medicine, bioinformatics, molecular biology, and pharmacology have successfully applied artificial neural networks. This chapter helps the reader in understanding the basics of artificial neural networks, their applications, and methodology; it also outlines the network learning process and architecture. We present a brief outline of the application of neural networks to medical diagnosis, drug discovery, gene identification, and protein structure prediction. We conclude with a summary of the results from our study on tuberculosis data using neural networks, in diagnosing active tuberculosis, and predicting chronic vs. infiltrative forms of tuberculosis.

  9. La prueba PISA: una mirada alternativa desde la Teoría del Actor-Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Paredes Suzarte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de la proliferación de las evaluaciones estandarizadas, inscritas en lo que ha sido conceptualizado por la literatura como políticas de accountability o de rendición de cuentas, se ofrece por medio de este artículo una línea de pensamiento y discusión alternativa sobre la prueba PISA. Utilizando como enfoque la Teoría del Actor-Red (TAR de Bruno Latour, se presentan ejercicios de traslación epistémica de la prueba PISA desde un modelo de pensamiento positivista moderno, a uno materialista pragmático en el que se privilegia una descripción constructivista y analítica de los componentes que la constituyen. En base al seguimiento y análisis de noticias sobre la prueba PISA desplegadas en diarios electrónicos en Chile y Argentina, más la revisión de fuentes secundarias, se exponen algunas de las controversias suscitadas en torno a la evaluación y se discute sobre su posible impacto en nuestras percepciones sobre educación y calidad. También se problematiza el carácter neutral y objetivo de la prueba, y se levanta la pregunta acerca de su posible agencia en la cristalización de las relaciones de centro-periferia entre países que, en el marco del enfoque de la TAR, tiene sentido explorar. 

  10. Social Context and network formation : an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Martijn J.; Buskens, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in determining which social network structures emerge as a consequence of the conscious actions of actors.Motivated by the belief that “networks matter” in reaching personal objectives, it is a natural assumption that actors try to optimize their network

  11. Analysis of the Network of Protected Areas in China Based on a Geographic Perspective: Current Status, Issues and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengtian Cao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the continued growth of protected areas (PAs in China in terms of the number, coverage and varieties of protected objects, how to efficiently manage the protected areas to ensure both resource protection and environmental protection has become a crucial research question. By applying a geographic perspective in an analysis of the development and evolution of protected areas in China, this paper presents the results of an analysis focused on the status and the types of current approaches to the management of natural protected areas to reveal the problems that exist in their management and to further explore an integration strategy for the protected area network. It proposes that the future management of protected areas should prioritize their legal status, the sustainable livelihood of individuals living in close proximity to them, and the establishment of a unified database to achieve grid and information management of the protected areas.

  12. Network Analysis as a tool for assessing environmental sustainability: applying the ecosystem perspective to a Danish Water Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Scotti, Marco; Thomsen, Marianne

    2013-03-30

    New insights into the sustainable use of natural resources in human systems can be gained through comparison with ecosystems via common indices. In both kinds of system, resources are processed by a number of users within a network, but we consider ecosystems as the only ones displaying sustainable patterns of growth and development. This study aims at using Network Analysis (NA) to move such "ecosystem perspective" from theory into practice. A Danish municipal Water Management System (WMS) is used as case study to test the NA methodology and to discuss its generic applicability. We identified water users within the WMS and represented their interactions as a network of water flows. We computed intensive and extensive indices of system-level performance for seven different network configurations illustrating past conditions (2004-2008) and future scenarios (2015 and 2020). We also computed the same indices for other 24 human systems and for 12 ecosystems, by using information from the existing scientific literature on NA. The comparison of these results reveals that the WMS is similar to the other human systems and that human systems generally differ from ecosystems. The WMS is highly efficient at processing the water resource, but the rigid and almost linear structure makes it vulnerable in situations of stress such as heavy rain events. The analysis of future scenarios showed a trend towards increased sustainability, but differences between past and expected future performance of the WMS are marginal. We argue that future interventions should create alternative pathways for reusing rainwater within the WMS, increasing its potential to withstand the occurrence of flooding. We discuss advantages, limitations, and general applicability of NA as a tool for assessing environmental sustainability in human systems.

  13. Collaborative Trust Networks in Engineering Design Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkinson, Simon Reay; Maier, Anja; Caldwell, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Within organisations, decision makers have to rely on collaboration with other actors from different disciplines working within highly dynamic and distributed associated networks of varying size and scales. This paper develops control and influence networks within Design Structure Matrices (DSM);...

  14. How people make friends in social networking sites—A microscopic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibo; Wang, Xiaofan

    2012-02-01

    We study the detailed growth of a social networking site with full temporal information by examining the creation process of each friendship relation that can collectively lead to the macroscopic properties of the network. We first study the reciprocal behavior of users, and find that link requests are quickly responded to and that the distribution of reciprocation intervals decays in an exponential form. The degrees of inviters/accepters are slightly negatively correlative with reciprocation time. In addition, the temporal feature of the online community shows that the distributions of intervals of user behaviors, such as sending or accepting link requests, follow a power law with a universal exponent, and peaks emerge for intervals of an integral day. We finally study the preferential selection and linking phenomena of the social networking site and find that, for the former, a linear preference holds for preferential sending and reception, and for the latter, a linear preference also holds for preferential acceptance, creation, and attachment. Based on the linearly preferential linking, we put forward an analyzable network model which can reproduce the degree distribution of the network. The research framework presented in the paper could provide a potential insight into how the micro-motives of users lead to the global structure of online social networks.

  15. Structure Characteristics of the International Stock Market Complex Network in the Perspective of Whole and Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxi Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available International stock market forms an abstract complex network through the fluctuation correlation of stock price index. Past studies of complex network almost focus on single country’s stock market. Here we investigate the whole and partial characteristics of international stock market network (ISMN (hereinafter referred to as ISMN. For the analysis on the whole network, we firstly determine the reasonable threshold as the basic of the following study. Robustness is applied to analyze the stability of the network and the result shows that ISMN has robustness against random attack but intentional attack breaks the connection integrity of ISMN rapidly. In the partial network, the sliding window method is used to analyze the dynamic evolution of the relationship between the Chinese (Shanghai stock market and the international stock market. The connection between the Chinese stock market and foreign stock markets becomes increasingly closer, and the links between them show a significant enhancement especially after China joined the WTO. In general, we suggest that transnational investors pay more attention to some significant event of the stock market with large degree for better risk-circumvention.

  16. Essays on Social Network Formation in Heterogeneous Populations: Models, Methods, and Empirical Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Bojanowski, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The overarching focus of the essays presented in this book pertains to the characteristics of individual actors (such as the industry or nationality associated with a firm), the extent to which the population of actors is heterogeneous with respect to those characteristics, and the ways in which actor characteristics and population heterogeneity influence the process of social network formation and the choices that actors make in these networks. We investigate theoretical, empirical, and meth...

  17. Systemic aspects of innovation and design the perspective of collaborative networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mortati, Marzia

    2013-01-01

    The book provides a snapshot of a hot topic – the systemic nature of innovation and its relevance to design – with a trifold perspective: the academic level – the literature on innovation studies and design is often neglected and a clear connection between the two topics taken for granted; the research level – collaborative models are currently considered great opportunities for transforming consumption, production and distribution of goods, but a clear scholarly discourse is still forming; the political level – the European Commission and the OECD are devoting much effort to understanding and measuring the impact of design in innovation processes and firms and a clear contribution would greatly support this path. Thus the book provides an informed, historical and nuanced perspective to the relationship between design and innovation to contribute to all three levels and to propose a point of view that goes beyond aesthetics and meanings.

  18. Do Policy Networks lead to Network Governing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil

    This paper challenges the notion that creation of local policy networks necessarily leads to network governing. Through actor-centred case studies in the area of municipally implemented employment policy in Denmark it was found that the local governing mode is determined mainly by the municipality...

  19. A developmental systems perspective on epistasis: computational exploration of mutational interactions in model developmental regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available The way in which the information contained in genotypes is translated into complex phenotypic traits (i.e. embryonic expression patterns depends on its decoding by a multilayered hierarchy of biomolecular systems (regulatory networks. Each layer of this hierarchy displays its own regulatory schemes (i.e. operational rules such as +/- feedback and associated control parameters, resulting in characteristic variational constraints. This process can be conceptualized as a mapping issue, and in the context of highly-dimensional genotype-phenotype mappings (GPMs epistatic events have been shown to be ubiquitous, manifested in non-linear correspondences between changes in the genotype and their phenotypic effects. In this study I concentrate on epistatic phenomena pervading levels of biological organization above the genetic material, more specifically the realm of molecular networks. At this level, systems approaches to studying GPMs are specially suitable to shed light on the mechanistic basis of epistatic phenomena. To this aim, I constructed and analyzed ensembles of highly-modular (fully interconnected networks with distinctive topologies, each displaying dynamic behaviors that were categorized as either arbitrary or functional according to early patterning processes in the Drosophila embryo. Spatio-temporal expression trajectories in virtual syncytial embryos were simulated via reaction-diffusion models. My in silico mutational experiments show that: 1 the average fitness decay tendency to successively accumulated mutations in ensembles of functional networks indicates the prevalence of positive epistasis, whereas in ensembles of arbitrary networks negative epistasis is the dominant tendency; and 2 the evaluation of epistatic coefficients of diverse interaction orders indicates that, both positive and negative epistasis are more prevalent in functional networks than in arbitrary ones. Overall, I conclude that the phenotypic and fitness effects of

  20. Shareholding relationships in the Euro Area banking market: A network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Nicolò; Spelta, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the topological properties of the network of the Euro Area banking market network, with the primary aim of assessing the importance of a bank in the financial system with respect to ownership and control of other credit institutions. The network displays power law distributions in both binary and weighted degree metrics indicating a robust yet fragile structure and a direct link between an increase of control diversification and a rise in the market power. Therefore while in good time the network is seemingly robust, in bad times many banks can simultaneously go into distress. This behavior paves the way for Central bank's actions. In particular we investigate whether the Single Supervisory Mechanism introduced by the European Central Banks and based on banks' total asset is a good proxy to quantify their systemic importance. Results indicate that not all the financial institutions with high valued total assets are systemically important but only few of them. Moreover the network structure reveals that control is highly concentrated, with few important shareholders approximately controlling a separate subset of banks.