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Sample records for actor network perspective

  1. Tourismscapes. An actor-network perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces an alternative way of looking at and researching tourism by translating actor-network theory into the provinces of these studies. Using the concept of tourismscapes, the article argues that people and things become entangled via complex processes of translation. People, organ

  2. Transitions across place and space – Spatial transitions in an Actor Network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerndrup, Søren; Mosgaard, Mette

    2012-01-01

    network perspective in order to develop the spatial dimensions of transitions. The paper is based on an ongoing research project of spatial dimensions of the transitions in energy production and consumption networks in the northern part of Denmark. The paper show by using an actor network perspective...

  3. Towards a new perspective of managing ideas in front-end innovation as actor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn, Anna Rose; Clausen, Christian; Gish, Liv

    2013-01-01

    been identified as front-end innovation processes. The front-end innovation is distinguished from linear product development and characterised as more informal, unstructured, and unpredictable. This paper presents the preliminary results of a PhD project concerning idea management in front......For decades the innovation process in R&D organisations has been discussed. Product development processes is well-established in R&D organisations and improvements has been implemented through theories as Lean product development and agile methods. In recent decades, more diffuse processes have......-end innovation of R&D organisations. Through theoretical and empirical investigations of managing activities of idea processes an indicative analysis in the perspective of actor network theory is performed. The analysis show how managers and employees navigate in a complex environment of organisational...

  4. Gorilla Tourism in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: An Actor-Network Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.; Ampumuza, C.; Ahebwa, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    This article performs actor-network theory (ANT) to examine the development of gorilla tourism at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. We depict a number of translations in which gorillas were designated and enrolled as coexisting with local livelihood practices, as “trophies” in the hunting n

  5. Development Sociology. Actor Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Using case studies and empirical material from Africa and Latin America, Development Sociology focuses on the theoretical and methodological foundations of an actor-oriented and social constructionist form of analysis. This style of analysis is opposed to the traditional structuralist/institutional

  6. Thinking the "Plan Ceibal" from the perspective of public action and the Actor-Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Elena Da Silva Ramos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will analyze and discuss the Plan Ceibal, from the point of view of the Public Action and the Actor Network Theory. We think that Plan Ceibal, which is implemented in Uruguay since 2007, illustrates the concept of public action, because it involves a multiplicity of governmental and non-governmental organizations, besides human and nonhuman components. According to this, the Actor-network theory (ANT provides elements to reflect on technological appropriation. We believe that a key task in the assembly of the various human and nonhuman components that compose Plan Ceibal, promoting the strength of their associations, where diverse enrollments and multiple translations make the core of the problem. We wonder about what are the theoretical and methodological challenges facing expert intervention, especially psychologists in this field?

  7. Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative......, and by doing so they create in humans what in modern play theory is known as a “state of play”...

  8. A human resources project implementation. An actor-network theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibrán Rivera González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene dos objetivos principales. Primero, sugerir el uso de la Teoría del Actor-Red (ANT por sus siglas en inglés como una teoría que puede ser utilizada para analizar la implementación de un proyecto de recursos humanos (llamado ModeCo, Modelo de Competencias; y, segundo, proveer un entendimiento inicial sobre algunos de los principales eventos y situaciones que dieron forma al ritmo de la implementación de este proyecto. Este artículo se basa en una investigación cualitativa, la cual toma una perspectiva informada por la Teoría del Actor-Red (Callon, 1986; Latour, 1987; Law, 1992 que es utilizada como mecanismo de entendimiento para describir cómo un proyecto es implementado en una Universidad con múltiples campus en México. En este trabajo se ofrecen, primero, una serie de enunciados que capturan la manera en cómo la Teoría del Actor-Red fue útil para entender el proceso de implementación; y, segundo, se exponen los principales eventos y situaciones que afectaron dicho proceso de implementación. En esta investigación adoptamos un modelo interpretativo (Walsham, 1995; Walsham, 2006, mismo que se vale del uso de una batería de métodos, principalmente el uso de doce entrevistas semiestructuradas con diferentes actores del proyecto, documentos del proyecto y asistencia virtual a reuniones del Comité Directivo de recursos humanos. En términos de análisis nuestra investigación está basada en los principios propuestos por Klein and Myers (1999 para estudios interpretativos.

  9. Diasporas and transitions in Actor-Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Callén

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an introduction to the monograph titled Diasporas and Transitions in the Actor-Network Theory. Drawing a parallel with ethnomethodology, its pages present the main features of this theory, a way to figure out its origins and a description of its present. The text ends with a brief look at the state of art of actor-network theory in Spain and an appraisal of a meeting titled Present and Future of Actor-Network Theory, which is the origin of our monograph. In this paper we put forward a very simple idea: Actor-Network Theory was born with certain relevance in Social Sciences when it diffracted in a myriad of different uses and applications. The main corollary of such an idea is also straightforward: the very difference between Actor-Network Theory and other perspectives in Social Sciences resides in the permanent diaspora and transition of the former.

  10. Networks with free actors : encouraging sustainable innovations animal husbandry by using the FAN approach (Free Actors in Networks) : networking is sensing opportunities!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, E.; Zaalmink, W.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Geerling-Eiff, F.A.; Holster, H.C.; Hoogerwerf, L.; Vrolijk, M.; Teenstra, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    After three-and-a-half years of experience with 120 networks of livestock farmers a new approach has arisen which offers good perspectives for encouraging sustainable innovations: the FAN approach (Free Actors in Networks), with actors focusing on energy and connections to steer things along. Part o

  11. The level of participation during the development of a mobile care data application for home-based healthcare in a developing context: An actor-network theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retha de la Harpe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The context of this study is home-based healthcare in a South African resource-restricted community. The research case involved the design and development of a mobile care data application, created to assist community caregivers in their professional activities. The development principles of a suitable application for feature phones (limited functionality in this context are not fully established, however. For the mobile care data application, a participatory design approach was employed. It was observed, conversely, that the level of participation of all stakeholders differed significantly. It was especially observed that the designer and end-users were less involved in the actual development of the prototype. These differences may have an influence on the end product/result. Actor-network theory may provide the mechanism to describe how the human and non-human actors formed relations as they participate in these processes. Considering the alignment of such networks, the coordination, devices and passages during the four translation moments provide valuable insights in the design and development of technology products. This paper will consider these elements in more depth. With a social embeddedness perspective the level of participation was high during the design of the proposed ICT solution with the active participation of the care givers from the developing context. The socio-economic factors of the developing context influenced the development of the mobile application with the complexities of the socio-technical context evident in the difficult translations between the participants

  12. Diásporas y transiciones en la Teoría del Actor-Red Diasporas and transitions in Actor-Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Callén

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este texto es una presentación del monográfico Diásporas y transiciones en la teoría del actor-red. Sus páginas presentan las principales características de esta teoría, una manera de entender sus orígenes y una descripción de su presente estableciendo un paralelismo con la etnometodología. El texto finaliza con una valoración del estado de la teoría del actor-red en España y un comentario sobre un congreso que llevó el título de Presente y futuro de la teoría del actor-red y que constituye el embrión del presente monográfico. En el texto se defiende una tesis muy simple: la teoría del actor-red nace con cierta relevancia para el pensamiento social en el momento en que se difracta en una miríada de usos y aplicaciones diferentes. El principal corolario de este hecho también es muy sencillo: la gran diferencia entre la teoría del actor-red y otras propuestas del pensamiento social es su permanente estado de diáspora y transición.
    This paper is an introduction to the monograph titled Diasporas and Transitions in the Actor-Network Theory. Drawing a parallel with ethnomethodology, its pages present the main features of this theory, a way to figure out its origins and a description of its present. The text ends with a brief look at the state of art of actor-network theory in Spain and an appraisal of a meeting titled Present and Future of Actor-Network Theory, which is the origin of our monograph. In this paper we put forward a very simple idea: Actor-Network Theory was born with certain relevance in Social Sciences when it diffracted in a myriad of different uses and applications. The main corollary of such an idea is also straightforward: the very difference between Actor-Network Theory and other perspectives in Social Sciences resides in the permanent diaspora and transition of the former.

  13. Searching for realism, structure and agency in Actor Network Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder-Vass, Dave

    2008-09-01

    Superficially, Actor Network Theory (ANT) and critical realism (CR) are radically opposed research traditions. Written from a realist perspective, this paper asks whether there might be a basis for finding common ground between these two traditions. It looks in turn at the questions of realism, structure, and agency, analysing the differences between the two perspectives and seeking to identify what each might learn from the other. Overall, the paper argues that there is a great deal that realists can learn from actor network theory; yet ANT remains stunted by its lack of a depth ontology. It fails to recognize the significance of mechanisms, and of their dependence on emergence, and thus lacks both dimensions of the depth that is characteristic of critical realism's ontology. This prevents ANT from recognizing the role and powers of social structure; but on the other hand, realists would do well to heed ANT's call for us to trace the connections through which structures are constantly made and remade. A lack of ontological depth also underpins ANT's practice of treating human and non-human actors symmetrically, yet this remains a valuable provocation to sociologists who neglect non-human entities entirely.

  14. Effective Location Management of Mobile Actors in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Aslam

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed an increasing availability of heterogeneous sensor networks that consist of a large number of resource constrained nodes (sensors and a small number of powerful resource rich nodes (actors. Such heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Actor Network (WSANs offer improvement of sensor networks' capacity/coverage, energy conservation and network lifetime. This paper investigates the case where sensors are organized into clusters and mobile actors are used for maintaining an energy efficient topology by periodically manipulating their geographical position. We present an elegant technique that allows actor nodes to find an optimal geographical location with respect to their associated cluster heads such that the overall energy consumed is minimized. The proposed technique includes a weighted cost function based on the residual energy levels of cluster heads that allows the mobile actor to optimally fine-tune its geographical location. We present simulation results that demonstrate a significant increase of network lifetime over the traditional cluster based WSN deployments.

  15. Effects of Actor-Network Theory in Accounting Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise Nederland; Mouritsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to discuss how Bruno Latour's version of actor-network theory has influenced accounting research. It also seeks to show that Latour's writings contain unexplored potential that may inspire future accounting research. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes the form...

  16. Consolidated Deep Actor Critic Networks (DRAFT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Laan, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    The works [Volodymyr et al. Playing atari with deep reinforcement learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.5602, 2013.] and [Volodymyr et al. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning. Nature, 518(7540):529–533, 2015.] have demonstrated the power of combining deep neural networks with Watki

  17. Actor-networking ceta-sociality, or, what is sociological about contemporary whales?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2007-01-01

    In contemporary urban Euro-American societies, whales have become hugely popular and iconic creatures, arousing controversies more intense than most other instances of animal politics. How to account sociologically, however, for the dramatic social transformation of whales, from natural resource...... to near-sacrosanct agent, is far from self-evident. This article advocates a change of theoretical perspective, inspired by the work of actor-network theorists Bruno Latour and Michel Callon. Rather than focussing solely on the ‘humanity' of human-animal relations, as does most of sociology, actor...... ‘zoocentrism' in late modernity, the article proceeds by demonstrating how an ‘ecologised' ANT sociology contributes towards a better understanding of the emergence of whale ‘actor-hood' in global society. In broader terms, the article argues that as societies themselves ecologise by weaving ever...

  18. Actor Network Procedures as Psi-calculi for Security Ceremonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Prisacariu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The actor network procedures of Pavlovic and Meadows are a recent graphical formalism developed for describing security ceremonies and for reasoning about their security properties. The present work studies the relations of the actor network procedures (ANP to the recent psi-calculi framework. Psi-calculi is a parametric formalism where calculi like spi- or applied-pi are found as instances. Psi-calculi are operational and largely non-graphical, but have strong foundation based on the theory of nominal sets and process algebras. One purpose of the present work is to give a semantics to ANP through psi-calculi. Another aim was to give a graphical language for a psi-calculus instance for security ceremonies. At the same time, this work provides more insight into the details of the ANPs formalization and the graphical representation.

  19. The Evolution of Ultracapital and Actor-Network Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cloke, Jon

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews distinct critical writings on the current global economic crisis in order to suggest that the crisis represents a distinctly new form of actor-network capitalism, originating in the hybrid financial innovations since the 1970s, the explosive growth in cyber-space potential during the 1990s and the subsuming of the State by finance that accompanied these two processes. The paper proposes the evolution of what is referred to as ultracapital (capital beyond capital) from withi...

  20. Disjoint Key Establishment Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    AtaUllah Ghafoor; Muhammad Sher; Muhammad Imran; Imran Baig

    2016-01-01

    Key distribution is essential for providing secure communication between commercial and sensitive applications of wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs). It becomes more challenging when any of the intermediate sensor nodes is compromised by the adversaries as the messages carrying secure keys will be exposed and links will be unreliable. This paper presents a Disjoint Key Establishment Protocol (DKEP) that does not require transmitting keys across the nodes. In DKEP, each node is preload...

  1. Consumer culture theory (re)visits actor-network theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    The vocabulary and tactics developed by actor-network theory (ANT) can shed light on several ontological and epistemological challenges faced by consumer culture theory. Rather than providing ready-made theories or methods, our translation of ANT puts forward a series of questions and proposition...... that, captured through the metaphor of 'flattening', invite a rethinking of how ontologies of consumption-its subjects, objects and devices, content and contexts, materiality and socioculturality-are enacted through precarious networks of heterogeneous relations. © The Author(s) 2013....

  2. Think about and intervene in the territory through the Actor Network Theory Pensar e intervenir el territorio a traves de la Teoria del Actor-Red

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    Juan E. Cabrera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to think about the similarities between the ways of seeing the territory as a network, some theoretical positions about the territory concept and actor network theory.
    After focusing on proposing a way of understanding the relationships between actors when they will intervene in the territory through the public policies and territorial planning, i ll try to apply the ANT model of public policy management through the guidance of ANT El propósito de este artículo es reflexionar sobre las coincidencias entre la forma de ver el territorio como red, algunas posturas teóricas sobre su concepto y la teoría del actor-red.
    Sobre lo anterior se centra en proponer una forma de entender las relaciones entre actores cuando se va a intervenir el territorio a través de políticas públicas como la planificación utilizando un modelo de gestión territorial a través de las orientaciones de la TAR.   

  3. AUTOMATIC RECOVERING NODE FAILURE IN WIRELESS SENSOR ACTOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.Subasini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recovering node failure in wireless sensor actor network to identify the cutvertex and to meet to the node failure. The network consists of many nodes that are constructed into a tree structure. Once the tree has been constructed the shortest path is found by the Aodv protocol.If a node failure occurs in the shortest path then the cut-vertex could be recovered and the data can be securely passed on to the destination in an alternative route obtained from the routing table. Heartbeat messages acknowledge the node failure. The feasible path is not found by the protocol, and then the network is divided into two or many parts. The MLeDir algorithm is used to identify the network failure and disjoint block of the network. The disjoint block is identified by the MLeDir algorithm and to rectify the disjoint block of failure network nodes. MLeDir algorithm is moving only the respective nodes from source to destination.

  4. Innovation barriers originating from the differing logics of network actors:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarikka-Stenroos, Leena; Alaranta, Mar

    2016-01-01

    . The heterogeneity can originate also from the differences in the priorities, interests, and interactional goals of companies (and other organizations) that are labelled as “logics” of innovating firms. Since the different organizations' logics set the structural conditions for innovation and cause both positive...... and negative consequences, such as innovation barriers, it is important to capture how logics are interconnected and how certain organizations influence the conditions of others. we lack understanding of how the diversity challenges innovating in innovation networks and systems by setting innovation barriers....... Hence, we will examine innovation barriers originating from the diversity and heterogeneity in an innovation network/system. We draw on a single and extensive multi-actor case study on the national nanoceramics innovation system in Argentina. We will identify innovation barriers at intrafirm/organization...

  5. Visualising Actor Network for Cooperative Systems in Marine Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yushan; Finken, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    are created to tackle challenges concerning human activities and their social interactions with regards to safety concerns in operation. This paper draws on fieldwork conducted in a marine setting of offshore operations. It presents an attempt to visualise the importance of cooperative work activities......Awareness is a concept familiar to specialists within the field of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). It is superior for analysing and describing some of the ad hoc work activities that unfold in cooperation. Such informal activities are outside the scope of engineers’ formal models, which...... that shape computer systems. The aim, thus, is to portray cooperative work in a way that can be valuable for engineers implementing marine technology. We do so by way of presenting a transferring technique (2T) using insights from the CSCW field and Actor Network Theory (ANT)....

  6. Holding-based network of nations based on listed energy companies: An empirical study on two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Yan, Lili

    2016-05-01

    Economic networks in the real world are not homogeneous; therefore, it is important to study economic networks with heterogeneous nodes and edges to simulate a real network more precisely. In this paper, we present an empirical study of the one-mode derivative holding-based network constructed by the two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors using the data of worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders. First, we identify the primitive relationship in the two-mode affiliation network of the two sets of actors. Then, we present the method used to construct the derivative network based on the shareholding relationship between two sets of actors and the affiliation relationship between actors and events. After constructing the derivative network, we analyze different topological features on the node level, edge level and entire network level and explain the meanings of the different values of the topological features combining the empirical data. This study is helpful for expanding the usage of complex networks to heterogeneous economic networks. For empirical research on the worldwide listed energy stock market, this study is useful for discovering the inner relationships between the nations and regions from a new perspective.

  7. Actor roles in transition: Insights from sociological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Wittmayer (Julia); F. Avelino (Flor); F. van Steenbergen; D.A. Loorbach (Derk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo date, the field of transition research lacks a suitable vocabulary to analyse the (changing) interactions and relations of actors as part of a sustainability transition. This article addresses this knowledge gap by exploring the potential of the concept of 'roles' from social interact

  8. Actor-Network Theory and its role in understanding the implementation of information technology developments in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Aziz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actor-Network Theory (ANT is an increasingly influential, but still deeply contested, approach to understand humans and their interactions with inanimate objects. We argue that health services research, and in particular evaluations of complex IT systems in health service organisations, may benefit from being informed by Actor-Network Theory perspectives. Discussion Despite some limitations, an Actor-Network Theory-based approach is conceptually useful in helping to appreciate the complexity of reality (including the complexity of organisations and the active role of technology in this context. This can prove helpful in understanding how social effects are generated as a result of associations between different actors in a network. Of central importance in this respect is that Actor-Network Theory provides a lens through which to view the role of technology in shaping social processes. Attention to this shaping role can contribute to a more holistic appreciation of the complexity of technology introduction in healthcare settings. It can also prove practically useful in providing a theoretically informed approach to sampling (by drawing on informants that are related to the technology in question and analysis (by providing a conceptual tool and vocabulary that can form the basis for interpretations. We draw on existing empirical work in this area and our ongoing work investigating the integration of electronic health record systems introduced as part of England's National Programme for Information Technology to illustrate salient points. Summary Actor-Network Theory needs to be used pragmatically with an appreciation of its shortcomings. Our experiences suggest it can be helpful in investigating technology implementations in healthcare settings.

  9. Representing Micro–Macro Linkages by Actor-based Dynamic Network Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Thomas; Steglich, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic actor-based models for network dynamics have the primary aim of statistical inference about processes of network change, but may be regarded as a kind of agent-based models. Similar to many other agent-based models, they are based on local rules for actor behavior. Different from many oth

  10. [A non-classical approach to medical practices: Michel Foucault and Actor-Network Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bińczyk, E

    2001-01-01

    The text presents an analysis of medical practices stemming from two sources: Michel Foucault's conception and the research of Annemarie Mol and John Law, representatives of a trend known as Actor-Network Theory. Both approaches reveal significant theoretical kinship: they can be successfully consigned to the framework of non-classical sociology of science. I initially refer to the cited conceptions as a version of non-classical sociology of medicine. The identity of non-classical sociology of medicine hinges on the fact that it undermines the possibility of objective definitions of disease, health and body. These are rather approached as variable social and historical phenomena, co-constituted by medical practices. To both Foucault and Mol the main object of interest was not medicine as such, but rather the network of medical practices. Mol and Law sketch a new theoretical perspective for the analysis of medical practices. They attempt to go beyond the dichotomous scheme of thinking about the human body as an object of medical research and the subject of private experience. Research on patients suffering blood-sugar deficiency provide the empirical background for the thesis of Actor-Network Theory representatives. Michel Foucault's conceptions are extremely critical of medical practices. The French researcher describes the processes of 'medicalising' Western society as the emergence of a new type of power. He attempts to sensitise the reader to the ethical dimension of the processes of medicalising society.

  11. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Simon; Waldman, Linda; Bloom, Gerry; Rasheed, Sabrina; Scott, Nigel; Ahmed, Tanvir; Khan, Nazib Uz Zaman; Sharmin, Tamanna

    2015-07-15

    This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a "health knowledge economy", organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term "health knowledge economy" draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups.

  12. Actor Network Theory Approach and its Application in Investigating Agricultural Climate Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharifzadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Actor network theory as a qualitative approach to study complex social factors and process of socio-technical interaction provides new concepts and ideas to understand socio-technical nature of information systems. From the actor network theory viewpoint, agricultural climate information system is a network consisting of actors, actions and information related processes (production, transformation, storage, retrieval, integration, diffusion and utilization, control and management, and system mechanisms (interfaces and networks. Analysis of such systemsembody the identification of basic components and structure of the system (nodes –thedifferent sources of information production, extension, and users, and the understanding of how successfully the system works (interaction and links – in order to promote climate knowledge content and improve system performance to reach agricultural development. The present research attempted to introduce actor network theory as research framework based on network view of agricultural climate information system.

  13. Trustful Relations : a Perspective on Trust in Actor Relations in Forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egestad, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    This work has proposed, exemplified and discussed an existential perspective on trust in actor relations in forestry. The background that has caused the inquiry into social relations is the changes that are taking place in forestry to

  14. Essays on actor models in exchange networks and social dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assen, Marcus Adrianus Leonardus Maria van

    2001-01-01

    A central problem in economics and sociology is that of explaining or predicting phenomena at the macro-level. One possible mode of explanation or prediction of macro-level phenomena entails examining processes internal to the system that involve actors at the micro-level. In this dissertation compl

  15. A New Efficient Key Management Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Yunho

    2009-01-01

    Research on sensor networks has become much more active and is currently being applied to many different fields. However since sensor networks are limited to only collecting and reporting information regarding a certain event, and requires human intervention with that given information, it is often difficult to react to an event or situation immediately and proactively. To overcome this kind of limitation, Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs) with immediate-response actor nodes have been proposed which adds greater mobility and activity to the existing sensor networks. Although WSANs share many common grounds with sensor networks, it is difficult to apply existing security technologies due to the fact that WSANs contain actor nodes that are resource-independent and mobile. Therefore, this research seeks to demonstrate ways to provide security, integrity, and authentication services for WSANs secure operation, by separating networks into hierarchical structure by each node's abilities and provides differ...

  16. Networks: An Economic Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Matthew O; Zenou, Yves

    2016-01-01

    We discuss social network analysis from the perspective of economics. We organize the presentaion around the theme of externalities: the effects that one's behavior has on others' well-being. Externalities underlie the interdependencies that make networks interesting. We discuss network formation, as well as interactions between peoples' behaviors within a given network, and the implications in a variety of settings. Finally, we highlight some empirical challenges inherent in the statistical analysis of network-based data.

  17. Theorising big IT programmes in healthcare: strong structuration theory meets actor-network theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Stones, Rob

    2010-05-01

    The UK National Health Service is grappling with various large and controversial IT programmes. We sought to develop a sharper theoretical perspective on the question "What happens - at macro-, meso- and micro-level - when government tries to modernise a health service with the help of big IT?" Using examples from data fragments at the micro-level of clinical work, we considered how structuration theory and actor-network theory (ANT) might be combined to inform empirical investigation. Giddens (1984) argued that social structures and human agency are recursively linked and co-evolve. ANT studies the relationships that link people and technologies in dynamic networks. It considers how discourses become inscribed in data structures and decision models of software, making certain network relations irreversible. Stones' (2005) strong structuration theory (SST) is a refinement of Giddens' work, systematically concerned with empirical research. It views human agents as linked in dynamic networks of position-practices. A quadripartite approcach considers [a] external social structures (conditions for action); [b] internal social structures (agents' capabilities and what they 'know' about the social world); [c] active agency and actions and [d] outcomes as they feed back on the position-practice network. In contrast to early structuration theory and ANT, SST insists on disciplined conceptual methodology and linking this with empirical evidence. In this paper, we adapt SST for the study of technology programmes, integrating elements from material interactionism and ANT. We argue, for example, that the position-practice network can be a socio-technical one in which technologies in conjunction with humans can be studied as 'actants'. Human agents, with their complex socio-cultural frames, are required to instantiate technology in social practices. Structurally relevant properties inscribed and embedded in technological artefacts constrain and enable human agency. The fortunes

  18. Beyond Dyadic Interdependence: Actor-Oriented Models for Co-Evolving Social Networks and Individual Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, William J.; Steglich, Christian E. G.; Snijders, Tom A. B.

    2007-01-01

    Actor-oriented models are described as a longitudinal strategy for examining the co-evolution of social networks and individual behaviors. We argue that these models provide advantages over conventional approaches due to their ability to account for inherent dependencies between individuals embedded in a social network (i.e., reciprocity,…

  19. A New Kind of Symmetry: Actor-Network Theories and the New Literacy Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Discusses concepts and assumptions underlying actor-network theories and the new literacy studies. Identifies lessons for adult education research derived from sociological approaches to scientific knowledge, which examine power circulating in networks of human and nonhuman entities. (Contains 36 references.) (SK)

  20. Pessoas sem voz, redes indizíveis e grupos descartáveis: os limites da teoria do actor-rede Voiceless people, unnamable networks and disposable groups: the limits of actor-network theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel de Oliveira Mendes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo procede-se a uma reflexão crítica sobre a teoria do actor-rede de Michel Callon e Bruno Latour. Salienta-se a necessidade de incorporar no estudo do social as emoções e a imponderabilidade.Tendo como referência a análise de situações de catástrofe ou de acontecimentos extremos, propõe-se uma reflexão sobre o trabalho político que coloca fora das redes sociais, como irrecuperáveis e descartáveis, todos os que não criam ou não possuem valor na perspectiva hegemónica e que, por conseguinte, não são construídos como portadores de direitos sociais e políticos, tornando-se invisíveis e ausentes das análises convencionais propostas pela teoria do actor-rede.In this paper a critical analysis of Bruno Latour and Michel Callon’s actor-network theory is proposed. It is argued that studies about the social must incorporate emotions and imponderability. Focusing on the analysis of catastrophes and extreme events, a reflection on the political work that excludes from the social networks, as irretrievable and disposable, all those that do not create or do not carry value in the hegemonic perspective and, therefore, are not construed as having social and political rights is presented. These irretrievable and disposable persons and groups become invisible and absent in the conventional analyses proposed by actor-network theory.

  1. Actors and networks of agroecology in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    OpenAIRE

    Castella, Jean-Christophe; Kibler, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    A comparative analysis of agroecology network led to a classification based on their conditions of emergence, their structure and governance mechanisms. The study points the strengths and weaknesses of the existing networks at the different scales. It shows that the different agroecology schools are not necessarily well coordinated at each level (national, regional, global) nor across levels for each agroecology school. The activities of a regional agroecology learning alliance should be grou...

  2. Illuminating the Dark Side of the Internet with Actor-Network Theory: An Integrative Review of Current Cybercrime Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocci Luppicini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime is a relatively new area of research within criminology and media studies. The purpose of this paper is to pull together current research scholarship at the intersection of Actor-Network Theory (ANT and cybercrime by addressing the following question: How does ANT apply to cybercrime research? A selective integrative review of cybercrime research utilizing ANT was conducted to examine recent developments and identify trends. The review draws on core research papers that span 2002 to 2013. Findings provided a strong indication of ANT’s role in key areas of current cybercrime, namely, cyber bullying, cyber theft, and cyber terrorism and cyber espionage. More specifically, ANT was applied within cyber criminology research to address complex problems involving human-technological interactions, advance alternative models and theoretical perspectives, compare ANT with existing models and theoretical perspectives, and leverage understanding of network influences on actors. Recommendations are provided to help optimize the application of ANT to cybercrime research and practice. This paper helps advance knowledge at the intersection of ANT and the study of cyber criminology.

  3. E-learning objects and actor-networks as configuring information literacy teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Trine Louise

    2017-01-01

    libraries produced and implemented e-learning objects in information literacy teaching. The material was collected through interviews, observations, documents and feedback sessions. Analysis. Latour´s concept of translation and Callon´s four translation moments are used to analyze the network building......Introduction. With actor-network theory (ANT) as the theoretical lens the aim of the paper is to examine attempts to build network for shaping information literacy teaching. Method. The paper is based on a study of a project in 2014-2016 where information professionals representing ten educational...... that a network configuring information literacy teaching based on new interactive roles has not been stabilized. Conclusion. The paper concludes that the strength of ANT is first of all the mediation of an overview of different kinds of actors involved in network building. Further, the paper proposes to combine...

  4. REDD+ policy networks: exploring actors and power structures in an emerging policy domain

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    Maria Brockhaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy making is often neither rational nor solution-oriented, but driven by negotiations of interests of multiple actors that increasingly tend to take place in policy networks. Such policy networks integrate societal actors beyond the state, which all aim, to different degrees, at influencing ongoing policy processes and outcomes. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ can be considered as such an emerging policy domain, in which actors cooperate and conflict in network structures, build coalitions and try to control information and finance flows relevant for REDD+ decision making. This special feature is the result of an extensive comparative research effort to investigate national level REDD+ policy processes and emerging policy networks. This unique collection of seven country cases and a comparative study provides evidence on how power, coalitions, and different interactions among actors in policy networks enable the transformational change required for an effective, efficient, and equitable national REDD+ design. However, as we will see in most of the cases, where the dominant coalitions fail to tackle the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, they also hinder such major policy reforms required for REDD+. The aim of this editorial serves four purposes: first, we provide an argument about "why" policy network analysis is highly relevant to the study of REDD+ policy processes; second, we explain "how" policy network analysis is used in this special feature to investigate policy processes in this domain; and third, we explore the "so what?" or how a policy network lens helps us understand the political opportunities and challenges for REDD+. Finally, we provide an outlook for the relevance and future research design of policy network analysis when applied to REDD+ and to policy network structures more broadly.

  5. Exchange Studies as Actor-Networks: Following Korean Exchange Students in Swedish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Song-ee

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Korean exchange students organized their studies during exchange programs in Swedish higher education. For most students, the programs became a disordered period in relation to their education. The value of exchange studies seems mainly to be extra-curricular. Drawing upon actor network theory, the article argues that the…

  6. Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso : unravelling actors, networks and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, M.J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Title: Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso: Unravelling Actors, Networks and Practices In Burkina Faso, there is a lot of enthusiasm about Low Cost Drip Irrigation (LCDI) as a tool to irrigate vegetables, and thus improve food security, solve wat

  7. Extended mind and after: socially extended mind and actor-network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2014-03-01

    The concept of extended mind has been impressively developed over the last 10 years by many philosophers and cognitive scientists. The extended mind thesis (EM) affirms that the mind is not simply ensconced inside the head, but extends to the whole system of brain-body-environment. Recently, some philosophers and psychologists try to adapt the idea of EM to the domain of social cognition research. Mind is socially extended (SEM). However, EM/SEM theory has problems to analyze the interactions among a subject and its surroundings with opposition, antagonism, or conflict; it also tends to think that the environment surrounding the subject is passive or static, and to neglect the power of non-human actants to direct and regulate the human subject. In these points, actor-network theory (ANT) proposed by Latour and Callon is more persuasive, while sharing some important ideas with EM/SEM theory. Actor-network is a hybrid community which is composed of a series of heterogeneous elements, animate and inanimate for a certain period of time. I shall conclude that EM/SEM could be best analyzed as a special case of actor-network. EM/SEM is a system which can be controlled by a human agent alone. In order to understand collective behavior, philosophy and psychology have to study the actor-network in which human individuals are situated.

  8. ("un")Doing the Next Generation Science Standards: Climate Change Education Actor-Networks in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Nicole M.; Ivey, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research investigated how science education communities of practice in Oklahoma engage in translations of climate change education (CCE). Applications of actor-network theory to educational policymaking facilitate this analysis of the spaces of prescription and spaces of negotiation that characterize CCE in Oklahoma. Informed by…

  9. Towards a New Framework of Idea Management as Actor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn

    2013-01-01

    Management of innovation idea development in front-end innovation of R&D organizations has shown to be a challenging task. This paper presents the preliminary results of a PhD project concerning idea management in front-end innovation of R&D organizations. Through theoretical and empirical invest...... interaction. The analysis inputs an initial conceptualization of a new theoretical framework of idea management. The theoretical framework suggests a dynamic network structure comprised of the dimensions of space, content, and process....

  10. Management in Networks On multi-actor decision making

    CERN Document Server

    de Bruijn, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Getting what you want - even if you are the boss - isn't always easy. Almost every organization, big or small, works among a network of competing interests. Whether it's governments pushing through policies, companies trying to increase profits, or even families deciding where to move house, rarely can decisions be made in isolation from competing interests both within the organization and outside it. In this accessible and straightforward account, Hans de Bruijn and Ernst ten Heuvelhof cast light on multi-stakeholder decision-making. Shunning simplistic model talk, they reveal the nuts and bo

  11. Worlds Apart: A Social Theoretical Exploration of Local Networks, Natural Actors, and Practitioners of Rural Development in Southern Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Gareau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the importance of incorporating the socioecological realities of alternative networks into analyses of rural development. Cultural theory is examined, which provides a base upon which rural development can identify difference in worldviews based on difference in sociological conditions and environmental phenomena. Actor-oriented theory problematizes the ideal types of cultural theory, providing a means of give-and-take between actors’ worldviews of different networks. Actor-network theory breaks down the nature-culture dichotomy of actor-oriented theory, so that nature becomes as ‘active’ an actor as people and community. Actor-network theory brings nature and society together, perceiving the two as mutually inclusive and constitutive. Coupled with recognition of power associated with political economic/ecological forces, actor-network theory can encourage us to see the frequency of tropical storms in Honduras as being among the powerful actors that have played a significant, consistent role in shaping the mode of ordering of impoverished Honduran peoples. This paper concludes by exploring how alternative, agroecological networks established in a protected area in southern Honduras with ‘strong’ natural actors can be re-ordered by incorporating autonomy and resiliency into the network.

  12. Monitoring communication outbreaks among an unknown team of actors in dynamic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sparks, Ross

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the detection of communication outbreaks among a small team of actors in time-varying networks. We propose monitoring plans for known and unknown teams based on generalizations of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) statistic. For unknown teams, we propose an efficient neighborhood-based search to estimate a collection of candidate teams. This procedure dramatically reduces the computational complexity of an exhaustive search. Our procedure consists of two steps: communication counts between actors are first smoothed using a multivariate EWMA strategy. Densely connected teams are identified as candidates using a neighborhood search approach. These candidate teams are then monitored using a surveillance plan derived from a generalized EWMA statistic. Monitoring plans are established for collaborative teams, teams with a dominant leader, as well as for global outbreaks. We consider weighted heterogeneous dynamic networks, where the expected communication count between each p...

  13. Bruno Latour, actor-networks, and the critique of critical sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical opus of Bruno Latour and his treatment of the concept of critique. In the first section "actor-network theory" is presented through its key notions (actant, network, translation, associations together with Latour’s theory of modernity. In the second section various aspects of the relation between Latour and critique are discussed - first his own criticism of others (standard sociology and especially "critical", i.e. Bourdieu’s sociology, then the criticisms aimed at his work, to conclude with the political ambivalences of Latour’s attempt to develop an "acritical" social theory. .

  14. Opening up the solar box: Cultural resource management and actor network theory in solar energy projects in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrie, Bryan F.

    This project considers the ways that Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be brought to bear upon Cultural Resource Management (CRM) practices on renewable energy projects. ANT is a way of making inquiry into scientific knowledge practices and as CRM is intended to preserve environmental, historic, and prehistoric resources, it necessarily involves certain kinds of knowledge generation about regions in which projects are being developed. Because the practice of CRM is complex, involving a range of actors from developers to biologists, native peoples to academics, private landholders to environmental and cultural activists, it is imperative to account for the interests of all stakeholders and to resist devolving into the polemical relations of winners and losers, good and bad participants, or simple situations of right and wrong. This project intends to account for the "matters of concern" of various actors, both primary and secondary, by examining the case study of a single solar installation project in the Mojave Desert. A theoretical description of ANT is provided at the beginning and the concerns of this theory are brought to bear upon the case study project through describing the project, discussing the laws governing CRM on federal lands and in the state of California, and providing the points of view of various interviewees who worked directly or indirectly on various aspects of CRM for the solar project. The creators of ANT claim that it is not a methodology but it does speak to ethnomethodologies in that it insists that there is always something more to learn from inquiring into and describing any given situation. These descriptions avoid generalizations, providing instead various points of entry, from diverse perspectives to the project. There is an invitation to avoid assuming that one knows all there is to know about a given situation and to choose instead to continue investigating and thus give voice to the more obscure, often marginalized, voices in the

  15. From cybercrime to cyborg crime: botnets as hybrid criminal actor-networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagen, van der Wytske; Pieters, Wolter

    2015-01-01

    Botnets, networks of infected computers controlled by a commander, increasingly play a role in a broad range of cybercrimes. Although often studied from technological perspectives, a criminological perspective could elucidate the organizational structure of botnets and how to counteract them. Botnet

  16. From Cybercrime to Cyborg Crime : Botnets as Hybrid Criminal Actor-Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wagen, Wytske; Pieters, Wolter

    2015-01-01

    Botnets, networks of infected computers controlled by a commander, increasingly play a role in a broad range of cybercrimes. Although often studied from technological perspectives, a criminological perspective could elucidate the organizational structure of botnets and how to counteract them. Botnet

  17. Validation of networks derived from snowball sampling of municipal science education actors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Fehr, Ane; Sølberg, Jan; Bruun, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) has been used in many educational studies in the past decade, but what these studies have in common is that the populations in question in most cases are defined and known to the researchers studying the networks. Snowball sampling is an SNA methodology most often used...... to study hidden populations, for example, groups of homosexual people, drug users or people with sexually transmitted diseases. By use of a snowball sampling approach, this study mapped municipal social networks of educational actors, who were otherwise hidden to the researchers. Subsequently...... populations in educational settings, but also that qualitative studies are needed in order to interpret the networks in real-life contexts....

  18. The social value of biodiversity and ecosystem services from the perspectives of different social actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Cáceres

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A vast literature is now available on ecosystem services (ES, their potential as a tool for analyzing intertwined processes of ecological and social change, and their monetary valuation. Much less is known about the social value of different ES for different social actors (SA, and their links with specific components of biodiversity. We unpack the social aspects of an interdisciplinary and multi-SA methodology that allows us to assess how different SA perceive and value different ES, and how they associate them with different components of biodiversity, ecological attributes, and ecosystem types. We apply the methodology to a study area in the Gran Chaco region of South America, presenting original social-ecological information from the field. Being affected by the rapid and widespread expansion of agribusiness over the woody ecosystems of southern South America, this location provides a policy-relevant context in which to test our approach. We identified six major ecosystem types and five relevant SA. We carried out 163 individual in-depth interviews and ran seven single-actor focus groups. We identified 116 ES, which were then aggregated into 22 more general categories. Although all SA perceived all ecosystem types as multifunctional, they showed markedly different perceptions of and interests in the ES provided by them. Subsistence farmers and extension officers valued a large number of ES primarily provided by the most pristine ecosystems. Members of conservation agencies and policymakers also identified a wide range of ES, spanning all ecosystem types. However, large farmers and cattle ranchers recognized a dependency on only a small number of ES. Therefore, the rapid expansion of agribusiness occurring in this region is a threat to a large number of ES considered valuable by a wide range of SA. Without necessarily having to resort to monetary valuation, our methodology provides a rigorous quantitative-qualitative way to compare the

  19. Actors and networks in resource conflict resolution under climate change in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaruiya, Grace W.; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    The change from consensual decision-making arrangements into centralized hierarchical chieftaincy schemes through colonization disrupted many rural conflict resolution mechanisms in Africa. In addition, climate change impacts on land use have introduced additional socio-ecological factors that complicate rural conflict dynamics. Despite the current urgent need for conflict-sensitive adaptation, resolution efficiency of these fused rural institutions has hardly been documented. In this context, we analyse the Loitoktok network for implemented resource conflict resolution structures and identify potential actors to guide conflict-sensitive adaptation. This is based on social network data and processes that are collected using the saturation sampling technique to analyse mechanisms of brokerage. We find that there are three different forms of fused conflict resolution arrangements that integrate traditional institutions and private investors in the community. To effectively implement conflict-sensitive adaptation, we recommend the extension officers, the council of elders, local chiefs and private investors as potential conduits of knowledge in rural areas. In conclusion, efficiency of these fused conflict resolution institutions is aided by the presence of holistic resource management policies and diversification in conflict resolution actors and networks.

  20. Analysing animal social network dynamics: the potential of stochastic actor-oriented models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David N; Ilany, Amiyaal; Silk, Matthew J; Tregenza, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Animals are embedded in dynamically changing networks of relationships with conspecifics. These dynamic networks are fundamental aspects of their environment, creating selection on behaviours and other traits. However, most social network-based approaches in ecology are constrained to considering networks as static, despite several calls for such analyses to become more dynamic. There are a number of statistical analyses developed in the social sciences that are increasingly being applied to animal networks, of which stochastic actor-oriented models (SAOMs) are a principal example. SAOMs are a class of individual-based models designed to model transitions in networks between discrete time points, as influenced by network structure and covariates. It is not clear, however, how useful such techniques are to ecologists, and whether they are suited to animal social networks. We review the recent applications of SAOMs to animal networks, outlining findings and assessing the strengths and weaknesses of SAOMs when applied to animal rather than human networks. We go on to highlight the types of ecological and evolutionary processes that SAOMs can be used to study. SAOMs can include effects and covariates for individuals, dyads and populations, which can be constant or variable. This allows for the examination of a wide range of questions of interest to ecologists. However, high-resolution data are required, meaning SAOMs will not be useable in all study systems. It remains unclear how robust SAOMs are to missing data and uncertainty around social relationships. Ultimately, we encourage the careful application of SAOMs in appropriate systems, with dynamic network analyses likely to prove highly informative. Researchers can then extend the basic method to tackle a range of existing questions in ecology and explore novel lines of questioning.

  1. Toward an Analytical and Methodological Understanding of Actor-Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Jackson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Actor-Network theory (ANT is well developed within social studies of science and technology. The last two decades have seen an increasing awareness and interest in ANT within the social sciences and it has increasingly been invoked to theorise the role of ‘nonhumans’ in social life.  In this respect the conceptual repertoire of ANT has been increasingly drawn upon to examine the relational dimensions between artefacts and people. Despite this the use of ANT as an analytical and/or methodological approach occupies a peripheral within social science research.  In part, the reticence towards ANT may be explained by its lack of theoretical unity. Analytically and methodologically the application of ANT and thought which is closely associated with the approach is considerably varied. ANT informed research often differs quite considerably in terms of methodological approach and style of analyses. This is further complicated by the disparate emphases of ANT proponents and the proliferation of different versions of ANT. Thus, there is no generic way to ‘apply’ actor-network theory and it lacks methodological prescription. This article intends to articulate the analytical and methodological possibilities of ANT. For those who are encountering ANT for the first time or for whom ANT has been regarded as a somewhat left field and inaccessible theory obscured by its own vocabularies and heterogeneity this article may provide a useful conceptual map through which the key elements of ANT can be navigated.

  2. Contracting private sector providers for public sector health services in Jalisco, Mexico: perspectives of system actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Luz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Contracting out health services is a strategy that many health systems in the developing world are following, despite the lack of decisive evidence that this is the best way to improve quality, increase efficiency and expand coverage. A large body of literature has appeared in recent years focusing on the results of several contracting strategies, but very few papers have addressed aspects of the managerial process and how this can affect results. Case description This paper describes and analyses the perceptions and opinions of managers and workers about the benefits and challenges of the contracting model that has been in place for almost 10 years in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. Both qualitative and quantitative information was collected. An open-ended questionnaire was used to obtain information from a group of managers, while information provided by a self-selected group of workers was collected via a closed-ended questionnaire. The analysis contrasted the information obtained from each source. Discussion and Evaluation Findings show that perceptions of managers and workers vary for most of the items studied. For managers the model has been a success, as it has allowed for expansion of coverage based on a cost-effective strategy, while for workers the model also possesses positive elements but fails to provide fair labour relationships, which negatively affects their performance. Conclusion Perspectives of the two main groups of actors in Jalisco's contracting model are important in the design and adjustment of an adequate contracting model that includes managerial elements to give incentives to worker performance, a key element necessary to achieve the model's ultimate objectives. Lessons learnt from this study could be relevant for the experience of contracting models in other developing countries.

  3. The flow of IWRM in SADC: The role of regional dynamics, advocacy networks and external actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synne Movik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the entry and spread of IWRM in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region. It traces how the idea of IWRM was promoted and sustained throughout the region by mapping key events, actors and networks that were involved in promoting the approach. It highlights the importance of regional networks in promoting IWRM and shows how regional dynamics, playing out at the interface between the global and local levels, influenced the adoption/adaptation and spread of IWRM. The article finds that the idea of IWRM 'hit the ground running' in SADC due to several contributing factors. These include: historical political connections between the member countries; historically rooted well-established channels and connections with bilateral and multilateral donors; the success of networks such as the Global Water Partnership and WaterNet whose mandate was to promote the concept; and the fact that two-thirds of the region’s population live in transboundary basins with IWRM providing a suitable hook for transboundary cooperation, often inspired by European models. The article further argues that IWRM thrived because of strong donor agendas that were adapted by key SADC actors to suit strategic interests. It thus provided a platform for complex politically charged negotiations to reconcile apparently divergent goals such as infrastructure vs management and regional vs national interests. The practice of IWRM in the region is very much shaped by a conflation of regional, national and donor interests and has now acquired a life of its own, despite changing donor priorities.

  4. Governance, globalization and non-state actors: an analysis from the perspective of international law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Soldano Garcez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to address the connection between governance and non-state actors, phenomenon intensified in the current world scenario of globalization. Undeniably, these actors are part of the implementation mechanisms and efficiency of governance, however they still appear in the center of the doctrinal debate about (the lack or recognition of their legal personalities. According to this background, this article discusses, at first, governance and globalization, studying the three lines of thought about globalization. After, highlights the main non-state actors nowadays, examing the activity of those for the governance processes. Finally, it analyzes the controversy about the recognition of the international legal personality of these non-state actors.

  5. Performing Sociology Through Actor-Network Theory: From Impressionist Cartography to the Dirtiness of Mediations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Muriel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I try to outline the existence of certain problems I have found during my research work, within sociology discipline, when it comes to follow some of the main threads of the complex fabric that constitutes the Actor-Network Theory (ANT. In the same way, I suggest some possible subterfuges to go around those problems. Two are the problems and two are the subterfuges as well destined to tackle them. On the one hand, I face the problem of the magnitude and fidelity that ANT's descriptions demand, thoroughly detailed and local, which clashes with the requirements of sociological theory that seeks abstractions and regularities. The subterfuge I propose is the one called "impressionist cartography". On the other hand, I bump into the difficulty of the irreversibility of mediations and the sanitized representations carried out, sometimes, by ANT. In order to fight this, I use the subterfuge oriented to adopt the premise of the "inevitable dirtiness of mediations".

  6. On Efficient Link Recommendation in Social Networks Using Actor-Fact Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Ciesielczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Link recommendation is a popular research subject in the field of social network analysis and mining. Often, the main emphasis is put on the development of new recommendation algorithms, semantic enhancements to existing solutions, design of new similarity measures, and so forth. However, relatively little scientific attention has been paid to the impact that various data representation models have on the performance of recommendation algorithms. And by performance we do not mean the time or memory efficiency of algorithms, but the precision and recall of recommender systems. Our recent findings unanimously show that the choice of network representation model has an important and measurable impact on the quality of recommendations. In this paper we argue that the computation quality of link recommendation algorithms depends significantly on the social network representation and we advocate the use of actor-fact matrix as the best alternative. We verify our findings using several state-of-the-art link recommendation algorithms, such as SVD, RSVD, and RRI using both single-relation and multirelation dataset.

  7. Optical networks a practical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Ramaswami, Rajiv

    2001-01-01

    This fully updated and expanded second edition of Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective succeeds the first as the authoritative source for information on optical networking technologies and techniques. Written by two of the field's most respected individuals, it covers componentry and transmission in detail but also emphasizes the practical networking issues that affect organizations as they evaluate, deploy, or develop optical solutions. This book captures all the hard-to-find information on architecture, control and management, and other communications topics that

  8. Tourism Chains and Pro-Poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that th

  9. Modeling and analyzing gene co-expression in hepatocellular carcinoma using actor-semiotic networks and centrality signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, David C Y

    2008-01-01

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the fifth most common malignancy and the third most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Because of its high prevalence in developing nations, there have been numerous efforts made in the molecular characterization of primary HCC. However, a better understanding into the pathology of HCC required software-assisted network modeling and analysis. In this paper, the author presented his first attempt in exploring the biological implication of gene co-expression in HCC using actor-semiotic network modeling and analysis. The network was first constructed by integrating inter-actor relationships, e.g. gene co-expression, microRNA-to-gene, and protein interactions, with semiotic relationships, e.g. gene-to-Gene Ontology Process. Topological features that are highly discriminative of the HCC phenotype were identified by visual inspection. Finally, the author devised a graph signature-based analysis method to supplement the network exploration.

  10. Tolerance of Practices by Muslim Actors: An Integrative Social-Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieling, Maike; Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2010-01-01

    Using social-cognitive domain theory and social identity theory, tolerance judgments of practices by Muslim actors among Dutch adolescents (12-17) were investigated. The findings for Study 1 (N = 180) demonstrated that participants evaluated 4 practices using different types of reasons: personal, social-conventional, and moral. In Study 2 (N =…

  11. Learning through Civic Participation: Policy Actors' Perspectives on Curriculum Reform Involvement in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    When citizens participate in policy production, the advantages go beyond policy outcomes--though the presumption is that participation leads to better public policy. Robust democracy characterized by agonistic exchanges among policy actors ought to encourage learning, dialogue, empow­erment, equity, and a shared spirit of inquiry. This article…

  12. Reseña del blog: Networks & Matters: a blog on Actor-Network Theory and philosophical empirism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Leandro Castillo Sepúlveda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La Teoría del Actor-Red, inscrita en los estudios sociales de la ciencia y la tecnología, constituye una aproximación que ha trascendido el ámbito de las investigaciones sociotécnicas, alcanzando el análisis de las rupturas, formaciones y estabilizaciones de las formas más generales de orden social. Networks & Matters, blog creado por cuatro académicos e investigadores reconocidos en el área, constituye un espacio adecuado para actualizarse en discusiones teóricas en torno a esta teoría y a sus asuntos relacionados. Las posibilidades que brinda el formato para comentar y generar discusiones en torno a las temáticas propuestas y la de establecer vínculos hacia otros sitios  y medios relacionados, se conjugan con la exposición de eventos y de publicaciones, tanto nuevas como clásicas. El estilo prolijo de las notas resulta apropiado para quienes se interesen en el campo de la interacción entre ciencia, tecnología y sociedad, y para quienes se adentren en este.

  13. Book review: The success of policy analysis studies: an actor perspective, a search for success definitions based on cases in the field of transport and infrastructure in The Netherlands / by Patricia G.J. Twaalfhoven. - Eburon, Delft, 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, Pieter-Jan

    2001-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation is an attempt to formulate a theory on how different actors define the success of a policy analysis study and on the factors that underlie the various definitions of success. The choice for an actor perspective is motivated by the fact that many actors play different roles

  14. The Actor-Oriented Transfer Perspective and Its Contributions to Educational Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Although any mainstream thought is subject to theoretical challenges, the challenges to the mainstream cognitive perspective on transfer have had an unfortunate divisive effect. This article takes a pragmatic view that transfer perspectives are simply designed objects (Plomp & Nieveen, 2007), which provide different information for different…

  15. Connecting to Global Production Networks: Challenges for Regional Actors in Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Nilsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, Northern Norway has been perceived as a land of opportunity. Announcements of offshore oil and gas discoveries off the coast of Finnmark have contributed to increased market activity in related sectors like service and construction. However, regional firms continue to score at the bottom of innovation indexes and seldom compete on international markets. Based on in-depth interviews with representatives from key businesses in three sectors in Northern Norway, we examine the bottlenecks that have prevented these firms from gaining new market positions through the interplay of these regional firms and agencies with the Global Production Network (GPN. We adopt the concept of “strategic coupling” and explore whether an actor approach can contribute to an improved understanding of this relationship. The paper demonstrates that regional strategies and public policy differ between the sectors. Public policy is important for regional firms within the petroleum sector. However, the funds available for regional firms continue to be limited due to the size and relevance of the measures. In the construction sector, public policy instruments are important, but not sufficiently adapted to the challenges these firms face. While the petroleum sector receives support and backing from regional agencies in order to connect to GPN, the wind power sector is actively hindered by the same agencies. The former have the opportunity to take part in new regional path creation; the latter have experienced a lack of strategic cooperation and face the risk of reducing strategic couplings to GPN, leading to path dependent processes that lock these firms into traditional and low-tech sectors.

  16. Rethinking agency and medical adherence technology: applying Actor Network Theory to the case study of Digital Pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Cabling, Mark L; Sheppard, Vanessa B

    2015-12-01

    Much literature surrounding medical technology and adherence posits that technology is a mechanism for social control. This assumes that the medical establishment can take away patients' agency. Although power relationships and social control can play a key role, medical technology can also serve as an agentive tool to be utilized. We (1) offer the alternative framework of Actor Network Theory to view medical technology, (2) discuss the literature on medication adherence and technology, (3) delve into the ramifications of looking at adherence as a network and (4) use Digital Pills as a case study of dispersed agency.

  17. Actors', partners', and observers' perceptions of sarcasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, P

    2000-10-01

    This study compared actors', partners', and observers' perceptions of the amount of sarcasm used by participants (n = 80) in videotaped conversations. Significant differences were found among perceptions of actors, partners, and observers. Of the three perspectives, actors perceived themselves as using the greatest amount of sarcasm, followed by partners' perceptions of actors. Observers perceived actors as using the least amount of sarcasm. Correlations conducted to assess whether partners and observers recognized actors' individual attempts at sarcasm during the conversations were generally low.

  18. An Actor-Oriented Transfer Perspective on High School Students' Development of the Use of Procedures to Solve Problems on Rate of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roorda, Gerrit; Vos, Pauline; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal observation study about students' development in their use of procedures to calculate instantaneous rate of change. Different procedures for solving tasks on rate of change are taught in mathematics and physics classes, and together they form a repertoire. Our study took an actor-oriented perspective, which…

  19. Research Note: The consequences of different methods for handling missing network data in Stochastic Actor Based Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, John R; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M

    2015-05-01

    Although stochastic actor based models (e.g., as implemented in the SIENA software program) are growing in popularity as a technique for estimating longitudinal network data, a relatively understudied issue is the consequence of missing network data for longitudinal analysis. We explore this issue in our research note by utilizing data from four schools in an existing dataset (the AddHealth dataset) over three time points, assessing the substantive consequences of using four different strategies for addressing missing network data. The results indicate that whereas some measures in such models are estimated relatively robustly regardless of the strategy chosen for addressing missing network data, some of the substantive conclusions will differ based on the missing data strategy chosen. These results have important implications for this burgeoning applied research area, implying that researchers should more carefully consider how they address missing data when estimating such models.

  20. Network structures as a model of interaction between state and non-state actors in EU foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinegubov Alexey Leonidovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the role of network structures in EU foreign policy. The role of networks in functioning of EU is analyzed as the model of interaction between state and non-state actors in contemporary world politics. Some studies, including the project of National Intelligence Council of USA, demonstrate that there is a tendency of growing influence of non-state actors. The model of interaction that has developed in EU can be considered as a model of the future. That’s why the type of force used by EU is called “post-modern”. This model is conductive to wide use of “soft power” and some of its variants including “normative” and “network” power. Quasi-federal character of EU’s structure, whiсh is characterized by many intersecting and delegated sovereign functions, is a reason of appearance of the analyzed model. Network practices and network technologies are widely used in the process of developing and realization of EU’s policy on three levels: 1 development and realization of EU’s general policy; 2 the policy of EU’s enlargement and deeper integration of the newcomers into Europe’s life; 3 the neighborhood policy and “Europeanization” of neighboring to EU states that cannot become EU members. The last dimension of EU policy causes a conflict with Russia, which makes this analysis politically relevant.

  1. Tourism Chains and Pro-Poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Duim, van der, V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that the tangible results in terms of pro-poor tourism of the project itself were meagre, as, initially, only three and later only one out of 24 projects was included in the tourism chain. However, the an...

  2. Teachers' professional development in a community: A study of the central actors, their networks and web-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Lallimo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article was to study teachers' professional development related to web-based learning in the context of the teacher community. The object was to learn in what kind of networks teachers share the knowledge of web-based learning and what are the factors in the community that support or challenge teachers professional development of web-based learning. The findings of the study revealed that there are teachers who are especially active, called the central actors in this study, in the teacher community who collaborate and share knowledge of web-based learning. These central actors share both technical and pedagogical knowledge of web-based learning in networks that include both internal and external relations in the community and involve people, artefacts and a variety of media. Furthermore, the central actors appear to bridge different fields of teaching expertise in their community.According to the central actors' experiences the important factors that support teachers' professional development of web-based learning in the community are; the possibility to learn from colleagues and from everyday working practices, an emotionally safe atmosphere, the leader's personal support and community-level commitment. Also, the flexibility in work planning, challenging pupils, shared lessons with colleagues, training events in an authentic work environment and colleagues' professionalism are considered meaningful for professional development. As challenges, the knowledge sharing of web-based learning in the community needs mutual interests, transactive memory, time and facilities, peer support, a safe atmosphere and meaningful pedagogical practices.On the basis of the findings of the study it is suggested that by intensive collaboration related to web-based learning it may be possible to break the boundaries of individual teachership and create such sociocultural activities which support collaborative professional development in the teacher

  3. Learning about a fish from an ANT: actor network theory and science education in the postgenomic era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Clayton

    2015-03-01

    This article uses actor network theory (ANT) to develop a more appropriate model of scientific literacy for students, teachers, and citizens in a society increasingly populated with biotechnological and bioscientific nonhumans. In so doing, I take the recent debate surrounding the first genetically engineered animal food product under review by the FDA, AquaBounty Technologies' AquAdvantage® salmon, as a vehicle for exploring the ways in which the biosciences have fundamentally altered the boundary between nature and culture and thus the way the public understands both. In response to the new challenges of a postgenomic society, I outline three frameworks for using ANT literacies in classroom settings. Each frame, I argue, is foundational to the development of a scientific literacy that can trace and map actors involved in controversies such as the AquAdvantage® salmon. In examining these frames I follow the actor of a salmon through an environmental history lens, the technoscientific literacy operating in AquaBounty's FDA application and the National Academies new science education framework, and finally to a model of democracy rooted in an ethic of the common. The ultimate claim of this article is that until science education (and education in general) can begin to include nonhumans such as the AquAdvantage® salmon as part of a common political framework, students, educators, and community members will continue to be at the mercy of experts and corporate stakeholders for defining the terms in which people heal, feed, and educate themselves now and in the future.

  4. Network anomaly detection a machine learning perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid rise in the ubiquity and sophistication of Internet technology and the accompanying growth in the number of network attacks, network intrusion detection has become increasingly important. Anomaly-based network intrusion detection refers to finding exceptional or nonconforming patterns in network traffic data compared to normal behavior. Finding these anomalies has extensive applications in areas such as cyber security, credit card and insurance fraud detection, and military surveillance for enemy activities. Network Anomaly Detection: A Machine Learning Perspective presents mach

  5. Memory and Actor-Network Theory: Mediation in Websites of Estadão and Folha de S. Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allysson Viana Martins

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how the ideas that guide the Actor-Network Theory (ANT can be the basis for studies from journalism produced for the internet. We seek to apply the principles of ANT to understand the resource mnemonics uses in web journalism and understand which modalities of mediation characterize these uses. The websites of the Estadão and Folha de S. Paulo formed the corpusto be among the main Brazilian (web newspapers, regarding the trials of the specificities of web journalism. The study was conducted in a typical weekin which there has been no event or event featured so as not to corrupt or emphasize some associations. We realize how much can be misleading to consider the mere presence of memory as an indication of quality or depth content.

  6. An actor-network theory analysis of policy innovation for smoke-free places: understanding change in complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David; Borland, Ron; Coghill, Ken

    2010-07-01

    Complex, transnational issues like the tobacco epidemic are major challenges that defy analysis and management by conventional methods, as are other public health issues, such as those associated with global food distribution and climate change. We examined the evolution of indoor smoke-free regulations, a tobacco control policy innovation, and identified the key attributes of those jurisdictions that successfully pursued this innovation and those that to date have not. In doing so, we employed the actor-network theory, a comprehensive framework for the analysis of fundamental system change. Through our analysis, we identified approaches to help overcome some systemic barriers to the solution of the tobacco problem and comment on other complex transnational problems.

  7. Validation of networks derived from snowball sampling of municipal science education actors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Fehr, Ane; Sølberg, Jan; Bruun, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) has been used in many educational studies in the past decade, but what these studies have in common is that the populations in question in most cases are defined and known to the researchers studying the networks. Snowball sampling is an SNA methodology most often us...

  8. Networks in Action: New Actors and Practices in Education Policy in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroma, Eneida Oto

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of networks in the policy-making process in education and discusses the potential of network analysis as an analytical tool for education policy research. Drawing on publically available data from personal or institutional websites, this paper reports the findings from research carried out between 2005 and 2011.…

  9. Actor-network procedures: Modeling multi-factor authentication, device pairing, social interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Dusko

    2011-01-01

    As computation spreads from computers to networks of computers, and migrates into cyberspace, it ceases to be globally programmable, but it remains programmable indirectly: network computations cannot be controlled, but they can be steered by local constraints on network nodes. The tasks of "programming" global behaviors through local constraints belong to the area of security. The "program particles" that assure that a system of local interactions leads towards some desired global goals are called security protocols. As computation spreads beyond cyberspace, into physical and social spaces, new security tasks and problems arise. As networks are extended by physical sensors and controllers, including the humans, and interlaced with social networks, the engineering concepts and techniques of computer security blend with the social processes of security. These new connectors for computational and social software require a new "discipline of programming" of global behaviors through local constraints. Since the n...

  10. Structuring an integrated care system: interpreted through the enacted diversity of the actors involved – the case of a French healthcare network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Grenier

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research question: We are looking at the process of structuring an integrated care system as an innovative process that swings back and forth between the diversity of the actors involved, local aspirations and national and regional regulations. We believe that innovation is enriched by the variety of the actors involved, but may also be blocked or disrupted by that diversity. Our research aims to add to other research, which, when questioning these integrated systems, analyses how the actors involved deal with diversity without really questioning it. Case study: The empirical basis of the paper is provided by case study analysis. The studied integrated care system is a French healthcare network that brings together healthcare professionals and various organisations in order to improve the way in which interventions are coordinated and formalised, in order to promote better detection and diagnosis procedures and the implementation of a care protocol. We consider this case as instrumental in developing theoretical proposals for structuring an integrated care system in light of the diversity of the actors involved. Results and discussion: We are proposing a model for structuring an integrated care system in light of the enacted diversity of the actors involved. This model is based on three factors: the diversity enacted by the leaders, three stances for considering the contribution made by diversity in the structuring process and the specific leading role played by those in charge of the structuring process.  Through this process, they determined how the actors involved in the project were differentiated, and on what basis those actors were involved. By mobilizing enacted diversity, the leaders are seeking to channel the emergence of a network in light of their own representation of that network. This model adds to published research on the structuring of integrated care systems.

  11. Structuring an integrated care system: interpreted through the enacted diversity of the actors involved – the case of a French healthcare network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Grenier

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research question: We are looking at the process of structuring an integrated care system as an innovative process that swings back and forth between the diversity of the actors involved, local aspirations and national and regional regulations. We believe that innovation is enriched by the variety of the actors involved, but may also be blocked or disrupted by that diversity. Our research aims to add to other research, which, when questioning these integrated systems, analyses how the actors involved deal with diversity without really questioning it.Case study: The empirical basis of the paper is provided by case study analysis. The studied integrated care system is a French healthcare network that brings together healthcare professionals and various organisations in order to improve the way in which interventions are coordinated and formalised, in order to promote better detection and diagnosis procedures and the implementation of a care protocol. We consider this case as instrumental in developing theoretical proposals for structuring an integrated care system in light of the diversity of the actors involved.Results and discussion: We are proposing a model for structuring an integrated care system in light of the enacted diversity of the actors involved. This model is based on three factors: the diversity enacted by the leaders, three stances for considering the contribution made by diversity in the structuring process and the specific leading role played by those in charge of the structuring process.  Through this process, they determined how the actors involved in the project were differentiated, and on what basis those actors were involved. By mobilizing enacted diversity, the leaders are seeking to channel the emergence of a network in light of their own representation of that network. This model adds to published research on the structuring of integrated care systems.

  12. Why Network? Theoretical Perspectives on Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel; West, Mel; Ainscow, Mel

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, networking and collaboration have become increasingly popular in education. However, there is at present a lack of attention to the theoretical basis of networking, which could illuminate when and when not to network and under what conditions networks are likely to be successful. In this paper, we will attempt to sketch the…

  13. Representing humans in system security models: An actor-network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    System models to assess the vulnerability of information systems to security threats typically represent a physical infrastructure (buildings) and a digital infrastructure (computers and networks), in combination with an attacker traversing the system while acquiring credentials. Other humans are ge

  14. Ecological networks: a spatial concept for multi-actor planning of sustainable landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.F.M.; Steingröver, E.G.; Rooij, van S.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the ecological network concept as a suitable basis for inserting biodiversity conservation into sustainable landscape development. For landscapes to be ecologically sustainable, the landscape structure should support those ecological processes required for the landscape to

  15. Collaboration and entanglement: An actor-network theory analysis of team-based intraprofessional care for patients with advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, A; Goldszmidt, M; Kinsella, E A; Smith, S; Lingard, L

    2016-09-01

    Despite calls for more interprofessional and intraprofessional team-based approaches in healthcare, we lack sufficient understanding of how this happens in the context of patient care teams. This multi-perspective, team-based interview study examined how medical teams negotiated collaborative tensions. From 2011 to 2013, 50 patients across five sites in three Canadian provinces were interviewed about their care experiences and were asked to identify members of their health care teams. Patient-identified team members were subsequently interviewed to form 50 "Team Sampling Units" (TSUs), consisting of 209 interviews with patients, caregivers and healthcare providers. Results are gathered from a focused analysis of 13 TSUs where intraprofessional collaborative tensions involved treating fluid overload, or edema, a common HF symptom. Drawing on actor-network theory (ANT), the analysis focused on intraprofessional collaboration between specialty care teams in cardiology and nephrology. The study found that despite a shared narrative of common purpose between cardiology teams and nephrology teams, fluid management tools and techniques formed sites of collaborative tension. In particular, care activities involved asynchronous clinical interpretations, geographically distributed specialist care, fragmented forms of communication, and uncertainty due to clinical complexity. Teams 'disentangled' fluid in order to focus on its physiological function and mobilisation. Teams also used distinct 'framings' of fluid management that created perceived collaborative tensions. This study advances collaborative entanglement as a conceptual framework for understanding, teaching, and potentially ameliorating some of the tensions that manifest during intraprofessional care for patients with complex, chronic disease.

  16. Simposio Internacional "Changing politics through digital networks: the role of ICTs in the formation of new social and political actors and actions"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Borge

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Participación en el Simposio Internacional "Changing Politics through digital networks: the role of ICTs in the formation of new social and political actors and actions", que tuvo lugar en la Universidad de Florencia los días 5 y 6 de octubre del 2007.

  17. Financial stability from a network perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Rincon, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of six chapters related to applications of network analysis’ methods for financial stability. The first chapter introduces the network perspective as a new mapping technique for studying and understanding financial markets’architecture. The second chapter breaks down the Colombi

  18. An actor-based model of social network influence on adolescent body size, screen time, and playing sports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Shoham

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that obesity may be "contagious" between individuals in social networks. Social contagion (influence, however, may not be identifiable using traditional statistical approaches because they cannot distinguish contagion from homophily (the propensity for individuals to select friends who are similar to themselves or from shared environmental influences. In this paper, we apply the stochastic actor-based model (SABM framework developed by Snijders and colleagues to data on adolescent body mass index (BMI, screen time, and playing active sports. Our primary hypothesis was that social influences on adolescent body size and related behaviors are independent of friend selection. Employing the SABM, we simultaneously modeled network dynamics (friendship selection based on homophily and structural characteristics of the network and social influence. We focused on the 2 largest schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health and held the school environment constant by examining the 2 school networks separately (N = 624 and 1151. Results show support in both schools for homophily on BMI, but also for social influence on BMI. There was no evidence of homophily on screen time in either school, while only one of the schools showed homophily on playing active sports. There was, however, evidence of social influence on screen time in one of the schools, and playing active sports in both schools. These results suggest that both homophily and social influence are important in understanding patterns of adolescent obesity. Intervention efforts should take into consideration peers' influence on one another, rather than treating "high risk" adolescents in isolation.

  19. Organic foods from family farms in the National School Food Program: Perspectives of social actors from Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Gabriela de Andrade Silverio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze suggestions that facilitate the use of organic foods produced by family farms made by the social actors responsible for Santa Catarina's school meals. METHODS: This qualitative and exploratory study used an electronic questionnaire for surveying 293 municipalities in the state of Santa Catarina in 2010 and identified the percentage of organic school foods purchased from family farms. The social actors from 52 municipalities who were responsible for organic food acquisition were interviewed in person. Their suggestions were categorized and analyzed by content analysis. RESULTS: A total of 446 social actors made 684 suggestions categorized into four themes: Awareness strategies for the use of organic foods (n=286 were proposed by principals and dieticians, who emphasized the need of educating social actors and community and raising community awareness; Better Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar management (n=148 was suggested by principals and family farmers, who wanted less bureaucracy and outsourcing, fewer taxes, and more management involvement; Better coordination between the demand and supply of organic foods (n=130 was suggested by principals, family farmers, and cooks because of logistic and supply problems; and Better management of school food production (n=120 was suggested by principals and cooks, who reported problems with the supply of specific foods, low organic food diversity, and lack of certification. CONCLUSION: For the social actors, the use of organic foods in the schools of Santa Catarina requires the education of those involved (technical support, educational strategies, and community awareness, government support, coordination between demand and supply, and better management of organic food production.

  20. Psychology and social networks: a dynamic network theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Application of actor level social characteristic indicator selection for the precursory detection of bullies in online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Holly M.; Fields, Jeremy; Hall, Robert T.; White, Joshua S.

    2016-05-01

    Bullying is a national problem for families, courts, schools, and the economy. Social, educational, and professional lives of victims are affected. Early detection of bullies mitigates destructive effects of bullying. Our previous research found, given specific characteristics of an actor, actor logics can be developed utilizing input from natural language processing and graph analysis. Given similar characteristics of cyberbullies, in this paper, we create specific actor logics and apply these to a select social media dataset for the purpose of rapid identification of cyberbullying.

  2. Social determinants for health (mental: evaluating a non-governmental experience from the perspective of actors involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia Magalhães Bosi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Brazilian Psychiatric Reform, an ongoing process, and its developments involve the construction of new ways of seeing the subject in illness, establishing the mental health field in a new way of understanding the social determinants that reflect in the deinstitutionalization and social inclusion. OBJECTIVE: This study, multidimensional analysis of the relationship between social determinants and deinstitutionalization in mental health focusing on a community movement in Northeast Brazil, whose proposed work is subjective and psychosocial dimensions, aims to explore and analyze how the experiences in course of the Movement highlights the importance of social determinants, the perspective of professionals. METHODS: The methodological approach outlined in the qualitative approach in the form of case studies, employing techniques such as interviews and focus groups. The categorization of analytical information was built from the relationship established between a model based on the constituent dimensions of the psychiatric reform, covering different planes, namely epistemological, healthcare, legal and socio-political, and social determinants of health - living conditions, and work environment, community networks and support, economic, cultural and environmental behaviors and lifestyles. RESULTS: The results show emphasis on the social subject, making the processing and knowledge of professionals, adding new ways to produce health; dialogue with multiple stakeholders, building autonomy, participative management, concern for professionalization; reorganizing the work process; appreciation of the everyday activities that weave and; invention of a new social site, among other elements in close interface with the determinants of health. CONCLUSION: These elements indicate that care practices woven into the daily life of the Movement involve the disassembling the traditional model of mental health care, stimulating new forms of

  3. Characteristics of networks in energy efficiency research, development and demonstration – a comparison of actors, technological domains and network structure in seven research areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    2013-01-01

    The need for more energy efficient products and technologies has increased recently in connection with meeting today’s energy and environmental issues. Research, development and demonstration (RD&D) is one way of supporting technological innovation and knowledge diffusion - but there is no such t......The need for more energy efficient products and technologies has increased recently in connection with meeting today’s energy and environmental issues. Research, development and demonstration (RD&D) is one way of supporting technological innovation and knowledge diffusion...... efficiency research and development. The results show how certain knowledge institutions that connect the scientific knowledge with specific applications seem to be especially important for progress in the field. Overall the study enriches the understanding of RD&D in energy efficiency with a new view...... - but there is no such thing as “just” RD&D in energy efficiency as it encompasses a multitude of different sub-areas, institutions, actors, markets etc. Through the use of network analysis on unique RD&D project data from Denmark the study provides new insights into knowledge and inter-organisational networks in energy...

  4. A network perspective on metabolic inconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnenschein Nikolaus

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating gene expression profiles and metabolic pathways under different experimental conditions is essential for understanding the coherence of these two layers of cellular organization. The network character of metabolic systems can be instrumental in developing concepts of agreement between expression data and pathways. A network-driven interpretation of gene expression data has the potential of suggesting novel classifiers for pathological cellular states and of contributing to a general theoretical understanding of gene regulation. Results Here, we analyze the coherence of gene expression patterns and a reconstruction of human metabolism, using consistency scores obtained from network and constraint-based analysis methods. We find a surprisingly strong correlation between the two measures, demonstrating that a substantial part of inconsistencies between metabolic processes and gene expression can be understood from a network perspective alone. Prompted by this finding, we investigate the topological context of the individual biochemical reactions responsible for the observed inconsistencies. On this basis, we are able to separate the differential contributions that bear physiological information about the system, from the unspecific contributions that unravel gaps in the metabolic reconstruction. We demonstrate the biological potential of our network-driven approach by analyzing transcriptome profiles of aldosterone producing adenomas that have been obtained from a cohort of Primary Aldosteronism patients. We unravel systematics in the data that could not have been resolved by conventional microarray data analysis. In particular, we discover two distinct metabolic states in the adenoma expression patterns. Conclusions The methodology presented here can help understand metabolic inconsistencies from a network perspective. It thus serves as a mediator between the topology of metabolic systems and their dynamical

  5. Consequences of Strategic Choices within an e-Procurement Implementation Process -From an Actor Network Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Lotte; Thomsen, Mette; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2004-01-01

    of implementing an e-Procurement system - more specifically, an Enterprise Buyer Professional (EBP) module in SAP R/3 for commercial purchasing. These strategic choices are (1) outsourcing the electronic catalogue of the EBP system to an electronic market place, (2) constituting a change management group...... tasks to the EBP system, strategies for establishing the EBP system as a black box and, finally, strategies for enrolling external partners in the implementation process in the case company are analysed. Through these concepts of ANT, the article demonstrates how strategic choices influence...

  6. Evidence for Informing Health Policy Development in Low- Income Countries (LICS: Perspectives of Policy Actors in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Nabyonga-Orem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Although there is a general agreement on the benefits of evidence informed health policy development given resource constraints especially in Low-Income Countries (LICs, the definition of what evidence is, and what evidence is suitable to guide decision-making is still unclear. Our study is contributing to filling this knowledge gap. We aimed to explore health policy actors’ views regarding what evidence they deemed appropriate to guide health policy development. Methods Using exploratory qualitative methods, we conducted interviews with 51 key informants using an indepth interview guide. We interviewed a diverse group of stakeholders in health policy development and knowledge translation in the Uganda health sector. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis techniques. Results Different stakeholders lay emphasis on different kinds of evidence. While donors preferred international evidence and Ministry of Health (MoH officials looked to local evidence, district health managers preferred local evidence, evidence from routine monitoring and evaluation, and reports from service providers. Service providers on the other hand preferred local evidence and routine monitoring and evaluation reports whilst researchers preferred systematic reviews and clinical trials. Stakeholders preferred evidence covering several aspects impacting on decision-making highlighting the fact that although policy actors look for factual information, they also require evidence on context and implementation feasibility of a policy decision. Conclusion What LICslike Uganda categorize as evidence suitable for informing policy encompasses several types with no consensus on what is deemed as most appropriate. Evidence must be of high quality, applicable, acceptable to the users, and informing different aspects of decision-making.

  7. Enterprise Social Networks from a Manager's Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Alexander; Hetmank, Corinna; Müller, Maria

    2016-01-01

    be supported best to trigger both learning and change processes in the enterprise. For such processes, managers have a strong multiplying and "role model" effect. Therefore, following a case study approach, we conducted 15 interviews with managers at different hierarchical levels at a financial services......The increasing use of Enterprise Social Networks (ESN) has been resulting in important changes in individual work practices, and is subject of numerous studies. From both a theoretical and a practical perspective, there is a lack of well-founded knowledge on how the implementation of ESN can...

  8. Technologies for learning? An actor-network theory critique of ‘affordances' in research on mobile learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale Parchoma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How is the link between learner and technology made in mobile learning? Whatis the value of the concept of ‘affordances'? And how does research articulatingthis concept act to position mobile devices as ‘technologies for learning'? Thisliterature review used both unstructured and structured search samples of publishedresearch on mobile learning to critically evaluate the prevalence and influenceof the concept of the affordances of mobile technologies. Actor-networktheory is drawn on as a theoretical lens through which to critically considerhow this concept is articulated, and in particular to explore the way it positionsand controls mobile devices as technologies for learning. Parallels in contemporaryaccounts of mobile learning are drawn with classifications of previous discoursesaround the introduction of computers into schools. An alternativeagenda for mobile learning research is suggested with a focus on authentic andinformal contexts rather than controlled experiments.

  9. Networks and Fault Lines: Understanding the role of housing associations in neighbourhood regeneration: a network governance perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard van Bortel

    2016-03-01

    economic objectives. They have largely similar tasks and responsibilities, but work in very divergent contexts. This study devotes careful attention to the contingencies of time and place of decisionmaking in order to regenerate insights that are also relevant outside the case-study areas. Therefore, this study places Dutch and English housing associations in their respective political economies, welfare regimes and rental housing systems. The study also highlights the ambiguous position—between state, market, and society—of housing associations.Neighbourhood regeneration evolved from slum clearance and complete area redevelopment in the 1950s and 1960s, towards more integral place-based approaches—in the 1970s and 1980s—with a stronger emphasis on improving the existing housing stock and involving local communities. The nature of the involvement of housing associations in neighbourhood regeneration has changed over time in response to government policies, public opinion, their own strategies, and the strategies of their umbrella organisations. In both England and the Netherlands, their increasingly prominent role —especially after the start of the new millennium—was driven by pressures on housing associations to take a leading role in neighbourhood regeneration.A governance network perspective on neighbourhood regenerationThe emergence of the ‘network society’ has led to a fragmentation of power and resources. This fragmentation has led to increased interdependence of actors; public, private and community actors need to collaborate to solve problems. This study uses a governance network approach to explore the complexity and uncertainties involved in neighbourhood regeneration decision-making. The study explores five interrelated questions [see Chapter 1, §1.2], each related to a component of a theoretical framework on decision-making in a network setting. These questions involve context, networks, actors, processes and outcomes.In order to answer the

  10. The shaping of healthy & organic school meal programs in three Danish municipalities can be understood as a proces of "translation" in actor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2009-01-01

    that define actors in the shaping process of school meal programs and influences then together to achieve the aim. Then distributes and locks each actor into its proper group: municipality, school or food provision. Afterwards interaction and relationship among all actors in three groups is illustrated...

  11. Constructing Careers: Actor, Agent, and Author

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    When individuals seek career counseling, they have stories to tell about their working lives. The aim of career construction theory is to be comprehensive in encouraging employment counselors to listen for a client's career story from the perspectives of actor, agent, and author. Taking multiple perspectives on career stories enables counselors to…

  12. Intelligent policy making? Key actors' perspectives on the development and implementation of an early years' initiative in Scotland's public health arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deas, L; Mattu, L; Gnich, W

    2013-11-01

    Increased political enthusiasm for evidence-based policy and action has re-ignited interest in the use of evidence within political and practitioner networks. Theories of evidence-based policy making and practice are being re-considered in an attempt to better understand the processes through which knowledge translation occurs. Understanding how policy develops, and practice results, has the potential to facilitate effective evidence use. Further knowledge of the factors which shape healthcare delivery and their influence in different contexts is needed. This paper explores the processes involved in the development of a complex intervention in Scotland's National Health Service (NHS). It uses a national oral health programme for children (Childsmile) as a case study, drawing upon key actors' perceptions of the influence of different drivers (research evidence, practitioner knowledge and values, policy, and political and local context) to programme development. Framework analysis is used to analyse stakeholder accounts from in-depth interviews. Documentary review is also undertaken. Findings suggest that Childsmile can be described as an 'evidence-informed' intervention, blending available research evidence with knowledge from practitioner experience and continual learning through evaluation, to plan delivery. The importance of context was underscored, in terms of the need to align with prevailing political ideology and in the facilitative strength of networks within the relatively small public health community in Scotland. Respondents' perceptions support several existing theoretical models of translation, however no single theory offered a comprehensive framework covering all aspects of the complex processes reported. Childsmile's use of best available evidence and on-going contribution to knowledge suggest that the programme is an example of intelligent policy making with international relevance.

  13. Bullying in classrooms : Participant roles from a social network perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitsing, Gijs; Veenstra, René

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate if and how the group process of bullying can be examined using a social network perspective. In two studies, bullying was investigated using a social network version of the participant-role questionnaire. Study 1 explored the social network structure of on

  14. Theoretical perspectives of terrorist enemies as networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spulak, Robert George, Jr.; Glicken, Jessica

    2005-08-01

    This perspective of terrorist enemies as networks by two distinguished associate fellows of the Joint Special Operations University (JSOU) follows as a result of its recent initiative to support USSOCOM strategic planning for the Global War on Terrorism. The paper is a manifestation of JSOU's goals for contributing products that will advance SOF strategic art and generating strategic outreach to the military, civilian, and academic communities to enrich those products. Dr. Robert Spulak and Dr. Jessica Glicken Turnley presented the findings of this paper to assembled strategic planners from USSOCOM, other combatant commands, and interagency players at the Center for Special Operations plan development conference, September 2005, in Tampa, Florida. At that meeting, the authors put forward a number of helpful planning concepts based on their professional studies in science and the humanities and their experiences in government and business. The JSOU Strategic Studies Department is pleased to facilitate the association of USSOCOM strategic planners with civilian expertise and insights that can broaden military thought and encourage planning decisions directly relevant to the changing global environment. Through JSOU's strategic outreach initiative, experts in many professional disciplines have signaled their willingness to support the Nation's counterterrorism efforts. In that spirit, JSOU is proud to commend this paper to SOF readers and appreciates the support of Dr. Spulak and Dr. Turnley.

  15. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse......Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer-supplier...

  16. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  17. Combing the Underworld: Identification of South East Asian Non-State Actor Proliferation Networks, Nodes, and Chokepoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-25

    Netwars, Arquilla & Ronfeldt. 17 Figure 1 18 Some academic institutions have modeled proliferation networks as a supply chain . A study...and Phnom Penh have become important hubs in the global drug distribution. All these different destinations are used as transit points to supply ...6 January, 2005 Raynond, Catherine Zara . "Maritime Terrorism in Southeast Asia: A Risk Assessment" Singapore, Institute of Defence and Strategic

  18. A review on the application of actor network theory to human geography%行动者网络理论在人文地理领域应用研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宣; 王小依

    2013-01-01

    行动者网络理论以一种结构化的方式来构建行为主体之间的关系,并将要素流动和网络化互动形态纳入分析范畴,为各学科研究提供了全新的视角,在人文地理领域的应用也日渐增多.本文在总结行动者网络理论主要内容的基础上,分类归纳评述了行动者网络理论在不同分支研究领域的应用主题和方式,并就研究的深度、广度、影响力进行国内外对比.研究表明,行动者网络理论对人与非人行动者的一致看待及其通过转译过程解析网络关系的研究模式,除强化了经济地理等领域的理论建构之外,也为乡村地理、城市地理、经济地理、旅游地理等领域的地方发展、政策实践研究提供了一种有效的分析方法.引入该理论的人文地理研究引用频次高,有较大的学术影响.目前国内研究多停留在行动者网络理论分析框架的直接套用,极少涉及分析框架改进和理论思考,在广度和深度上与国际研究仍有差距.%Recently,the actor-network theory (ANT) was widely applied to the field of human geography.ANT approach provides a new perspective by allowing researchers to take into consideration the flow of factors and network interaction.After a brief introduction of ANT,this paper summarizes the progress of ANT applications to human geography by summing up the application topics and methods in different branches,and compares the gap between international and domestic researches.This paper reveals that ANT promotes the progress of human geography in both theory and application.Most theoretic explorations happened in the field of economic geography:the relational economic geography based on ANT provides new angle for the reconstruction of "postmodernism" economic geography theory system.In application,analytical framework of ANT applied to the field of human geography emphasizes actors,translation process,and the result,with special attention to the spatial

  19. A Complex-Network Perspective on Alexander's Wholeness

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The wholeness, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, is what exists to some degree or other in space and matter, and can be described by precise mathematical language. However, it remains mysterious and hard to grasp. This paper develops a complex network perspective on the wholeness to better understand the nature of order or beauty, and apply it into sustainable design. I bring together a set of complexity-science subjects such as complex networks, fractal geometry, and in particular underlying scaling hierarchy derived by head/tail breaks, in order to make Alexander's profound thoughts more accessible to design practitioners and complexity-science researchers. Through several case studies (some of which Alexander studied), I demonstrate that the complex-network perspective helps reduce the mystery of wholeness and brings new insights to Alexander's thoughts on the concept of wholeness or objective beauty in fine structures. The complex-network perspective enables us to see things in their whole...

  20. The greatest happiness of the greatest number? Policy actors' perspectives on the limits of economic evaluation as a tool for informing health care coverage decisions in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Steve

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents qualitative findings from an assessment of the acceptability of using economic evaluation among policy actors in Thailand. Using cost-utility data from two economic analyses a hypothetical case scenario was created in which policy actors had to choose between two competing interventions to include in a public health benefit package. The two competing interventions, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC for gallbladder disease versus renal dialysis for chronic renal disease, were selected because they highlighted conflicting criteria influencing the allocation of healthcare resources. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role in resource allocation decisions within the Thai healthcare system. These included 14 policy makers at the national level, five hospital directors, ten health professionals and seven academics. Results Twenty six out of 36 (72% respondents were not convinced by the presentation of economic evaluation findings and chose not to support the inclusion of a proven cost-effective intervention (LC in the benefit package due to ethical, institutional and political considerations. There were only six respondents, including three policy makers at national level, one hospital director, one health professional and one academic, (6/36, 17% whose decisions were influenced by economic evaluation evidence. Conclusion This paper illustrates limitations of using economic evaluation information in decision making priorities of health care, perceived by different policy actors. It demonstrates that the concept of maximising health utility fails to recognise other important societal values in making health resource allocation decisions.

  1. 基于行动者网络理论的中国医疗器械标准化建设研究%Standardization development of medical devices in China based on the actor network theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜然然; 欧阳昭连; 郭柯磊; 池慧

    2012-01-01

    目的对中国医疗器械标准化建设进行概念性梳理和动力机制揭示,探讨中国医疗器械标准化建设中应注意的问题.方法以行动者网络理论(actor network theory,ANT)为视角,通过对中国医疗器械领域战略性新兴产业的标准化进程进行分析,构建出标准化建设中的行动者网络框架,梳理医疗器械标准化进程中的主要行动者.结果 理顺了行动者之间的普遍关系,归纳出当前标准化建设中应注意的重要问题.结论基于ANT的中国医疗器械标准化建设研究为医疗器械标准化管理工作提供理论支持.%Objective The important issues in the process of standardization development of medical devices in China were discussed through the conceptual carding and the analysis of dynamic mechanism. Methods In the view of the actor network theory (ANT) , firstly, the standardization process of the strategic new industry in Chinese medical devices was discussed. Then the standardization framework of the actor network was constructed, the main actors in the standardization process of medical devices were organized. Results The general relationship of the main actors was recognized, and the important issues in the current standardization process were summarized. Conclusions The theoretical support for the standardization management of the medical devices was provided through the standardization development of medical devices in China based on the ANT.

  2. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  3. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  4. Information theory perspective on network robustness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, Tiago A. [Departmento de Engenharia de Produção, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Carpi, Laura [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, Terrassa, 08222, Barcelona (Spain); Frery, Alejandro C. [Laboratório de Computação Científica e Análise Numérica (LaCCAN), Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, Alagoas (Brazil); Rosso, Osvaldo A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, Alagoas (Brazil); Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires (ITBA), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pardalos, Panos M. [Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ravetti, Martín G., E-mail: martin.ravetti@dep.ufmg.br [Departmento de Engenharia de Produção, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Departament de Física Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-01-28

    A crucial challenge in network theory is the study of the robustness of a network when facing a sequence of failures. In this work, we propose a dynamical definition of network robustness based on Information Theory, that considers measurements of the structural changes caused by failures of the network's components. Failures are defined here as a temporal process defined in a sequence. Robustness is then evaluated by measuring dissimilarities between topologies after each time step of the sequence, providing a dynamical information about the topological damage. We thoroughly analyze the efficiency of the method in capturing small perturbations by considering different probability distributions on networks. In particular, we find that distributions based on distances are more consistent in capturing network structural deviations, as better reflect the consequences of the failures. Theoretical examples and real networks are used to study the performance of this methodology. - Highlights: • A novel methodology to measure the robustness of a network to component failure or targeted attacks is proposed. • The use of the network's distance PDF allows a precise analysis. • The method provides a dynamic robustness profile showing the response of the topology to each failure event. • The measure is capable to detect network's critical elements.

  5. Consciousness, cognition and brain networks: New perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, E M; Valverde, J L; Fábregas, N

    2016-10-01

    A detailed analysis of the literature on consciousness and cognition mechanisms based on the neural networks theory is presented. The immune and inflammatory response to the anesthetic-surgical procedure induces modulation of neuronal plasticity by influencing higher cognitive functions. Anesthetic drugs can cause unconsciousness, producing a functional disruption of cortical and thalamic cortical integration complex. The external and internal perceptions are processed through an intricate network of neural connections, involving the higher nervous activity centers, especially the cerebral cortex. This requires an integrated model, formed by neural networks and their interactions with highly specialized regions, through large-scale networks, which are distributed throughout the brain collecting information flow of these perceptions. Functional and effective connectivity between large-scale networks, are essential for consciousness, unconsciousness and cognition. It is what is called the "human connectome" or map neural networks.

  6. Design Management in the Textile Industry - A Network Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Bang, Anne Louise

    2013-01-01

    on design management are framed inside the organisational context of the firm. In this study the role and practice of textile design is addressed in perspective of the global textile production network. The empirical data stems from six case studies exploring how different types of enterprises are organised...... in larger networks of suppliers, customers and other relations. Comparing the organisational networks we discuss how design activities unfold under different organisational settings. We also demonstrate that it is crucial for the companies who rely on external production facilities to have a strong design......In this paper we explore textile design activities and textile design management from an industrial network perspective. The textile industry is probably one of the most globalized manufacturing industries in the world and thus one of the most dispersed industries on the globe. Most studies...

  7. Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria: Opiniones y expectativas sobre estrategias de prevención y tratamiento desde la perspectiva de diferentes actores sociales Dietary behavior disorders: Opinions and expectancies on prevention and treatment strategies from the perspective of the several social actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. March

    2006-02-01

    circuito asistencial, así como el seguimiento posthospitalario se identifican como cuestiones abiertas a futuras investigaciones.AIMS: The prevalence increase of Eating Disorders in the last decades emphasizes the necessity to develop strategies from the public healthcare system which include the perspective of the principal implicated social actors. The present study aims to know their opinions and expectations regarding the prevention and treatment of Eating Disorders. METHODS: Realization of 5 focus groups (with relatives, adolescents, professionals from the health and educational sector, representatives from institutions and support groups and 14 semi-structured interviews (with Eating Disorder patients and relatives about strengths and weaknesses of actual prevention and treatment programs, expectations of change and suggestions for improvement. Analysis of contents and triangulation of results. RESULTS: The absence of resources and knowledge about Eating Disorders, the scarcity of transversal programs and insufficient coordination were named as the main weaknesses whereas interdisciplinary pilot programs were positively valued. As principal demands, major endowment of human and material resources, increased coverage of specialized services, promotion of specific training and improvement of coordination was asked for. Regarding prevention, preference toward an unspecific approach to the subject in order to hinder imitation between young people was highlighted. The care in Day Hospitals was considered one of the most appropriate treatment modalities for the characteristics of this disease being valued the potentially therapeutic effect of contact between Eating Disorder patients. The support network, the education field and the family were named as other important pillars in a multidisciplinary approach to the disease. There was also a demand for the development of combined programs. CONLCUSIONS: The discussion of different psychotherapeutic approaches, the role of

  8. Plant Evolution: A Manufacturing Network Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John; Boer, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Viewing them as portfolios of products and processes, we aim to address how plants evolve in the context of a manufacturing network and how the evolution of one plant impacts other plants in the same manufacturing network. Based on discussions of ten plants from three Danish companies, we identify...

  9. Computational social networks tools, perspectives and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith

    2012-01-01

    Provides the latest advances in computational social networks, and illustrates how organizations can gain a competitive advantage by applying these ideas in real-world scenarios Presents a specific focus on practical tools and applications Provides experience reports, survey articles, and intelligence techniques and theories relating to specific problems in network technology

  10. Firm Performance-A Social Networks Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Tung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The study aims to offer a discussion on social networks and their effect on firm performance and also to illustrate the ways by which the firms utilize social capital through networks. Approach: The literature review and arguments were conducted to provide a systematic discussion of social networks and their effects. Results: The study had provided with a detailed understanding of the strategies that had been found to be highly significant in successful organizational performance. The results of this discussion suggested that social networks affect firm performance in a positive manner and can contribute to sustainable competitive advantage. Conclusion: It confirms that building up of social networks for big and small firms provides valuable links and solves numerous issues which auger well for the companies and should be treated with great importance.

  11. A User Perspective on Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Porras, Jari; Hajikhani, Arash

    2014-01-01

    For years, social media have been a part of daily life. Within the last 5-10 years, the use of social media (and in particular social networking sites) has expanded to almost all sides of life: private people, businesses and public institutions. This paper presents an overview of different uses...... of social networks to give a picture of the variety in use. The paper describes differences in private persons’ use of social networking sites, different business purposes, and how social networking sites can challenge public administrations. Throughout the paper there are provided small cases...... and situations where the social networking sites have been used in a remarkable way. The paper is made in collaboration between partners in the World Wide Research Forum....

  12. Viewing Attractiveness Socialization from a Social Network Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, A. Chris

    Providing a framework for a symposium exploring the influence of physical attractiveness on the socialization process, this paper (1) offers a working definition of physical attractiveness, (2) reviews stereotypes associated with attractiveness, and (3) discusses a social network perspective on the influence of attractiveness. Physical…

  13. Network design management and technical perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Piliouras, Teresa C

    2004-01-01

    MAKING THE BUSINESS CASE FOR THE NETWORKManagement Overview of Network DesignDefine the Business ObjectivesDetermine Potential Risks, Dependencies, Costs andBenefitsIdentify Project RequirementsDevelop Project Implementation ApproachStrategic Positioning Using NetworksCase StudiesCalculation of Technology's Strategic ValueDealing with Major Design ChallengesOrganizational Concerns and RecommendationsTechnology Concerns and RecommendationsSimilarities and Differences between Voice and DataNetwork Design and PlanningMajor Trends and Technology EnablersSocietal TrendsService Provider TrendsMajor

  14. Federal Information in the Networked Environment: A Perspective from the Coalition for Networked Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheverie, Joan F.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the development of strategies for providing access to and services for U.S. federal government information in higher education using the global information infrastructure, from the perspective of the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI). Discusses the preservation of electronic information and networked information discovery and…

  15. Animal welfare: a social networks perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhappel, Tanja K; John, Elizabeth A; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna; Burman, Oliver H P

    2016-01-01

    Social network theory provides a useful tool to study complex social relationships in animals. The possibility to look beyond dyadic interactions by considering whole networks of social relationships allows researchers the opportunity to study social groups in more natural ways. As such, network-based analyses provide an informative way to investigate the factors influencing the social environment of group-living animals, and so has direct application to animal welfare. For example, animal groups in captivity are frequently disrupted by separations, reintroductions and/or mixing with unfamiliar individuals and this can lead to social stress and associated aggression. Social network analysis ofanimal groups can help identify the underlying causes of these socially-derived animal welfare concerns. In this review we discuss how this approach can be applied, and how it could be used to identify potential interventions and solutions in the area of animal welfare.

  16. A Network of Networks Perspective on Global Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluck, Julian; Donner, Reik V

    2015-01-01

    Mutually intertwined supply chains in contemporary economy result in a complex network of trade relationships with a highly non-trivial topology that varies with time. In order to understand the complex interrelationships among different countries and economic sectors, as well as their dynamics, a holistic view on the underlying structural properties of this network is necessary. This study employs multi-regional input-output data to decompose 186 national economies into 26 industry sectors and utilizes the approach of interdependent networks to analyze the substructure of the resulting international trade network for the years 1990-2011. The partition of the network into national economies is observed to be compatible with the notion of communities in the sense of complex network theory. By studying internal versus cross-subgraph contributions to established complex network metrics, new insights into the architecture of global trade are obtained, which allow to identify key elements of global economy. Specifically, financial services and business activities dominate domestic trade whereas electrical and machinery industries dominate foreign trade. In order to further specify each national sector's role individually, (cross-)clustering coefficients and cross-betweenness are obtained for different pairs of subgraphs. The corresponding analysis reveals that specific industrial sectors tend to favor distinct directionality patterns and that the cross-clustering coefficient for geographically close country pairs is remarkably high, indicating that spatial factors are still of paramount importance for the organization of trade patterns in modern economy. Regarding the evolution of the trade network's substructure, globalization is well-expressed by trends of several structural characteristics (e.g., link density and node strength) in the interacting network framework. Extreme events, such as the financial crisis 2008/2009, are manifested as anomalies superimposed to

  17. A complex-network perspective on Alexander's wholeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    The wholeness, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, is what exists to some degree or other in space and matter, and can be described by precise mathematical language. However, it remains somehow mysterious and elusive, and therefore hard to grasp. This paper develops a complex network perspective on the wholeness to better understand the nature of order or beauty for sustainable design. I bring together a set of complexity-science subjects such as complex networks, fractal geometry, and in particular underlying scaling hierarchy derived by head/tail breaks - a classification scheme and a visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution, in order to make Alexander's profound thoughts more accessible to design practitioners and complexity-science researchers. Through several case studies (some of which Alexander studied), I demonstrate that the complex-network perspective helps reduce the mystery of wholeness and brings new insights to Alexander's thoughts on the concept of wholeness or objective beauty that exists in fine and deep structure. The complex-network perspective enables us to see things in their wholeness, and to better understand how the kind of structural beauty emerges from local actions guided by the 15 fundamental properties, and in particular by differentiation and adaptation processes. The wholeness goes beyond current complex network theory towards design or creation of living structures.

  18. Exploring the Relations, Bargaining Forms and Dynamics of the EU Food Supply Chain under the Perspective of the Key Actors: Evidence from Greece and Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Galanopoulos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  The objective of this paper is to offer qualitative and quantitative insights on the perceptions of the actors in the EU food supply chain on a broad spectrum of topics that characterise its operation and conduct, highlighting also potential differences in North and South European countries. Issues explored pertained to actors’ relations with up- and downstream partners, the future dynamic and challenges of the food sector, the influence of policy intervention and attitudes towards genetically modified products (GMPs and organic production. For this purpose, a total of 34 food supply chain actors in Denmark and Greece were interviewed using a semi-structured interview process. A comparative analysis of the interviews pinpointed many similarities in the behaviour and the perceptions of the Greek and Danish farmers, cooperatives, processors and retailers alike. Still, while it is evident that companies and farmers of both countries struggle with a lot of the same problems, several differences in perceptions are also identified. These refer mainly to attitudes towards mergers and acquisitions, innovations, GMPs and the effects and limitations of EU policy intervention.

  19. Viewing engineering offshoring in a network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Zhang, Yufeng; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Companies are increasingly engaged with global engineering networks through offshoring of product development activities from R&D to production. This creates many new challenges as operations get physically and culturally decoupled. The purpose of this paper is to improve understanding...... of how to effectively manage engineering offshoring activities in a context of global engineering networks. The main research question, therefore, is: “Can offshoring of engineering tasks be explained and managed using the concept of Global Engineering Networks (GEN)?” Effective approaches to handling...... the associated risks of engineering offshoring will be a key area of the investigation. Design/methodology/approach – The research approach is based on the engineering design research methodology developed by Blessing and Chakrabarti, including a descriptive phase and a prescriptive phase. Four case studies...

  20. An ensemble perspective on multi-layer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wider, Nicolas; Scholtes, Ingo; Schweitzer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We study properties of multi-layered, interconnected networks from an ensemble perspective, i.e. we analyze ensembles of multi-layer networks that share similar aggregate characteristics. Using a diffusive process that evolves on a multi-layer network, we analyze how the speed of diffusion depends on the aggregate characteristics of both intra- and inter-layer connectivity. Through a block-matrix model representing the distinct layers, we construct transition matrices of random walkers on multi-layer networks, and estimate expected properties of multi-layer networks using a mean-field approach. In addition, we quantify and explore conditions on the link topology that allow to estimate the ensemble average by only considering aggregate statistics of the layers. Our approach can be used when only partial information is available, like it is usually the case for real-world multi-layer complex systems.

  1. La teoría del actor-red y la tesis de la tecnociencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverría, Javier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Actor-network theory and the analysis of technoscience developed by Javier Echeverría (2003 have many features in common, but they also diverge in a number of points. While the analysis of technoscience amounts to the attempt of classifying and characterizing the modalities of contemporary scientific and technological practices, the set of methodological tools of actor-network theory brings to the forefront the disorder hidden behind the ordered image of both contemporary and past technoscience. However, actor-network theory may be useful to describe the complex networks woven by research centres, institutions, universities, and companies, and their products in terms of natural and social order. In this paper, we characterize actor-network theory as well as technoscience and we identify how both, in spite of their differences, might benefit each other.La teoría del actor-red y el análisis de la tecnociencia desarrollado por Javier Echeverría (2003 presentan múltiples puntos comunes, pero también importantes divergencias. Mientras que el análisis de la tecnociencia responde al intento filosófico de clasificar y caracterizar las modalidades de práctica científico-tecnológica contemporánea, el conjunto de herramientas metodológicas de la teoría del actor-red trae al primer plano el desorden oculto tras la ordenada apariencia de la tecnociencia, la contemporánea y la de épocas pasadas. Sin embargo, la teoría del actor-red se muestra útil para describir las complejas redes tejidas por centros de investigación, instituciones, universidades y empresas, y los productos resultantes de las mismas en términos de orden natural y social. En este trabajo caracterizamos someramente tanto la teoría del actorred como la tecnociencia, para identificar de qué modo ambas, pese a sus diferencias, pueden beneficiarse mutuamente.

  2. The business incubator in a network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2003-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a new incubator model, the "networked incubator", which is a hybrid form of the archetypal business incubators, based on territorial synergy, relational symbiosis and economices of scale, to the benefit of the participating 'incubatees'. The question...... addressed in this paper is why this new model has emerged and what distinguishes it from the more traditional incubator model. The theoretical basis of the research is social capital theory. Empirically, the paper is based on 6 months' ethnographic data collected in one of the first known networked...

  3. Network Modeling and Simulation A Practical Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Guizani, Mohsen; Khan, Bilal

    2010-01-01

    Network Modeling and Simulation is a practical guide to using modeling and simulation to solve real-life problems. The authors give a comprehensive exposition of the core concepts in modeling and simulation, and then systematically address the many practical considerations faced by developers in modeling complex large-scale systems. The authors provide examples from computer and telecommunication networks and use these to illustrate the process of mapping generic simulation concepts to domain-specific problems in different industries and disciplines. Key features: Provides the tools and strate

  4. User-centric networking future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Aldini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This work represents a milestone for the? 'ULOOP User-centric Wireless Local Loop' project funded by the EU IST Seventh Framework Programme.ULOOP is focused on the robust, secure, and autonomic deployment of user-centric wireless networks. Contributions by ULOOP partners as well as invited tutorials by international experts in the field. The expected impact is to increase awareness to user-centric networking in terms, e.g., of business opportunities and quality of experience, and to present adequate technology to sustain the growth of user-friendly wireless architectures.Throughout the last 3

  5. A Network of Networks Perspective on Global Trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Maluck

    Full Text Available Mutually intertwined supply chains in contemporary economy result in a complex network of trade relationships with a highly non-trivial topology that varies with time. In order to understand the complex interrelationships among different countries and economic sectors, as well as their dynamics, a holistic view on the underlying structural properties of this network is necessary. This study employs multi-regional input-output data to decompose 186 national economies into 26 industry sectors and utilizes the approach of interdependent networks to analyze the substructure of the resulting international trade network for the years 1990-2011. The partition of the network into national economies is observed to be compatible with the notion of communities in the sense of complex network theory. By studying internal versus cross-subgraph contributions to established complex network metrics, new insights into the architecture of global trade are obtained, which allow to identify key elements of global economy. Specifically, financial services and business activities dominate domestic trade whereas electrical and machinery industries dominate foreign trade. In order to further specify each national sector's role individually, (cross-clustering coefficients and cross-betweenness are obtained for different pairs of subgraphs. The corresponding analysis reveals that specific industrial sectors tend to favor distinct directionality patterns and that the cross-clustering coefficient for geographically close country pairs is remarkably high, indicating that spatial factors are still of paramount importance for the organization of trade patterns in modern economy. Regarding the evolution of the trade network's substructure, globalization is well-expressed by trends of several structural characteristics (e.g., link density and node strength in the interacting network framework. Extreme events, such as the financial crisis 2008/2009, are manifested as anomalies

  6. Perspective: network-guided pattern formation of neural dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütt, Marc-Thorsten; Kaiser, Marcus; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2014-10-05

    The understanding of neural activity patterns is fundamentally linked to an understanding of how the brain's network architecture shapes dynamical processes. Established approaches rely mostly on deviations of a given network from certain classes of random graphs. Hypotheses about the supposed role of prominent topological features (for instance, the roles of modularity, network motifs or hierarchical network organization) are derived from these deviations. An alternative strategy could be to study deviations of network architectures from regular graphs (rings and lattices) and consider the implications of such deviations for self-organized dynamic patterns on the network. Following this strategy, we draw on the theory of spatio-temporal pattern formation and propose a novel perspective for analysing dynamics on networks, by evaluating how the self-organized dynamics are confined by network architecture to a small set of permissible collective states. In particular, we discuss the role of prominent topological features of brain connectivity, such as hubs, modules and hierarchy, in shaping activity patterns. We illustrate the notion of network-guided pattern formation with numerical simulations and outline how it can facilitate the understanding of neural dynamics.

  7. The performance of public corporate actors: Essays on effects of institutional and network embeddedness in supranational, national, and local collaborative contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, J.

    2012-01-01

    Public corporate actors – governments, government bureaucracies, and nongovernmental organizations strongly involved in the delivery of public services – address key social problems in society. They permeate many dimensions of our personal lives. They impact our health care, education, and social se

  8. The rising influence of urban actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    It is time to recognize cities as global actors. City networks are reaching across the globe and local city governments are collaborating on crucial environmental issues. Coordinating policy at a local level, they are increasingly taking the lead in tackling global problems such as climate change.

  9. Uncovering Influence through Social Network Analysis: The Role of Schools in Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolleck, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Germany and explores the possibilities of Social Network Analysis (SNA) for uncovering influential actors in educational policy innovation processes. From the theoretical perspective, an actor's influence is inferred from its relative position within…

  10. Energy Efficiency Perspectives of PMR Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dolfi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the concern about energy efficiency in wireless communications has been growing rapidly. Manufacturers and researchers have developed innovative solutions, highlighting the benefits in reducing operational expenditures (OPEX and carbon footprint. Professional Mobile Radio (PMR systems, like Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA, have been designed to provide voice and data services to professional users. The energy consumption is one of the critical aspects of PMR broadband solutions and a major constraint for PMR services. The future convergence of PMR to the LTE system introduces a new topic in the research discussion about the energy efficiency of wireless systems. This paper focuses on the feasibility of energy efficient solutions for current and potentially future PMR networks, by providing a mathematical formulation of power consumption in TETRA base stations and assessing possible business models and energy saving solutions for enhanced mission-critical operations. The energy efficiency evaluation has been performed by taking into account the traffic load of a deployed TETRA regional network: in the considered network scenario with 150 base stations, significant OPEX savings up to 70 thousand Euros per year of operation are achieved. Moreover, the proposed solutions allow for saving more than 1 ton of CO 2 per year.

  11. Empathy and attribution: turning observers into actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, D T; Totten, J

    1975-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to test Jones and Nisbett's information-processing explanation of the often-observed tendency for individuals (actors) to provide relatively more situational and less dispositional causal attributions for their behavior than those provided by observers of the same behavior. According to this explanation, aspects of the situation are phenomenologically more salient for actors, whereas characteristics of the actor and his behavior are more salient for observers. To test this explanation, the phenomenological perspective of observers are altered without making available any additional information. Subjects watched a videotape of a get-acquainted conversation after instructions either to observe a target conversant or to empathize with her. As predicted, taking the perspective of the target through empathy resulted in attributions that were relatively more situational and less dispositional than attributions provided by standard observers. The results support Jones and Nisbett's information-processing explanation of actor-observer attributional differences, and shed additional light on the process of empathy.

  12. Tacos, Tiendas and Mezcal: An actor-network perspective on small-scale entrepreneurial projects in Western Mexico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The role of small firms in developing countries is a subject of continuous interest in both academic and policy circles. Small firms account for a large part of economic activity, and their employment share is remarkable. Yet, although considerable knowledge about them exists, some of the key issues

  13. Small-world networks in neuronal populations: a computational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippo, Antonio G; Gelsomino, Giuliana; Van Duin, Pieter; Nencini, Sara; Caramenti, Gian Carlo; Valente, Maurizio; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2013-08-01

    The analysis of the brain in terms of integrated neural networks may offer insights on the reciprocal relation between structure and information processing. Even with inherent technical limits, many studies acknowledge neuron spatial arrangements and communication modes as key factors. In this perspective, we investigated the functional organization of neuronal networks by explicitly assuming a specific functional topology, the small-world network. We developed two different computational approaches. Firstly, we asked whether neuronal populations actually express small-world properties during a definite task, such as a learning task. For this purpose we developed the Inductive Conceptual Network (ICN), which is a hierarchical bio-inspired spiking network, capable of learning invariant patterns by using variable-order Markov models implemented in its nodes. As a result, we actually observed small-world topologies during learning in the ICN. Speculating that the expression of small-world networks is not solely related to learning tasks, we then built a de facto network assuming that the information processing in the brain may occur through functional small-world topologies. In this de facto network, synchronous spikes reflected functional small-world network dependencies. In order to verify the consistency of the assumption, we tested the null-hypothesis by replacing the small-world networks with random networks. As a result, only small world networks exhibited functional biomimetic characteristics such as timing and rate codes, conventional coding strategies and neuronal avalanches, which are cascades of bursting activities with a power-law distribution. Our results suggest that small-world functional configurations are liable to underpin brain information processing at neuronal level.

  14. Edge anisotropy and the geometric perspective on flow networks

    CERN Document Server

    Molkenthin, Nora; Tupikina, Liubov; Marwan, Norbert; Donges, Jonathan F; Feudel, Ulrike; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V

    2016-01-01

    Spatial networks have recently attracted great interest in various fields of research. While the traditional network-theoretic viewpoint is commonly restricted to their topological characteristics (often disregarding existing spatial constraints), this work takes a geometric perspective, which considers vertices and edges as objects in a metric space and quantifies the corresponding spatial distribution and alignment. For this purpose, we introduce the concept of edge anisotropy and define a class of measures characterizing the spatial directedness of connections. Specifically, we demonstrate that the local anisotropy of edges incident to a given vertex provides useful information about the local geometry of geophysical flows based on networks constructed from spatio-temporal data, which is complementary to topological characteristics of the same flow networks. Taken both structural and geometric viewpoints together can thus assist the identification of underlying flow structures from observations of scalar v...

  15. Edge anisotropy and the geometric perspective on flow networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molkenthin, Nora; Kutza, Hannes; Tupikina, Liubov; Marwan, Norbert; Donges, Jonathan F.; Feudel, Ulrike; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-03-01

    Spatial networks have recently attracted great interest in various fields of research. While the traditional network-theoretic viewpoint is commonly restricted to their topological characteristics (often disregarding the existing spatial constraints), this work takes a geometric perspective, which considers vertices and edges as objects in a metric space and quantifies the corresponding spatial distribution and alignment. For this purpose, we introduce the concept of edge anisotropy and define a class of measures characterizing the spatial directedness of connections. Specifically, we demonstrate that the local anisotropy of edges incident to a given vertex provides useful information about the local geometry of geophysical flows based on networks constructed from spatio-temporal data, which is complementary to topological characteristics of the same flow networks. Taken both structural and geometric viewpoints together can thus assist the identification of underlying flow structures from observations of scalar variables.

  16. Network robustness assessed within a dual connectivity perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Zaliapin, Ilya; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2014-01-01

    Network robustness against attacks has been widely studied in fields as diverse as the Internet, power grids and human societies. Typically, in these studies, robustness is assessed only in terms of the connectivity of the nodes unaffected by the attack (the harder it is to destroy the connectivity of the 'healthy' nodes, the more robust the network is considered). However, in many systems, the connectivity of the affected nodes too may play a significant role in evaluating the overall network robustness. Here, we propose a dual perspective approach, wherein at any instant in the network evolution under attack, two distinct networks are defined: (i) the Active Network (AN) composed of the unaffected nodes and (ii) the Idle Network (IN) composed of the affected nodes. The proposed robustness metric considers both the efficiency of destroying the AN and the efficiency of building-up the IN. We show that trade-offs between the efficiency of Active and Idle network dynamics give rise to surprising crossovers and ...

  17. Perspectives for parasitology and parasitology networks in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Olesen, Ole F; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Loiseau, Philippe M; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    This article describes networks of parasitologists in Europe. Some research networks are supported by the European Commission within highly diverse framework programs. The European Federation of Parasitologists aims to promote the exchange of knowledge and the coordination of research in the fields of basic, veterinary and medical parasitology, particularly via meetings (e.g. the European Multicolloquium of Parasitology) that offer an unparalleled opportunity to assess the development of the discipline on the continent. The present situation is discussed here and some perspectives are proposed.

  18. New Actors and Alliances in Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    a changing set of key relations and alliances in development – those between business and consumers; ngos and celebrities; philanthropic organisations and the state; diaspora groups and transnational advocacy networks; ruling elites and productive capitalists; and ‘new donors’ and developing country......‘New actors and alliances in development’ brings together an interdisciplinary group of scholars exploring how development financing and interventions are being shaped by a wider and more complex platform of actors than usually considered in the existing literature. The contributors also trace...... governments. Despite the diversity of these actors and alliances, several commonalities arise: they are often based on hybrid transnationalism and diffuse notions of development responsibility; rather than being new per se, they are newly being studied as practices that are now coming to be understood...

  19. Public-Private Partnerships for the Provision of Port Infrastructure: An Explorative Multi-Actor Perspective on Critical Success Factors1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Aerts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public-private cooperation on the level of project finance, and provision of large-scale infrastructure projects, is increasing on the global level. This paper uses a multi-actor analysis, in order to explore the critical success factors (CSFs for sound implementation of public-private partnerships (PPPs in the port context, and to determine the diverging opinions of stakeholders with regard to the importance of these CSFs. The results indicate that eight CSFs are of superior importance in port PPPs: the concreteness and preciseness of the concession agreement, the ability to appropriately allocate and share risk, the technical feasibility of the project, the commitment made by partners, the attractiveness of the financial package, a clear definition of responsibilities, the presence of a strong private consortium and a realistic cost/benefit assessment. The reason for their importance is their deal-breaking character, which can lead to a total failure of PPP projects during the early stages of project conception.

  20. A solution for actors' viewpoints representation with collaborative product development

    CERN Document Server

    Geryville, Hichem; Ouzrout, Yacine; Sapidis, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    As product complexity and marketing competition increase, a collaborative product development is necessary for companies which develop high quality products in short lead-times. To support product actors from different fields, disciplines, and locations, wishing to exchange and share information, the representation of the actors' viewpoints is the underlying requirement of the collaborative product development. The actors' viewpoints approach was designed to provide an organisational framework following the actors' perspectives in the collaboration, and their relationships, could be explicitly gathered and formatted. The approach acknowledges the inevitability of multiple integration of product information as different views, promotes gathering of actors' interests, and encourages retrieved adequate information while providing support for integration through PLM and/or SCM collaboration. In this paper, a solution for neutral viewpoints representation is proposed. The product, process, and organisation informa...

  1. Fractal actors and infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom

    2011-01-01

    As we move into an age of ever more cameras and databases, monitoring and identity checks, surveillance theory paradoxically turns away from the totalitarian gazes of Big Brother and the Panopticon, looking for fresh theoretical resources. Scholars have put forth a plethora of interesting...... under surveillance. Based on fieldwork conducted in 2008 and 2011 in relation to my Master’s thesis and PhD respectively, I illustrate fractal concepts by describing the acts, actors and infrastructure that make up the ‘DNA surveillance’ conducted by the Danish police....

  2. A Complex Systems Science Perspective on Wireless Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MACALUSO Irene; GALIOTTO Carlo; MARCHETTI Nicola; DOYLE Linda

    2016-01-01

    The paper targets a future world where all wireless networks are self-organising entities and in which the predominant mode of spectrum access is dynamic.The paper explores whether the behaviour of a collection of autonomous self-organising wireless systems can be treated as a complex system and whether complex systems science can shed light on the design and deployment of these networks.The authors focus on networks that self-organise from a frequency perspective to understand the behaviour of a collection of wireless self-organising nodes.Each autonomous network is modelled as a cell in a lattice and follows a simple set of self-organisation rules.Two scenarios are considered,one in which each cell is based on cellular automata and which provides an abstracted view of interference and a second in which each cell uses a self-organising technique which more accurately accounts for interference.The authors use excess entropy to measure complexity and in combination with entropy gain an understanding of the structure emerging in the lattice for the self-organising networks.The authors show that the self-organising systems presented here do exhibit complex behaviour.Finally,the authors look at the robustness of these complex systems and show that they are robust against changes in the environment.

  3. ActorDroid

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Ce projet de diplôme a pour but de tester les possibilités d'utilisaton du langage de programmation Scala sur un environnement Android, notamment pour l'utilisation des "remote actors". L'objectif final était de créer un démonstrateur constitué d'appareils mobiles sous Android au sein d'un système distribué mettant à disposition des services basés sur des acteurs, permettant d'une part de faire du calcul distribué parallèle et, d'autr part, d partager des informations de metering en temps rée...

  4. Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions and their actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Omar Ron

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The work exposed here seeks to display, as a synthesis, the general characteristics and some conclusions of the investigation project "Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions through actors' perspective", developed between 2003 and 2005. It is through it that we sought to recognize the ideas and concepts that coexist in everyday institutional life, by recovering the voice of sport institutions' actors - parents, leaders, trainers and teachers, practising and players-, and also by analyzing speeches and practices; those institutions' distinguishing forms of organization; the ways that diverse actors relate and the social forms acting on them. We investigated sport institutions with the purpose of tracking the senses and meaning that actors grant them, their organization and dynamics, the reasons for their behaviour, the principles and logics that shape them. We also analyzed the joints that link them to external macroinstitutions, their autonomy or dependency with regard to the latter, and their incidence on sport institutions' logics

  5. Virtual water trade and country vulnerability: A network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Martina; Schiavo, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    This work investigates the relationship between countries' participation in virtual water trade and their vulnerability to external shocks from a network perspective. In particular, we investigate whether (i) possible sources of local national crises may interact with the system, propagating through the network and affecting the other countries involved; (ii) the topological characteristics of the international agricultural trade network, translated into virtual water-equivalent flows, may favor countries' vulnerability to external crises. Our work contributes to the debate on the potential merits and risks associated with openness to trade in agricultural and food products. On the one hand, trade helps to ensure that even countries with limited water (and other relevant) resources have access to sufficient food and contribute to the global saving of water. On the other hand, there are fears that openness may increase the vulnerability to external shocks and thus make countries worse off. Here we abstract from political considerations about food sovereignty and independence from imports and focus instead on investigating whether the increased participation in global trade that the world has witnessed in the last 30 years has made the system more susceptible to large shocks. Our analysis reveals that: (i) the probability of larger supply shocks has not increased over time; (ii) the topological characteristics of the VW network are not such as to favor the systemic risk associated with shock propagation; and (iii) higher-order interconnections may reveal further important information about the structure of a network. Regarding the first result, fluctuations in output volumes, among the sources of shock analyzed here, are more likely to generate some instability. The first implication is that, on one side, past national or regional economic crises were not necessarily brought about or strengthened by global trade. The second, more remarkable, implication is that, on

  6. The World Trade Web: A Multiple-Network Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sgrignoli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    International Trade (IT) plays a fundamental role in today's economy: by connecting world countries production and consumption processes, it radically contributes in shaping their economy and development path. Although its evolving structure and determinants have been widely analyzed in the literature, much less has been done to understand its interplay with other complex phenomena. The aim of this work is, precisely in this direction, to study the relations of IT with International Migration (IM) and Foreign Direct Investments (FDI). In both cases the procedure used is to first approach the problem in a multiple-networks perspective and than deepen the analysis by using ad hoc econometrics techniques. With respect to IM, a general positive correlation with IT is highlighted and product categories for which this effect is stronger are identified and cross-checked with previous classifications. Next, employing spatial econometric techniques and proposing a new way to define country neighbors based on the most ...

  7. Community, Collective or Movement? Evaluating Theoretical Perspectives on Network Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, W.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, the New England Aquarium has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science venues to effectively communicate about climate change. We are now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. NNOCCI enables teams of informal science interpreters across the country to serve as "communication strategists" - beyond merely conveying information they can influence public perceptions, given their high level of commitment, knowledge, public trust, social networks, and visitor contact. We provide in-depth training as well as an alumni network for ongoing learning, implementation support, leadership development, and coalition building. Our goals are to achieve a systemic national impact, embed our work within multiple ongoing regional and national climate change education networks, and leave an enduring legacy. What is the most useful theoretical model for conceptualizing the work of the NNOCCI community? This presentation will examine the pros and cons of three perspectives -- community of practice, collective impact, and social movements. The community of practice approach emphasizes use of common tools, support for practice, social learning, and organic development of leadership. A collective impact model focuses on defining common outcomes, aligning activities toward a common goal, structured collaboration. A social movement emphasizes building group identity and creating a sense of group efficacy. This presentation will address how these models compare in terms of their utility in program planning and evaluation, their fit with the unique characteristics of the NNOCCI community, and their relevance to our program goals.

  8. “M—C—K”群体行动者网络模型与跨学科创新团队知识生产机制%'M-C-K' Group Actor Network Model and Knowledge Production Mechanism of Interdisciplinary Innovation Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳洲

    2012-01-01

    Based on network - Interdisciplinary innovation team is an important organization for contemporary knowledge production. Actor-Network Theory and Knowledge Network Theory, the paper builds a 'material network -knowledge cultural network (M-C-K)' coupling actor network model and group actor network model of interdisciplin- ary innovation team, analyzes 'M-C-K' network co-evolutionary mechanism interdisciplinary innovation team's knowledge production, points out the process,forms and powers of interdisciplinary innovation team's knowledge pro- duction.%跨学科创新团队是当代知识生产的重要组织形式。基于行动者网络和知识网络理论,构建了“物质网-知识网-文化网(M—C—K)”耦合的行动者网络模型和跨学科创新团队“M—c—K”群体行动者网络模型,分析了跨学科创新囱队知识生产的“M—C—K”网络协同进化机制,论述了跨学科创新团队知识生产的过程、形式和动力。

  9. Determinants of Research and Development Intensity from a Network Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Joe K.L.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We model and examine the research and development (R&D intensity of a focal industry from an inter-industry network perspective. More specifically, we estimate how a focal industry’s R&D investment is affected by partner (suppliers and customers industries’ R&D expenditure. We also investigate the impact of the overall economy on the focal industry’s R&D expenditure and finally how a focal industry’s position in the supply chain network moderates the overall economy’s impact on the focal industry’s R&D expenditure. We found that, in general, a focal industry’s R&D intensity is positively associated with its partner industries’ R&D intensity. In addition, an industry’s R&D intensity is positively associated with the growth rate of the overall economy. Finally, we found that a more central industry is subjected to a stronger impact of macroeconomic shocks on its R&D intensity though there is no significant association between an industry’s centrality and its R&D intensity.

  10. Collaboration on technological innovation in Danish fashion chains: A network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2014-01-01

    and departments stores, technology and service providers, ownership structures and local level supply chain facilities. This paper analyses theoretical and empirical views of innovation in international retail networks using lead actors in the (Danish) fashion industry as a case to highlight how this industry......With brand owners struggling to compete with new products, physical production processes and sourcing logistics, innovation taking place in retail networks is often overlooked. Networks in retailing are comprised by the brand owner, the varieties of single- and multi-brand stores, chains...... maintains branded stores as primary retail channels better than other industries. In order to approach the retail network as an important organisational innovation system in relation to brand owners, the aim of this paper is to characterise key elements of innovation in retail networks. The approach...

  11. Toward next-generation optical networks: a network operator perspective based on experimental tests and economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaojun; Du, Chunsheng; Zhou, Rongsheng

    2004-04-01

    As a result of data traffic"s exponential growth, network is currently evolving from fixed circuit switched services to dynamic packet switched services, which has brought unprecedented changes to the existing transport infrastructure. It is generally agreed that automatic switched optical network (ASON) is one of the promising solutions for the next generation optical networks. In this paper, we present the results of our experimental tests and economic analysis on ASON. The intention of this paper is to present our perspective, in terms of evolution strategy toward ASON, on next generation optical networks. It is shown through experimental tests that the performance of current Pre-standard ASON enabled equipments satisfies the basic requirements of network operators and is ready for initial deployment. The results of the economic analysis show that network operators can be benefit from the deployment of ASON from three sides. Firstly, ASON can reduce the CAPEX for network expanding by integrating multiple ADM & DCS into one box. Secondly, ASON can reduce the OPEX for network operation by introducing automatic resource control scheme. Finally, ASON can increase margin revenue by providing new optical network services such as Bandwidth on Demand, optical VPN etc. Finally, the evolution strategy is proposed as our perspective toward next generation optical networks. We hope the evolution strategy introduced may be helpful for the network operators to gracefully migrate their fixed ring based legacy networks to next generation dynamic mesh based network.

  12. The role of vascular actors in two dimensional dialogue of human bone marrow stromal cell and endothelial cell for inducing self-assembled network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Li

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is very important for vascularized tissue engineering. In this study, we found that a two-dimensional co-culture of human bone marrow stromal cell (HBMSC and human umbical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC is able to stimulate the migration of co-cultured HUVEC and induce self-assembled network formation. During this process, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF₁₆₅ was upregulated in co-cultured HBMSC. Meanwhile, VEGF₁₆₅-receptor2 (KDR and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA were upregulated in co-cultured HUVEC. Functional studies show that neutralization of VEGF₁₆₅ blocked the migration and the rearrangement of the cells and downregulated the expression of uPA and its receptor. Blocking of vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cad did not affect the migration of co-cultured HUVEC but suppressed the self-assembled network formation. In conclusion, co-cultures upregulated the expression of VEGF₁₆₅ in co-cultured HBMSC; VEGF₁₆₅ then activated uPA in co-cultured HUVEC, which might be responsible for initiating the migration and the self-assembled network formation with the participation of VE-cad. All of these results indicated that only the direct contact of HBMSC and HUVEC and their respective dialogue are sufficient to stimulate secretion of soluble factors and to activate molecules that are critical for self-assembled network formation which show a great application potential for vascularization in tissue engineering.

  13. Sociología del desarrollo: una perspectiva centrada en el actor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    This is a translation of : Development sociology : actor perspectives / London [etc.] : Routledge, 2001. - 294 p. ISBN 0415235359 Using case studies and empirical material from Africa and Latin America, this book focuses on the theoretical and methodological foundations of an actor-oriented and soci

  14. Actor Bonds in Situations of Discontinuous Business Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    . Furthermore the governance structure of markets characterized by discontinuous business activities is either that of the "socially constructed market" (Skaates, 2000) or that of the (socially constructed) network (Håkansson and Johanson, 1993). Additionally relationships and actor bonds vary substantially...... in situations of discontinuity. Therefore an analysis and comparison of relevant concepts that capture the key generative features of actor bonds in both socially constructed networks and socially constructed markets is undertaken. These concepts include the "milieu" of project marketing (Cova et al., 1996...

  15. Pedophilia: neuropsychological evidence encouraging a brain network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tost, Heike; Vollmert, Christian; Brassen, Stefanie; Schmitt, Andrea; Dressing, Harald; Braus, Dieter F

    2004-01-01

    Although the vast majority of current pathogenetic theories support a neurobiological understanding of psychiatric disorders, the brain functional correlates of pedophilia are largely unknown. Based on prior behavior genetics research on human sexual orientation and phenomenology as well as the phenotypical intersection of pedophilia with other psychiatric spectrum disorders, we hypothesize the involvement of striato-thalamo-cortical processing loops in the formation of pedophilic urges and behaviors. Data from a current neuropsychological pilot study in four pedophiles encourage our brain functional perspective. As deduced from the network model, all four patients exhibited pronounced and circumscribed deficits in cognitive domains mediated by striato-thalamically controlled areas of the frontal cortex. All patients were especially impaired in neuropsychological functions associated with the prefrontal and motor processing loops (e.g., response inhibition, working memory and cognitive flexibility), with a performance level located up to five standard deviations below the normative data. Contrary to this, neuropsychological performances in cognitive domains without a comparable high frontal loading were in all participants unobtrusive. In future, studying gene by environment interactions in combination with functional neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment is promising to elucidate the pathophysiological relationship of psychiatric disorders that are characterized by inadequate urges and poor behavioral inhibition.

  16. You're a What? Voice Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  17. Topological Structure of Urban Street Networks from the Perspective of Degree Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin; Lu, Feng; Yang, Tinghong; Zhao, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks demonstrate a phenomenon of striking degree correlations, i.e., a node tends to link to other nodes with similar (or dissimilar) degrees. From the perspective of degree correlations, this paper attempts to characterize topological structures of urban street networks. We adopted six urban street networks (three European and three North American), and converted them into network topologies in which nodes and edges respectively represent individual streets and street intersections, and compared the network topologies to three reference network topologies (biological, technological, and social). The urban street network topologies (with the exception of Manhattan) showed a consistent pattern that distinctly differs from the three reference networks. The topologies of urban street networks lack striking degree correlations in general. Through reshuffling the network topologies towards for example maximum or minimum degree correlations while retaining the initial degree distributions, we found...

  18. Multicultural Monologues for Young Actors. The Young Actors Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaight, Craig, Ed.; Sharrar, Jack, Ed.

    This book presents 62 monologue selections from diverse cultures for young actors to perform. The book's selections offer "quality literature by significant writers." Some of the writers represented in the book are George C. Wolfe, Miguel Pinero, Lorraine Hansberry, Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones), John M. Synge, Yukio Mishima, Reynolds…

  19. Nociones del conflicto en actores escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Valderrama H

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca contribuir a la reflexión sobre la problemática del conflicto escolar a partir de algunas nociones que ciertos actores escolares tienen sobre el mismo, sus manifestaciones, sus causas u orígenes y las maneras como afirman se resuelve en sus instituciones. Desde una perspectiva que pretende inscribirse en el campo de la comunicación-educación, se describe la heterogeneidad de las posturas manifestadas por estudiantes, docentes y directivos y se intentan comprender éstas a partir de algunos postulados teóricos planteados por la sociología del conflicto y la pedagogía crítica.This essay contributes to an ongoing debate on the problematic of school conflict, working from certain concepts that some of the actors in schools have about conflict, its manifestations, causes or origins, and the manners in which they manifest that they are resolved. From a perspective that wants to inscribe itself in the field of communication-education, it describes the heterogeneity of the different views put forward by students, teaches, and school directors, and searches to understand these based on certain theoretical postulates derived from the fields of sociology of conflict and critical pedagogy.

  20. Spontaneous Strategies in Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Husted, Emil Krastrup

    of materiality in relation to the organization and structuring of virtual worlds. We examine various innovation processes in five Danish entrepreneurial companies where actors continuously struggle to stabilize virtual worlds as platforms for professional communication. With inspiration from actor-network theory...... and a site ontology, we show how physical sites and objects become constitutive of the inside of virtual worlds through innovation processes. This argument is in line with ANT’s perspective on strategy, where sites and objects are considered a strategically relevant resource in the innovation process...... about virtual worlds and how these worlds should be organized....

  1. Review Essay: Does Qualitative Network Analysis Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis was formed and established in the 1970s as a way of analyzing systems of social relations. In this review the theoretical-methodological standpoint of social network analysis ("structural analysis" is introduced and the different forms of social network analysis are presented. Structural analysis argues that social actors and social relations are embedded in social networks, meaning that action and perception of actors as well as the performance of social relations are influenced by the network structure. Since the 1990s structural analysis has integrated concepts such as agency, discourse and symbolic orientation and in this way structural analysis has opened itself. Since then there has been increasing use of qualitative methods in network analysis. They are used to include the perspective of the analyzed actors, to explore networks, and to understand network dynamics. In the reviewed book, edited by Betina HOLLSTEIN and Florian STRAUS, the twenty predominantly empirically orientated contributions demonstrate the possibilities of combining quantitative and qualitative methods in network analyses in different research fields. In this review we examine how the contributions succeed in applying and developing the structural analysis perspective, and the self-positioning of "qualitative network analysis" is evaluated. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701287

  2. [Health system sustainability from a network perspective: a proposal to optimize healthy habits and social support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqués Sánchez, Pilar; Fernández Peña, Rosario; Cabrera León, Andrés; Muñoz Doyague, María F; Llopis Cañameras, Jaime; Arias Ramos, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The search of new health management formulas focused to give wide services is one of the priorities of our present health policies. Those formulas examine the optimization of the links between the main actors involved in public health, ie, users, professionals, local socio-political and corporate agents. This paper is aimed to introduce the Social Network Analysis as a method for analyzing, measuring and interpreting those connections. The knowledge of people's relationships (what is called social networks) in the field of public health is becoming increasingly important at an international level. In fact, countries such as UK, Netherlands, Italy, Australia and U.S. are looking formulas to apply this knowledge to their health departments. With this work we show the utility of the ARS on topics related to sustainability of the health system, particularly those related with health habits and social support, topics included in the 2020 health strategies that underline the importance of the collaborative aspects in networks.

  3. Perspective: network-guided pattern formation of neural dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hütt, Marc-Thorsten; Kaiser, Marcus; Claus C Hilgetag

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of neural activity patterns is fundamentally linked to an understanding of how the brain's network architecture shapes dynamical processes. Established approaches rely mostly on deviations of a given network from certain classes of random graphs. Hypotheses about the supposed role of prominent topological features (for instance, the roles of modularity, network motifs or hierarchical network organization) are derived from these deviations. An alternative strategy could be to...

  4. Hamiltonian perspective on compartmental reaction-diffusion networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seslija, Marko; van der Schaft, Arjan; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the recent developments in modeling and analysis of reaction networks, we provide a geometric formulation of the reversible reaction networks under the influence of diffusion. Using the graph knowledge of the underlying reaction network, the obtained reaction diffusion system is a distri

  5. Public utilities in networks: competition perspectives and new regulations; Services publics en reseau: perspectives de concurrence et nouvelles regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergougnoux, J

    2000-07-01

    This report makes first a status about the historical specificities, the present day situation and the perspectives of evolution of public utilities in networks with respect to the European directive of 1996 and to the 4 sectors of electricity, gas, railway transport and postal service. Then, it wonders about the new institutions and regulation procedures to implement to conciliate the public utility mission with the honest competition. (J.S.)

  6. Transnational corporations as 'keystone actors' in marine ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Österblom

    Full Text Available Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems.

  7. Transnational corporations as 'keystone actors' in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österblom, Henrik; Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Crona, Beatrice; Troell, Max; Merrie, Andrew; Rockström, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons) and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems.

  8. Balancing Renewable Electricity Energy Storage, Demand Side Management, and Network Extension from an Interdisciplinary Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Droste-Franke, Bert; Rehtanz, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Schneider, Jens-Peter; Schreurs, Miranda; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A significant problem of integrating renewable energies into the electricity system is the temporally fluctuating energy production by wind and solar power plants. Thus, in order to meet the ambitious long-term targets on CO2 emission reduction, long-term viable low-carbon options for balancing electricity will be needed. This interdisciplinary study analyses published future energy scenarios in order to get an impression of the required balancing capacities and shows which framework conditions should be modified to support their realisation. The authors combine their perspectives from energy engineering, technology assessment, political science, economical science and jurisprudence and address science, politics, actors in the energy sector and the interested public. Respectively, requirements for the balancing systems are analysed, considering the case of Germany as a large country with high ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, an approach to investigate the optimal design of the techn...

  9. Perspective Application of Passive Optical Network with Optimized Bus Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lafata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive optical networks (PONs represent a promising solution for modern access telecommunication networks.These networks are able to meet the increasing demands on transmission rate for demanding multimedia services,while they can offer typical shared transmission speed of 1.25 or 2.5 Gbps. The major role in deploying opticaldistribution networks ODNs plays the maximum attenuable loss, which is caused mainly by passive optical splitters.This paper proposes an innovative application of passive optical networks with optimized bus topology especially forlocal backbone data networks. Due to using only passive components, it is necessary to optimize certain parameters,especially an overall attenuation balance. Considering the possibility of such optimization, the passive optical networkwith optimized bus topology provides several interesting opportunities for specific applications. This paper will presentselected aspects of passive optical networks and splitters with asymmetric splitting ratio. The essential part is focusedon the practical demonstration of their use to optimize the passive optical network with bus topology, which acts as alocal backbone network for structured cabling systems, and for local data networks in large buildings.

  10. Problematization of perspectives on health promotion and empowerment in mental health nursing--within the research network "MeHNuRse" and the Horatio conference, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Patrik D; Nunstedt, Håkan; Berglund, Inger J; Ahlström, Britt H; Hedelin, Birgitta; Skärsäter, Ingela; Jormfeldt, Henrika

    2014-01-01

    Mental illness is increasing worldwide, while society's response seems to be a trend toward narrower and more specialized mental health care. This development is creating great demands on mental health nurses to include a health promotion perspective in care and support of persons with mental illness. A health promotion perspective emphasizes cooperation and communication with people who suffer from long-term mental illness, focusing on their independence and health. From a health perspective, every human being is an actor in his/her own life, with an inherent ability to make his/her own choices. However, persons who suffer from long-term mental illness are at risk of losing power and control over areas of their lives and their health. Mental health nurses are in a position to support these individuals in promoting health and in maintaining or regaining control over their lives. The emphasis of this paper is to problematize mental health nurses' responsibility to provide health-promoting nursing care in relation to empowerment by means of emancipation, self-efficacy, and self-management. We argue that mental health nurses can work from a health-promoting perspective by using these concepts and that this challenges some of the traditional ideas of health promotion in mental health nursing. The theoretical background discussions in this paper have their origin in the research network "Mental Health Nursing Research in Scandinavia" (MeHNuRse) and from the professional discussions developed during a 2012 workshop that included mental health nurses and researchers at the European Horatio Festival in Stockholm.

  11. Acting discursively: the development of UK organic food and farming policy networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOMLINSON, Isobel Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the early evolution of UK organic food and farming policy networks and locates this empirical focus in a theoretical context concerned with understanding the contemporary policy-making process. While policy networks have emerged as a widely acknowledged empirical manifestation of governance, debate continues as to the concept's explanatory utility and usefulness in situations of network and policy transformation since, historically, policy networks have been applied to "static" circumstances. Recognizing this criticism, and in drawing on an interpretivist perspective, this paper sees policy networks as enacted by individual actors whose beliefs and actions construct the nature of the network. It seeks to make links between the characteristics of the policy network and the policy outcomes through the identification of discursively constructed "storylines" that form a tool for consensus building in networks. This study analyses the functioning of the organic policy networks through the discursive actions of policy-network actors.

  12. Collective Learning: Theoretical Perspectives and Ways To Support Networked Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Maarten; Simons, Robert-Jan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews three types of collective learning networks, teams, and communities. Advocates learning communities as a powerful way to stimulate shared learning. Warns that, although technology enables networked learning, group dynamics are crucial and must be considered. Describes progressive inquiry and team roles as ways to support collective…

  13. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature...... of the actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  14. Ocean-atmosphere coupling from a climate network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    In recent years extensive studies on the climate system have been carried out making use of advanced complex network statistics. However, most previous studies have been characterized by two conceptual restrictions: First, in most cases network measures have been computed without taking into account the topology of the discrete grid, regular or irregular, that climate data is typically stored on. To overcome this problem, the concept of node splitting invariant network measures has been introduced considering individual node weights, for example according to the surface area a node represents, when computing network measures [1]. Second, the great majority of recent studies have been focussing on single climatological fields located on surfaces parallel to or directly on the Earth's surface. A recent work introduced a methodology for quantifying interaction structures between geopotential height fields at different isobaric surfaces by proposing general definitions for network measures dealing with a network of networks composed from distinct subnetworks [2]. In this work, we combine both, the node-weighting scheme as well as the interacting network measure approach. For this purpose, we invent new node-weighted cross-network measures that provide a general tool for quantifying interaction structures in multilayer networks that is applicable to many fields beyond the study of the climate system, such as communication, social or trade networks. Our new approach is utilized for studying ocean-atmosphere coupling in the northern hemisphere. Specifically, we construct 18 coupled climate networks based on monthly data from the ERA 40 reanalysis, each consisting of two subnetworks. In all cases, one subnetwork represents sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies while the other is based on the geopotential height (HGT) of isobaric surfaces at different pressure levels. By investigating the connectivity of the resulting interdependent network structures, we identify a

  15. Evolution based on chromosome affinity from a network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, R. L. S.; Fontoura, J. R. A.; Carneiro, T. K. G.; Moret, M. A.; Pereira, H. B. B.

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have focused on models to simulate the complex phenomenon of evolution of species. Several studies have been performed with theoretical models based on Darwin's theories to associate them with the actual evolution of species. However, none of the existing models include the affinity between individuals using network properties. In this paper, we present a new model based on the concept of affinity. The model is used to simulate the evolution of species in an ecosystem composed of individuals and their relationships. We propose an evolutive algorithm that incorporates the degree centrality and efficiency network properties to perform the crossover process and to obtain the network topology objective, respectively. Using a real network as a starting point, we simulate its evolution and compare its results with the results of 5788 computer-generated networks.

  16. El entrenamiento como base de la formación actoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Araque Osorio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The text presents a reflection on the actor’s training and its implications, virtues and contributions to the professional formation of actors. It starts from the experience that the author has assimilated as teacher and director, but mainly as an active actor, that appeals to his body as a work tool. From this perspective, the relationships between exercise, system and rehearsal are analyzed. Performance is not an esoteric and mystic act propitiated by the gods, it is a work that requires preparation, dedication and conscious inquiry. The actor or the actress that are unable to train in solitude, cannot contribute to a group, perhaps, this should be done without losing the perspective that theater is a collective act, in which communication plays an important role. For this reason, is fundamental to know how it is expressed, how it is signified and how a communication is begun between the actor and the spectator.

  17. Social Network Perspectives Reveal Strength of Academic Developers as Weak Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kelly E.; Crampton, Andrea; Hill, Matthew; Johnson, Elizabeth D.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Varsavsky, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Social network perspectives acknowledge the influence of disciplinary cultures on academics' teaching beliefs and practices with implications for academic developers. The contribution of academic developers in 18 scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) projects situated in the sciences are explored by drawing on data from a two-year national…

  18. Integrating proteomics profiling data sets: a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Akshay; Dakna, Mohammed; Mischak, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disease mechanisms often requires complex and accurate integration of cellular pathways and molecular networks. Systems biology offers the possibility to provide a comprehensive map of the cell's intricate wiring network, which can ultimately lead to decipher the disease phenotype. Here, we describe what biological pathways are, how they function in normal and abnormal cellular systems, limitations faced by databases for integrating data, and highlight how network models are emerging as a powerful integrative framework to understand and interpret the roles of proteins and peptides in diseases.

  19. tradicional: Conflictos y actores laborales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Lucena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo forma parte de una línea de investigación más general que se ocupa de analizar las transformaciones en las Relaciones de Trabajo. El presente documento centra su atención en los cambios que experimenta la Organización del Trabajo y como ellos repercuten en la conflictividad laboral. Se parte de reconocer que la relación capital-trabajo es de naturaleza conflictiva, pero que los mecanismos de convivencia entre las partes y todo el marco regulatorio, permiten y facilitan el desenvolvimiento y la convivencia productiva. Sin embargo, los cambios en la Organización del Trabajo que reducen la fuerza de trabajo y lesionan conquistas históricas de los trabajadores, estimulan el desarrollo de conflictos colectivos, los que materializan en tanto existan constituidos los actores laborales. En el proceso de investigación seguido en esta línea, se revisa la literatura pertinente, se analizan casos de la realidad laboral venezolana reciente vía hemeroteca y entrevistas, privilegiándose la huelga de Sidor en el 2004. Se concluye, destacando que los cambios que paulatinamente se emprenden desde la empresa para modificar la Organización del Trabajo, erosionan la capacidad de respuesta de los actores laborales representativos de los trabajadores.

  20. Complex network perspective on structure and function of Staphylococcus aureus metabolic network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Ying; D W Ding

    2013-02-01

    With remarkable advances in reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks, uncovering complex network structure and function from these networks is becoming one of the most important topics in system biology. This work aims at studying the structure and function of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) metabolic network by complex network methods. We first generated a metabolite graph from the recently reconstructed high-quality S. aureus metabolic network model. Then, based on `bow tie' structure character, we explain and discuss the global structure of S. aureus metabolic network. The functional significance, global structural properties, modularity and centrality analysis of giant strong component in S. aureus metabolic networks are studied.

  1. Women in formal corporate networks: an organisational citizenship perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Val; Vinnicombe, Susan; Kumra, Savita

    2006-01-01

    To investigate women's corporate networks, and the reported benefits for the women and their employers. To gain insight into the motivation for these voluntary activities, by drawing on organisational citizenship theory.

  2. Uncertainty and confidence from the triple-network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Thomas P.; Engen, Nina Helkjær; Sørensen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    was consistently observed in the salience (anterior cingulate cortex and insula) and central executive network (dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices) in conditions of increased uncertainty; by contrast, default mode network (midline cortical and medial temporal lobe) regions robustly exhibited...... of environmental certainty. The functional and methodological implications of these findings are discussed with a view to improving future investigation of the neural basis of metacognitive judgement....

  3. AN INSTITUTIONAL AND NETWORK PERSPECTIVE OF ORGANISATIONAL LEGITIMACY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CHINA′S TELECOMMUNICATIONS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Low

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This perspective paper combines institutional and industrial network theory to develop a framework for analysing organisational legitimacy. The main subject, Nokia China, is found to be sensitive to network-legitimating initiatives, with consequences that accommodate multiple, conflicting stakeholders′ interests in China′s politically sensitive and protective telecommunications market. This paper offers new insights into institutional isomorphism that is manifested empirically as incremental conformity to regulative processes, institutional norms and cognitive knowledge and meanings within the environment, thereby extending commonly held views of institutional theory to include organisational legitimacy in industrial networks.

  4. Mimicking Nature´s way of organizing in industry: a network learning perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Madsen, Henning

    The purpose of this paper is to further advance existing theory on industrial ecology, organisational network and organisational learning in order to speed up the development towards increased environmental awareness and behavior. It is argued that such a perspective offers a unique opportunity...... to reconsider organisational learning as being both an internal as well as an external phenomenon. By bringing network learning into an existing interorganisational setting (such as industrial ecology) new potentials for increased learning emerge for the participating companies. The concept of network learning...

  5. INDICADORES ESTRUCTURALES Y CONGLOMERADOS DE ACTORES EN LA RED SOCIAL DE UNA SUBCULTURA URBANA/STRUCTURAL INDICATORS AND CLUSTERS OF ACTORS IN THE SOCIAL NETWORK OF AN URBAN SUBCULTURE/ INDICADORES ESTRUTURAIS E CONGLOMERADOS DE ATORES NA REDE SOCIAL DE UMA SUBCULTURA URBANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hernando Ávila-Toscano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio buscó identificar la estructura de socialización de una subcultura urbana con la medición de indicadores estructurales de su red social e identificación de subagrupaciones. Se empleó el instrumento Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (ISSIS con 11 miembros de la subcultura roqueros. Se procesaron los datos mediante el análisis de redes sociales (ARS con el software Ucinet, para detectar conjuntos de actores con el procedimiento de conglomerados jerárquicos; y los gráficos de la red se crearon con NetDraw. Se identificaron niveles moderados de indicadores estructurales y las agrupaciones presentaron un número amplio de actores según el criterio de atracción por similaridad. Los subgrupos en la red fueron escasos, lo que muestra a la subcultura como una unidad social cuya integración se da por vinculaciones estrechas entre sus miembros.

  6. You are so kind – and I am kind and smart: Actor – Observer Differences in the Interpretation of On-going Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abele Andrea E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : The dual perspective model of agency and communion predicts that observers tend to interpret a target’s behavior more in terms of communion than agency, whereas actors interpret their behavior more in terms of agency. The present research for the first time tests this model in real interactions. Previously unacquainted participants had a short conversation and afterwards rated their own behavior (actor perspective and their interaction partner’s behavior (observer perspective in terms of agency(self-confident, assertive and communion(trustworthy, empathic. Supporting the dual perspective model, observers rated the actor’s behavior higher on communion than on agency, and higher on communion than actors themselves did. Findings for actors were more complex: Actors rated their own behavior as more agentic than observers did. However, they also rated their behavior high on communion. We discuss implications for the dual perspective model as well as for (misunderstandings in social interactions.

  7. Evolution after whole-genome duplication: a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Lin, Zhenguo; Nakhleh, Luay

    2013-11-06

    Gene duplication plays an important role in the evolution of genomes and interactomes. Elucidating how evolution after gene duplication interplays at the sequence and network level is of great interest. In this work, we analyze a data set of gene pairs that arose through whole-genome duplication (WGD) in yeast. All these pairs have the same duplication time, making them ideal for evolutionary investigation. We investigated the interplay between evolution after WGD at the sequence and network levels and correlated these two levels of divergence with gene expression and fitness data. We find that molecular interactions involving WGD genes evolve at rates that are three orders of magnitude slower than the rates of evolution of the corresponding sequences. Furthermore, we find that divergence of WGD pairs correlates strongly with gene expression and fitness data. Because of the role of gene duplication in determining redundancy in biological systems and particularly at the network level, we investigated the role of interaction networks in elucidating the evolutionary fate of duplicated genes. We find that gene neighborhoods in interaction networks provide a mechanism for inferring these fates, and we developed an algorithm for achieving this task. Further epistasis analysis of WGD pairs categorized by their inferred evolutionary fates demonstrated the utility of these techniques. Finally, we find that WGD pairs and other pairs of paralogous genes of small-scale duplication origin share similar properties, giving good support for generalizing our results from WGD pairs to evolution after gene duplication in general.

  8. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%.

  9. Mixed transportation network design under a sustainable development perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Ni, Ling-lin; Shi, Feng

    2013-01-01

    A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%.

  10. Interleukin-7 Receptor Signaling Network: An Integrated Systems Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Megan J. Palmer; Vinay S. Mahajan; Lily C. Trajman; Darrell J. Irvine; Douglas A.Lauffenburger; Jianzhu Chen

    2008-01-01

    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is an essential cytokine for the development and homeostatic maintenance of T and B lymphocytes. Binding of IL-7 to its cognate receptor, the IL-7 receptor (IL-7R), activates multiple pathways that regulate lymphocyte survival, glucose uptake, proliferation and differentiation. There has been much interest in understanding how IL-7 receptor signaling is modulated at multiple interconnected network levels. This review examines how the strength of the signal through the IL-7 receptor is modulated in T and B cells, including the use of shared receptor components, signaling crosstaik, shared interaction domains, feedback loops, integrated gene regulation, muitimerization and ligand competition. We discuss how these network control mechanisms could integrate to govern the properties of IL-7R signaling in lymphocytes in health and disease. Analysis of IL-7receptor signaling at a network level in a systematic manner will allow for a comprehensive approach to understanding the impact of multiple signaling pathways on lymphocyte biology.

  11. A financial network perspective of financial institutions' systemic risk contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Qiang; Zhuang, Xin-Tian; Yao, Shuang; Uryasev, Stan

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the effects of the financial institutions' local topology structure in the financial network on their systemic risk contribution using data from the Chinese stock market. We first measure the systemic risk contribution with the Conditional Value-at-Risk (CoVaR) which is estimated by applying dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH model (DCC-MVGARCH). Financial networks are constructed from dynamic conditional correlations (DCC) with graph filtering method of minimum spanning trees (MSTs). Then we investigate dynamics of systemic risk contributions of financial institution. Also we study dynamics of financial institution's local topology structure in the financial network. Finally, we analyze the quantitative relationships between the local topology structure and systemic risk contribution with panel data regression analysis. We find that financial institutions with greater node strength, larger node betweenness centrality, larger node closeness centrality and larger node clustering coefficient tend to be associated with larger systemic risk contributions.

  12. Three perspectives on the evolving electric vehicles innovation network of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasanen, R.-S.; Temmes, A.; Lovio, R.

    2013-06-01

    This report compiles the electric vehicle related work done in 2012 in the project: Future innovation and technology policy for sustainable system-level transitions: the case of transport (FIP-Trans). The project focuses on researching alternative and complementary socio-technical pathways and related policy options for sustainable transition in the Finnish transport sector. The project is financed by Tekes - the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation. Analysis is continued in 2013. In this paper we study the evolving electric vehicle innovation network of Finland. The analysis is built on combining the theoretical aspects of Strategic Niche Management and Technology Innovation Systems. Based on the literature we develop a framework for analyzing the development of innovation networks. The framework contains four steps. The first step is the identification and analysis of the main actors and their activities. The second step is the identification and analysis of the main events affecting the development of the industry. This step is based on the use of event structure analysis. The third step consists of the analysis of development of the architecture of the system while the fourth step deals with the description and analysis of the niche and innovation system development processes in a combined manner. The data consists of interviews, policy and consultation papers, newspaper articles, press releases and other enterprise publications and of private databases containing financial information of the enterprises. Based on the theoretical framework, the four separate, but complementing qualitative analyses were made. The electric vehicle niche has evolved through the interaction of private and public sector actors. The involvement of public sector affected strongly on the evolution of the system arenas and was an important event for the resource mobilization of the industry. As with other Finnish industries, the importance of the international dimension

  13. Who are the objects of positive and negative gossip at work? A social network perspective on workplace gossip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellwardt, Lea; Labianca, Giuseppe (Joe); Wittek, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Gossip is informal talking about colleagues. Taking a social network perspective, we argue that group boundaries and social status in the informal workplace network determine who the objects of positive and negative gossip are. Gossip networks were collected among 36 employees in a public child care

  14. Social Work in Ghana : Engaging Traditional Actors in Professional Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Avendal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary Ghana, the traditional system and professional social work operate as two parallel systems within the field of social work. The aim of this study was to investigate if and how the teaching of contemporary professional social work in Ghana takes into account traditional actors and practices. The traditional system includes extended family members and traditional authorities such as chiefs or family heads. It formed the social institution that protected and cared for the vulnerable before (Western social work was introduced as a formal profession in Ghana. A 10-week ethnographic field study was conducted at the Department of Social Work at the University of Ghana. The study employed a qualitative, social constructionist approach, interpreting the results within a theoretical framework of social world theory. The empirical material consisted of interviews with students and teachers, participant observation at lectures, and various documents. The main findings of the study were that professional social workers and traditional actors can be seen as members of two subworlds – the subworld of professional social workers and the subworld of traditional actors. Students and teachers discuss interventions from the perspective of social workers and traditional actors. Their ability to take different perspectives seems to be crucial for localisation – the process by which social work is made relevant to local culture and traditions. The interviewees’ accounts reveal how localisation is not only about culture, but also about social structures and practical considerations. The poor state of the social work profession in Ghana affects interventions in a profound way.

  15. Evolution of enzymes in metabolism: a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rui; Chaleil, Raphael A G; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2002-07-19

    Several models have been proposed to explain the origin and evolution of enzymes in metabolic pathways. Initially, the retro-evolution model proposed that, as enzymes at the end of pathways depleted their substrates in the primordial soup, there was a pressure for earlier enzymes in pathways to be created, using the later ones as initial template, in order to replenish the pools of depleted metabolites. Later, the recruitment model proposed that initial templates from other pathways could be used as long as those enzymes were similar in chemistry or substrate specificity. These two models have dominated recent studies of enzyme evolution. These studies are constrained by either the small scale of the study or the artificial restrictions imposed by pathway definitions. Here, a network approach is used to study enzyme evolution in fully sequenced genomes, thus removing both constraints. We find that homologous pairs of enzymes are roughly twice as likely to have evolved from enzymes that are less than three steps away from each other in the reaction network than pairs of non-homologous enzymes. These results, together with the conservation of the type of chemical reaction catalyzed by evolutionarily related enzymes, suggest that functional blocks of similar chemistry have evolved within metabolic networks. One possible explanation for these observations is that this local evolution phenomenon is likely to cause less global physiological disruptions in metabolism than evolution of enzymes from other enzymes that are distant from them in the metabolic network.

  16. Characterizing air quality data from complex network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinghua; Wang, Li; Xu, Huihui; Li, Shasha; Tian, Lixin

    2016-02-01

    Air quality depends mainly on changes in emission of pollutants and their precursors. Understanding its characteristics is the key to predicting and controlling air quality. In this study, complex networks were built to analyze topological characteristics of air quality data by correlation coefficient method. Firstly, PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) indexes of eight monitoring sites in Beijing were selected as samples from January 2013 to December 2014. Secondly, the C-C method was applied to determine the structure of phase space. Points in the reconstructed phase space were considered to be nodes of the network mapped. Then, edges were determined by nodes having the correlation greater than a critical threshold. Three properties of the constructed networks, degree distribution, clustering coefficient, and modularity, were used to determine the optimal value of the critical threshold. Finally, by analyzing and comparing topological properties, we pointed out that similarities and difference in the constructed complex networks revealed influence factors and their different roles on real air quality system.

  17. Idea Management: Perspectives from Leadership, Learning, and Network Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Deichmann (Dirk)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, we focus on how leadership styles, individual learning behaviors, and social network structures drive or inhibit organizational members to repeatedly generate and develop innovative ideas. Taking the idea management programs of three multinational companies as the r

  18. Human cancer protein-protein interaction network: a structural perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozde Kar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interaction networks provide a global picture of cellular function and biological processes. Some proteins act as hub proteins, highly connected to others, whereas some others have few interactions. The dysfunction of some interactions causes many diseases, including cancer. Proteins interact through their interfaces. Therefore, studying the interface properties of cancer-related proteins will help explain their role in the interaction networks. Similar or overlapping binding sites should be used repeatedly in single interface hub proteins, making them promiscuous. Alternatively, multi-interface hub proteins make use of several distinct binding sites to bind to different partners. We propose a methodology to integrate protein interfaces into cancer interaction networks (ciSPIN, cancer structural protein interface network. The interactions in the human protein interaction network are replaced by interfaces, coming from either known or predicted complexes. We provide a detailed analysis of cancer related human protein-protein interfaces and the topological properties of the cancer network. The results reveal that cancer-related proteins have smaller, more planar, more charged and less hydrophobic binding sites than non-cancer proteins, which may indicate low affinity and high specificity of the cancer-related interactions. We also classified the genes in ciSPIN according to phenotypes. Within phenotypes, for breast cancer, colorectal cancer and leukemia, interface properties were found to be discriminating from non-cancer interfaces with an accuracy of 71%, 67%, 61%, respectively. In addition, cancer-related proteins tend to interact with their partners through distinct interfaces, corresponding mostly to multi-interface hubs, which comprise 56% of cancer-related proteins, and constituting the nodes with higher essentiality in the network (76%. We illustrate the interface related affinity properties of two cancer-related hub

  19. The CE3R Network: current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Pesaresi, Damiano; Živčić, Mladen; Costa, Giovanni; Kuk, Kresimir; Bondár, István; Duni, Llambro; Spacek, Petr

    2016-04-01

    In order to improve the monitoring of seismic activities in the border regions and to enhance the collaboration between countries and seismological institutions in Central Europe, the Environment Agency of the Slovenian Republic (ARSO), the Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics (OGS), the University of Trieste (UniTS) and the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) established in 2001 the "South Eastern Alps Transfrontier Seismological Network". In May 2014 ARSO, OGS, UniTS and ZAMG agreed to formalize the transfrontier network, to name it "Central and East European Earthquake Research Network", (CE3RN or CE3R Network) in order to locate it geographically since cross-border networks can be established in other areas of the world and to expand their cooperation, including institutions in other countries. The University of Zagreb (UniZG) joined CE3RN in October 2014. The Kövesligethy Radó Seismological Observatory (KRSZO) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences joined CE3RN in October 2015. The Institute of Geosciences, Energy, Water and Environment (IGEWE) of the Polytechnic University of Tirana joined CE3RN in November 2015. The Institute of Physics of the Earth (IPE) of the Masaryk University in Brno joined CE3RN in November 2015. CE3RN Parties intend to formalize and possibly extend their ongoing cooperation in the field of seismological data acquisition, exchange and use for seismological and earthquake engineering and civil protection purposes. The purpose of this cooperation is to retain and expand the existing cross-border network, specify the rules of conduct in the network management, improvements, extensions and enlargements, enhance seismological research in the region, and support civil protection activities. Since the formal establishment of CE3RN, several common projects have been completed, like the SeismoSAT project for the seismic data center connection over satellite funded by the Interreg

  20. Toward a Network Perspective of the Study of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R. J. McAllister

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Formal models used to study the resilience of social-ecological systems have not explicitly included important structural characteristics of this type of system. In this paper, we propose a network perspective for social-ecological systems that enables us to better focus on the structure of interactions between identifiable components of the system. This network perspective might be useful for developing formal models and comparing case studies of social-ecological systems. Based on an analysis of the case studies in this special issue, we identify three types of social-ecological networks: (1 ecosystems that are connected by people through flows of information or materials, (2 ecosystem networks that are disconnected and fragmented by the actions of people, and (3 artificial ecological networks created by people, such as irrigation systems. Each of these three archytypal social-ecological networks faces different problems that influence its resilience as it responds to the addition or removal of connections that affect its coordination or the diffusion of system attributes such as information or disease.

  1. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia

    2015-02-01

    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers' strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed.

  2. Understanding crowd-powered search groups: a social network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingpeng Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crowd-powered search is a new form of search and problem solving scheme that involves collaboration among a potentially large number of voluntary Web users. Human flesh search (HFS, a particular form of crowd-powered search originated in China, has seen tremendous growth since its inception in 2001. HFS presents a valuable test-bed for scientists to validate existing and new theories in social computing, sociology, behavioral sciences, and so forth. METHODOLOGY: In this research, we construct an aggregated HFS group, consisting of the participants and their relationships in a comprehensive set of identified HFS episodes. We study the topological properties and the evolution of the aggregated network and different sub-groups in the network. We also identify the key HFS participants according to a variety of measures. CONCLUSIONS: We found that, as compared with other online social networks, HFS participant network shares the power-law degree distribution and small-world property, but with a looser and more distributed organizational structure, leading to the diversity, decentralization, and independence of HFS participants. In addition, the HFS group has been becoming increasingly decentralized. The comparisons of different HFS sub-groups reveal that HFS participants collaborated more often when they conducted the searches in local platforms or the searches requiring a certain level of professional knowledge background. On the contrary, HFS participants did not collaborate much when they performed the search task in national platforms or the searches with general topics that did not require specific information and learning. We also observed that the key HFS information contributors, carriers, and transmitters came from different groups of HFS participants.

  3. Characterization of chaotic attractors under noise: A recurrence network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Rinku; Harikrishnan, K. P.; Misra, R.; Ambika, G.

    2016-12-01

    We undertake a detailed numerical investigation to understand how the addition of white and colored noise to a chaotic time series changes the topology and the structure of the underlying attractor reconstructed from the time series. We use the methods and measures of recurrence plot and recurrence network generated from the time series for this analysis. We explicitly show that the addition of noise obscures the property of recurrence of trajectory points in the phase space which is the hallmark of every dynamical system. However, the structure of the attractor is found to be robust even upto high noise levels of 50%. An advantage of recurrence network measures over the conventional nonlinear measures is that they can be applied on short and non stationary time series data. By using the results obtained from the above analysis, we go on to analyse the light curves from a dominant black hole system and show that the recurrence network measures are capable of identifying the nature of noise contamination in a time series.

  4. A physical layer perspective on access network sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Unlike in copper or wireless networks, there is no sharing of resources in fiber access networks yet, other than bit stream access or cable sharing, in which the fibers of a cable are let to one or multiple operators. Sharing optical resources on a single fiber among multiple operators or different services has not yet been applied. While this would allow for a better exploitation of installed infrastructures, there are operational issues which still need to be resolved, before this sharing model can be implemented in networks. Operating multiple optical systems and services over a common fiber plant, autonomously and independently from each other, can result in mutual distortions on the physical layer. These distortions will degrade the performance of the involved systems, unless precautions are taken in the infrastructure hardware to eliminate or to reduce them to an acceptable level. Moreover, the infrastructure needs to be designed such as to support different system technologies and to ensure a guaranteed quality of the end-to-end connections. In this paper, suitable means are proposed to be introduced in fiber access infrastructures that will allow for shared utilization of the fibers while safeguarding the operational needs and business interests of the involved parties.

  5. Picture this: Managed change and resistance in business network settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses change management in networks. The literature on business networks tends to downplay the role of managerial initiative in network change. The change management literature addresses such initiative, but with its single-firm perspective it overlooks the interdependence of network...... context characterized by limited managerial authority over these activities. Our analysis suggests that change efforts unfold as a negotiated process during which the change project is re-negotiated to fit the multiple actor constituencies. The degree of overlap in the co-existing network pictures...

  6. Actors in Academia--Roles Professors Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Mary Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    In order to set the stage for the "actors in academia," the author suggests that the following roles and responsibilities are the most significant ones for the college/university professor, including some for students: (1) Actor; (2) Communicator; (3) Facilitator; (4) Trainer/Coach; (5) Craftsman (craft of teaching); and (6) Manager. After 40…

  7. Foundational perspectives on causality in large-scale brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Michael; Bressler, Steven L

    2015-12-01

    A profusion of recent work in cognitive neuroscience has been concerned with the endeavor to uncover causal influences in large-scale brain networks. However, despite the fact that many papers give a nod to the important theoretical challenges posed by the concept of causality, this explosion of research has generally not been accompanied by a rigorous conceptual analysis of the nature of causality in the brain. This review provides both a descriptive and prescriptive account of the nature of causality as found within and between large-scale brain networks. In short, it seeks to clarify the concept of causality in large-scale brain networks both philosophically and scientifically. This is accomplished by briefly reviewing the rich philosophical history of work on causality, especially focusing on contributions by David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Bertrand Russell, and Christopher Hitchcock. We go on to discuss the impact that various interpretations of modern physics have had on our understanding of causality. Throughout all this, a central focus is the distinction between theories of deterministic causality (DC), whereby causes uniquely determine their effects, and probabilistic causality (PC), whereby causes change the probability of occurrence of their effects. We argue that, given the topological complexity of its large-scale connectivity, the brain should be considered as a complex system and its causal influences treated as probabilistic in nature. We conclude that PC is well suited for explaining causality in the brain for three reasons: (1) brain causality is often mutual; (2) connectional convergence dictates that only rarely is the activity of one neuronal population uniquely determined by another one; and (3) the causal influences exerted between neuronal populations may not have observable effects. A number of different techniques are currently available to characterize causal influence in the brain. Typically, these techniques quantify the statistical

  8. Foundational perspectives on causality in large-scale brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Michael; Bressler, Steven L.

    2015-12-01

    A profusion of recent work in cognitive neuroscience has been concerned with the endeavor to uncover causal influences in large-scale brain networks. However, despite the fact that many papers give a nod to the important theoretical challenges posed by the concept of causality, this explosion of research has generally not been accompanied by a rigorous conceptual analysis of the nature of causality in the brain. This review provides both a descriptive and prescriptive account of the nature of causality as found within and between large-scale brain networks. In short, it seeks to clarify the concept of causality in large-scale brain networks both philosophically and scientifically. This is accomplished by briefly reviewing the rich philosophical history of work on causality, especially focusing on contributions by David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Bertrand Russell, and Christopher Hitchcock. We go on to discuss the impact that various interpretations of modern physics have had on our understanding of causality. Throughout all this, a central focus is the distinction between theories of deterministic causality (DC), whereby causes uniquely determine their effects, and probabilistic causality (PC), whereby causes change the probability of occurrence of their effects. We argue that, given the topological complexity of its large-scale connectivity, the brain should be considered as a complex system and its causal influences treated as probabilistic in nature. We conclude that PC is well suited for explaining causality in the brain for three reasons: (1) brain causality is often mutual; (2) connectional convergence dictates that only rarely is the activity of one neuronal population uniquely determined by another one; and (3) the causal influences exerted between neuronal populations may not have observable effects. A number of different techniques are currently available to characterize causal influence in the brain. Typically, these techniques quantify the statistical

  9. Microarchitecture of network-on-chip routers a designer's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrakopoulos, Giorgos; Seitanidis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a unified overview of network-on-chip router micro-architecture, the corresponding design opportunities and challenges, and existing solutions to overcome these challenges. The discussion focuses on the heart of a NoC, the NoC router, and how it interacts with the rest of the system. Coverage includes both basic and advanced design techniques that cover the entire router design space including router organization, flow control, pipelined operation, buffering architectures, as well as allocators' structure and algorithms. Router micro-architectural options are presented in a

  10. Estimation with Wireless Sensor Networks: Censoring and Quantization Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msechu, Eric James

    In the last decade there has been an increase in application areas for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which can be attributed to the advances in the enabling sensor technology. These advances include integrated circuit miniaturization and mass-production of highly-reliable hardware for sensing, processing, and data storage at a lower cost. In many emerging applications, massive amounts of data are acquired by a large number of low-cost sensing devices. The design of signal processing algorithms for these WSNs, unlike in wireless networks designed for communications, face a different set of challenges due to resource constraints sensor nodes must adhere to. These include: (i) limited on-board memory for storage; (ii) limited energy source, typically based on irreplaceable battery cells; (iii) radios with limited transmission range; and (iv) stringent data rates either due to a need to save energy or due to limited radio-frequency bandwidth allocated to sensor networks. This work addresses distributed data-reduction at sensor nodes using a combination of measurement-censoring and measurement quantization. The WSN is envisioned for decentralized estimation of either a vector of unknown parameters in a maximum likelihood framework, or, for decentralized estimation of a random signal using Bayesian optimality criteria. Early research effort in data-reduction methods involved using a centralized computation platform directing selection of the most informative data and focusing computational and communication resources toward the selected data only. Robustness against failure of the central computation unit, as well as the need for iterative data-selection and data-gathering in some applications (e.g., real-time navigation systems), motivates a rethinking of the centralized data-selection approach. Recently, research focus has been on collaborative signal processing in sensor neighborhoods for the data-reduction step. It is in this spirit that investigation of methods

  11. E-learning networked environments and architectures a knowledge processing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xindong; Pierre, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    This book provides state-of-the-art e-learning networked environments and architectures carried out over the last few years from a knowledge management perspective. It contains a comprehensive discussion of e-learning concepts, models, experiments and best practices. Presenting a wide-ranging survey of methods and applications from contributors from around the world, this book will be a valuable resource for researchers, practitioners and graduates.

  12. Environmental governance as inclusion and exclusion of actors and issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2016-01-01

    The chapter analyses recent governance in Denmark of the interaction between climate, energy and land use. Governance is seen as inclusion and exclusion of actors and their perspectives in decisions about problems and solutions. Inclusion and exclusion are discussed as decisions about members...... and focus of public commissions. Furthermore, inclusion and exclusion are discussed as an aspect of NGOs’ development of climate plans and the societal role of such plans. The chapter concludes that governance of this field is balancing the interests of established and polluting sectors and the interest...

  13. Modelling Spiking Neural Network from the Architecture Evaluation Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ji; You-Hui Zhang; Wei-Min Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The brain-inspired spiking neural network (SNN) computing paradigm offers the potential for low-power and scalable computing, suited to many intelligent tasks that conventional computational systems find difficult. On the other hand, NoC (network-on-chips) based very large scale integration (VLSI) systems have been widely used to mimic neuro-biological architectures (including SNNs). This paper proposes an evaluation methodology for SNN applications from the aspect of micro-architecture. First, we extract accurate SNN models from existing simulators of neural systems. Second, a cycle-accurate NoC simulator is implemented to execute the aforementioned SNN applications to get timing and energy-consumption information. We believe this method not only benefits the exploration of NoC design space but also bridges the gap between applications (especially those from the neuroscientists’ community) and neuromorphic hardware. Based on the method, we have evaluated some typical SNNs in terms of timing and energy. The method is valuable for the development of neuromorphic hardware and applications.

  14. Towards the integration of social network analysis in an inter-organizational networks perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten; Waldstrøm, Christian

    This conceptual paper deals with the issue of studying inter-organizational networks while applying social network analysis (SNA). SNA is a widely recognized technique in network research, particularly within intra-organizational settings, while there seems to be a significant gap in the inter......-organizational setting. Based on a literature review of both SNA as a methodology and/or theory and the field of inter-organizational networks, the aim is to gain an overview in order to provide a clear setting for SNA in inter-organizational research....

  15. Operating a global seismic network - perspectives from the USGS GSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, L. S.; Derr, J. S.; Hutt, C. R.; Bolton, H.; Ford, D.; Gyure, G. S.; Storm, T.; Leith, W.

    2007-05-01

    The Global Seismographic Network (GSN) is a permanent digital network of state-of-the-art seismological and geophysical sensors connected by a global telecommunications network, serving as a multi-use scientific facility used for seismic monitoring for response applications, basic and applied research in solid earthquake geophysics, and earth science education. A joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Science Foundation, and Incorporated Research Institutions in Seismology (IRIS), the GSN provides near- uniform, worldwide monitoring of the Earth through 144 modern, globally distributed seismic stations. The USGS currently operates 90 GSN or GSN-affiliate stations. As a US government program, the USGS GSN is evaluated on several performance measures including data availability, data latency, and cost effectiveness. The USGS-component of the GSN, like the GSN as a whole, is in transition from a period of rapid growth to steady- state operations. The program faces challenges of aging equipment and increased operating costs at the same time that national and international earthquake and tsunami monitoring agencies place an increased reliance on GSN data. Data acquisition of the USGS GSN is based on the Quanterra Q680 datalogger, a workhorse system that is approaching twenty years in the field, often in harsh environments. An IRIS instrumentation committee recently selected the Quanterra Q330 HR as the "next generation" GSN data acquisition system, and the USGS will begin deploying the new equipment in the middle of 2007. These new systems will address many of the issues associated with the ageing Q680 while providing a platform for interoperability across the GSN.. In order to address the challenge of increasing operational costs, the USGS employs several tools. First, the USGS benefits from the contributions of local host institutions. The station operators are the first line of defense when a station experiences problems, changing boards

  16. A European perspective--the European clinical research infrastructures network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demotes-Mainard, J; Kubiak, C

    2011-11-01

    Evaluating research outcomes requires multinational cooperation in clinical research for optimization of treatment strategies and comparative effectiveness research, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) is a distributed ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific potential. Servicing multinational trials started during its preparatory phase, and ECRIN will now apply for an ERIC (European Research Infrastructures Consortium) status by 2011. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this achievement will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of the research and education capacity, tackling the major societal challenges starting with the area of healthy ageing, and removing barriers to bring ideas to the market.

  17. Urban Traffic Dynamics: A Scale-Free Network Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, M B; Jiang, R; Wu, Q S; Wang, B H; Wu, Y H; Hu, Mao-Bin; Wang, Wen-Xu; Jiang, Rui; Wu, Qing-Song; Wang, Bing-Hong; Wu, Yong-Hong

    2006-01-01

    This letter propose a new model for characterizing traffic dynamics in scale-free networks. With a replotted road map of cities with roads mapped to vertices and intersections to edges, and introducing the road capacity L and its handling ability at intersections C, the model can be applied to urban traffic system. Simulations give the overall capacity of the traffic system which is quantified by a phase transition from free flow to congestion. Moreover, we report the fundamental diagram of flow against density, in which hysteresis is found, indicating that the system is bistable in a certain range of vehicle density. In addition, the fundamental diagram is significantly different from single-lane traffic model and 2-D BML model with four states: free flow, saturated flow, bistable and jammed.

  18. Interests and Actors in European Police and Criminal Justice Cooperation : Legal and Practical Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The speeches included in this working paper were presented at the conference “Interests and Actors in European Police and Criminal Justice Cooperation: Legal and Practical Challenges” hosted by the Swedish Network for European Legal Studies in collaboration with the Faculty of Law at Uppsala University. The working paper includes the key speeches by some of the most prominent actors in Sweden in this field. After a brief introduction by the editors, the second section includes the speech by M...

  19. Evolution and Controllability of Cancer Networks: A Boolean Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srihari, Sriganesh; Raman, Venkatesh; Leong, Hon Wai; Ragan, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Cancer forms a robust system capable of maintaining stable functioning (cell sustenance and proliferation) despite perturbations. Cancer progresses as stages over time typically with increasing aggressiveness and worsening prognosis. Characterizing these stages and identifying the genes driving transitions between them is critical to understand cancer progression and to develop effective anti-cancer therapies. In this work, we propose a novel model for the `cancer system' as a Boolean state space in which a Boolean network, built from protein-interaction and gene-expression data from different stages of cancer, transits between Boolean satisfiability states by "editing" interactions and "flipping" genes. Edits reflect rewiring of the PPI network while flipping of genes reflect activation or silencing of genes between stages. We formulate a minimization problem min flip to identify these genes driving the transitions. The application of our model (called BoolSpace) on three case studies-pancreatic and breast tumours in human and post spinal-cord injury (SCI) in rats-reveals valuable insights into the phenomenon of cancer progression: (i) interactions involved in core cell-cycle and DNA-damage repair pathways are significantly rewired in tumours, indicating significant impact to key genome-stabilizing mechanisms; (ii) several of the genes flipped are serine/threonine kinases which act as biological switches, reflecting cellular switching mechanisms between stages; and (iii) different sets of genes are flipped during the initial and final stages indicating a pattern to tumour progression. Based on these results, we hypothesize that robustness of cancer partly stems from "passing of the baton" between genes at different stages-genes from different biological processes and/or cellular components are involved in different stages of tumour progression thereby allowing tumour cells to evade targeted therapy, and therefore an effective therapy should target a "cover set" of

  20. Balancing renewable electricity. Energy storage, demand side management, and network extension from an interdisciplinary perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste-Franke, Bert [Europaeische Akademie zur Erforschung von Folgen Wissenschaftlich-Technischer Entwicklungen GmbH, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler (Germany); Paal, Boris P.; Rehtanz, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Schneider, Jens-Peter; Schreurs, Miranda; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    A significant problem of integrating renewable energies into the electricity system is the temporally fluctuating energy production by wind and solar power plants. Thus, in order to meet the ambitious long-term targets on CO{sub 2} emission reduction, long-term viable low-carbon options for balancing electricity will be needed. This interdisciplinary study analyses published future energy scenarios in order to get an impression of the required balancing capacities and shows which framework conditions should be modified to support their realisation. The authors combine their perspectives from energy engineering, technology assessment, political science, economical science and jurisprudence and address science, politics, actors in the energy sector and the interested public. Respectively, requirements for the balancing systems are analysed, considering the case of Germany as a large country with high ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, an approach to investigate the optimal design of the technical system for balancing electricity over Europe is sketched. Looking at the challenges of a future energy system a mix of complementary technologies will prospectively become prevalent. In order to foster the needed innovation processes adequately, several funding mechanisms and legal regulations should be adapted. The authors give recommendations to handle major challenges in the development of the technical infrastructure, for the design of market conditions and for specific support of the application of balancing technologies. (orig.)

  1. Aging brain from a network science perspective: something to be positive about?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle W Voss

    Full Text Available To better understand age differences in brain function and behavior, the current study applied network science to model functional interactions between brain regions. We observed a shift in network topology whereby for older adults subcortical and cerebellar structures overlapping with the Salience network had more connectivity to the rest of the brain, coupled with fragmentation of large-scale cortical networks such as the Default and Fronto-Parietal networks. Additionally, greater integration of the dorsal medial thalamus and red nucleus in the Salience network was associated with greater satisfaction with life for older adults, which is consistent with theoretical predictions of age-related increases in emotion regulation that are thought to help maintain well-being and life satisfaction in late adulthood. In regard to cognitive abilities, greater ventral medial prefrontal cortex coherence with its topological neighbors in the Default Network was associated with faster processing speed. Results suggest that large-scale organizing properties of the brain differ with normal aging, and this perspective may offer novel insight into understanding age-related differences in cognitive function and well-being.

  2. Vulnerability analysis for airport networks based on fuzzy soft sets: From the structural and functional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shanmei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to the reliability and vulnerability of critical infrastructure. In air traffic systems, the vulnerability analysis for airport networks can be used to guide air traffic administrations in their prioritization of the maintenance and repair of airports, as well as to avoid unnecessary disturbances in the planning of flight schedules. In this paper, the evaluation methods of airport importance and network efficiency are established. Firstly, the evaluation indices of airport importance are proposed from both the topological and functional perspectives. The topological characteristics come from the structure of airport network and the functional features stem from the traffic flow distribution taking place inside the network. Secondly, an integrated evaluation method based on fuzzy soft set theory is proposed to identify the key airports, which can fuse together importance indices over different time intervals. Thirdly, an airport network efficiency method is established for the purpose of assessing the accuracy of the evaluation method. Finally, empirical studies using real traffic data of US and China’s airport networks show that the evaluation method proposed in this paper is the most accurate. The vulnerability of US and China’s airport networks is compared. The similarities and differences between airport geography distribution and airport importance distribution are discussed here and the dynamics of airport importance is studied as well.

  3. Using networks to enhance health services delivery: perspectives, paradoxes and propositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Timothy R; Casebeer, Ann; Vanderplaat, Madine

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing need to better understand and address the consequences of an increasing reliance on networks used to enhance health services delivery. Networks seem to have emerged as the definitive solution for tackling complex healthcare problems together that we have not been able to adequately address separately. Emphasizing the collective and the collaborative, networks are assumed to address healthcare issues in ways that are superior to previous service-delivery models. While this assumption would appear to be sound theoretically, we have little empirical information available to actually understand what networks are, what they do and whether they achieve their stated goals--truly making a difference in the delivery of care and the maintenance of health. With a diversity of networks within Canada focused on health services delivery, this paper offers a multi-dimensional framework for conceptualizing how these complex inter-organizational relationships generate both challenges and opportunities. We identify six paradoxes that the networks create when used to enhance the delivery of health services and posit several propositions concerning the evaluative work that needs to be done to enhance our understanding of and confidence in this inter-organizational form. Unless these paradoxes are adequately recognized and addressed, the value and costs associated with developing and using networks in healthcare contexts will remain unclear at best. Given the broad interest in and use of networks proliferating in health-related arenas, it is time to amass the evidence and than align the perspectives. Are networks here to stay in healthcare because they make a difference or because we got tired of talking about the need for greater collaboration and so gave it a new name and frame? At the very least, it will be important to build on what we have already learned through research into collaboration in healthcare and related fields, and even more critical to be mindful

  4. Sentiment Polarization and Balance among Users in Online Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillmann, Robert; Trier, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Communication within online social network applications enables users to express and share sentiments electronically. Existing studies examined the existence or distribution of sentiments in online communication at a general level or in small-observed groups. Our paper extends this research...... by analyzing sentiment exchange within social networks from an ego-network perspective. We draw from research on social influence and social attachment to develop theories of node polarization, balance effects and sentiment mirroring within communication dyads. Our empirical analysis covers a multitude...... of social networks in which the sentiment valence of all messages was determined. Subsequently we studied ego-networks of focal actors (ego) and their immediate contacts. Results support our theories and indicate that actors develop polarized sentiments towards individual peers but keep sentiment in balance...

  5. Packing induced bistable phenomenon in granular flow:analysis from complex network perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡茂彬; 刘启一; 孙王平; 姜锐; 吴清松

    2014-01-01

    The effects of packing configurations on the phase transition of straight granular chute flow with two bottlenecks are studied. The granular flow shows a dilute-to-dense flow transition when the channel width is varied, accompanied with a peculiar bistable phenomenon. The bistable phenomenon is induced by the initial packing config-uration of particles. When the packing is dense, the initial flux is small and will induce a dense flow. When the packing is loose, the initial flux is large and will induce a di-lute flow. The fabric network of granular packing is analyzed from a complex network perspective. The degree distribution shows quantitatively different characteristics for the configurations. A two-dimensional (2D) packing clustering coefficient is defined to better quantify the fabric network.

  6. ANALYZING SOCIAL NETWORKS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MARKETING DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logica BANICA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Web became more than a space for product presentation, but also a capitalization market (e-commerce and an efficient way to know the customer preferences and to meet their requirements. Large companies have the financial potential to use various marketing strategies and, in particular, digital-marketing. Instead, small businesses are looking for lower cost or no cost methods (also called guerrilla marketing. A small company can compete with a large company by approaching a particular range of products that excel in quality, and also by inventiveness in the marketing strategy. During 2010-2015 the potential of Information Technology and Communications (IT&C sector was proved for the companies which aimed towards modernization of technologies and introduced new strategies in order to commercialize new products. An important challenge for companies was to be aware of the changes in customer behaviour, using social networks software. Finally, research centers have set up new IT&C services and improved marketing and communications following the crisis. More and more companies invest in analytic tools to monitor their marketing strategies and Big Data becomes extremely useful for this purpose, using information like customer demographics and spending habits, oscillation between simplicity, comfort and glamour. There are various tools that can transform in a very short time, massive amounts of data into real business value in a very short time, helping companies and retailers to understand, at any point in the product lifecycle, which trends are gaining and which are losing ground. These insights give them the possibility to reduce the risk of not selling their products by making adjustments to the design, production or promotional strategies, before putting the goods on the market. In this paper we aim to present the advantages of exploring customer requirements from social media for marketing strategy of an enterprise, by using SNA

  7. Investment dimensions in a universal service perspective: Next generation networks, alternative funding mechanisms and public-private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the investment dimensions of next generation networks from a universal service perspective in a European context. The question is how new network infrastructures for providing access for everyone to communication, information and entertainment services in the present...

  8. Photonic Network R&D Activities in Japan-Current Activities and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Ken-Ichi; Miki, Tetsuya; Morioka, Toshio; Tsushima, Hideaki; Koga, Masafumi; Mori, Kazuyuki; Araki, Soichiro; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Onaka, Hiroshi; Namiki, Shu; Aoyama, Tomonori

    2005-10-01

    R&D activities on photonic networks in Japan are presented. First, milestones in current ongoing R&D programs supported by Japanese government agencies are introduced, including long-distance and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) fiber transmission, wavelength routing, optical burst switching (OBS), and control-plane technology for IP backbone networks. Their goal was set to evolve a legacy telecommunications network to IP-over-WDM networks by introducing technologies for WDM and wavelength routing. We then discuss the perspectives of so-called PHASE II R&D programs for photonic networks over the next 5 years until 2010, by focusing on the report that has been recently issued by the Photonic Internet Forum (PIF), a consortium that has major carriers, telecom vendors, and Japanese academics as members. The PHASE II R&D programs should serve to establish a photonic platform to provide abundant bandwidth on demand, at any time on a real-time basis, through the customer's initiative to promote bandwidth-rich applications, such as grid computing, real-time digital-cinema streaming, medical and educational applications, and network storage in e-commerce.

  9. MAXIMIZING NETWORK INTERRUPTION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK: AN INTRUDER’S PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahfuzul Islam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the colossal growth of wireless sensor networks (WSNs in different applications starting from home automation to military affairs, the pressure on ensuring security in such a network is paramount. Considering the security challenges, it is really a hard-hitting effort to develop a secured WSN system. Moreover, as the information technology is getting popular, the intruders are also planning new ideas to break the system security, to harm the network and to make the system quality down with the target of taking the control of the network to corrupt it or to get benefits from it anyway. The intruders corrupt the system only when the security breaking cost (SBC is lower compared with the benefits they attained or the harm it can make to others. In this paper, the authors define the term “maximizing network interruption problem” and propose a technique, called the grid point approximation algorithm, to estimate the SBC of a multi-hop WSN so that it can be made tougher for an intruder to break the system security. It is assumed that the intruder has the complete picture of the entire network. The technique is designed from the intruder’s point of view for completely jamming all the sensor nodes in the network through placing jammers or malicious nodes strategically and at the same time keeping the number of jammer nodes to minimum or near minimum. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is no work proposed so far of the same kind. Experimental results with the changes of the different network parameters show that the proposed algorithm is able to provide excellent performances to achieve the targets.

  10. Resistance and Security Index of Networks: Structural Information Perspective of Network Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Hu, Qifu; Liu, Jun; Pan, Yicheng

    2016-06-01

    Recently, Li and Pan defined the metric of the K-dimensional structure entropy of a structured noisy dataset G to be the information that controls the formation of the K-dimensional structure of G that is evolved by the rules, order and laws of G, excluding the random variations that occur in G. Here, we propose the notion of resistance of networks based on the one- and two-dimensional structural information of graphs. Given a graph G, we define the resistance of G, written , as the greatest overall number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible via random walks with stationary distribution in G, from which the random walks cannot escape. We show that the resistance of networks follows the resistance law of networks, that is, for a network G, the resistance of G is , where and are the one- and two-dimensional structure entropies of G, respectively. Based on the resistance law, we define the security index of a network G to be the normalised resistance of G, that is, . We show that the resistance and security index are both well-defined measures for the security of the networks.

  11. Resistance and Security Index of Networks: Structural Information Perspective of Network Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Hu, Qifu; Liu, Jun; Pan, Yicheng

    2016-06-03

    Recently, Li and Pan defined the metric of the K-dimensional structure entropy of a structured noisy dataset G to be the information that controls the formation of the K-dimensional structure of G that is evolved by the rules, order and laws of G, excluding the random variations that occur in G. Here, we propose the notion of resistance of networks based on the one- and two-dimensional structural information of graphs. Given a graph G, we define the resistance of G, written , as the greatest overall number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible via random walks with stationary distribution in G, from which the random walks cannot escape. We show that the resistance of networks follows the resistance law of networks, that is, for a network G, the resistance of G is , where and are the one- and two-dimensional structure entropies of G, respectively. Based on the resistance law, we define the security index of a network G to be the normalised resistance of G, that is, . We show that the resistance and security index are both well-defined measures for the security of the networks.

  12. From Gut Knowing: Every Silver Cloud Has a Black Lining. Actor Reflections on "Ties That Bind."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Makes sense of the performance of Steve Taylor's play, "Ties That Bind," from the perspective of the actors, 14 faculty members, and doctoral students from various universities in the United States by using the interpretive lens of Erving Goffman's Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. (SG)

  13. Lone-Actor Terrorist Target Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Corner, Emily

    2016-09-01

    Lone-actor terrorist attacks have risen to the forefront of the public's consciousness in the past few years. Some of these attacks were conducted against public officials. The rise of hard-to-detect, low-tech attacks may lead to more public officials being targeted. This paper explores whether different behavioral traits are apparent within a sample of lone-actor terrorists who plotted against high-value targets (including public officials) than within a sample of lone actors who plotted against members of the public. Utilizing a unique dataset of 111 lone-actor terrorists, we test a series of hypotheses related to attack capability and operational security. The results indicate that very little differentiates those who attack high-value targets from those who attack members of the public. We conclude with a series of illustrations to theorize why this may be the case. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Ocean Research - Perspectives from an international Ocean Research Coordination Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Jay; Williams, Albert, III

    2013-04-01

    The need for improved coordination in ocean observations is more urgent now given the issues of climate change, sustainable food sources and increased need for energy. Ocean researchers must work across disciplines to provide policy makers with clear and understandable assessments of the state of the ocean. With advances in technology, not only in observation, but also communication and computer science, we are in a new era where we can answer questions asked over the last 100 years at the time and space scales that are relevant. Programs like GLOBEC moved us forward but we are still challenged by the disciplinary divide. Interdisciplinary problem solving must be addressed not only by the exchange of data between the many sides, but through levels where questions require day-to-day collaboration. A National Science Foundation-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is addressing approaches for improving interdisciplinary research capabilities in the ocean sciences. During the last year, the RCN had a working group for Open Data led by John Orcutt, Peter Pissierssens and Albert Williams III. The teams has focused on three areas: 1. Data and Information formats and standards; 2. Data access models (including IPR, business models for open data, data policies,...); 3. Data publishing, data citation. There has been a significant trend toward free and open access to data in the last few years. In 2007, the US announced that Landsat data would be available at no charge. Float data from the US (NDBC), JCOMM and OceanSites offer web-based access. The IODE is developing its Ocean Data Portal giving immediate and free access to ocean data. However, from the aspect of long-term collaborations across communities, this global trend is less robust than might appear at the surface. While there are many standard data formats for data exchange, there is not yet widespread uniformity in their adoption. Use of standard data formats can be encouraged in several ways: sponsors of

  15. Diásporas y transiciones en la Teoría del Actor-Red

    OpenAIRE

    Callén, Blanca; Tirado Serrano, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    Este texto es una presentación del monográfico Diásporas y transiciones en la teoría del actor-red. Sus páginas presentan las principales características de esta teoría, una manera de entender sus orígenes y una descripción de su presente estableciendo un paralelismo con la etnometodología. El texto finaliza con una valoración del estado de la teoría del actor-red en España y un comentario sobre un congreso que llevó el título de Presente y futuro de la teoría del actor-red y que constituye e...

  16. Network Threat Characterization in Multiple Intrusion Perspectives using Data Mining Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Oriola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For effective security incidence response on the network, a reputable approach must be in place at bothprotected and unprotected region of the network. This is because compromise in the demilitarized zonecould be precursor to threat inside the network. The improved complexity of attacks in present times andvulnerability of system are motivations for this work. Past and present approaches to intrusion detectionand prevention have neglected victim and attacker properties despite the fact that for intrusion to occur,an overt act by an attacker and a manifestation, observable by the intended victim, which results fromthat act are required. Therefore, this paper presents a threat characterization model for attacks from thevictim and the attacker perspective of intrusion using data mining technique. The data mining techniquecombines Frequent Temporal Sequence Association Mining and Fuzzy Logic. Apriori Association Miningalgorithm was used to mine temporal rule patterns from alert sequences while Fuzzy Control System wasused to rate exploits. The results of the experiment show that accurate threat characterization in multipleintrusion perspectives could be actualized using Fuzzy Association Mining. Also, the results proved thatsequence of exploits could be used to rate threat and are motivated by victim properties and attackerobjectives.

  17. Measurement and Analysis of Quality of Service of Mobile Networks in Afghanistan – End User Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced Quality of Service (QoS and satisfaction of mobile phone user are major concerns of a service provider. In order to manage network efficiently and to provide enhanced end – to – end Quality of Experience (QoE, operator is expected to measure and analyze QoS from various perspectives and at different relevant points of network. The scope of this paper is measurement and statistically analysis of QoS of mobile networks from end user perspective in Afghanistan. The study is based on primary data collected on random basis from 1,515 mobile phone users of five cellular operators. The paper furthermore proposes adequate technical solutions to mobile operators in order to address existing challenges in the area of QoS and to remain competitive in the market. Based on the result of processed data, considering geographical locations, population and telecom regulations of the government, authors recommend deployment of small cells (SCs, increasing number of regular performance tests, optimal placement of base stations, increasing number of carriers, and high order sectorization as proposed technical solutions.

  18. Innovation in the plural of the alpine cre-actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Finger-Stich

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to innovate for a sustainable development of alpine territories cannot depend only on economic, legal and political conditions defined by the State at national and international levels. It depends also on local conditions that situate historically and geographically the actors in a continuity of social and ecological relationships. This approach highlights the collective – thus organisational – dimensions of the innovation process, including the imagination, the development, the implementation and even the diffusion of a new practice. Our point of view is that for contributing to the sustainable development of the Alps, innovations need to change the ecological, political, social and cultural relationships engaging the actors in these territories. This change affects as much the object territory as the subject actor of the territory. This is why innovating in the Alps means also innovating the Alps and the alpine actors (Cosalp, 2008. Based on a research about local people’s participation in the management of alpine communal forests, the article shows the importance of local interactions involving actors of diverse occupation, gender, age and origins1.La capacité d’innovation pour un développement durable des territoires alpins ne peut dépendre uniquement de conditions économiques, légales et politiques définies par les Etats aux échelles nationale et internationale. Elle dépend aussi de conditions locales, qui situent historiquement et géographiquement les acteurs dans une continuité de relations sociales et écologiques. Cette perspective accentue l’importance de la dimension collective, donc organisationnelle, du processus d’innovation, allant de l’imagination, puis au développement, à la réalisation – voire la diffusion – d’une nouvelle pratique. Le point de vue de cet article est qu’une innovation, pour contribuer au développement durable des Alpes, doit changer les relations

  19. Exploring empowerment in settings: mapping distributions of network power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2014-06-01

    This paper brings together two trends in the empowerment literature-understanding empowerment in settings and understanding empowerment as relational-by examining what makes settings empowering from a social network perspective. Specifically, extending Neal and Neal's (Am J Community Psychol 48(3/4):157-167, 2011) conception of network power, an empowering setting is defined as one in which (1) actors have existing relationships that allow for the exchange of resources and (2) the distribution of network power among actors in the setting is roughly equal. The paper includes a description of how researchers can examine distributions of network power in settings. Next, this process is illustrated in both an abstract example and using empirical data on early adolescents' peer relationships in urban classrooms. Finally, implications for theory, methods, and intervention related to understanding empowering settings are explored.

  20. A Networked Perspective on the Engineering Design Process: At the Intersection of Process and Organisation Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parraguez, Pedro

    projects often fail to be on time, on budget, and meeting specifications. Despite the wealth of process models available, previous approaches have been insufficient to provide a networked perspective that allows the challenging combination of organisational and process complexity to unfold. The lack...... the process. This combination of process structure—how people and activities are connected—and composition—the functional diversity of the groups participating in the process—is referred to as the actual design process architecture. This thesis reports on research undertaken to develop, apply and test......-driven reflection of the relationship between process architecture and performance, and to provide the means to compare process plans against the actual process. The framework is based on a multi-domain network approach to process architecture and draws on previous research using matrix-based and graph...

  1. Survey on Wireless Sensor Network Technologies for Industrial Automation: The Security and Quality of Service Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Christin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are gradually adopted in the industrial world due to their advantages over wired networks. In addition to saving cabling costs, WSNs widen the realm of environments feasible for monitoring. They thus add sensing and acting capabilities to objects in the physical world and allow for communication among these objects or with services in the future Internet. However, the acceptance of WSNs by the industrial automation community is impeded by open issues, such as security guarantees and provision of Quality of Service (QoS. To examine both of these perspectives, we select and survey relevant WSN technologies dedicated to industrial automation. We determine QoS requirements and carry out a threat analysis, which act as basis of our evaluation of the current state-of-the-art. According to the results of this evaluation, we identify and discuss open research issues.

  2. Medicine, religion and ayahuasca in Catalonia. Considering ayahuasca networks from a medical anthropology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apud, Ismael; Romaní, Oriol

    2017-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychoactive beverage from the Amazon, traditionally used by indigenous and mestizo populations in the region. Widespread international use of the beverage began in the 1990s in both secular contexts and religious/spiritual networks. This article offers an analysis of these networks as health care systems in general and for the case of Spain and specifically Catalonia, describing the emergence and characteristics of their groups, and the therapeutic itineraries of some participants. The medical anthropology perspective we take enables us to reflect on the relationship between medicine and religion, and problematize the tensions between medicalization and medical pluralism. Closely linked to the process of medicalization, we also analyze prohibitionist drug policies and their tensions and conflicts with the use of ayahuasca in ritual and 'health care' contexts. The paper ends with a reflection on the problem of ayahuasca as 'medicine', since the connection between religion and medicine is a very difficult one to separate.

  3. Clock Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks: A New Model and Analysis Approach Based on Networked Control Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ting

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the importance of the clock synchronization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, this paper proposes a new research approach and model approach, which quantitatively analyzes clock synchronization from the perspective of modern control theory. Two kinds of control strategies are used as examples to analyze the effect of the control strategy on clock synchronization from different perspectives, namely, the single-step optimal control and the LQG global optimal control. The proposed method establishes a state space model for clock relationship, thus making dimension extension and parameter identification easier, and is robust to changes under the condition of node failures and new nodes. And through the design of different control strategies and performance index functions, the method can satisfy various requirements of the synchronization precision, convergence speed, energy consumption and the computational complexity, and so on. Finally, the simulations show that the synchronization accuracy of the proposed method is higher than that of the existing protocol, and the former convergence speed of the synchronization error is faster.

  4. Beyond the actor's traits: forming impressions of actors, targets, and relationships from social behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, K P; Smith, E R

    1993-09-01

    Perceivers who observe social behaviors may form impressions not only of actors' traits but also of people as targets and of interpersonal relationships. In Study 1, Ss read about 4 individuals' behaviors under instructions to form actor-, target-, and relationship-based impressions. Ss then read additional behavioral information that they later tried to recall. Ss accurately perceived actor, target, and relationship effects in the presented information, and they better recalled subsequent behaviors that were consistent with all 3 types of impressions. In Study 2, Ss thought of 4 people they knew and judged how much each liked the other 3. These ratings revealed actor, target, and relationship effects as well as individual and dyadic reciprocity. Perceivers can form relatively accurate impressions of people as actors and as targets and accurate impressions of relationships between people, and these impressions influence memory for further behaviors.

  5. A Technical and Business Perspective on Wireless Sensor Network for Manufacturing Execution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the complex production management with difficulties in error-prone assembly system and inaccurate supply chain inventory, this paper designs a novel manufacturing execution system (MES architecture for intelligent monitoring based on wireless sensor network (WSN. The technical perspective includes analysis on the proposed manufacturing resource mutual inductance method under active sensing network, appreciation technology of multisource information, and dynamic optimization technology for manufacturing execution processes. From business perspective, this paper elaborates the impact of RFID investment on complex product by establishing a three-stage supply chain model that involves two suppliers carrying out Stackelberg games (manufacturer and retailer. The optimal cost threshold values of technology investment are examined for both the centralized and the decentralized scenarios utilizing quantitative modeling methods. By analyzing and comparing the optimal profit with or without investment on WSN, this paper establishes a supply chain coordination and boosting model. The results of this paper have contributed significantly for one to make decision on whether RFID should be adopted among its members in supply chain. The system performance and model extension are verified via numerical analyses.

  6. Understanding Online Health Groups for Depression: Social Network and Linguistic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental health problems have become increasingly prevalent in the past decade. With the advance of Web 2.0 technologies, social media present a novel platform for Web users to form online health groups. Members of online health groups discuss health-related issues and mutually help one another by anonymously revealing their mental conditions, sharing personal experiences, exchanging health information, and providing suggestions and support. The conversations in online health groups contain valuable information to facilitate the understanding of their mutual help behaviors and their mental health problems. Objective We aimed to characterize the conversations in a major online health group for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in a popular Chinese social media platform. In particular, we intended to explain how Web users discuss depression-related issues from the perspective of the social networks and linguistic patterns revealed by the members’ conversations. Methods Social network analysis and linguistic analysis were employed to characterize the social structure and linguistic patterns, respectively. Furthermore, we integrated both perspectives to exploit the hidden relations between them. Results We found an intensive use of self-focus words and negative affect words. In general, group members used a higher proportion of negative affect words than positive affect words. The social network of the MDD group for depression possessed small-world and scale-free properties, with a much higher reciprocity ratio and clustering coefficient value as compared to the networks of other social media platforms and classic network models. We observed a number of interesting relationships, either strong correlations or convergent trends, between the topological properties and linguistic properties of the MDD group members. Conclusions (1) The MDD group members have the characteristics of self-preoccupation and negative thought content, according to Beck

  7. When Danish industry relocates – globalisation in an everyday perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Karlskov Skyggebjerg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When Danish companies move their production abroad, it is often verbalised as a tragedy with focus on the loss of production workplaces in Denmark. This article instead examines what explicitly happens when a company relocates. Based on a study of Royal Copenhagen’s relocation to Thailand as well as a study of a number of Danish companies’ production units in China (Grundfos, RMG Steel, MCI and Fiberline, the focus of this article is on relocation in an everyday perspective with special emphasis on communication, transfer of competencies, company culture and differences in culture.It is concluded – inspired by actor-network theory – that relocation is a complicated process which is not concluded with the opening of a new factory. Many different actor types play significant roles in relation to the manner in which the relocation is carried out in practice; both in the short term during the actual relocation process and in the long term when the relocation has become commonplace. Among the key actor types are human actors such as cultural bridge builders, but not least material actors such as raw materials and buildings as well as immaterial actors such as ‘Danishness’ and ‘the history of the company’. The many actor types indicate, among other, that the dream of relocating becoming a simple process - providing working procedures and products are documented and described to an adequate degree - must be rejected.This article draws inspiration from theories and research about knowledge (transfer, differences in culture, companies’ (historical narratives and recent materiality studies. Methodically, this article is based on two interview based contemporary documentary studies.

  8. Working on gender issues with partners and other actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Discussions at the workshop centered around the Oxfam UK/1 program work on gender with its partners and other actors. Gender issues have been part of the program since 1985. Around 80% of the program involves mixed partners (men and women), while around 15% involves women-only groups. Strategies for working with partners include training, ongoing dialogue, involvement in planning, networking, lobbying, advocacy work, sectoral interventions, and research to highlight issues. Improving the gender work of existing counterparts and building new relationships are the goals of the Oxfam UK/1 program. Gender awareness should be used as a criterion in choosing those with whom work is done. Time-bound strategies are needed to persuade partners to respond to the gender-related needs of target groups. Resources are needed to enhance the capacity skills of willing partners. The workshop produced the following recommendations: 1) program managers must take conscious steps to invest time and resources in seeking out new relationships with new potential actors; 2) local culture should be analyzed to develop a locally appropriate approach to gender discrimination, and strategies have to synchronize policy directives with what is happening on the ground; 3) in seeking new relationships, centers of positive energy, which can create a domino effect and break down resistance, should be identified; and 4) networking should be broadened to outside the current universe of counterparts.

  9. What Determines Social Capital in a Social-Ecological System? Insights from a Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Mauthe, Michele; Gray, Steven Allen; Arita, Shawn; Lynham, John; Leung, PingSun

    2015-02-01

    Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social-ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others. Despite its importance, the factors that contribute to variation in social capital among individuals have not been widely studied. We adopt a network perspective to examine what determines social capital among individuals in social-ecological systems. We begin by identifying network measures of social capital relevant for individuals in this context, and review existing evidence concerning their determinants. Using a complete social network dataset from Hawaii's longline fishery, we employ social network analysis and other statistical methods to empirically estimate these measures and determine the extent to which individual stakeholder attributes explain variation within them. We find that ethnicity is the strongest predictor of social capital. Measures of human capital (i.e., education, experience), years living in the community, and information-sharing attitudes are also important. Surprisingly, we find that when controlling for other factors, industry leaders and formal fishery representatives are generally not well connected. Our results offer new quantitative insights on the relationship between stakeholder diversity, social networks, and social capital in a coupled social-ecological system, which can aid in identifying barriers and opportunities for action to overcome resource management problems. Our results also have implications for achieving resource governance that is not only ecologically and economically sustainable, but also equitable.

  10. Off-Policy Actor-Critic

    CERN Document Server

    Degris, Thomas; Sutton, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first actor-critic algorithm for off-policy reinforcement learning. Our algorithm is online and incremental, and its per-time-step complexity scales linearly with the number of learned weights. Previous work on actor-critic algorithms is limited to the on-policy setting and does not take advantage of the recent advances in off-policy gradient temporal-difference learning. Off-policy techniques, such as Greedy-GQ, enable a target policy to be learned while following and obtaining data from another (behavior) policy. For many problems, however, actor-critic methods are more practical than action value methods (like Greedy-GQ) because they explicitly represent the policy; consequently, the policy can be stochastic and utilize a large action space. In this paper, we illustrate how to practically combine the generality and learning potential of off-policy learning with the flexibility in action selection given by actor-critic methods. We derive an incremental, linear time and space complexi...

  11. Public Policies and Strategies of Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiret, Pierre-Jean

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis "Public Policies and Strategies of Actors" concerns the same theme as Part 4 of the "Handbook of Distance Education" (Moore 2007), which deals with policies, administration, and management. Eleven articles illustrate the theme. Three articles are studies about the experience in France between 2000 and 2003 of the…

  12. An Erlang Implementation of Multiparty Session Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fowler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By requiring co-ordination to take place using explicit message passing instead of relying on shared memory, actor-based programming languages have been shown to be effective tools for building reliable and fault-tolerant distributed systems. Although naturally communication-centric, communication patterns in actor-based applications remain informally specified, meaning that errors in communication are detected late, if at all. Multiparty session types are a formalism to describe, at a global level, the interactions between multiple communicating entities. This article describes the implementation of a prototype framework for monitoring Erlang/OTP gen_server applications against multiparty session types, showing how previous work on multiparty session actors can be adapted to a purely actor-based language, and how monitor violations and termination of session participants can be reported in line with the Erlang mantra of "let it fail". Finally, the framework is used to implement two case studies: an adaptation of a freely-available DNS server, and a chat server.

  13. Pensar e intervenir el territorio a traves de la Teoria del Actor-Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Cabrera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es reflexionar sobre las coincidencias entre la forma de ver el territorio como red, algunas posturas teóricas sobre su concepto y la teoría del actor-red. Sobre lo anterior se centra en proponer una forma de entender las relaciones entre actores cuando se va a intervenir el territorio a través de políticas públicas como la planificación utilizando un modelo de gestión territorial a través de las orientaciones de la TAR.   

  14. The moral problem of worse actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals and institutions sometimes have morally stringent reasons to not do a given action. For example, an oil company might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing revenue to a genocidal regime, or an engineer might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing her expertise in the development of weapons of mass destruction. But in some cases, if the agent does not do the action, another actor will do it with much worse consequences. For example, the oil company might know their assets will be bought by a company with worse environmental and labor practices. Or the engineer might know her position will be filled by a more ambitious and amoral engineer. I call this the moral problem of worse actors (MPWA. MPWA gives reason, at least some of the time, to consider otherwise morally impermissible actions permissible or even obligatory. On my account, doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA remains morally objectionable even if permissible or obligatory, and this brings additional moral responsibilities and obligations to the actor. Similarly, not doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA may also bring additional (but different moral responsibilities and obligations. Acknowledging MPWA creates considerable challenges, as many bad actors may appeal to it to justify morally objectionable action. In this paper, I develop a set of strategies for individuals and institutions to handle MPWA. This includes appeals to integrity and the proper attribution of expressive responsibility, regulatory responsibility, and compensatory responsibility. I also address a set of related concerns, including worries about incentivizing would-be bad actors, concerns about epistemic uncertainty, and the problem of mala in se exceptions.

  15. The Rise of the Video-Recorder Teacher: The Sociomaterial Construction of an Educational Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Carlo; Czerniewicz, Laura; Beetham, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on actor-network theory and on the sociology of cultural consumption to examine the phenomenon of corporate Massive Open Online Courses. Through an analysis of texts available in the public domain, the paper argues that over a short period (between 2012 and 2013) digitisation technology became associated with the emergence of a…

  16. Interactive Actor Analysis for Rural Water Management in The Netherlands : An Application of the Transactional Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Timmermans (Jos)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRecent developments in the policy sciences emphasize the social environment in which decisions are made. The ‘network metaphor’ is often used to describe the key role of interactions between interdependent actors involved in decision making. These interactions take place in a policy aren

  17. Interactive Actor Analysis for Rural Water Management in The Netherlands : An Application of the Transactional Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Timmermans (Jos)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractRecent developments in the policy sciences emphasize the social environment in which decisions are made. The ‘network metaphor’ is often used to describe the key role of interactions between interdependent actors involved in decision making. These interactions take place in a policy aren

  18. A Framework and Classification for Fault Detection Approaches in Wireless Sensor Networks with an Energy Efficiency Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yue; Dragoni, Nicola; Wang, Jiangtao

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are more and more considered a key enabling technology for the realisation of the Internet of Things (IoT) vision. With the long term goal of designing fault-tolerant IoT systems, this paper proposes a fault detection framework for WSNs with the perspective of energy...

  19. Alteration and reorganization of functional networks: a new perspective in brain injury study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazareth P. Castellanos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity is the mechanism underlying brain’s potential capability to compensate injury. Recently several studies have shown that functional connections among brain areas are severely altered by brain injury and plasticity leading to a reorganization of the networks. This new approach studies the impact of brain injury by means of alteration of functional interactions. The concept of functional connectivity refers to the statistical interdependencies between physiological time series simultaneously recorded in various brain areas and it could be an essential tool for brain function studies, being its deviation from healthy reference an indicator for damage. In this article, we review studies investigating functional connectivity changes after brain injury and subsequent recovery, providing an accessible introduction to common mathematical methods to infer functional connectivity, exploring their capabilities, future perspectives and clinical uses in brain injury studies.

  20. Network-based Modeling of Mesoscale Catchments - The Hydrology Perspective of Glowa-danube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, R.; Escher-Vetter, H.; Hennicker, R.; Mauser, W.; Niemeyer, S.; Reichstein, M.; Tenhunen, J.

    Within the GLOWA initiative of the German Ministry for Research and Educa- tion (BMBF), the project GLOWA-Danube is funded to establish a transdisciplinary network-based decision support tool for water related issues in the Upper Danube wa- tershed. It aims to develop and validate integration techniques, integrated models and integrated monitoring procedures and to implement them in the network-based De- cision Support System DANUBIA. An accurate description of processes involved in energy, water and matter fluxes and turnovers requires an intense collaboration and exchange of water related expertise of different scientific disciplines. DANUBIA is conceived as a distributed expert network and is developed on the basis of re-useable, refineable, and documented sub-models. In order to synthesize a common understand- ing between the project partners, a standardized notation of parameters and functions and a platform-independent structure of computational methods and interfaces has been established using the Unified Modeling Language UML. DANUBIA is object- oriented, spatially distributed and raster-based at its core. It applies the concept of "proxels" (Process Pixel) as its basic object, which has different dimensions depend- ing on the viewing scale and connects to its environment through fluxes. The presented study excerpts the hydrological view point of GLOWA-Danube, its approach of model coupling and network based communication (using the Remote Method Invocation RMI), the object-oriented technology to simulate physical processes and interactions at the land surface and the methodology to treat the issue of spatial and temporal scal- ing in large, heterogeneous catchments. The mechanisms applied to communicate data and model parameters across the typical discipline borders will be demonstrated from the perspective of a land-surface object, which comprises the capabilities of interde- pendent expert models for snowmelt, soil water movement, runoff formation, plant

  1. [The emergence and institutionalization of sexology in Portugal: processes, actors, and specificities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcão, Violeta; Machado, Fernando Luís; Giami, Alain

    2016-09-05

    Based on Bourdieu's field theory, this article analyzes the emergence and institutionalization of sexology as a science and profession in Portugal, identifying relevant institutions, actors, and professional practices and discussing its relations and specificities. The analysis begins by contextualizing the emergence of modern Western sexology in order to comprehend the Portuguese case in the international sexology context. The second section describes the social, cultural, and institutional factors that have driven the professionalization of sexology. The third section describes the emergence of Portuguese sexology and its principal historical milestones, institutions, and actors. Finally, the article discusses some implications of this process for the role of sexology as a science and profession. The study reveals the dynamics of national and international processes in the field, in the transition from a holistic perspective of sexology to the hegemony of sexual medicine, and sheds light on its mechanisms of legitimation as a transdisciplinary science of sexuality, suggesting future perspectives.

  2. Digital Citizen Participation within Schools in the United Kingdom and Indonesia: An Actor–Network Theory (ANT Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Citizen engagement and participation are a key focus for government and government agencies, and with the advent of Internet technologies questions arise about the role and impact of technology on citizen participation. This paper aims to explore the role of technology in citizen participation within schools. This research used in-depth comparative case studies using examples from two different schools and school systems, one in the United Kingdom and one in Indonesia. The wider school systems are complex and dynamic environments with multiple stakeholders, media, and supporting systems, and the schools operate under geopolitical and social influences. This paper provides a framework, based on Actor-Network Theory (ANT, for capturing e-participation in schools, particularly identifying the influence of technology as a conduit for enabling, engaging, and empowering stakeholders.

  3. A Method for Studying Social Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaine Touraine

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available So little agreement exists on what constitutes sociology that it seems impossible to de?ne its speci?c methods. We can however proceed through a series of eliminations. Light has been shed on many types of social behavior as economic studies have taken more interest in issues of social strati?cation and mobility or in consumer behavior, and as they increasingly incorporate elaborate quantitative analysis into this type of data. Correlations between social statuses and social behavior tell us about the logic of the system, yet not about that of the actors. Hence, we must imagine other methods in order to reach the actor as an autonomous being, as an agent of transformation of his environment and of his own situation, as a creator of imaginary worlds, as capable of referring to absolute values or of being involved in love relations.

  4. Technology strategy as macro-actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    outcomes.Three cases are presented, each of them with a particular bearing on how materials participate in the making of emerging strategic identities and outcomes:The first case account for strategies transforming plans into anti-plans. This is a case of how a strategic plan is betrayed (or rejected......The aim of this article is to inquire into the possible significance of materials in the production of emerging strategic outcomes. The article first sets out to discuss the different ways contemporary strategy research define the identity of strategic actors. It is argued that the various schools...... of strategy research, although different in important respects, operate with a common human centered assumption: Humanity is treated as given - the strategic actor or subject is assumed to be an individual human or a collective of humans.By adding the possible significance of materials and other non...

  5. A network perspective on the calamity, induced inaccessibility of communities and the robustness of centralized, landbound relief efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Jesus Felix; Legara, Erika Fille; Fu, Xiuju; Goh, Rick Siow Mong; de Souza, Robert; Monterola, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    We examine the robustness of centralized, landbound relief operations' capability to promptly reach areas affected by a disaster event from a network perspective. We initially look at two idealized road networks: a two-dimensional grid and a scale-free network, and compare them to an actual road network obtained from OpenStreetMap. We show that, from a node designated as the center for relief operations (a "relief center"), damage to a road network causes a substantial fraction of the other nodes (about 20% in the three networks we examined) to become initially inaccessible from any relief effort, although the remaining majority can still be reached readily. Furthermore, we show the presence of a threshold in the two idealized road networks but not in the real one. Below this threshold, all nodes can robustly be reached in a short span of time, and above it, not only the partitioning mentioned above sets in, but also the time needed to reach the nodes becomes susceptible to the amount of damage sustained by the road network. Under damage sustained by random segments of the network, this threshold is higher in the scale-free network compared to the grid, due to the robustness of the former against random attacks. Our results may be of importance in formulating contingency plans for the logistics of disaster relief operations.

  6. Non-compliant Actors (NONCAS) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    presence that induces the emergence or entrenchment of NONCAS. We need to realise that actors have different motivations, contexts and means, which in...all or nothing terms and often suffer from pathological tendencies that prevent the pragmatism necessary for compromise settlements of conflict. Total...differences in values and ideas in relation to the central state and more or less specific political grievances and needs. Insurgencies may vary in

  7. State of the Art of Network Security Perspectives in Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tae Hwan; Lim, Shinyoung; Choi, Young B.; Park, Kwang-Roh; Lee, Heejo; Choi, Hyunsang

    Cloud computing is now regarded as one of social phenomenon that satisfy customers' needs. It is possible that the customers' needs and the primary principle of economy - gain maximum benefits from minimum investment - reflects realization of cloud computing. We are living in the connected society with flood of information and without connected computers to the Internet, our activities and work of daily living will be impossible. Cloud computing is able to provide customers with custom-tailored features of application software and user's environment based on the customer's needs by adopting on-demand outsourcing of computing resources through the Internet. It also provides cloud computing users with high-end computing power and expensive application software package, and accordingly the users will access their data and the application software where they are located at the remote system. As the cloud computing system is connected to the Internet, network security issues of cloud computing are considered as mandatory prior to real world service. In this paper, survey and issues on the network security in cloud computing are discussed from the perspective of real world service environments.

  8. The Stability of Interbank Market Network: A Perspective on Contagion and Risk Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the financial system, interbank market provides banks with liquidity and credit lending and also is the main channel for risk contagion. In this paper, we test the existence of systematic risk contagion within the Chinese interbank market. By building the networks of the Chinese interbank market for each year and using the measure of mutual information, we quantitatively detect the changes of interbank market networks and observe that the correlations between banks become increasingly tighter in recent years. With the bilateral risk exposure among Chinese listed commercial banks, we find that the possibility of systemic risk contagion in Chinese interbank market is fairly small. But of great concern on each individual bank, the matter is different. Our simulation shows that the failures of three special banks (i.e., Agricultural Bank of China and Bank of China and Industrial and Commercial Bank of China most likely lead to systemic risk contagion. Furthermore, we test the antirisk ability of the Chinese interbank market from the perspective of risk sharing and discover that the interbank market is stable when the loss scale is lower than forty percent of banks’ total core capital.

  9. Geographical impacts on social networks from perspectives of space and place: an empirical study using mobile phone data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li; Wu, Lun; Chi, Guanghua; Liu, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Space and place are two fundamental concepts in geography. Geographical factors have long been known as drivers of many aspects of people's social networks. But whether and how space and place affect social networks differently are still unclear. The widespread use of location-aware devices provides a novel source for distinguishing the mechanisms of their impacts on social networks. Using mobile phone data, this paper explores the effects of space and place on social networks. From the perspective of space, we confirm the distance decay effect in social networks, based on a comparison between synthetic social ties generated by a null model and actual social ties derived from real-world data. From the perspective of place, we introduce several measures to evaluate interactions between individuals and inspect the trio relationship including distance, spatio-temporal co-occurrence, and social ties. We found that people's interaction is a more important factor than spatial proximity, indicating that the spatial factor has a stronger impact on social networks in place compared to that in space. Furthermore, we verify the hypothesis that interactions play an important role in strengthening friendships.

  10. Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  11. Colorectal cancer prevention: Perspectives of key players from social networks in a low-income rural US region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E. Schoenberg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social networks influence health behavior and health status. Within social networks, “key players” often influence those around them, particularly in traditionally underserved areas like the Appalachian region in the USA. From a total sample of 787 Appalachian residents, we identified and interviewed 10 key players in complex networks, asking them what comprises a key player, their role in their network and community, and ideas to overcome and increase colorectal cancer (CRC screening. Key players emphasized their communication skills, resourcefulness, and special occupational and educational status in the community. Barriers to CRC screening included negative perceptions of the colonoscopy screening procedure, discomfort with the medical system, and misinformed perspectives on screening. Ideas to improve screening focused on increasing awareness of women's susceptibility to CRC, providing information on different screening tests, improving access, and the key role of health-care providers and key players themselves. We provide recommendations to leverage these vital community resources.

  12. Sexual Politics and Religious Actors in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pecheny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of religious actors in sexual politics in Argentina. Sexual politics has become a critical battlefield when it comes to the role of religion in the Argentinean liberal-democratic regime, while gender and sexuality have been the main political targets of religious institutions since the 1980s and 1990s. In this context, progressive legislation on gender, sexual, and reproductive rights was passed, including same-sex marriage and the recognition of transgender identities, despite the opposition of the Catholic Church. Paradoxically, abortion remains largely illegal, allowed only in exceptional circumstances.

  13. El terrorismo: ¿nuevo actor internacional?

    OpenAIRE

    Zeraoui, Zidane

    2002-01-01

    Los cambios mundiales desde el fin de la bipolaridad y la caída de la Unión Soviética han conllevando a la aparición de nuevos actores en el escenario internacional. El enfoque estatocéntrico hegemónico durante la Guerra Fría en las teorías realistas e idealistas está cediendo espacio a la pluralidad paradigmática que reconoce la emergencia de los nuevos entes. Además de los Estados, de las organizaciones tanto gubernamentales como no gubernamentales, de los organismos internacionales y de...

  14. Policy analysis of multi-actor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Enserink, Bert; Kwakkel, Jan; Thissen, Wil; Koppenjan, Joop; Bots, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Policy analysts love solving complex problems. Their favorite problems are not just technically complex but also characterized by the presence of many different social actors that hold conflicting interests, objectives, and perceptions and act strategically to get the best out of a problem situation. This book offers guidance for policy analysts who want to assess if and how their analysis could be of help, based on the premise that problem formulation is the cornerstone in addressing complex problems. This book positions policy analysis within the theories on processes of policy making, and f

  15. Shaping or shaking the learning network? Insights into teaching practices using Virtual Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Habib

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article carries out an analysis of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE in an institution of Higher Education using Actor Network Theory (ANT. The ANT perspective is used to help explore the complex processes that come into play when a VLE is introduced in an organisation, especially as pedagogical goals, administrative procedures and technological artefacts are interwoven in a heterogeneous web or “network”. The article identifies new actors that emerge in the traditional teacher-student, teacher-teacher and student-student relationships as a result of the presence and active usage of the VLE. It also describes how already existing actors may change roles or status in connection with VLE use.

  16. The simulation and optimization research on manufacturing enterprise’s supply chain process from the perspective of social network

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Chun; Shuai, Zhenzhen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: By studying the case of a Changsha engineering machinery manufacturing firm, this paper aims to find out the optimization tactics to reduce enterprise’s logistics operational cost. Design/methodology/approach: This paper builds the structure model of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational costs from the perspective of social firm network and simulates the model based on system dynamics. Findings: It concludes that applying system dynamics in the research o...

  17. The establishment of heterogeneous networks in performative spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suenson, Valinka; Harder, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical research combining the Actor Network Theory with a development of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology for tracking indoor movement behavior. The aim of the paper is to disucss the value of RFID technology as a method for observing heterogeneous networks...... and architecture through this theoretical perspective, it highlights the importance of the user involvement in the performative spaces where materiality becomes an actant on equal terms with the users. This paper discusses the use of RFID technology for tracking indoor movenment behavior as a method for examining...

  18. Investigation of rotated PCA from the perspective of network communities applied to climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, David; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Vejmelka, Martin; Palus, Milan

    2013-04-01

    , seasonality, and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Monthly Weather Review 115:1083-1126. Feldstein, SB (2000) The timescale, power spectra, and climate noise properties of teleconnection patterns. Journal of Climate 13(24), 4430-4440. Fortunato, S (2010) Community detection in graphs. Physics Report-Review Section of Physics Letters 486(3-5), 75-174. Kistler, R and Coauthors (2001) The NCEP-NCAR 50-Year Reanalysis: Monthly means CD-ROM and documentation. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 82, 247-267. Hlinka J, Hartman D, Vejmelka M, Novotna D and Palus M. Non-linear dependence and teleconnections in climate data: sources, relevance, nonstationarity. Submitted preprint, available at arXiv:1211.6688. Girvan, M ; Newman, MEJ (2002) Community structure in social and biological networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United State of America 99(12), 7821-7826. Newman, MEJ and Girvan N (2004) Finding and evaluating community structure in networks. Physical Review E 69(2), 026113. Tsonis, AA; Swanson, KL (2012) On the origins of decadal climate variability: a network perspective. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 19(5), 559-568. Tsonis, AA; Wang, G; Swanson, KL ; Rodrigues, FA; Costa, LD (2011) Community structure and dynamics in climate networks. Climate Dynamics 37(5-6), 933-940.

  19. Field Study of all GSM and WiFi Networks in Amman City from Geospatial Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawarey, Mosab; Alibrahim, Mustafa; Jetto, Hamza; Salah Mahmoud, Firas

    2016-04-01

    A thorough field study over multiple months has been conducted in the streets of Amman, the capital city of Jordan, in order to collect massive amounts of GSM and WiFi data and analyze them from geospatial perspective. Some interesting realities have been detected; e.g. the North and West of Amman are much better served by GSM operators than the East, South, and Center. Also, the security measures taken to protect WiFi networks in the North and West are much better than those in the East, South, and Center. This has led to the recognition of an interesting pattern that groups the North and West together, while the East, South, and Center constitute another group. Extremely interesting finding was found; the GSM signals are so strong at certain locations that they constitute direct lethal threat to human health; it is scientifically documented that such strengths would lead to certain human cell mutations and cancer. The exact locations and contributors of such hazards will be disclosed in this paper for the first time. Many tabular and graphical presentations of the data will be presented.

  20. Urban Poverty and Neighborhood Effects on Crime: Incorporating Spatial and Network Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graif, Corina; Gladfelter, Andrew S; Matthews, Stephen A

    2014-09-01

    Research on neighborhoods and crime is on a remarkable growth trajectory. In this article, we survey important recent developments in the scholarship on neighborhood effects and the spatial stratification of poverty and urban crime. We advance the case that, in understanding the impact of neighborhoods and poverty on crime, sociological and criminological research would benefit from expanding the analytical focus from residential neighborhoods to the network of neighborhoods individuals are exposed to during their daily routine activities. This perspective is supported by reemerging scholarship on activity spaces and macro-level research on inter-neighborhood connections. We highlight work indicating that non-residential contexts add variation in criminogenic exposure, which in turn influence offending behavior and victimization risk. Also, we draw on recent insights from research on gang violence, social and institutional connections, and spatial mismatch, and call for advancements in the scholarship on urban poverty that investigates the salience of inter-neighborhood connections in evaluating the spatial stratification of criminogenic risk for individuals and communities.

  1. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... of the complexity of T2DM, we propose a systems biology approach to advance the understanding of origin, onset, development, prevention, and treatment of this complex disease. This systems-based strategy is based on new study design principles and the integrated application of omics technologies: we pursue...

  2. Prospect Theory: Contributions to Understanding Actors, Causes and Consequences of Conflict in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Trott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite many recognized shortcomings, Rational Choice Theory remains the dominant perspective on decision-making in the literature on African conflict, whether overtly acknowledged or not. Prospect Theory, originally derived from the field of behavioural economics, can complement and advance this perspective not only by explaining the behaviour of actors, but also by allowing for predictions and the devising of strategies to avoid or end on-going conflicts based on a set of systematic biases that influence how actors make decisions. After a brief definition of Prospect Theory, this work will begin with an overview of the existing literature on decision-making as it relates to conflict, examine how Rational Choice is inadequate in explaining much human behaviour and thus how Prospect Theory can fill this gap. It will then move on to give a fuller definition of the various hypotheses derived from Prospect Theory that pertain to the study of conflict. An example of the application of Prospect Theory to a related field in which thorough research has been conducted, Deterrence Theory, will be used to demonstrate the model’s potential for study in other areas. This will be followed by a more in-depth analysis of the ways in which Prospect Theory can contribute to understanding the behaviour of actors in war, the causes of conflict, and the consequences in the African context. It will conclude with a summary and proposition for further research that can advance this analysis.

  3. Humanoids Learning to Walk: a Natural CPG-Actor-Critic Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI eLI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of learning mechanisms for locomotion has been the subject of much researchfor some time but many challenges remain. Dynamic systems theory (DST offers a novel approach to humanoid learning through environmental interaction. Reinforcement learning (RL has offered a promising method to adaptively link the dynamic system to the environment it interacts with via a reward-based value system.In this paper, we propose a model that integrates the above perspectives and applies it to the case of a humanoid (NAO robot learning to walk the ability of which emerges from its value-based interaction with the environment. In the model,a simplified central pattern generator (CPG architecture inspired by neuroscientific research and DST is integrated with an actor-critic approach to RL (cpg-actor-critic. In the cpg-actor-critic architecture, least-square-temporal-difference (LSTD based learning converges to the optimal solution quickly by using natural gradient and balancing exploration and exploitation. Futhermore, rather than using a traditional (designer-specified reward it uses a dynamic value function as a stability indicator (SI that adapts to the environment.The results obtained are analyzed and explained by using a novel DST embodied cognition approach. Learning to walk, from this perspective, is a process of integrating sensorimotor levels and value.

  4. Transnational Ideologies and Actors at the Level of Society in South and Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    of these movements, in general, giving particular attention to their embeddedness in everyday life. The paper observes these movements’ recruitment and training strategies as well as the patterns of socialization taking place within these movements. A global market has emerged in response to the phenomenal growth...... of these transnational movements wherein Islamic actors compete for followers and authority while local Muslim communities negotiate their ties with transnational Islamic networks....

  5. Brain systems for visual perspective taking and action perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Elisabetta; Ramsey, Richard; Conson, Massimiliano; Hamilton, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Taking another person's viewpoint and making sense of their actions are key processes that guide social behavior. Previous neuroimaging investigations have largely studied these processes separately. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how the brain incorporates another person's viewpoint and actions into visual perspective judgments. Participants made a left-right judgment about the location of a target object from their own (egocentric) or an actor's visual perspective (altercentric). Actor location varied around a table and the actor was either reaching or not reaching for the target object. Analyses examined brain regions engaged in the egocentric and altercentric tasks, brain regions where response magnitude tracked the orientation of the actor in the scene and brain regions sensitive to the action performed by the actor. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) was sensitive to actor orientation in the altercentric task, whereas the response in right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was sensitive to actor orientation in the egocentric task. Thus, dmPFC and right IFG may play distinct but complementary roles in visual perspective taking (VPT). Observation of a reaching actor compared to a non-reaching actor yielded activation in lateral occipitotemporal cortex, regardless of task, showing that these regions are sensitive to body posture independent of social context. By considering how an observed actor's location and action influence the neural bases of visual perspective judgments, the current study supports the view that multiple neurocognitive "routes" operate during VPT.

  6. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such "intrinsic" brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to "mind". However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the "classical" definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and "free-energy" (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm of "variational

  7. Influence Activation Model: A New Perspective in Social Influence Analysis and Social Network Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yang; Lichtenwalter, Ryan N; Dong, Yuxiao

    2016-01-01

    What drives the propensity for the social network dynamics? Social influence is believed to drive both off-line and on-line human behavior, however it has not been considered as a driver of social network evolution. Our analysis suggest that, while the network structure affects the spread of influence in social networks, the network is in turn shaped by social influence activity (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's). To that end, we develop a novel model of network evolution where the dynamics of network follow the mechanism of influence propagation, which are not captured by the existing network evolution models. Our experiments confirm the predictions of our model and demonstrate the important role that social influence can play in the process of network evolution. As well exploring the reason of social network evolution, different genres of social influence have been spotted having different effects on the network dynamics. These findings and ...

  8. Analysis of Three Actors: Roles of Government, Private Sector, and University toward Startup Growth in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinintya Audori Fathin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information, communication, and technology advancements in 21st century encourage startups to innovate and develop their business further. Because it’s an ICT based business which is supported by the existence of internet, this kind of business starts to become borderless. As a result, the distributions of the products start to become unlimited. The conveniences offered by these advancements invite more ICT based product developers. The positive impact as a result of that such as more new jobs, easier way to access the markets, and also cheaper production cost with guaranteed profits. In addition to that, this of course also becomes an added value to the country because it increases Network Readiness Index and nation’s income from taxes. This research aims to analyze startup’s growth, in addition to its relation with related actors such as government, private sectors, and universities. Analysis on every actor will emphasize on their contribution to startup developments in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta directly or indirectly. In conclusion, there will be an illustration about how big the contributions and how close the actors are between startups and the three actors.

  9. Collective action and network change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takacs, Karoly; Janky, Bela; Flache, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Network models of collective action commonly assume fixed social networks in which ties influence participation through social rewards. This implies that only certain ties are beneficial from the view of individual actors. Accordingly, in this study we allow that actors strategically revise their re

  10. Human Dopamine Receptors Interaction Network (DRIN): a systems biology perspective on topology, stability and functionality of the network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Avijit; Jatana, Nidhi; Latha, N

    2014-09-21

    Dopamine receptors (DR) are one of the major neurotransmitter receptors present in human brain. Malfunctioning of these receptors is well established to trigger many neurological and psychiatric disorders. Taking into consideration that proteins function collectively in a network for most of the biological processes, the present study is aimed to depict the interactions between all dopamine receptors following a systems biology approach. To capture comprehensive interactions of candidate proteins associated with human dopamine receptors, we performed a protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) analysis of all five receptors and their protein partners by mapping them into human interactome and constructed a human Dopamine Receptors Interaction Network (DRIN). We explored the topology of dopamine receptors as molecular network, revealing their characteristics and the role of central network elements. More to the point, a sub-network analysis was done to determine major functional clusters in human DRIN that govern key neurological pathways. Besides, interacting proteins in a pathway were characterized and prioritized based on their affinity for utmost drug molecules. The vulnerability of different networks to the dysfunction of diverse combination of components was estimated under random and direct attack scenarios. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is unique to put all five dopamine receptors together in a common interaction network and to understand the functionality of interacting proteins collectively. Our study pinpointed distinctive topological and functional properties of human dopamine receptors that have helped in identifying potential therapeutic drug targets in the dopamine interaction network.

  11. Literacy testing objects as co-actors in framing bilingual childrens literacy development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    Literacy testing objects as co-actors in framing bilingual children´s literacy development Based on Latour´s theoretical perspective that human beings delegate roles and responsibility to artifacts, it becomes important to track and research the objects that circulate within and between “sites...... perspectives is needed. The object in this presentation is literacy testing and the focus is on the function of literacy testing objects in framing bilingual children’s´ literacy development. Based on interviews and observations from three primary schools in Denmark the central research interest is to reveal...... the meaning that is delegated to the literacy testing objects in regard to bilingual children´s literacy development and to explore the narratives that are constructed about the children´s literacy. Based on Latour´s theoretical perspective that human beings delegate roles and responsibility to artifacts...

  12. Actores sociales y ambitos de construccion de politicas ambientales Social actors and scenarios in the generation of environmental politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gudynas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el concepto de "actores claves" en la generación de políticas ambientales. Independientemente de la definición de actor social que se maneje, el asumir la existencia de actores claves ofrece limitaciones conceptuales y prácticas, ya que éstos son coyunturales a cada situación específica. Todos pueden ser actores claves en generar políticas ambientales cumpliendo papeles diferenciales. Como alternativa se utiliza el término de "actores destacados" y se revisan aspectos sobresalientes de varios de ellos en América Latina. Seguidamente se postula que el análisis se debe centrar en los escenarios sociales donde esos actores se pueden manifestar. Se ofrece una distinción preliminar de escenarios que permite integrar a nuevos y viejos movimientos sociales y establecer relaciones de articulación y equivalencia.The concept of "key actors" in the field of environmental politics is analyzed. Beyond the definition of social actor, the assumption of the existence of key actors implies conceptual and practical limitations, as it depends of each specific situation. Everyone could be a key actor under differential roles in the generation of environmental politics. As an alternative, the term "noteworthy actors" is used and a brief review of them in Latin America is presented. The relevant question should address the social scenarios from where these actors can express themselves. A preliminary distinction of scenarios is presented, in which old and new social movements could be integrated and relationships of articulation and equivalence could be established.

  13. Evolution and prospects cable networks for broadband services : A technical perspective of the European and specifically the Dutch cable networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous

    2012-01-01

    European cable networks have played an important role in the development of broadcast television and broadband services. The delivery of Gigabit broadband services is considered to be the next access network challenge in the development of broadband services. In this whitepaper we have studied and a

  14. Complexity in Decision Making: The Case of the Rotterdam Harbour Expansion : Connecting Decisions, Arenas and Actors in Spatial Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans); M.K.A. van Gils (Marcel)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDecision making about spatial projects is very complex. Decisions to develop the Rotterdam harbour are taken in the context of a network of local, regional, national, European and international actors, both public and private. These decision-making processes exhibit a lot of complexity a

  15. Multiple actor-critic structures for continuous-time optimal control using input-output data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank; Wei, Qinglai; Zhang, Hua-Guang; Jiang, Zhong-Ping; Levine, Dan

    2015-04-01

    In industrial process control, there may be multiple performance objectives, depending on salient features of the input-output data. Aiming at this situation, this paper proposes multiple actor-critic structures to obtain the optimal control via input-output data for unknown nonlinear systems. The shunting inhibitory artificial neural network (SIANN) is used to classify the input-output data into one of several categories. Different performance measure functions may be defined for disparate categories. The approximate dynamic programming algorithm, which contains model module, critic network, and action network, is used to establish the optimal control in each category. A recurrent neural network (RNN) model is used to reconstruct the unknown system dynamics using input-output data. NNs are used to approximate the critic and action networks, respectively. It is proven that the model error and the closed unknown system are uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed optimal control scheme for the unknown nonlinear system.

  16. Transnational Diaspora and Civil Society Actors Driving MNE Internationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Elo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    ) in Bangladesh. This case study analyses and describes the stages of development, documenting how Norwegian Telenor, American Gonophone, Japanese Marubeni and Bangladeshi Grameen Bank created an IJV named Grameenphone in Bangladesh, and how diaspora and civil society actors made up the prime movers......Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are viewed as proactive global economic actors that enter new and emerging markets with intentional strategies, building on their inherent resources and firm-specific advantages. However, an international joint venture involves numerous actors in the market entry...... and civil society actors. It provides evidence of the reactive internationalisation of an MNE, showing how the transnational diaspora drove the MNE’s internationalisation and how a civil society actor, in conjunction with a diaspora member, facilitated the creation of an international joint venture (IJV...

  17. NGO - PRIVATE ACTORS AT AN INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAILA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available International law, taken by globalization, helps emerge “private actors at an international level” by generating “a removal from territories of problems and solutions”. The question of NGO accessing international jurisdictions is situated at this intersection, which is a dangerous one for jurists. The ways of national laws intersect, in fact, with those of international law. More over, private international law, more specifically, the private judicial nature of NGOs that enter into contact with public international law, an intersection that will imprint a plural-disciplinary character that marks this study. Thus, we must follow this rocky road and try a private approach of a question disputed by public law, which is also a part of international law. The risks of maladroitness are numerous, but must be assumed according to their importance and of the rarity of clarification attempts. NGOs, legal persons from private law exercising their activities in international context contain, in fact, elements of foreign origin that result in specific problems of international law. And if “international law can not be the domain of perfect solutions” it can allow however the adoption of others which, that can seem less perfect to some, will possess the aptitude of “creating the laws of a state”. Thus, only by allying public international law to private law, the question of NGOs access to international jurisdictions can receive an answer.

  18. A network analysis of Sibiu County, Romania

    CERN Document Server

    Grama, Cristina-Nicol

    2013-01-01

    Network science methods have proved to be able to provide useful insights from both a theoretical and a practical point of view in that they can better inform governance policies in complex dynamic environments. The tourism research community has provided an increasing number of works that analyse destinations from a network science perspective. However, most of the studies refer to relatively small samples of actors and linkages. With this note we provide a full network study, although at a preliminary stage, that reports a complete analysis of a Romanian destination (Sibiu). Our intention is to increase the set of similar studies with the aim of supporting the investigations in structural and dynamical characteristics of tourism destinations.

  19. Segmentation and Classification of Human Actions and Actor Characteristics with 3d Motion Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ali Etemad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have used 3D motion capture data with the aim of detecting and classifying specifichuman actions. In addition to recognition of basic action classes, actor styles and characteristics such asgender, age, and energy level have also been subject to classification. We have applied and compared threemain methods: nearest neighbour search, hidden Markov models, and artificial neural networks. Usingthese techniques, we have proposed exhaustive algorithms for detection of actions in a motion piece andsubsequently classifying the segmented actions and respective characteristics of the actors. We have testedthe methods for various sequences and compared the results for a comprehensive evaluation of each of theproposed techniques. Our findings can be largely used for general classification of human motion data formultimedia applications as well as sorting and classifying data sets of human motion data especially thoseacquired using visual marker-based motion capture systems such as the one employed in this research.

  20. Social networks in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    and practice have focused on conceptual frameworks and practical techniques of promoting reflection through conversation in general and questioning in particular. However, in recent years, supervision research has started to focus on the social and technological aspects of supervision. This calls...... is constituted by the relationality of the actors, not by the actors themselves. In other words, no one acts in a vacuum but rather always under the influence of a wide range of surrounding and interconnected factors. Actors are actors because they are in a networked relationship. Thus, focusing on social...... and space. That involves mobilised an denrolled actos, both animate and inanimate (e.g. books, computers, etc. Actor-network theory defines a symmetry between animate and inanimate, i.e. subjects and objects, because ”human powers increasingly derive from the complex interconnections if human with material...

  1. Manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational cost simulation and optimization from the perspective of inter-firm network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Fu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: By studying the case of a Changsha engineering machinery manufacturing firm, this paper aims to find out the optimization tactics to reduce enterprise’s logistics operational cost. Design/methodology/approach: This paper builds the structure model of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational costs from the perspective of inter-firm network and simulates the model based on system dynamics. Findings: It concludes that applying system dynamics in the research of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics cost control can better reflect the relationship of factors in the system. And the case firm can optimize the logistics costs by implement joint distribution. Research limitations/implications: This study still lacks comprehensive consideration about the variables quantities and quantitative of the control factors. In the future, we should strengthen the collection of data and information about the engineering manufacturing firms and improve the logistics operational cost model. Practical implications: This study puts forward some optimization tactics to reduce enterprise’s logistics operational cost. And it is of great significance for enterprise’s supply chain management optimization and logistics cost control. Originality/value: Differing from the existing literatures, this paper builds the structure model of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational costs from the perspective of inter-firm network and simulates the model based on system dynamics.

  2. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature.

  3. The RAFT Telemedicine Network in Low and Middle Income Countries: Educational and Clinical Services, Lessons Learnt and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges eBediang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectives of this paper are to: i provide an overview of the educational and clinical experiences of the RAFT network, ii analyse key challenges and lessons learnt throughout a decade of activity and, iii draw a vision and perspectives of its sustainability.Methods: The study was carried out following three main stages: i a literature review, ii the analysis of key documents and iii discussions with key collaborators of the RAFT.Results: RAFT has been offering an important quantity of educational, clinical and public health activities during the last decade. The educational activities include: the weekly delivery of video-lectures for continuing and postgraduate medical education, the use of virtual patients for training in clinical decision making, research training activities using ICTs and other e-learning activities. The clinical and public health activities include: tele-expertise to support health professionals in the management of difficult clinical cases, the implementation of clinical information systems in African hospitals, the deployment of mHealth projects, etc. Since 2010, the RAFT has been extended to the Altiplano in Bolivia and Nepal (in progress. Lessons learnt and perspectives: Important lessons have been learnt from the accumulated experiences throughout these years. These lessons concern: social and organization, human resources, technologies and data security, policy and legislation, and economy and financing. Also, given the increase of the activities and the integration of eHealth and telemedicine in the health system of most of the countries, the RAFT network faces many other challenges and perspectives such as: learning throughout life, recognition and valorisation of teaching or learning activities, the impact evaluation of interventions, and the scaling up and transferability out of Africa of RAFT activities. Based on the RAFT experience, effective integration and optimum use of eHealth and

  4. A Study on Relationship between Modularity and Diffusion Dynamics in Networks from Spectral Analysis Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka Ide

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Modular structure is a typical structure that is observed in most of real networks. Diffusion dynamics in network is getting much attention because of dramatic increasing of the data flows via the www. The diffusion dynamics in network have been well analysed as probabilistic process, but the proposed frameworks still shows the difference from the real observations. In this paper, we analysed spectral properties of the networks and diffusion dynamics. Especially, we focus on studying the relationship between modularity and diffusion dynamics. Our analysis as well as simulation results show that the relative influences from the non-largest eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors increase when modularity of network increases. These results have the implication that, although network dynamics have been often analysed with the approximation manner utilizing only the largest eigenvalue, the consideration of the other eigenvalues is necessary for the analysis of the network dynamics on real networks. We also investigated Node-level Eigenvalue Influence Index (NEII which can quantify the relative influence from each eigenvalues on each node. This investigation indicates that the influence from each eigenvalue is confined within the modular structures in the network. These findings should be made consideration by researchers interested in diffusion dynamics analysis on real networks for deeper analysis.

  5. Cloud for Distributed Data Analysis Based on the Actor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kholod

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the construction of a Cloud for Distributed Data Analysis (CDDA based on the actor model. The design uses an approach to map the data mining algorithms on decomposed functional blocks, which are assigned to actors. Using actors allows users to move the computation closely towards the stored data. The process does not require loading data sets into the cloud and allows users to analyze confidential information locally. The results of experiments show that the efficiency of the proposed approach outperforms established solutions.

  6. Networks in Social Policy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco

    2012-08-01

    1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.

  7. Does human migration affect international trade? A complex-network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagiolo, Giorgio; Mastrorillo, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade, using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960-2000. Next, we ask whether the position of any pair of countries in the migration network affects their bilateral trade flows. We show that: (i) both weighted and binary versions of the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated; (ii) such correlations can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; and (iii) pairs of countries that are more central in the international-migration network trade more. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration.

  8. Valuable connections: a social capital perspective on teachers’ social networks, commitmentand self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke M. Moolenaar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In research on educational reform implementation, scholars have highlighted the importance of teacher collaboration in support of increased student achievement. In this study, we examine whether teachers’ knowledge exchange in social networks is related to key elements that have been associated with increased student achievement, namely teacher self-efficacy and commitment. Drawing on social capital theory, we study teachers’ social networks to assess whether greater access to resources, as captured by a more central network position, is related to a greater sense of teacher efficacy and commitment. We collected survey and social network data from eight elementary schools in the Netherlands (N=114, which were then analyzed using social network analysis and correlational analysis. Results suggest positive relationships between teachers’ social network indicators, teacher self-efficacy, and commitment to the organization and to students. Our findings yield directions for more relationally oriented educational policy instruments.

  9. Towards a systemic culture in global manufacturing virtual networks; Hacia una cultura sistemica en las redes virtuales de fabricacion global

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Monroy, C.; Vilana-Arto, J. R.

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyzes the most relevant factors of organizational culture that appear in Global Manufacturing Virtual Networks (GMVNs). These organizations are formed by very dynamic companies that manufacture all types of products or services and establish horizontal and vertical relations among themselves, and may even be competitors: within these organizations, it is not necessary maintaining large internal manufacturing resources but managing and sharing efficiently them with the network. The study of organizational culture at the network level includes aspects such as the similarity of cultural practices among its actors, social embeddedness, tacit knowledge transfer or the impertinence of trust in the network. They are ultimately the soft factors of GMVNs and are one of the key aspects for their efficient operation. By applying the proposed theoretical model, all the relevant cultural factors within inter-firm collaborations will be analyzed, as well as the possible existence of an organizational culture at the network level. The presence, under a systemic perspective, of homogeneous cultural values and practices, where actor scan be identified, would strengthen the group membership and would facilitate the establishment of a social network that underlies the awn GMVN and increases interactions among its members. The feasibility of this approach would facilitate the formation of new GMVNs by establishing, ex ante, a cultural perspectives model at the network level. (Author) 23 refs.

  10. Research on Business Model Innovations for Electric Vehicles:From the Perspective of Value Network%基于价值网络的电动汽车商业模式创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛奕曦; 陈翌; 孔德洋

    2014-01-01

    Business model innovation for electric vehicles (EVs) is an important way to promote the innovation diffusion of EVs. Consumer utility and profitability of business entities in the value network determines the sus-tainability of business models for EVs. So this paper adopts comparison and dynamic break-even analysis (BEP) methods to analyze the 'Shenzhen Model' from the perspective of economics. The results reveal that markup price between purchasing and charging, charging time and EV market penetration in the charging operational aspect are key factors of influencing the sustainability of the business model. Based on these, the profitability of each key actor is integrated to summarize and evaluate other domestic business models and some suggestions are proposed.%电动汽车商业模式是推动电动汽车技术创新扩散的重要途径,而商业模式价值网络中消费者效用和经营主体盈利性决定了该模式是否可持续。运用比较法和动态盈亏平衡分析法(BEP),从经济性视角重点对“深圳模式”进行剖析,发现充电运营环节的购电和充电差价、充电时间、充电需求量是影响商业模式可持续发展的关键参数。并以此为基础,对国内电动汽车商业模式中各主体的盈利能力进行考察和评价,总结存在的问题,并提出对策建议。

  11. Research on virtual actor action editing and movement control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhu QIN; Yuhui WU; Zhengxu ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    To directly use a virtual surface model for action editing and movement control, a general method for creating virtual actor skeleton models and controlling movement is presented. The method includes judging borderlines of the block virtual surface model, calculat-ing the joints, confirming the above block, and using the block hierarchical layout to create the skeleton model. Then, according to the virtual actor model and move-ment restriction, the study focuses on the generation of movement animation using the key frame technique and smoothing movement technique by automatically adding animation and adjusting the actor's pose by different weights on movement amplitude. Finally, movement control of the actor in the virtual environment is implemented by real-time control and path point control, which achieve a good result.

  12. Resenha: Power, Interdependence and Nonstate Actors in World Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuscia Moreno Galhera Espósito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resenha do livro: Moravcsik, Andrew; Milner, Helen V. (org.. Power, Interdependence and Nonstate Actors in World Politics. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-691-14027-8

  13. Engaging armed non-state actors in mechanisms for protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Lacroix

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Experience of engagement with armed non-state actors on the landmine ban may point the way to innovative approaches to preventing forced displacement and other abuses of human rights....

  14. Home-Based Peer Social Networks of Young Children with Down Syndrome: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Connor, Robert T.; Johnson, L. Clark

    2009-01-01

    Numerous dimensions of the peer social networks of children with Down syndrome were examined within a developmental framework. Results revealed that for many key measures, particularly involvement in play, linkages to other settings, and control of play, children with Down syndrome have less well-developed peer networks even in comparison to a…

  15. Repetitive Behaviors in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: New Perspectives from a Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's…

  16. Modes of governance of new service development for mobile networks. A life cycle perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on governance modes for service development of mobile telephone networks (GSM, WAP, GPRS, UMTS). 'Services' refer to services embodying a specific content. The paper shows that the phase of the life cycle of the network and the service affects the choice of governance

  17. A Social Network Perspective on Teacher Collaboration in Schools: Theory, Methodology, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolenaar, Nienke M.

    2012-01-01

    An emerging trend in educational research is the use of social network theory and methodology to understand how teacher collaboration can support or constrain teaching, learning, and educational change. This article provides a critical synthesis of educational literature on school social networks among educators to advance our understanding of the…

  18. Actors' positions and inclinations towards the electromobility system in France

    OpenAIRE

    SADEGHIAN, Sahdi; THEBERT, Marianne; LEURENT, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    The electromobility system of actors not only comprises the usual stakeholders involved in individual mobility, such as car manufacturers and drivers, but also electricity suppliers, service providers and above all public authorities. With the rising number of actors concerned, the electromobility system will require greater coordination and closer cooperation between existing and new, developing stakeholders than is currently the case. This paper aims to present a typology of the electromobi...

  19. Iranian Sanctions: An Actor-Centric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    nuclear route as Iran; signaling international disapproval [for Iran’s foreign and domestic policies]; delaying and disrupting Tehran’s nuclear and...around for a long time. The gossip on the street, going well beyond the observable facts, has the Rafsanjani’s stashing billions of dollars in bank...chances of success are slim since it would take time to build up these trade networks and alternate routes of supply—around the IRGC-controlled points

  20. Research on the tourism resource development from the perspective of network capability-Taking Wuxi Huishan Ancient Town as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yanli; Hua, Hefeng

    2017-03-01

    Network capability is the enterprise's capability to set up, manage, maintain and use a variety of relations between enterprises, and to obtain resources for improving competitiveness. Tourism in China is in a transformation period from sightseeing to leisure and vacation. Scenic spots as well as tourist enterprises can learn from some other enterprises in the process of resource development, and build up its own network relations in order to get resources for their survival and development. Through the effective management of network relations, the performance of resource development will be improved. By analyzing literature on network capability and the case analysis of Wuxi Huishan Ancient Town, the role of network capacity in the tourism resource development is explored and resource development path is built from the perspective of network capability. Finally, the tourism resource development process model based on network capacity is proposed. This model mainly includes setting up network vision, resource identification, resource acquisition, resource utilization and tourism project development. In these steps, network construction, network management and improving network center status are key points.

  1. Analysis of the Network of Protected Areas in China Based on a Geographic Perspective: Current Status, Issues and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengtian Cao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the continued growth of protected areas (PAs in China in terms of the number, coverage and varieties of protected objects, how to efficiently manage the protected areas to ensure both resource protection and environmental protection has become a crucial research question. By applying a geographic perspective in an analysis of the development and evolution of protected areas in China, this paper presents the results of an analysis focused on the status and the types of current approaches to the management of natural protected areas to reveal the problems that exist in their management and to further explore an integration strategy for the protected area network. It proposes that the future management of protected areas should prioritize their legal status, the sustainable livelihood of individuals living in close proximity to them, and the establishment of a unified database to achieve grid and information management of the protected areas.

  2. A model for the multiplex dynamics of two-mode and one-mode networks, with an application to employment preference, friendship, and advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Tom A. B.; Lomi, Alessandro; Torlo, Vanina Jasmine

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new stochastic actor-oriented model for the co-evolution of two-mode and one-mode networks. The model posits that activities of a set of actors, represented in the two-mode network, co-evolve with exchanges and interactions between the actors, as represented in the one-mode network. The

  3. A Combinational Perspective in Stimulating Cooperation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahshid Rahnamay-Naeini; Masoud Sabaei

    2011-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks cooperation among nodes cannot always be assumed since nodes with limited resources and different owners are capable of making independent decisions. Cooperation problems in topology control and packet forwarding tasks have been mostly studied separately but these two tasks are not independent. Considering a joint cooperation problem by taking into account dependencies between tasks will result in more reliable and efficient networks. In this paper topology control definition is extended to cover cooperation problem in both packet forwarding and topology control in a single problem. In this definition nodes have to adjust their transmission power and decide on their relay role. This paper models the interactions of nodes as a potential game with two-dimensional utility function. The presented model, named TCFORCE (Topology Control packet FORwarding Cooperation Enforcement), preserves the network connectivity and reduces the energy consumption by providing cooperative paths between all pairs of nodes in the network.

  4. Modeling epidemics on adaptively evolving networks: A data-mining perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattis, Assimakis A; Holiday, Alexander; Stoica, Ana-Andreea; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G

    2016-01-01

    The exploration of epidemic dynamics on dynamically evolving ("adaptive") networks poses nontrivial challenges to the modeler, such as the determination of a small number of informative statistics of the detailed network state (that is, a few "good observables") that usefully summarize the overall (macroscopic, systems-level) behavior. Obtaining reduced, small size accurate models in terms of these few statistical observables--that is, trying to coarse-grain the full network epidemic model to a small but useful macroscopic one--is even more daunting. Here we describe a data-based approach to solving the first challenge: the detection of a few informative collective observables of the detailed epidemic dynamics. This is accomplished through Diffusion Maps (DMAPS), a recently developed data-mining technique. We illustrate the approach through simulations of a simple mathematical model of epidemics on a network: a model known to exhibit complex temporal dynamics. We discuss potential extensions of the approach, as well as possible shortcomings.

  5. An Algorithmic Perspective on Some Network Design, Construction and Analysis Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Andreica, Mugurel Ionut; Andreica, Romulus; Andreica, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Efficient network design, construction and analysis are important topics, considering the highly dynamic environment in which data communication occurs nowadays. In this paper we address several problems concerning these topics from an algorithmic point of view.

  6. Architecture and biological applications of artificial neural networks: a tuberculosis perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsey, Jerry A; Griffin, William O; Joginipelli, Sravanthi; Melapu, Venkata Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Advancement of science and technology has prompted researchers to develop new intelligent systems that can solve a variety of problems such as pattern recognition, prediction, and optimization. The ability of the human brain to learn in a fashion that tolerates noise and error has attracted many researchers and provided the starting point for the development of artificial neural networks: the intelligent systems. Intelligent systems can acclimatize to the environment or data and can maximize the chances of success or improve the efficiency of a search. Due to massive parallelism with large numbers of interconnected processers and their ability to learn from the data, neural networks can solve a variety of challenging computational problems. Neural networks have the ability to derive meaning from complicated and imprecise data; they are used in detecting patterns, and trends that are too complex for humans, or other computer systems. Solutions to the toughest problems will not be found through one narrow specialization; therefore we need to combine interdisciplinary approaches to discover the solutions to a variety of problems. Many researchers in different disciplines such as medicine, bioinformatics, molecular biology, and pharmacology have successfully applied artificial neural networks. This chapter helps the reader in understanding the basics of artificial neural networks, their applications, and methodology; it also outlines the network learning process and architecture. We present a brief outline of the application of neural networks to medical diagnosis, drug discovery, gene identification, and protein structure prediction. We conclude with a summary of the results from our study on tuberculosis data using neural networks, in diagnosing active tuberculosis, and predicting chronic vs. infiltrative forms of tuberculosis.

  7. Thermostability of in vitro evolved Bacillus subtilis lipase A: a network and dynamics perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Srivastava

    Full Text Available Proteins in thermophilic organisms remain stable and function optimally at high temperatures. Owing to their important applicability in many industrial processes, such thermostable proteins have been studied extensively, and several structural factors attributed to their enhanced stability. How these factors render the emergent property of thermostability to proteins, even in situations where no significant changes occur in their three-dimensional structures in comparison to their mesophilic counter-parts, has remained an intriguing question. In this study we treat Lipase A from Bacillus subtilis and its six thermostable mutants in a unified manner and address the problem with a combined complex network-based analysis and molecular dynamic studies to find commonality in their properties. The Protein Contact Networks (PCN of the wild-type and six mutant Lipase A structures developed at a mesoscopic scale were analyzed at global network and local node (residue level using network parameters and community structure analysis. The comparative PCN analysis of all proteins pointed towards important role of specific residues in the enhanced thermostability. Network analysis results were corroborated with finer-scale molecular dynamics simulations at both room and high temperatures. Our results show that this combined approach at two scales can uncover small but important changes in the local conformations that add up to stabilize the protein structure in thermostable mutants, even when overall conformation differences among them are negligible. Our analysis not only supports the experimentally determined stabilizing factors, but also unveils the important role of contacts, distributed throughout the protein, that lead to thermostability. We propose that this combined mesoscopic-network and fine-grained molecular dynamics approach is a convenient and useful scheme not only to study allosteric changes leading to protein stability in the face of negligible

  8. Network Analysis as a tool for assessing environmental sustainability: applying the ecosystem perspective to a Danish Water Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Scotti, Marco; Thomsen, Marianne

    2013-03-30

    New insights into the sustainable use of natural resources in human systems can be gained through comparison with ecosystems via common indices. In both kinds of system, resources are processed by a number of users within a network, but we consider ecosystems as the only ones displaying sustainable patterns of growth and development. This study aims at using Network Analysis (NA) to move such "ecosystem perspective" from theory into practice. A Danish municipal Water Management System (WMS) is used as case study to test the NA methodology and to discuss its generic applicability. We identified water users within the WMS and represented their interactions as a network of water flows. We computed intensive and extensive indices of system-level performance for seven different network configurations illustrating past conditions (2004-2008) and future scenarios (2015 and 2020). We also computed the same indices for other 24 human systems and for 12 ecosystems, by using information from the existing scientific literature on NA. The comparison of these results reveals that the WMS is similar to the other human systems and that human systems generally differ from ecosystems. The WMS is highly efficient at processing the water resource, but the rigid and almost linear structure makes it vulnerable in situations of stress such as heavy rain events. The analysis of future scenarios showed a trend towards increased sustainability, but differences between past and expected future performance of the WMS are marginal. We argue that future interventions should create alternative pathways for reusing rainwater within the WMS, increasing its potential to withstand the occurrence of flooding. We discuss advantages, limitations, and general applicability of NA as a tool for assessing environmental sustainability in human systems.

  9. How people make friends in social networking sites—A microscopic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibo; Wang, Xiaofan

    2012-02-01

    We study the detailed growth of a social networking site with full temporal information by examining the creation process of each friendship relation that can collectively lead to the macroscopic properties of the network. We first study the reciprocal behavior of users, and find that link requests are quickly responded to and that the distribution of reciprocation intervals decays in an exponential form. The degrees of inviters/accepters are slightly negatively correlative with reciprocation time. In addition, the temporal feature of the online community shows that the distributions of intervals of user behaviors, such as sending or accepting link requests, follow a power law with a universal exponent, and peaks emerge for intervals of an integral day. We finally study the preferential selection and linking phenomena of the social networking site and find that, for the former, a linear preference holds for preferential sending and reception, and for the latter, a linear preference also holds for preferential acceptance, creation, and attachment. Based on the linearly preferential linking, we put forward an analyzable network model which can reproduce the degree distribution of the network. The research framework presented in the paper could provide a potential insight into how the micro-motives of users lead to the global structure of online social networks.

  10. Systemic aspects of innovation and design the perspective of collaborative networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mortati, Marzia

    2013-01-01

    The book provides a snapshot of a hot topic – the systemic nature of innovation and its relevance to design – with a trifold perspective: the academic level – the literature on innovation studies and design is often neglected and a clear connection between the two topics taken for granted; the research level – collaborative models are currently considered great opportunities for transforming consumption, production and distribution of goods, but a clear scholarly discourse is still forming; the political level – the European Commission and the OECD are devoting much effort to understanding and measuring the impact of design in innovation processes and firms and a clear contribution would greatly support this path. Thus the book provides an informed, historical and nuanced perspective to the relationship between design and innovation to contribute to all three levels and to propose a point of view that goes beyond aesthetics and meanings.

  11. A developmental systems perspective on epistasis: computational exploration of mutational interactions in model developmental regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available The way in which the information contained in genotypes is translated into complex phenotypic traits (i.e. embryonic expression patterns depends on its decoding by a multilayered hierarchy of biomolecular systems (regulatory networks. Each layer of this hierarchy displays its own regulatory schemes (i.e. operational rules such as +/- feedback and associated control parameters, resulting in characteristic variational constraints. This process can be conceptualized as a mapping issue, and in the context of highly-dimensional genotype-phenotype mappings (GPMs epistatic events have been shown to be ubiquitous, manifested in non-linear correspondences between changes in the genotype and their phenotypic effects. In this study I concentrate on epistatic phenomena pervading levels of biological organization above the genetic material, more specifically the realm of molecular networks. At this level, systems approaches to studying GPMs are specially suitable to shed light on the mechanistic basis of epistatic phenomena. To this aim, I constructed and analyzed ensembles of highly-modular (fully interconnected networks with distinctive topologies, each displaying dynamic behaviors that were categorized as either arbitrary or functional according to early patterning processes in the Drosophila embryo. Spatio-temporal expression trajectories in virtual syncytial embryos were simulated via reaction-diffusion models. My in silico mutational experiments show that: 1 the average fitness decay tendency to successively accumulated mutations in ensembles of functional networks indicates the prevalence of positive epistasis, whereas in ensembles of arbitrary networks negative epistasis is the dominant tendency; and 2 the evaluation of epistatic coefficients of diverse interaction orders indicates that, both positive and negative epistasis are more prevalent in functional networks than in arbitrary ones. Overall, I conclude that the phenotypic and fitness effects of

  12. Essays on Social Network Formation in Heterogeneous Populations: Models, Methods, and Empirical Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Bojanowski, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The overarching focus of the essays presented in this book pertains to the characteristics of individual actors (such as the industry or nationality associated with a firm), the extent to which the population of actors is heterogeneous with respect to those characteristics, and the ways in which actor characteristics and population heterogeneity influence the process of social network formation and the choices that actors make in these networks. We investigate theoretical, empirical, and meth...

  13. Global spatio-temporal patterns in human migration: a complex network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle F Davis

    Full Text Available Migration is a powerful adaptive strategy for humans to navigate hardship and pursue a better quality of life. As a universal vehicle facilitating exchanges of ideas, culture, money and goods, international migration is a major contributor to globalization. Consisting of countries linked by multiple connections of human movements, global migration constitutes a network. Despite the important role of human migration in connecting various communities in different parts of the world, the topology and behavior of the international migration network and its changes through time remain poorly understood. Here we show that the global human migration network became more interconnected during the latter half of the twentieth century and that migrant destination choice partly reflects colonial and postcolonial histories, language, religion, and distances. From 1960 to 2000 we found a steady increase in network transitivity (i.e. connectivity between nodes connected to the same node, a decrease in average path length and an upward shift in degree distribution, all of which strengthened the 'small-world' behavior of the migration network. Furthermore, we found that distinct groups of countries preferentially interact to form migration communities based largely on historical, cultural and economic factors.

  14. Global spatio-temporal patterns in human migration: a complex network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle F; D'Odorico, Paolo; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Migration is a powerful adaptive strategy for humans to navigate hardship and pursue a better quality of life. As a universal vehicle facilitating exchanges of ideas, culture, money and goods, international migration is a major contributor to globalization. Consisting of countries linked by multiple connections of human movements, global migration constitutes a network. Despite the important role of human migration in connecting various communities in different parts of the world, the topology and behavior of the international migration network and its changes through time remain poorly understood. Here we show that the global human migration network became more interconnected during the latter half of the twentieth century and that migrant destination choice partly reflects colonial and postcolonial histories, language, religion, and distances. From 1960 to 2000 we found a steady increase in network transitivity (i.e. connectivity between nodes connected to the same node), a decrease in average path length and an upward shift in degree distribution, all of which strengthened the 'small-world' behavior of the migration network. Furthermore, we found that distinct groups of countries preferentially interact to form migration communities based largely on historical, cultural and economic factors.

  15. Shareholding relationships in the Euro Area banking market: A network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Nicolò; Spelta, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the topological properties of the network of the Euro Area banking market network, with the primary aim of assessing the importance of a bank in the financial system with respect to ownership and control of other credit institutions. The network displays power law distributions in both binary and weighted degree metrics indicating a robust yet fragile structure and a direct link between an increase of control diversification and a rise in the market power. Therefore while in good time the network is seemingly robust, in bad times many banks can simultaneously go into distress. This behavior paves the way for Central bank's actions. In particular we investigate whether the Single Supervisory Mechanism introduced by the European Central Banks and based on banks' total asset is a good proxy to quantify their systemic importance. Results indicate that not all the financial institutions with high valued total assets are systemically important but only few of them. Moreover the network structure reveals that control is highly concentrated, with few important shareholders approximately controlling a separate subset of banks.

  16. Collaborative Trust Networks in Engineering Design Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkinson, Simon Reay; Maier, Anja; Caldwell, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Within organisations, decision makers have to rely on collaboration with other actors from different disciplines working within highly dynamic and distributed associated networks of varying size and scales. This paper develops control and influence networks within Design Structure Matrices (DSM);...

  17. How people make friends in social networking sites - A microscopic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Haibo

    2011-01-01

    We study the detailed growth of a social networking site with full temporal information by examining the creation process of each friendship relation that can collectively lead to the macroscopic properties of the network. We first study the reciprocal behavior of users, and find that link requests are quickly responded to and that the distribution of reciprocation intervals decays in an exponential form. The degrees of inviters/accepters are slightly negatively correlative with reciprocation time. In addition, the temporal feature of the online community shows that the distributions of intervals of user behaviors, such as sending or accepting link requests, follow a power law with a universal exponent, and peaks emerge for intervals of an integral day. We finally study the preferential selection and linking phenomena of the social networking site and find that, for the former, a linear preference holds for preferential sending and reception, and for the latter, a linear preference also holds for preferential...

  18. Striking the balance: Challenges and perspectives for the protected areas network in northeastern European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degteva, Svetlana V; Ponomarev, Vasily I; Eisenman, Sasha W; Dushenkov, Vyacheslav

    2015-10-01

    Increasing anthropogenic pressure on the largest remaining tracts of old-growth boreal forest in Europe necessitates additional conservation of ecosystems and biodiversity in northeastern European Russia. In a regional network comprising 8 % of the Nenets Autonomous District and 13.5 % of the Komi Republic, 248 areas have varying protected statuses as state nature reserves (zapovedniks), national parks, reserves/sanctuaries (zakazniks), or natural monuments. Due to increased natural resource extraction in this relatively pristine area, designation of additional protected areas is critical for the protection of key ecological sites. The history of ecological preservation in these regions is herein described, and recent recommendations for incorporating additional ecologically representative areas into the regional network are presented. If the protected area network can be expanded, the overall environmental stability in these globally significant ecosystems may remain intact, and can help Russia meet the 2020 Aichi conservation targets, as set forth by the Convention of Biological Diversity.

  19. A Topic Space Oriented User Group Discovering Scheme in Social Network: A Trust Chain Based Interest Measuring Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, user group has become an effective platform for information sharing and communicating among users in social network sites. In present work, we propose a single topic user group discovering scheme, which includes three phases: topic impact evaluation, interest degree measurement, and trust chain based discovering, to enable selecting influential topic and discovering users into a topic oriented group. Our main works include (1 an overview of proposed scheme and its related definitions; (2 topic space construction method based on topic relatedness clustering and its impact (influence degree and popularity degree evaluation; (3 a trust chain model to take user relation network topological information into account with a strength classification perspective; (4 an interest degree (user explicit and implicit interest degree evaluation method based on trust chain among users; and (5 a topic space oriented user group discovering method to group core users according to their explicit interest degrees and to predict ordinary users under implicit interest and user trust chain. Finally, experimental results are given to explain effectiveness and feasibility of our scheme.

  20. Structures and Infrastructures of International R&D Networks: A Capability Maturity Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niang, Mohamed; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    Purpose: This paper explores the process towards globally distributing R&D activities with an emphasis on organizational maturity. It discusses emerging configurations by asking how the structure and infrastructure of international R&D networks evolve along with the move from a strong R&D center...... present a capability maturity model. Furthermore, understanding the interaction between new structures and infrastructures of the dispersed networks is viewed as a key requirement for developing organizational capabilities and formulating adequate strategies that leverage dispersed R&D. Organizational...

  1. Symmetric angular momentum coupling, the quantum volume operator and the 7-spin network: a computational perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Marinelli, Dimitri; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Anderson, Roger W; Bitencourt, Ana Carla P; Ragni, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    A unified vision of the symmetric coupling of angular momenta and of the quantum mechanical volume operator is illustrated. The focus is on the quantum mechanical angular momentum theory of Wigner's 6j symbols and on the volume operator of the symmetric coupling in spin network approaches: here, crucial to our presentation are an appreciation of the role of the Racah sum rule and the simplification arising from the use of Regge symmetry. The projective geometry approach permits the introduction of a symmetric representation of a network of seven spins or angular momenta. Results of extensive computational investigations are summarized, presented and briefly discussed.

  2. Aftershocks in Modern Perspectives: Complex Earthquake Network, Aging, and Non-Markovianity

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of aftershocks is studied in view of science of complexity. In particular, three different concepts are examined: (i) the complex-network representation of seismicity, (ii) the event-event correlations, and (iii) the effects of long-range memory. Regarding (i), it is shown the clustering coefficient of the complex earthquake network exhibits a peculiar behavior at and after main shocks. Regarding (ii), it is found that aftershocks experience aging, and the associated scaling holds. And regarding (iii), the scaling relation to be satisfied by a class of singular Markovian processes is violated, implying the existence of the long-range memory in processes of aftershocks.

  3. Co-evolution of Social Networks and Behavior in Social Dilemmas: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, R.

    2009-01-01

    Social networks play an important role in explanations of outcomes of social dilemmas; situations in which goal-directed individual action can lead to a collectively suboptimal outcome. Among these dilemmas are the cooperation- and coordination problems that underlie many social phenomena. In most r

  4. The Key Roles in the Informal Organization: A Network Analysis Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toni, Alberto F.; Nonino, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the key roles embedded in the informal organizational structure (informal networks) and to outline their contribution in the companies' performance. A major objective of the research is to find and characterize a new key informal role that synthesises problem solving, expertise, and accessibility…

  5. Dynamics of Air Transport Networks: A Review from a Complex Systems Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Luis Enrique Correa

    2016-01-01

    Air transport systems are highly dynamic at temporal scales from minutes to years. This dynamic behavior not only characterizes the evolution of the system but also affect the system's functioning. Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms is thus fundamental in order to better design optimal air transport networks that benefits companies, passengers and the environment. In this review, we briefly present and discuss the state-of-art on time-evolving air transport networks. We distinguish the structural analysis of sequences of network snapshots, ideal for long-term network evolution (e.g. annual evolution), and temporal paths, preferred for short-term dynamics (e.g. hourly evolution). We emphasize that most previous research focused on the first modeling approach (i.e. long-term) whereas only a few studies look at high-resolution temporal paths. We conclude the review highlighting that much research remains to be done, both to apply already available methods and to develop new measures for temporal paths on ...

  6. Magnets and Seekers: A Network Perspective on Academic Integration inside Two Residential Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Residential learning communities aim to foster increased academic and social integration, ideally leading to greater student success. However, the concept of academic integration is often conceptualized and measured at the individual level, rather than the theoretically more consistent community level. Network analysis provides a paradigm and…

  7. Culture, Role and Group Work: A Social Network Analysis Perspective on an Online Collaborative Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Karen; Mather, Richard; Dalrymple, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the patterns of network dynamics within a multicultural online collaborative learning environment. It analyses the interaction of participants (both students and facilitators) within a discussion board that was established as part of a 3-month online collaborative course. The study employs longitudinal probabilistic social…

  8. Foregrounding the Role of Relationships in Reform: A Social Network Perspective on Leadership and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yi-Hwa; Daly, Alan J.; Brown, Chris; del Fresno, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The role of relationships in the process of leadership and change is central, yet the social aspect of the work of reform is often background in favor of more technical approaches to improvement. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to argue that social network theory and analysis provides a useful theory and set of tools to unpack the…

  9. Modernization of the french early warning network in IRSN, experience feedback and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debayle, C.; Bardet, A.; Beguin-Leprieur, M.; Chevreuil, M.; Malfait, V.; Mechenet, V. [PRP-ENV/SESURE/LS2A (France)

    2014-07-01

    Developed few years after the Chernobyl accident in 1991, the French early warning network, Teleray, composed by 160 ambient dose equivalent rate probes, had operated for 15 years. It was decided in 2007 to modernize this facility in order to keep the infrastructure up-to-date. The sensors, the data transmission network and the supervising system were considered separately, but each development took care about the modularity of the final IT system. After a benchmarking period and technical choices, a five years project started with the aim to increase the number of probes to 420, especially around the French nuclear facilities, to change the technology and the IT system including a new data transmission network. The project kick-off was planned in june 2011, but due to the Fukushima accident, the French government asked IRSN to implement a probe on the roof of the French embassy in Tokyo on March 18, 2011. Results and feedback will be discussed, focusing on new approach about data analysis purpose. In 2014, the modernization of this network will be finished one year before it was expected and with significant cost savings. All the relevant phase of the project will be described, including time schedule and economical aspects, with the aim to describe how it is now considered fundamental to have complementary mobile systems in case of nuclear crisis. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  10. The Global Special Operations Forces Network from a Partner-Nation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    choreographers , and orchestrators, and structural roles of governance and infrastructure.115 The main stakeholder in the GSN is the founder and driver...USSOCOM confirms Anklam’s notion that successful networks need the choreographer and orchestrator to “stay with the show.”116 The original

  11. Social Networks and Workplace Risk: Classroom Scenarios from a U.S. and EU Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Perry; Mansfield, Nancy R.

    2013-01-01

    The explosion of social networks and the growing concern over privacy in the digital age--both in the United States and Europe--have provided an opportunity to introduce students to the legal risks of using social media in the workplace. This article builds on the authors' classroom experiences and provides social media scenarios and projects that…

  12. Social Networking in an Intensive English Program Classroom: A Language Socialization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jonathon; Zander, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    This ongoing project seeks to investigate the impact, inside and outside of class, of instruction focused on developing learner awareness of social-networking site (SNS) use in an American Intensive English Program (IEP). With language socialization as an interpretative framework (Duff, in press; Ochs, 1988; Watson-Gegeo, 2004), the project uses a…

  13. Monitoring Scientific Developments from a Dynamic Perspective: Self-Organized Structuring To Map Neural Network Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyons, E. C. M.; van Raan, A. F. J.

    1998-01-01

    Using bibliometric mapping techniques, authors developed a methodology of self-organized structuring of scientific fields which was applied to neural network research. Explores the evolution of a data generated field structure by monitoring the interrelationships between subfields, the internal structure of subfields, and the dynamic features of…

  14. Principal Perspectives on Social Networking and the Disruptive Effects of Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Heidi Stevenson

    2010-01-01

    Cyberbullying on social networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook has had negative effects on children at school. Cyberbullying disruption during the school day adds to the complexity of maintaining school operations, safety, and academic achievement. With the advancement of technology, there is a gap in the literature on the disruption in…

  15. Efficacy of Online Social Networks on Language Teaching: A Bangladeshi Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Shams

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is now an established fact that the use of technology facilitates teaching and learning in language classrooms. With the advancement of technology, social networking websites have emerged too. Social networking sites have been quite popular among various age group users particularly the young users since their invention. Also, they are conceived to be able to motivate (Greenhow, Robelia, & Hughes, 2009 and expose learners to the authentic use of the target language (Baralt, 2011. However, very little research has been done, especially in Bangladesh, on how much these websites can contribute to language learning and teaching though they seem to offer ample opportunities. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the effect of using ‘The Facebook’, a social networking website, in language classrooms at tertiary level in Bangladesh. Participants of this study were first year first semester university students doing a foundation course in English focusing to improve their listening, speaking and writing skills. The participants were divided into two groups. Group 1 was the control group who was taught traditionally and non-digitally without using Facebook. Group 2, along with classroom teaching, received help from the instructor through Facebook and did tasks assigned on Facebook. At the end of the three months semester a test was taken and the result of both groups was compared. Thus, this study shall try to provide an answer regarding to what extent online social networks can facilitate second language acquisition.

  16. The Flow of International Students from a Macro Perspective: A Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, George A.; Lee, Moosung; Jiang, Ke; Park, Han Woo

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a network analysis of the international flow of students among 210 countries and the factors determining the structure of this flow. Among these factors, bilateral hyperlink connections between countries and the number of telephone minutes (communication variables) are the most important predictors of the flow's structure,…

  17. Burst Diplomacy The Diplomacies of Foreign Policy: Actors and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Devin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to diplomacy tend to be restrictive because of an exclusively interstate insight. Indeed, historically, the state monopoly over diplomacy has always been challenged by private actors. Today, it is defied both from the inside because of growing public fragmentation (every ministry tends to lead its own foreign policy; subnational authorities develop their diplomatic relations and from the outside (the business sector and civil society play a growing role on the international scene. This proliferation of actors has transformed diplomatic methods. Beyond the binary division between “old diplomacy” – bilateral, secret and resident – and “new diplomacy” – multilateral, public and itinerant – this article shows that diplomacy has to adapt to number and complexity. Therefore a more global conception need now be considered. Diplomacy today is a system of multiple actors using diverse methods in order to coordinate positions of common interest in a competitive and sometimes hostile environment.

  18. La red del Comercio Justo y sus principales actores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisa Ceccon Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de una descripción concisa del fenómeno del comercio justo y su participación en el comercio mundial. Al mismo tiempo, examina el papel de los diferentes actores que participan en la red del comercio justo, desde los productores hasta los consumidores. Finalmente, evalúa las relaciones entre estos actores y los retos que enfrentan para perfeccionar el sistema y mejorar las condiciones de participación de los productores, elementos fundamentales de esta red.

  19. Semantics for Communicating Actors with Interdependent Real-Time Deadlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoll, Istvan; Ravn, Anders Peter; Skou, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Models of embedded systems with communicating actors and deadlines offer abstraction and encapsulation of related functionality, but their behavior is complex. Verification is therefore difficult and requires a combination of simulation, model checking and testing tools. In order to rely on the r......Models of embedded systems with communicating actors and deadlines offer abstraction and encapsulation of related functionality, but their behavior is complex. Verification is therefore difficult and requires a combination of simulation, model checking and testing tools. In order to rely...

  20. A model for the multiplex dynamics of two-mode and one-mode networks, with an application to employment preference, friendship, and advice

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, Tom A. B.; Lomi, Alessandro; Torló, Vanina Jasmine

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new stochastic actor-oriented model for the co-evolution of two-mode and one-mode networks. The model posits that activities of a set of actors, represented in the two-mode network, co-evolve with exchanges and interactions between the actors, as represented in the one-mode network. The model assumes that the actors, not the activities, have agency.

  1. Innovation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrweiler, Petra

    2013-01-01

    This paper advances a framework for modeling the component interactions between cognitive and social aspects of scientific creativity and technological innovation. Specifically, it aims to characterize Innovation Networks; those networks that involve the interplay of people, ideas and organizations to create new, technologically feasible, commercially-realizable products, processes and organizational structures. The tri-partite framework captures networks of ideas (Concept Level), people (Individual Level) and social structures (Social-Organizational Level) and the interactions between these levels. At the concept level, new ideas are the nodes that are created and linked, kept open for further investigation or closed if solved by actors at the individual or organizational levels. At the individual level, the nodes are actors linked by shared worldviews (based on shared professional, educational, experiential backgrounds) who are the builders of the concept level. At the social-organizational level, the nodes...

  2. Food Sharing: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Saul

    Food altruism and the consumption of food are examined from a sociological perspective which assumes that humans share food as inclusive fitness actors. Inclusive fitness implies the representation of an individual's genes in future generations through his own or others' offspring. The discussion includes characteristics of food sharing among kin…

  3. Integrated signaling networks in plant responses to sedentary endoparasitic nematodes: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijuan; Rashotte, Aaron M; Singh, Narendra K; Weaver, David B; Lawrence, Kathy S; Locy, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary plant endoparasitic nematodes can cause detrimental yield losses in crop plants making the study of detailed cellular, molecular, and whole plant responses to them a subject of importance. In response to invading nematodes and nematode-secreted effectors, plant susceptibility/resistance is mainly determined by the coordination of different signaling pathways including specific plant resistance genes or proteins, plant hormone synthesis and signaling pathways, as well as reactive oxygen signals that are generated in response to nematode attack. Crosstalk between various nematode resistance-related elements can be seen as an integrated signaling network regulated by transcription factors and small RNAs at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and/or translational levels. Ultimately, the outcome of this highly controlled signaling network determines the host plant susceptibility/resistance to nematodes.

  4. Anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest biodiversity: a network structure and ecosystem functioning perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rebecca J

    2010-11-27

    Huge areas of diverse tropical forest are lost or degraded every year with dramatic consequences for biodiversity. Deforestation and fragmentation, over-exploitation, invasive species and climate change are the main drivers of tropical forest biodiversity loss. Most studies investigating these threats have focused on changes in species richness or species diversity. However, if we are to understand the absolute and long-term effects of anthropogenic impacts on tropical forests, we should also consider the interactions between species, how those species are organized in networks, and the function that those species perform. I discuss our current knowledge of network structure and ecosystem functioning, highlighting empirical examples of their response to anthropogenic impacts. I consider the future prospects for tropical forest biodiversity, focusing on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in secondary forest. Finally, I propose directions for future research to help us better understand the effects of anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest biodiversity.

  5. Physical states in the canonical tensor model from the perspective of random tensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Narain, Gaurav; Sato, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Tensor models, generalization of matrix models, are studied aiming for quantum gravity in dimensions larger than two. Among them, the canonical tensor model is formulated as a totally constrained system with first-class constraints, the algebra of which resembles the Dirac algebra of general relativity. When quantized, the physical states are defined to be vanished by the quantized constraints. In explicit representations, the constraint equations are a set of partial differential equations for physical wave-functions, which do not seem straightforward to solve due to their non-linear character. In this paper, after providing some explicit solutions for N = 2,3, we show that certain scale-free integration of partition functions of statistical systems on random networks, or random tensor networks more generally, provides a series of solutions for general N. Then, by generalizing this form, we also obtain various solutions for general N. Moreover, we show that the solutions for the cases with a cosmological con...

  6. Building new Knowledge Networks: A Europe–China Perspective on R&D Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harryson, Sigvald; Søberg, Peder Veng; Åkerman, Niklas

    2009-01-01

    innovation performance. By combining theories on ambidexterity, knowledge transfer and networking, a theoretical framework is developed to analyze the different strategies for local knowledge network interaction that are deployed by the case companies. The analysis suggests that close interaction and cross......This paper explores how offshoring of R&D affects innovation performance based on three recent cases of R&D transfer from Scandinavia to China. One globally leading packaging company moved R&D to China and immediately arranged innovation competitions between three selected universities in order...... to improve their innovation performance within distribution equipment. Two other Scandinavia originated companies – now global leaders within robotics and diabetes treatment – did on the other hand not co-operate as closely with local universities when they transferred R&D to China – and captured less...

  7. When the project becomes method: New perspectives for network-based socio-educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Caride Gómez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper centers its arguments in the epistemological shift that the so-called mixed methods have provided the Social and Educational Sciences with. It is not just as a way for widening the expectations they generate in socio-educational action and reflection but also in the change processes and social transformation. Based on these assumptions it is introduced the Network of Research Groups OcioGune and the coordinated project “From Educational to Social Times: the Daily Building of the Young Condition into a Network Society” (RESORTES. A practical realization of the potentialities inherent to collaborative work and the multidisciplinary approach provided by shared knowledge: a way, among others, to extend the frontiers of knowledge and its transfer to society by using mixed research methodologies.

  8. Interprofessional Student Perspectives of Online Social Networks in Health and Business Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Glynda; Jones, Cyri; Currie, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The education sector is experiencing unprecedented change with the increasing use by students of mobile devices, social networks and e-portfolios as they prepare for future positions in the workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine student's preferences around these technologies. A mixed methods research strategy was used with an initial online survey using 29 Likert scale style questions to students from the School of Health Sciences and the School of Business at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT). Descriptive statistics and ANOVAs were performed to examine if there were any differences between groups regarding their overall responses to the survey questions. Content analysis was used for qualitative focus group data. Overall, students (n = 260) were enthusiastic about technology but wary of cost, lack of choice, increased workload and faculty involvement in their online social networks. Of note, students see significant value in face-to-face classroom time.

  9. The impact of information technology and networks: new perspectives for scientific, technical and medical (STM) publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kemp, Arnoud

    This contribution is a strongly abbreviated notation of a much longer presentation at the Workshop on Strategies and Techniques of Information for Astronomy, organized by the European Science Foundation in Strasbourg on 21/22 June 1996. The process of publishing will undergo dramatic changes due to the influences of information technology and networks. The publishing business as a whole will shift from traditional print- and paper-based organisations to a fully digital workflow from author to end-user. Electronic publishing has moved from pre-print activities to digital preprints on a variety of servers, but still most scientific documentation is printed and not only for archival purposes. In this short contribution, a plea is made for new rules in scientific communication that authors, editors, publishers, societies, libraries and users can recognize. In addition, in the electronic age we need more security for copyright, transactions over networks and against misuse in general.

  10. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Krings, Gautier M; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration,which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify ...

  11. Review article "On the origins of decadal climate variability: a network perspective"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tsonis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This review is a synthesis of work spanning the last 25 yr. It is largely based on the use of climate networks to identify climate subsystems/major modes and to subsequently study how their collective behavior explains decadal variability. The central point is that a network of coupled nonlinear subsystems may at times begin to synchronize. If during synchronization the coupling between the subsystems increases, the synchronous state may, at some coupling strength threshold, be destroyed shifting climate to a new regime. This climate shift manifests itself as a change in global temperature trend. This mechanism, which is consistent with the theory of synchronized chaos, appears to be a very robust mechanism of the climate system. It is found in the instrumental records, in forced and unforced climate simulations, as well as in proxy records spanning several centuries.

  12. Teams, strategies and networks: developments in nutritional support; a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Tuck, J

    2009-08-01

    Chris Pennington was an archetypal team player, strategist and networker. Clinical nutritional support has progressed remarkably since the 1970s and it has been a privilege to work in this field over this period during which teamwork, strategy development and networking have been crucial. British experience has been characterised by groups of individuals of differing professions and specialties coming together to enable progress to be made. This approach was initially in the form of nutrition support teams orientated to patient-centred ward-based care, then as hospital strategic committees and the concept of the 'patient journey'. Indeed, the formation of the British Association for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (now known as BAPEN) in 1992 required the statesmanlike burying of jealousies as societies came together into a multiprofessional association. With the understanding that disease-related malnutrition was highly prevalent it became apparent that it must be managed on a broad and organised clinical front. In the Organisation of Food and Nutritional Support in Hospitals a group of professionals developed for BAPEN concepts of hospital-wide organisation to tackle malnutrition that were based on previous reports, both national and international, and were made easily accessible from the BAPEN website, especially the 'Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool' and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence nutrition guidelines. The coming together of six national clinical societies to develop evidence-based consensus guidelines for intravenous saline therapy (also on the BAPEN website) has shown that BAPEN can catalyse opinion well beyond its own nutritional constituency. In England Chris Pennington's Scottish lead is being followed by developing a patient-centred strategic framework for a managed home parenteral nutrition and intestinal failure national network. In research, education or clinical practice the engines of progress have been teams

  13. A Customer Ecosystem Perspective on Service

    OpenAIRE

    Voima, PÀivi; Heinonen, kristina; Strandvik, Tore; Mickelsson, Karl-Jacob; Arantola-Hattab, Leena Johanna

    2011-01-01

    This paper conceptualises customer ecosystems, which are defined as systems of actors related to the customer that are relevant concerning a specific service. Moving from provider-driven dyads and service systems to customer ecosystems, the paper uncovers multiple implications for service marketers regarding the definition of the customer, configurations of value units, scope of value formation, as well as relevant actor systems. The paper extends the perspective on service and suggests impli...

  14. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Gautier M; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  15. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier M Krings

    Full Text Available We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect counterparts to traditional (or direct measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  16. The Implementation of a Quality Management Standard in a Food SME: A Network Learning Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zam-Zam Abdirahman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the modern agrifood economies, the development of quality management standards is crucial, and food small and medium enterprises (SMEs usually face difficulties in implementing them. In this context, the aim of the article is two‐fold. Firstly it is to craft an original analytical framework in line with the literature on innovation networks and related learning effects specifically devoted to the study of quality management standards implementation. Secondly the objective of the article is to apply this framework to a specific food SME case in order to test it and to identify the key network learningeffects that occur during the implementation of a quality management standard, namely the ISO 22000 standard for food safety. From this research, the practical output will be to propose tools to enhance food SMEs’ innovative capacity, through an improvement of their insertion in active formal and/or informal innovation networks. These specific tools will be especially targeted towards the strengthening of learning processes between the SME and the partners involved in the implementation.

  17. Words analysis of online Chinese news headlines about trending events: a complex network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajiao Li

    Full Text Available Because the volume of information available online is growing at breakneck speed, keeping up with meaning and information communicated by the media and netizens is a new challenge both for scholars and for companies who must address public relations crises. Most current theories and tools are directed at identifying one website or one piece of online news and do not attempt to develop a rapid understanding of all websites and all news covering one topic. This paper represents an effort to integrate statistics, word segmentation, complex networks and visualization to analyze headlines' keywords and words relationships in online Chinese news using two samples: the 2011 Bohai Bay oil spill and the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill. We gathered all the news headlines concerning the two trending events in the search results from Baidu, the most popular Chinese search engine. We used Simple Chinese Word Segmentation to segment all the headlines into words and then took words as nodes and considered adjacent relations as edges to construct word networks both using the whole sample and at the monthly level. Finally, we develop an integrated mechanism to analyze the features of words' networks based on news headlines that can account for all the keywords in the news about a particular event and therefore track the evolution of news deeply and rapidly.

  18. Device-Relaying in Cellular D2D Networks: A Fairness Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2015-10-24

    Device-to-Device (D2D) communication is envisioned to play a key role in 5G networks as a technique for meeting the demand for high data rates. In a cellular network, D2D allows not only direct communication between users, but also device relaying. In this paper, a simple instance of device-relaying is investigated, and its impact on fairness among users is studied. Namely, a cellular network consisting of two D2D-enabled users and a base-station (BS) is considered. Thus, the users who want to establish communication with the BS can act as relays for each other’s signals. While this problem is traditionally considered in the literature as a multiple-access channel with cooperation in the uplink, and a broadcast channel with cooperation in the downlink, we propose a different treatment of the problem as a multi-way channel. A simple communication scheme is proposed, and is shown to achieve significant gain in terms of fairness (measured by the symmetric rate supported) in comparison to the aforementioned traditional treatment.

  19. Neural basis of understanding communicative actions: Changes associated with knowing the actor's intention and the meanings of the actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möttönen, Riikka; Farmer, Harry; Watkins, Kate E

    2016-01-29

    People can communicate by using hand actions, e.g., signs. Understanding communicative actions requires that the observer knows that the actor has an intention to communicate and the meanings of the actions. Here, we investigated how this prior knowledge affects processing of observed actions. We used functional MRI to determine changes in action processing when non-signers were told that the observed actions are communicative (i.e., signs) and learned the meanings of half of the actions. Processing of hand actions activated the left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, BA 44 and 45) when the communicative intention of the actor was known, even when the meanings of the actions remained unknown. These regions were not active when the observers did not know about the communicative nature of the hand actions. These findings suggest that the left and right IFG play a role in understanding the intention of the actor, but do not process visuospatial features of the communicative actions. Knowing the meanings of the hand actions further enhanced activity in the anterior part of the IFG (BA 45), the inferior parietal lobule and posterior inferior and middle temporal gyri in the left hemisphere. These left-hemisphere language regions could provide a link between meanings and observed actions. In sum, the findings provide evidence for the segregation of the networks involved in the neural processing of visuospatial features of communicative hand actions and those involved in understanding the actor's intention and the meanings of the actions.

  20. Open innovation in networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei

    Open innovation in networks has been a popular topic for long, this paper rethinks the concepts of innovation network and network organization, and clarifies the differences between them based on the network perspective. Network perspective means that: network is the context of firms; market...... and hierarchy can be analyzed from a network approach. Within a network perspective, there are different levels of network, and a firm may not always has the power to “manage” innovation networks due to different levels of power. Based on the strength of a firm’s power, its role may varies from manager...

  1. A Simulation System Based on the Actor Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    with a multi-level view of the environment. Actor message monitoring provides information regarding resource availability and processor usage . The...ANNOUNCEMENT (any limitation to the bibliographic announcement of this document This will normally correspond to the Document Availabilty (11). However, where

  2. Hugh Grant's Image Restoration Discourse: An Actor Apologizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the strategies used by actor Hugh Grant (in his appearances on talk shows) to help restore his reputation after he was arrested for lewd behavior with a prostitute. Uses this case as a springboard to contrast entertainment image repair with political and corporate image repair, arguing that important situational differences can be…

  3. Summary on main policies, funding mechanisms, actors and trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kressler, Florian; Weiss, Lucas; Åkerman, Jonas;

    This document summarizes the output of WP 3 on policies, funding mechanisms, actors and trends relating the four thematic groups. Each thematic group examines one goal of the White Paper on Transport, published by the European Commission in 2011. The purpose of this document is to provide input...

  4. Demystifying Facilitation of Multi-Actor Learning Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, A.E.

    2002-01-01

     This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by multiple actors with different interests, values and perception

  5. Researching the Habitus of Global Policy Actors in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam; Baroutsis, Aspa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reprises the argument for the emergence of a global education policy field and then focuses on the shared habitus of global and national policy actors and technicians. It is argued that this shared habitus is constituted as a reflection of and a contribution to the creation of the global education policy field. Bourdieu's approach…

  6. Student Actor Ailments: Ten Ills and How To Cure Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Barbara Long

    2000-01-01

    Lists the top ten acting ailments often encountered in student actors, and offers advice to cure these ailments: the split personality, the beauty queen and the leading man, the comedian, the director in training, the moody one, the character-clueless, the loner, the mimic, the stage-frightened, and the opening night artist. (SR)

  7. A Semantics for a Real-Time Actor Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoll, Istvan; Ravn, Anders Peter; Skou, Arne

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop simulators and analysis tools for an actor based real-time language, we define its semantics. The semantics is interesting in itself, as it models the functional, communication, and timing aspects separately, allowing several variants of the language to be investigated....

  8. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Tarah

    and financial stimulus are essential if Vermont hopes to increase strategic energy planning alignment and spur whole-scale energy system change. Study 2 examined local energy actors to assess their ability to develop and sustain energy action on the local level. A survey of 120 municipalities collected statewide baseline data covering the structures, processes, and activities of local energy actors. The analysis examined the role that various forms of capacity play in local energy activity. The results show that towns with higher incomes are more likely to have local energy actors and towns with higher populations have higher aggregate energy activity levels. Structurally, energy actors that had both an energy coordinator and an energy committee were more active, and municipal committees were more active than independent committees. Access to a budget and volunteer engagement were both associated with higher activity levels. The network of local energy actors in Vermont consists of committed and knowledgeable volunteers. Yet, the capacity of these local energy actors to implement sustainable energy change is limited due to resource constraints of time and money. In most cases, the scope of municipal energy planning strategy is modest. Prioritization of strategy and action at the central and local levels, along with increased interaction and coordination, is necessary to increase the regional compatibility and pace of energy system transformation.

  9. An Australian Perspective On The Challenges For Computer And Network Security For Novice End-Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Szewczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is common for end-users to have difficulty in using computer or network security appropriately and thus have often been ridiculed when misinterpreting instructions or procedures. This discussion paper details the outcomes of research undertaken over the past six years on why security is overly complex for end-users. The results indicate that multiple issues may render end-users vulnerable to security threats and that there is no single solution to address these problems. Studies on a small group of senior citizens has shown that educational seminars can be beneficial in ensuring that simple security aspects are understood and used appropriately.

  10. Physical states in the canonical tensor model from the perspective of random tensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Gaurav; Sasakura, Naoki; Sato, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Tensor models, generalization of matrix models, are studied aiming for quantum gravity in dimensions larger than two. Among them, the canonical tensor model is formulated as a totally constrained system with first-class constraints, the algebra of which resembles the Dirac algebra of general relativity. When quantized, the physical states are defined to be vanished by the quantized constraints. In explicit representations, the constraint equations are a set of partial differential equations for the physical wave-functions, which do not seem straightforward to be solved due to their non-linear character. In this paper, after providing some explicit solutions for N = 2 , 3, we show that certain scale-free integration of partition functions of statistical systems on random networks (or random tensor networks more generally) provides a series of solutions for general N. Then, by generalizing this form, we also obtain various solutions for general N. Moreover, we show that the solutions for the cases with a cosmological constant can be obtained from those with no cosmological constant for increased N. This would imply the interesting possibility that a cosmological constant can always be absorbed into the dynamics and is not an input parameter in the canonical tensor model. We also observe the possibility of symmetry enhancement in N = 3, and comment on an extension of Airy function related to the solutions.

  11. A Social Network Perspective on Peer Supported Learning in MOOCs for Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Kellogg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A recent phenomenon in the MOOC space has been the development of courses tailored to educators serving in K-12 settings. MOOCs, particularly as a form of educator professional development, face a number of challenges. Academics, as well as pundits from traditional and new media, have raised a number of concerns about MOOCs, including the lack of instructional and social supports. It is an assumption of this study that challenges arising form this problem of scale can be addressed by leveraging these massive numbers to develop robust online learning communities. This mixed-methods case study addresses critical gaps in the literature and issues of peer support in MOOCs through an examination of the characteristics, mechanisms, and outcomes of peer networks. Findings from this study demonstrate that even with technology as basic as a discussion forum, MOOCs can be leveraged to foster these networks and facilitate peer-supported learning. Although this study was limited to two unique cases along the wide spectrum of MOOCs, the methods applied provide other researchers with an approach for better understanding the dynamic process of peer supported learning in MOOCs.

  12. Learners' Perspectives on Networked Collaborative Interaction With Native Speakers of Spanish in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Lee

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss a network-based collaborative project that focused on the learning conditions non-native speakers (NNSs of Spanish perceived to be necessary to satisfactoraly communicate with native speakers (NSs. Data from online discussions, end-of-semester surveys, and final oral interviews are presented and discussed. The results of this study demonstrated that the NNS and NS online collaboration promoted the scaffolding by which the NSs assisted the NNSs in composing meaning (ideas and form (grammar. In addition, the NNSs praised the unique learning condition of being exposed to a wide range of functional language discourse produced by the NSs. Students perceived that open-ended questions for two-way exchange were meaningful for them because they were encouraged to use specific vocabulary and structures during the discussions. In spite of the positive conditions and benefits created by networked collaborative interaction (NCI, it was found that there were some major issues that are crucial for NCI. This study demonstrates that learners' language proficiency, computer skills, and age differences are important factors to be considered when incorporating institutional NCI as these may linguistically and socially affect the quality of online negotiation and students' motivation toward NCI. Practical ideas for further research are suggested.

  13. Artificial Neural Networks and risk stratification models in Emergency Departments: The policy maker's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagranda, Ivo; Costantino, Giorgio; Falavigna, Greta; Furlan, Raffaello; Ippoliti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of Emergency Department (ED) physicians is to discriminate between individuals at low risk, who can be safely discharged, and patients at high risk, who require prompt hospitalization. The problem of correctly classifying patients is an issue involving not only clinical but also managerial aspects, since reducing the rate of admission of patients to EDs could dramatically cut costs. Nevertheless, a trade-off might arise due to the need to find a balance between economic interests and the health conditions of patients. This work considers patients in EDs after a syncope event and presents a comparative analysis between two models: a multivariate logistic regression model, as proposed by the scientific community to stratify the expected risk of severe outcomes in the short and long run, and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), an innovative model. The analysis highlights differences in correct classification of severe outcomes at 10 days (98.30% vs. 94.07%) and 1 year (97.67% vs. 96.40%), pointing to the superiority of Neural Networks. According to the results, there is also a significant superiority of ANNs in terms of false negatives both at 10 days (3.70% vs. 5.93%) and at 1 year (2.33% vs. 10.07%). However, considering the false positives, the adoption of ANNs would cause an increase in hospital costs, highlighting the potential trade-off which policy makers might face.

  14. A review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder from the perspective of brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica eDe La Fuente

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood, which affects more than 5% of the population worldwide. ADHD is characterized by developmentally inappropriate behaviors of inattention, and/or impulsivity and hyperactivity. These behavioral manifestations contribute to diminished academic, occupational and social functioning, and have neurobiological bases. Neuronal deficits, especially in the attention and executive function processing networks, have been implicated in both children and adults with ADHD by using sophisticated structural and functional neuroimaging approaches. These structural and functional abnormalities in the brain networks have been associated with the impaired cognitive, affective, and motor behaviors seen in the disorder. The goal of this review is to summarize and integrate emerging themes from the existing neuroimaging connectivity studies based on advanced imaging techniques, applied in data of structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, functional MRI (fMRI, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI, Electroencephalography (EEG and Event Related Potential (ERP; and to discuss the results of these studies when considering future directions for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms and developmental trajectories of the behavioral manifestations in ADHD. We conclude this review by suggesting that future research should put more effort on understanding the roles of the subcortical structures and their structural/functional pathways in ADHD.

  15. Eco-Polycentric Urban Systems: An Ecological Region Perspective for Network Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Botequilha-Leitão

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper is a work in progress. It provides linkages between the author’s earlier research under the sustainable land planning framework (SLP and emergent ideas and planning and design strategies, centered on the (landscape ecological dimension of cities’ sustainability. It reviews several concepts, paradigms, and metaphors that have been emerging during the last decade, which can contribute to expand our vision on city planning and design. Among other issues, city form—monocentric, polycentric, and diffused—is discussed. The hypothesis set forth is that cities can improve the pathway to sustainability by adopting intermediate, network urban forms such as polycentric urban systems (PUS under a broader vision (as compared to the current paradigm, to make way to urban ecological regions. It discusses how both the principles of SLP and those emergent ideas can contribute to integrate PUS with their functional hinterland, adopting an ecosystemic viewpoint of cities. It proposes to redirect the current dominant economic focus of PUS to include all of the other functions that are essential to urbanites, such as production (including the 3Rs, recreation, and ecology in a balanced way. Landscape ecology principles are combined with complexity science in order to deal with uncertainty to improve regional systems’ resilience. Cooperation in its multiple forms is seen as a fundamental social, but also economic process contributing to the urban network functioning, including its evolving capabilities for self-organization and adaptation.

  16. Climate Change and Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe: A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Adaptation Responses and Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Su-Mia; Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud M.T.E.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence of climate change affecting infectious disease risk in Western Europe. The call for effective adaptation to this challenge becomes increasingly stronger. This paper presents the results of a survey exploring Dutch expert perspectives on adaptation responses to climate change impacts on infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Additionally, the survey explores the expert sample’s prioritization of mitigation and adaptation, and expert views on the willingness and capacity of relevant actors to respond to climate change. An integrated view on the causation of infectious disease risk is employed, including multiple (climatic and non-climatic) factors. The results show that the experts consider some adaptation responses as relatively more cost-effective, like fostering interagency and community partnerships, or beneficial to health, such as outbreak investigation and response. Expert opinions converge and diverge for different adaptation responses. Regarding the prioritization of mitigation and adaptation responses expert perspectives converge towards a 50/50 budgetary allocation. The experts consider the national government/health authority as the most capable actor to respond to climate change-induced infectious disease risk. Divergence and consensus among expert opinions can influence adaptation policy processes. Further research is necessary to uncover prevailing expert perspectives and their roots, and compare these. PMID:26295247

  17. Climate Change and Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe: A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Adaptation Responses and Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Mia Akin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of climate change affecting infectious disease risk in Western Europe. The call for effective adaptation to this challenge becomes increasingly stronger. This paper presents the results of a survey exploring Dutch expert perspectives on adaptation responses to climate change impacts on infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Additionally, the survey explores the expert sample’s prioritization of mitigation and adaptation, and expert views on the willingness and capacity of relevant actors to respond to climate change. An integrated view on the causation of infectious disease risk is employed, including multiple (climatic and non-climatic factors. The results show that the experts consider some adaptation responses as relatively more cost-effective, like fostering interagency and community partnerships, or beneficial to health, such as outbreak investigation and response. Expert opinions converge and diverge for different adaptation responses. Regarding the prioritization of mitigation and adaptation responses expert perspectives converge towards a 50/50 budgetary allocation. The experts consider the national government/health authority as the most capable actor to respond to climate change-induced infectious disease risk. Divergence and consensus among expert opinions can influence adaptation policy processes. Further research is necessary to uncover prevailing expert perspectives and their roots, and compare these.

  18. Climate Change and Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe: A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Adaptation Responses and Actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Su-Mia; Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud M T E

    2015-08-18

    There is growing evidence of climate change affecting infectious disease risk in Western Europe. The call for effective adaptation to this challenge becomes increasingly stronger. This paper presents the results of a survey exploring Dutch expert perspectives on adaptation responses to climate change impacts on infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Additionally, the survey explores the expert sample's prioritization of mitigation and adaptation, and expert views on the willingness and capacity of relevant actors to respond to climate change. An integrated view on the causation of infectious disease risk is employed, including multiple (climatic and non-climatic) factors. The results show that the experts consider some adaptation responses as relatively more cost-effective, like fostering interagency and community partnerships, or beneficial to health, such as outbreak investigation and response. Expert opinions converge and diverge for different adaptation responses. Regarding the prioritization of mitigation and adaptation responses expert perspectives converge towards a 50/50 budgetary allocation. The experts consider the national government/health authority as the most capable actor to respond to climate change-induced infectious disease risk. Divergence and consensus among expert opinions can influence adaptation policy processes. Further research is necessary to uncover prevailing expert perspectives and their roots, and compare these.

  19. Multi-OMICs and Genome Editing Perspectives on Liver Cancer Signaling Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengda; Yin, Yi A.; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song

    2016-01-01

    The advent of the human genome sequence and the resulting ~20,000 genes provide a crucial framework for a transition from traditional biology to an integrative “OMICs” arena (Lander et al., 2001; Venter et al., 2001; Kitano, 2002). This brings in a revolution for cancer research, which now enters a big data era. In the past decade, with the facilitation by next-generation sequencing, there have been a huge number of large-scale sequencing efforts, such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the HapMap, and the 1000 genomes project. As a result, a deluge of genomic information becomes available from patients stricken by a variety of cancer types. The list of cancer-associated genes is ever expanding. New discoveries are made on how frequent and highly penetrant mutations, such as those in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and TP53, function in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. Most genes with relatively frequent but weakly penetrant cancer mutations still remain to be characterized. In addition, genes that harbor rare but highly penetrant cancer-associated mutations continue to emerge. Here, we review recent advances related to cancer genomics, proteomics, and systems biology and suggest new perspectives in targeted therapy and precision medicine. PMID:27403431

  20. Multi-OMICs and Genome Editing Perspectives on Liver Cancer Signaling Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengda Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the human genome sequence and the resulting ~20,000 genes provide a crucial framework for a transition from traditional biology to an integrative “OMICs” arena (Lander et al., 2001; Venter et al., 2001; Kitano, 2002. This brings in a revolution for cancer research, which now enters a big data era. In the past decade, with the facilitation by next-generation sequencing, there have been a huge number of large-scale sequencing efforts, such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, the HapMap, and the 1000 genomes project. As a result, a deluge of genomic information becomes available from patients stricken by a variety of cancer types. The list of cancer-associated genes is ever expanding. New discoveries are made on how frequent and highly penetrant mutations, such as those in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT and TP53, function in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. Most genes with relatively frequent but weakly penetrant cancer mutations still remain to be characterized. In addition, genes that harbor rare but highly penetrant cancer-associated mutations continue to emerge. Here, we review recent advances related to cancer genomics, proteomics, and systems biology and suggest new perspectives in targeted therapy and precision medicine.

  1. Research on Collective Learning Mechanism and Influencing Factors of Industrial Cluster Innovation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to contribute to the cluster innovation literature by adding the collective learning perspective and propose an analytical framework on collective learning of cluster. Industrial cluster is viewed as a prevalent mode for technology innovation in knowledge-based economy. Collective learning outlines how local innovation network and spatial proximity between actors influence the sharing and creation of skills and knowledge in cluster. Firstly, this study discusses the structure and character of innovation network within industrial cluster. Secondly, it analyzes the collective learning mechanism of industrial cluster, which is involves in three dimensions: horizontal learning, vertical learning and multi-angle learning. Then, it focuses on some influencing factors of collective learning within innovation network. Finally, this study analyzes the role of global-local linkages in the dynamic capability of cluster innovation network.

  2. The Discourse of Interculturality and Its Transnational Migration: Towards a Comparative Analysis of Its Appropriation by Academic and Political Actors in the State of Veracruz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Laura Selene Mateos

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the ways in which social and educational networks are being configured around the actors participating in the increasingly transnational field of intercultural education both at the Universidad Veracruzana Intercultural and the Veracruz State Ministry of Education. It starts by defining the notion of discursive migration as…

  3. Multiplicity fluctuation and phase transition in high-energy collision — A chaos-based study with complex network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Susmita; Ghosh, Dipak

    2016-12-01

    Multiplicity fluctuation provides enough information concerning the dynamics of particle production process and even signature of phase transition from hadronic to QGP phase expected in ultrarelativistic nuclear collision. Numerous analyses reported on the fluctuation pattern of pions have been studied from theoretical and phenomenological approaches. Also the fractal properties have been explored to characterize quantitative degree of fluctuation. The present work reports a study of pion fluctuation from a radically different perspective, using science of complexity. For this we have taken two different interactions — one hadron-nucleus and other nucleus-nucleus, namely π--AgBr (350 GeV) and 32S-AgBr (200 AGeV). We have analyzed both data in the light of complex network analysis, viz. visibility graph method. The data reveal that power of the scale-freeness in visibility graph (PSVG), a quantitative parameter related to Hurst exponent, may provide information on the degree of fluctuation. Further, in a recent work, it was shown that phase transition can also be studied using the same methodology. Based on the result of the present study we further propose to use this methodology, where critical phenomena are to be assessed — even in case of pion fluctuation, for obtaining the QGP like phase transition.

  4. Discrete Opinion Dynamics on Online Social Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yan-Li; BAI Liang; ZHANG Wei-Ming

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the dynamics of binary opinions {+1,-1} on online social networks consisting of heterogeneous actors.In our model,actors update their opinions under the interplay of social influence and selfaffirmation,which leads to rich dynamical behaviors on online social networks.We find that the opinion leading to the consensus features an advantage of the initially weighted fraction based on actors' strength over the other,instead of the population.For the role of specific actors,the consensus converges towards the opinion that a small fraction of high-strength actors hold,and individual diversity of self-affirmation slows down the ordering process of consensus.These indicate that high-strength actors play an essential role in opinion formation with strong social influence as well as high persistence.Further investigations show that the initial fraction of high-strength actors to dominate the evolution depends on the heterogeneity of the strength distribution,and less high-strength actors are needed in the case of a smaller exponent of power-law distribution of actors' strength.Our study provides deep insights into the role of social influence and self-affirmation on opinion formation on online social networks.

  5. A distributed health data network analysis of survival outcomes: the International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Samprit; Cafri, Guy; Isaacs, Abby J; Graves, Stephen; Paxton, Elizabeth; Marinac-Dabic, Danica; Sedrakyan, Art

    2014-12-17

    The International Consortium for Orthopaedic Registries is a multinational initiative established by the United States Food and Drug Administration to develop a health data network aimed at providing a robust infrastructure to facilitate evidence-based decision-making on performance of medical devices. Through the International Consortium for Orthopaedic Registries, individual data holders have complete control of their data and can choose to participate in studies of their choice. In this article, we present an overview of the data extraction process and the analytic strategy employed to answer several device performance-related questions in total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. In the process, we discuss some nuances pertinent to International Consortium for Orthopaedic Registries data that pose certain statistical challenges, and we briefly suggest strategies to be adopted to address them.

  6. Neural Network Prediction of Translation Initiation Sites in Eukaryotes: Perspectives for EST and Genome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Nielsen, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Translation in eukaryotes does not always start at the first AUG in an mRNA, implying that context information also plays a role.This makes prediction of translation initiation sites a non-trivial task, especially when analysing EST and genome data where the entire mature mRNA sequence is not known...... and global sequence information. Furthermore, analysis of false predictions shows that AUGs in frame with the actual start codon are more frequently selected than out-of-frame AUGs, suggesting that our nteworks use reading frame detection. A number of conflicts between neural network predictions and database...... annotations are analysed in detail, leading to identification of possible database errors....

  7. Double network hydrogel with high mechanical strength:Performance, progress and future perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN YongMei; DONG Kun; LIU ZhenQi; XU Feng

    2012-01-01

    With high water content (~90 wt%) and significantly improved mechanical strength (~MPa),double network (DN) hydrogels have emerged as promising biomaterials with widespread applications in biomedicine.In recent years,DN hydrogels with extremely high mechanical strength have achieved great advance,and scientists have designed a series of natural and biomimetic DN hydrogels with novel functions including low friction,low wear,mechanical anisotropy and cell compatibility.These advances have also led to new design of biocompatible DN hydrogels for regeneration of tissues such as cartilage.In this paper,we reviewed the strategies of designing high-strength DN hydrogel and analyzed the factors that affect DN hydrogel properties.We also discussed the challenges and future development of the DN hydrogel in view of its potential as biomaterials for their biomedical applications.

  8. How does competition structure affect industry merger waves? A network analysis perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rui; Yang, Jianmei; Yao, Canzhong; McKelvey, Bill

    2015-07-01

    By taking China's beer industry as an example, this paper establishes a series of industrial competition-pressure networks and examines the correlation between competition structure and merger actions. We present a cascade dynamic-merger agent-based computational model driven by competition pressure diffusion to describe the forming process of industry merger wave. The empirical analyses and agent-based computational simulation results show that the competition structure among rivals has a strong effect on the scale, the duration time, and the stability of industry merger wave. We also give explanations on why there are different simulation results between in single market competition environment and in multi-market competition environment, as well as discuss the management implications for the industry-merger policy makers and the merger-tactics decision makers that are involved in merger wave.

  9. Identification of Entrepreneurial Opportunities from the Perspective of Entrepreneur Network%企业家网络视角下的创业机会识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕玲

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed the mechanism of grasping entrepreneurial opportunities from the perspective of entrepreneur network, and proposed the model of entrepreneurial opportunities identification based on the entrepreneur network. Furthermore, it discussed entrepreneurial opportunities identification from three aspects: entrepreneur network, network structure and network governance. Finally, through a case study of "brand strategy" applied by an entrepreneur who integrated his network resources and grasped business opportunities, the function of entrepreneur network in identification of entrepreneurial opportunities is reasonably proved.%  本文从企业家网络视角分析了企业家把握创业机会的机理,提出基于企业家网络的创业机会识别理论模型。并从企业家网络的关系、结构和治理机制三个方面来对创业机会发现进行论述。最后,通过某公司老总整合网络资源,把握住市场机会,实施“品牌战略”的案例实证了企业家网络在创业机会识别中起到的作用。

  10. Balancing influence between actors in healthcare decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babad Yair M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare costs in most developed countries are not clearly linked to better patient and public health outcomes, but are rather associated with service delivery orientation. In the U.S. this has resulted in large variation in healthcare availability and use, increased cost, reduced employer participation in health insurance programs, and reduced overall population health outcomes. Recent U.S. healthcare reform legislation addresses only some of these issues. Other countries face similar healthcare issues. Discussion A major goal of healthcare is to enhance patient health outcomes. This objective is not realized in many countries because incentives and structures are currently not aligned for maximizing population health. The misalignment occurs because of the competing interests between "actors" in healthcare. In a simplified model these are individuals motivated to enhance their own health; enterprises (including a mix of nonprofit, for profit and government providers, payers, and suppliers, etc. motivated by profit, political, organizational and other forces; and government which often acts in the conflicting roles of a healthcare payer and provider in addition to its role as the representative and protector of the people. An imbalance exists between the actors, due to the resources and information control of the enterprise and government actors relative to the individual and the public. Failure to use effective preventive interventions is perhaps the best example of the misalignment of incentives. We consider the current Pareto efficient balance between the actors in relation to the Pareto frontier, and show that a significant change in the healthcare market requires major changes in the utilities of the enterprise and government actors. Summary A variety of actions are necessary for maximizing population health within the constraints of available resources and the current balance between the actors. These actions include

  11. Interventionist Research as a Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus, Nina

    2010-01-01

    ., are interconnected elements that form a network which functions as the apparently coherent whole which designates the research project. Applying a network model allows us to focus on the collective production—the conditions—through which actors, roles and interventions come to exist. Thus, interventions and roles...... Actor-Network Theory. I propose conceptualizing interventionist research as a network of heterogeneous actors with different attachments that are established and continuously reconfigured during the course of the research. Accordingly, people, interventions, roles, authorities, commitments, access, etc...... can be seen as network effects—they are produced, supported and enacted by the network. Hence, the capacity of the interventionist researcher to act in a particular role is neither located within the researcher nor the research project, but in particular socio-material arrangements. Accordingly, roles...

  12. Network environ perspective for urban metabolism and carbon emissions: a case study of Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2012-04-17

    Cities are considered major contributors to global warming, where carbon emissions are highly embedded in the overall urban metabolism. To examine urban metabolic processes and emission trajectories we developed a carbon flux model based on Network Environ Analysis (NEA). The mutual interactions and control situation within the urban ecosystem of Vienna were examined, and the system-level properties of the city's carbon metabolism were assessed. Regulatory strategies to minimize carbon emissions were identified through the tracking of the possible pathways that affect these emission trajectories. Our findings suggest that indirect flows have a strong bearing on the mutual and control relationships between urban sectors. The metabolism of a city is considered self-mutualistic and sustainable only when the local and distal environments are embraced. Energy production and construction were found to be two factors with a major impact on carbon emissions, and whose regulation is only effective via ad-hoc pathways. In comparison with the original life-cycle tracking, the application of NEA was better at revealing details from a mechanistic aspect, which is crucial for informed sustainable urban management.

  13. Reconceptualizing anhedonia: novel perspectives on balancing the pleasure networks in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine eRømer Thomsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anhedonia, the lack of pleasure, has been shown to be a critical feature of a range of psychiatric disorders. Yet, it is currently measured primarily through subjective self-reports and as such has been difficult to submit to rigorous, objective scientific analysis. New insights from affective neuroscience hold considerable promise in improving our understanding of anhedonia and for providing useful objective behavioral measures to complement self-report measures, potentially leading to better diagnoses and novel treatments. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of hedonia research and specifically the established mechanisms of wanting, liking, and learning. Based on this framework we propose to conceptualize anhedonia as impairments in some or all of these processes, thereby departing from the longstanding view of anhedonia as solely reduced subjective experience of pleasure. We discuss how deficits in each of the reward components can lead to different expressions, or subtypes, of anhedonia affording novel ways of measurement. Specifically, we review evidence suggesting that patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia show impairments in wanting and learning, while some aspects of subjective liking seem surprisingly intact. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that anhedonia is heterogeneous across psychiatric disorders, depending on which parts of the pleasure networks are mostly affected. This in turn has implications for diagnosis and treatment of anhedonia.

  14. The stability of exchange networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doğan, G.; Assen, M. van; Rijt, A. van de; Buskens, V.W.

    2009-01-01

    Economic and sociological exchange theories predict divisions of exchange benefits given an assumed fixed network of exchange relations. Since network structure has been found to have a large impact on actors’ payoffs, actors have strong incentives for network change.Weanswer the question what happe

  15. Chinas carbon-intensity target: climate actors and policy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    China has become the largest GHG emitting country, and announced in 2009 its first policy objective measured in carbon emissions. The carbon-intensity target is to reduce the carbon intensity by 40-45 % by 2020 compared to 200 levels. Since then there has been further policy developments in order to attain the reduction carbon intensity and steer China towards a low-carbon development. The 12th 5-year plan (2011-2015) is strong on incentives for reducing China's carbon intensity such as energy conservation measures and the establishment of new market-based mechanisms. While the central government forms the policies, the implementation is dependent on a range of actors. In addition to the climate change bureaucracy, the positive forces and actors on GHG mitigation is presented. All in all, there are promising developments in China for the years to come.(auth)

  16. Actores/agentes universitarios para el desarrollo local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Cienfuegos Velasco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Al hablar de desarrollo local se hace referencia a un espacio municipal con características propias, que demandan cierta forma de organización e interacción de actores y/o agentes, pertenecientes o no al contexto implicado para el desarrollo del mismo. Esto permite el aprovechamiento de diferentes formas de acción individual o colectiva; una de ellas es la acción que la universidad puede ofertar a dicho desarrollo. Al respecto, el objetivo del presente ensayo es identificar a la universidad como generadora de actores/ agentes emergentes que se preparan para contribuir, entre otras cosas, a la transformación de la localidad. Bajo el argumento de que estudiantes e investigadores de la universidad pública y privada generan conocimiento, el cual puede ser aplicado productivamente si se socializa con la comunidad y sus integrantes.

  17. Las ciudades como actores políticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi BORJA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En estas páginas, Jordi Borja plantea la centralidad de las grandes ciudades como actores políticos, que incluyen al gobierno local pero que no se confunden con él. Las ciudades son espejos de las grandes transformaciones globales. Distintos ejemplos en el mundo y, en especial en América Latina, ponen de manifiesto que los planes de intervención urbana deben desarrollarse bajo esta idea de globalidad y transformación.ABSTRACT: In these pages, Borja set up centrality of big cities as political actors, which include local government. Cities are a mirror of global transformation. Different cases in the world, specially in Latin America, reflect that urban planning must be carried out by this idea of globalization and transformation.

  18. Teachers as Actors: The Implications of Acting on Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2007-10-01

    In the spring of 2006, a rather unusual advertisement by the Centre of Teaching and Academic Growth at UBC (http://www.tag.ubc.ca) came to my attention. Faculty members were invited to take part in a workshop entitled "All the World's a Stage: Teachers as Actors," offered by a zoology instructor and an amateur actor, Greg Bole: Teaching can be seen as creating an interpersonal relationship and hence uses many of the same skills as acting. The investigation and use of acting skills in teacher preparation can allow a greater facility with diverse methods, increase skill at adapting to change in the classroom or lecture hall, and an increased ability to quickly form positive relationships with students. (Greg Bole: http://www.tag.ubc.ca/programs/series-detail.php?series_id=249 )

  19. APPROACHES TO GLOBAL SECURITY. ACTORS, MANIFESTATIONS AND TENDENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MINCULETE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the world seems to be in a transition from the current system founded on the liberal social, economic and political model to a more diverse and heterogeneous model in which the determinant role is played by a number of state and non-state actors. The step from the Western system of cultural, political and predominant economic values to a more diverse and heterogeneous system makes the actors involved defend not only their visions, but also promote their own interests. The differences between visions gain relevance and clarity because the countries supporting them obtain increased power, and that is more than obvious. All this leads to a symmetric allocation of different means, which generates uncertainties and diminishes unilateral actions This transition process impacts global security especially through the asymmetric, unconventional and hybrid risks and threats manifesting worldwide.

  20. Actor and analyst: a response to Coopmans and Button.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Harry; Evans, Robert

    2014-10-01

    We question the logic of Coopmans and Button's critique of our analysis of expertise on three grounds. First, their critique depends on a clear distinction between actor and analysts that we show cannot be maintained. Second, we question their reticence to allow the use of taxonomies in the analysis of expertise, suggesting that it is contradicted by their own descriptions of expert work, and we accuse them of making a mistake in the way they relate commonsense to specialist skills. Finally, we express our puzzlement at the antiseptic-like precautions that some ethnomethodologists apply to analysts' categories, especially given that--as we show--analysts' categories sometimes provide a superior resource for understanding and can change the actors' world as well as describing it.

  1. The Multiple Dimensions of Managerial Networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torenvlied, R.; Akkerman, A.; Meier, K.J.; O’Toole, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies in public management show that agencies draw different types of support from different actors and organizations in their environment. If this is true, we would expect that managers differentiate their networking activity toward different types of external actors and organizations. However, e

  2. Non-State Actors and their Risks to American Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    international actors like al-Qaeda, Hizballah, Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), and cyber warriors. Current U.S. homeland security policies...nature. Today, this sequencing can be done with no original DNA material. The term for this function is de novo or from nothing. Viruses are among the...the same. Recently academic institutions fully mapped the 1918 H1N1 (Spanish influenza epidemic) and the H5N1 (bird influenza) virus genomes.19

  3. EXAMINE THE ROLE OF DIFFERENT ACTORS ACROSS THE TEXTILE –FASHION SUPPLY CHAIN TO UNDERSTAND THE ISSUES REGARDING GROWTH OF ECO-LABELED SUSTAINABLE TEXTILE PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Rohit

    2011-01-01

    The general definition of ‘ecology’ in the perspective of textiles is complex and diverse and ‘ecology’ is often used in loose sense. The textile industry is considered one of the most ecologically harmful, polluting and therefore has enough attention from all. Each actor of supply chain is affecting the environment negatively at different level with different intensities; Significant water use, toxicity from fertilizer, pesticide and herbicide use, energy use and GHG emissions associated wit...

  4. Knowledge Management in the Network Mode: The Case of Private Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Klagge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an ongoing debate on the changing geographical organization of the financial sector and the decreasing importance of regional financial centres. Our contribution explores a fresh perspective on this issue by looking at knowledge and risk management in different parts of the financial sector with an empirical focus on private equity in Germany. The argument we put forward is that the ways in which providers of finance manage knowledge and risk shape their organizational and geographical structure. In our analytical framework we distinguish between three ideal-type modes of knowledge management: the relationship, the data and the network mode. These modes differ in the types of knowledge exchanged, the actors involved and in the role and nature of relevant contacts and relationships. The shift from relationship to data mode in credit provision in Germany serves an example of how a new mode of knowledge management is associated with changes in the geographical organization of financial actors and activities. To illustrate the network mode we then focus on knowledge management in private equity in Germany, which involves a variety of different actors and links both regional and interregional networks. Our empirical research shows that the resulting organizational and geographical struc¬tures are rather complex and have nodes in regional financial centres. While these centres benefit from private equity activities, their chances for re-vitalization and a re-regionalization of financial expertise on the basis of private equity are nonetheless limited. So far, Munich seems to be the (only one location where private equity – cross-fertilized by other local financial actors – has initiated a self-supported development which strengthens Munich as a financial centre.

  5. Tools for decision support in planning academic needs of actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oubedda Latifa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to establish an information system which would facilitate decision making for the exploitation of a model consisting of the main stakeholders of the university (teachers, students and administrators. This system is based on the relationship between actors (players on the one hand and their activities and their aggregations in a graduate level on the other. It aims to make available to managers of the university a set of dashboards that can improve the quality of education. We will start by modeling the actors upstream and we will study the processes on their own organizations, their activities and their aggregations. This approach is based on the analysis made by the actors to switch to an information technology approach in the process of searching for knowledge. The first applications of this work focus on data related to the department of English Studies at the Faculty of Arts and Humanities at Ibn Zohr University in Agadir, Morocco. The results are encouraging and can be generalized to all courses offered by academic institutions.

  6. Engaging Actors in Co-Designing Heterogeneous Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lindegaard, Hanne; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we share and analyze our experiences staging a co-design process in which we through different interventions engage important actors in designing. Our experiences are taking from an innovation and research project about user-involvement in textile design processes. As the project fo...... in our project’s agenda by going through the different stages of translation. The paper is finalized with reflections on the difficulties in engaging actors in a co-design process and transporting results into the existing framed context of design and architectural work.......In this paper we share and analyze our experiences staging a co-design process in which we through different interventions engage important actors in designing. Our experiences are taking from an innovation and research project about user-involvement in textile design processes. As the project...... focused on textiles role in healing hospital environments, the co-design process analyzed is a process of designing textile products for these environments. During the co-design process we engaged architects, engineers and textile designers. The focus in this paper is specifically on the challenges...

  7. Global Genome Biodiversity Network: saving a blueprint of the Tree of Life – a botanical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seberg, O.; Droege, G.; Barker, K.; Coddington, J. A.; Funk, V.; Gostel, M.; Petersen, G.; Smith, P. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Genomic research depends upon access to DNA or tissue collected and preserved according to high-quality standards. At present, the collections in most natural history museums do not sufficiently address these standards, making them often hard or impossible to use for whole-genome sequencing or transcriptomics. In response to these challenges, natural history museums, herbaria, botanical gardens and other stakeholders have started to build high-quality biodiversity biobanks. Unfortunately, information about these collections remains fragmented, scattered and largely inaccessible. Without a central registry or even an overview of relevant institutions, it is difficult and time-consuming to locate the needed samples. Scope The Global Genome Biodiversity Network (GGBN) was created to fill this vacuum by establishing a one-stop access point for locating samples meeting quality standards for genome-scale applications, while complying with national and international legislations and conventions. Increased accessibility to genomic samples will further genomic research and development, conserve genetic resources, help train the next generation of genome researchers and raise the visibility of biodiversity collections. Additionally, the availability of a data-sharing platform will facilitate identification of gaps in the collections, thereby empowering targeted sampling efforts, increasing the breadth and depth of preservation of genetic diversity. The GGBN is rapidly growing and currently has 41 members. The GGBN covers all branches of the Tree of Life, except humans, but here the focus is on a pilot project with emphasis on ‘harvesting’ the Tree of Life for vascular plant taxa to enable genome-level studies. Conclusion While current efforts are centred on getting the existing samples of all GGBN members online, a pilot project, GGI-Gardens, has been launched as proof of concept. Over the next 6 years GGI-Gardens aims to add to the GGBN high-quality genetic

  8. Who Needs What? Some Thoughts on the Possibility of Using Psychology in Actor Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulova, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Contends that the aim of professional actor training is to reveal and develop an actor's individuality. Proposes that the responsibility of drama teachers is to lead training in such away that students feel accepted, understood, and respected. Proposes that psychodrama is the most appropriate method for student and professional actors' personal…

  9. Actor coalitions and implementation in strategic delta planning: Opening the Haringvliet sluices in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermoolen, Myrthe; Hermans, Leon

    2016-04-01

    The sustained development of urbanizing deltas is influenced by natural and societal processes. These processes are characterized by their long time span, in which conflicting interests of different stakeholders have to be reconciled. Reaching consent between actors is a challenge itself, but maintaining this consent throughout different stages of strategic planning - from advocacy and agenda setting to implementation - over these long periods of time is even more difficult. The implementation stage still includes many different actors involved, some of which are different than the ones who agreed before, due to both the long run of the strategic delta planning, and to a shift of tasks and responsibilities. Thus, implementation of strategic plans often features delays, deviations of agreed plans and unintended outcomes. A key question therefore is how coalition dynamics in (pre-)planning stages influence and are influenced by the coalition dynamics during implementation. The different stages in strategic planning are often studied from either a plan formulation or an implementation perspective, but the connection between the two proves an important bottleneck for strategic planning in deltas. For instance, many building with nature solutions are still in their pilot-phase, and their upscaling can profit from lessons concerning past implementation efforts. The proposed contribution will use the case of the management of the Dutch Haringvliet sluices and the decision ('Kierbesluit') in 2000 to put these sluices ajar, to study the link between the different strategic delta planning stages and the role of the formation and change of actor coalitions herein. With the completion of the Haringvliet dam with outlet sluices in 1970, the Haringvliet estuary of the rivers Rhine and Meuse was closed off from the sea, creating a fresh water lake. This was done to make the Dutch Southwest delta safe from flooding, and had positive effects for agricultural water supply and

  10. A political perspective on business elites and institutional embeddedness in the UK code-issuing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; van Ees, H.; Sorge, A.

    2013-01-01

    Manuscript Type: Perspective Research Question/Issue: What is the role of institutional actors and business elites in the development of UK corporate governance codes? In the current paper, we explore the UK code-issuing process by focusing on the UK actors, their power and interplay. Research Findi

  11. Explaining Large-Scale Policy Change in the Turkish Health Care System: Ideas, Institutions, and Political Actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agartan, Tuba I

    2015-10-01

    Explaining policy change has been one of the major concerns of the health care politics and policy development literature. This article aims to explain the specific dynamics of large-scale reforms introduced within the framework of the Health Transformation Program in Turkey. It argues that confluence of the three streams - problem, policy, and politics - with the exceptional political will of the Justice and Development Party's (JDP) leaders opened up a window of opportunity for a large-scale policy change. The article also underscores the contribution of recent ideational perspectives that help explain "why" political actors in Turkey would focus on health care reform, given that there are a number of issues waiting to be addressed in the policy agenda. Examining how political actors framed problems and policies deepens our understanding of the content of the reform initiatives as well as the construction of the need to reform. The article builds on the insights of both the ideational and institutionalist perspectives when it argues that the interests, aspirations, and fears of the JDP, alongside the peculiar characteristics of the institutional context, have shaped its priorities and determination to carry out this reform initiative.

  12. In-Network Processing for Mission-Critical Wireless Networked Sensing and Control: A Real-Time, Efficiency, and Resiliency Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    As wireless cyber-physical systems (WCPS) are increasingly being deployed in mission-critical applications, it becomes imperative that we consider application QoS requirements in in-network processing (INP). In this dissertation, we explore the potentials of two INP methods, packet packing and network coding, on improving network performance while…

  13. Simulating the Evolution of Functional Brain Networks in Alzheimer’s Disease: Exploring Disease Dynamics from the Perspective of Global Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Miao; Zhu, Wenzhen; Qin, Yuanyuan; Huang, Yue; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Functional brain connectivity is altered during the pathological processes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the specific evolutional rules are insufficiently understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging indicates that the functional brain networks of individuals with AD tend to be disrupted in hub-like nodes, shifting from a small world architecture to a random profile. Here, we proposed a novel evolution model based on computational experiments to simulate the transition of functional brain networks from normal to AD. Specifically, we simulated the rearrangement of edges in a pathological process by a high probability of disconnecting edges between hub-like nodes, and by generating edges between random pair of nodes. Subsequently, four topological properties and a nodal distribution were used to evaluate our model. Compared with random evolution as a null model, our model captured well the topological alteration of functional brain networks during the pathological process. Moreover, we implemented two kinds of network attack to imitate the damage incurred by the brain in AD. Topological changes were better explained by ‘hub attacks’ than by ‘random attacks’, indicating the fragility of hubs in individuals with AD. This model clarifies the disruption of functional brain networks in AD, providing a new perspective on topological alterations. PMID:27677360

  14. Distinctive laterality of neural networks supporting action understanding in left- and right-handed individuals: An EEG coherence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Rachel; Mizelle, J C; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2015-08-01

    Prior work has demonstrated that perspective and handedness of observed actions can affect action understanding differently in right and left-handed persons, suggesting potential differences in the neural networks underlying action understanding between right and left-handed individuals. We sought to evaluate potential differences in these neural networks using electroencephalography (EEG). Right- and left-handed participants observed images of tool-use actions from egocentric and allocentric perspectives, with right- and left-handed actors performing the actions. Participants judged the outcome of the observed actions, and response accuracy and latency were recorded. Behaviorally, the highest accuracy and shortest latency was found in the egocentric perspective for right- and left-handed observers. Handedness of subject showed an effect on accuracy and latency also, where right-handed observers were faster to respond than left-handed observers, but on average were less accurate. Mu band (8-10 Hz) cortico-cortical coherence analysis indicated that right-handed observers have coherence in the motor dominant left parietal-premotor networks when looking at an egocentric right or allocentric left hands. When looking in an egocentric perspective at a left hand or allocentric right hand, coherence was lateralized to right parietal-premotor areas. In left-handed observers, bilateral parietal-premotor coherence patterns were observed regardless of actor handedness. These findings suggest that the cortical networks involved in understanding action outcomes are dependent on hand dominance, and notably right handed participants seem to utilize motor systems based on the limb seen performing the action. The decreased accuracy for right-handed participants on allocentric images could be due to asymmetrical lateralization of encoding action and motoric dominance, which may interfere with translating allocentric limb action outcomes. Further neurophysiological studies will

  15. Trust in social actors and attitudes towards genetically modified organisms in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Erjavec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to fulfil the research gap left by the fact that no study to date has examined how trust in social actors affects attitudes towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs. Therefore, two key hypotheses were posited: a trust in social actors is a more important factor of attitudes towards GMOs than knowledge about GMOs; and b trust in certain social actors is a more important factor than trust in other social actors. Telephone survey data of adult Slovenians were used. The analyses show that: a general trust in social actors has a positive effect on attitudes towards GMOs; b trust in various social actors has different effects; and c trust in social actors has a stronger effect on attitudes towards GMOs than knowledge about GMOs.

  16. Actores/agentes universitarios para el desarrollo local

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Al hablar de desarrollo local se hace referencia a un espacio municipal con características propias, que demandan cierta forma de organización e interacción de actores y/o agentes, pertenecientes o no al contexto implicado para el desarrollo del mismo. Esto permite el aprovechamiento de diferentes formas de acción individual o colectiva; una de ellas es la acción que la universidad puede ofertar a dicho desarrollo. Al respecto, el objetivo del presente ensayo es identificar a la universidad c...

  17. The Corporality and the Performative Power of the Actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pérez Cubas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses different concepts linked to the notion of body in contemporary western societies from the point of view of French Sociologist-Anthropologist David Le Breton. His concept of body will be related in this essay with perceptions of body and subjectivity by Dance and Performance Studies theorist André Lepecki in his discussion on movement and politics. The present study aims at deepening the reflection of performers and theorists on the actor´s expressive movement training.

  18. The Clinical Threat Assessment of the Lone-Actor Terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Genzman, Jacqueline

    2016-12-01

    The Terrorist Radicalization Assessment Protocol (TRAP-18) is a structured professional judgment instrument for the assessment of individuals who present a concern for lone-actor terrorism. It consists of eight proximal warning behaviors and 10 distal characteristics. Previous research has demonstrated its interrater reliability and some concurrent and postdictive validity. In this article, TRAP-18 is retrospectively applied to the case of US Army psychiatrist and jihadist Malik Nidal Hasan, who committed a mass murder at Fort Hood, Texas in 2009. The strengths and limitations of TRAP-18 as a structured professional judgment instrument for mental health clinicians are discussed, and clinical risk management suggestions are made.

  19. Value Co-creation Model in the Process of Service Transition of Manufacturing Enterprises from the Network Perspective:Research Based on the Shanxi Blower Case%网络视角下制造企业服务转型的价值共创模型--基于陕鼓的案例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯长利; 刘洪涛

    2016-01-01

    陕西鼓风机(集团)有限公司服务转型的成功得益于价值创造方式的转变,其共创价值的理念引起了学者的广泛关注。文章运用价值创造理论和利益相关者理论,从网络视角构建了价值共创的概念模型,并结合陕鼓的案例分析,探究了制造企业服务转型中的价值共创机理。研究发现:随着服务转型的实施,价值共创的主体趋于多元化,传统企业与顾客间的双边交易行为被取代,价值创造由制造-服务集成商、专业服务提供商、顾客和潜在利益相关者四种主体交互实现。价值共创的资源趋于无形化,产品、设备等有形的对象性资源转变为价值载体,知识、关系、合法性等无形的操作性资源占据主导地位。价值共创的表现形式趋于多样化,顾客价值、企业价值和社会价值不再对立,而是相互协同、彼此共享从而共创价值的。%The success of service transition of Shanxi Blower (Group)can be attributed to the transformation of the conception of value creation,and its value co-creation is drawing increasing attention.In this paper,from the network perspective and based on the theories of value creation and stakeholder,a model is built to research on the mechanism of value co-creation in the process of service transition of manufacturing enterprises.Study suggests that actors of value co-creation tend to be diversified in the transition process.Value creation is no longer j ust a bilateral behavior between enterprises and customers,but interactions among four actors in the context of network. These four actors are manufacturing-service integrators,professional service providers,custom-ers and potential stakeholders.In addition,the resources tend to be intangible,not only operand resources,but also operant resources,such as knowledge,relationships and legitimacy.In the process of value co-creation,customer value,enterprise value,and social value are no

  20. How did policy actors use mass media to influence the Scottish alcohol minimum unit pricing debate? Comparative analysis of newspapers, evidence submissions and interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona

    2015-04-01

    Aims: To explore how policy actors attempted to deliberately frame public debate around alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) in the UK by comparing and contrasting their constructions of the policy in public (newspapers), semi-public (evidence submissions) and private (interviews). Methods: Content analysis was conducted on articles published in ten national newspapers between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2012. Newsprint data were contrasted with alcohol policy documents, evidence submissions to the Scottish Parliament's Health and Sport Committee and 36 confidential interviews with policy stakeholders (academics, advocates, industry representatives, politicians and civil servants). Findings: A range of policy actors exerted influence both directly (through Parliamentary institutions and political representatives) and indirectly through the mass media. Policy actors were acutely aware of mass media's importance in shaping public opinion and used it tactically to influence policy. They often framed messages in subtly different ways, depending on target audiences. In general, newspapers presented the policy debate in a "balanced" way, but this arguably over-represented hostile perspective and suggested greater disagreement around the evidence base than is the case. Conclusions: The roles of policy actors vary between public and policy spheres, and how messages are communicated in policy debates depends on perceived strategic advantage.

  1. UK Party Political Conferences - Business Networks & Networking

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Over the last two decades marketing researchers have shown an increased interest in studying interorganisational interaction and the functioning of associated business networks (Haakasson, 1982, Ford, 1990, Axelson and Easton 1992, Webster 1992, Morgan and Hunt, 1994, Forsgren, Hagg, Haakasson, Johanson, Matson, 1995 et al). This paper uses these approaches to access political lobbying and pressure group activity and particularly focuses on the growth of business actors and networks which can...

  2. Actor/observer asymmetry in risky decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernandez-Duque

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Are people willing to gamble more for themselves than what they deem reasonable for others? We addressed this question in a simplified computer gambling task in which subjects chose from a set of 10 cards. Subjects selected one card at a time after being instructed that 9 cards were good (win a dollar per card and one was really bad (lose all the money and end the game. Subjects could stop playing at any time to collect their winnings. Some subjects played the game, others observed a confederate. Both groups took risks beyond what was rational (i.e., 5 cards but extit{actors} were riskier than extit{observers}. The actor/observer asymmetry occurred even after controlling for monetary outcome (i.e., having observers win prizes and after controlling for how the question was framed (i.e., asking observers what they themselves extit{would} do as opposed to what the confederate extit{should} do. We discuss these results in relation to theories of decision making that emphasize separate contributions of rational and experiential systems.

  3. Actors of Columbian drug trade : development and transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Smolíková

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to portray the main shifts which have been taking place in Colombian drug scene since the 70’s up to the present especially in relation to actors of this business and form of their activity. At first the development of Colombian drug trade till the 80’s when two big cartels centered in Medellín and Cali arose will be briefly outlined. These cartels were able to control a great part of domestic drug trade and due to their enormous power represented serious threat to Colombian state. Thus the cartels declared open warfare with the state in the 80’s. After the cartels’ elimination in the middle of 90’s new actors represented by small drug organizations arose in Colombian drug scene. These small groups were dependent upon cooperation with foreign partners, especially with Mexican cartels. Ever more important role in drug business is played by Colombian left-wing guerilla groups which will be described in the next part of the article. The problem of right-wing paramilitary groups and their participation in Colombian drug trade will be mentioned as well.

  4. Chile. Actores Populares en la Protesta Nacional, 1983-1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa REVILLA BLANCO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los acontecimientos y los actores implicados en las movilizaciones producidas en Santiago de Chile en 1983-84, son el objeto de andlisis de este artículo. Tras una breve exposición del contexto económico y político, se describen los rasgos fundamentales y la evolución de las protestas. Del análisis de los hechos se deducen tres objetivos implícitos en las movilizaciones: recuperación de la identidad política y social, integración polltica de los excluidos y democracia. Los resultados son dispares; mientras en el plano político se produce una derrota, en lo referente a la expresividad de las acciones y al problema de la integración, las movilizaciones fueron exitosas.ABSTRACT: ThLs article focuses on the events and actors involved in the mobilizations tha took place in Santiago de Chile between 1983-1984. After a short exposition of the political and economic context, it describes the main characteristics and the protest's evolution. Three implicit objetives can be identified from the demostrations: the recovering of social and political identity, the political integration of the excluded people and democracy. The results are inequal; while on the political level a defeat ocurs, with regard to the expressiveness of the actions and the integration's problem, the mobilizations were successful.

  5. Analysis of stress, musculoskeletal disorders, and fatigue among broadcasting actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon-Hee; Kim, Ham-Gyum; Lee, Hae-Kag

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to assess the health effects of broadcasting actors through a comprehensive research on their job stress, psychosocial stress, and fatigue and to investigate those factors having an impact on their health condition to present a basis for comparative studies and effective human resource management in the future. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was performed to analyze the relevance of the general features, job stress, psychosocial stress, and fatigue. [Results] Analysis of job stress, one of the characteristics of individuals, revealed that 32.4% of the subjects with less than 5 years of service, 55.5% of those with 6 to 10 years of service, and 52.4% of those with more than 10 years of service showed a high level of stress. Analysis of psychosocial stress, another characteristic of individuals, revealed that 13.4% of the nonsmokers had a high level of psychosocial stress, while 37.7% of smokers had a high level of psychosocial stress based on analysis of chronic disease and psychosocial health. [Conclusion] Based on this study of the stress and fatigue of broadcasting actors, it is expected that improvements can be made to promote their mental health conditions and, organizational safety and to promote effective human resource management.

  6. The dynamic consequences of cooperation and competition in small-world networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rosales, Iván Y; Liebovitch, Larry S; Guzmán-Vargas, Lev

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the social dynamics among cooperative and competitive actors interacting on a complex network that has a small-world topology. In this model, the state of each actor depends on its previous state in time, its inertia to change, and the influence of its neighboring actors. Using numerical simulations, we determine how the distribution of final states of the actors and measures of the distances between the values of the actors at local and global levels, depend on the number of cooperative to competitive actors and the connectivity of the actors in the network. We find that similar numbers of cooperative and competitive actors yield the lowest values for the local and global measures of the distances between the values of the actors. On the other hand, when the number of either cooperative or competitive actors dominate the system, then the divergence is largest between the values of the actors. Our findings make new testable predictions on how the dynamics of a conflict depends on the strategies chosen by groups of actors and also have implications for the evolution of behaviors.

  7. The dynamic consequences of cooperation and competition in small-world networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Y Fernández-Rosales

    Full Text Available We present a study of the social dynamics among cooperative and competitive actors interacting on a complex network that has a small-world topology. In this model, the state of each actor depends on its previous state in time, its inertia to change, and the influence of its neighboring actors. Using numerical simulations, we determine how the distribution of final states of the actors and measures of the distances between the values of the actors at local and global levels, depend on the number of cooperative to competitive actors and the connectivity of the actors in the network. We find that similar numbers of cooperative and competitive actors yield the lowest values for the local and global measures of the distances between the values of the actors. On the other hand, when the number of either cooperative or competitive actors dominate the system, then the divergence is largest between the values of the actors. Our findings make new testable predictions on how the dynamics of a conflict depends on the strategies chosen by groups of actors and also have implications for the evolution of behaviors.

  8. Systemic culture in global manufacturing virtual networks within the aeronautical industry; Cultura sistemaca en las redes virtuales de fabricacion global de la industria aeronautica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Monroy, C.

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyzes the existence of a systemic culture in global manufacturing virtual networks (GMVN). In order to validate the proposed model, based on a conceptual model of systemic culture, the case methodology have been applied to an example within the aeronautical industry that has been one of the most successful relationships within GMVNs, the collaboration between GE and SNECMA for the CFM 56 engine manufacturing. These organizations are formed by very dynamic companies that manufacture all types of products or services, and vertical relations between themselves, ( in some cases even direct competitors), where it is not necessary maintaining large internal manufacturing resources, just managing and sharing these resources efficiently in the network. This study about organizational culture at the network level includes aspects such as cultural similarity among its actors, social embeddedness, tacit knowledge transfer or the importance of trust at inter-firm collaborations. The presence under a systemic perspective, of homogeneous cultural values and practices in which network actors can be identified may strengthen the group membership or establish a social network that underlies the own GMVN and facilitates interactions among its members. The feasibility of this approach would facilitate the formation of new GMVNs, by establishing, ex ante, a cultural prescriptive model at the network level. (Author) 14 refs.

  9. Visions of the Future - the Changing Role of Actors in Data-Intensive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, L.; Klump, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    ? This gives rise to the question of what tools are required to locate and pursue the correct course in a networked world. One tool from the area of innovation management is the scenario technique. This poster will outline visions of the future as possible developments of the scientific world in 2020 (or later). The scenarios presented will show possible developments - both positive and negative. It is up then to the actors themselves to define their own position in this context, to rethink it and consider steps that can achieve a positive development for the future.

  10. Reinforcement learning using a continuous time actor-critic framework with spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémaux, Nicolas; Sprekeler, Henning; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2013-04-01

    Animals repeat rewarded behaviors, but the physiological basis of reward-based learning has only been partially elucidated. On one hand, experimental evidence shows that the neuromodulator dopamine carries information about rewards and affects synaptic plasticity. On the other hand, the theory of reinforcement learning provides a framework for reward-based learning. Recent models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity have made first steps towards bridging the gap between the two approaches, but faced two problems. First, reinforcement learning is typically formulated in a discrete framework, ill-adapted to the description of natural situations. Second, biologically plausible models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity require precise calculation of the reward prediction error, yet it remains to be shown how this can be computed by neurons. Here we propose a solution to these problems by extending the continuous temporal difference (TD) learning of Doya (2000) to the case of spiking neurons in an actor-critic network operating in continuous time, and with continuous state and action representations. In our model, the critic learns to predict expected future rewards in real time. Its activity, together with actual rewards, conditions the delivery of a neuromodulatory TD signal to itself and to the actor, which is responsible for action choice. In simulations, we show that such an architecture can solve a Morris water-maze-like navigation task, in a number of trials consistent with reported animal performance. We also use our model to solve the acrobot and the cartpole problems, two complex motor control tasks. Our model provides a plausible way of computing reward prediction error in the brain. Moreover, the analytically derived learning rule is consistent with experimental evidence for dopamine-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity.

  11. Reinforcement learning using a continuous time actor-critic framework with spiking neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Frémaux

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals repeat rewarded behaviors, but the physiological basis of reward-based learning has only been partially elucidated. On one hand, experimental evidence shows that the neuromodulator dopamine carries information about rewards and affects synaptic plasticity. On the other hand, the theory of reinforcement learning provides a framework for reward-based learning. Recent models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity have made first steps towards bridging the gap between the two approaches, but faced two problems. First, reinforcement learning is typically formulated in a discrete framework, ill-adapted to the description of natural situations. Second, biologically plausible models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity require precise calculation of the reward prediction error, yet it remains to be shown how this can be computed by neurons. Here we propose a solution to these problems by extending the continuous temporal difference (TD learning of Doya (2000 to the case of spiking neurons in an actor-critic network operating in continuous time, and with continuous state and action representations. In our model, the critic learns to predict expected future rewards in real time. Its activity, together with actual rewards, conditions the delivery of a neuromodulatory TD signal to itself and to the actor, which is responsible for action choice. In simulations, we show that such an architecture can solve a Morris water-maze-like navigation task, in a number of trials consistent with reported animal performance. We also use our model to solve the acrobot and the cartpole problems, two complex motor control tasks. Our model provides a plausible way of computing reward prediction error in the brain. Moreover, the analytically derived learning rule is consistent with experimental evidence for dopamine-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity.

  12. A perspective on the advancement of natural language processing tasks via topological analysis of complex networks. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amancio, Diego Raphael

    2014-12-01

    Concepts and methods of complex networks have been applied to probe the properties of a myriad of real systems [1]. The finding that written texts modeled as graphs share several properties of other completely different real systems has inspired the study of language as a complex system [2]. Actually, language can be represented as a complex network in its several levels of complexity. As a consequence, morphological, syntactical and semantical properties have been employed in the construction of linguistic networks [3]. Even the character level has been useful to unfold particular patterns [4,5]. In the review by Cong and Liu [6], the authors emphasize the need to use the topological information of complex networks modeling the various spheres of the language to better understand its origins, evolution and organization. In addition, the authors cite the use of networks in applications aiming at holistic typology and stylistic variations. In this context, I will discuss some possible directions that could be followed in future research directed towards the understanding of language via topological characterization of complex linguistic networks. In addition, I will comment the use of network models for language processing applications. Additional prospects for future practical research lines will also be discussed in this comment.

  13. Social network analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. de Nooy

    2009-01-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) focuses on the structure of ties within a set of social actors, e.g., persons, groups, organizations, and nations, or the products of human activity or cognition such as web sites, semantic concepts, and so on. It is linked to structuralism in sociology stressing the si

  14. SCHOOL, CULTURE & MOVEMENT : SUBJECTS/ACTORS FACE THE TRACES OF THEIR OWN ACTIVITY WHEN CREATING ALBUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Pairis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns pupils' activity operated from the theoretical and methodological framework of data analysis of the "process of action" (Theureau, 2004 supporting on activity tracks (what emerges from the pre-reflexive consciousness and video recordings proceeded with individual interviews questioning the actors about their work : creation of albums into two classes of cycle 2 (one of them is an experimental artistic and cultural educational classroom with the help of an author/illustrator. The understanding of pupil’s activity answers the hypothesis of getting to work with creativity (Vygotski, 1930 in studying the "school well-being", the discourse analysis (case of Ramone who, in 2013, is not involved in the album creation while in 2014 he does not want to go out for a break before having finished the activity of visual art as well as the posture of their bodies at a moment of attentive listening. The results reveal that pupils need more movement than being in stand by (Jorro, 2013; Dewey 1934, in exploring their relationship to the space children become aware of the other ones (action vs passivity. The analysis of the pupils’ activity puts into perspective the impact of the artistic and cultural practices on learnings and movement (performance of their musical tale -moving in space with big-sized illustrations-, graphic movement : not only in writing but in positioning their body to accustom them to feel it before it hurts them as means of expression and cultural fact.

  15. Chihuahua: actores sociales y modernización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Quintana S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El auge maquilero, el ascenso y caída del neopanismo, el emporio del narcotráfico, la cultura de las parabólicas y del "six pack"... Aquí empieza y termina para muchos la modernización sufrida por el estado de Chihuahua en los años ochenta. Más allá de estos hechos, analizadores válidos de los cambios que se operan en la sociedad norteña, la modernización significa en el Chihuahua de la década pasada, transformación acelerada de su estructura productiva y de su perfil ocupacional, nuevas formas de trabajo y de vida cotidiana, despegue del bipartidismo, intensificación de los intercambios con los Estados Unidos. Cambios, pues, en el eje estructural de la sociedad, en el escenario en que los actores se desenvuelven.

  16. Valence, Implicated Actor, and Children's Acquiescence to False Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Kyndra C; Quas, Jodi A; Lyon, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse effects of suggestive interviewing on children's accuracy are well documented, it remains unclear as to whether these effects vary depending on the valence of and the actor implicated in suggestions. In this study, 124 3-8-year-olds participated in a classroom activity and were later questioned about positive and negative false details. The interviewer provided positive reinforcement when children acquiesced to suggestions and negative feedback when they did not. Following reinforcement or feedback, young children were comparably suggestible for positive and negative details. With age, resistance to suggestions about negative details emerged first, followed by resistance to suggestions about positive details. Across age, more negative feedback was required to induce acquiescence to negative than positive false details. Finally, children were less willing to acquiesce when they (versus the confederate) were implicated. Findings highlight the interactive effects of valence and children's age on their eyewitness performance in suggestive contexts.

  17. Temporal Logic Motion Control using Actor-Critic Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Xu Chu; Lahijanian, Morteza; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch; Belta, Calin A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of deploying a robot from a specification given as a temporal logic statement about some properties satisfied by the regions of a large, partitioned environment. We assume that the robot has noisy sensors and actuators and model its motion through the regions of the environment as a Markov Decision Process (MDP). The robot control problem becomes finding the control policy maximizing the probability of satisfying the temporal logic task on the MDP. For a large environment, obtaining transition probabilities for each state-action pair, as well as solving the necessary optimization problem for the optimal policy are usually not computationally feasible. To address these issues, we propose an approximate dynamic programming framework based on a least-square temporal difference learning method of the actor-critic type. This framework operates on sample paths of the robot and optimizes a randomized control policy with respect to a small set of parameters. The transition proba...

  18. Islamic actors' support for democracy and European integration: A case for power-seeking?

    OpenAIRE

    Elbasani, Arolda; Saatçioğlu, Beken

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates when and how Islamic political actors support democracy, and in particular, the EU's democratic criteria subsumed under membership conditionality. The research focuses on the main Islamic organizations in two Muslim-majority, EU applicant states, Turkey and Albania. The analysis suggests that Islamic actors endorsed democratic rules based on a rationalist logic, which combines interest-driven and ideational concerns. The weak Albanian actors have shown unconditional su...

  19. 社会网络视角下的同伴关系与心理健康%Peer relationship and mental health in perspective of social network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张镇; 郭博达

    2016-01-01

    In recent decade, it has become one of hotspots in developmental psychology and health psychology that examining the interaction between peer relationship and mental health from a perspective of social network. With whole network data and longitudinal design, most of the research focused on two mechanisms of social network-mental health co-evolution: selection process (the effect of psychological and behavioral variables on developing, maintaining, and dissolving of peer relationships and social network) and influence process (the effect of peer relationships and social network on psychological and behavioral variables). Based on the above two mechanisms, some prominent findings on health risk behaviors (such as smoking, drinking, and substance use) and emotion problems (such as depression, anxiety and loneliness) of adolescents in the social network perspective were reviewed. Future researches in this field should pay more attention to a wider range of social networks beyond class and school contexts and special samples, increase studies on positive psychology and negative ties, strengthen the theoretical construction, apply social network analyses into online network environment more, and deeply explore biological foundation of social network.%近年来,从社会网络视角考察同伴关系与心理健康的相互作用正成为发展心理学和健康心理学研究的热点。研究者多借助整体网和纵向数据,通过两种作用机制,即选择过程(selection process)(强调心理和行为变量对社会网络和同伴关系的影响,如关系的形成、维持和解除)和影响过程(influence process)(强调社会网络和同伴关系对心理和行为变量的影响),来分析同伴关系与心理健康协同演进的动态过程。实证研究关注的领域集中在青少年健康风险行为(如吸烟、喝酒、药物滥用)和情绪问题(如抑郁、焦虑、孤独感)。未来研究应该注重拓展社会网络的类型和样

  20. La disciplina entre las disposiciones legales y los actores escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Palacios Mena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una descripción del funcionamiento de la disciplina escolar en una institución educativa de secundaria en Colombia. Tiene como objetivo explicar el origen del conflicto disciplinario, las situaciones que lo generan, la forma como la institución trata de lograr y mantener la disciplina, las explicaciones que cada uno de los actores da a las situaciones conflictivas y la manera como son vividas por ellos. El diseño metodológico de la investigación combinó una encuesta, entrevistas y el análisis de documentos de la institución educativa. El análisis de los datos se hace a la luz de planteamientos sociológicos que reconocen la enorme importancia que ejercen las estructuras sociales sobre la forma de pensar y actuar de los individuos, pero también resaltan la gran capacidad de los actores sociales para amoldarse a dichas estructuras y a través de sus ideas y acciones darle una dinámica propia al tipo de relaciones que establecen entre individuos en sus entornos de vida más inmediatos. Se pudo concluir que sobre la disciplina escolar no hay unidad de criterio entre los docentes, los directivos y los estudiantes, ni en su definición, ni en su importancia, ni en los medios para conseguirla; dichas diferencias producen tensiones y desacuerdos entre los miembros de la comunidad educativa.

  1. Role of Actors and Gender Factor in Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Oguz; Isik, Ozden; Ozcep, Ferhat; Goksu, Goksel

    2014-05-01

    In Turkey, the discussions in the modern sense about disaster management begun after the 1992 Erzincan and the 1995 Dinar earthquakes, faulting in terms of features and effects. These earthquakes are "Urban Earthquakes'' with effects and faulting charectristics, and have led to radical changes in terms of disaster and disaster management. Disaster Management, to become a science in the world, but with the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes in Turkey has begun to take seriously on the agenda. Firstly, such as Civil Defense and Red Crescent organizations, by transforming its own, have entered into a new organizing effort. By these earthquakes, NGO's have contributed the search-rescue efforts in the field and to the process of normalization of life. Because "the authority and responsibilities" of NGO's could not be determined, and could not be in planning and scenario studies, we faced the problems. Thus, to the citizens of our country-specific "voluntary" has not benefited enough from the property. The most important development in disaster management in 2009, the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) has been the establishment. However, in terms of coordination and accreditation to the target point has been reached yet. Another important issue in disaster management (need to be addressed along with disaster actors) is the role of women in disasters. After the Golcuk Earthquake, successful field works of women and women's victimization has attracted attention in two different directions. Gender-sensitive policies should be noted by the all disaster actors due to the importance of the mitigation, and these policies should take place in laws, regulations and planning.

  2. 知识网络视角的产业集群研究述评%Review of Industrial Cluster from Knowledge Network Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻登科; 周荣

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,we refer to relevant literature of industrial cluster of knowledge network perspetive,both here and abroad. Then we summarize,abstract and review the research contents and theoretical system of industrial cluster underpinned by knowledge network based on retrieval literature,both here and abroad. At present,these researches focus on three respects:knowledge network formation,operation and development mechanisms ,growth mechanism of industrial cluster from knowledge network perspective; and interaction relationship between industrial cluster and knowledge network. Three respects research emphase on including three aspects:measurement of structure,re-lations of knowledge network,knowledge activities and capabilities,and evolution mechanism of knowledge networks;mechanism explora-tion of capability construction,upgrade and advantage formation,and measurement of effect paths from knowledge network to cluster com-petitive advantage via knowledge capabilities; interaction effects and interaction model. So,a novel research framework was proposed to study this subject. There are five potential research orientations presented in the future.%通过梳理知识网络视角的产业集群国内外相关文献,对相关研究内容与理论体系进行归纳、提炼和评述。当前国内外研究主要包括三个方面:产业集群中的知识网络形成、运行与发展机制研究,基于知识网络的产业集群成长机理研究和知识网络与产业集群的互动关系研究。三方面研究重点分别为知识网络的结构和关系特征、知识活动与行为能力、网络的演化发展;集群的能力建构、演化升级和优势形成机理,检验知识网络、知识行为能力、集群竞争优势的作用路径;互动作用和互动模式。由此,提出研究逻辑架构,并从五个方面提出未来具有潜力的研究方向。

  3. 网络自制剧热播的传播学解读%On Popularity of Network Homemade Drama from the Perspective of Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡小华

    2013-01-01

    从2010开始,各大网站纷纷试水网络剧的制作,获得了不错口碑和可观的经济效益。正因如此,使得更多网站加入到该行列中,希望能在这种新产品市场占有一席之地,那么网络自制剧的成功之道为何?从传播学角度来看,传者、受者、传播内容和载体是一个传播过程不可或缺的元素,因此可以从这几方面去探究网络自制剧热播的原因。%From 2010, some major websites has tried to make network drama and gained a good reputation and considerable economic benefits. More and more websites then added to the network drama team and hope to occupy a space in the market for this new product. From the perspective of communication, there are four indispensable elements for the communication process and they are communicator, recipient,content and carrier. We can also anayse the reasons for the hot broadcast of the network homemade drama from these four aspects.

  4. 接受美学视角下的网络互动艺术%Research on Network Interactive Art from the Perspective of Reception Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭亮

    2013-01-01

      新媒体艺术迅速发展,网络互动艺术作品也随之大量涌现。在接受美学的视角下,网络时代的互动艺术表现出接受主体的非现场性和虚拟性,作品信息的传递有着双向性和互动性。以此为基础,通过分析网络互动艺术形态的类型和特性,进而探索构建融合技术与艺术的审美体验。%  With the rapid development of new media art, works of network interactive art are springing up. From the perspective of reception aesthetics, interactive art in network era appears that the participants could be not at the scene or be virtual, and the works’ communications are bidirectional and interactive. This paper analyzes the types and characters of network art, and then explores how to build aesthetic experience combining technology and art.

  5. 社会语言学视野中的英语网络语言%Analysis on English Network Language from the Perspective of Sciolinguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous development of electronic information technology and the growing popularity of internet, more and more people start to conduct communication through internet, which makes the network English generate like spring mush-rooms after rain, so as to change and innovate the traditional language exchange methods in large scale. This paper conducts de-tailed analysis on the variant features of English in current network language environment, then discusses the form reason of English network language from the perspective of sociolinguistics.%随着电子信息技术的不断发展,互联网的日益普及,越来越多的人们开始通过互联网进行沟通,这也使得网络英语如雨后春笋一般大量产生,对传统的语言交流方式进行了大规模地改变与革新。该文通过对当前网络语言环境中英语的变体特征展开详细地分析,从社会语言学的角度,对英语网络语言的形成原因进行探讨。

  6. Networks in the news media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, Peter

    When news reporters connect people in a single news story or in a series of coherent news stories they essentially construct networks in the news media. Networks through which social actors are aligned symbolically in written, visible or audible form. These socio-symbolic networks not only copy...... more formal types of social networks, but also complement or even substitute social networking elsewhere, and as such this particular type of social network offers people both inside and outside the news room new potentials - and problems. This article describe the basic vision of networks in the news...

  7. Treatment of non-response in longitudinal network studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Mark; Steglich, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The collection of longitudinal data on complete social networks often faces the problem of actor non-response. The resulting incomplete data pose a challenge to statistical analysis, as there typically is no natural way to treat the missing cases. This paper examines the problems caused by actors mi

  8. Gobernanza ambiental, actores sociales y conflictos en las Áreas Naturales Protegidas mexicanas Environmental Governance, Social Actors and Conflicts in Mexican Natural Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Brenner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los retos que enfrenta la gobernanza ambiental de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sian Ka'an, una de las Áreas Naturales Protegidas más importantes en México. El estudio identifica los actores sociales involucrados, sus intereses, estrategias, poder relativo y acciones. La información pone en claro que el mayor problema que enfrenta la gobernanza ambiental resulta de los intereses y acciones contradictorias que llevan a cabo los diferentes actores sociales.This article analizes the challenges faced by environmental governance of the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, one of the most important protected natural areas in Mexico. The study focuses on social actors involved, their interests, strategies, relative power and actions. The information obtained shows that the main problem faced by environmental governance actions comes from the various social actors.

  9. Preventing and Coping Strategies of Supply Chain Frangibility Based on Complex Networks Perspective%基于复杂网络视角的供应链脆弱性预防和应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬; 季建华; 陈娟; 孟翠翠

    2012-01-01

    分析了供应链网络的复杂网络相关特性,揭示了供应链网络脆弱性的产生机理;基于复杂网络的视角,研究了供应链网络脆弱性的预防策略;并运用牵制控制和弱连接理论研究了供应链网络发生中断或者发生突发事件后的应对策略.%Analyzes the complex network-related features of supply chain network, reveals the generation mechanism of supply chain network frangibility. Studies the preventing strategies of supply chain network frangibility based on complex networks perspective; and studies the coping strategies of supply chain network after interruption using pinning control theory and weak ties theory.

  10. Energy, transport network and financial issues: PR perspectives for economic development in time of Euro-Med area change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Jane Succi

    2012-02-01

    At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able to present a public institutions of the higher education and research but even the enterprises that act in the research area are mainly focusing to the integration of these two systems which have been working separately for a long period of time and that must become efficient in order to adapt to the conditions of a country that has limited financial resources. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific research in Albania, focusing in defining the priority areas for the research in social sciences. The information about the higher education and the potential problems that it faces, is based on a big number of research institutions, selected based on their involvement in scientific research in social sciences. This article brings into evidence the fact that in order to establish a stable and effective infrastructure in scientific research in Albania, is important to work in different directions. A successful way to increase the efficasity through the elements of the “innovative system” is by working with organizations that work in specific sectors of the economy, aiming for a possible cooperation in scientific search, for an important social contribution.

  11. INTERNET AND POWER IN COMMUNICATION NETWORK SOCIETY: INFLUENCES ON FORMS OF SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Gomes Molina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reflections, through literature review, about the means of communication’s use, in special the internet in the transformation of social relations. From the perspective of Manuel Castells and John Thompson, the text presents an overview of the changes arising from the information technology and communication, highlighting the potential of the power of persuasion and dissemination of social networking sites such as Facebook and YouTube in the exercise of the self-masses, which transformed mass communication through speech, autonomy and interaction of its actors. The arguments presented in the text, is to highlight the role of information technologies in social interaction and the construction of a network society.

  12. Digital divide 2.0: the role of social networking sites in seeking health information online from a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yang; Xie, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a longitudinal angle, this study analyzed data from the Pew Internet's Health Tracking Survey in 2006, 2008, and 2010 to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use. Results showed that with the growing role of social networking site use in predicting people's likelihood of seeking health information online, the socioeconomic and demographic factors that contributed to the disparities in social networking site use could also lead to disparities in seeking health information online. Also, results indicated that people are more likely to seek heath-related information online if they or their close family or friends have a chronic disease situation.

  13. QUALITY OF INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEM (IOS FRAMEWORK FOR SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (SCM: STUDY OF SIX COLLABORATIVE FACTORS FROM SUPPLIER AND CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Mihajlović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper has identified a research gap to study how organizations collaborate together to adopt Inter- Organizational System (IOS for Supply Chain Management (SCM. We propose such a framework and then use four theories, namely resource dependency theory, organizational theory, actor-network theory and negotiated order theory, to understand how the framework supports management collaboration and interaction in the adoption of an IOS. This adoption framework is proposed to better study how senior management staff, from both supplier and customer perspectives, collaborate and interact in the IOS adoption process. The framework has been constructed from the literature identifying six major aspects for consideration namely: inter and intra organizational collaboration; strategic management approaches; supply chain design (SCD; business process redesign/reengineering (BPR; information systems (IS / information technology (IT architecture and external environmental factors. From customer and supplier perspectives the adoption of IOS for SCM, makes a significant contribution to knowledge in this field.

  14. Can the complex networks help us in the resolution of the problem of power outages (blackouts) in Brazil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Paulo Alexandre de; Souza, Thaianne Lopes de [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Catalao, GO (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. What the Brazilian soccer championship, Hollywood actors, the network of the Internet, the spread of viruses and electric distribution network have in common? Until less than two decade ago, the answer would be 'nothing' or 'almost nothing'. However, the answer today to this same question is 'all' or 'almost all'. The answer to these questions and more can be found through a sub-area of statistical physics | called science of complex networks that has been used to approach and study the most diverse natural and non-natural systems, such as systems/social networks, information, technological or biological. In this work we study the distribution network of electric power in Brazil (DEEB), from a perspective of complex networks, where we associate stations and/or substations with a network of vertices and the links between the vertices we associate with the transmission lines. We are doing too a comparative study with the best-known models of complex networks, such as Erdoes-Renyi, Configuration Model and Barabasi-Albert, and then we compare with results obtained in real electrical distribution networks. Based on this information, we do a comparative analysis using the following variables: connectivity distribution, diameter, clustering coefficient, which are frequently used in studies of complex networks. We emphasize that the main objective of this study is to analyze the robustness of the network DEEB, and then propose alternatives for network connectivity, which may contribute to the increase of robustness in maintenance projects and/or expansion of the network, in other words our goal is to make the network to proof the blackouts or improve the endurance the network against the blackouts. For this purpose, we use information from the structural properties of networks, computer modeling and simulation. (author)

  15. Connecting fresh cut chain actors, from seed to produce - a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina

    2011-01-01

    structured interviews in the supply chain and the emphasis and choice of seed source in these productions are highlighted. Changes in consumer behavior towards more and more convenience food might further increase consumption of these product formats, however, consumer demand for local and/or organic produce...

  16. Flood management in urban Senegal: an actor-oriented perspective on national and transnational adaptation interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaer, Caroline; Thiam, Mame Demba; Nygaard, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    In Senegal, considerable development assistance has been allocated to addressing the problem of repeated flooding in urban areas, involving changing thematic objectives, from short-term disaster relief to wide-ranging sanitation and drainage programmes. In spite of these numerous flood management...... interventions, the number of flood victims in Senegal’s urban centres has increased steadily since 1999. This article contributes empirically and conceptually to recent studies highlighting poor national disaster risk-management frameworks in West Africa, by investigating how floods have been managed in Senegal...... and why this management has not led to the results expected by the population. The article finds that the configuration of flood management policies and programmes in urban Senegal points towards three key intertwined issues which have influenced the limited achievements of flood management in urban areas...

  17. Good governance in an African perspective: an essay on actors and actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2001-01-01

    In preparation for this conference I have looked back at my own work and the work of others in the period just after most of Sub-Saharan Africa achieved independence. My own place was in the University of Zambia, from 1967 to 1971. Perusing our publications of the late sixties and early seventies of

  18. The Role of Private Actors in Offshore Energy : Shifting Models of Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trevisanut, Seline

    2014-01-01

    The role of private actors in the offshore energy industry has expanded with regard to both the law-making processes and the implementation of the relevant legal framework. This article critically examines the role private actors are playing in the offshore energy sector in order to delineate some t

  19. Thinking war in the 21st century: Introducing non-state actors in Just war theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorda, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    “Thinking War in the 21st Century” develops a theory of war applicable to conflicts with non-state actors such as the “Islamic State”. Just war theory traditionally focuses on states as actors in war. This book moves beyond this narrow lens, arguing that active individual members of organized collec

  20. Camus' Actor as Tom Stoppard's Player; A Key to Interpreting "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivanovic, Judith

    An examination of Albert Camus' definition of the actor in "The Myth on Sisyphus" helps to illuminate the character and role of The Player in Tom Stoppard's play and, hence, to bring light to an understanding of the philosophy of the play itself. The actor, for Camus, reveals our mortality in the face of the absurdity of our mortality,…