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Sample records for activity-related environmental factors

  1. Measuring physical activity-related environmental factors: reliability and predictive validity of the European environmental questionnaire ALPHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppert Jean-Michel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A questionnaire to assess physical activity related environmental factors in the European population (a 49-item and an 11-item version was created as part of the framework of the EU-funded project "Instruments for Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity and fitness (ALPHA". This paper reports on the development and assessment of the questionnaire's test-retest stability, predictive validity, and applicability to European adults. Methods The first pilot test was conducted in Belgium, France and the UK. In total 190 adults completed both forms of the ALPHA questionnaire twice with a one-week interval. Physical activity was concurrently measured (i by administration of the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ by interview and (ii by accelerometry (Actigraph™ device. After adaptations, the second field test took place in Belgium, the UK and Austria; 166 adults completed the adapted questionnaire at two time points, with minimum one-week interval. In both field studies intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and proportion of agreement were computed to assess the stability of the two test scores. Predictive validity was examined in the first field test by correlating the results of the questionnaires with physical activity data from accelerometry and long IPAQ-last 7 days. Results The reliability scores of the ALPHA questionnaire were moderate-to good in the first field testing (ICC range 0.66 - 0.86 and good in the second field testing (ICC range 0.71 - 0.87. The proportion of agreement for the ALPHA short increased significantly from the first (range 50 - 83% to the second field testing (range 85 - 95%. Environmental scales from both versions of the ALPHA questionnaire were significantly associated with self-reported minutes of transport-related walking, and objectively measured low intensity physical activity levels, particularly in women. Both versions were easily administered with an

  2. Assessing risk factors for early hip osteoarthritis in activity-related hip pain: a Delphi study

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    Jackson, K A; Glyn-Jones, S; Batt, M E; Arden, N K; Newton, J L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hip pain and injury as a result of activity can lead to the development of early hip osteoarthritis (OA) in susceptible individuals. Our understanding of the factors that increase susceptibility continues to evolve. The ability to clearly identify individuals (and cohorts) with activity-related hip pain who are at risk of early hip OA is currently lacking. The purpose of this study was to gain expert consensus on which key clinical measures might help predict the risk of early hip OA in individuals presenting with activity-related hip pain. The agreed measures would constitute a standardised approach to initial clinical assessment to help identify these individuals. Methods This Dephi study used online surveys to gain concordance of expert opinion in a structured process of ‘rounds’. In this study, we asked ‘What outcome measures are useful in predicting hip OA in activity-related hip pain?’ The Delphi panel consisted of experts from sport and exercise medicine, orthopaedics, rheumatology, physiotherapy and OA research. Results The study identified key clinical measures in the history, examination and investigations (plain anteroposterior radiograph and femoroacetabular impingement views) that the panel agreed would be useful in predicting future risk of hip OA when assessing activity-related hip pain. The panel also agreed that certain investigations and tests (eg, MR angiography) did not currently have a role in routine assessment. There was a lack of consensus regarding the role of MRI, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and certain biomechanical and functional assessments. Conclusions We provide a standardised approach to the clinical assessment of patients with activity-related hip pain. Assessment measures rejected by the Delphi panel were newer, more expensive investigations that currently lack evidence. Assessment measures that did not reach consensus include MRI and PROMs. Their role remains ambiguous and would benefit from further

  3. Musculoskeletal and activity-related factors associated with plantar heel pain.

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    Sullivan, Justin; Burns, Joshua; Adams, Roger; Pappas, Evangelos; Crosbie, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence and impact of plantar heel pain, its etiology remains poorly understood, and there is no consensus regarding optimum management. The identification of musculoskeletal factors related to the presence of plantar heel pain could lead to the development of better targeted intervention strategies and potentially improve clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between a number of musculoskeletal and activity-related measures and plantar heel pain. In total, 202 people with plantar heel pain and 70 asymptomatic control participants were compared on a variety of musculoskeletal and activity-related measures, including body mass index (BMI), foot and ankle muscle strength, calf endurance, ankle and first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint range of motion, foot alignment, occupational standing time, exercise level, and generalized hypermobility. Following a comparison of groups for parity of age, analyses of covariance were performed to detect differences between the 2 groups for any of the variables measured. The plantar heel pain group displayed a higher BMI, reduced ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, reduced ankle evertor and toe flexor strength, and an altered inversion/eversion strength ratio. There were no differences between groups for foot alignment, dorsiflexor or invertor strength, ankle inversion or eversion range of motion, first MTP joint extension range of motion, generalized hypermobility, occupational standing time, or exercise level. Plantar heel pain is associated with higher BMI and reductions in some foot and ankle strength and flexibility measures. Although these factors could be either causal or consequential, they are all potentially modifiable and could be targeted in the management of plantar heel pain. Level III, comparative study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Impact of “noncaloric” activity-related factors on the predisposition to obesity in children

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    Angelo Tremblay

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Angelo Tremblay, Émilie Pérusse-Lachance, Patrice BrassardDivision de Kinésiologie, PEPS, Université Laval and Centre de Recherche de l’Institut Universitaire en Cardiologie et Pneumologie de Québec, Québec, CanadaAbstract: The research related to childhood obesity generally emphasizes the impact of unhealthy eating and sedentary behavior as the main determinants of the predisposition to the positive energy balance that underlies excess body fat accumulation. Recent investigations have, however, demonstrated that “noncaloric” activity-related factors can induce a significant imbalance between spontaneous energy intake and energy expenditure. This is the case for short sleep duration that favors hormonal changes that increase hunger and energy intake. This agrees with our research experience demonstrating that short sleeping predicts the risk of obesity in children to a greater extent than sedentary behavior. Recent research by our team has also showed that demanding mental work promotes a substantial increase in energy intake without altering energy expenditure. In addition, our preliminary data suggest that the regular practice of school-related cognitive efforts is predictive of an increase in abdominal fat accumulation. As discussed in this paper, individual variations in brain oxygenation and its related cerebral aerobic fitness might play a role in the relationship between mental work, energy intake, and the risk of excess body weight.Keywords: sleep duration, mental work, brain oxygenation, energy intake, energy expenditure

  5. Physical inactivity is a risk factor for physical activity-related injuries in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemers, F.W.; Collard, D.C.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the risk factors associated with injuries resulting from physical education (PE), leisure time physical activity (leisure time PA) and sports in 9-12-year-old children. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Primary schools. Participants: Nine hundred and ninety-fi ve

  6. Assessing risk factors for early hip osteoarthritis in activity-related hip pain: a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, K. A.; Glyn-Jones, S.; Batt, M. E.; Arden, N. K.; Newton, J. L.; Allen, N.; Ao, Y.-F.; Barker, K.; Beasley, I.; Bennell, K.; Botha, N.; Doherty, M.; Cowie, C.; Hawkes, R.; Jaques, R.; Kemp, S.; Lohmander, S.; Mackinnon, A.-L.; Miller, S.; Palmer, A.; Rossiter, M.; Roos, E.; Yoshimura, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Hip pain and injury as a result of activity can lead to the development of early hip osteoarthritis (OA) in susceptible individuals. Our understanding of the factors that increase susceptibility continues to evolve. The ability to clearly identify individuals (and cohorts) with

  7. HIV: Social and Environmental Factors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses how social and environmental factors may put African Americans at greater risk for HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  8. Physical Activity-Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Perry, Cynthia K; Sumrall, Jasmin C; Patterson, Megan S; Walsh, Shana M; Clendennen, Stephanie C; Hooker, Steven P; Evenson, Kelly R; Goins, Karin V; Heinrich, Katie M; O'Hara Tompkins, Nancy; Eyler, Amy A; Jones, Sydney; Tabak, Rachel; Valko, Cheryl

    2016-01-07

    Health disparities exist between rural and urban residents; in particular, rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases and obesity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity and promote health equity. In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended 24 policy and environmental strategies for use by local communities: the Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention (COCOMO); 12 strategies focus on physical activity. This review was conducted to synthesize evidence on the implementation, relevance, and effectiveness of physical activity-related policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention in rural communities. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINHAL, and PAIS databases for articles published from 2002 through May 2013 that reported findings from physical activity-related policy or environmental interventions conducted in the United States or Canada. Each article was extracted independently by 2 researchers. Of 2,002 articles, 30 articles representing 26 distinct studies met inclusion criteria. Schools were the most common setting (n = 18 studies). COCOMO strategies were applied in rural communities in 22 studies; the 2 most common COCOMO strategies were "enhance infrastructure supporting walking" (n = 11) and "increase opportunities for extracurricular physical activity" (n = 9). Most studies (n = 21) applied at least one of 8 non-COCOMO strategies; the most common was increasing physical activity opportunities at school outside of physical education (n = 8). Only 14 studies measured or reported physical activity outcomes (10 studies solely used self-report); 10 reported positive changes. Seven of the 12 COCOMO physical activity-related strategies were successfully implemented in 2 or more studies, suggesting that these 7 strategies are relevant in rural communities and the other 5 might be less applicable in rural communities

  9. Development of Physical Activity-Related Parenting Practices Scales for Urban Chinese Parents of Preschoolers: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Reliability.

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    Suen, Yi-Nam; Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Huang, Wendy Y J; Mellecker, Robin R

    2017-09-01

    Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children's physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers' PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong. Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined. The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child's PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89). We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.

  10. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

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    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  11. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  12. Environmental factors and semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech; Radwan, Michal

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An increasing number of reports suggest that chemical and physical agents in the environment, introduced and spread by human activity, may affect male fertility in humans. This article aims at evaluating the impact of environmental exposures (pesticides, phthalates, PCBs, air pollution...... to sperm motility. In case of air pollution, studies suggest a link between ambient air pollutants and various semen characteristics. Additional research is needed to corroborate this association and to establish the causal agents. Results of few studies on subfertile men demonstrate associations between...... phthalate levels commonly experienced by the public and impaired sperm quality (impact on sperm concentration, morphology, motility), but the findings have not been corroborated in studies of men from the general population. Mobile phones might adversely affect the quality of semen by decreasing mostly...

  13. Environmental Factors Influencing Epidemic Cholera

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    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks. PMID:23897993

  14. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast Cancer Risk and Environmental Factors For millions of women whose lives have been affected by breast cancer, the 1994 discovery of the first breast ... gene by researchers from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and their collaborators, was a ...

  15. Environmental risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease.

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    Koutroubakis, I; Manousos, O N; Meuwissen, S G; Pena, A S

    1996-01-01

    Besides a genetic predisposition, a causal role of various environmental factors have been taken into consideration in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The most consistent association of environmental factors so far identified is the association between non smoking and ulcerative colitis (UC) as well a between smoking and Crohn's disease (CD). Other factors such as oral contraceptives, refined sugar, perinatal events, childhood infections, microbial agents, and domestic hygiene have been found to be associated with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease but further evaluation is required to confirm the consistency and to define the strength of the association. Recent data also suggest that measles virus may persist in intestinal tissue and early exposure to the virus may be a risk factor for development of CD. The further investigation of environmental factors on IBD and the explanation of their role is expected to open new avenues for basic scientific research and may lead to the development of a more rational approach to the prevention and treatment of IBD. The available data suggest that UC and CD are heterogeneous disorders of multifactorial etiology in which hereditary and environmental factors interact to produce the disease.

  16. [Environmental factors: the contribution of infectious agents].

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    Yoshimura, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial disease resulting from complex interactions between predisposing genetic and environmental factors. Among the many potential environmental risk factors, several common infectious agents such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus-6 and Chlamydia pneumoniae(C. pneumoniae) have been causatively implicated in the onset of MS. However, with the exception of EBV, consistent data are yet to be obtained regarding the involvement of infectious agents. With respect to the Japanese population, we found that EBV infection is a risk factor for the subgroup of Japanese MS patients not harboring the HLA-DRB1*0405 allele, a known genetic risk factor for MS in this ethnic group. By contrast, bacterial infections such as Helicobacter pylori and C. pneumoniae are risk factors for Japanese neuromyelitis optica, especially in patients with anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies.

  17. [Environmental risk factors for schizophrenia: a review].

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    Vilain, J; Galliot, A-M; Durand-Roger, J; Leboyer, M; Llorca, P-M; Schürhoff, F; Szöke, A

    2013-02-01

    Evidence of variations in schizophrenia incidence rates has been found in genetically homogenous populations, depending on changes within time or space of certain environmental characteristics. The consideration of the impact of environmental risk factors in etiopathogenic studies has put the environment in the forefront of research regarding psychotic illnesses. Various environmental factors such as urbanicity, migration, cannabis, childhood traumas, infectious agents, obstetrical complications and psychosocial factors have been associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia. These risk factors can be biological, physical, psychological as well as social and may operate at different times in an individual's life (fetal period, childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Whilst some of these factors act on an individual level, others act on a populational level, modulating the individual risk. These factors can have a direct action on the development of schizophrenia, or on the other hand act as markers for directly implicated factors that have not yet been identified. This article summarizes the current knowledge on this subject. An extensive literature search was conducted via the search engine Pubmed. Eight risk factors were selected and developed in the following paper: urbanicity (or living in an urban area), cannabis, migration (and ethnic density), obstetrical complications, seasonality of birth, infectious agents (and inflammatory responses), socio-demographic factors and childhood traumas. For each of these factors, we provide information on the importance of the risk, the vulnerability period, hypotheses made on the possible mechanisms behind the factors and the level of proof the current research offers (good, medium, or insufficient) according to the amount, type, quality and concordance of the studies at hand. Some factors, such as cannabis, are "unique" in their influence on the development of schizophrenia since it labels only one risk factor

  18. Environmental risk factors for heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Timothy E; Conklin, Daniel J; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we discuss current evidence linking environmental pollutants to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Extensive evidence indicates that environmental factors contribute to CVD risk, incidence, and severity. Migrant studies show that changes in the environment could substantially alter CVD risk in a genetically stable population. Additionally, CVD risk is affected by changes in nutritional and lifestyle choices. Recent studies in the field of environmental cardiology suggest that environmental toxins also influence CVD. Exposure to tobacco smoke is paradigmatic of such environmental risk and is strongly and positively associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In animal models of exposure, tobacco smoke induces endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic responses and exacerbates atherogenesis and myocardial ischemic injury. Similar mechanism may be engaged by other pollutants or food constituents. Several large population-based studies indicate that exposure to fine or ultrafine particulate air pollution increases CVD morbidity and mortality, and the plausibility of this association is supported by data from animal studies. Exposure to other chemicals such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and metals has also been reported to elevate CVD risk by affecting atherogenesis, thrombosis, or blood pressure regulation. Maternal exposure to drugs, toxins, and infection has been linked with cardiac birth defects and premature CVD in later life. Collectively, the data support the notion that chronic environmental stress is an important determinant of CVD risk. Further work is required to assess the magnitude of this risk fully and to delineate specific mechanisms by which environmental toxins affect CVD.

  19. Environmental Factors, Toxicants and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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    Anselm Mak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an immune-complex-mediated multi-systemic autoimmune condition of multifactorial etiology, which mainly affects young women. It is currently believed that the onset of SLE and lupus flares are triggered by various environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. Various environmental agents and toxicants, such as cigarette smoke, alcohol, occupationally- and non-occupationally-related chemicals, ultraviolet light, infections, sex hormones and certain medications and vaccines, have been implicated to induce SLE onset or flares in a number case series, case-control and population-based cohort studies and very few randomized controlled trials. Here, we will describe some of these recognized environmental lupus triggering and perpetuating factors and explain how these factors potentially bias the immune system towards autoimmunity through their interactions with genetic and epigenetic alterations. Further in-depth exploration of how potentially important environmental factors mechanistically interact with the immune system and the genome, which trigger the onset of SLE and lupus flares, will certainly be one of the plausible steps to prevent the onset and to decelerate the progress of the disease.

  20. The Genetic and Environmental Factors Underlying Hypospadias

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    Pask, Andrew; Heloury, Yves; Sinclair, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Hypospadias results from a failure of urethral closure in the male phallus and affects 1 in 200–300 boys. It is thought to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The development of the penis progresses in 2 stages: an initial hormone-independent phase and a secondary hormone-dependent phase. Here, we review the molecular pathways that contribute to each of these stages, drawing on studies from both human and mouse models. Hypospadias can occur when normal development of the phallus is disrupted, and we provide evidence that mutations in genes underlying this developmental process are causative. Finally, we discuss the environmental factors that may contribute to hypospadias and their potential immediate and transgen erational epigenetic impacts. PMID:26613581

  1. The genetic and environmental factors for keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Shaag, Ariela; Millodot, Michel; Shneor, Einat; Liu, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is the most common cornea ectatic disorder. It is characterized by a cone-shaped thin cornea leading to myopia, irregular astigmatism, and vision impairment. It affects all ethnic groups and both genders. Both environmental and genetic factors may contribute to its pathogenesis. This review is to summarize the current research development in KC epidemiology and genetic etiology. Environmental factors include but are not limited to eye rubbing, atopy, sun exposure, and geography. Genetic discoveries have been reviewed with evidence from family-based linkage analysis and fine mapping in linkage region, genome-wide association studies, and candidate genes analyses. A number of genes have been discovered at a relatively rapid pace. The detailed molecular mechanism underlying KC pathogenesis will significantly advance our understanding of KC and promote the development of potential therapies.

  2. Environmental factors and elements of Ljig municipality

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    Miljanović Dragana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some of the basic natural and social-geographic factors are analyzed, with the aim to identify their influence on the environmental status. Qualitative assessment are attempted about the various elements of the environment, and attention directed to the problems of noise, and problems of communal waste disposal. A synthetic presentation of the environmental status in the municipality of Ljig is given. The territory of Ljig has been spatially differentiated, namely, it has been categorized according to the degree of pollution. High concentration of the population, and activities, in the town Ljig itself has produced a degradation worse than in the other settlements. On the other hand, the settlements in which is situated the locationally non-flexible industry (quarrying and processing of stone are facing problems of other sort. In the villages, however, which are slowly becoming depopulated, the quality of the environment is satisfactory. In accordance with such facts, revealed about the environmental status, basic aims have been defined as to how to protect the environment in the future. For the realization of environmental aims, various measures and activities are being proposed, with the purpose to improve the situation in the threatened zones, and to safeguard the quality of the environment on the entire municipal territory of Ljig.

  3. Environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis

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    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present an overview of recent findings on the environmental and behavioral factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis. The authors primarily concentrated on deliberations of possibile main causes of the damage of the endothelium. At the same time the following pathogenic mechanisms as cellular dysfunction, inflammation and coagulation disorders have been enumerated. The links between the state of the vascular endothelium and life style have been emphasized. It is also important to note that the primary causes of the endothelial damage should be traced as originally suggested many years ago viewing such factors as anger, hostility, aggression, impulsiveness and depression but with a new approach. The authors supplement the comments, on the environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis, with basic data on family predisposition to the development of this disease. They highlight that current genetic research have not determined genes responsible for atheroscelosis. According to the authors the considerations and conclusions presented in this overview are important for the educational purposes related to the most frequent disease process resulting in many diseases in medical disciplines.

  4. Asthma and Environmental Factors in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzadeh M.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most prevalent atopic diseases in childhood. It is characterized by inflammation of conductive airways and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Environmental factors introduced to child in early years of life may have a protective or harmful role in developing atopic diseases. To evaluate the influence of some environmental factors such as cat or dog ownership, smoking of mother or father and environmental pollution on prevalence of wheezing in children. Subjects and methods: This was a cross sectional retrospective study. A questionnaire was designed based on International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC. Parents of the subjects were asked to fill in the questionnaires. Children’s wheezing association with keeping cats and dogs, smoking mother and father and frequency of truck passing in place of residence was investigated. 545 children were recruited in our study. Prevalence of wheezing was 9%. Keeping cats in first year of life and last year was associated with less wheezing. But the latter association was not statistically significant. Keeping dogs was so scarce in area of our study, so we could not perform a rightful analysis. Frequency of truck passing was significantly higher in those with wheezing. Keeping cats in first year of life was a significant protective factor, whereas residence in an area with frequent truck passing increased wheezing in children. Results of our study can emphasize the need to keep children away from polluted areas. Further studies are needed to investigate whether keeping a pet in household can benefit children regarding all possible concerns and benefits.

  5. Role of environmental factors in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Aldo; Spagnolo, Primavera A

    2013-01-01

    Decades of experimentation with a variety of pharmacological treatments have identified some effective therapies for heroin addiction but not for cocaine addiction. This may be due, at least in part, to our incomplete understanding of the factors involved in the differential vulnerability to these addictions, which are often considered mere variations of the same disorder. Indeed, the preference for one drug or another has been variously attributed to factors such as drug availability or price, to the addict's lifestyle, or even to chance. Yet, there is evidence of substance-specific influences on drug taking. Data from twin registries, for example, suggest that a sizeable portion of the variability in the susceptibility to drug abuse is due to environmental factors that are unique to opiates or to psychostimulants. Very little is known about the nature of these environmental influences. We report here original data, based on retrospective reports in human addicts, indicating that the setting of drug taking exerts a differential influence on heroin versus cocaine use. We also review additional clinical and pre-clinical data pointing to fundamental differences in the way in which the environment interacts with cocaine relative to heroin and other addictive drugs. These findings - as well as other evidence, including the lack of pharmacological treatments effective for both cocaine and heroin addiction - support the notion that much is to be gained by taking into account the substance-specific aspects of drug addiction. At a therapeutic level, for example, it appears reasonable to propose that cognitive-behavioral approaches should be tailored in a substance-specific manner in order to allow the addict to anticipate, and cope with, the risks associated to the various environmental settings of drug use.

  6. Genetic and environmental factors of atopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Otsu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopy is a common immune disorder characterized by raised IgE levels, which lead to clinical disorders (i.e. primarily bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjuctivitis. Interleukin (IL-4 and IL-13, derived from T-helper cell type 2 (Th2 subsets, are central in mediating IgE production and development of immediate hypersensitivity. Atopy is also characterized by Th1/Th2 skewing that derives from genetic and environmental factors. The prevalence of atopy has increased in recent decades, especially in developed countries among children and young adults. In the present review, we first discuss the relationship between the Th1/Th2 imbalance and the recent rise of allergy. Second, we present evidence that human genetic variation is also a key factor responsible for atopy.

  7. Environmental Factors Affecting Where People Geocache

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    Jennifer Golbeck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from OpenCaching.com and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.

  8. Factors for formulating strategies for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This publication focusses on factors which are important for formulating a strategy for environmental restoration. In parallel to this effort, the IAEA has conducted activities in related areas which have been reported in companion reports dealing with (1) the characterization of radioactively contaminated sites for remediation purposes and (2) available technology for cleanup and remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. Additionally, follow-up activities will focus on two other areas, viz. planning and management options for cleanup of contaminated groundwater, and post-restoration monitoring of decommissioned sites. In a separate initiative the IAEA has developed preliminary guidance on radiological criteria for determining when cleanup action is needed and for deciding on when areas have been cleaned up to a sufficient extent. It is also concerned with radioactive contamination of soils, groundwaters, structures and biota which may have the potential for harm to people. It is intended that it will serve as an important source of information and data on the key factors to be considered in the formulation of an environmental restoration strategy

  9. Environmental Factors that Interfere in the Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the application of experiments with sixth graders of elementary school, aiming motivation, skills development focused on observation, interpersonal relationships in teams, related to the various forms of language skills, as well to identify and resume misconceptions about the external (environmental factors required for seed germination, in order that the contents developed this year refer to the study of the earth, soil, water and air, among others, and that many students do not understand all the concepts and the importance of these factors for the existence of living beings. The experiments were organized in two stages, first to observe the influence of soil and another moment to observe the interference of water, air and light. The temperature impractical activities were conducted, however, during the observation period (three weeks experiments remained in a controlled environment in the science laboratory. For the experiments we used materials easily found in commerce, some recycled; students were organized into six teams, which improved the data collection, the maintenance of the experiments, the calculations of the percentages, and the producing of report. Many of these contents had not yet been studied in other disciplines, but were developed in the discipline of science, respecting prior knowledge and cognitive abilities. The use of experiments was effective for the construction of new knowledge and to develop skills necessary to start the search.

  10. [Determination of priority unfavorable environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikova, Z A; Burdukovskaya, A V; Belykh, A I

    In the Irkutsk region there are recorded high indices of rates of morbidity, disability, mortality rate of the working-age population and low levels of life expectancy of the population, that is confirmed by ranking position levels among the all subjects of the Russian Federation. According to all mentioned indices of health the region is inside the top ten unfavorable regions of Russia. In relation to the problem in the state of health of the adult population the estimation of the causal relationships between environmental factors and certain health indices is actual. The list of studiedfactors included health indices that characterize the harmful working conditions of the working population and basic socioeconomic indices in the region. Estimation of causal-relationship relationships was performed with the use of methods of multivariate analysis - correlation and multiple linear regression. In the selection offactors for the construction of mathematical models of multiple regression there were used methods of the analysis of variables variability, pair correlation coefficients matrix and sequential switching covariates to eliminate the problems of multicollinearity, pre-standardization of indices for the elevation of the numerical stability of regression analysis algorithm. As a result of the execution of the analysis there were constructed statistical models for the dependence in the system variables “environment - public health”, which allowed to identify the most informative regression models for the adult population health according to indices of primary disability of the population, the mortality rate and life expectancy of the working age population. According to results of the analysis there were identified priority factors affecting on the health of the adult population of the Irkutsk region. To these factors there are referred the proportion of workplaces failing to meet sanitary standards for vibration and 8 socio-economic indices of living

  11. [Environmental factors and adolescent fears and anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenczyn, Jan

    2003-01-01

    The following article aims to show the significant part that the environmental factor plays in developing fears and anxiety in adolescence. Both literature and psychological practice underestimate the role of that factor, emphasising at the same time the influence of sex, age or various types of stimulants causing negative emotional states. In order to verify the suggested hypotheses, 540 adolescents in 18 groups of 30 people divided according to sex (270 girls and 270 boys), age (90 individuals of both sex in the following age groups: 12.0-13.0, 15.0-16.0 and 18.0-19.0) originating from three different environments: big city, town and village (180 individuals from each place) were examined. The following instruments of research have been used: MPi-64 of H.J. Eysencek, STAI of C.D. Spielberger and original Questionnaire of Anxiety. The results of the examination have confirmed the authenticity of the suggested hypothesis which stated that intensity of fears and anxiety depends on the types of stimulants, sex, age and particularly--on the kind of environment the individuals under examination have originated from. The second hypothesis was partially confirmed. In the group of boys the level of courage corresponded with the level of fear; in the group of girls in general the level of fear exceeded the level of courage. Socially-educational environment has a decisive influence on developing fears and anxiety, particularly on the intensification of those disorders. The village environment is the most conducive to developing strong fears, when the environment of a big city--the least. Other variables (sex, age, type of stimulant) have indirect influence on the substance and level of fears experienced by adolescents.

  12. Determination of environmental factors affecting dengue incidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Prevention movement is considered ineffective; therefore, a more efficient early warning system is required. It is required strongly correlated variables to as predictor in early warning system. This study aims to identify the environmental ...

  13. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  14. Sex-Specific Associations in Nutrition and Activity-Related Risk Factors for Chronic Disease: Australian Evidence from Childhood to Emerging Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Hoare

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global assessments of burden of disease suggests there are sex differences in risk factors for chronic disease, including overweight/obesity, dietary patterns and habitual physical activity. Given that prevention efforts aim to target such factors to reduce disease risk, the age at which sex differences may occur is of particular interest. Early life to young adulthood is the optimal time for intervention, with lifestyle habits typically forming during this period. This study aimed to identify the sex differences in risk factors for chronic disease during childhood (5–9 years, adolescence (10–17 years and emerging adulthood (18–25 years in a large population-representative Australian sample. Among children in this study (n = 739, no sex-related differences were observed. Among adolescents (n = 1304, females were more likely than males to meet daily fruit and vegetable recommendations (12.9% vs. 7.5%; OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.16, 2.93, p < 0.05. Among emerging adults (n = 909, females were less likely to be overweight/obese (30.1% vs. 39.8%; OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.44, 0.95, p < 0.05 and more likely to meet physical activity recommendations (52.1% vs. 42.3%; OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.01, 2.06, p < 0.05. These findings suggest that sex differences for risk factors of chronic disease occur during adolescence and emerging adulthood, although the differences are not consistent across age periods. From adolescence onwards, it appears that females exhibit lower risk factors than males and a life span approach to risk factor monitoring is warranted.

  15. Environmental Performance in Countries Worldwide: Determinant Factors and Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gallego-Alvarez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental performance of countries and the variables that can influence it. At the same time, we performed a multivariate analysis using the HJ-biplot, an exploratory method that looks for hidden patterns in the data, obtained from the usual singular value decomposition (SVD of the data matrix, to contextualize the countries grouped by geographical areas and the variables relating to environmental indicators included in the environmental performance index. The sample used comprises 149 countries of different geographic areas. The findings obtained from the empirical analysis emphasize that socioeconomic factors, such as economic wealth and education, as well as institutional factors represented by the style of public administration, in particular control of corruption, are determinant factors of environmental performance in the countries analyzed. In contrast, no effect on environmental performance was found for factors relating to the internal characteristics of a country or political factors.

  16. Nutrition and physical activity related school environment/policy factors and child obesity in China: a nationally representative study of 8573 students in 110 middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Xue, H; Wen, M; Wang, W; Wang, Y

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is a serious threat to global health. School is a key setting for obesity intervention. Research on school risk factors for child obesity is limited in developing countries. To examine regional variations in obesity and school environments/policies and their associations among students in China. Analyses were based on the first nationally representative sample of 8573 9 th graders in 110 middle schools from 28 regions across China. Multilevel models tested associations between school factors and child self-reported weight outcomes and by school urbanicity setting (urban, rural). Overweight/obesity rate is higher among boys and in urban areas. Schools in rural areas, or less developed regions, promote longer on-campus life, as is indicated by the presence of school cafeterias, night study sessions and longer class hours. Multilevel models show that (i) school cafeterias (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.35-4.75) and internet bars close to school (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15-2.30) are associated with increased overweight/obesity risk in rural areas, especially for boys; (ii) school night study sessions are associated with lower overweight/obesity risk (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.50-0.96) in rural areas. China has large regional disparities in school environment/policies related to nutrition and physical activity. Some school factors are associated with students' weight status, which vary across gender and areas. Future school-based interventions should attend to diverse regional contexts. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  17. Non-dietary environmental risk factors in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrís-i-Tortajada, J; Berbel-Tornero, O; Garcia-i-Castell, J; López-Andreu, J.A.; Sobrino-Najul, E; Ortega-García, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim is to update and disclose the main environmental risk factors, excluding dietary factors, involved in the etiopathology of prostate cancer. Materials and methods Bibliographic review of the last 25 years of non-dietary environmental risk factors associated with prostate cancer between 1985 and 2010, obtained from MedLine, CancerLit, Science Citation Index and Embase. The search profiles were Environmental Risk Factors/Tobacco/Infectious-Inflammatory Factors/Pesticides/Vasectomy/Occupational Exposures/ Chemoprevention Agents/Radiation and Prostate Cancer. Results While some non-dietary environmental risk factors increase the risk of acquiring the disease, others decrease it. Of the former, it is worth mentioning exposal to tobacco smoke, chronic infectious-inflammatory prostatic processes and occupational exposure to cadmium, herbicides and pesticides. The first factors that reduce the risk are the use of chemopreventive drugs (Finasterida, Dutasteride) and exposure to ultraviolet solar radiation. With the current data, a vasectomy does not influence the risk of developing the disease. Conclusions The slow process of prostate carcinogenesis is the final result of the interaction of constitutional risk and environmental factors. Non-dietary environmental factors play an important role in the etiopathology of this disease. To appropriately assess the risk factors, extensive case studies that include all the possible variables must be analyzed. PMID:21439685

  18. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Without disregard of the numerous school and child internal factors for low school performance, this study focused on the learners socioeconomic background and home language and to what extent these factors may encourage or discourage school progress and pe1formance among learners in Windhoek, Namibia.

  19. Review of the impact of environmental factors on human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria, D.; Barnes, V.; Bittner, A.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the effects of various environmental factors such as vibration, noise, heat, cold, and illumination on task performance in U.S. nuclear power plants. Although the effects of another environmental factor, radiation, is of concern to licensees and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), much less attention has been paid to the potential effects of these other environmental factors. Performance effects from these environmental factors have been observed in other industries; for example, vibration can impair vision and noise can cause short- or long-term hearing loss. A primary goal of this project is to provide the technical basis for determining the likelihood of these factors affecting task performance in nuclear power plants, and thus the safety of the public

  20. Psychosocial and Environmental Factors Associated with Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Elizabeth; McDonough, Megan H; Edwards, Nancy E; Lyle, RM; Troped, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Dog walking is associated with higher levels of physical activity (PA). However, not all dog owners walk their dog(s) at a level sufficient for health benefits. Therefore, identifying correlates of dog walking may help to inform the design of more effective interventions to promote this specific form of PA. The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial and environmental correlates of dog walking and relationships of dog walking with overall PA. In 2010, 391 dog owners (Mage= 43.6±12.3...

  1. Environmental factors along the Northern Sea Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjeld, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Northern Sea Route runs ca 5,600 nautical miles across the top of Russia from Murmansk to Vladivostok, and includes half of the Arctic basin. An environmental impact assessment is needed for this route because of the potential for commercial shipping to disturb the vulnerable Arctic environment along the route. For example, Russian development of oil and gas resources in the area served by the route is expected to rise dramatically in the near future. Drilling in the route area offshore has already begun, and potential blowouts or tanker spills are of concern. A pilot study on the environment along this route was conducted in 1990/91, focusing on a study of the literature and communications with Russian scientists working on Arctic ecology. Existing data seem to be insufficient and generally only cover the westernmost and easternmost parts of the route. A five-year research plan is proposed to provide an inventory of Arctic species in the route area and levels of contaminants present, to assess the environmental sensitivity of the area, and analyze impacts that increased shipping might have on the environment. Protection measures will also be suggested. 1 fig

  2. A study of environmental polluting factors by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paunoiu, C.; Doca, C.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents: a) some importance factors of the environmental pollution; b) the theoretical aspects of the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) used in the study of the environmental pollution; c) the NAA specific hardware and software facilities existing at the Institute for Nuclear Research; d) a direct application of the NAA method in the study of the environmental pollution for Pitesti city by the analysis of some ground and vegetation samples; e) results and conclusions. (authors)

  3. Environmental, Technological and Socio-Cultural Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined various factors influencing appr opriateness of technological innovations among rural women for improved agricultural productivity in Nigeria.. The framework was formulated through a thorough literature search on the concept of agricultural technology, appropriate technology for rural women and ...

  4. Contributions Of Environmental And Haematological Factors To The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contributions of environmental and haematological factors to the distributions of Eustrongylides africanus larvae in Clarias gariepinus and C. anguillaris from Bida floodplain of Nigeria were investigated. Five environmental (rainfall, soil pH, water conductivity, sunshine and silt-clay) and four haematological (mean ...

  5. Influence of bioregion and environmental factors on the growth, size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent of the effects of the combined influences of environmental factors on cow productivity depended on the physiological stage of animal growth and reproduction. Environmental effects on production efficiency were buffered by maternal effects at birth, but became more significant after weaning (9%) to yearling age ...

  6. Environmental Factors Affecting Brook Trout Occurrence in Headwater Stream Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoichiro Kanno; Benjamin H. Letcher; Ana L. Rosner; Kyle P. O' Neil; Keith H. Nislow

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the associations of catchment-scale and riparian-scale environmental factors with occurrence of Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in Connecticut headwater stream segments with catchment areas of 15 Brook...

  7. parasitology contributions of environmental factors to the estimations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    um chafe

    Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 6 (Supplement): November 2005. 12. PARASITOLOGY. Ibiwoye et al., SJVS, 6(suppl.): 1-4. CONTRIBUTIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS TO THE. ESTIMATIONS OF EUSTRONGYLIDES AFRICANUS LARVAE DENSITIES IN. CLARIAS GARIEPINUS AND CLARIAS ...

  8. Genetic and environmental factors in hypospadias.

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, C; Alembik, Y; Roth, M P; Dott, B

    1990-01-01

    A case control study of hypospadias was performed from 1979 to 1987 in Alsace, north-eastern France. A total of 176 out of 60 847 male infants had hypospadias giving a prevalence at birth of 2.89 per 1000 male newborns; 15.3% of all infants with hypospadias also had other malformations. Renal and urinary tract malformations were present in 37.0% of the infants with hypospadias and other additional malformations. None of the numerous aetiological factors which were studied was correlated with ...

  9. Allergic to life: Psychological factors in environmental illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, G.E.; Katon, W.J.; Sparks, P.J. (Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Environmental illness is an increasingly frequent and medically unexplained syndrome of allergy to common environmental agents. A recent outbreak of chemical-induced illness allowed study of psychological factors in environmental illness. Thirty-seven symptomatic plastics workers completed structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures of somatization and psychopathology. The 13 subjects who developed environmental illness scored higher on all measures than those who did not. The greatest differences were in prior history of anxiety or depressive disorder (54% versus 4%) and number of medically unexplained physical symptoms before exposure (6.2 versus 2.9). These findings suggest that psychological vulnerability strongly influences chemical sensitivity following chemical exposure.

  10. Social anxiety disorder: A review of environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A Brook

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christina A Brook, Louis A SchmidtDepartment of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Social anxiety disorder (SAD is a debilitating and chronic illness characterized by persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations, with a relatively high lifetime prevalence of 7% to 13% in the general population. Although the last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the study of biological and dispositional factors underlying SAD, comparatively little attention has been directed towards environmental factors in SAD, even though there has been much ongoing work in the area. In this paper, we provide a recent review and critique of proposed environmental risk factors for SAD, focusing on traditional as well as some understudied and overlooked environmental risk factors: parenting and family environment, adverse life events, cultural and societal factors, and gender roles. We also discuss the need for research design improvements and considerations for future directions.

  11. The time factor in environmental licensing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rombach, P.

    2000-01-01

    The speed of planning and licensing procedures play a large part in the severity of Germany an attractive business location. A comparison is made between licensing procedures in Germany and abroad, whether they take longer and if so, how much; case studies one used as comparable illustrations of construction-, emission-, and waste-regulatory procedures in Germany, France and the USA. The second main part concerns the analysis of the fundamental delaying factors and comentional acceleration instruments in Germany. Applications, effectiveness and reliability of the new concepts (official Projectmanagenment, conflicts of interest, updating of the InvErl- and WohnbaulandG) as well as alternative proposals are developed on the basis of experiences in France and the USA. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...

  13. Environmental Factors in China's Financial Accounting Development since 1949

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Zhang (Guohua)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe difference in environmental factors is one of the main reasons for the accounting difference among countries. It is also one of the critical factors to be first considered when studying and understanding one country’s accounting activities, and also when trying to harmonize and

  14. Systematic assessment of environmental risk factors for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Köhler, Cristiano A.; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is likely to involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. In our study, we aimed to perform a systematic search of environmental risk factors for BD. In addition, we assessed possible hints of bias in this literature, and identified risk...... factors supported by high epidemiological credibility. Methods: We searched the Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycInfo databases up to 7 October 2016 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that assessed associations between putative environmental risk factors and BD....... For each meta-analysis, we estimated its summary effect size by means of both random- and fixed-effects models, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), the 95% prediction interval, and heterogeneity. Evidence of small-study effects and excess of significance bias was also assessed. Results: Sixteen publications...

  15. Aphid incidence and its correlation with different environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, M.R; Ahmad, M.; Rahman, M.H; Haque, M.A

    2009-01-01

    The aphid incidence and its correlation with environmental factors were studied. Mustard variety “Sampad” was used as test crop. Aphid incidence varied significantly at various parts of mustard plant and time of the day. The highest number of aphid was observed in the vegetative parts of the mustard plant in the morning. High cloudiness, relative humidity and dew point favoured the aphid population and slight rain fall quickly declined the aphid population. Among the different environmental f...

  16. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Kubota

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility.

  17. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takeo; Mochizuki, Kazuki

    2016-05-14

    Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility.

  18. Role of environmental factors in the timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, S.Y.; Selevan, S.G.; Pescovitz, O.H.

    2008-01-01

    Puberty-timing measures have historically been used as indicators of adequate nutrition and growth. More recently, these measures have been examined in relation to exposure to estrogenic or antiandrogenic agents, as well as other environmental factors. The scientific community has debated whether...... of puberty markers was considered adverse from a public health perspective. The panel recommended research areas to further our understanding of the relationships among environmental factors, puberty-timing outcomes, and other reproductive and adult disease at the individual and population levels...

  19. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... 4.50-5.31). The study showed that risk factors with highest predictive power on the individual level have a relatively low population impact. The challenge in future studies with direct genetic data is to examine gene-environmental interactions that can move research beyond current approaches...

  20. Role of environmental and genetic factors in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Sultana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out the environmental as well as genetic factors responsible for increasing the number of autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients in Bangladesh. A questionnaire was developed based on 12 environmental factors and genetic aspects. Sixty six patients of ASD and 66 non-ASD control were selected randomly. Among the environmental factors, the age of the mother, premature birth, air pollution, age of the father, hypoxia during childbirth and oral contraceptive came out as significant (p<0.05 factors for ASD incidence compared to the control. Association of multiple factors on an individual was found to be crucial to enhance the risk and exposure to five and six factors was statistically significant (p<0.05 for ASD development. Prospective parents should try to keep the number of risk factors as low as possible before 1-2 months of pregnancy, during pregnancy and 1-2 years after the child birth (for child only.

  1. Physical and chemical trigger factors in environmental intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Anna-Sara; Palmquist, Eva; Nordin, Steven

    2018-04-01

    Individuals with environmental intolerance (EI) react to exposure from different environmental sources at levels tolerated by most people and that are below established toxicological and hazardous thresholds. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of attributing symptoms to chemical and physical sources in the environment among individuals with different forms of self-reported EI and in referents. Cross-sectional data from a population-based study, the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study (n = 3406), were used and individuals with self-reported EI to chemicals, buildings, electromagnetic fields and sounds as well as a group with multiple EIs were identified. The Environmental-Symptom Attribution Scale was used to quantify degree to which health symptoms are attributed to 40 specific environmental exposures and sources, with subscales referring to the four types of EI. All EI groups, except the group with building related intolerance (BRI), reported more symptoms from the expected sources compared to the referents. In addition, individuals with chemical and sound intolerance reported symptoms from building related trigger factors, and individuals with electromagnetic hypersensitivity reported symptoms from chemical trigger factors. The study suggests that individuals with BRI react to fewer and more specific trigger factors than do individuals with other EIs, and that it is important to ask about different sources since three of the EI groups attribute their symptoms to a wide variety of sources in addition to the sources to which their EI implicates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of environmental factors on intelligence quotient of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archita Makharia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A child's intelligence quotient (IQ is determined by both genetic and environmental factors that start from the prenatal period itself. There is a lack of data on the factors which influence IQ in Indian children; therefore, we conducted a multicenter questionnaire-based study to determine the environmental factors which influence IQ in Indian children. Participants and Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, we recruited 1065 schoolchildren between the age of 12 and 16 years from 2 government and 13 private schools in 5 towns, 6 cities, and 2 villages across India. All the children were administered a questionnaire consisting of various environmental factors such as parents' education, occupation, income, and the physical activity of the students. IQ scores were assessed using Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices. An approximate IQ score was calculated using the score on the Ravens test. IQ scores were divided into three groups: below normal IQ (0–79, normal IQ (80–119, and high IQ (above 120. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: In this study, it was observed that the environmental factors such as place of residence, physical activity, family income, parental education, and occupation of the father had an impact on the IQ of the children. Children living in cities (P = 0.001, children having physical activity more than 5 h/weeks (P = 0.001, children with parents having a postgraduate or graduate level of education (P = 0.001, children whose father having a professional job (P = 0.001, and those with a higher family income (P = 0.001 were more likely to have high IQ. Conclusions: In the present study, we found that various environmental factors such as place of residence, physical exercise, family income, parents' occupation and education influence the IQ of a child to a great extent. Hence, a child must be provided with an optimal environment to be able to develop to his/her full genetic

  3. Transfer and concentration factors in laboratory and environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Amaral, E.C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental transfer factors, as well as concentration and accumulation factors, have been increasingly used in environmental dosimetric models. These models are often the basis for decision-making processes concerning radiological protection. However, the uncertainties associated with measured and default values of transfer and concentration factors are usually not taken into account in the decision making processes. In addition, laboratory-based values for these factors do not necessarily agree with site-specific and species-specific transfer and concentration factors. Soil-to-plant transfer factors and water-to-aquatic-organisms concentration factors are not only time and concentration-dependent, but also species-and site-specific environment-dependent. These uncertainties and dependencies may make the decision-making process, based on models, quite a difficult exercise. The current work examines, as an example, the time-dependent variations in the accumulation of 226 Ra in zooplankton in a laboratory experiment as compared with the concentration factor measured in a natural environment. In addition, the work reviews differences in 228 Ra and 226 Ra concentration factors for several plant families measured in a highly radioactive environment. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  4. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  5. Determining Factors of Environmental Education in Spanish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrán, Manuel; Andrades, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze the main factors that might determine the extent to which Spanish organizational management educators use environmental stand-alone subjects to equip students with alternative views of business. To give a more qualitative study, this paper also provides a more detailed curriculum analysis from a double point of…

  6. Influence of some environmental factors on maize productivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temperature, humidity and direction of the prevailing wind are parts of significant environmental factors, which have greater impact on crop productivity, especially with the recent global climate change. These were researched into on maize seeds planted at three different furrow orientations on the field; Or. 900, Or. 600 and ...

  7. Analysis of corrosive environmental factors of seabed sediment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    relation between distance from seashore and corrosivity of seabed sediment. Keywords. Seabed sediment; corrosion; environmental factors. 1. Introduction. The corrosion due to seabed sediment is an important branch of corrosion research. The problem of metal corrosion in seabed sediments has become more and more.

  8. Environmental risk factors for oesophageal cancer in Malawi: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods A hospital-based case-control study of the association between environmental risk factors and oesophageal cancer was conducted at Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi and Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Ninety-six persons with squamous cell carcinoma and 180 controls were ...

  9. Cell functional enviromics: Unravelling the function of environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Paula M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While functional genomics, focused on gene functions and gene-gene interactions, has become a very active field of research in molecular biology, equivalent methodologies embracing the environment and gene-environment interactions are relatively less developed. Understanding the function of environmental factors is, however, of paramount importance given the complex, interactive nature of environmental and genetic factors across multiple time scales. Results Here, we propose a systems biology framework, where the function of environmental factors is set at its core. We set forth a "reverse" functional analysis approach, whereby cellular functions are reconstructed from the analysis of dynamic envirome data. Our results show these data sets can be mapped to less than 20 core cellular functions in a typical mammalian cell culture, while explaining over 90% of flux data variance. A functional enviromics map can be created, which provides a template for manipulating the environmental factors to induce a desired phenotypic trait. Conclusion Our results support the feasibility of cellular function reconstruction guided by the analysis and manipulation of dynamic envirome data.

  10. Environmental factors influencing milk urea nitrogen in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By knowing the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content of dairy cows, the efficiency of dietary nitrogen utilization can be improved. The main objectives of this study were to identify and quantify environmental factors affecting MUN in South African Holstein cows. This will enable better interpretation of MUN results by accounting ...

  11. Environmental Factors that Determine Visual Skill Development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... This finding supports the fact that certain familial environmental factors influence visual skill development and probably child development as a whole.[11] Children of higher birth order, compared to first-born children, have the benefit of more experienced parents, exposure to stimulating toys, books, and ...

  12. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was carried out to study the influence of environmental factors on the birth weight variability of two breeds of sheep. Animals used in this research were taken from the Pirot and Svrljig indigenous sheep breeds. The data were collected from 1999 to 2009 and were analyzed to determine the effect of ...

  13. Influence of breed and environmental factors on litter parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of breed and environmental factors such as season, temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed on litter parameters of rabbits raised in a semi-humid environment was investigated using two hundred and twenty four (224) litter records collected between 1991 and 1997. New Zealand White ...

  14. Environmental factors influencing artisanal fishing in eastern Obolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified the environmental factors affecting artisanal fishing in Eastern Obolo local government area of Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. Ninety artisanal fishermen were selected using two-stage sampling techniques. Questionnaire and interview schedule was used to get information. The research objectives were ...

  15. Effects of environmental factors on growth traits in Ghezel sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to study the effects of environmental factors on growth traits in Ghezel sheep breed. Growth related data (birth weight, weaning weight, month 6 weight, average daily gain from birth to weaning and weaning to month 6) were collected from lambs that have been born during 1994 - 2006 at ...

  16. Environmental factors influencing milk urea nitrogen in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. By knowing the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content of dairy cows, the efficiency of dietary nitrogen utilization can be improved. The main objectives of this study were to identify and quantify environmental factors affecting MUN in South African Holstein cows. This will enable better interpretation of MUN results.

  17. Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infestation with gastrointestinal nematodes is probably among the most pervasive problems in small-stock production worldwide. Faecal worm egg count (FWEC) has been reported as an indirect measure of parasite resistance in livestock production. Environmental and genetic factors of FWEC were assessed, using data ...

  18. Environmental factors influencing fluctuation of share prices on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental factors influencing fluctuation of share prices on Nigeria stock exchange market. ... Financial markets could be money or capital markets. The commodities traded on these ... The results show inflation, money supply, total deficits index of industrial production, interest rate and GDP influence stock prices.

  19. FACTORS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY AND BIODIVERSITY: ENVIRONMENTAL AND EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kozachek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to consider the features of impact of nanotechnology on biodiversity in the future.Methods. We suggest an approach, according to which nanotechnologies are viewed as key technologies of the sixth technological order. It is assumed that nanotechnology may be a potential source of environmental problems of the future, and the basis for the creation of new advanced types of environmental engineering and technology. Since all of the above is important both within the actual environmental performance and for the purposes of professional engineering and environmental training. We suggest in this paper to view the problem of the impact of nanotechnology on biodiversity and the state of the environment through environmental and educational aspects.Results. We considered and analyzed the environmental and educational aspects of the application of nanotechnology in the period of the sixth technological order. Implementing procedures for their analysis has contributed to the identification and systematization of the various impacts of nanotechnology on biodiversity and the state of the environment, and identification of options for the prevention of such factors. Based on the results of such studies we have identified educational aspects of training environmental engineers during the sixth technological order; defined a new focus of the training in the sixth technological order, which involves, in our opinion, the study of features of a rational and prudent use of natural resources with the use of appropriate innovative eco-oriented nanotechnology, education of students in terms of the understanding of the causes, consequences and ways to prevent the global resource crisis on the planet due to the emergence of a new class of nano-contamination.Main conclusions. The results can be recommended to be used in practice for more in-depth analysis of the specific environmental challenges of nanotechnology, and revising approaches to the design of the

  20. Bio-environmental factors associated with myopia: An updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, V; Tello, A; Camacho, P A; Parra, M M; Merayo-Lloves, J

    2017-07-01

    Experimental studies in animals, as well as observational and intervention studies in humans, seem to support the premise that the development of juvenile myopia is promoted by a combination of the effect of genetic and environmental factors, with a complex interaction between them. The very rapid increase in myopia rates in some parts of the world, such as Southeast Asia, supports a significant environmental effect. Several lines of evidence suggest that humans might respond to various external factors, such as increased activity in near vision, increased educational pressure, decreased exposure to sunlight outdoors, dietary changes (including increased intake of carbohydrates), as well as low light levels indoors. All these factors could be associated with a higher prevalence of myopia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Host and Environmental Factors Affecting the Intestinal Microbiota in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kers, Jannigje G.; Velkers, Francisca C.; Fischer, Egil A. J.; Hermes, Gerben D. A.; Stegeman, J. A.; Smidt, Hauke

    2018-01-01

    The initial development of intestinal microbiota in poultry plays an important role in production performance, overall health and resistance against microbial infections. Multiplexed sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is often used in studies, such as feed intervention or antimicrobial drug trials, to determine corresponding effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, considerable variation of intestinal microbiota composition has been observed both within and across studies. Such variation may in part be attributed to technical factors, such as sampling procedures, sample storage, DNA extraction, the choice of PCR primers and corresponding region to be sequenced, and the sequencing platforms used. Furthermore, part of this variation in microbiota composition may also be explained by different host characteristics and environmental factors. To facilitate the improvement of design, reproducibility and interpretation of poultry microbiota studies, we have reviewed the literature on confounding factors influencing the observed intestinal microbiota in chickens. First, it has been identified that host-related factors, such as age, sex, and breed, have a large effect on intestinal microbiota. The diversity of chicken intestinal microbiota tends to increase most during the first weeks of life, and corresponding colonization patterns seem to differ between layer- and meat-type chickens. Second, it has been found that environmental factors, such as biosecurity level, housing, litter, feed access and climate also have an effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As microbiota studies have to deal with many of these unknown or hidden host and environmental variables, the choice of study designs can have a great impact on study outcomes and interpretation of the data. Providing details on a broad range of host and environmental factors in articles and sequence data repositories is highly recommended. This creates opportunities to

  2. Effects of environmental factors on microbial induced calcium carbonate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, B M; Haber, M J; DeJong, J T; Caslake, L F; Nelson, D C

    2011-08-01

    To gain an understanding of the environmental factors that affect the growth of the bacterium Sporosarcina pasteurii, the metabolism of the bacterium and the calcium carbonate precipitation induced by this bacterium to optimally implement the biological treatment process, microbial induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP), in situ. Soil column and batch tests were used to assess the effect of likely subsurface environmental factors on the MICP treatment process. Microbial growth and mineral precipitation were evaluated in freshwater and seawater. Environmental conditions that may influence the ureolytic activity of the bacteria, such as ammonium concentration and oxygen availability, as well as the ureolytic activities of viable and lysed cells were assessed. Treatment formulation and injection rate, as well as soil particle characteristics are other factors that were evaluated for impact on uniform induction of cementation within the soils. The results of the study presented herein indicate that the biological treatment process is equally robust over a wide range of soil types, concentrations of ammonium chloride and salinities ranging from distilled water to full seawater; on the time scale of an hour, it is not diminished by the absence of oxygen or lysis of cells containing the urease enzyme. This study advances the biological treatment process MICP towards field implementation by addressing key environmental hurdles faced with during the upscaling process. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Pleural mesothelioma in New Caledonia: associations with environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Francine; Maurizot, Pierre; Mangeas, Morgan; Ambrosi, Jean-Paul; Douwes, Jeroen; Robineau, Bernard

    2011-05-01

    High incidences of malignant mesothelioma (MM) have been observed in New Caledonia. Previous work has shown an association between MM and soil containing serpentinite. We studied the spatial and temporal variation of MM and its association with environmental factors. We investigated the 109 MM cases recorded in the Cancer Registry of New Caledonia between 1984 and 2008 and performed spatial, temporal, and space-time cluster analyses. We conducted an ecological analysis involving 100 tribes over a large area including those with the highest incidence rates. Associations with environmental factors were assessed using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. The highest incidence was observed in the Houaïlou area with a world age-standardized rate of 128.7 per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI), 70.41-137.84]. A significant spatial cluster grouped 18 tribes (31 observed cases vs. 8 expected cases; p = 0.001), but no significant temporal clusters were identified. The ecological analyses identified serpentinite on roads as the greatest environmental risk factor (odds ratio = 495.0; 95% CI, 46.2-4679.7; multivariate incidence rate ratio = 13.0; 95% CI, 10.2-16.6). The risk increased with serpentinite surface, proximity to serpentinite quarries and distance to the peridotite massif. The association with serpentines was stronger than with amphiboles. Living on a slope and close to dense vegetation appeared protective. The use of whitewash, previously suggested to be a risk factor, was not associated with MM incidence. Presence of serpentinite on roads is a major environmental risk factor for mesothelioma in New Caledonia.

  4. Psychosocial and environmental risk factors associated with mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo, Paula Andrea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, there are few studies on the association of psychosocial and environmental factors with the most prevalent mental disorders; such studies are important due to the context of violence, social insecurity, and job and economic instability in the country. The objective of this study was to identify the psychosocial and environmental risk factors for mental disorders, in users of psychological services in Colombia. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a Questionnaire to evaluate the Axis-IV of the DSM-IV-TR were applied to 490 participants. The analysis comprised descriptive statistics and risk factors. As risk factors for depression, there were identified housing problems, access to health care services, problems related to the primary group, economics, problems of the social environment, and labor. For generalized anxiety, there were identified economic and education issues. For panic disorders, the risk factors were related to social environment, and for social phobia, the risk factors were problems in education, work and social environment

  5. Impact of environmental factors on neglected emerging arboviral diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Lorenz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a tropical country that is largely covered by rainforests and other natural ecosystems, which provide ideal conditions for the existence of many arboviruses. However, few analyses have examined the associations between environmental factors and arboviral diseases. Thus, based on the hypothesis of correlation between environment and epidemiology, the proposals of this study were (1 to obtain the probability of occurrence of Oropouche, Mayaro, Saint Louis and Rocio fevers in Brazil based on environmental conditions corresponding to the periods of occurrence of the outbreaks; (2 to describe the macroclimatic scenario in Brazil in the last 50 years, evaluating if there was any detectable tendency to increase temperatures and (3 to model future expansion of those arboviruses in Brazil based on future temperature projections.Our model assessed seven environmental factors (annual rainfall, annual temperature, elevation, seasonality of temperature, seasonality of precipitation, thermal amplitude, and daytime temperature variation for their association with the occurrence of outbreaks in the last 50 years. Our results suggest that various environmental factors distinctly influence the distribution of each arbovirus, with temperature being the central determinant of disease distribution in all high-risk areas. These areas are subject to change, since the average temperature of some areas has increased significantly over the time.This is the first spatio-temporal study of the Oropouche, Mayaro, Saint Louis, and Rocio arboviruses, and our results indicate that they may become increasingly important public health problems in Brazil. Thus, next studies and control programs should include these diseases and also take into consideration key environmental elements.

  6. Impact of environmental factors on neglected emerging arboviral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Camila; Azevedo, Thiago S; Virginio, Flávia; Aguiar, Breno S; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2017-09-01

    Brazil is a tropical country that is largely covered by rainforests and other natural ecosystems, which provide ideal conditions for the existence of many arboviruses. However, few analyses have examined the associations between environmental factors and arboviral diseases. Thus, based on the hypothesis of correlation between environment and epidemiology, the proposals of this study were (1) to obtain the probability of occurrence of Oropouche, Mayaro, Saint Louis and Rocio fevers in Brazil based on environmental conditions corresponding to the periods of occurrence of the outbreaks; (2) to describe the macroclimatic scenario in Brazil in the last 50 years, evaluating if there was any detectable tendency to increase temperatures and (3) to model future expansion of those arboviruses in Brazil based on future temperature projections. Our model assessed seven environmental factors (annual rainfall, annual temperature, elevation, seasonality of temperature, seasonality of precipitation, thermal amplitude, and daytime temperature variation) for their association with the occurrence of outbreaks in the last 50 years. Our results suggest that various environmental factors distinctly influence the distribution of each arbovirus, with temperature being the central determinant of disease distribution in all high-risk areas. These areas are subject to change, since the average temperature of some areas has increased significantly over the time. This is the first spatio-temporal study of the Oropouche, Mayaro, Saint Louis, and Rocio arboviruses, and our results indicate that they may become increasingly important public health problems in Brazil. Thus, next studies and control programs should include these diseases and also take into consideration key environmental elements.

  7. Genetic, Maternal, and Environmental Risk Factors for Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthold, Julia Spencer; Reinhardt, Susanne; Thorup, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism is an isolated anomaly in the majority of cases, with evidence to date suggesting that it is a complex disorder resulting from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Population, family, and limited genome-wide association data suggest moderate...... or gubernacular response to hormonal stimulation. However, we have yet to determine the degree to which EDCs contribute to cryptorchidism risk in humans, in part due to the varying methodology used in epidemiological and exposure studies. Large populations will be required to define the gene......-environment interactions that predispose to cryptorchidism, in view of multiple small effect genetic susceptibility loci, ubiquitous exposure to mixtures of EDCs, and possible epigenetic effects. The present review provides an update of potential genetic and environmental risk factors for cryptorchidism, and future work...

  8. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Eldin Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners.

  9. Discerning environmental factors affecting current tree growth in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cienciala, E.; Russ, R.; Šantrůčková, H.; Altman, Jan; Kopáček, Jiří; Hůnová, I.; Štěpánek, Petr; Oulehle, Filip; Tumajer, J.; Stähl, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 573, dec (2016), s. 541-554 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12262S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Norway spruce * Environmental change * Drought * N-deposition * Managed forest * Tree increment Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EF - Botanics (BU-J); GK - Forestry (BC-A) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  10. Hydro-environmental factors and phytoplankton of the Atlantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydro-environmental factors and phytoplankton of the Atlantic Ocean, off the Light House Beach, Lagos, Nigeria. ... (28.37±1.88), pH (7.85±0.17), conductivity (44738.75±6262.76 μS/cm), total dissolved solids (29236.71±4273.30 mg/L), salinity (27.11±3.91 ‰), alkalinity (126.99±42.81 mg/L) and chloride (15056.

  11. Hapiness and Environmental Awareness – Factors of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Frajman Jakšić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth was long perceived as the key goal of economic development. But as the capitalist economies got richer and as negative consequences of the growth spurt became more obvious, the development paradigm began to change course towards sustainability, which encompasses economic, environmental and social dimensions. The purpose of the article is to link the value system in the society and the possibility of the society to embrace the sustainable development model. We first provide the theoretical framework, followed by an empirical analysis of Croatia. The stress is on the environmental component of sustainability. The article builds from the popular stream of economic theory, i.e. economic analysis of happiness, which claims that happiness results not solely from economic factors, but also personal and broader social elements. These can also include environmental variables. In economic analysis of happiness, the consumer is not a standard utility maximizing consumer, who directly links utility and consumption of goods. His happiness is largely determined also by environmental elements. The existence of such consumers is consequently a prerequisite for the establishment of the sustainable economy. Empirical results show that: (1 consumers in general are at the moment not well educated about ecological problems, but (2 those that are give a lot of attention to environmental aspects. It is also important to note that future sustainability depends primarily on the attitude of current young cohorts (15 to 24 years, which, unfortunately, are least environmentally conscious. The role of the government and public institutions in preparing broader educational campaigns can therefore be significant.

  12. Environmental factors in familial Crohn's disease in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kruiningen, Herbert J; Joossens, Marie; Vermeire, Severine; Joossens, Sofie; Debeugny, Stéphane; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne; Cortot, Antoine; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Rutgeerts, Paul; Vlietinck, Robert

    2005-04-01

    Environmental factors are believed to trigger the onset of Crohn's disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals. The aim of this study was to assess environmental and familial factors that might be etiologically related to CD. Twenty-one families with 3 or more affected first-degree relatives were studied, together with 10 matched control families. There were 74 patients with CD, 84 unaffected family members, and 59 controls. Family members were interviewed together at the parental home. A 176-item questionnaire delved into first symptoms, childhood vaccinations and diseases, food items, potable water supplies, social activities, travel, pets, and home and surrounding environment. Questions were directed specifically for 2 time-frames, childhood until age 20 and a 10-year epoch before the onset of first symptoms within a family. The possible factors linked to disease were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. There were significantly more smokers in the patients and their relatives than in controls. Patients had more appendicitis during adolescence, ate less oats, rye, and bran than controls, and consumed more unpasteurized cheese. Patients drank significantly less tap water and more well water than controls. Clustering of cases in time occurred in 13 of the 21 affected families. The less frequent consumption of oats, rye, and bran and the more frequent eating of unpasteurized cheeses imitate potential dietary influences on gastrointestinal flora. More importantly, our data suggest that the drinking of well water represents an important risk factor for CD.

  13. Environmental risk factors contributing to childhood overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kawalec

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and teenagers is a major challenge for public health. Obesity is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, affected by many interacting genetic and non-genetic factors. The aim of this article was to focus on the environmental risk factors for childhood obesity. Among different factors contributing to an increase in BMI, we highlighted the role of exposure to cigarette smoke, DDT, bisphenol A, pesticides, and noise. The correlation between exposure to environmental toxins during prenatal period and obesity development in later life was underlined. According to obesogenic environment hypothesis, some features of distal and proximal neighbourhood also have a pivotal impact on children's behaviour and may contribute to increasing the risk for overweight. The area of residence (urban or rural may affect access to sports facilities or other opportunities for physical activity. Therefore, for designing adequate prophylaxis, it is essential to take into account modifiable risk factors present in residential neighbourhood. Prevention of childhood obesity should integrate activities for both micro- and macro-environment surrounding the child.

  14. Environmental factors influencing the development and spread of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance and its wider implications present us with a growing healthcare crisis. Recent research points to the environment as an important component for the transmission of resistant bacteria and in the emergence of resistant pathogens. However, a deeper understanding of the evolutionary and ecological processes that lead to clinical appearance of resistance genes is still lacking, as is knowledge of environmental dispersal barriers. This calls for better models of how resistance genes evolve, are mobilized, transferred and disseminated in the environment. Here, we attempt to define the ecological and evolutionary environmental factors that contribute to resistance development and transmission. Although mobilization of resistance genes likely occurs continuously, the great majority of such genetic events do not lead to the establishment of novel resistance factors in bacterial populations, unless there is a selection pressure for maintaining them or their fitness costs are negligible. To enable preventative measures it is therefore critical to investigate under what conditions and to what extent environmental selection for resistance takes place. In addition, understanding dispersal barriers is not only key to evaluate risks, but also to prevent resistant pathogens, as well as novel resistance genes, from reaching humans. © FEMS 2017.

  15. Environmental factors influencing the development and spread of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Antibiotic resistance and its wider implications present us with a growing healthcare crisis. Recent research points to the environment as an important component for the transmission of resistant bacteria and in the emergence of resistant pathogens. However, a deeper understanding of the evolutionary and ecological processes that lead to clinical appearance of resistance genes is still lacking, as is knowledge of environmental dispersal barriers. This calls for better models of how resistance genes evolve, are mobilized, transferred and disseminated in the environment. Here, we attempt to define the ecological and evolutionary environmental factors that contribute to resistance development and transmission. Although mobilization of resistance genes likely occurs continuously, the great majority of such genetic events do not lead to the establishment of novel resistance factors in bacterial populations, unless there is a selection pressure for maintaining them or their fitness costs are negligible. To enable preventative measures it is therefore critical to investigate under what conditions and to what extent environmental selection for resistance takes place. In addition, understanding dispersal barriers is not only key to evaluate risks, but also to prevent resistant pathogens, as well as novel resistance genes, from reaching humans. PMID:29069382

  16. Effective Factors in Environmental Health Status of Grocery Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Asadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the Study: This study was carried out to determine the effective factors in environmental health status of grocery stores in the city of Qom (located in the center of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 grocery stores from 3 different regions were selected randomly using stratified sampling. Data were gathered through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: section 1 dealt with some shop managers’ features including the age, educational level, job satisfaction, passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses”, store ownership, duration of employment, and features of stores including their location (Region and environmental health condition. And section 2 dealt with the important aspects of regulations of Article 13. The data analyzed using statistical procedures such as Spearman Rank Correlation and Multivariate Regression Analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the investigated factors, the manager’s educational level had a greater impact on the environmental health conditions of grocery stores. The ownership status of grocery stores, Job satisfaction and passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses” were next in the ranking, respectively (p <0.001 for all measures, except for shop ownership, for which p-value was <0.02. Conclusions: Planning and implementation of effective operational and strategic programs addressing the above mentioned issues seems to be necessary. Such programs will improve the health status of the stores over time.

  17. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Sun, Yize; Xu, Yang [College of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University NO.2999, North Renmin Road, Shanghai (China)

    2013-07-01

    It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000. Root mean square error (RMSE) between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE) is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  18. Environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, L A; Hughes, B W; Sriskanda, A N; Guest, J R; Gibson, A D; Johnson-Williams, L; Pace, D G; Bagasra, O

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heterogeneous developmental conditions characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and obsessive/stereotyped patterns of behavior and repetitive movements. Social interaction impairments are the most characteristic deficits in ASD. There is also evidence of impoverished language and empathy, a profound inability to use standard nonverbal behaviors (eye contact, affective expression) to regulate social interactions with others, difficulties in showing empathy, failure to share enjoyment, interests and achievements with others, and a lack of social and emotional reciprocity. In developed countries, it is now reported that 1%-1.5% of children have ASD, and in the US 2015 CDC reports that approximately one in 45 children suffer from ASD. Despite the intense research focus on ASD in the last decade, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Genetic research involving twins and family studies strongly supports a significant contribution of environmental factors in addition to genetic factors in ASD etiology. A comprehensive literature search has implicated several environmental factors associated with the development of ASD. These include pesticides, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, solvents, air pollutants, fragrances, glyphosate and heavy metals, especially aluminum used in vaccines as adjuvant. Importantly, the majority of these toxicants are some of the most common ingredients in cosmetics and herbicides to which almost all of us are regularly exposed to in the form of fragrances, face makeup, cologne, air fresheners, food flavors, detergents, insecticides and herbicides. In this review we describe various scientific data to show the role of environmental factors in ASD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental Pollutants as Risk Factors for Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eChin-Chan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer (AD and Parkinson (PD have attracted attention in last decades due to their high incidence worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is still unclear; however the role of the environment, from diet to the new nanomaterials as putative risk factors has gained importance. More worryingly is the evidence that pre- and post-natal exposures to environmental factors predispose to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases in later life. Neurotoxic metals such as lead, mercury, aluminum, cadmium and arsenic, as well as some pesticides and metal-based nanoparticles have been involved in AD due to their ability to increase beta-amyloid (Aβ peptide and the phosphorylation of Tau protein (P-Tau, causing senile/amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of AD. The exposure to lead, manganese, solvents and some pesticides has been related to hallmarks of PD such as mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in metal homeostasis and aggregation of proteins such as α-synuclein (α-syn, which is a key constituent of Lewy bodies, a crucial factor in PD pathogenesis. Common mechanisms of environmental pollutants to increase Aβ, P-Tau, α-syn and neuronal death have been reported, including the oxidative stress mainly involved in the increase of Aβ and α-syn, and the reduced activity/protein levels of Aβ degrading enzymes such as neprilysin or insulin degrading enzyme. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms by maternal nutrient supplementation and exposure to heavy metals and pesticides have been proposed to lead phenotypic diversity and susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses data from epidemiological and experimental studies about the role of environmental factors in the development of idiopathic AD and PD, and their mechanisms of action.

  20. Husband and wife with sarcoidosis: possible environmental factors involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leli Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous multisystem disorder of unclear etiology that involves any organ, most commonly the lung and the lymph nodes. It is hypothesized that the disease derives from the interaction between single or multiple environmental factors and genetically determined host factors. Multiple potential etiologic agents for sarcoidosis have been proposed without any definitive demonstration of causality. We report the case of two patients, husband (57 years old and wife (55 years old, both suffering from sarcoidosis. They underwent a lymph node biopsy by mediastinoscopy which showed a “granulomatous epithelioid giant cell non-necrotising chronic lymphadenitis”. They had lived up to 3 years ago in the country in a farm, in contact with organic dusts, animals such as dogs, chickens, rabbits, pigeons; now they have lived since about 3 years in an urban area where there are numerous chemical industries and stone quarries. The aim of this case report was to focus on environmental factors that might be related to the pathogenesis of the sarcoidosis.

  1. The Role of Environmental Factors in Digestive Cancer

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    Rene Lambert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of digestive cancer in each country is analyzed in cancer registries for Incidence and Mortality. Survival is estimated from registries with a correct follow-up. Estimated values of Incidence and Mortality, expressed as an age standardized rate (ASR for 100 000 persons, for all the population of a country are also found in the WHO-IARC database Globocan, recently edited for the year 2008. At each site of digestive tumors, the variations between countries, in cancer incidence, mortality and survival, depend on the resources and the global health status of the country. Indeed environmental causal factors linked to lifestyle may have an increasing or decreasing impact on the risk of cancer. Such factors are classified on 3 categories: 1- nutrition plays a determinant role in colorectal cancer with a higher risk in countries with more resources and more calories in the diet. 2- Toxic agents like alcohol and tobacco increase the risk at all sites of digestive cancer; their role is preponderant in esophageal cancer. Aflatoxin, a food contaminant in tropical, less developed countries, increases the risk of liver cancer. 3 – Infectious agents play a major role with the Bacteria H.pylori for stomach cancer over the world, and the Hepatitis virus B and C for liver cancer in less developed countries of Africa and Asia. The control of carcinogenic causal environmental factors is included in the primary prevention of digestive cancer.

  2. Macro- and micro-environmental factors in clinical HCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancoska, Petr; Carr, Brian I.

    2014-01-01

    We previously developed a network phenotyping strategy (NPS), a graph theory-based transformation of clinical practice data, for recognition of two primary subgroups of hepatocellular cancer (HCC), called S and L, which differed significantly in their tumor masses. In the current study, we have independently validated this result on 641 HCC patients from another continent. We identified the same HCC subgroups with mean tumor masses 9 cm×n (S) and 22 cm×n (L), penvironment factors, identifying four subtypes for S- and five subtypes for L-phenotypes, respectively. In L phenotype, all reference patterns were PVT (portal vein thrombosis) positive, all platelet/AFP levels were high, and all were chronic alcohol consumers. L had phenotype landmarks with worst survival. S phenotype interaction patterns were PVT negative, with low platelet/AFP levels. We demonstrated that tumor-clinical environment interaction patterns explained how a given parameter level can have a different significance within a different overall context. Thus, baseline bilirubin is low in S1 and S4, but high in S2 and S3, yet all are S subtype patterns, with better prognosis than in L. Gender and age, representing macro-environmental factors, and bilirubin, INR and AST levels representing micro-environmental factors, had a major impact on subtype characterization. Clinically important HCC phenotypes are therefore represented by complete parameter relationship patterns and cannot be replaced by individual parameter levels. PMID:24787292

  3. Macro- and micro-environmental factors in clinical hepatocellular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancoska, Petr; Carr, Brian I

    2014-04-01

    We previously developed a network phenotyping strategy (NPS), a graph theory-based transformation of clinical practice data, for recognition of two primary subgroups of hepatocellular cancer (HCC), called S and L, which differed significantly in their tumor masses. In the current study, we have independently validated this result on 641 HCC patients from another continent. We identified the same HCC subgroups with mean tumor masses 9 cm x n (S) and 22 cm x n (L), Penvironment factors, identifying four subtypes for S and five subtypes for L phenotypes, respectively. In L phenotype, all reference patterns were portal vein thrombosis (PVT)-positive, all platelet/alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels were high, and all were chronic alcohol consumers. L had phenotype landmarks with worst survival. S phenotype interaction patterns were PVT-negative, with low platelet/AFP levels. We demonstrated that tumor-clinical environment interaction patterns explained how a given parameter level can have a different significance within a different overall context. Thus, baseline bilirubin is low in S1 and S4, but high in S2 and S3, yet all are S subtype patterns, with better prognosis than in L. Gender and age, representing macro-environmental factors, and bilirubin, prothrombin time, and AST levels representing micro-environmental factors, had a major impact on subtype characterization. Clinically important HCC phenotypes are therefore represented by complete parameter relationship patterns and cannot be replaced by individual parameter levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds

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    Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David; Snyder, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (τ) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.

  5. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products.

  6. Clinical, Molecular, and Environmental Risk Factors for Hodgkin Lymphoma

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    Alison Maggioncalda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest unique occurrence patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL worldwide. In most Western countries there is a clear bimodal age distribution with an early peak in young adults followed by a second peak in older adults, particularly among males. In the Middle East and Asia, HL is more common in early childhood. There also are marked racial differences in the presentations of HL and HL subtypes, and particular single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been identified as etiological factors suggesting that gene-gene and gene-environment interactions are involved. Personal health choices such as exercise and smoking may modify an individual's chances of developing HL. Numerous studies highlight the impact that exposure to Epstein-Barr virus and other environmental factors have on HL risk. Understanding the relative importance of each of these findings and their links to HL development and survival will help clinical researchers expand curative therapies and create preventative strategies for HL.

  7. Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease: environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campdelacreu, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to update and summarise available evidence on environmental risk factors that have been associated with risk of Parkinson disease (PD) or Alzheimer disease (AD) and discuss their potential mechanisms. Evidence consistently suggests that a higher risk of PD is associated with pesticides and that a higher risk of AD is associated with pesticides, hypertension and high cholesterol levels in middle age, hyperhomocysteinaemia, smoking, traumatic brain injury and depression. There is weak evidence suggesting that higher risk of PD is associated with high milk consumption in men, high iron intake, chronic anaemia and traumatic brain injury. Weak evidence also suggests that a higher risk of AD is associated with high aluminium intake through drinking water, excessive exposure to electromagnetic fields from electrical grids, DM and hyperinsulinaemia, obesity in middle age, excessive alcohol consumption and chronic anaemia. Evidence consistently suggests that a lower risk of PD is associated with hyperuricaemia, tobacco and coffee use, while a lower risk of AD is associated with moderate alcohol consumption, physical exercise, perimenopausal hormone replacement therapy and good cognitive reserve. Weak evidence suggests that lower risk of PD is associated with increased vitamin E intake, alcohol, tea, NSAIDs, and vigorous physical exercise, and that lower risk of AD is associated with the Mediterranean diet, coffee and habitual NSAID consumption. Several environmental factors contribute significantly to risk of PD and AD. Some may already be active in the early stages of life, and some may interact with other genetic factors. Population-based strategies to modify such factors could potentially result in fewer cases of PD or AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Contribution of environmental factors to the risk of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, A; Spira, A; Multigner, L

    2001-08-01

    An increasing number of reports suggest that chemical and physical agents in the environment, introduced and spread by human activity, may affect male fertility in humans. We investigated the relationships between exposure to environmental agents and seminal characteristics, and the concentrations of reproductive hormones in the serum of men seeking infertility treatment. We studied 225 male partners from consecutively recruited couples, who had their first infertility consultation between 1995 and 1998, in the Litoral Sur region of Argentina, one of the most productive farming regions in the world. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that exposure to pesticides and solvents is significantly associated with sperm threshold values well below the limit for male fertility. We also found that men exposed to pesticides had higher serum oestradiol concentrations, and that men exposed to solvents had lower LH concentrations than non-exposed men. All of these effects were greater in men with primary infertility than in men with secondary infertility. We have shown that environmental factors contribute to the severity of infertility, and that this may worsen the effects of pre-existing genetic or medical risk factors.

  9. Environmental non-occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrís, J; Berbel, O; Alonso-López, J; Garcia, J; Ortega, J A

    2013-10-01

    Bladder carcinoma (BC), due its high morbidity and relapsing course, generates significant economic and health care costs. Accordingly, review the environmental nonoccupational risk factors (RF), more or less evidence-based, in the etiology and pathogenesis of BC, because the involvement of urologists is essential for prevention. Review of the peer-reviewed literature (1987-2012) on nonoccupational environmental RF associated with BC retrieved from Medline, Embase and Science Citation Index. The search profiles have been "Risk factors/Epidemiology/Tobacco-smoking/Diet-nutrition-water-liquids/Radiation/Infectious/Farmacological drugs" and "Bladder cancer". Smoking was associated with 50% of BC in both sexes. Smokers have a 2-5 times higher risk than nonsmokers, directly proportional to the amount and duration of addiction. Drinking water contaminated with arsenic and chromium chlorination byproducts increases the risk of BC. High consumption of red meat and saturated fat may increase the risk, while high intake of fruits and vegetables decreases it. Patients treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and ionizing radiation have an increased risk of BC. Frequent and prolonged use of hair dyes and Schistosoma haematobium infestation increases the risk of BC. The reduction or the cessation of smoking decrease BC. The contaminant-free water consumption with the increase of vegetal foods favour BC prevention. Cancer survivors treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and radiation therapy should be monitored for early diagnosis of BC. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental factors associated with physician's engagement in communication activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurenko, Olena; Hearld, Larry R

    2015-01-01

    Communication between patients and providers is a crucial component of effective care coordination and is associated with a number of desired patient and provider outcomes. Despite these benefits, physician-patient and physician-physician communication occurs infrequently. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a medical practice's external environment and physician engagement in communication activities. This was a cross-sectional examination of 4,299 U.S. physicians' self-reported engagement in communication activities. Communication was operationalized as physician's time spent on communication with patients and other providers during a typical work day. The explanatory variables were measures of environmental complexity, dynamism, and munificence. Data sources were the Health Tracking Physician Survey, the Area Resource File database, and the Dartmouth Atlas. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the environmental factors and physician engagement in communication activities. Several environmental factors, including per capita income (odds ratio range, 1.17-1.38), urban location (odds ratio range, 1.08-1.45), fluctuations in Health Maintenance Organization penetration (odds ratio range, 3.47-13.22), poverty (odds ratio range, 0.80-0.97) and population rates (odds ratio range, 1.01-1.02), and the presence of a malpractice crisis (odds ratio range, 0.22-0.43), were significantly associated with communication. Certain aspects of a physician's external environment are associated with different modes of communication with different recipients (patients and providers). This knowledge can be used by health care managers and policy makers who strive to improve communication between different stakeholders within the health care system (e.g., patient and providers).

  11. ASTHMA, ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS, AND HYPERTENSION AMONG ARAB AMERICANS IN THE METRO DETROIT AREA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of environmental risk factors in asthma etiology has been well-documented, and certain environmental risk factors have also been associated with hypertension. However, few previous studies have examined the relationship between hypertension and asthma. This study...

  12. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

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    Letašiová Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline, which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking, and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline

  13. Prenatal exposure to environmental factors and congenital limb defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peter G; Clark, Karen L; Tuan, Rocky S

    2016-09-01

    Limb congenital defects afflict approximately 0.6:1000 live births. In addition to genetic factors, prenatal exposure to drugs and environmental toxicants, represents a major contributing factor to limb defects. Examples of well-recognized limb teratogenic agents include thalidomide, warfarin, valproic acid, misoprostol, and phenytoin. While the mechanism by which these agents cause dymorphogenesis is increasingly clear, prediction of the limb teratogenicity of many thousands of as yet uncharacterized environmental factors (pollutants) remains inexact. This is limited by the insufficiencies of currently available models. Specifically, in vivo approaches using guideline animal models have inherently deficient predictive power due to genomic and anatomic differences that complicate mechanistic comparisons. On the other hand, in vitro two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, while accessible for cellular and molecular experimentation, do not reflect the three-dimensional (3D) morphogenetic events in vivo nor systemic influences. More robust and accessible models based on human cells that accurately replicate specific processes of embryonic limb development are needed to enhance limb teratogenesis prediction and to permit mechanistic analysis of the adverse outcome pathways. Recent advances in elucidating mechanisms of normal development will aid in the development of process-specific 3D cell cultures within specialized bioreactors to support multicellular microtissues or organoid constructs that will lead to increased understanding of cell functions, cell-to-cell signaling, pathway networks, and mechanisms of toxicity. The promise is prompting researchers to look to such 3D microphysiological systems to help sort out complex and often subtle interactions relevant to developmental malformations that would not be evident by standard 2D cell culture testing. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:243-273, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. X-ray fluorescence in Member States (Spain): Main activities related to the use of XRF techniques at the Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Research Group of the University of Girona (UdG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marguí, Eva; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    The Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Group (QAA) is a consolidated research group of the Department of Chemistry of the University of Girona (North- East Spain). The main research topics of the group are related to the development and application of analytical methodologies for the determination of inorganic and organic species in different kind of environmental, clinical and industrial samples. From the beginning of the 2000’s, one of the research focuses of the group, is the use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) for the determination of trace amounts of metals and metalloids mostly in samples related to the environmental and industrial fields. For instance, in collaboration with the Institute of Earth Sciences “Jaume Almera” (ICTJA-CSIC, Spain), we have developed and successfully applied several analytical approaches based on the use of EDXRF (Energy dispersive XRF), WDXRF (Wavelength dispersive XRF) and PEDXRF (Polarised EDXRF) for the determination of metals at trace levels in complex liquid samples such as sea water or electroplating waters in vegetation samples collected around mining environments or in active pharmaceutical ingredients. At present, the evaluation of the analytical possibilities of TXRF (Total reflection XRF) in the chemical analysis field is also one of the research topics of QAA. In this sense, several contributions related to the use of this technique for element determination in liquid and solid samples have been developed. A summary of these contributions is summarized in the last section of this review

  15. Environmental factors associated with blood lead levels in Venezuelan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M; Squillante, G; Medina, E; de Rojas, O; Sarmiento, A

    2000-06-01

    A preliminary study explored the relative contribution of residential sources of lead exposure on mentally challenged children who attend "special education" institutions (GI) compared to a group of age and sex matched school children (G2). We captured descriptive information and analyzed demographic variables, personal and household information, medical effects, environmental exposure factors, and children habits. Home paint, dust, soil, and water sampling was conducted and blood lead (BPb) levels determined. Eighteen G1 and 20 G2 children were studied. The mean G1 BPb was 16.9 +/- 7.9 microg/dl and was significantly higher than that in G2. Fifty percent of G1 children had PbB >20 microg/dl and 72.2% were >10 microg/dl. Low muscular strength, decreased osteotendinose reflexes, fine and gross motricity, deficient equilibrium, and hipotonic muscular tone coincided with >18 microg/dl BPb levels. In 61.1% of G1 homes paint lead levels were higher than permissible levels and 33.3% had dust lead exceeding that level. The high BPb levels in G1 probably resulted from ingestion of household paint, dust, and soil via "hand-to-mouth" activity. Environmental exposure to lead can be an important source of lead intake by infants and children and could affect neurological development. This study provides new insights currently unavailable for these children in Venezuela.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIC FACTOR IN THE ENERGY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎRNU Doru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to conceive an environmental strategy intended to integrate harmoniously Gorj energy industry with principles of sustainable development. The sustainable development complies trinomial: ecological-economic-social. In our view, sustainable development, requires clean water and unpolluted air, land consolidated rejuvenated forests, biodiversity and protected nature reserves, churches and monasteries secular admired by visitors, welcoming places entered in the natural and cultural harmony. It is also necessary to reduce the pressure generated by socio-economic factors on the environment and the principles of sustainable development. The quality of life in urban and rural areas show extreme differences compared to European standards. For efficiency, we addressed the modeling method by designing a model valid for all thermoelectric power plants based on fossil fuels, allowing simultaneously, so adding value and environmental protection. The general objective that we propose for the environment, natural resources and patrimony, is related to the prevention of climate change by limiting the emission of toxic gases and their adverse effects on the environment The achievement of strategic objectives and implementation of proposals submitted, we consider that would have a double impact, on the one side, to protect the environment and the quality of life and, on the other side a positive influence on economic and social level.

  17. Relationship between genetic and environmental factors and hypercholesterolemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Jorge A; Siccardi, Leonardo J

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric hypercholesterolemia has increased over the past decades. Knowing the environmental and genetic factors that have an impact on it would allow establishing more adequate screening guidelines. To determine if there is an association between genetic and environmental factors and hypercholesterolemia in children. To assess the predictive qualities of outcome measures associated with hypercholesterolemia. Observational, analytical, cross-sectional study. students from all schools located in Jovita. Age: > 6 and hypercholesterolemia. Three hundred and eighty-two students were included. Their mean cholesterol level was 168 mg/dL, and 13.4% had hypercholesterolemia. A sedentary lifestyle was observed in 22.8%, and obesity, in 10.5%. A positive FMH, a high/ middle SEL, and obesity were associated with hypercholesterolemia (OR: 2.10, 2.10 and 2.05, respectively). No association was found between physical activity and fat/cholesterol intake and hypercholesterolemia. A positive FMH and a high/middle SEL were sensitive enough (75% and 88%) to predict hypercholesterolemia. The presence of hypercholesterolemia inboth parents in relation to hypercholesterolemia in their child showed an OR of 9.59, a sensitivity of 73%, a specificity of 71%, a positive predictive value of 57%, and a negative predictive value of 83%. A positive FMH, a high/ middle SEL, and obesity were associated with hypercholesterolemia in children. The presence of hypercholesterolemia in both parents was associated with hypercholesterolemia in their child and showed itself to be a great potential predictor and screening criterion. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  18. Environmental factors and leukaemia risks of children: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuez, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Leukaemia is the most common malignancy in childhood, with an incidence rate in Germany of 5.5 per 100,000 children aged 0 to 14 years per year. Overall, epidemiological studies suggest a rather minor role of environmental factors in the development of childhood leukaemia. Ionising radiation is the only established risk factor; however, it is currently unclear at which doses effects occur. Low doses from terrestrial exposures or related to living close to a nuclear power plant show weak associations in recent epidemiological studies, but the findings can at present not be explained with mechanistic models from radiation biology. The consistent association observed in epidemiological studies between extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia risk also lacks a good explanation and it is still not known whether this observation displays an artefact or a causal link. Some pesticides appear to be carcinogenic in experiments, but the results from epidemiological studies are inconsistent. No substantial risk appears to be related to air pollution from road traffic. Recent research focused on working hypotheses related to patterns of infections, in particular that an isolation from infectious stimulation in infancy leads to an immature immune system reacting inappropriately to later common infections. While children being at day care at an early age appear to have a reduced risk of childhood leukaemia, more work needs to be done to clearly identify the agents involved in a putative mechanism. (orig.)

  19. Source to sink transport and regulation by environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remi eLemoine

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Source-to-sink transport of sugar is one of the major determinants of plant growth and relies on the efficient and controlled distribution of sucrose (and some other sugars such as raffinose and polyols across plant organs through the phloem. However, sugar transport through the phloem can be affected by many environmental factors that alter source/sink relationships. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge about the phloem transport mechanisms and review the effects of several abiotic (water and salt stress, mineral deficiency, CO2, light, temperature, air and soil pollutants and biotic (mutualistic and pathogenic microbes, viruses, aphids and parasitic plants factors. Concerning abiotic constraints, alteration of the distribution of sugar among sinks is often reported, with some sinks as roots favoured in case of mineral deficiency. Many of these constraints impair the transport function of the phloem but the exact mechanisms are far from being completely known. Phloem integrity can be disrupted (e.g. by callose deposition and under certain conditions, phloem transport is affected, earlier than photosynthesis. Photosynthesis inhibition could result from the increase in sugar concentration due to phloem transport decrease. Biotic interactions (aphids, fungi, viruses… also affect crop plant productivity. Recent breakthroughs have identified some of the sugar transporters involved in these interactions on the host and pathogen sides. The different data are discussed in relation to the phloem transport pathways. When possible, the link with current knowledge on the pathways at the molecular level will be highlighted.

  20. Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi S. Gadad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology.

  1. Modulation of the Genome and Epigenome of Individuals Susceptible to Autism by Environmental Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Koufaris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diverse environmental factors have been implicated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Genetic factors also underlie the differential vulnerability to environmental risk factors of susceptible individuals. Currently the way in which environmental risk factors interact with genetic factors to increase the incidence of ASD is not well understood. A greater understanding of the metabolic, cellular, and biochemical events involved in gene x environment interactions in ASD would have important implications for the prevention and possible treatment of the disorder. In this review we discuss various established and more alternative processes through which environmental factors implicated in ASD can modulate the genome and epigenome of genetically-susceptible individuals.

  2. Estimation of long-term environmental inventory factors associated with land application of sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Yoshida, Hiroko; Nielsen, Martin P.

    2016-01-01

    techniques. Subsequently, 100 year model simulations were used to provide emission factors as well as harvest and carbon sequestration factors (collectively called environmental inventory factors) under a variety of environmental conditions. Environmental inventory factors were calculated under both high.......18 to 0.55. The average carbon sequestration factor across the different environmental conditions ranged from 0.03 to 0.05 for the different sludge types. In conclusion, the approach using an agro-ecosystem model to estimate inventory factors associated with land application of sludge under varying...

  3. Factors Conditioning Community Utilization of Environmental Education in Tanzania: The Case of Uluguru Mountains, Morogoro Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manase, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In order for the community to bring meaningful and sustainable environmental conservation and change, it must take action in implementing environmental education values acquired from environmental learning programmes and organizations. This study therefore aimed at assessing factors conditioning community implementation of environmental education…

  4. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF variation in two populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Sorice

    Full Text Available Placental Growth Factor (PGF is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent. However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have first investigated PGF variability in two cohorts focusing on non-genetic risk factors: a study sample from two isolated villages in the Cilento region, South Italy (N=871 and a replication sample from the general Danish population (N=1,812. A significant difference in PGF mean levels was found between the two cohorts. However, in both samples, we observed a strong correlation of PGF levels with ageing and sex, men displaying PGF levels significantly higher than women. Interestingly, smoking was also found to influence the trait in the two populations, although differently. We have then focused on genetic risk factors. The association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located in the PGF gene and the plasma levels of the protein was investigated. Two polymorphisms (rs11850328 and rs2268614 were associated with the PGF plasma levels in the Cilento sample and these associations were strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability.

  5. [The microbiological safety of food products, and environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheveleva, S A

    2006-01-01

    The author of the review analyzes the mechanisms of changes of biological properties of microorganisms causing alimentary infections and intoxications. A complex of environmental factors, such as anthropogenic, technogenic, social, ecological, and climatic ones, are considered to be the main cause of these changes. Food contamination by microorganisms and their toxins is facilitated by climatic warming. The exposure of consumers to food toxins grows, and alimentary infections become more frequent. New classes of alimentary infections have appeared; clinical manifestations and complications of food-related infections have become more serious. Besides, the quality and value of food products may be reduced by lactic acid microorganisms and moulds, whose content in food chains increases due to warming, especially in regions with a high anthropogenic load. From the economic perspective, the behavior of microbial food contaminants under the conditions of climatic warming increase direct losses of agricultural products due to their lesion by microscopic fungi, mycotoxins etc., as well as spoilage microflora. This may result in food shortage and famine in distant regions. The article covers control measures and the management of microbiological risks under the condition of climatic warming.

  6. Environmental factors influencing diatom communities in Antarctic cryoconite holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanish, L F; McKnight, D M; Bagshaw, E A; Tranter, M; Fountain, A G

    2013-01-01

    Cryoconite holes are ice-bound habitats that can act as refuges for aquatic and terrestrial microorganisms on glacier surfaces. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, these holes are often capped by an ice lid that prevents the exchange of material and gases with the surrounding atmosphere and aquatic environment. Diatoms have been documented in cryoconite holes, and recent findings suggest that these habitats may harbour a distinctive diatom flora compared to the surrounding aquatic environments. In this study, we examined diatom community composition in cryoconite holes and environmental correlates across three glaciers in Taylor Valley, Antarctica. The diatom communities were dominated by two genera, Muelleria and Diadesmis, both of which had high viability and could have been seeded from the surrounding ephemeral streams. The location of the cryoconite hole within the valley was a key determinant of community composition. A diatom species richness gradient was observed that corresponded to distance inland from the coast and co-varied with species richness in streams within the same lake basin. Cryoconite holes that were adjacent to streams with higher diversity displayed greater species richness. However, physical factors, such as the ability to withstand freeze–thaw conditions and to colonize coarse sediments, acted as additional selective filters and influenced diatom diversity, viability and community composition. (letter)

  7. Bacterial, behavioral and environmental factors associated with early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gomez, Francisco J; Weintraub, Jane A; Gansky, Stuart A; Hoover, Charles I; Featherstone, John D B

    2002-01-01

    The goals of this cross-sectional study were to characterize and compare demographic, behavioral, and environmental factors potentially associated with early childhood caries (ECC) and to assess salivary levels of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) in underserved, predominantly Hispanic children. One hundred forty-six children aged 3 to 55 months with a range of caries experience were identified and examined. ECC was primarily associated with the presence of MS and lack of access to dental care. Salivary MS levels among young children with ECC were higher than would be expected in a dentally healthy population, but lower than levels reported among older children at high risk for caries. After adjustment for age, children with log10 MS > or = 3.0 or log10 LB > or = 1.5 were about five times as likely (OR=4.9, 95% CI=2.0, 12.0) to have ECC than those with lower bacterial levels. This study demonstrated a significant association between relatively low cariogenic bacterial levels and dental caries in infants and toddlers. Antibiotic use, exposure to lead, and anemia were not significantly associated with the number of decayed and filled surfaces or decayed and filled teeth. ECC correlated significantly with child's age and lack of dental insurance of the children, as well as inversely with both family income and the educational level of the mother of the child.

  8. Environmental factors in the etiology of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, C M; Chen, B; Wang, W Z; Peng, M L; Liu, Z L; Liang, X L; Kao, L C; Gilley, D W; Schoenberg, B S

    1987-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has been proposed to result from the interaction of aging and environment in susceptible individuals. Defective metabolism of debrisoquine, inherited as an autosomal recessive, has been associated with this susceptibility. In 35 PD patients and 19 age-matched controls, no significant differences in debrisoquine metabolism were found, although a trend to impaired metabolism was noted in patients with disease onset less than or equal to 40. Foci of PD patients were associated with rural living and well water drinking, or rural living coupled with market gardening or wood pulp mills. In a questionnaire survey, patients with PD onset less than or equal to age 47 were significantly more likely to have lived in rural areas and to have drunk well water than those with onset greater than or equal to age 54 (p less than or equal to 0.01). Because of population mobility in North America, a case-control study designed to test environmental, occupational, dietary and other proposed risk factors for PD was conducted in China, where the population is more stationary and the environment more stable. No significant differences in incidences of head trauma, smoking or childhood measles were found between patients and controls.

  9. An investigation of virulence factors of Legionella pneumophila environmental isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Özlem Arslan-Aydoğdu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nine Legionella pneumophila strains isolated from cooling towers and a standard strain (L. pneumophila serogroup 1, ATCC 33152, Philadelphia 1 were analyzed and compared in terms of motility, flagella structure, ability to form biofilms, enzymatic activities (hemolysin, nucleases, protease, phospholipase A, phospholipase C, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and lipase, hemagglutination capabilities, and pathogenicity in various host cells (Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 30234, mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral monocytes. All the isolates of bacteria appeared to be motile and polar-flagellated and possessed the type-IV fimbria. Upon the evaluation of virulence factors, isolate 4 was found to be the most pathogenic strain, while 6 out of the 9 isolates (the isolates 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 were more virulent than the ATCC 33152 strain. The different bacterial strains exhibited differences in properties such as adhesion, penetration and reproduction in the hosts, and preferred host type. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the virulence of environmental L. pneumophila strains isolated in Turkey, and it provides important information relevant for understanding the epidemiology of L. pneumophila.

  10. Environmental factors influencing stress corrosion cracking in boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanisms of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of sensitized stainless steels in boiling water reactor (BWR) primary coolant are reviewed, with emphasis on the role the environment plays on both the initiation and propagation processes. Environmental factors discussed include oxygen (corrosion potential), temperature, and dissolved ions in the water and the range of strain rates at which IGSCC occurs. Both crack propagation rates and the range of strain rates at which IGSCC occurs decrease rapidly as temperature is increased above approximately 200 0 C, in essentially the same manner as the solubility of magnetite decreases in acidic solutions. A mechanism of crack propagation is presented base on this observation. To establish water chemistry guidelines for crack-free operation of BWR's containing sensitized stainless steel, more information is needed on the role of absorption of impurities in the surface and deposited oxides and on the interaction between the oxygen and impurity levels required to maintain an electrochemical potential in a range where IGSCC is unlikely to occur. The relative effects of short bursts of impurities and longer term lower concentrations of these same impurities also need to be evaluated

  11. 78. Environmental air pollution: A new emerging factor for coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Meo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Environmental pollution exert detrimental effects on the heart. The researchers and physicians must consider the environmental pollution as an emerging factor in the development of coronary artery disease.

  12. The Research for the Greenhouse Water Evaporation Based on the Environmental Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Ma; Chaoxing He; Zhixin Wang

    2013-01-01

    To guide the greenhouse precision irrigation, influenced by the environmental factors, based on the definite plant, the greenhouse water evaporation characteristics are studied. The qualitative and the quantitative relationships between the environmental factors and the greenhouse water evaporation are probed into which will provide the theoretical basis for the water management of the facilities horticulture. Establishing the quantitative relations between the environmental factors and the w...

  13. Environmental Factors Affecting Fleece Traits in Raeini Cashmere Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Salehi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate some environmental factors (sex, age and management system on fibrecharacteristics of Raeini Cashmere goats in Baft stations (BS and of Raeini Cashmere goats raised in nomadic conditions (NC as commercial flocks. Fiber samples including cashmere and hair were taken from 150 and 120 Raeini Cashmere goats (aged 1-8 years old from BS and NC, respectively. The Fleece traits measured included staple length (SL, percentage of cashmere in fleece (C, percentage of guard hair in fleece (H, cashmere's mean fiber diameter (CMFD and the coefficient of variation of cashmere's fiber diameter (CVFD. Mean SL, C, H, CMFD and CVFD in BS were 6.35 ±0.1 cm, 66.51± 0.72 %, 33.5 ± 0.72 %, 20.19 ±0.11 micron and 19.57± 0.21% and thosein NC were 5.62 ± 0.1 cm, 69.06 ± 0.74 %, 30.94 ±0.74 %, 19.53±0.15 micron and 17.88 ± 0.19 %, respectively. There were significant differences (P<0.05 between the two production management systems for all traits investigated. The value for C was significantly higher in males than females (P<0.05. The results showed that the fleece traits were affected by age. However, the effect of age on these traits was not the same. Significant phenotypic correlations were found between SL and CMFD (0.16 and between SL and CVFD (0.13. The results of this study indicated that the fixed effects of age, sex and management systems as well as the relationship between fleece traits should  be considered in the Raeini Cashmere goat breeding programs.

  14. Factors Predicting the Ocular Surface Response to Desiccating Environmental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Anastasia; Edwards, Austin; Hays, J. Daniel; Kerkstra, Michelle; Shih, Amanda; de Paiva, Cintia S.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To identify factors predicting the ocular surface response to experimental desiccating stress. Methods. The ocular surfaces of both eyes of 15 normal and 10 dry eye subjects wearing goggles were exposed to a controlled desiccating environment (15%–25% relative humidity and 2–5 L/min airflow) for 90 minutes. Eye irritation symptoms, blink rate, tear meniscus dimensions, noninvasive (RBUT) and invasive tear break-up time, and corneal fluorescein and conjunctival lissamine green-dye staining were recorded before and after desiccating stress. Pre- and postexposure measurements were compared, and Pearson correlations between clinical parameters before and after desiccating stress were calculated. Results. Corneal and conjunctival dye staining significantly increased in all subjects following 90-minute exposure to desiccating environment, and the magnitude of change was similar in normal and dry eye subjects; except superior cornea staining was greater in dry eye. Irritation severity in the desiccating environment was associated with baseline dye staining, baseline tear meniscus height, and blink rate after 45 minutes. Desiccation-induced change in corneal fluorescein staining was inversely correlated to baseline tear meniscus width, whereas change in total ocular surface dye staining was inversely correlated to baseline dye staining, RBUT, and tear meniscus height and width. Blink rate from 30 to 90 minutes in desiccating environment was higher in the dry eye than normal group. Blink rate significantly correlated to baseline corneal fluorescein staining and environmental-induced change in corneal fluorescein staining. Conclusions. Ocular surface dye staining increases in response to desiccating stress. Baseline ocular surface dye staining, tear meniscus height, and blink rate predict severity of ocular surface dye staining following exposure to a desiccating environment. PMID:23572103

  15. Effect of environmental factors on bacterial quorum sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, E; Gothalwal, R

    2014-12-24

    Biodegradation of complex hydrocarbons usually requires the cooperation of more than a single species of microorganisms including bacteria. This is particularly true in pollutants that are made up of many different compounds such as crude oil or petroleum, and where complete mineralization to CO2 and H2O is desired. An effort has been made to form the consortium of bacterial isolates (Qs1, Qs2 and Qs5) which are isolated from oil contaminated soil, and the effects of different environmental factors on these consortium has been studied . The growth of the consortium was studied at 6.5 pH and 35°C like the individual bacterial isolates on the different hydrocarbons (xylene, toluene, hexane, diesel, benzene and petrol). These consortium of bacterial isolates, shared more efficient utilization of hydrocarbon as carbon source. This consortium shows confluent growth- at pH 6.0, 5.5, and 5.0 but survival rate decreases at pH above 6.5. Extremes in pH were shown to have a negative influence on the ability of microbial populations to degrade hydrocarbons. They also show the higher growth rate at the higher temperature range (up to 40°C) but their growth rate decreases at lower temperature range (below 25°C). It is suggested that the use of above bacterial consortium (at 35°C temperature and 6.5pH) will be an effective and eco-friendly technology for the remediation of hydrocarbons.

  16. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  17. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Fuels from Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental issues associated with the further development of biomass production and biomass conversion systems. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are resource requirements. The potential effects of this…

  18. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This report presents the environmental problems which may arise with the further development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, one of the eight Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the history and basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are its economic and resource requirements.…

  19. Relationship between continuous state factors and sustainability factors in the economic, social and environmental dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moreira Campos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explain the relationship of the main factors of the continuous state and sustainability of companies operating in Brazil, in its economic, social and environmental, and test the strength of this relationship. Accordingly, we performed an extensive literature review in works for national and international basis, the procedures adopted in order to answer the research question posed. Among the aspects that form the sustainable development and sustainability issues, there is the demand by developing metrics that allow accurate measurement of the degree of sustainable development and sustainability of the planet, nations and other organizations, such as companies. Were cited works that address issues related to the companies’ continuous state, studies that dealt with corporate sustainability and empirical research on key factors of sustainability of the sample companies. Also, quantified the strength of the relationship between the main factors of the continuous state and sustainability of a sample of 49 companies operating in Brazil, by employing the technique of Canonical Correlation for the period 2006 to 2010. The results confirmed the existence of a relationship between the main factors of the continuous state and sustainability of businesses as well as the intensity of this relationship.

  20. Fatores ambientais e endometriose Environmental factors and endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bellelis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A endometriose representa uma afecção ginecológica comum, atingindo de 5%-15% das mulheres no período reprodutivo e até 3%-5% na fase pós-menopausa. Essa doença é definida pelo implante de estroma e/ou epitélio glandular endometrial em localização extrauterina, podendo comprometer diversos locais. Humanos e animais são expostos diariamente a poluentes químicos que têm a capacidade de influenciar negativamente processos fisiológicos e, potencialmente, causar doenças, dentre elas a endometriose. Com esta revisão tivemos por objetivo relacionar a influência dos fatores ambientais e dietéticos na gênese da endometriose. O mecanismo pelo qual a dioxina e seus símiles (TCDD/PCBs atuam na alteração da fisiologia endometrial permanence incerta e é especulativa devido à dificuldade em se avaliar a exposição na vida intraútero, infância e vida adulta e suas reais consequências, além das limitações de sua reprodução in vitro. Devemos entender melhor o mecanismo de ação desses poluentes amibentais não só na saúde reprodutiva, mas na saúde em geral do indivíduo, para se promover estratégias de prevenção que devem incluir não só a educação populacional, mas o estabelecimento de limites de exposição, técnicas menos poluentes e melhor aproveitamento dos nossos recursos naturais.Endometriosis represents a common gynecological condition affecting 5%-15% of childbearing age women and up to 3% 5% of post-menopausal women. This disease is defined by the presence of stromal and/or endometrial glandular epithelium implants in extra-uterine locations possibly compromising several sites. Humans and animals are daily exposed to chemical pollutants that could adversely influence physiological processes and potentially cause diseases, including endometriosis. In this review, the authors aimed at settling the influence of environmental and dietary factors on endometriosis pathogenesis. The mechanism by which dioxin and its

  1. The relative influence of demographic, individual, social, and environmental factors on physical activity among boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barr-Anderson Daheia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the associations of selected demographic, individual, social, and environmental factors with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA in a sample of children and adolescents. Methods MVPA was assessed among youth (n = 294 10-17-years-old using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Youth completed measures of demographic and individual variables related to physical activity (PA, perceived social support by parents and peers, and perceived neighborhood characteristics. Parents completed the long-form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The Physical Activity and Media Inventory was used to measure the home environment and Geographical Information Systems software was used to measure the physical neighborhood environment. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression were conducted stratified by gender. Results Boys participated in significantly more MVPA than girls. In hierarchical analyses, peer support, home PA equipment, and temperature were significantly associated with MVPA among boys whereas distance to the school they attended was associated with MVPA among girls. The final models accounted for 25% and 15% of the variance in MVPA among boys and girls, respectively. Conclusions Important differences exist among the individual, social, and environmental factors related to MVPA between boys and girls. Boys' levels of activity appear to be influenced by factors closely linked to unstructured and social types of activities whereas girls' activities relate to internal and external barriers as well as their proximity to their schools. The prospective contribution of these important individual, social, and environmental factors to changes in MVPA among children and adolescents remains to be determined.

  2. A sensitivity analysis approach to identify key environmental performance factors

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xi; Sekhari, Aicha; Nongaillard, Antoine; Bouras, Abdelaziz; Yu, Suiran

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is widely used in design phase to reduce the product's environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC) during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and pro...

  3. FACTORS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY AND BIODIVERSITY: ENVIRONMENTAL AND EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Kozachek

    2015-01-01

    The aim is to consider the features of impact of nanotechnology on biodiversity in the future.Methods. We suggest an approach, according to which nanotechnologies are viewed as key technologies of the sixth technological order. It is assumed that nanotechnology may be a potential source of environmental problems of the future, and the basis for the creation of new advanced types of environmental engineering and technology. Since all of the above is important both within the actual environment...

  4. Industry efficiency and total factor productivity growth under resources and environmental constraint in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  5. Epidemiological studies of migration and environmental risk factors in the inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yanna; Butcher, Rhys; Leong, Rupert W

    2014-02-07

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are idiopathic chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract well known to be associated with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Permissive genotypes may manifest into clinical phenotypes under certain environmental influences and these may be best studied from migratory studies. Exploring differences between first and second generation migrants may further highlight the contribution of environmental factors towards the development of IBD. There are few opportunities that have been offered so far. We aim to review the available migration studies on IBD, evaluate the known environmental factors associated with IBD, and explore modern migration patterns to identify new opportunities and candidate migrant groups in IBD migration research.

  6. [Environmental pollutants as adjuvant factors of immune system derived diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Irina

    2017-06-01

    The main task of the immune system is to protect the body against invading pathogens. To be able to do so, immune cells must be able to recognize and combat exogenous challenges and at the same time tolerate body-borne structures. A complex regulatory network controls the sensitive balance between defense and tolerance. Perturbation of this network ultimately leads to the development of chronic inflammation, such as allergies, autoimmune reactions, and infections, because the immune system is no longer able to efficiently eliminate invading pathogens. Environmental pollutants can cause such perturbations by affecting the function of immune cells in such a way that they would react hypersensitively against allergens and the body's own structures, respectively, or that they would be no longer able to adequately combat pathogens. This indirect effect is also known as adjuvant effect. For pesticides, heavy metals, wood preservatives, or volatile organic compounds such adjuvant effects are well known. Examples of the mechanism by which environmental toxins contribute to chronic inflammatory diseases are manifold and will be discussed along asthma and allergies.While the immune system of healthy adults is typically well able to distinguish between foreign and endogenous substances even under adverse environmental conditions, that of children would react much more sensible upon comparable environmental challenges. To prevent priming for diseases by environmental cues during that highly sensitive period of early childhood children are to be particularly protected.

  7. Environmental Factors and Colorectal Tumor Risk in Individuals With Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Braam, H.; Vasen, H.F.; Nagengast, F.M.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims: Individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Environmental factors might play a role in HNPCC-associated carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the effects of environmental factors on

  8. Differential Effects of Environmental and Genetic Factors on T and B Cell Immune Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre-Gamboa, Raul; Joosten, Irma; Urbano, Paulo C. M.; van der Molen, Renate G.; van Rijssen, Esther; van Cranenbroek, Bram; Oosting, Marije; Smeekens, Sanne; Jaeger, Martin; Zorro, Maria; Withoff, Sebo; van Herwaarden, Antonius E.; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Netea, Romana T.; Swertz, Morris A.; Franke, Lude; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Netea, Mihai G.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Kumar, Vinod; Li, Yang; Koenen, Hans J. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Effective immunity requires a complex network of cellular and humoral components that interact with each other and are influenced by different environmental and host factors. We used a systems biology approach to comprehensively assess the impact of environmental and genetic factors on immune cell

  9. JAEA's activities relating the Fukushima Nuclear Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    JAEA started the activities relating to the Fukushima nuclear plant accident immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake. The Office of Fukushima Partnership Operations for Environmental Remediation was opened and the JAEA staff was stationed as the base of cooperation with other organizations. It is conducting environmental radiation monitoring, environmental radioactivity analyses, resident public consulting, and demonstration of decontamination technology. Experts of JAEA are providing technical advice and supports to the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan and the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. Furthermore, the water radiolysis leading to hydrogen gas evolution by Cs 137 adsorbed zeolite and the technique for radioactive waste process and its disposal of fuel debris are being studied. JAEA's Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT) is acting as a center of these supporting activities of JAEA. (S. Ohno)

  10. The Contribution of Environmental Factors to the Professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interest in factors contributing to women's ability to progress to management and leadership positions is gaining impetus. This article expands the body of knowledge on the major contributing factors external to the work environment, as well as factors internal to the organisation that impact on women's achievement of ...

  11. The association between adolescent condom use and individual and environmental resilience protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Homer, Sally; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jennifer A; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Colyvas, Kim; Campbell, Elizabeth; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John H

    2018-03-12

    Individual and environmental resilience protective factors are suggested to be associated with adolescent condom use; however, previous studies have not comprehensively examined such associations. This study aimed to determine the associations between condom use, and numerous individual and environmental resilience protective factors in sexually active Australian adolescents. Participants were Grade 10 students attending 28 Australian government high schools (n=1,688). An online survey (2011) collected data regarding: sexual intercourse (past year), condom use and 14 individual and environmental resilience protective factors. Multivariable backward stepwise logistic regression models examined associations between student condom use and protective factors (total, subscale). Only total environmental protective factors remained in the final total score model; students with higher total environmental protective factors scores were 2.59 times more likely to always use a condom(95%CI:1.80-3.74). Only three of 14 protective factor subscales were associated with a higher likelihood of always using a condom in the final subscale model (individual: goals/aspirations; environmental: community participation, pro-social peers). Total environmental and three protective factor subscales demonstrated prominent associations with consistent use of condoms in sexually active adolescents. Implications for public health: Consideration of particular resilience protective factors in adolescent sexual risk behaviour prevention, such as condom use, is warranted. © 2018 The University of Newcastle.

  12. In search of a temporal niche: Environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, Roelof A.; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; van der Vinne, Vincent; De la Iglesia, Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Time as an ecological niche variable or "temporal niche" can be defined in the context of the most prominent environmental cycles, including the tidal cycle, the lunar day and month, the solar day, and the earth year. For the current review, we focus on the 24-h domain generated through the earth's

  13. Environmental Information—Explanatory Factors for Information Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Andersson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As sustainable waste management has become an important environmental concern, growing emphasis is being given to policy tools aimed at increasing recycling behavior by households. Information is a common policy tool, but may not always reach the individuals whose behavior is being targeted, i.e., those reluctant to recycle. This study examined individual differences in attention to recycling information and demand for such information. A nationwide survey in Sweden showed that having personal norms for recycling is important when it comes to obeying and seeking environmentally relevant information. In contrast to earlier research, this study found that lack of information alone is not a significant antecedent to the intention to seek information. Personal norms were found to moderate the effect of perceived lack of information on the intention to seek information.

  14. Environmental Factors: Acclimatization: Transporting Athletes into Unique Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-14

    envirornental stresses . Therefore, the purpose of this article is to summarize the physiological changes which athletes can (or cannot) make, when exposed to...many sports in which athletes compete in a variety of environments during the course of a season. In the National Football League, for example, the...also expose their bodies to environmental stresses for which they may be unprepared. Even indoor sports are not exempt from this problem. In recent

  15. Environmental and Physiological Factors Affect Football Head Impact Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalik, Jason P; Sumrall, Adam Z; Yeargin, Susan W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; King, Kevin B; Trulock, Scott C; Shields, Edgar W

    2017-10-01

    Recent anecdotal trends suggest a disproportionate number of head injuries in collegiate football players occur during preseason football camp. In warmer climates, this season also represents the highest risk for heat-related illness among collegiate football players. Because concussion and heat illnesses share many common symptoms, we need 1) to understand if environmental conditions, body temperature, and hydration status affect head impact biomechanics; and 2) to determine if an in-helmet thermistor could provide a valid measure of gastrointestinal temperature. A prospective cohort of 18 Division I college football players (age, 21.1 ± 1.4 yr; height, 187.7 ± 6.6 cm; mass, 114.5 ± 23.4 kg). Data were collected during one control and three experimental sessions. During each session, the Head Impact Telemetry System recorded head impact biomechanics (linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and severity profile) and in-helmet temperature. A wet bulb globe device recorded environmental conditions, and CorTemp™ Ingestible Core Body Temperature Sensors recorded gastrointestinal temperature. Our findings suggest that linear acceleration (P = 0.57), rotational acceleration (P = 0.16), and Head Impact Technology severity profile (P = 0.33) are not influenced by environmental or physiological conditions. We did not find any single or combination of predictors for impact severity. Rotational acceleration was approaching significance between our early experimental sessions when compared with our control session. More research should be conducted to better understand if rotational accelerations are a component of impact magnitudes that are affected due to changes in environmental conditions, body temperature, and hydration status.

  16. Common Genetic and Nonshared Environmental Factors Contribute to the Association between Socioemotional Dispositions and the Externalizing Factor in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Allan, Nicholas; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Hart, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavioral disorders including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Prior twin research shows that common sets of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these various disorders and they form a latent factor called…

  17. Effect of environmental factors on distribution of stream macroalgae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-01

    mail: shiyingfungi@126.com. Tel: 13835158801. Fax: 86 351 2275703. response to factors such as physical and chemical composition of the water (Hynes 1970; Whitton, 1975). Recently, more algal scholars pay attention to ...

  18. Factors Influencing Environmental Management Practices Among Hotels in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaiton Samdin; Kasimu Abdu Bakori; Hamimah Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the factors that influence hotel managers- attitudes towards sustainable tourism practices (STP) in Kuala Lumpur and the state of Selangor in Malaysia. The study distributes 104 questionnaires to hotels ranging from one star to five-star categories including budget hotels. Out of this figure, 60 copies of the questionnaires were returned and analyzed. The finding revealed that of all the seven factors investigated, only the variables measuring incentives and...

  19. Environmental factors in a population-based inception cohort of inflammatory bowel disease patients in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, J; Pedersen, Natalia; Cukovic-Cavka, S

    2014-01-01

    -item questionnaire concerning environmental factors. RESULTS: A total of 1182 patients (76%) answered the questionnaire, 444 (38%) had Crohn's disease (CD), 627 (53%) ulcerative colitis (UC), and 111 (9%) IBD unclassified. No geographic differences regarding smoking status, caffeine intake, use of oral......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in Eastern Europe possibly due to changes in environmental factors towards a more "westernised" standard of living. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in exposure to environmental factors prior...... and Western European patients differed in environmental factors prior to diagnosis. Eastern European patients exhibited higher occurrences of suspected risk factors for IBD included in the Western lifestyle....

  20. Global environmental ratings as an instrument of environmental policies: what factors determine the rank of Russia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Nina; Arshinova, Marina; Milanova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Systems of global environmental rankings have emerged as a result of the escalating need for revealing the trends of ecological development for the world and for certain countries and regions. Both the environmental indicators and indexes and the ratings made on their basis are important for the assessment and forecast of the ecological situation in order to tackle the global and regional problems of sustainable development and help to translate the research findings into policy developments. Data sources for the global environmental ratings are most often the statistical information accumulated in databases of the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, FAO, WHO, etc.) These data are highly reliable and well-comparable that makes the ratings very objective. There are also good examples of using data of sociological polls, information from social networks, etc. The global environmental ratings are produced by the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, the UN Environment Program), non-governmental associations (WWF, Climate Action Network Europe (CAN-E), Germanwatch Nord-Süd-Initiative, Friends of the Earth, World Development Movement), research structures (scientific centers of the Yale and Colombian universities, the Oak-Ridge National Laboratory, the New Economic Foundation), and also individual experts, news agencies, etc. Thematic (sectoral) ratings cover various spheres from availability of resources and anthropogenic impact on environment components to nature protection policies and perception of environmental problems. The environmental indicators cover all parameters important for understanding the current ecological situation and the trajectories of its development (the DPSIR model, i.e. drivers, pressures, state, impact and response). Complex (integral) ratings are based on environmental indexes which are combined measurement tools using a complex of aggregated indicators based on a wide range of

  1. Environmental factors influence lesser scaup migration chronology and population monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Taylor A.; Afton, Alan D.; Schummer, Michael L.; Petrie, Scott A.; Badzinski, Shannon S.; Johnson, Michael A.; Szymanski, Michael L.; Jacobs, Kevin J.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Mitchell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Identifying environmental metrics specific to lesser scaup (Aythya affinis; scaup) spring migration chronology may help inform development of conservation, management and population monitoring. Our objective was to determine how environmental conditions influence spring migration of lesser scaup to assess the effectiveness of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey in accurately estimating scaup populations. We first compared peak timing of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and scaup migration from weekly ground surveys in North Dakota, USA because the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey is designed to capture annual mallard migration. As predicted, we detected that peak timing of scaup and mallard migrations differed in 25 of 36 years investigated (1980–2010). We marked scaup with satellite transmitters (n = 78; 7,403 locations) at Long Point, Lake Erie, Ontario, Canada; Pool 19 of the Mississippi River, Iowa and Illinois, USA; and Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania, USA. We tested the assumption that our marked scaup were representative of the continental population using the traditional survey area by comparing timing of migration of marked birds and scaup counted in the North Dakota Game and Fish Department survey. We detected a strong positive correlation between marked scaup and the survey data, which indicated that marked scaup were representative of the population. We subsequently used our validated sample of marked scaup to investigate the effects of annual variation in temperature, precipitation, and ice cover on spring migration chronology in the traditional and eastern survey areas of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey, 2005–2010. We evaluated competing environmental models to explain variation in timing and rate of scaup migration at large-scale and local levels. Spring migration of scaup occurred earlier and faster during springs with warmer temperatures and greater precipitation, variables known

  2. Environmental factors and puberty timing: expert panel research needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louis, G.M. Buck; Jr, L.E. Gray; Marcus, M.

    2008-01-01

    initiatives include (1) etiologic research that focus on environmentally relevant levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to normal puberty as well as its variants, (2) exposure assessment of relevant endocrine-disrupting chemicals during critical windows of human development......, body size, and puberty. The panel concluded that available experimental animal and human data support a possible role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to alterations in pubertal onset and progression in boys and girls. Critical data gaps prioritized for future research...

  3. Associations between multiple indoor environmental factors and clinically confirmed allergic disease in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies, mainly questionnaires have reported associations between some indoor environmental factors and allergic diseases. Our aim was to investigate the possible association between objectively assessed indoor environmental factors and clinically confirmed asthma......, rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis. Method: A crosssectional case-cohort study (n = 500) based on 2835 children, aged 3–5 years, responding to a questionnaire, consisted of 300 subjects randomly selected and 200 cases with at least two parentally reported doctor diagnosed allergic diseases (asthma, allergic.......05) in sensitized children with asthma. Concentrations of nicotine and house dust mite allergens were higher (P environmental factors...

  4. Environmental risk factors in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonnel, F; Jantchou, P; Monnet, E; Cosnes, J

    2009-06-01

    Rapid increase in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) incidence in developed countries, occurrence of CD in spouses and lack of complete concordance in monozygotic twins are strong arguments for the role of environmental factors in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Only two environmental factors have an established role in IBD. Smoking is a risk factor for CD and a protective factor for UC; appendectomy is a protective factor for UC. Many other environmental factors for IBD have been investigated. These are infectious agents, diet, drugs, stress and socio-economic factors. They are detailed in this paper. Among them, adherent invasive E. coli, infectious gastroenteritis, oral contraceptives and antibiotics could play a role in CD. To date, three theories integrate environmental factors to pathogenesis of IBD: hygiene, infection and cold chain. Much work remains to be done to identify risk factors for IBD. As exemplified by smoking, research of environmental risk factors of IBD is useful since it may lead to an improved disease course among patients and perhaps, to appropriate prevention among predisposed subjects. Further studies in this field are eagerly awaited. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of source and environmental factors on Rn-222 air concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamoon, A.

    2005-01-01

    Rn-222(radon) air concentration depends on several factors. Some of the factors are source related and other factors are environmentally related. Because high levels of radon concentrations in air have potential health effects, it is important to study the impact of the various factors affecting radon air concentration. Laboratory scale investigations of the various factors affecting radon air concentration were carried out under controlled conditions that allow variation of the various variables

  6. Is Hypovitaminosis D One of the Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The role of hypovitaminosis D as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis is reviewed. First, it is emphasized that hypovitaminosis D could be only one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis and that numerous other environmental and genetic risk factors appear to interact and combine to trigger the disease. Secondly, the classical…

  7. The interplay between environmental factors and DNA methylation in psychotic disorders : Environmental orchestration of the epigenome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtepen, LC

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Environmental exposures during early- life increase the risk of developing a psychotic disorder, but it remains unclear how early life events can have such persistent later life consequences. DNA methylation is the addition of a methyl group to a DNA base and is part of a group of

  8. The Structure of Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for DSM-IV Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian; Torgersen, Svenn; Neale, Michael C.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2009-01-01

    Context Although both genetic and environmental factors affect risk of individual personality disorders (PDs), we know little of how they contribute to the pattern of comorbidity between the PDs in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM-IV). Objective To clarify the structure of the genetic and environmental risk factors for the 10 DSM-IV PDs. Design Assessment of PDs at personal interview and multivariate twin modeling with the Mx program. Setting General community. Participants A total of 2794 young adult members of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel. Main Outcome Measure Number of endorsed criteria for the 10 DSM-IV PDs. Results The best-fit multivariate twin model required 3 genetic and 3 individual-specific environmental factors and genetic and individual-specific factors unique to each PD. The first genetic factor had high loadings on PDs from all 3 clusters including paranoid, histrionic, borderline, narcissistic, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive. The second genetic factor had substantial loadings only on borderline and antisocial PD. The third genetic factor had high loadings only on schizoid and avoidant PD. Several PDs had substantial disorder-specific genetic risk factors. The first, second, and third individual-specific environmental factors had high loadings on the cluster B, A, and C PDs, respectively, with 1 exception: obsessive-compulsive PD loaded with cluster B and not cluster C PDs. Conclusions Genetic risk factors for DSM-IV PDs do not reflect the cluster A, B, and C typology. Rather, 1 genetic factor reflects a broad vulnerability to PD pathology and/or negative emotionality. The 2 other genetic factors are more specific and reflect high impulsivity/low agreeableness and introversion. Unexpectedly, the cluster A, B, and C typology is well reflected in the structure of environmental risk factors, suggesting that environmental experiences may be responsible for the tendency of cluster A

  9. Is Environmental Dematerialization An Active Factor Of The Sustainable Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Razvan BĂLĂȘESCU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As it is known, sustainable development reveals economic, social and ecologic aspects circumscribed to the sustainability of the stock of natural capital and to the energy matter entropic flows which affects the relation environment-economy-society in terms of externalities and of the socio-industrial metabolism. Thus, taking into account the principles of the technical-economic rationality and integrative socio-ecologic complexity, dematerialization is a concept, an instrument and a vector carrying socio-economic values based on the natural and social sciences. In this framework environmental dematerialization reveals the issue of socio- economic energetic centres - a result of relationship between nature and human rational sensible free will determinism.

  10. Environmental factors and puberty timing: expert panel research needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louis, G.M. Buck; Jr, L.E. Gray; Marcus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Serono Symposia International convened an expert panel to review the impact of environmental influences on the regulation of pubertal onset and progression while identifying critical data gaps and future research priorities. An expert panel reviewed the literature on endocrine-disrupting chemicals......, body size, and puberty. The panel concluded that available experimental animal and human data support a possible role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to alterations in pubertal onset and progression in boys and girls. Critical data gaps prioritized for future research...... the continuum of exposures at critical windows while assessing a spectrum of pubertal markers as outcomes. Coupled with comparative species studies, such research may provide insight regarding the causal ordering of events that underlie pubertal onset and progression and their role in the pathway of adult...

  11. The effects of community environmental factors on obesity among Korean adults: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-He Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study explored multidimensional factors related to obesity by dividing them into individual and environmental factors, and performed multilevel analysis to investigate community environmental effects. METHODS: Data from the 2011 and 2012 Community Health Surveys were used for the analysis. Community-level variables, constructed from various regional statistics, were included in the model as environmental factors. Respondents with body mass index (BMI≥25 were defined as obese, and a multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze individual and environmental factors related to obesity. Moreover, a stratified analysis was conducted to compare factors related to obesity between men and women. RESULTS: Of 337,136 samples, 82,887 (24.6% were obese, with BMI≥25. Sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level were mostly significantly related to obesity; however, while there were more obese men subjects among those with high socioeconomic status, there were more obese women among those with low socioeconomic status. There were fewer obese respondents among those who regularly walked and more obese respondents among those who reported short sleep duration or were highly stressed. At the community level, people living in areas with high socioeconomic status, high satisfaction with safety and public transportation, and high accessibility to sports facilities in their community had lower obesity risks. CONCLUSIONS: Community-level environmental factors affected obesity, especially perceived community environment, more significant than physical environment. Thus, it is necessary to develop effective obesity prevention and management strategies by considering potential community environmental factors that affect obesity.

  12. META-ANALYSIS OF THE LIFE STYLE FACTORS RELEVANT TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS FOR THE AGING POPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study is to characterize activity patterns, physiological changes, and environmental exposures for the aging population. Meta analysis was performed on more than 2000 reviewed articles to evaluate the lifestyle factors ...

  13. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  14. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M.M.; Van Eetvelde, M.; Bogaert, H.; Hostens, M.; Vandaele, L.; Shamsuddin, M.; Opsomer, G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves

  15. Genetic and environmental influences on cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chunsheng; Tian, Xiaocao; Sun, Jianping

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To explore the genetic and environmental influences on cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and cognitive function in the world's largest and rapidly aging Chinese population. METHODS: Cognitive function and CVRF, including body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure...

  16. The Contribution of Home, Neighbourhood and School Environmental Factors in Explaining Physical Activity among Adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haerens, L.; Deforche, B.; Cardon, G.; Bourdeaudhuij, I.D.; Craeynest, M.; Maes, L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents' engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting.

  17. Importance of environmental factors on the richness and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in tropical headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is essential to understand the interactions between local environmental factors (e.g., physical habitat and water quality) and aquatic assemblages to conserve biodiversity in tropical and subtropical headwater streams. Therefore, we evaluated the relative importance of multipl...

  18. The Contribution of Home, Neighbourhood and School Environmental Factors in Explaining Physical Activity among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Haerens

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents' engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting.

  19. A Review of Environmental Factors Determining to Proactivity: The Case of the Footwear Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Lazaro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews literature in order to identify the determinant factors of companies’ environmental proactivity. According to Gonzalez-Benito and Gonzalez-Benito (2006, environmental proactivity demands three practices: planning and organization, operation, and communication. Environmental strategies go on to comment upon several variables that depict internal company features, external factors, and stakeholders pressures. This work discusses these issues using data collected in 2007 from shoe companies selected for in-depth personal interviews and site visits in two different Brazilian states. The empirical results demonstrate that proactive approaches seem clear in companies influenced by stakeholders’ pressure. This is the central determinant factor and it is argued that all the other variables affect either the intensity of this pressure or the company’s capacity to perceive it. All the factors identified herein should be taken into account, at least as control variables, in those studies aiming at explaining and contextualizing environmental strategies.

  20. Causal inference between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors in a large-scale region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiong; Du, Qingyun; Wang, Qi; Yu, Huanyun; Liu, Jianfeng; Tian, Yu; Chang, Chunying; Lei, Jing

    2017-07-01

    The causation between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors are generally obtained from field experiments at local scales at present, and lack sufficient evidence from large scales. However, inferring causation between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors across large-scale regions is challenging. Because the conventional correlation-based approaches used for causation assessments across large-scale regions, at the expense of actual causation, can result in spurious insights. In this study, a general approach framework, Intervention calculus when the directed acyclic graph (DAG) is absent (IDA) combined with the backdoor criterion (BC), was introduced to identify causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and the potential environmental factors across large-scale regions. We take the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China as a case study. The causal structures and effects were identified based on the concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, As, Cu, Hg, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in soil (0-20 cm depth) and vegetable (lettuce) and 40 environmental factors (soil properties, extractable heavy metals and weathering indices) in 94 samples across the PRD. Results show that the bioavailability of heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni and As) was causally influenced by soil properties and soil weathering factors, whereas no causal factor impacted the bioavailability of Cu, Hg and Pb. No latent factor was found between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors. The causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors at field experiments is consistent with that on a large scale. The IDA combined with the BC provides a powerful tool to identify causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors across large-scale regions. Causal inference in a large system with the dynamic changes has great implications for system-based risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  1. Abiotic environmental factors influencing blowfly colonisation patterns in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes

    2013-06-10

    The accuracy of minimum post-mortem interval (mPMI) estimates usually hinges upon the ability of forensic entomologists to predict the conditions under which calliphorids will colonise bodies. However, there can be delays between death and colonisation due to poorly understood abiotic and biotic factors, hence the need for a mPMI. To quantify the importance of various meteorological and light-level factors, beef liver baits were placed in the field (Victoria, Australia) on 88 randomly selected days over 3 years in all seasons and observed every 60-90 min for evidence of colonisation. Baits were exposed during daylight, and the following parameters were measured: barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed, ambient temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. Collected data were analysed using backward LR logistic regression to produce an equation of colonisation probability. This type of analysis removes factors with the least influence on colonisation in successive steps until all remaining variables significantly increase the accuracy of predicting colonisation presence or absence. Ambient temperature was a positive predictor variable (an increase in temperature increased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Relative humidity was a negative predictor variable (an increase in humidity decreased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed and rainfall did not enhance the accuracy of the probability model; however, analysis of species activity patterns suggests that heavy rainfall and strong wind speeds inhibit calliphorid colonisation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rule-based models of the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in childhood allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bornelöv

    Full Text Available Both genetic and environmental factors are important for the development of allergic diseases. However, a detailed understanding of how such factors act together is lacking. To elucidate the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in allergic diseases, we used a novel bioinformatics approach that combines feature selection and machine learning. In two materials, PARSIFAL (a European cross-sectional study of 3113 children and BAMSE (a Swedish birth-cohort including 2033 children, genetic variants as well as environmental and lifestyle factors were evaluated for their contribution to allergic phenotypes. Monte Carlo feature selection and rule based models were used to identify and rank rules describing how combinations of genetic and environmental factors affect the risk of allergic diseases. Novel interactions between genes were suggested and replicated, such as between ORMDL3 and RORA, where certain genotype combinations gave odds ratios for current asthma of 2.1 (95% CI 1.2-3.6 and 3.2 (95% CI 2.0-5.0 in the BAMSE and PARSIFAL children, respectively. Several combinations of environmental factors appeared to be important for the development of allergic disease in children. For example, use of baby formula and antibiotics early in life was associated with an odds ratio of 7.4 (95% CI 4.5-12.0 of developing asthma. Furthermore, genetic variants together with environmental factors seemed to play a role for allergic diseases, such as the use of antibiotics early in life and COL29A1 variants for asthma, and farm living and NPSR1 variants for allergic eczema. Overall, combinations of environmental and life style factors appeared more frequently in the models than combinations solely involving genes. In conclusion, a new bioinformatics approach is described for analyzing complex data, including extensive genetic and environmental information. Interactions identified with this approach could provide useful hints for further in-depth studies

  3. The structural variation of phytoplankton in the Gulf of Riga under the influence of environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgensone, Iveta

    2011-01-01

    „The structural variation of phytoplankton in the Gulf of Riga under the influence of environmental factors.” Trends of phytoplankton (1976-2008) from the Gulf of Riga and the related environmental factors are investigated. Phytoplankton response to riverine DOM and nutrient increase was tested and the effect on the pelagic food web assessed. Changes in the winter-spring DIN/DIP ratio cause shift from diatoms to cyanobacteria. Dinoflagellate biomass remains constant after temperature excee...

  4. Environmental factors and risk of developing paediatric inflammatory bowel disease - A population based study 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Christian; Paerregaard, Anders; Munkholm, Pia

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To identify environmental risk factors for developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To identify environmental risk factors for developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children...

  5. Standard protocol for evaluation of environmental transfer factors around NPP sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, A.G.; Verma, P.C.; Rao, D.D.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the standard procedures for evaluation of site specific environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The scope of this document is to provide standard protocol to be followed for evaluation of environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The studies on transfer factors are being carried out at various NPP sites under DAE-BRNS projects for evaluation of site specific transfer factors for radionuclides released from power plants. This document contains a common methodology in terms of sampling, processing, measurements and analysis of elemental/radionuclides, while keeping the site specific requirements also in place. (author)

  6. Prevalence of sarcoidosis in Switzerland is associated with environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deubelbeiss, U; Gemperli, A; Schindler, C; Baty, F; Brutsche, M H

    2010-05-01

    The current study aimed to investigate incidence, prevalence and regional distribution of sarcoidosis in Switzerland with respect to environmental exposures. All sarcoidosis patients hospitalised between 2002 and 2005 were identified from the Swiss hospital statistics from the Swiss Federal Office for Statistics (Neuchâtel, Switzerland). Regional exposure characteristics included the regional distribution of different industrial sectors, agriculture and air quality. Co-inertia analysis, as well as a generalised linear model, was applied. The prevalence of "ever-in-life" diagnosed sarcoidosis, currently active sarcoidosis and sarcoidosis requiring hospitalisation was 121 (95% CI 93-149), 44 (95% CI 34-54) and 16 (95% CI 10-22) per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The mean annual incidence of sarcoidosis was 7 (95% CI 5-11) per 100,000 inhabitants. The regional workforce in the metal industry, water supply, air transport factories and the area of potato production, artificial meadows (grassland) and bread grains were positively associated with the frequency of sarcoidosis. The prevalence of sarcoidosis was higher than assumed based on former international estimates. Higher frequency was found in regions with metal industry and intense agriculture, especially production of potatoes, bread grains and artificial meadows.

  7. Particle size - An important factor in environmental consequence modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.C.; MacFarlane, D.

    1991-01-01

    Most available environmental transport and dosimetry codes for radiological consequence analysis are designed primarily for estimating dose and health consequences to specific off-site individuals as well as the population as a whole from nuclear facilities operating under either normal or accident conditions. Models developed for these types of analyses are generally based on assumptions that the receptors are at great distances (several kilometers), and the releases are prolonged and filtered. This allows the use of simplified approaches such as averaged meteorological conditions and the use of a single (small) particle size for atmospheric transport and dosimetry analysis. Source depletion from particle settling, settle-out, and deposition is often ignored. This paper estimates the effects of large particles on the resulting dose consequences from an atmospheric release. The computer program AI-RISK has been developed to perform multiparticle-sized atmospheric transport, dose, and pathway analyses for estimating potential human health consequences from the accidental release of radioactive materials. The program was originally developed to facilitate comprehensive analyses of health consequences, ground contamination, and cleanup associated with possible energetic chemical reactions in high-level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks at a US Department of Energy site

  8. Associations of Environmental Factors With Quality of Life in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbens, Robbert J J; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2018-01-18

    Environmental factors play an important role in the quality of life of older people who often have difficulty maintaining physical, psychological, and social functioning. In this study, we aimed at (a) developing a measurement instrument assessing the factors of older adults' perceptions of their environment, (b) examining the associations of these environmental factors with quality of life domains physical health, psychological, social relations, and environmental, controlling for background characteristics. Associations between environmental factors and quality of life domains were examined in a cross-sectional study using a sample of 1,031 Dutch people aged 65 years and older. Participants completed a Web-based questionnaire, the "Senioren Barometer." Forty-two questions on environmental factors were asked, and quality of life domains were assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF. Seven scales (comprising 3-9 items) of environment were constructed-housing, facilities, nuisance, residents, neighborhood, stench/noise, and traffic. All quality of life domains (physical, psychological, social, environmental) were associated with at least one environmental scale. Housing, residents, and nuisance were associated with 4, 3, and 2 domains, respectively. Facilities, neighborhood, stench/noise, and traffic were associated only with quality of life environmental. This study showed that multiple environmental factors are associated with quality of life in older people. To support independent living in older people health and social care professionals and policymakers may need to carry out interventions, in particular focusing on housing, residents, and nuisance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Environmental Factors Affecting the Strength Characteristics of Modified Resin Mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debska, Bernardeta; Licholai, Lech

    2017-12-01

    Resin concretes are composites in which a cement binder has been completely replaced by a synthetic resin. These materials are a good choice for the construction industry, especially in solutions requiring high strength, fast curing and durability. Polymer mortars are mainly used for the manufacture of industrial floors and prefabricated products such as tanks for aggressive chemicals, sewage pipes, or road and bridge drainage systems, as well as for the repair of damaged concrete structures. In all these applications, the strength and high chemical resistance of the applied material solutions are of key importance. It is particularly crucial to obtain information on how resin composites behave when exposed to aggressive agents over extended periods of time. It is also very important to use waste materials in order to obtain resin composites, as these activities are very well inscribed in the idea of environmental protection and meet the criteria of sustainable construction. The mortars described in this article meet the above principles. The article presents how the compressive strength of glycolyzate-modified epoxy mortars, obtained with the use of poly(ethylene terephthalate), changes after they are immersed in 10% sodium chloride solution. Sodium chloride solution was chosen due to the prospective applicability of the tested composites as repair materials used for e.g. bridges or overpasses that are exposed to this salt solution in wintertime. Changes in the properties of the composite samples were monitored over the period of one year. Statistical analysis of the test results was carried out with the use of Statistica programme. The module available in the mentioned program called Nonparametric Statistics - Comparing multiple independent samples made it possible to check the monitoring times during which the compressive strength values differed significantly. The obtained results allowed for determining the equation of the function approximating the course of

  10. Rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors: the state-of-the-art - part two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karolina; Niklas, Arkadiusz A; Majewski, Dominik; Puszczewicz, Mariusz J

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rheumatic diseases belong to the group of autoimmune diseases and are associated with autoantibody production. Their etiology is not fully understood. Certain medications and environmental factors may have an influence on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases. Establishing a cause-effect relationship between a certain factor and disease induction is not always simple. It is important to administer the drug continuously or monitor exposure to a given factor in the period preceding the onset of symptoms. The lack of early diagnosed autoimmune disease, or finally the lack of symptoms within a few weeks/months after discontinuation of the drug/cessation of exposure, is also important. The most frequently mentioned rheumatic diseases caused by drugs and environmental factors include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), scleroderma, systemic vasculitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. The objective of this study is to summarize current knowledge on rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors.

  11. Rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors: the state-of-the-art - part one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karolina; Niklas, Arkadiusz A; Majewski, Dominik; Puszczewicz, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rheumatic diseases belong to the group of autoimmune diseases and are associated with autoantibody production. Their etiology is not fully understood. Certain medications and environmental factors may have an influence on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases. Establishing a cause-effect relationship between a certain factor and disease induction is not always simple. It is important to administer the drug continuously or monitor exposure to a given factor in the period preceding the onset of symptoms. The lack of previously diagnosed autoimmune disease, or finally the lack of symptoms within a few weeks/months after discontinuation of the drug/cessation of exposure, is also important. The most frequently mentioned rheumatic diseases caused by drugs and environmental factors include systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, systemic vasculitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. The objective of this study is to summarize current knowledge on rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors.

  12. Meta-Analysis of Comparing Personal and Environmental Factors Effective in Addiction Relapse (Iran, 2004 -2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s Safari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This As a meta-analysis, this study aimed to integrate different studies and investigate the impact of individual and environmental factors on the reappearance of addiction in quitted people. Method: This study is a meta-analysis which uses Hunter and Schmidt approach. For this purpose, 28 out of 42 studies enjoying acceptable methodologies were selected, upon which the meta-analysis was conducted. A meta-analysis checklist was the research instrument. Using summary of the study results, the researcher manually calculated effect size and interpreted it based on the meta-analysis approach and Cohen’s table. Findings: Results revealed that the effect size of environmental factors on addiction relapse was 0.64 while it was obtained 0.41 for individual factors on addiction relapse. Conclusion: According to Cohen’s table, the effect sizes are evaluated as moderate and high for individual factors and environmental factors on addiction relapse, respectively.

  13. Epidemiology of Skin Cancer: Role of Some Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Monfrecola

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer entities is dramatically increasing worldwide. Exposure to UVB radiation is known to induce basal and squamous cell skin cancer in a dose-dependent way and the depletion of stratospheric ozone has implications for increases in biologically damaging solar UVB radiation reaching the earth’s surface. In humans, arsenic is known to cause cancer of the skin, as well as cancer of the lung, bladder, liver, and kidney. Exposure to high levels of arsenic in drinking water has been recognized in some regions of the world. SCC and BCC (squamous and basal cell carcinoma have been reported to be associated with ingestion of arsenic alone or in combination with other risk factors. The impact of changes in ambient temperature will influence people’s behavior and the time they spend outdoors. Higher temperatures accompanying climate change may lead, among many other effects, to increasing incidence of skin cancer.

  14. Epidemiology of Skin Cancer: Role of Some Environmental Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella, E-mail: gafabbro@unina.it [Department of Systematic Pathology, Division of Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Triassi, Maria [Department of Preventive Medical Sciences, Division of Hygiene, University of Naples Federico II Naples (Italy); Mauriello, Maria Chiara [Department of Systematic Pathology, Division of Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Torre, Guglielma [Department of Preventive Medical Sciences, Division of Hygiene, University of Naples Federico II Naples (Italy); Annunziata, Maria Carmela; Vita, Valerio De; Pastore, Francesco; D’Arco, Vincenza; Monfrecola, Giuseppe [Department of Systematic Pathology, Division of Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2010-11-24

    The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer entities is dramatically increasing worldwide. Exposure to UVB radiation is known to induce basal and squamous cell skin cancer in a dose-dependent way and the depletion of stratospheric ozone has implications for increases in biologically damaging solar UVB radiation reaching the earth’s surface. In humans, arsenic is known to cause cancer of the skin, as well as cancer of the lung, bladder, liver, and kidney. Exposure to high levels of arsenic in drinking water has been recognized in some regions of the world. SCC and BCC (squamous and basal cell carcinoma) have been reported to be associated with ingestion of arsenic alone or in combination with other risk factors. The impact of changes in ambient temperature will influence people’s behavior and the time they spend outdoors. Higher temperatures accompanying climate change may lead, among many other effects, to increasing incidence of skin cancer.

  15. Biological and environmental risk factors of children exposed or not to environmental tobacco pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Stenzel de Pina Ferreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the biological and environmental risk facotrs of children exposed or not to environmental tobacco pollution (ETP. A cross-sectional study with 670 children of both sexes, aged between eight and 12 years, from schools located in Anápolis (GO. We used an adapted questionnaire directed to parents/guardians. The parents of children of the non-exposed to ETP group (NETP were more educated. The group of children exposed to ETP (EETP had a higher history of respiratory disease. The EETP resides with a smoker, commonly fathers, who smoke up to 20 cigarretes a day. The EETP lived in houses with fewer windows, less air circulation and more registries of mold. The EETP presents more respiratory diseases and unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. Therefore, there is a need for more care for the exposure and the environment where they live. Health professionals and educators should promote protection, education and stimulate the abandonment of parent smoking.

  16. Identifying environmental risk factors of cholera in a coastal area with geospatial technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Cao, Chunxiang; Wang, Duochun; Kan, Biao

    2014-12-29

    Satellites contribute significantly to environmental quality and public health. Environmental factors are important indicators for the prediction of disease outbreaks. This study reveals the environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, a coastal province of China, using both Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic information System (GIS). The analysis validated the correlation between the indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local cholera magnitude based on a ten-year monthly data from the year 1999 to 2008. Cholera magnitude has been strongly affected by the concurrent variables of SST and SSH, while OCC has a one-month time lag effect. A cholera prediction model has been established based on the sea environmental factors. The results of hot spot analysis showed the local cholera magnitude in counties significantly associated with the estuaries and rivers.

  17. Genetic injury from radiation and other environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschler, D.

    1991-01-01

    Cancer may be induced by chemicals, ionizing radiation and certain viruses. The first causal relationships between occupation and increase in cancer lave been reported two and a half centuries ago. In the meantime, many other occupational toxicants have been identified as cancer inducing agents. However, quantitative risk estimates can be established in a few cases only. On the other hand, modern epidemiological investigations have brought about the main causes of cancer in highly civilized populations as certain life-styles: approximately 35% are attributed to inadequate diet and nutrition, 30% to tobacco, 7% are hormone-related in context with human reproduction, 4% due to occupational exposures, 3% may be caused by alcohol consumption, 1,5% by UV radiation and 1% by medicines (cytostatics included). Cancer risks from radiation exposure are comparatively very low. Although radiation can be measured precisely and reliably as physical units, cancers induced by nuclear weapon fallout and precipitation from the accident of Chernobyl will never be detected by epidemiological methods due to their minimal proportions. The attribution of causes obtained in this way allows for the conclusion: human cancers are mostly due to chemically definable factors, and thus are avoidable. (orig.) [de

  18. Factors in the Development of a Global Substantive Environmental Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen James Turner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the fact that there is currently no international treaty that provides a globally accepted substantive human right for the protection of the environment (Anton and Shelton, 2011; Turner, 2009 there is a case for considering how such a right could or should be developed. This paper considers certain aspects of the potential development of such a right by focussing on key non-state actors that make decisions, which can affect the environment. Consideration is given to three different types of non-state actors: companies (corporations, the World Trade Organisation (WTO and multilateral development banks (MDBs. It specifically examines their ‘constitutional’ purposes and the overall legal constraints that their decision-makers are bound to comply with, and where applicable, the legal obligations that they impose upon their members.Therefore, this approach to the issue focuses on the legal foundations that determine how such actors make decisions and how that can affect the environment. This paper provides a broad perspective to illustrate the commonalities between the actors that are discussed in relation to their decision-making processes. Ultimately it provides an argument in support of the formal development of an international treaty that would create a global substantive environmental right. However it posits that such a treaty should inter alia be designed and framed in a manner, that would develop reformed legal obligations for the types of non-state actors discussed. Debido al hecho de que actualmente no existe ningún tratado internacional que proporcione un derecho humano globalmente aceptado para la protección del medio ambiente (Anton y Shelton 2011, Turner 2009 hay un argumento para considerar cómo podría o debería desarrollarse tal derecho. Este documento considera algunos aspectos del desarrollo potencial de tal derecho, centrándose en los principales actores no estatales que toman decisiones que pueden afectar el

  19. Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice W

    2013-01-01

    There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied....

  20. Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

    2008-01-01

    Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

  1. The Sustainable Office. An exploration of the potential for factor 20 environmental improvement of office accommodation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable development is the goal of a balance between economy and the environment, whilst establishing a better spread prosperity across the world. In order to make this possible, the environmental load of our commodities needs to be reduced by a factor of 20. This factor 20 can also be

  2. Intrinsic Motivation and Environmental Factors Affecting Research of Social Work Faculty on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing…

  3. Environmental load factors and system strength evaluation of offshore jacket platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Nizamani, Zafarullah

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a study for the determination of environmental load factors for Jacket Platforms in Malaysia and a methodology to determine the life extension of aging platforms. The simplified methods described here could be used for determining not only structural reliability but also safety factors. Its content is particularly interesting to design and maintenance engineers who are working in offshore or onshore industry.

  4. Environmental and genetic risk factors for eating disorders: what the clinician needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2009-01-01

    Patients and families often are aware of research on genetic factors influencing eating disorders. Accurate interpretations of research on environmental and genetic risk factors can be empowering to patients and families; however, misinterpretations could prove detrimental. Clinicians who are not versed in genetic research may believe they are ill prepared to discuss the nuances of genetic research with patients and families. In this article the authors discuss what is known about genetic and environmental risk factors with an emphasis on gene-environment interplay to improve clinicians' comfort level in discussing these complex issues with their patients.

  5. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Tao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  6. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X. H.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity. PMID:23365517

  7. Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert; Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We review the personal and social influences on pro-environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on recent research. The number of these influences suggests that understanding pro-environmental concern and behaviour is far more complex than previously thought. The influences are grouped into 18 personal and social factors. The personal factors include childhood experience, knowledge and education, personality and self-construal, sense of control, values, political and world views, goals, felt responsibility, cognitive biases, place attachment, age, gender and chosen activities. The social factors include religion, urban-rural differences, norms, social class, proximity to problematic environmental sites and cultural and ethnic variations We also recognize that pro-environmental behaviour often is undertaken based on none of the above influences, but because individuals have non-environmental goals such as to save money or to improve their health. Finally, environmental outcomes that are a result of these influences undoubtedly are determined by combinations of the 18 categories. Therefore, a primary goal of researchers now should be to learn more about how these many influences moderate and mediate one another to determine pro-environmental behaviour. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. The endocrine disruptors among the environmental risk factors for stillbirth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncati, Luca, E-mail: emailmedical@gmail.com [Provincial Health Care Services, Institute of Pathology, Santa Maria del Carmine Hospital, Rovereto, TN (Italy); Department of Diagnostic and Clinical Medicine and of Public Health, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, MO (Italy); Piscioli, Francesco; Pusiol, Teresa [Provincial Health Care Services, Institute of Pathology, Santa Maria del Carmine Hospital, Rovereto, TN (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants have been lately taken into consideration for their adverse effects, as possible stillbirth contributors; stillbirth can be in fact considered the most dramatic pregnancy complication. Congenital abnormalities account for few stillbirths and many related disorders are potentially modifiable or often coexist, such as maternal infections, non-communicable diseases, lifestyle factors and maternal age. Causal pathways for stillbirth frequently involve impaired placental function, either with fetal growth restriction or preterm labour. For this reason, many current efforts are focusing on the study of endocrine disruptor (ED) placental transfer, to better understand the in utero exposure dynamics. In this regard, our research group has investigated, by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, the EDs presence in brain samples of 24 stillbirths, collected over a 3-year period (2012–2014), coming from the Northeast Italy, a notorious area devoted to apple cultivation. Surprisingly, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), well-known EDs, have been detected in 11 samples. Apart from the noteworthy evidence of pesticides' bio-persistence, this finding implies a redefinition of the placental barrier concept: not a real safety system, but a time-deferral mechanism of absorption. The term ‘placental barrier’ in fact refers to a 4-membrane structure, made up by two epithelial layers, which exactly lining the chorionic villi, and by two endothelial layers, belonging to the feeding vessels for the fetus. It is an effective barrier only for a low administration of water-soluble substances, which encounter obstacle to cross four instead of two membranes. High doses of water-soluble compounds can reach appreciable concentration in the fetal blood, and the lipid-soluble chemicals, such as EDs, are able to pass the placental barrier, through a simple mechanism of passive diffusion, even in minimal concentrations. After crossing the placental barrier

  9. Factors Promoting Environmental Responsibility in European SMEs: The Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Sáez-Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing social and political awareness of the importance of developing environmental responsibility at a corporate level. When focusing on issues of responsibility, large companies are frequently perceived to be more responsible for driving climate change and resource depletion. However, small and medium enterprises (SMEs contribute significantly to the use of resources such as material and energy and produce approximately 64% of the pollution in Europe. Drawing on evidence from “The Eurobarometer 381 Survey on SMEs, Resource Efficiency and Green Markets”, we analyze the environmental responsibility of European SMEs, studying their compliance with environmental legislation and how several factors drive environmental orientation among SMEs. Our sample consists of 3647 SMEs operating in 38 countries. Only around a fifth of the firms go beyond environmental regulations, showing the highest levels of environmental responsibility. We conduct OLS regressions to analyze the factors that affect a positive environmental attitude among European SMEs (internal drivers being more significant than external ones and then, to observe the positive effect of environmental responsibility and firm’s experience in offering green services/products on performance, although a conjoint effect was not found. Implications for practitioners, academics, and policy-makers are outlined.

  10. The influence of environmental, biotic and spatial factors on diatom metacommunity structure in Swedish headwater streams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Göthe

    Full Text Available Stream assemblages are structured by a combination of local (environmental filtering and biotic interactions and regional factors (e.g., dispersal related processes. The relative importance of environmental and spatial (i.e., regional factors structuring stream assemblages has been frequently assessed in previous large-scale studies, but biotic predictors (potentially reflecting local biotic interactions have rarely been included. Diatoms may be useful for studying the effect of trophic interactions on community structure since: (1 a majority of experimental studies shows significant grazing effects on diatom species composition, and (2 assemblages can be divided into guilds that have different susceptibility to grazing. We used a dataset from boreal headwater streams in south-central Sweden (covering a spatial extent of ∼14000 km(2, which included information about diatom taxonomic composition, abundance of invertebrate grazers (biotic factor, environmental (physicochemical and spatial factors (obtained through spatial eigenfunction analyses. We assessed the relative importance of environmental, biotic, and spatial factors structuring diatom assemblages, and performed separate analyses on different diatom guilds. Our results showed that the diatom assemblages were mainly structured by environmental factors. However, unique spatial and biological gradients, specific to different guilds and unrelated to each other, were also evident. We conclude that biological predictors, in combination with environmental and spatial variables, can reveal a more complete picture of the local vs. regional control of species assemblages in lotic environments. Biotic factors should therefore not be overlooked in applied research since they can capture additional local control and therefore increase accuracy and performance of predictive models. The inclusion of biotic predictors did, however, not significantly influence the unique fraction explained by spatial

  11. The Influence of Environmental, Biotic and Spatial Factors on Diatom Metacommunity Structure in Swedish Headwater Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göthe, Emma; Angeler, David G.; Gottschalk, Steffi; Löfgren, Stefan; Sandin, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Stream assemblages are structured by a combination of local (environmental filtering and biotic interactions) and regional factors (e.g., dispersal related processes). The relative importance of environmental and spatial (i.e., regional) factors structuring stream assemblages has been frequently assessed in previous large-scale studies, but biotic predictors (potentially reflecting local biotic interactions) have rarely been included. Diatoms may be useful for studying the effect of trophic interactions on community structure since: (1) a majority of experimental studies shows significant grazing effects on diatom species composition, and (2) assemblages can be divided into guilds that have different susceptibility to grazing. We used a dataset from boreal headwater streams in south-central Sweden (covering a spatial extent of ∼14000 km2), which included information about diatom taxonomic composition, abundance of invertebrate grazers (biotic factor), environmental (physicochemical) and spatial factors (obtained through spatial eigenfunction analyses). We assessed the relative importance of environmental, biotic, and spatial factors structuring diatom assemblages, and performed separate analyses on different diatom guilds. Our results showed that the diatom assemblages were mainly structured by environmental factors. However, unique spatial and biological gradients, specific to different guilds and unrelated to each other, were also evident. We conclude that biological predictors, in combination with environmental and spatial variables, can reveal a more complete picture of the local vs. regional control of species assemblages in lotic environments. Biotic factors should therefore not be overlooked in applied research since they can capture additional local control and therefore increase accuracy and performance of predictive models. The inclusion of biotic predictors did, however, not significantly influence the unique fraction explained by spatial factors

  12. [A twin study on genetic and environmental factors of adolescents violence behaviors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenfen; Fu, Yixiao; Hu, Xiaomei; Wang, Yingcheng; Deng, Wei; Li, Tao; Ma, Xingshun

    2015-11-01

    To explore the influence of genetic and environmental factors on adolescents violence behaviors. The violence behaviors of 111 twin pairs from Chongqing (aged from 11 to 18 years) were investigated with risk behavior questionnaire-adolescent (RBQ-A). The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) and Stressful Life Event (SLE) and the General Functioning Scale of the MacMaster Family Activity Device (FAD-GFS) were applied to assess their environment factors. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the effects of the additive genetic factors (A), shared environment factors (C) and individual specific environmental factors (E) on the adolescents violence behaviors. The effects of A and E on adolescents violence behaviors were 0.41 (95% CI 0.19-0.58) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.42-0.81) respectively. There were significantly negative correlation between violence behaviors and authoritative-parenting-style (r = -0.140, P functions, stress life events and the parenting education level and occupation. Adolescents violence behaviors were influenced by additive genetic factors and individual specific environmental factors. Environmental plays an important role. It should not been ignored that parental rearing pattern play a role in adolescents violence behaviors.

  13. Environmental factors associated with autism spectrum disorder: a scoping review for the years 2003-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been rapidly rising in the past decade. The etiology of this disorder, however, is largely unknown, although the environmental relative to the genetic contribution is substantial. We conducted a scoping review to comprehensively assess the current state of knowledge of the environmental factors present from preconception to early life associated with ASD, and to identify research gaps. Methods: We searched electronic databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO and ERIC for articles on potential risk factors or protective factors from the physical and social environments associated with ASD and its subclassifications published between 1 January, 2003, and 12 July, 2013. We categorized articles into broad themes: chemical, physiological, nutritional and social factors, based on environmental exposure. Results: We identified over 50 000 publications, but after ineligible studies were screened out, 315 articles remained. Most of these studies examined physiological factors, followed closely by chemical factors, and to a much lesser extent, nutritional and social factors, associated with ASD. Despite a vast literature and many heterogeneous studies, several risk factors emerged consistently: chemical factors such as traffic-related air pollutants; physiological factors including advanced parental age, preterm birth, low birth weight, hyperbilirubinemia and clustering of pregnancy complications; and maternal immigrant status. Despite extensive research on vaccines, findings overwhelmingly demonstrate no support for an association with ASD. Conclusion: The lack of consistency, temporality and specificity of associations between environmental factors and ASD remains the largest barrier to establishing causal relationships. More robust research is required to resolve inconsistencies in the literature. Future research should explore underlying mechanisms of associations between the risk factors that

  14. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Leroy, Jef L; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Ochoa-Avilès, Angélica; Holdsworth, Michelle; Verbeke, Wim; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10-16 years. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food) and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support), and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake) were assessed using structural equation modeling. The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits). For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness). Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake) and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support) and individual factors (perceived benefits). Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents' dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and environmental factors. The findings indicate that the

  15. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosmarijn Verstraeten

    Full Text Available Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10-16 years.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support, and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake were assessed using structural equation modeling.The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits. For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness. Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support and individual factors (perceived benefits.Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents' dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and environmental factors. The findings indicate

  16. [Spatial and temporal changes of emerging environmental pollution accidents and impact factors in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lü, Yong-long; He, Gui-zhen; Wang, Tie-yu; Luo, Wei; Shi, Ya-juan

    2008-09-01

    Based on environmental statistics data from 1993 to 2005, spatial distribution and temporal tendency of the environmental pollution and destruction accidents and their external causes were analyzed by using GIS and non-parametric correlation methods. It was concluded that (1) during the study period, annual environmental pollution accidents was maximally 3001 times in 1994 and minimally 1406 in 2005, while the frequency decreased in general. In addition, water and air accidents occupied the most; (2) environmental pollution and destruction accidents centralized in southeast and middle parts of China, mainly in Hunan, Sichuan, and Guangxi; (3) factors including population, GDP, company number and industrial waste water discharge had positive impacts on frequency of environmental pollution and destruction accidents, while in developed provinces the frequency was only correlated with company number.

  17. Accuracy of Environmental Monitoring in China: Exploring the Influence of Institutional, Political and Ideological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Brombal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring data are essential to informing decision-making processes relevant to the management of the environment. Their accuracy is therefore of extreme importance. The credibility of Chinese environmental data has been long questioned by domestic and foreign observers. This paper explores the potential impact of institutional, political, and ideological factors on the accuracy of China’s environmental monitoring data. It contends that the bureaucratic incentive system, conflicting agency goals, particular interests, and ideological structures constitute potential sources of bias in processes of environmental monitoring in China. The current leadership has acknowledged the issue, implementing new measures to strengthen administrative coordination and reinforce the oversight of the central government over local authorities. However, the failure to address the deeper political roots of the problem and the ambivalence over the desirability of public participation to enhance transparency might jeopardize Beijing’s strive for environmental data accuracy.

  18. Factors related to environmental barriers experienced by persons with and without disabilities in diverse African settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    Full Text Available This paper explores differences in experienced environmental barriers between individuals with and without disabilities and the impact of additional factors on experienced environmental barriers. Data was collected in 2011-2012 by means of a two-stage cluster sampling and comprised 400-500 households in different sites in South Africa, Sudan Malawi and Namibia. Data were collected through self-report survey questionnaires. In addition to descriptive statistics and simple statistical tests a structural equation model was developed and tested. The combined file comprised 9,307 participants. The Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors was used to assess the level of environmental barriers. Transportation, the natural environment and access to health care services created the biggest barriers. An exploratory factor analysis yielded support for a one component solution for environmental barriers. A scale was constructed by adding the items together and dividing by number of items, yielding a range from one to five with five representing the highest level of environmental barriers and one the lowest. An overall mean value of 1.51 was found. Persons with disabilities scored 1.66 and persons without disabilities 1.36 (F = 466.89, p < .001. Bivariate regression analyses revealed environmental barriers to be higher among rural respondents, increasing with age and severity of disability, and lower for those with a higher level of education and with better physical and mental health. Gender had an impact only among persons without disabilities, where women report more barriers than men. Structural equation model analysis showed that socioeconomic status was significantly and negatively associated with environmental barriers. Activity limitation is significantly associated with environmental barriers when controlling for a number of other individual characteristics. Reducing barriers for the general population would go some way to reduce the impact

  19. Human factors in environmental management: New directions from the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.A.; Savage, S.F.

    1992-10-01

    Environmental management is the general term given to modern attempts to seek technological solutions to certain constrained environmental problems. it involves developing and applying new technologies that respond to changes in environmental policy. It does not eliminate the need for environmental ethics'' in society. Nor does it substitute for the fundamental changes in political and social structures that are needed for dealing with large-scale environmental issues. The scope of these issues can be illustrated by looking at the Hanford Site. Since 1943, the 560-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state has been the production source of much of the nuclear weapons-grade radioactive materials for the United States. The legacy of 50 years of producing fissile materials has been an environmental cleanup problem of impressive proportions. In 1989, with the Cold War winding down, Secretary of Energy James Watkins established a new vision for Hanford as the flagship for waste management research.'' As plans and preparations for cleanup work proceed at the Hanford Site and around the world, the need for well-orchestrated environmental management methodologies has become increasingly apparent. In 1990, a Human Factors Engineering Group was established in the Technology Planning and Analysis Center at PNL to provide appropriate support for the Laboratory's research efforts. At an ever-increasing rate, these research efforts require integrating human performance into complex environmental technology systems. The endeavor of responding to the Laboratory's research needs has provided innovative opportunities for the application of the concept of Human Factors. Discussed are some of the major applications of Human Factors to environmental management.

  20. Critical environmental factors for transportation cycling in children: a qualitative study using bike-along interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; de Geus, Bas; Clarys, Peter; Cardon, Greet; Salmon, Jo; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors are found to influence transport-related physical activity, but have rarely been studied in relation with cycling for transport to various destinations in 10-12 yr old children. The current qualitative study used 'bike-along interviews' with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while cycling in the participant's neighborhood. Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 35 children and one of their parents residing in (semi-) urban areas. Bike-along interviews were conducted to and from a randomly chosen destination (e.g. library) within a 15 minutes' cycle trip in the participant's neighborhood. Participants wore a GoPro camera to objectively assess environmental elements, which were subsequently discussed with participants. Content analysis and arising themes were derived using a grounded theory approach. The discussed environmental factors were categorized under traffic, urban design, cycling facilities, road design, facilities at destination, aesthetics, topography, weather, social control, stranger danger and familiar environment. Across these categories many environmental factors were (in)directly linked to road safety. This was illustrated by detailed discussions of the children's visibility, familiarity with specific traffic situations, and degree of separation, width and legibility of cycle facilities. Road safety is of major concern in this 10-12 yr old study population. Bike-along interviews were able to identify new, detailed and context-specific physical environmental factors which could inform policy makers to promote children's cycling for transport. However, future studies should investigate whether hypothetical changes to such micro environmental features influence perceptions of safety and if this in turn could lead to changes in children's cycling for transport.

  1. Structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for dimensional representations of DSM–IV anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambs, Kristian; Czajkowsky, Nikolai; Røysamb, Espen; Neale, Michael C.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Aggen, Steven H.; Harris, Jennifer R.; Ørstavik, Ragnhild E.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Twin data permit decomposition of comorbidity into genetically and environmentally derived correlations. No previous twin study includes all major forms of anxiety disorder. Aims To estimate the degree to which genetic and environmental risk factors are shared rather than unique to dimensionally scored panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, phobias, obsessive–compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Method Data obtained from 2801 young-adult Norwegian twins by means of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were analysed with the Mx program. Results A multivariate common factor model fitted best. The latent liability to all anxiety disorders was substantially more heritable (54%) than the individual disorders (23% to 40%). Most of the genetic effect was common to the disorders. Genes contributed just over 50% to the covariance between liabilities. Conclusions The five anxiety disorders all share genetic and environmental risk factors. This has implications for the revision of the anxiety disorder section in DSM–V. PMID:19794197

  2. Multi-criteria Analysis of Factors for Application of Concrete Composites Considering Their Environmental Harmfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulikova, A.; Estokova, A.; Mitterpach, J.

    2017-10-01

    The analysis of factors is important in insight of the selection of proper building material with environmental added value. A comprehensive solution is possible if at the beginning there are all the relevant factors in detail characterized predominately that have got a major impact on the area in terms of environmentalharmfulness prevention. There are many groups of environmental factors. In this article only four factors are considered, i.e. contain of CrVI (mg/kg) and index of mass activity for radionuclides (Ra, Th, K) which are the most harmful. These factors can be evaluated by means of a supplementary tool, e.g. multi-criteriaanalysis, which improves and supports decision processes in the framework of construction bybuilding management, etc.

  3. Trigger factors mainly from the environmental type are reported by adolescents with migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Dalla Bernardina Fraga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Migraine can be triggered by many factors such as stress, sleep, fasting and environmental causes. There are few studies that evaluated migraine trigger factors in the adolescent population. Methods: A total of 100 participants from 10 to 19 years were subjected to a detailed headache questionnaire, with demographic and clinical data, and a headache diary including trigger factors during a two-month period was asked. Results: Fifty of the participants exhibited chronic migraine and the other 50 participants demonstrated episodic migraine. The most common group of trigger factors reported was the environmental one, mainly sun/clarity, followed by hot weather and the smell of perfume. Conclusions: Ninety-one percent of children and adolescents with migraine reported a trigger factor precipitating the migraine attack.

  4. Individual and environmental risk factors for dengue and chikungunya seropositivity in North-Eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajeguka, Debora C.; Msonga, Maulid; Schiøler, Karin L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dengue and chikungunya are mosquito-borne viral diseases of major global health concern. In Tanzania, information on risk factors for dengue and chikungunya is limited. We investigated individual, household, socio-economic, demographic and environmental risk factors for dengue...... and chikungunya seropositivity. Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken which included a total of 1003 participants from North-Eastern Tanzania, to determine the sero-prevalence of dengue and chikungunya and to investigate associated risk factors. Logistic regression models were used to determine the risk...... factors for dengue and chikungunya seropositivity. Results: Environmental factors such as living in a house with uncovered containers within the compound had higher odds of being chikungunya IgM seropositive (OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.76–4.76). Also, participants who kept hoofed animals in their home and who...

  5. Ecology of cultivable yeasts in pristine forests in northern Patagonia (Argentina) influenced by different environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, María Cecilia; Fontenla, Sonia; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    Environmental factors influencing the occurrence and community structure of soil yeasts in forests are not well studied. There are few studies dedicated to Southern Hemisphere soil yeasts populations and even fewer focused on temperate forests influenced by volcanic activity. The present work aimed to study the ecology of soil yeast communities from pristine forests influenced by different environmental factors (precipitation, physicochemical properties of soil, tree species, soil region, and season). The survey was performed in 4 northern Patagonian forests: 2 dominated by Nothofagus pumilio and 2 by Nothofagus antarctica. Yeast communities were described with ecological indices and species accumulation curves, and their association with environmental characteristics was assessed using multivariate analysis. Each forest site showed a particular arrangement of species as a result of environmental characteristics, such as dominant plant species, nutrient availability, and climatic characteristics. Cryptococcus podzolicus was most frequently isolated in nutrient-rich soils, Trichosporon porosum dominated cold mountain forests with low nutrient and water availability in soil, and capsulated yeasts such as Cryptococcus phenolicus dominated forest sites with low precipitation. The present work suggests that environmental factors affecting yeast communities may not be the current soil characteristics but the result of complex interactions of factors including natural disturbances like volcanic activity.

  6. Power Curve Estimation With Multivariate Environmental Factors for Inland and Offshore Wind Farms

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Giwhyun

    2015-04-22

    In the wind industry, a power curve refers to the functional relationship between the power output generated by a wind turbine and the wind speed at the time of power generation. Power curves are used in practice for a number of important tasks including predicting wind power production and assessing a turbine’s energy production efficiency. Nevertheless, actual wind power data indicate that the power output is affected by more than just wind speed. Several other environmental factors, such as wind direction, air density, humidity, turbulence intensity, and wind shears, have potential impact. Yet, in industry practice, as well as in the literature, current power curve models primarily consider wind speed and, sometimes, wind speed and direction. We propose an additive multivariate kernel method that can include the aforementioned environmental factors as a new power curve model. Our model provides, conditional on a given environmental condition, both the point estimation and density estimation of power output. It is able to capture the nonlinear relationships between environmental factors and the wind power output, as well as the high-order interaction effects among some of the environmental factors. Using operational data associated with four turbines in an inland wind farm and two turbines in an offshore wind farm, we demonstrate the improvement achieved by our kernel method.

  7. Effects of Ambient Environmental Factors on the Stereotypic Behaviors of Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Duan, Hejun; Wang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Stereotypies are commonly observed in zoo animals, and it is necessary to better understand whether ambient environmental factors contribute to stereotypy and how to affect animal welfare in zoo settings. This study investigated the relationships between stereotypic behaviors and environmental factors including ambient temperatures, humidity, light intensity, sound intensity and number of visitors. Seven giant pandas were observed in three indoor enclosures and three outdoor enclosures. Environmental factors were measured for both indoor and outdoor enclosures and the effect they had on stereotypical behaviors was investigated. Our research found that light intensity significantly correlated with all stereotypies behaviors. Higher environmental temperature reduced the duration of pacing but increased the frequency of pacing, the duration and frequency of door-directed, meanwhile the duration of head-toss. However, we found no noticeable effect of humidity on stereotypic behaviors except for the frequency of head-toss. We also found that sound intensity was not correlated with stereotypies. Finally, the growth of visitors was negatively associated with the duration of door-directed. These results demonstrated that various environmental factors can have significant effects on stereotypic behaviors causing the expression of various stereotypies. Thus, stereotypies in zoo animals may not simply represent suboptimal welfare, but rather might be adopted as a means of coping with an aversive environment.

  8. Effects of Ambient Environmental Factors on the Stereotypic Behaviors of Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Liu

    Full Text Available Stereotypies are commonly observed in zoo animals, and it is necessary to better understand whether ambient environmental factors contribute to stereotypy and how to affect animal welfare in zoo settings. This study investigated the relationships between stereotypic behaviors and environmental factors including ambient temperatures, humidity, light intensity, sound intensity and number of visitors. Seven giant pandas were observed in three indoor enclosures and three outdoor enclosures. Environmental factors were measured for both indoor and outdoor enclosures and the effect they had on stereotypical behaviors was investigated. Our research found that light intensity significantly correlated with all stereotypies behaviors. Higher environmental temperature reduced the duration of pacing but increased the frequency of pacing, the duration and frequency of door-directed, meanwhile the duration of head-toss. However, we found no noticeable effect of humidity on stereotypic behaviors except for the frequency of head-toss. We also found that sound intensity was not correlated with stereotypies. Finally, the growth of visitors was negatively associated with the duration of door-directed. These results demonstrated that various environmental factors can have significant effects on stereotypic behaviors causing the expression of various stereotypies. Thus, stereotypies in zoo animals may not simply represent suboptimal welfare, but rather might be adopted as a means of coping with an aversive environment.

  9. Impacts of meteorological and environmental factors on allergic rhinitis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Mou, Zhe; Peng, Li; Chen, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Meteorological and environmental factors influence the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (AR). An understanding of the risk factors will facilitate the development of diagnostic and preventative tools for AR children and improve their quality of life. However, research on the impact of these factors on subjective symptoms in AR children remains scarce. This study explored the relationships between subjective symptoms in pollen and dust mite positive AR children, and meteorological and environmental factors. Using a linear mixed effect model, we analyzed the correlations between monthly data on the subjective symptoms of 351 AR children (from the Shanghai Children's Medical Center) and meteorological and environmental factors during 2013. The monthly meteorological and environmental data were provided by the Shanghai Meteorological Service and Shanghai Environmental Protection Bureau. Temperature and humidity were negatively correlated with the subjective symptom score, with a 0.04 point increase observed for every 1 °C decrease in temperature ( P < 0.0001) or 10 % decline in humidity ( P = 0.0412). The particulate matter (PM) 10 and PM2.5 concentrations were positively correlated with the subjective symptom score, with a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 and PM2.5 yielding a 0.02 ( P = 0.0235) and 0.03 ( P = 0.0281) increase in the subjective symptom score, respectively. In conclusion, meteorological and environmental factors were correlated with subjective symptoms in AR children. Low temperatures, lower humidity, and high PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations aggravated subjective symptoms in AR children.

  10. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  11. The influence of social environmental factors on rehospitalization among patients receiving home health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hong; Ellenbecker, Carol Hall; Chen, Jie; Zhan, Lin; Dalton, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Guided by Orem's theory, this study examined the influence of social environmental factors on rehospitalization among home health care patients. Living arrangement, frequency of caregiving, and type of primary informal care were found to be related to functional ability. Measurable differences in clinical status and functional ability were related to the duration that patients received home health care services until rehospitalization, with the likelihood of rehospitalization increasing proportionately to the magnitude of the differences. Social environmental factors contributed to rehospitalization (self-care deficit) through functional ability (self-care agency) by altering the balance between self-care demand (clinical status) and self-care agency.

  12. Air pollution exposure: a novel environmental risk factor for interstitial lung disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannson, Kerri A; Balmes, John R; Collard, Harold R

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease.

  13. Influence of environmental factors in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaki, Evangelia; Gazouli, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are multifactorial diseases that are manifested after disruption of a genetic predisposed individual and its intestinal microflora through an environmental stimulus. Urbanization and industrialization are associated with IBD. Epidemiological data, clinical observations and family/immigrants studies indicate the significance of environmental influence in the development of IBD. Some environmental factors have a different effect on the subtypes of IBD. Smoking and appendectomy is negatively associated with UC, but they are aggravating factors for CD. A westernized high fat diet, full of refined carbohydrates is strongly associated with the development of IBD, contrary to a high in fruit, vegetables and polyunsaturated fatty acid-3 diet that is protective against these diseases. High intake of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and oral contraceptive pills as well as the inadequacy of vitamin D leads to an increased risk for IBD and a more malignant course of disease. Moreover, other factors such as air pollution, psychological factors, sleep disturbances and exercise influence the development and the course of IBD. Epigenetic mechanism like DNA methylation, histone modification and altered expression of miRNAS could explain the connection between genes and environmental factors in triggering the development of IBD. PMID:26855817

  14. Influence of environmental factors in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaki, Evangelia; Gazouli, Maria

    2016-02-06

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are multifactorial diseases that are manifested after disruption of a genetic predisposed individual and its intestinal microflora through an environmental stimulus. Urbanization and industrialization are associated with IBD. Epidemiological data, clinical observations and family/immigrants studies indicate the significance of environmental influence in the development of IBD. Some environmental factors have a different effect on the subtypes of IBD. Smoking and appendectomy is negatively associated with UC, but they are aggravating factors for CD. A westernized high fat diet, full of refined carbohydrates is strongly associated with the development of IBD, contrary to a high in fruit, vegetables and polyunsaturated fatty acid-3 diet that is protective against these diseases. High intake of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and oral contraceptive pills as well as the inadequacy of vitamin D leads to an increased risk for IBD and a more malignant course of disease. Moreover, other factors such as air pollution, psychological factors, sleep disturbances and exercise influence the development and the course of IBD. Epigenetic mechanism like DNA methylation, histone modification and altered expression of miRNAS could explain the connection between genes and environmental factors in triggering the development of IBD.

  15. Environmental determinants of cardiovascular diseases risk factors: a qualitative directed content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzmakan, Leila; Mohammadi, Eesa; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Afaghi, Ahmad; Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death in the world. In most analyses of health problems, environment plays a significant and modifiable role in causing the problem either directly or indirectly through behavior. This study aims to understand the patients and healthcare providers' experiences about the environmental determinants of CVD risk factors based on the Precede Model. This qualitative study conducted over six months in 2012 at Diabetes Units of Health Centers associated with Alborz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services which is located in Karaj, Iran. The data were collected based on individual semi-structured interviews with 50 patients and 12 healthcare providers. Data analysis was performed simultaneous with data collection using the content analysis directed method. Lack of behaviors like stress control, healthy eating and physical activity were the roots of the risk factors for CVD. The environmental factor is one of the barriers for conducting these behaviors. The environmental barriers included of structural environment including "availability and accessibility of health resources", "new skills", and "law and policies" which are located in enabling category and social environment including "social support", "motivation to comply" and "consequences of behavior" which are located in reinforcing category. The most barriers to performing health behaviors were often structural. The environmental factors were barriers for doing healthy behaviors. These factors need to be considered to design health promotion interventions. Policymakers should not only focus on patients' education but also should provide specific facilities to enhance economic, social and cultural status.

  16. Environmental dosimetry of radon-222 and daughters: measurement of absolute calibration factors of CR-39 considering the plate-out effects and environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulo, S.R. de.

    1991-08-01

    The subject of this work concerns with the measurement of absolute calibration factors for the use of CR-39 as an absolute detector in indoor and daughters monitoring. Up to now the usefulness of calibration factors was restricted to environmental conditions equal (or very close) to those worthing during their determinations. This fact is consequence of the difficulties related to the understanding of the plate-out properties of radon daughters activity in the air. The plate-out effects on radon daughters monitoring performed by SSNTDs are studied. Our experimental results are in agreement with those of other authors about the great sensitivity of CR-39 to the plate-out effects, fact that recommended its use in this work. Being succeeded in the employment of CR-39 as an alpha-spectrometer we concluded that some important information (like the radon daughters deposition rates on the walls of an environment) can be achieved. The knowledge about the behavior of plate-out made possible the determination of the ranges in zenithal angle and energy where CR-39 can detect alpha-particles with efficiency of 100%, at our conditions of track observation. In this way, we obtained calibration factors for CR-39 that are weakly dependent on environmental conditions. We think that these results can contribute to the improvement of RD (Radiation Detector) detection techniques. (author). 159 refs, 106 figs, 05 tabs

  17. Which Factors Contribute to Environmental Behaviour of Landowners in Southwestern Ontario, Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Silke; Brick, Jeff; Lantz, Van A.; Trenholm, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    Loss of natural heritage is a problem that is particularly prevalent in areas of high population density. We used a survey to understand the factors that drive environmental behavior of landowners in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The survey, which contained questions about environmental attitude, pro-environmental behavior and demographics, was mailed to 18,090 rural route addresses, and we received 3256 completed surveys (18% response rate). Two types of environmental behavior, namely voluntarily increasing the area of land set aside for conservation, and enrollment in a conservation stewardship program, were significantly correlated with a positive attitude towards conservation. Financial considerations also played a role. We showed that the biggest motivator to enroll in a wetland enhancement program was access to `more information on how the decline in wetland area affects them personally', while `public recognition' was the least motivating factor. We suggest that enrollment in voluntary land stewardship programs might be increased by providing information about the effects of ecosystem loss, and by providing financial incentives for participation. In a larger social context, outreach programs by government agencies could focus on improving pro-environmental attitudes, which in turn is likely to result in more pro-environmental behavior of landowners.

  18. Environmental and Life Style Factors in Relation to Male Reproductive Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad

    have been found, mostly in animal studies, to act as risk factors for the disorders. The common consensus today is that there exists a common causal mechanism for a number of different male reproductive disorders which takes place before birth, during fetal development, and is termed Testicular......During the past four decades, the incidence rates of testicular cancer and other male reproductive disorders have been increasing at a rapid rate, predominantly in developed and industrialized countries. This increase is considered too great to be explained by genetic factors alone, and thus...... environmental factors have strongly been suspected to play a major role. There is a large amount of clinical research which has tried to pinpoint the mechanism of action for this trend. Although the exact mechanism of action has not been elucidated, a number of genetic factors as well as environmental chemicals...

  19. Radium concentration factors and their use in health and environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Radium is known to be taken up by aquatic animals, and tends to accumulate in bone, shell and exoskeleton. The most common approach to estimating the uptake of a radionuclide by aquatic animals for use in health and environmental risk assessments is the concentration factor method. The concentration factor method relates the concentration of a contaminant in an organism to the concentration in the surrounding water. Site specific data are not usually available, and generic, default values are often used in risk assessment studies. This paper describes the concentration factor method, summarizes some of the variables which may influence the concentration factor for radium, reviews reported concentration factors measured in marine environments and presents concentration factors derived from data collected in a study in coastal Louisiana. The use of generic default values for the concentration factor is also discussed

  20. A genomic point-of-view on environmental factors influencing the human brain methylome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSalle, Janine M

    2011-07-01

    The etiologic paradigm of complex human disorders such as autism is that genetic and environmental risk factors are independent and additive, but the interactive effects at the epigenetic interface are largely ignored. Genomic technologies have radically changed perspective on the human genome and how the epigenetic interface may impact complex human disorders. Here, I review recent genomic, environmental, and epigenetic findings that suggest a new paradigm of "integrative genomics" in which genetic variation in genomic size may be impacted by dietary and environmental factors that influence the genomic saturation of DNA methylation. Human genomes are highly repetitive, but the interface of large-scale genomic differences with environmental factors that alter the DNA methylome such as dietary folate is under-explored. In addition to obvious direct effects of some environmental toxins on the genome by causing chromosomal breaks, non-mutagenic toxin exposures correlate with DNA hypomethylation that can lead to rearrangements between repeats or increased retrotransposition. Since human neurodevelopment appears to be particularly sensitive to alterations in epigenetic pathways, a further focus will be on how developing neurons may be particularly impacted by even subtle alterations to DNA methylation and proposing new directions towards understanding the quixotic etiology of autism by integrative genomic approaches.

  1. 16. The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Parkin, D M; Boyd, L; Walker, L C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter summarises the results of the preceding sections, which estimate the fraction of cancers occurring in the UK in 2010 that can be attributed to sub-optimal, past exposures of 14 lifestyle and environmental risk factors. For each of 18 cancer types, we present the percentage of cases attributable to one or all of the risk factors considered (tobacco, alcohol, four elements of diet (consumption of meat, fruit and vegetables, fibre, and salt), overweight, lack of physical exercise, o...

  2. Objective assessment of facial skin aging and the associated environmental factors in Japanese monozygotic twins

    OpenAIRE

    Ichibori, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Shingaki, Kenta; Torii, Kosuke; Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Sakai, Yasuo; Hosokawa, Ko

    2014-01-01

    Twin studies, especially those involving monozygotic (MZ) twins, facilitate the analysis of factors affecting skin aging while controlling for age, gender, and genetic susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess various features of facial skin and analyze the effects of environmental factors on these features in MZ twins. At the Osaka Twin Research Center, 67 pairs of MZ twins underwent medical interviews and photographic assessments, using the VISIA® Complexion Analys...

  3. Environmental factors used for the estimation of radiation dose to thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1976-01-01

    Environmental factors used for the estimation of radiation dose to thyroid gland were discussed in this paper, such as deposition velocity of radioactive iodine onto plant leaves, elimination factor from the leaves, transfer of this nuclide to milk and the consumption of those critical foods especially by inhabitants around nuclear sites in coastal area of Ibaraki Prefecture. Uptake of the stable iodine was estimated. (auth.)

  4. Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors of Adult Primary Brain Cancers: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gomes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of brain neoplasm has been progressively increasing in recent years in the industrialized countries. One of the reasons for this increased incidence could be better access to health care and improved diagnosis in the industrialized countries. It also appears that Caucasians have a higher incidence than blacks or Hispanics or Asians. A number of risk factors have been identified and described including the genetic, ethnic and age-based factors. Certain occupational and environmental factors are also believed to influence the risk of primary adult brain tumors. Potential occupational and environmental factors include exposure to diagnostic and therapeutic radiations, electromagnetic radiation from cellular phones and other wireless devices, infectious agents, air pollution and residence near landfills and highvoltage power lines and jobs as firefighters, farmers, physician, chemists and jobs in industries such as petrochemical, power generation, synthetic rubber manufacturing, agricultural chemicals manufacturing. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine occupational and environmental risk factors of brain neoplasm. A range of occupational and environmental exposures are evaluated for significance of their relationship with adult primary brain tumors. On the basis of this review we suggest a concurrent evaluation of multiple risk factors both within and beyond occupational and environmental domains. The concurrent approach needs to consider better exposure assessment techniques, lifetime occupational exposures, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and lifestyle and dietary habits. This approach needs to be interdisciplinary with contributions from neurologists, oncologists, epidemiologists and molecular biologists. Conclusive evidence that has eluded multitude of studies with single focus and single exposure needs to multifaceted and multidisciplinary.

  5. Environmental regulation of households. An empirical review of economic and psychological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The literature on sustainable consumption and environmental regulation of household behavior is dominated by conceptual and normative approaches. As a result, many suggestions lack a firm empirical basis. To overcome this deficiency, econometric studies in three areas of environmentally relevant activities of households are reviewed: residential use of energy, generation of solid waste and recycling, and residential use of water. Next to price and income elasticities, attention is devoted to individual socio-economic features and psychological factors, such as attitudes, knowledge, perceptions and values. Potential psychological determinants and related insights are further examined by discussing a range of representative and illustrative statistical-psychological studies of environmental behavior. One important general finding is that there are very few empirical studies that systematically combine socio-economic and psychological determinants. A range of insights for environmental policy is derived, and research recommendations are offered. (author)

  6. Relationships of vascular epiphytes with environmental factors along the Tibagi River forests, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annete Bonnet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationships of vascular epiphyte richness with climatic, geomorphologic, pedologic and forest structural factors, that change along the Tibagi River. The floristic turnover of the 188 registered species was high, indicating the singularity and importance of the communities to the conservation of epiphytes in the river basin. The similarity was greater between geographically closer areas, which made possible the creation of three groups of epiphytic communities distributed along the river. The greatest richness of epiphytes was registered in the medium Tibagi, where the phytogeographic units are in liaison and the forests present the best conservation status. The increase of epiphytic richness is only significantly and positively related to the maximal diameter of trees, an important environmental factor of the enlargement of alpha diversity. The beta diversity results, probably, from environmental heterogeneity which is principally represented by distinctive geomorphologic patterns and climatic conditions between study areas and different environmental regions of the river.

  7. Conventional, Partially Converted and Environmentally Friendly Farming in South Korea: Profitability and Factors Affecting Farmers’ Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saem Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While organic farming is well established in Europe a nd USA, it is still catching up in Asian countries. The government of South Korea has implemented environmentally friendly farming that encompasses organic farming. Despite the promotion of environmentally friendly farming, it still has a low share in South Korea and partially converted farming has emerged in some districts of South Korea. However, the partially converted farming has not yet been investigated by the government. Thus, our study implemented a financial analysis to compare the annual costs and net returns of conventional, partially converted and environmentally friendly farming in Gangwon Province. The result showed that environmentally friendly farming was more profitable with respect to farm net returns. To find out the factors affecting the adoption of environmentally friendly farming, multinomial logistic regression was implemented. The findings revealed that education and subsidy positively and significantly influenced the probability of farmers’ choice on partially converted and environmentally friendly farming. Farm size had a negative and significant relationship with only environmentally friendly farming. This study will contribute to future policy establishment for sustainable agriculture as recommended by improving the quality of fertilizers, suggesting the additional investigation associated with partially converted farmers.

  8. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for fears and phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loken, E. K.; Hettema, J.M.; Aggen, S.H.; Kendler, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although prior genetic studies of interview-assessed fears and phobias have shown that genetic factors predispose individuals to fears and phobias, they have been restricted to the DSM-III to DSM-IV aggregated subtypes of phobias rather than to individual fearful and phobic stimuli. Method We examined the lifetime history of fears and/or phobias in response to 21 individual phobic stimuli in 4067 personally interviewed twins from same-sex pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Abuse Disorders (VATSPSUD). We performed multivariate statistical analyses using Mx and Mplus. Results The best-fitting model for the 21 phobic stimuli included four genetic factors (agora-social-acrophobia, animal phobia, blood-injection-illness phobia and claustrophobia) and three environmental factors (agora-social-hospital phobia, animal phobia, and situational phobia). Conclusions This study provides the first view of the architecture of genetic and environmental risk factors for phobic disorders and their subtypes. The genetic factors of the phobias support the DSM-IV and DSM-5 constructs of animal and blood-injection-injury phobias but do not support the separation of agoraphobia from social phobia. The results also do not show a coherent genetic factor for the DSM-IV and DSM-5 situational phobia. Finally, the patterns of co-morbidity across individual fears and phobias produced by genetic and environmental influences differ appreciably. PMID:24384457

  9. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for fears and phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loken, E K; Hettema, J M; Aggen, S H; Kendler, K S

    2014-08-01

    Although prior genetic studies of interview-assessed fears and phobias have shown that genetic factors predispose individuals to fears and phobias, they have been restricted to the DSM-III to DSM-IV aggregated subtypes of phobias rather than to individual fearful and phobic stimuli. We examined the lifetime history of fears and/or phobias in response to 21 individual phobic stimuli in 4067 personally interviewed twins from same-sex pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Abuse Disorders (VATSPSUD). We performed multivariate statistical analyses using Mx and Mplus. The best-fitting model for the 21 phobic stimuli included four genetic factors (agora-social-acrophobia, animal phobia, blood-injection-illness phobia and claustrophobia) and three environmental factors (agora-social-hospital phobia, animal phobia, and situational phobia). This study provides the first view of the architecture of genetic and environmental risk factors for phobic disorders and their subtypes. The genetic factors of the phobias support the DSM-IV and DSM-5 constructs of animal and blood-injection-injury phobias but do not support the separation of agoraphobia from social phobia. The results also do not show a coherent genetic factor for the DSM-IV and DSM-5 situational phobia. Finally, the patterns of co-morbidity across individual fears and phobias produced by genetic and environmental influences differ appreciably.

  10. Exploring associations between international trade and environmental factors with establishment patterns of exotic Scolytinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo Marini; Robert A. Haack; Robert J. Rabaglia; Edoardo Petrucco Toffolo; Andrea Battisti; Massimo. Faccoli

    2011-01-01

    Although invasion of exotic ambrosia beetles (fungus feeders) and bark beetles (phloem feeders) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is considered a major threat to forest health worldwide, no studies have quantitatively investigated the anthropogenic and environmental factors shaping the biogeographical patterns of invasion by these insects across large spatial...

  11. How Creativity Was Affected by Environmental Factors and Individual Characteristics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lifang; Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how environmental factors (family environment and school education) and individual characteristics (personality, creative attitudes, and divergent thinking) collectively affect creative achievement of American and Chinese college students. Data were collected from 378 college students in the United States…

  12. Gene-Environment Interplay in Internalizing Disorders: Consistent Findings across Six Environmental Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; Dirago, Ana C.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Background: Behavior genetic methods can help to elucidate gene-environment (G-E) interplay in the development of internalizing (INT) disorders (i.e., major depression and anxiety disorders). To date, however, no study has conducted a comprehensive analysis examining multiple environmental risk factors with the purpose of delineating general…

  13. Environmental factors item development for persons with stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W; Magasi, Susan; Hammel, Joy; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Garcia, Sofia F; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Lai, Jin-Shei; Tulsky, David; Gray, David B; Hollingsworth, Holly; Jerousek, Sara

    2015-04-01

    To describe methods used in operationalizing environmental factors; to describe the results of a research project to develop measures of environmental factors that affect participation; and to define an initial item set of facilitators and barriers to participation after stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Instrument development included an extensive literature review, item classification and selection, item writing, and cognitive testing following the approach of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Community. Content area and outcome measurement experts (n=10) contributed to instrument development; individuals (n=200) with the target conditions participated in focus groups and in cognitive testing (n=15). None. Environmental factor items were categorized in 6 domains: assistive technology; built and natural environment; social environment; services, systems, and policies; access to information and technology; and economic quality of life. We binned 2273 items across the 6 domains, winnowed this pool to 291 items for cognitive testing, and recommended 274 items for pilot data collection. Five of the 6 domains correspond closely to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health taxonomy of environmental factors; the sixth domain, economic quality of life, reflects an important construct that reflects financial resources that affect participation. Testing with a new and larger sample is underway to evaluate reliability, validity, and sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical Activity, a Critical Exposure Factor of Environmental Pollution in Children and Adolescents Health Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su; Xia, Li; Yu, Yi; Hu, Shuangshuang; Sun, Jingyu; Zhou, Ping; Chen, Peijie

    2018-01-01

    It is an extremely urgent problem that physical fitness promotion must face not only the increasing air pollution but also the decline of physical activity level of children and adolescents worldwide at present, which is the major reason that forms an inactive lifestyle and does harm to adolescents’ health. Thus, it is necessary to focus on the exposure factor in environmental health risk assessment (EHRA) which conducts supervision of environmental pollution and survey of adolescents’ activity patterns according to the harmful characteristics of air pollutant and relationship between dose and response. Some countries, such as USA, Canada and Australia, regard both respiratory rate and physical activity pattern as main exposure factors for adolescents in both air pollution health risk assessment and exercise risk assessment to forecast a safe exposing condition of pollutant for adolescents while they are doing exercise outdoors. In addition, it suggests that the testing indexes and testing methods of these two exposure factors, such as investigating the time of daily physical activity, strength, and characteristic of frequency, help to set up the quantitative relationship between environmental pollution index and the time, strength, frequency of daily activities, and formulate children’s and adolescents’ activity instructions under different levels of environmental pollutions. As smog becomes increasingly serious at present, it is meaningful to take physical activity as a critical composition of exposure factor and establish physical activity guideline, so as to reduce the risk of air pollution, and promote physical health of children and adolescents effectively. PMID:29360730

  15. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of multiple environmental factors for swine building assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuju; Ni, Ji-Qin; Su, Zhongbin

    2017-10-15

    In confined swine buildings, temperature, humidity, and air quality are all important for animal health and productivity. However, the current swine building environmental control is only based on temperature; and evaluation and control methods based on multiple environmental factors are needed. In this paper, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) theory was adopted for multi-factor assessment of environmental quality in two commercial swine buildings using real measurement data. An assessment index system and membership functions were established; and predetermined weights were given using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combined with knowledge of experts. The results show that multi-factors such as temperature, humidity, and concentrations of ammonia (NH 3 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can be successfully integrated in FCE for swine building environment assessment. The FCE method has a high correlation coefficient of 0.737 compared with the method of single-factor evaluation (SFE). The FCE method can significantly increase the sensitivity and perform an effective and integrative assessment. It can be used as part of environmental controlling and warning systems for swine building environment management to improve swine production and welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Increasing Children's Physical Activity: Individual, Social, and Environmental Factors Associated with Walking to and from School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Georgina S. A.; Giles-Corti, Billie; Christian, Hayley E.; Bulsara, Max; Timperio, Anna F.; McCormack, Gavin R.; Villaneuva, Karen P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Efforts to increase the prevalence of children's active school transport require evidence to inform the development of comprehensive interventions. This study used a multilevel ecological framework to investigate individual, social, and environmental factors associated with walking to and from school among elementary school-aged…

  17. Integrating Process and Factor Understanding of Environmental Innovation by Water Utilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, Marc; McIntosh, Brian S.; Seaton, Roger A.F.; Jeffrey, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in technology and organisations are central to enabling the water sector to adapt to major environmental changes such as climate change, land degradation or drinking water pollution. While there are literatures on innovation as a process and on the factors that influence it, there is

  18. Relationship of a lichen species diversity indicator to environmental factors across the coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Mark J. Ambrose; Randall S. Morin

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated relationships between one simple indicator of lichen species diversity and environmental variables in forests across the coterminous United States. We want to know whether this indicator can help quantify the influence that factors such as climate and air quality have on lichen biodiversity at large scales and whether it will be useful in...

  19. Agri-Environmental Resource Management by Large-Scale Collective Action: Determining KEY Success Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Large-scale collective action is necessary when managing agricultural natural resources such as biodiversity and water quality. This paper determines the key factors to the success of such action. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper analyses four large-scale collective actions used to manage agri-environmental resources in Canada and…

  20. Which Environmental Factors Have the Highest Impact on the Performance of People Experiencing Difficulties in Capacity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Loidl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Disability is understood by the World Health Organization (WHO as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition and personal and environmental factors. Comprehensive data about environmental factors is therefore essential to understand and influence disability. We aimed to identify which environmental factors have the highest impact on the performance of people with mild, moderate and severe difficulties in capacity, who are at risk of experiencing disability to different extents, using data from a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey in Cambodia and random forest regression. Hindering or facilitating aspects of places to socialize in community activities, transportation and natural environment as well as use and need of personal assistance and use of medication on a regular basis were the most important environmental factors across groups. Hindering or facilitating aspects of the general environment were the most relevant in persons experiencing mild levels of difficulties in capacity, while social support, attitudes of others and use of medication on a regular basis were highly relevant for the performance of persons experiencing moderate to higher levels of difficulties in capacity. Additionally, we corroborate the high importance of the use and need of assistive devices for people with severe difficulties in capacity.

  1. Medical and environmental risk factors for sporadic frontotemporal dementia: a retrospective case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Rosso (Sonia); E.J. Landweer; M. Houterman; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.C. van Swieten (John); L. Donker Kaat (Laura)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA retrospective case-control study was carried out on 80 patients with sporadic frontotemporal dementia and 124 age, sex, and surrogate informant matched controls with respect to various medical and environmental risk factors. Head trauma was associated with an odds ratio of 3.3 (95%

  2. Nutritional and environmental factors in human spina bifida : an emphasis on myo-inositol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, Pascal Martinus Wilhelmus

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a nation wide case-control triad study carried out in collaboration with nine spina bifida centers and a patient organization (VSOP/BOSK) focused on the role of myo-inositol and zinc, environmental factors and related genes in the pathogenesis of spina bifida.

  3. European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation Topical Review on environmental factors in IBD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaser, Christian; Langholz, Ebbe; Gordon, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    This ECCO topical review of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) focuses on the role of environmental factors in respect to the development of IBD as well as the influence on the course of established IBD.The objective was to reach expert consensus to provide evidence-based guidan...

  4. The effects of exposure to environmental factors on Heart Rate Variability: An ecological perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Epstein, Yoram; Yaakov, Yaron; Hermesh, Hagai; Brenner, Shmuel; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    The impact of human exposure to environmental factors on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was examined in the urban space of Tel-Aviv-Jaffa. Four environmental factors were investigated: thermal and social loads; CO concentrations and noise. Levels of HRV are explained mainly by subjective social stresses, noise and CO. The most interesting result is the fact that while subjective social stress and noise increase HRV, low levels of CO are reducing HRV to some extent moderating the impact of subjective social stress and noise. Beyond the poisoning effect of CO and the fact that extremely low levels of HRV associated with high dozes of CO increase risk for life, low levels of CO may have a narcotic effect, as it is measured by HRV. The effects of thermal loads on HRV are negligible probably due to the use of behavioral means in order to neutralize heat and cold effects. -- Highlights: ► The impact of human exposure to environmental factors on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was examined. ► Previous studies measured human exposure to pollution by fixed monitoring stations. ► This study measured actual personal exposure by mini sensors. ► High level of subjective social load and noise increase HRV. ► Low levels of CO may have a narcotic effect, as it is measured by HRV. -- The research focuses on the effects of environmental factors; noise, subjective social stress, thermal load and CO on Heart Rate Variability

  5. Moral Reasoning Patterns and Influential Factors in the Context of Environmental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Busra; Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul; Teksoz, Gaye Tuncer

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service science teachers' (PSTs') moral reasoning patterns and the factors underlying these reasoning patterns. Local and non-local environmental dilemmas were used to examine moral reasoning patterns. An explanatory design was used with the collection and analysis of quantitative data, which was subsequently refined…

  6. Beyond genes: A systematic review of environmental risk factors in specific reading disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheretti, Sara; Andreola, Chiara; Scaini, Simona; Sulpizio, Simone

    2018-03-19

    While an understanding of the genetic contributions to specific reading disorder (RD) is emerging, there is no agreement about which putative hazard factors are clearly involved in the aetiology of this disorder. A literature review looking at the impact of environmental risk variables implicated in RD either per se or when interacting with the genes. We performed a systematic literature review using the following keywords: dyslexia OR reading disability AND environmental risk factors OR environmental hazard factors, in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO, without any time restrictions. Gestational weeks and birth weight are among the pre- and peri-natal risk factors shown to reliably predict reading readiness and the odds of having RD. Inconclusive findings have been reported for maternal cigarette smoking, family history of psychiatric and medical diseases, and risk of miscarriage. A broad definition of familial socio-economic status and home literacy environment have been identified as good life-long risk predictors of reading skills. We highlighted the need to consider environmental hazards, their interactions and interactions with RD-candidate genes in the study of the aetiology of RD in order to provide much-needed insight into how these variables influence reading skills. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Direct and Indirect Effects of Environmental Factors on Nurturing Intellectual Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shabatat, Ahmad Mohammad; Abbas, Merza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam

    2011-01-01

    Many people believe that environmental factors promote giftedness and invest in many programs to adopt gifted students providing them with challenging activities. Intellectual giftedness is founded on fluid intelligence and extends to more specific abilities through the growth and inputs from the environment. Acknowledging the roles played by the…

  8. Influence of environmental factors on fish production in Ogun-State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated environmental factors influencing fish farming in Ijebu - Ode Local Government Area (LGA) of Ogun-state, Nigeria. Data were obtained from 50 respondents selected from 10 ponds in the area of study. Respondents were selected for the study using random sampling technique while the ponds ...

  9. Physical Activity, a Critical Exposure Factor of Environmental Pollution in Children and Adolescents Health Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmei Dong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is an extremely urgent problem that physical fitness promotion must face not only the increasing air pollution but also the decline of physical activity level of children and adolescents worldwide at present, which is the major reason that forms an inactive lifestyle and does harm to adolescents’ health. Thus, it is necessary to focus on the exposure factor in environmental health risk assessment (EHRA which conducts supervision of environmental pollution and survey of adolescents’ activity patterns according to the harmful characteristics of air pollutant and relationship between dose and response. Some countries, such as USA, Canada and Australia, regard both respiratory rate and physical activity pattern as main exposure factors for adolescents in both air pollution health risk assessment and exercise risk assessment to forecast a safe exposing condition of pollutant for adolescents while they are doing exercise outdoors. In addition, it suggests that the testing indexes and testing methods of these two exposure factors, such as investigating the time of daily physical activity, strength, and characteristic of frequency, help to set up the quantitative relationship between environmental pollution index and the time, strength, frequency of daily activities, and formulate children’s and adolescents’ activity instructions under different levels of environmental pollutions. As smog becomes increasingly serious at present, it is meaningful to take physical activity as a critical composition of exposure factor and establish physical activity guideline, so as to reduce the risk of air pollution, and promote physical health of children and adolescents effectively.

  10. Identification of environmental factors affecting the speed of purebred Arabian racehorses in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.; Theunissen, H.; Ducro, B.J.; Bijma, P.; Grevenhof, van E.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to identify environmental factors affecting the speed of purebred Arabian racehorses in The Netherlands. Data contained 380 records on 88 purebred Arabian racehorses of varying age and sex. Data were collected from March 2005 through June 2006 during 52 races of varying

  11. Physical Activity, a Critical Exposure Factor of Environmental Pollution in Children and Adolescents Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingmei; Zhang, Su; Xia, Li; Yu, Yi; Hu, Shuangshuang; Sun, Jingyu; Zhou, Ping; Chen, Peijie

    2018-01-23

    It is an extremely urgent problem that physical fitness promotion must face not only the increasing air pollution but also the decline of physical activity level of children and adolescents worldwide at present, which is the major reason that forms an inactive lifestyle and does harm to adolescents' health. Thus, it is necessary to focus on the exposure factor in environmental health risk assessment (EHRA) which conducts supervision of environmental pollution and survey of adolescents' activity patterns according to the harmful characteristics of air pollutant and relationship between dose and response. Some countries, such as USA, Canada and Australia, regard both respiratory rate and physical activity pattern as main exposure factors for adolescents in both air pollution health risk assessment and exercise risk assessment to forecast a safe exposing condition of pollutant for adolescents while they are doing exercise outdoors. In addition, it suggests that the testing indexes and testing methods of these two exposure factors, such as investigating the time of daily physical activity, strength, and characteristic of frequency, help to set up the quantitative relationship between environmental pollution index and the time, strength, frequency of daily activities, and formulate children's and adolescents' activity instructions under different levels of environmental pollutions. As smog becomes increasingly serious at present, it is meaningful to take physical activity as a critical composition of exposure factor and establish physical activity guideline, so as to reduce the risk of air pollution, and promote physical health of children and adolescents effectively.

  12. Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simón, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    KeyWord:Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella

  13. Nutritional and environmental factors in human spina bifida - An emphasis on myo-inositol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, P.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a nation wide case-control triad study carried out in collaboration with nine spina bifida centers and a patient organization (VSOP/BOSK) focused on the role of myo-inositol and zinc, environmental factors and related genes in the pathogenesis of spina bifida.

  14. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Placental Growth Factor (PGF) is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes) suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent....

  15. Economic factor environmental protection. Productivity of the German environmental and climate protection industry in international competition; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Krawczyk, Olaf [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (NIW), Hannover (Germany); Walz, Rainer; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Frietsch, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The analysis on the economic factor environment and the German environmental industry on international competition is faced to methodological limits, since the environmental industry does not present itself as an homogeneous sector. The study is organized in the following chapters: introduction - the importance of environmental industry; classification of environmental and climate protection industry; productivity volume and production structure; international competition for potential environmental protection products; environmental protection industry and innovative performance. Integrated environmental solutions are of increasing significance, avoiding emissions and products and production process from beginning on. All known forecast indicate an expansive market development. In addition the rising prices for crude oil may push the search for innovative solutions to substitute fossil energy sources. The environmental industry should look for globally transferable solutions in order to promote global sustainable growth.

  16. Environmental and Clinical Risk Factors for Delirium in a Neurosurgical Center: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Fumihiro; Mizunari, Takayuki; Yamada, Keiko; Kobayashi, Shiro; Murai, Yasuo; Morita, Akio

    2017-07-01

    Few reports of delirium-related risk factors have focused on environmental risk factors and clinical risk factors, such as white matter signal abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging fluid attenuated inversion recovery images. We prospectively enrolled 253 patients admitted to our neurosurgical center between December 2014 and June 2015 and analyzed 220 patients (100 male patients; mean age, 64.1 years; age range, 17-92 years). An Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist score ≥4 points indicated delirium. We evaluated patient factors consisting of baseline characteristics and related factors, such as white matter lesions (WMLs), as well as the surrounding environment. Delirium occurred in 29/220 cases (13.2%). Regarding baseline characteristics, there were significant statistical correlations between delirium and age (P = 0.0187), Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised score (P = 0.0022) on admission, and WMLs (P delirium and stay in a neurosurgical care unit (P = 0.0245). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed statistically significant correlations of delirium with WMLs (P delirium (P = 0.026). WMLs in patients and the surrounding environment are risk factors for delirium in a neurosurgical center. To prevent delirium, clinicians must recognize risk factors, such as high-grade WMLs, and manage environmental factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Studying the Relative Strengths of Environmental Factors that Influence Echinoderm Body Size Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, A.; Randhawa, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Body size is often a useful metric in observing how a clade responds to environmental changes. Previous research has uncovered how environmental factors such as carbon dioxide and oxygen levels influence body size evolution. However, we wanted to look into how these natural factors interact and which factors seem to have a stronger relative influence on echinoderm body size. We analyzed carbon dioxide levels, a proxy for paleotemperature, oxygen levels, and sea level. Our research process involved measuring and calculating the volume of Phanerozoic echinoderm fossils recorded in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, plotting their mean volumes over various natural factors, and using statistical tools such as correlation tests and the PaleoTS statistical analysis software to compare the relative strengths of these factors. Furthermore, we divided our data into the following three subsets to uncover more specific relationships: 1) A set that included all data of the phylum Echinodermata 2) A set that focused on the two classes with the most recorded data, Echinoidea and Crinoidea 3) A set that focused on the crinoid specimens that originated in the Paleozoic and in the post-Paleozoic. In the first subset, echinoderms had the strongest correlation with carbon dioxide, a proxy for temperature, and possessed a weaker correlation with oxygen. In the second subset, we discovered that the echinoid data also possessed a strong correlation with carbon dioxide and a weaker correlation with oxygen. For crinoids, we found that the class as a whole showed no strong correlation with any measured environmental factors. However, when we divided the crinoids based on age, we found that both Paleozoic and post-Paleozoic crinoids individually correlated strongly with sea level. However, some uncertainty with this correlation arose as the comparison of the environmental correlate models suggested that an unbiased random walk was the best fit for the data. This stands as a sharp

  18. Problem gambling and internalising symptoms: a longitudinal analysis of common and specific social environmental protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Toumbourou, John W; Dowling, Nicki A

    2015-07-01

    Comorbidity between problem gambling and internalising disorders (anxiety and depression) has long been recognised. However, it is not clear how these relationships develop, and what factors can foster resilience to both conditions. The current study draws on longitudinal cohort data to investigate: 1) the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between problem gambling and internalising symptoms; 2) whether there are common and/or specific social environmental factors protective against both internalising symptoms and problem gambling in young adulthood; and 3) interactive protective factors (i.e., those that moderate the relationship between problem gambling and internalising symptoms). A sample of 2248 young adults (55% female) completed a survey in 2010 (T1) and 2012 (T2) which assessed problem gambling (measured via two items based on established measures), internalising symptoms, and social environmental protective factors. A positive cross-sectional relationship between problem gambling and internalising symptoms was found; however, there was no statistically significant longitudinal relationship between the two conditions. Protective factors for internalising symptoms were observed within the domains of the community, family and peer group; however, there were no statistically significant protective factors identified for problem gambling. These findings demonstrate that the social environmental protective factors for adult internalising symptoms assessed in the present study are poor longitudinal predictors of young adult problem gambling. Given the lack of common protective factors, it may be necessary to focus on separate factors to protect against each condition, if we are to address the comorbidity between problem gambling and internalising symptoms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Assessing temporal associations between environmental factors and malaria morbidity at varying transmission settings in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kigozi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental factors play a major role in transmission of malaria given their relationship to both the development and survival of the mosquito and parasite. The associations between environmental factors and malaria can be used to inform the development of early warning systems for increases in malaria burden. The objective of this study was to assess temporal relationships between rainfall, temperature and vegetation with malaria morbidity across three different transmission settings in Uganda. Methods Temporal relationships between environmental factors (weekly total rainfall, mean day time temperature and enhanced vegetation index series and malaria morbidity (weekly malaria case count data and test positivity rate series over the period January 2010–May 2013 in three sites located in varying malaria transmission settings in Uganda was explored using cross-correlation with pre-whitening. Sites included Kamwezi (low transmission, Kasambya (moderate transmission and Nagongera (high transmission. Results Nagongera received the most rain (30.6 mm and experienced, on average, the highest daytime temperatures (29.8 °C per week. In the study period, weekly TPR and number of malaria cases were highest at Kasambya and lowest at Kamwezi. The largest cross-correlation coefficients between environmental factors and malaria morbidity for each site was 0.27 for Kamwezi (rainfall and cases, 0.21 for Kasambya (vegetation and TPR, and −0.27 for Nagongera (daytime temperature and TPR. Temporal associations between environmental factors (rainfall, temperature and vegetation with malaria morbidity (number of malaria cases and TPR varied by transmission setting. Longer time lags were observed at Kamwezi and Kasambya compared to Nagongera in the relationship between rainfall and number of malaria cases. Comparable time lags were observed at Kasambya and Nagongera in the relationship between temperature and malaria morbidity. Temporal

  20. Environmental Risk Factors in Psoriasis: The Point of View of the Nutritionist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Barrea

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune-mediated skin disease with systemic pro-inflammatory activation, where both environmental and genetic factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Among the risk factors for psoriasis, evidence is accumulating that nutrition plays a major role, per se, in psoriasis pathogenesis. In particular, body weight, nutrition, and diet may exacerbate the clinical manifestations, or even trigger the disease. Understanding the epidemiological relationship between obesity and psoriasis is also important for delineating the risk profile for the obesity-related comorbidities commonly found among psoriatic patients. Moreover, obesity can affect both drug’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Additionally, the overall beneficial effects on the obesity-associated comorbidities, clinical recommendations to reduce weight and to adopt a healthy lifestyle could improve the psoriasis severity, particularly in those patients with moderate to severe disease, thus exerting additional therapeutic effects in the conventional treatment in obese patients with psoriasis. Education regarding modifiable environmental factors is essential in the treatment of this disease and represents one of the primary interventions that can affect the prognosis of patients with psoriasis. The goal is to make psoriatic patients and health care providers aware of beneficial dietary interventions. The aim of this review is to assess the relevance of the environmental factors as modifiable risk factors in psoriasis pathogenesis, with particular regard to the involvement of obesity and nutrition in the management of psoriasis, providing also specific nutrition recommendations.

  1. Pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma and the role of environmental and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neragi-Miandoab Siyamek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is a rare, aggressive tumor for which no effective therapy exists despite the discovery of many possible molecular and genetic targets. Many risk factors for MPM development have been recognized including environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, viral contamination, and radiation. However, the late stage of MPM diagnosis and the long latency that exists between some exposures and diagnosis have made it difficult to comprehensively evaluate the role of risk factors and their downstream molecular effects. In this review, we discuss the current molecular and genetic contributors in MPM pathogenesis and the risk factors associated with these carcinogenic processes.

  2. [Evaluation of the influence of physical environmental factors on morbidity among armed forces personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanov, R S; Gadzhiibragimov, D A; Medzhidova, M A; Kudriavtseva, O A

    2009-01-01

    Under the conditions of hot and mountain-continental climate, the morbidity rates were estimated to be significantly lower than those in young men who had not been acclimatized or adapted to living conditions and in non-acclimatized men. A role of individual physical environmental factors (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, average and maximum air speed) and integral exposure by the wind chill index (a combined impact of an air speed and ambient temperature) as risk factors to human health was defined. The mountain-continental climate showed a relationship of the influence of these factors to habitation at different altitudes.

  3. Influence factors analysis of water environmental quality of main rivers in Tianjin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Bao, Jingling; Zou, Di; Shi, Fang

    2018-01-01

    According to the evaluation results of the water environment quality of main rivers in Tianjin in 1986-2015, this paper analyzed the current situation of water environmental quality of main rivers in Tianjin retrospectively, established the index system and multiple factors analysis through selecting factors influencing the water environmental quality of main rivers from the economy, industry and nature aspects with the combination method of principal component analysis and linear regression. The results showed that water consumption, sewage discharge and water resources were the main factors influencing the pollution of main rivers. Therefore, optimizing the utilization of water resources, improving utilization efficiency and reducing effluent discharge are important measures to reduce the pollution of surface water environment.

  4. International classifications of accounting systems as a result of influence of various environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mijoč

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Activities of various environmental factors resulted in the emergence of accounting clusters that in- clude equal or similar countries, observed through evaluation (measurement criteria and publishing, which has led to group formation, i.e. clusterisation of accounting systems within similar or equal groups, subgroups and clusters. The key principle of group formation of accounting systems within certain clusters implies similar accounting practices, primarily the practice of measuring (evaluating positions and publishing information in financial reports. The measurement level and the quantity of published information is related to the environmental factors, primarily to cultural heritage, which, according to claims of numerous authors, is of crucial importance. If accounting practices of the com- pared countries are observed according to this factor, then it is possible to form at least two or more clusters, which is significant in the world of financial reporting as there are some controversies in the relation between IASB and FASB even today.

  5. Elevated-CO2 Response of Stomata and Its Dependence on Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Jiang, Yanling; Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the flow of gases between plants and the atmosphere. This review is centered on stomatal responses to elevated CO2 concentration and considers other key environmental factors and underlying mechanisms at multiple levels. First, an outline of general responses in stomatal conductance under elevated CO2 is presented. Second, stomatal density response, its development, and the trade-off with leaf growth under elevated CO2 conditions are depicted. Third, the molecular mechanism regulating guard cell movement at elevated CO2 is suggested. Finally, the interactive effects of elevated CO2 with other factors critical to stomatal behavior are reviewed. It may be useful to better understand how stomata respond to elevated CO2 levels while considering other key environmental factors and mechanisms, including molecular mechanism, biochemical processes, and ecophysiological regulation. This understanding may provide profound new insights into how plants cope with climate change. PMID:27242858

  6. Incidence of environmental and genetic factors causing congenital cataract in Children of Lahore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Shagufta; Sharif, Saima; Badar, Hafsa; Rashid, Farzana; Kaleem, Afshan; Iqtedar, Mehwish

    2016-07-01

    To check the incidence of environmental and genetic factors causing congenital cataract in infants. The descriptive study was conducted at Layton Rahmatullah Benevolent Trust, Lahore, Pakistan, from October 2013 to April 2014, and comprised children under 15 years of age who had rubella syndrome, herpes simplex, birth trauma, trisomy 21, Nance-Horan syndrome or Lowe's syndrome. Of the 38,000 cases examined, 120(0.3%) patients were diagnosed with congenital cataract. Of them, 52(43.33%)were aged between 2 and 5 years,22(18.33%) <11 years and 10(8.33%) ?15 years. Bilateral congenital cataract was observed in 91(75.83%) patients and unilateral congenital cataract in 29(24.17%). Environmental factors caused 72(62.07%) cases and genetic factors caused 44(37.93%).. Congenital cataract predominated in boys compared to girls. Early diagnosis and adequate therapy requires specific technology, as well as long-term and permanent care..

  7. Environmental parameters series. 3. Concentration factors of radionuclides in freshwater organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This report outlines recent research activities of Radioactive Waste Management Center. Aiming to estimate the radiation dose of man exposed to radioactive materials in an environment, construction of a calculation model on the transfer of radionuclide in the environment was attempted. This issue, Environmental parameter series No.3 includes six reports on the factors related to environmental concentration for radionuclides. The title of the reports are as follows; Factors modifying the concentration factor (CF), Evaluation of accumulation of radionuclides in brackish water organisms, Dose assessment, CF derived from Japanese limnological data, Data table of CF and Metabolic parameters in relation to bioaccumulation of elements by organisms. In addition to collect and arrange the existing data, CF was calculated based on the concentration of stable elements in various lakes and rivers in Japan. (M.N.)

  8. DEGRADATION WORKS OF MONUMENTAL ART CAST BRONZE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia NICA-BADEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensive pollution, combined with the lack of conservation of monuments exposed to these environments make the main cause of deterioration of cultural objects to atmospheric corrosion metal. This paper proposes a study of the main factors leading to degradation Bronze alloy, cast bronze monuments exposed to open atmosphere: corrosive environmental factors, stability and products of corrosion of bronze. In general, all corrosion products present on a metal surface are indicated as 'skate', can be composed of single-layer or multilayer products. The paper also includes a case study on the influence of environmental factors on degradation Matthias monument statue in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Visual inspection of the monument informs us that have white spots, gray, reddish not consistent with the base color green patina, surfaces showing depigmentation, the rain washed areas, crystallization, deposition of air-borne particles.

  9. Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors Influencing Salamanders in Riparian Forests: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Clipp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Salamanders and riparian forests are intimately interconnected. Salamanders are integral to ecosystem functions, contributing to vertebrate biomass and complex food webs in riparian forests. In turn, these forests are critical ecosystems that perform many environmental services, facilitate high biodiversity and species richness, and provide habitat to salamander populations. Due to the global decline of amphibians, it is important to understand, as thoroughly and holistically as possible, the roles of environmental parameters and the impact of human activities on salamander abundance and diversity in riparian forests. To determine the population responses of salamanders to a variety of environmental factors and anthropogenic activities, we conducted a review of published literature that compared salamander abundance and diversity, and then summarized and synthesized the data into general patterns. We identify stream quality, leaf litter and woody debris, riparian buffer width, and soil characteristics as major environmental factors influencing salamander populations in riparian forests, describe and explain salamander responses to those factors, and discuss the effects of anthropogenic activities such as timber harvest, prescribed fires, urbanization, road construction, and habitat fragmentation. This review can assist land and natural resource managers in anticipating the consequences of human activities and preparing strategic conservation plans.

  10. Environmental factors related to enterobiasis in a southeast region of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Cho, Min Kyoung; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Kim, Bo Young; Park, Sang Kyun; Yu, Hak Sun

    2013-02-01

    Pinworm infection can occur through contact with contaminated surfaces followed by ingestion or even through inhalation of infective eggs. We have limited information regarding environmental contamination by eggs of Enterobius vermicularis. In order to determine environmental risk factors associated with the rate of E. vermicularis infection, we investigated possible environmental risk factors using a questionnaire from 46 kindergartens in 3 different cities of the southeast area of Korea. In total, using the cellotape anal swab technique, 3,422 children were examined for E. vermicularis infection. We evaluated E. vermicularis egg of books, educational materials, toys, room door handles, dusts of window edges, desks, chairs, tables, and dusts of classrooms. The overall egg-positive rate for E. vermicularis was 6.0%, and the prevalence of enterobiasis in each kindergarten ranged between 0% and 16.9%. We found that 78.9% of egg positive kindergartens were managed by private foundations, which was significantly higher, compared with kindergartens managed by public foundations or the nation. Compared with public or national kindergartens, most private kindergartens were located in residential areas and the number of children in these areas was significantly higher. In conclusion, numbers of children in kindergartens was found to be an environmental risk factor associated with transmission of enterobiasis in Korea.

  11. Behavioral phenotypes in schizophrenic animal models with multiple combinations of genetic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Noda, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial psychiatric disorder in which both genetic and environmental factors play a role. Genetic [e.g., Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), Neuregulin-1 (NRG1)] and environmental factors (e.g., maternal viral infection, obstetric complications, social stress) may act during the developmental period to increase the incidence of schizophrenia. In animal models, interactions between susceptibility genes and the environment can be controlled in ways not possible in humans; therefore, such models are useful for investigating interactions between or within factors in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We provide an overview of schizophrenic animal models investigating interactions between or within factors. First, we reviewed gene-environment interaction animal models, in which schizophrenic candidate gene mutant mice were subjected to perinatal immune activation or adolescent stress. Next, environment-environment interaction animal models, in which mice were subjected to a combination of perinatal immune activation and adolescent administration of drugs, were described. These animal models showed interaction between or within factors; behavioral changes, which were obscured by each factor, were marked by interaction of factors and vice versa. Appropriate behavioral approaches with such models will be invaluable for translational research on novel compounds, and also for providing insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  12. Role of the environmental factor in the competitiveness of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kalyuzhnova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the role of environmental factor in the competitiveness of the region. The issue of the country's image and the region is considered according to ecology and touristic appeal. We consider the modern role of botanical gardens and their transformation from scientific horticultural organizations to the objects of multi-use facilities type, for a regional multi-utility. The experience of an innovative project of creation of Russia's first environmental technological park and tourist-recreational zone on the basis of the university botanical garden in Irkutsk using the public-private partnership is stated.

  13. Which environmental factors most strongly influence a street's appeal for bicycle transport among adults? A conjoint study using manipulated photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Lieze; Van Dyck, Delfien; Ghekiere, Ariane; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2016-09-01

    Micro-environmental factors (specific features within a streetscape), instead of macro-environmental factors (urban planning features), are more feasible to modify in existing neighborhoods and thus more practical to target for environmental interventions. Because it is often not possible to change the whole micro-environment at once, the current study aims to determine which micro-environmental factors should get the priority to target in physical environmental interventions increasing bicycle transport. Additionally, interaction effects among micro-environmental factors on the street's appeal for bicycle transport will be determined. In total, 1950 middle-aged adults completed a web-based questionnaire consisting of a set of 12 randomly assigned choice tasks with manipulated photographs. Seven micro-environmental factors (type of cycle path, speed limit, speed bump, vegetation, evenness of the cycle path surface, general upkeep and traffic density) were manipulated in each photograph. Conjoint analysis was used to analyze the data. Providing streets with a cycle path separated from motorized traffic seems to be the best strategy to increase the street's appeal for adults' bicycle transport. If this adjustment is not practically feasible, micro-environmental factors related to safety (i.e. speed limit, traffic density) may be more effective in promoting bicycle transport than micro-environmental factors related to comfort (i.e. evenness of the cycle path surface) or aesthetic (i.e. vegetation, general upkeep). On the other hand, when a more separated cycle path is already provided, micro-environmental factors related to comfort or aesthetic appeared to become more prominent. Findings obtained from this research could provide advice to physical environmental interventions about which environmental factors should get priority to modify in different environmental situations. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Ghent University Hospital. B

  14. Which environmental factors are associated with lived health when controlling for biological health? - a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Cristina; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Stucki, Gerold; Bickenbach, Jerome; Cieza, Alarcos

    2015-05-27

    Lived health and biological health are two different perspectives of health introduced by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Since in the concept of lived health the impact of the environment on biological health is inherently included, it seems intuitive that when identifying the environmental determinants of health, lived health is the appropriate outcome. The Multilevel Item Response Theory (MLIRT) model has proven to be a successful method when dealing with the relation between a latent variable and observed variables. The objective of this study was to identify environmental factors associated with lived health when controlling for biological health by using the MLIRT framework. We performed a psychometric study using cross-sectional data from the Spanish Survey on Disability, Independence and Dependency Situation. Data were collected from 17,303 adults living in 15,263 dwellings. The MLIRT model was used for each of the two steps of the analysis to: (1) calculate people's biological health abilities and (2) estimate the association between lived health and environmental factors when controlling for biological health. The hierarchical structure of individuals in dwellings was considered in both models. Social support, being able to maintain one's job, the extent to which one's health needs are addressed and being discriminated against due to one's health problems were the environmental factors identified as associated with lived health. Biological health also had a strong positive association with lived health. This study identified environmental factors associated with people's lived health differences within and between dwellings according to the MLIRT-model approach. This study paves the way for the future implementation of the MLIRT model when analysing ICF-based data.

  15. Headache disorders in children and adolescents: their association with psychological, behavioral, and socio-environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner-Herwig, Birgit; Gassmann, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    This cross-sectional study on a randomly drawn population sample of children and adolescents (n = 3399; aged 9 to 15) aimed at the assessment of patterns of associations between psychosocial variables and primary headache disorders like migraine (MIG) or tension-type headache. A headache-free group served as a control. Data on headache and psychological trait variables (eg, internalizing symptoms), behavioral factors (eg, physical activities), and socio-environmental factors (eg, life events) were gathered by questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were conducted with headache types (MIG, tension-type, and non-classifiable headache) as dependent variables. The pattern of correlations was largely congruent between the headache disorders. Associations were closest regarding maladaptive psychological traits (in particular internalizing symptoms with an odds ratio > 4 regarding MIG) compared with socio-environmental factors and particularly the behavioral factors. Unfavorable psychological traits and socio-environmental strains demonstrated distinctly stronger associations with MIG than tension-type headache and explained more variance in the occurrence of pediatric headache disorders than parental headache. Sex-specific analyses showed similarities as well as differences regarding the correlations, and in general, the associations were stronger in girls than boys. A common path model as posited by several researchers in the field may explain the parallelism in biopsychosocial vulnerability regarding the different headache disorders. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  16. [Genetic and environmental factors of asthma and allergy: Results of the EGEA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzigon, E; Nadif, R; Le Moual, N; Dizier, M-H; Aschard, H; Boudier, A; Bousquet, J; Chanoine, S; Donnay, C; Dumas, O; Gormand, F; Jacquemin, B; Just, J; Margaritte-Jeannin, P; Matran, R; Pison, C; Rage, E; Rava, M; Sarnowski, C; Smit, L A M; Temam, S; Varraso, R; Vignoud, L; Lathrop, M; Pin, I; Demenais, F; Kauffmann, F; Siroux, V

    2015-10-01

    The EGEA study (epidemiological study on the genetics and environment of asthma, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and atopy), which combines a case-control and a family-based study of asthma case (n=2120 subjects) with three surveys over 20 years, aims to identify environmental and genetic factors associated with asthma and asthma-related phenotypes. We summarize the results of the phenotypic characterization and the investigation of environmental and genetic factors of asthma and asthma-related phenotypes obtained since 2007 in the EGEA study (42 articles). Both epidemiological and genetic results confirm the heterogeneity of asthma. These results strengthen the role of the age of disease onset, the allergic status and the level of disease activity in the identification of the different phenotypes of asthma. The deleterious role of active smoking, exposure to air pollution, occupational asthmogenic agents and cleaning products on the prevalence and/or activity of asthma has been confirmed. Accounting for gene-environment interactions allowed the identification of new genetic factors underlying asthma and asthma-related traits and better understanding of their mode of action. The EGEA study is contributing to the advances in respiratory research at the international level. The new phenotypic, environmental and biological data available in EGEA study will help characterizing the long-term evolution of asthma and the factors associated to this evolution. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Objective assessment of facial skin aging and the associated environmental factors in Japanese monozygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichibori, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Shingaki, Kenta; Torii, Kosuke; Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Sakai, Yasuo; Hosokawa, Ko

    2014-06-01

    Twin studies, especially those involving monozygotic (MZ) twins, facilitate the analysis of factors affecting skin aging while controlling for age, gender, and genetic susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess various features of facial skin and analyze the effects of environmental factors on these features in MZ twins. At the Osaka Twin Research Center, 67 pairs of MZ twins underwent medical interviews and photographic assessments, using the VISIA(®) Complexion Analysis System. First, the average scores of the right and left cheek skin spots, wrinkles, pores, texture, and erythema were calculated; the differences between the scores were then compared in each pair of twins. Next, using the results of medical interviews and VISIA data, we investigated the effects of environmental factors on skin aging. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intrapair differences in facial texture scores significantly increased as the age of the twins increased (P = 0.03). Among the twin pairs who provided answers to the questions regarding history differences in medical interviews, the twins who smoked or did not use skin protection showed significantly higher facial texture or wrinkle scores compared with the twins not exposed to cigarettes or protectants (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The study demonstrated that skin aging among Japanese MZ twins, especially in terms of facial texture, was significantly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, smoking and skin protectant use were important environmental factors influencing skin aging. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The effect of child, family and environmental factors on the participation of young children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marino, Erica; Tremblay, Stephanie; Khetani, Mary; Anaby, Dana

    2018-01-01

    While participation is essential to a child's health and well-being, little is known about participation patterns of young children with disabilities. This study described the participation of children with disabilities under age 6, and examined the extent to which the child's factors (i.e., age, complexity of child's condition), family factors (i.e., general family functioning, income) and environmental factors (i.e., environmental helpfulness) affect participation dimensions (frequency, involvement, desire for change) in three different settings: home, daycare/preschool and community. Cross-sectional design was employed. Parents (n = 90) of children aged 1.4-6 years old (mean = 4.15, SD = 1.03) with disabilities completed the French Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM) and Family Assessment Device. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regressions were performed to describe participation patterns and identify the significant explanatory factors in each setting. Participation restriction, based on frequency of activities, was primarily observed in the community setting. Environmental helpfulness (resources, supports) consistently explained participation levels for at least one of the dimensions across all settings, whereas contribution of the child's factors was less evident. Family functioning had a significant effect when examining participation involvement in the community and desire for change in the home setting and, in combination with environmental helpfulness, explained 18% and 21% of the variance respectively. This study emphasizes the role of the environment in supporting participation of young children with disabilities. Findings can re-direct practitioners' attention towards modifying the environment as a primary target of intervention aimed at promoting health through participation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Contribution of individual and environmental factors to physical activity level among Spanish adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Serrano-Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity (PA is a major risk for chronic disease and obesity. The main aims of the present study were to identify individual and environmental factors independently associated with PA and examine the relative contribution of these factors to PA level in Spanish adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,000 adults (18-75 years old from Gran Canaria (Spain was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. The participants were interviewed at home using a validated questionnaire to assess PA as well as individual and environmental factors. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. One demographic variable (education, two cognitive (self-efficacy and perceived barriers, and one social environmental (organized format were independently associated with PA in both genders. Odds ratios ranged between 1.76-2.07 in men and 1.35-2.50 in women (both p<0.05. Individual and environmental factors explained about one-third of the variance in PA level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Self-efficacy and perceived barriers were the most significant factors to meet an adequate level of PA. The risk of insufficient PA was twofold greater in men with primary or lesser studies and who are employed. In women, living in rural environments increased the risk of insufficient PA. The promotion of organized PA may be an efficient way to increase the level of PA in the general population. Improvement in the access to sport facilities and places for PA is a prerequisite that may be insufficient and should be combined with strategies to improve self-efficacy and overcome perceived barriers in adulthood.

  20. The impact of supply chain-related factors on the environmental performance of manufacturing firms in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akin, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Wynstra, F.; Raaij, van E.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of supply chain-related factors on the adoption of proactive environmental strategies, and the impact of such strategies on environmental investments and environmental performance. Data were collected from 96 Turkish manufacturers using an online questionnaire. The

  1. Sleep as a Mediator in the Pathway Linking Environmental Factors to Hypertension: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun A. Akinseye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors, such as noise exposure and air pollution, are associated with hypertension. These environmental factors also affect sleep quality. Given the growing evidence linking sleep quality with hypertension, the purpose of this review is to investigate the role of sleep as a key mediator in the association between hypertension and environmental factors. Through this narrative review of the extant literature, we highlight that poor sleep quality mediates the relationship between environmental factors and hypertension. The conceptual model proposed in this review offers opportunities to address healthcare disparities in hypertension among African Americans by highlighting the disparate impact that the predictors (environmental factors and mediator (sleep have on the African-American community. Understanding the impact of these factors is crucial since the main outcome variable (hypertension severely burdens the African-American community.

  2. Environmental Risk Factors in Han and Uyghur Children with Dyslexia: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Yun; Zhou, Xiang; Zuo, Pengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted to explore risk factors for dyslexia. However, most studies examining dyslexia have been skewed toward Western countries, and few have considered two nationalities simultaneously. This study focused on differences in dyslexia prevalence and potential environmental risk factors between Han and Uyghur children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kashgar and Aksu, cities in Xinjiang province, China. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to recruit 2,854 students in grades 3-6 from 5 primary schools in 5 districts; 2,348 valid student questionnaires were included in the analysis. Dyslexia checklists for Chinese and Uyghur children and pupil rating scales were used to identify children with dyslexia. Questions related to the home literacy environment and reading ability were used to evaluate potential environmental risk factors. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine prevalence and risk factors for dyslexia. Dyslexia prevalence differed significantly between Han (3.9%) and Uyghur (7.0%) children (P dyslexia prevalence between Han and Uyghur children could have occurred because of factors such as mother's occupation (P = 0.02, OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01-0.68) and the frequency with which parents told stories (P = 0.00, OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.67-12.11). The prevalence of dyslexia was high in all children, particularly those in the Uyghur group. Environmental factors could have been responsible for some of the differences observed. The results contribute to the early identification and management of dyslexia in children from these two groups and research examining developmental dyslexia and differences in racial genetics.

  3. Strategic environmental assessment performance factors and their interaction: An empirical study in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianwei, E-mail: li.tianwei@mep.gov.cn [Appraisal Center for Environment and Engineering, MEP (China); Wang, Huizhi, E-mail: huizhiwangnk@163.com [Tianjin Academy of Social Sciences (China); Deng, Baole, E-mail: dengbaolekobe@126.com [Tianjin Environmental Monitoring Center (China); Ren, Wei, E-mail: wei.ren1012@gmail.com [School of the Built Environment, Oxford Brookes University (United Kingdom); Xu, He, E-mail: seacenter@nankai.edu.cn [Research center for Strategic Environmental Assessment, Nankai University (China)

    2016-07-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been seen as a preventive and participatory environmental management tool designed to integrate environmental protection into the decision-making process. However, the debate about SEA performance and effectiveness has increased in recent decades. Two main challenges exist in relation to this issue. The first is identifying the key influencing factors that affect SEA effectiveness, and the second is analyzing the relationship between SEA and these influencing factors. In this study, influencing factors were investigated through questionnaire surveys in the Chinese context, and then a Structural Equation Model (SEM) was developed and tested to identify potential links and causal relationships among factors. The associations between the independent factors were divided into direct and indirect causal associations. The results indicate that the decision-making process and policy context directly affect SEA implementation, while information and data sharing, public participation, expertise and SEA institutions are indirectly related with SEA. The results also suggest that a lack of cooperation between different sectors is an obstacle to the implementation of SEA. These findings could potentially contribute to the future management and implementation of SEA or enhance existing knowledge of SEA. The results show that the proposed model has a degree of feasibility and applicability. - Highlights: • Influencing factors were identified and investigated through questionnaire surveys. • Structural Equation Model (SEM) was developed and tested to identify potential links and causal relationships among factors. • Decision-making process and policy context directly affect SEA implementation. • Lack of cooperation among different sectors is an obstacle to the implementation of SEA. • The proposed model has a degree of feasibility and applicability.

  4. Environmental Risk Factors in Han and Uyghur Children with Dyslexia: A Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhao

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to explore risk factors for dyslexia. However, most studies examining dyslexia have been skewed toward Western countries, and few have considered two nationalities simultaneously. This study focused on differences in dyslexia prevalence and potential environmental risk factors between Han and Uyghur children.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kashgar and Aksu, cities in Xinjiang province, China. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to recruit 2,854 students in grades 3-6 from 5 primary schools in 5 districts; 2,348 valid student questionnaires were included in the analysis. Dyslexia checklists for Chinese and Uyghur children and pupil rating scales were used to identify children with dyslexia. Questions related to the home literacy environment and reading ability were used to evaluate potential environmental risk factors. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine prevalence and risk factors for dyslexia.Dyslexia prevalence differed significantly between Han (3.9% and Uyghur (7.0% children (P < 0.05, and the boy-to-girl diagnosis ratio was almost 2:1. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ethnic differences in dyslexia prevalence between Han and Uyghur children could have occurred because of factors such as mother's occupation (P = 0.02, OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01-0.68 and the frequency with which parents told stories (P = 0.00, OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.67-12.11.The prevalence of dyslexia was high in all children, particularly those in the Uyghur group. Environmental factors could have been responsible for some of the differences observed. The results contribute to the early identification and management of dyslexia in children from these two groups and research examining developmental dyslexia and differences in racial genetics.

  5. Model of Environmental Development of the Urbanized Areas: Accounting of Ecological and other Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanina, E. N.; Pandakov, K. G.; Agapov, D. A.; Sorokina, Yu V.; Vasiliev, E. H.

    2017-05-01

    Modern cities and towns are often characterized by poor administration, which could be the reason of environmental degradation, the poverty growth, decline in economic growth and social isolation. In these circumstances it is really important to conduct fresh researches forming new ways of sustainable development of administrative districts. This development of the urban areas depends on many interdependent factors: ecological, economic, social. In this article we show some theoretical aspects of forming a model of environmental progress of the urbanized areas. We submit some model containing four levels including natural resources capacities of the territory, its social features, economic growth and human impact. The author describes the interrelations of elements of the model. In this article the program of environmental development of a city is offered and it could be used in any urban area.

  6. Relationship between determinant factors of disclosure of information on environmental impacts of Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Vogt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing the relationship between determinant factors of disclosure of information on environmental impacts of Brazilian companies. A descriptive, documental and quantitative research was conducted through a sample of 97 Brazilian companies. In the Sustainability Reports and in the Annual Reports information, five environmental aspects were collected: emissions, effluents, wastes, products and services; and transport, which were used to measure the degree of environmental disclosure. This concludes that there is a relationship between the variables investigated in all analyzed years. The size, audit and Global Reporting Initiative (GRI are associated with disclosure and the Corporate Sustainability Index (CSI, Pollution Potential (POTEN, governance, stocks, Return on Assets (ROA and Return on Equity (ROE are not.

  7. Associations between environmental factors and hospital admissions for sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Frédéric B; Tewari, Sanjay; Brousse, Valentine; Analitis, Antonis; Font, Anna; Menzel, Stephan; Chakravorty, Subarna; Thein, Swee Lay; Inusa, Baba; Telfer, Paul; de Montalembert, Mariane; Fuller, Gary W; Katsouyanni, Klea; Rees, David C

    2017-04-01

    Sickle cell disease is an increasing global health burden. This inherited disease is characterized by a remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity, which can only partly be explained by genetic factors. Environmental factors are likely to play an important role but studies of their impact on disease severity are limited and their results are often inconsistent. This study investigated associations between a range of environmental factors and hospital admissions of young patients with sickle cell disease in London and in Paris between 2008 and 2012. Specific analyses were conducted for subgroups of patients with different genotypes and for the main reasons for admissions. Generalized additive models and distributed lag non-linear models were used to assess the magnitude of the associations and to calculate relative risks. Some environmental factors significantly influence the numbers of hospital admissions of children with sickle cell disease, although the associations identified are complicated. Our study suggests that meteorological factors are more likely to be associated with hospital admissions for sickle cell disease than air pollutants. It confirms previous reports of risks associated with wind speed (risk ratio: 1.06/standard deviation; 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.12) and also with rainfall (1.06/standard deviation; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.12). Maximum atmospheric pressure was found to be a protective factor (0.93/standard deviation; 95% confidence interval: 0.88-0.99). Weak or no associations were found with temperature. Divergent associations were identified for different genotypes or reasons for admissions, which could partly explain the lack of consistency in earlier studies. Advice to patients with sickle cell disease usually includes avoiding a range of environmental conditions that are believed to trigger acute complications, including extreme temperatures and high altitudes. Scientific evidence to support such advice is limited and sometimes

  8. Associations between environmental factors and hospital admissions for sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Frédéric B.; Tewari, Sanjay; Brousse, Valentine; Analitis, Antonis; Font, Anna; Menzel, Stephan; Chakravorty, Subarna; Thein, Swee Lay; Inusa, Baba; Telfer, Paul; de Montalembert, Mariane; Fuller, Gary W.; Katsouyanni, Klea; Rees, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is an increasing global health burden. This inherited disease is characterized by a remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity, which can only partly be explained by genetic factors. Environmental factors are likely to play an important role but studies of their impact on disease severity are limited and their results are often inconsistent. This study investigated associations between a range of environmental factors and hospital admissions of young patients with sickle cell disease in London and in Paris between 2008 and 2012. Specific analyses were conducted for subgroups of patients with different genotypes and for the main reasons for admissions. Generalized additive models and distributed lag non-linear models were used to assess the magnitude of the associations and to calculate relative risks. Some environmental factors significantly influence the numbers of hospital admissions of children with sickle cell disease, although the associations identified are complicated. Our study suggests that meteorological factors are more likely to be associated with hospital admissions for sickle cell disease than air pollutants. It confirms previous reports of risks associated with wind speed (risk ratio: 1.06/standard deviation; 95% confidence interval: 1.00–1.12) and also with rainfall (1.06/standard deviation; 95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.12). Maximum atmospheric pressure was found to be a protective factor (0.93/standard deviation; 95% confidence interval: 0.88–0.99). Weak or no associations were found with temperature. Divergent associations were identified for different genotypes or reasons for admissions, which could partly explain the lack of consistency in earlier studies. Advice to patients with sickle cell disease usually includes avoiding a range of environmental conditions that are believed to trigger acute complications, including extreme temperatures and high altitudes. Scientific evidence to support such advice is limited and

  9. Spatial-temporal eco-environmental vulnerability assessment and its influential factors based on Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, N. K.; Liou, Y. A.; Ming-Hsu, L.

    2016-12-01

    Regional land use/land cover (LULC) changes lead to various changes in ecological processes and, in turn, alter regional micro-climate. To understand eco-environmental responses to LULC changes, eco-environmental evaluation is thus required with aims to identify vulnerable regions and influential factors, so that practical measures for environmental protection and management may be proposed. The Thua Thien - Hue Province has been experiencing urbanization at a rapid rate in both population and physical size. The urban land, agricultural land, and aquaculture activities have been invasively into natural space and caused eco-environment deterioration by land desertification, soil erosion, shrinking forest resources,…etc. In this study, an assessment framework that is composed by 11 variables with 9 of them constructed from Landsat time series is proposed to serve as basis to examine eco-environmental vulnerability in the Thua Thien - Hue Province in years 1989, 2003, and 2014. An eco-environmental vulnerability map is assorted into six vulnerability levels consisting of potential, slight, light, medium, heavy, and very heavy vulnerabilities. Result shows that there is an increasing trend in eco-environmental vulnerability in general with expected evolving distributions in heavy and very heavy vulnerability levels, which mainly lying on developed land, bare land, semi bare land, agricultural land, and poor and recovery forests. In contrast, there is a significant decline in potential vulnerability level. The contributing factors of an upward trend in medium, heavy, and very heavy levels include: (i) a large natural forest converted to plantation forest and agriculture land; and (ii) significant expansion of developed land leading to difference in thermal signatures in urban areas as compared with those of the surrounding areas. It is concluded that anthropogenic processes with transformation on LULC has amplified the vulnerability of eco-environment in the study

  10. Environmental contamination as a risk factor for intra-household Staphylococcus aureus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Justin; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Miller, Maureen; Hafer, Cory; Vasquez, Glenny; Vavagiakis, Peter; Shi, Qiuhu; Lowy, Franklin D

    2012-01-01

    The household is a recognized community reservoir for Staphylococcus aureus. This study investigated potential risk factors for intra-household S. aureus transmission, including the contribution of environmental contamination. We investigated intra-household S. aureus transmission using a sample of multiple member households from a community-based case-control study examining risk factors for CA-MRSA infection conducted in Northern Manhattan. During a home visit, index subjects completed a questionnaire. All consenting household members were swabbed, as were standardized environmental household items. Swabs were cultured for S. aureus. Positive isolates underwent further molecular characterization. Intra-household transmission was defined as having identical strains among two or more household members. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for transmission. We enrolled 291 households: 146 index cases, 145 index controls and 687 of their household contacts. The majority of indexes were Hispanic (85%), low income (74%), and female (67%), with a mean age of 31 (range 1-79). The average size of case and control households was 4 people. S. aureus colonized individuals in 62% of households and contaminated the environment in 54% of households. USA300 was the predominant clinical infection, colonizing and environmental strain. Eighty-one households had evidence of intra-household transmission: 55 (38%) case and 26 (18%) control households (Ptransmission. In separate multivariable models, environmental contamination was associated with transmission among case (aOR 3.3, ptransmission in a large community-based sample. Environmental contamination should be considered when treating S. aureus infections, particularly among households with multiple infected members.

  11. Epidemiologic Tools to Study the Influence of Environmental Factors on Fecundity and Pregnancy-related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Rémy; Ballester, Ferran; Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; Iniguez, Carmen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Philippat, Claire; Rey, Sylvie; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Vrijheid, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes entail a large health burden for the mother and offspring; a part of it might be avoided by better understanding the role of environmental factors in their etiology. Our aims were to review the assessment tools to characterize fecundity troubles and pregnancy-related outcomes in human populations and their sensitivity to environmental factors. For each outcome, we reviewed the possible study designs, main sources of bias, and their suggested cures. In terms of study design, for most pregnancy outcomes, cohorts with recruitment early during or even before pregnancy allow efficient characterization of pregnancy-related events, time-varying confounders, and in utero exposures that may impact birth outcomes and child health. Studies on congenital anomalies require specific designs, assessment of anomalies in medical pregnancy terminations, and, for congenital anomalies diagnosed postnatally, follow-up during several months after birth. Statistical analyses should take into account environmental exposures during the relevant time windows; survival models are an appropriate approach for fecundity, fetal loss, and gestational duration/preterm delivery. Analysis of gestational duration could distinguish pregnancies according to delivery induction (and possibly pregnancy-related conditions). In conclusion, careful design and analysis are required to better characterize environmental effects on human reproduction. PMID:24363355

  12. Nutrients and Other Environmental Factors Influence Virus Abundances across Oxic and Hypoxic Marine Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan F. Finke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Virus particles are highly abundant in seawater and, on average, outnumber microbial cells approximately 10-fold at the surface and 16-fold in deeper waters; yet, this relationship varies across environments. Here, we examine the influence of a suite of environmental variables, including nutrient concentrations, salinity and temperature, on the relationship between the abundances of viruses and prokaryotes over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, including along a track from the Northwest Atlantic to the Northeast Pacific via the Arctic Ocean, and in the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada. Models of varying complexity were tested and compared for best fit with the Akaike Information Criterion, and revealed that nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, as well as prokaryote abundances, either individually or combined, had significant effects on viral abundances in all but hypoxic environments, which were only explained by a combination of physical and chemical factors. Nonetheless, multivariate models of environmental variables showed high explanatory power, matching or surpassing that of prokaryote abundance alone. Incorporating both environmental variables and prokaryote abundances into multivariate models significantly improved the explanatory power of the models, except in hypoxic environments. These findings demonstrate that environmental factors could be as important as, or even more important than, prokaryote abundance in describing viral abundance across wide-ranging marine environments

  13. Test-retest reliability of a questionnaire to assess physical environmental factors pertaining to physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinn Aileen P

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the documented benefits of physical activity, many adults do not obtain the recommended amounts. Barriers to physical activity occur at multiple levels, including at the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels. Only until more recently has there been a concerted focus on how the physical environment might affect physical activity behavior. With this new area of study, self-report measures should be psychometrically tested before use in research studies. Therefore the objective of this study was to document the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess physical environmental factors that might be associated with physical activity in a diverse adult population. Methods Test and retest surveys were conducted over the telephone with 106 African American and White women and men living in either Forsyth County, North Carolina or Jackson, Mississippi. Reliability of self-reported environmental factors across four domains (e.g., access to facilities and destinations, functionality and safety, aesthetics, natural environment was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC overall and separately by gender and race. Results Generally items displayed moderate and sometimes substantial reliability (ICC between 0.4 to 0.8, with a few differences by gender or race, across each of the domains. Conclusion This study provides some psychometric evidence for the use of many of these questions in studies examining the effect of self-reported physical environmental measures on physical activity behaviors, among African American and White women and men.

  14. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for phobias in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, N; Kendler, K S; Tambs, K; Røysamb, E; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T

    2011-09-01

    To explore the genetic and environmental factors underlying the co-occurrence of lifetime diagnoses of DSM-IV phobia. Female twins (n=1430) from the population-based Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel were assessed at personal interview for DSM-IV lifetime specific phobia, social phobia and agoraphobia. Comorbidity between the phobias were assessed by odds ratios (ORs) and polychoric correlations and multivariate twin models were fitted in Mx. Phenotypic correlations of lifetime phobia diagnoses ranged from 0.55 (agoraphobia and social phobia, OR 10.95) to 0.06 (animal phobia and social phobia, OR 1.21). In the best fitting twin model, which did not include shared environmental factors, heritability estimates for the phobias ranged from 0.43 to 0.63. Comorbidity between the phobias was accounted for by two common liability factors. The first loaded principally on animal phobia and did not influence the complex phobias (agoraphobia and social phobia). The second liability factor strongly influenced the complex phobias, but also loaded weak to moderate on all the other phobias. Blood phobia was mainly influenced by a specific genetic factor, which accounted for 51% of the total and 81% of the genetic variance. Phobias are highly co-morbid and heritable. Our results suggest that the co-morbidity between phobias is best explained by two distinct liability factors rather than a single factor, as has been assumed in most previous multivariate twin analyses. One of these factors was specific to the simple phobias, while the other was more general. Blood phobia was mainly influenced by disorder specific genetic factors.

  15. Environmental factors influencing neonatal immunity and development of diseases later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Marie

    predisposition) and the exposed environment, beginning as early as in perinatal life, are recognized causes of chronic inflammatory diseases. This PhD thesis focuses on two potential environmental risk exposures for development of childhood asthma, namely maternal parity, and postpartum bacterial colonisation...... system and nasal microbiota. These environmental factors tend to be overlooked both in the study design, statistical analysis and reporting of scientific studies. This may result in misinterpretations and errors in our search for causes of childhood asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases.......The prevalence of chronic inflammatory diseases in children, including childhood asthma, has increased during the past decades resulting in reduced quality of life for the implicated child and family, and an increased socioeconomic burden. Complex interactions between genetic factors (genetic...

  16. Asthma in Urban Children: Epidemiology, Environmental Risk Factors, and the Public Health Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Ki Lee; Matsui, Elizabeth; Sharma, Hemant

    2016-04-01

    Asthma is the most commonly reported chronic condition of childhood in developed countries, with 6.5 million children affected in the USA. A disparate burden of childhood asthma is seen among socioeconomically disadvantaged youth, often concentrated in urban areas with high poverty rates. Host factors that predispose a child to asthma include atopy, male gender, parental history of asthma, and also race, ethnicity, and genetic and epigenetic susceptibilities. Environmental factors, such as improved hygiene, ambient air pollution, and early life exposures to microbes and aeroallergens, also influence the development of asthma. With greater than 90% of time spent indoors, home exposures (such as cockroach, rodent, and indoor air pollution) are highly relevant for urban asthma. Morbidity reduction may require focused public health initiatives for environmental intervention in high priority risk groups and the addition of immune modulatory agents in children with poorly controlled disease.

  17. Environmental Factors Correlated with Size of Bacterial Populations in a Polluted Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasfeild, Helen

    1972-01-01

    Samples of water were taken from a polluted zone of the Gallinas River and analyzed as to numbers of total bacteria, coliforms, and fecal streptococci. Environmental factors measured were temperature, pH and concentrations of detergent, nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen, sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate, and phosphate. Thirty-two observations were made from 12 March through 22 July 1971. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses of the data were carried out by computer to determine which of the environmental factors were significantly correlated with numbers of bacteria present. A multiple linear regression equation was constructed for each bacteriological parameter as a function of significant variables only. Log total bacteria was correlated positively with bicarbonate, phosphate, and detergent concentrations. Log coliforms was correlated positively with phosphate and sulfate concentrations and negatively with chloride concentration. Log fecal streptococci was correlated positively with bicarbonate and chloride concentrations. PMID:4627965

  18. Exploring the Personal and Environmental Factors Related to Length of Stay in Assisted Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Noelle L

    2016-04-01

    This study explored to what extent personal and environmental factors, as defined by the ecological model of aging, help us to understand length of stay in assisted living (AL). A convenience sample (N = 218) of administrative records of AL residents admitted between the years 2006 and 2011 was collected and included AL residents' demographic and healthcare information as well as dates of admission and discharge. Cox regression was used to determine which personal and environmental factors influenced length of stay in three AL programs. Number of medical diagnoses, level of care score, and facility were found to be significant predictors of length of stay. The analyses identified a median survival time of 32 months as well as critical periods for discharge from AL. Implications for future research and social work practice are presented.

  19. Epigenomic strategies at the interface of genetic and environmental risk factors for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSalle, Janine M

    2013-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been increasing in prevalence over the last two decades, primarily because of increased awareness and diagnosis. However, autism is clearly a complex human genetic disorder that involves interactions between genes and environment. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, act at the interface of genetic and environmental risk and protective factors. Advancements in genome-wide sequencing has broadened the view of the human methylome and revealed the organization of the human genome into large-scale methylation domains that footprint over neurologically important genes involved in embryonic development. Future integrative epigenomic analyses of genetic risk factors with environmental exposures and methylome analyses are expected to be important for understanding the complex etiology of ASD.

  20. Impact of environmental factors on the distribution of extreme scouring (gouging) event, Canadian Beaufort shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasco, Steve [Geological Survey of Canada, Dartmouth (Canada); Carr, Erin; Campbell, Patrick [Canadian Seabed Research Ltd., Porters Lake (Canada); Shearer, Jim [Shearer Consulting, Ottawa (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    A knowledge of the presence of scours, their dimensions and their return frequencies is highly important in the development of hydrocarbon offshore structures. Mapping surveys have identified 290 extreme scour events across the Canadian Beaufort shelf. This paper investigated the impact of environmental factors on the distribution of extreme scouring events in the Canadian Beaufort shelf. This study used the NEWBASE database of new ice scours to perform an analysis of the scours appearance mechanisms. The geotechnical zonation, the bathymetry and the shelf gradient were evaluated using these data. Estimation of the surficial sediment type, the surficial sediment thickness and sea ice regime were also made. It was found that the spatial distribution of extreme scour events is controlled by sea-ice regime, bathymetry and geotechnical zonation. The results obtained from mapping surveys suggested that the key controlling environmental factors may combine to limit the depth of extreme scour events to 5 meters.

  1. Genetic and nonshared environmental factors predict handgun ownership in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J C; Boutwell, Brian B; Beaver, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Handgun ownership has been the focus of much criminological research due to the over involvement of handguns in violent crime. This literature has, however, overlooked the potential role genetic factors play in the decision to purchase a handgun. The current study analyzed the genetic and environmental influences on handgun ownership among a large sample of young adult twins from the United States. Analyses revealed a stronger concordance for gun ownership among identical twins as compared to fraternal twins and univariate ACE model results indicated genetic (57%) and nonshared environmental (43%) factors explained the variance in handgun ownership. A mediation analysis was performed and the results indicated a portion of the genetic influence on handgun ownership may be mediated by victimization experiences.

  2. The effect of environmental factors on breast lumps of Egyptian women in different socioeconomic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    The environmental risk factors related to the breast tumors (lumps) are essential in order to build strategies to decrease cancer incidence and mortality among different socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. A case control study of 70 cases and 52 controls were classified into high, middle and low socioeconomic classes. The results revealed significant increased risk of breast tumors among working females, having positive family history, married with lower mean parity, with higher consumption of fatty meals, lesser meat intake. Non significant risk factors were the social class, exposure to ionizing radiation, non lactating. wearing tight bra, consumption of vegetables and fruits, oral contraceptive pill users and exposure to outdoor air pollution or indoor pollution as floors and wall paintings. In conclusion, this study highlights the positive life style for egyptian women so they can prevent some of the environmental risks of breast tumors. Increasing the awareness of breast diseases and regular examination remains the corner stone for early detection management of breast lumps.

  3. A tale of trade-offs: the impact of macroeconomic factors on environmental concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Stephen J; Emerson, Tisha L N

    2014-12-01

    We test whether macroeconomic conditions affect individuals' willingness to pay for environmental quality improvements. Improvements in environmental quality, like everything, come at a cost. Individuals facing difficult economic times may be less willing to make trade-offs required for improvements in environmental quality. Using somewhat different methodologies and shorter time frames, prior investigations have generally found a direct relationship between willingness to pay for environmental improvements and macroeconomic conditions. We use a nearly 40-year span (27 periods) of the General Social Survey (1974-2012) to estimate attitudes toward environmental spending while controlling for U.S. macroeconomic conditions and respondent-specific factors such as age, gender, marital status, number of children, residential location, educational attainment, personal financial condition, political party affiliation and ideology. Macroeconomic conditions include one-year lagged controls for the unemployment rate, the rate of economic growth (percentage change in real GDP), and an indicator for whether the U.S. economy was experiencing a recession. We find that, in general, when economic conditions are unfavorable (i.e., during a recession, or with higher unemployment, or lower GDP growth), respondents are more likely to believe the U.S. is spending too much on "improving and protecting the environment". Interacting lagged macroeconomic controls with respondent's income, we find that these views are at least partially offset by the respondent's own economic condition (i.e., their own real income). Our findings are consistent with the notion that environmental quality is a normal, or procyclical good, i.e., that environmental spending should rise when the economy is expanding and fall during economic contractions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Virulence factors in environmental and clinical Vibrio cholerae from endemic areas in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racheal W. Kimani

    2014-10-01

    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the environmental reservoirs of V. cholerae during an interepidemic period in Kenya and to characterise their virulence factors. Methods: One hundred (50 clinical, 50 environmental samples were tested for V. cholerae isolates using both simplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Results: Both sediments and algae from fishing and landing bays yielded isolates of V. cholerae. Clinical strains were characterised along with the environmental strains for comparison. All clinical strains harboured ctxA, tcpA (El Tor, ompU, zot, ace, toxR, hylA (El Tor and tcpI genes. Prevalence for virulence genes in environmental strains was hylA (El Tor (10%, toxR (24%, zot (22%, ctxA (12%,tcpI (8%, hylA (26% and tcpA (12%. Conclusion: The study sites, including landing bays and beaches, contained environmental V. cholerae, suggesting that these may be reservoirs for frequent epidemics. Improved hygiene and fish-handling techniques will be important in reducing the persistence of reservoirs.

  5. Spatial Patterns and Impacts of Environmental and Climatic Factors on Canine Sinonasal Aspergillosis in Northern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monise Magro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sinonasal aspergillosis (SNA causes chronic nasal discharge in dogs and has a worldwide distribution, although most reports of SNA in North America originate from the western USA. SNA is mainly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, a ubiquitous saprophytic filamentous fungus. Infection is thought to follow inhalation of spores. SNA is a disease of the nasal cavity and/or sinuses with variable degrees of local invasion and destruction. While some host factors appear to predispose to SNA (such as belonging to a dolichocephalic breed, environmental risk factors have been scarcely studied. Because A. fumigatus is also the main cause of invasive aspergillosis in humans, unraveling the distribution and the environmental and climatic risk factors for this agent in dogs would be of great benefit for public health studies, advancing understanding of both distribution and risk factors in humans. In this study, we reviewed electronic medical records of 250 dogs diagnosed with SNA between 1990 and 2014 at the University of California Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH. A 145-mile radius catchment area around the VMTH was selected. Data were aggregated by zip code and incorporated into a multivariate logistic regression model. The logistic regression model was compared to an autologistic regression model to evaluate the effect of spatial autocorrelation. Traffic density, active composting sites, and environmental and climatic factors related with wind and temperature were significantly associated with increase in disease occurrence in dogs. Results provide valuable information about the risk factors and spatial distribution of SNA in dogs in Northern California. Our ultimate goal is to utilize the results to investigate risk-based interventions, promote awareness, and serve as a model for further studies of aspergillosis in humans.

  6. Environmental factors and social adjustment as predictors of a first psychosis in subjects at ultra high risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragt, Sara; Nieman, Dorien H.; Veltman, Doede; Becker, Hiske E.; van de Fliert, Reinaud; de Haan, Lieuwe; Linszen, Don H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The onset of schizophrenia is associated with genetic, symptomatic, social and environmental risk factors. The aim of the present study was to determine which environmental factors may contribute to a prediction of a first psychotic episode in subjects at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for

  7. Psychological and Physical Environmental Factors in the Development of Incontinence in Adults and Children: A Comprehensive Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Gontard, Alexander; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; Badawi, Jasmin Katrin; OʼConnell, Kathleen A.; Hanna-Mitchell, Ann T.; Nieuwhof-Leppink, Anka; Cardozo, Linda

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify etiological environmental factors related to incontinence in children and adults. A variety of etiological environmental factors for the development of incontinence were identified. In children, these encompass stressful life events and trauma, family

  8. Psychological and physical environmental factors in the development of incontinence in adults and children : A comprehensive review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Gontard, Alexander; De Jong, Tom P V M; Badawi, Jasmin Katrin; O'Connell, Kathleen A.; Hanna-Mitchell, Ann T.; Nieuwhof-Leppink, Anka; Cardozo, Linda

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify etiological environmental factors related to incontinence in children and adults. A variety of etiological environmental factors for the development of incontinence were identifi ed. In children, these encompass stressful life events and trauma, family

  9. Geographic analysis of individual and environmental risk factors for hypospadias births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Jennifer J; Meyer, Robert E; Emch, Michael E

    2014-11-01

    Hypospadias is a relatively common birth defect affecting the male urinary tract. We explored the etiology of hypospadias by examining its spatial distribution in North Carolina and the spatial clustering of residuals from individual and environmental risk factors. We used data collected by the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program from 2003 to 2005 to estimate local Moran's I statistics to identify geographic clustering of overall and severe hypospadias, using 995 overall cases and 16,013 controls. We conducted logistic regression and local Moran's I statistics on standardized residuals to consider the contribution of individual variables (maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, maternal education, smoking, parity, and diabetes) and environmental variables (block group land cover) to this clustering. Local Moran's I statistics indicated significant clustering of overall and severe hypospadias in eastern central North Carolina. Spatial clustering of hypospadias persisted when controlling for individual factors, but diminished somewhat when controlling for environmental factors. In adjusted models, maternal residence in a block group with more than 5% crop cover was associated with overall hypospadias (odds ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.43); that is living in a block group with greater than 5% crop cover was associated with a 22% increase in the odds of having a baby with hypospadias. Land cover was not associated with severe hypospadias. This study illustrates the potential contribution of mapping in generating hypotheses about disease etiology. Results suggest that environmental factors including proximity to agriculture may play some role in the spatial distribution of hypospadias. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 100:887-894, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A geographic analysis of individual and environmental risk factors for hypospadias births

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Jennifer J; Meyer, Robert E; Emch, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a relatively common birth defect affecting the male urinary tract. We explored the etiology of hypospadias by examining its spatial distribution in North Carolina and the spatial clustering of residuals from individual and environmental risk factors. Methods We used data collected by the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program from 2003-2005 to estimate local Moran's I statistics to identify geographic clustering of overall and severe hypospadias, using 995 overall cases and 16,013 controls. We conducted logistic regression and local Moran's I statistics on standardized residuals to consider the contribution of individual variables (maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, maternal education, smoking, parity, and diabetes) and environmental variables (block group land cover) to this clustering. Results Local Moran's I statistics indicated significant clustering of overall and severe hypospadias in eastern central North Carolina. Spatial clustering of hypospadias persisted when controlling for individual factors, but diminished somewhat when controlling for environmental factors. In adjusted models, maternal residence in a block group with more than 5% crop cover was associated with overall hypospadias (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.04 – 1.43); that is living in a block group with greater than 5% crop cover was associated with a 22% increase in the odds of having a baby with hypospadias. Land cover was not associated with severe hypospadias. Conclusions This study illustrates the potential contribution of mapping in generating hypotheses about disease etiology. Results suggest that environmental factors including proximity to agriculture may play some role in the spatial distribution of hypospadias. PMID:25196538

  11. The human factors of sustainable building design: post occupancy evaluation of the Philip Merrill Environmental Center

    OpenAIRE

    Heerwagen, J.; Zagreus, Leah

    2005-01-01

    It is widely believed that sustainable building design strategies create improved indoor environmental quality and should, thus, be associated with improved occupant comfort, satisfaction, health, and work performance relative to buildings designed around standard practices. Yet, this belief remains a hypothesis with little empirical support. The study described in this report represents a beginning step in understanding the human factors impacts of sustainable design practices. The ...

  12. Influence of environmental factors on the concentration of phenolic compounds in leaves of Lafoensia pacari

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Bruno Leite; Bara, Maria Teresa F.; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; Santos, Suzana da Costa; Paula, José Realino de

    2011-01-01

    Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, a plant from the Cerrado known as pacari or dedaleiro, is widely used as an antipyretic, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal and in the treatment of gastritis and cancer. Notable among the metabolite groups identified in leaves of L. pacari are the polyphenols, such as tannins and flavonoids, related to the pharmacological activities of pacari. Studies on the influence of environmental factors over production of major groups of secondary m...

  13. Investigating Impacts of Environmental Factors on the Cycling Behavior of Bicycle-Sharing Users

    OpenAIRE

    Yeran Sun; Amin Mobasheri; Xuke Hu; Weikai Wang

    2017-01-01

    As it is widely accepted, cycling tends to produce health benefits and reduce air pollution. Policymakers encourage people to use bikes by improving cycling facilities as well as developing bicycle-sharing systems (BSS). It is increasingly interesting to investigate how environmental factors influence the cycling behavior of users of bicycle-sharing systems, as users of bicycle-sharing systems tend to be different from regular cyclists. Although earlier studies have examined effects of safety...

  14. Assessment of Air Environmental Factor Pollution to the Steelmaking (Pădureni Area)

    OpenAIRE

    Iluţiu-Varvara, Dana-Adriana; Pică, Elena-Maria; Brânduşan, Liviu

    2011-01-01

    The steelmaking process in the electric arc furnace causes environmental pollution in all its components: water, air and soil. The electric arc furnace steelmaking is considered to be an industrial process with high degree of pollution because the following pollutants are transferred in the air environment factor: carbon oxide, sulphur oxide, nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, dioxins and furans. The purpose of the paper constitutes the assessment of air environme...

  15. The Role of Environmental Factors on Sleep Patterns and School Performance in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriou, Dagmara; Le Cornu Knight, Frances; Milton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. Aims: This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. Sample and Method: Forty-seven adolescents ...

  16. The role of environmental factors on sleep patterns and school performance in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dagmara eDimitriou; Dagmara eDimitriou; Frances eLe Cornu Knight; Frances eLe Cornu Knight; Patrick eMilton; Patrick eMilton

    2015-01-01

    Background. Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behaviour.Aims. This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship.Sample and method. Forty-seven adolescents took pa...

  17. The Role of Environmental Factors in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouval, Dror S; Rufo, Paul A

    2017-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic relapsing conditions that affect a growing number of children worldwide. The pathogenesis of these disorders is complex and thought to be mediated by the interplay between genetic susceptibility, microbial dysbiosis, and environmental factors that result in a dysregulated immune system. This dysregulation ultimately mediates intestinal inflammation and clinical symptoms typically observed in patients with IBD including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and poor growth. A dramatic increase in the incidence of IBD has been observed in the past 2 decades, mainly in developed countries but also in developing regions. This increased incidence has paralleled changes in diet, sanitation conditions, and lifestyle habits. The increased incidence of IBD can likely be attributed to more than evolving genetic diversity alone and strongly suggests that environmental factors are playing an increasingly critical role in the development of these disorders and in the modulation of IBD clinical phenotypes over time. Here, we review the data suggesting how different environmental factors may modulate the risk of developing IBD including diets, smoking, lifestyle choices, enteric infections, appendectomy, air pollution, and the use of medications, with an emphasis on antibiotics. We will also discuss how early-life events can influence the subsequent likelihood of developing one of these diseases and suggest directions that can help decrease the risk of IBD in particularly high-risk populations. Dramatic lifestyle changes in the last century have substantially improved the quality of life but are also associated with increased risk of various diseases. Pediatricians should be aware of the changing epidemiology of IBD and environmental factors that modulate the risk of developing these conditions.

  18. Some environmental and biological factors influencing the activity of entomopathogenic Bacillus on mosquito larvae in Brazil

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    R. A. G. B Consoli

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environmental and biological factors on the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis and B. sphaericus as mosquito larvicides are reviewed. The importance of strain dependence, cultivating media/methods, mosquito species/specificity, formulations and their relation to mosquito feeding habits, as well as temperature, solar exposure, larval density and concomitant presence of other aquatic organisms are addressed with reference to the present status of knowledge in Brazil.

  19. Consideration for solar system exploration - A system to Mars. [biomedical, environmental, and psychological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Garshnek, Victoria

    1989-01-01

    Biomedical issues related to a manned mission to Mars are reviewed. Consideration is given to cardiovascular deconditioning, hematological and immunological changes, bone and muscle changes, nutritional issues, and the development of physiological countermeasures. Environmental issues are discussed, including radiation hazards, toxic chemical exposure, and the cabin environment. Also, human factors, performance and behavior, medical screening of the crew, disease prediction, and health maintenance are examined.

  20. Environmental factors influencing the distribution of agricultural terraces: Case study of Horny Tisovnik, Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slámová, M.; Krčmářová, Jana; Hrončiek, P.; Kaštierová, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2017), s. 34-45 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-15716S Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : agricultural terraces * traditional landscapes * environmental history * multivariate analysis * Slovakia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Cultural and economic geography Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2016 http://www.geonika.cz/EN/research/ENMGRClanky/2017_1_SLAMOVA.pdf

  1. Local social environmental factors are associated with household food insecurity in a longitudinal study of children

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Megan Ann; Dubois, Lise; Tremblay, Mark S; Taljaard, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Food insecurity is a significant public health problem in North America and elsewhere. The prevalence of food insecurity varies by country of residence; within countries, it is strongly associated with household socioeconomic status, but the local environment may also play an important role. In this study, we analyzed secondary data from a population-based survey conducted in Québec, Canada, to determine if five local environmental factors: material and social deprivation,...

  2. Semen parameters can be predicted from environmental factors and lifestyle using artificial intelligence methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girela, Jose L; Gil, David; Johnsson, Magnus; Gomez-Torres, María José; De Juan, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    Fertility rates have dramatically decreased in the last two decades, especially in men. It has been described that environmental factors as well as life habits may affect semen quality. In this paper we use artificial intelligence techniques in order to predict semen characteristics resulting from environmental factors, life habits, and health status, with these techniques constituting a possible decision support system that can help in the study of male fertility potential. A total of 123 young, healthy volunteers provided a semen sample that was analyzed according to the World Health Organization 2010 criteria. They also were asked to complete a validated questionnaire about life habits and health status. Sperm concentration and percentage of motile sperm were related to sociodemographic data, environmental factors, health status, and life habits in order to determine the predictive accuracy of a multilayer perceptron network, a type of artificial neural network. In conclusion, we have developed an artificial neural network that can predict the results of the semen analysis based on the data collected by the questionnaire. The semen parameter that is best predicted using this methodology is the sperm concentration. Although the accuracy for motility is slightly lower than that for concentration, it is possible to predict it with a significant degree of accuracy. This methodology can be a useful tool in early diagnosis of patients with seminal disorders or in the selection of candidates to become semen donors.

  3. The prevalence and environmental risk factors for moderate and severe trachoma in southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlu, T; Larson, C

    1992-02-01

    Inflammatory eye disease is a leading cause of reported morbidity throughout rural Ethiopia. The purpose of this investigation was to document the prevalence of trachoma at all stages and to identify environmental risk factors for moderate to severe cases among rural inhabitants of Sidamo Region in southern Ethiopia. An ophthalmic examination followed by a blind household interview were completed on 1222 randomly selected subjects. Those with moderate or severe trachoma were compared with normal subjects for rates of exposure to potential environmental risk factors. The results of the eye examinations are as follows; normal 59.5%, trivial 8.4%, mild 10.3%, moderate 8.5%, severe 8.0%, cicatricial 3.0%, and other eye diseases without trachoma 2.3%. Highest prevalence rates for moderate to severe trachoma were found in those under 10 and over 45 years of age. Increased adjusted odds ratios were found for exposure to garbage disposal near home, crowded sleeping arrangements, animals inside the home, cooking in a separate room, and living at lower altitudes. The identification of several modifiable environmental risk factors for trachoma will be of use in the further development of preventive programmes.

  4. Estrogen receptor positive breast cancers and their association with environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannel Sylvio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies to assess risk factors for breast cancer often do not differentiate between different types of breast cancers. We applied a general linear model to determine whether data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program on annual county level age-adjusted incidence rates of breast cancer with and without estrogen receptors (ER+ and ER- were associated with environmental pollutants. Results Our final model explained approximately 38% of the variation in the rate of ER+ breast cancer. In contrast, we were only able to explain 14% of the variation in the rate of ER- breast cancer with the same set of environmental variables. Only ER+ breast cancers were positively associated with the EPA's estimated risk of cancer based on toxic air emissions and the proportion of agricultural land in a county. Meteorological variables, including short wave radiation, temperature, precipitation, and water vapor pressure, were also significantly associated with the rate of ER+ breast cancer, after controlling for age, race, premature mortality from heart disease, and unemployment rate. Conclusions Our findings were consistent with what we expected, given the fact that many of the commonly used pesticides and air pollutants included in the EPA cancer risk score are classified as endocrine disruptors and ER+ breast cancers respond more strongly to estrogen than ER- breast cancers. The findings of this study suggest that ER+ and ER- breast cancers have different risk factors, which should be taken into consideration in future studies that seek to understand environmental risk factors for breast cancer.

  5. The Economic Cost of Environmental Factors Among North Carolina Children Living in Substandard Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Chris; Lee, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified the economic cost of selected environmental factors among North Carolina children living in substandard housing. Methods. We gathered data on direct medical care costs for specific childhood medical conditions associated with environmental factors commonly found in substandard housing. Medical claims data for 2006 and 2007 were obtained from BlueCross BlueShield of North Carolina and the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services. Indirect costs were based in part on nonmedical data obtained from several previous studies. Results. Total (direct and indirect) costs for the conditions assessed exceeded $92 million in 2006 and $108 million in 2007. Neurobehavioral conditions contributed to more than 52% of all costs, followed by lead poisoning (20%) and respiratory conditions (12%). Neurobehavioral conditions were the largest contributor to direct medical costs (44%), followed by respiratory conditions (38%) and accidental burns and falls (10%). Conclusions. Direct and indirect costs associated with environmental factors appear to be increasing at about twice the rate of medical inflation. More aggressive policies and funding are needed to reduce the substantial financial impact of childhood illnesses associated with substandard housing in North Carolina. PMID:19890173

  6. Consideration of Environmental Factors in Planning and Development of Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustysheva, I.

    2017-11-01

    Environmental factors, in varying degrees, always have a direct influence on the urban environment formation and the provision of favorable and safe conditions for the life of the population. Their role in the planning and development of urban areas remains an integral part of the management of such areas. Management should be aimed at improving the efficiency of use of the territories and ecological environment improvement. Planning must be done with the consideration of identified ecological processes in cities on the basis of the information about their occurrence in the past and present. Currently, cities face a multitude of problems that require urgent and immediate solutions. One of the most important issues is the poor state of the urban environment, so the environmental factors remain one of the most critical problems that should be considered by the authorities while implementing the urban areas’ development plans. The article discusses the role of environmental factors in the management and planning of urban territories by the example of the city of Tobolsk.

  7. Environmental factor analysis of cholera in China using remote sensing and geographical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Cao, C X; Wang, D C; Kan, B; Xu, Y F; Ni, X L; Zhu, Z C

    2016-04-01

    Cholera is one of a number of infectious diseases that appears to be influenced by climate, geography and other natural environments. This study analysed the environmental factors of the spatial distribution of cholera in China. It shows that temperature, precipitation, elevation, and distance to the coastline have significant impact on the distribution of cholera. It also reveals the oceanic environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, which is a coastal province of China, using both remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS). The analysis has validated the correlation between indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local number of cholera cases based on 8-year monthly data from 2001 to 2008. The results show the number of cholera cases has been strongly affected by the variables of SST, SSH and OCC. Utilizing this information, a cholera prediction model has been established based on the oceanic and climatic environmental factors. The model indicates that RS and GIS have great potential for designing an early warning system for cholera.

  8. TCP Transcription Factors at the Interface between Environmental Challenges and the Plant's Growth Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile and as such their reactions to environmental challenges differ from those of mobile organisms. Many adaptions involve growth responses and hence, growth regulation is one of the most crucial biological processes for plant survival and fitness. The plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF1 (TCP) transcription factor family is involved in plant development from cradle to grave, i.e., from seed germination throughout vegetative development until the formation of flowers and fruits. TCP transcription factors have an evolutionary conserved role as regulators in a variety of plant species, including orchids, tomatoes, peas, poplar, cotton, rice and the model plant Arabidopsis. Early TCP research focused on the regulatory functions of TCPs in the development of diverse organs via the cell cycle. Later research uncovered that TCP transcription factors are not static developmental regulators but crucial growth regulators that translate diverse endogenous and environmental signals into growth responses best fitted to ensure plant fitness and health. I will recapitulate the research on TCPs in this review focusing on two topics: the discovery of TCPs and the elucidation of their evolutionarily conserved roles across the plant kingdom, and the variety of signals, both endogenous (circadian clock, plant hormones) and environmental (pathogens, light, nutrients), TCPs respond to in the course of their developmental roles.

  9. TCP Transcription Factors at the Interface between Environmental Challenges and the Plant’s Growth Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile and as such their reactions to environmental challenges differ from those of mobile organisms. Many adaptions involve growth responses and hence, growth regulation is one of the most crucial biological processes for plant survival and fitness. The plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF1 (TCP) transcription factor family is involved in plant development from cradle to grave, i.e., from seed germination throughout vegetative development until the formation of flowers and fruits. TCP transcription factors have an evolutionary conserved role as regulators in a variety of plant species, including orchids, tomatoes, peas, poplar, cotton, rice and the model plant Arabidopsis. Early TCP research focused on the regulatory functions of TCPs in the development of diverse organs via the cell cycle. Later research uncovered that TCP transcription factors are not static developmental regulators but crucial growth regulators that translate diverse endogenous and environmental signals into growth responses best fitted to ensure plant fitness and health. I will recapitulate the research on TCPs in this review focusing on two topics: the discovery of TCPs and the elucidation of their evolutionarily conserved roles across the plant kingdom, and the variety of signals, both endogenous (circadian clock, plant hormones) and environmental (pathogens, light, nutrients), TCPs respond to in the course of their developmental roles. PMID:28066483

  10. The Influence of Environmental Factors on the Diversity of Gastropods in Marsegu Island, Maluku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwien Bula

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastropods are known to have a wide distribution. They can live in a variety of habitats and influenced by various environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of gastropods and its relationship with the physical and chemical environment of a water. This research was an ecological research with correlational descriptive type. The selection of Marsegu Island was based on the fact that the area is a conservation area, both the forest and sea are frequently visited by tourists. The results of this research showed that there were 22 species of gastropod found in the water of Marsegu Island. The most commonly found was from the genus of Cypraea (5 species. Gastropods found mostly from the family of Strombidae which consisted of 4 genera i.e. Lambis, Canarium, Strombus and Lentigo. The value of gastropod diversity in the three research stations was moderate, 2.93, 2.91 and 2.95 respectively. In addition, there is a correlation between environmental factors and the diversity of gastropods. The simultaneous effect of the independent variables toward the dependent variables can be explained by the magnitude of the determination coefficient (R Square which was 0528 or 52.8%. Result of this study confirms that the environmental factors greatly affects the diversity of Gastropod in the coastal waters of Marsegu island. The results can provide benefits as control over fishing and coastal pollution due to human activities.

  11. Is exposure to cyanobacteria an environmental risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Walter G.; Borenstein, Amy R.; Nelson, Lorene M.; Codd, Geoffrey A.; Rosen, Barry H.; Stommel, Elijah W.; Cox, Paul Alan

    2013-01-01

    There is a broad scientific consensus that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by gene-environment interactions. Mutations in genes underlying familial ALS (fALS) have been discovered in only 5–10% of the total population of ALS patients. Relatively little attention has been paid to environmental and lifestyle factors that may trigger the cascade of motor neuron death leading to the syndrome of ALS, although exposure to chemicals including lead and pesticides, and to agricultural environments, smoking, certain sports, and trauma have all been identified with an increased risk of ALS. There is a need for research to quantify the relative roles of each of the identified risk factors for ALS. Recent evidence has strengthened the theory that chronic environmental exposure to the neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) produced by cyanobacteria may be an environmental risk factor for ALS. Here we describe methods that may be used to assess exposure to cyanobacteria, and hence potentially to BMAA, namely an epidemiologic questionnaire and direct and indirect methods for estimating the cyanobacterial load in ecosystems. Rigorous epidemiologic studies could determine the risks associated with exposure to cyanobacteria, and if combined with genetic analysis of ALS cases and controls could reveal etiologically important gene-environment interactions in genetically vulnerable individuals.

  12. Intergenomic rearrangements after polyploidization of Kengyilia thoroldiana (Poaceae: Triticeae affected by environmental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuxia Wang

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is a major evolutionary process. Approximately 70-75% species of Triticeae (Poaceae are polyploids, involving 23 genomes. To investigate intergenomic rearrangements after polyploidization of Triticeae species and to determine the effects of environmental factors on them, nine populations of a typical polyploid Triticeae species, Kengyilia thoroldiana (Keng J.L.Yang et al. (2n = 6x = 42, StStPPYY, collected from different environments, were studied using genome in situ hybridization (GISH. We found that intergenomic rearrangements occurred between the relatively large P genome and the small genomes, St (8.15% and Y (22.22%, in polyploid species via various types of translocations compared to their diploid progenitors. However, no translocation was found between the relatively small St and Y chromosomes. Environmental factors may affect rearrangements among the three genomes. Chromosome translocations were significantly more frequent in populations from cold alpine and grassland environments than in populations from valley and lake-basin habitats (P<0.05. The relationship between types of chromosome translocations and altitude was significant (r = 0.809, P<0.01. Intergenomic rearrangements associated with environmental factors and genetic differentiation of a single basic genome should be considered as equally important genetic processes during species' ecotype evolution.

  13. Influence of environmental factors on intellectual efficiency of pre-school children

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    Jovanović Veljko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic goal of this research was to study the influence of environmental factors on intellectual efficiency of pre-school children. Research participants were 149 children (52 Roma, 48 non-Roma children of average socioeconomic status and 49 children of low socioeconomic status, of the average age of 81 months. Data were collected during maturity evaluation for school in primary schools in Sabac and Sremska Mitrovica. Children's intellectual abilities were assessed by the School Maturity Test, and the data on socioeconomic status and educational climate were obtained from parents, by administering the Questionnaire for collecting data about the child and the family and Interview with the parent. Results of covariance analysis indicated that the quality of stimulation, parental ambitions and financial status of the family have the biggest effect on intellectual achievement of children. Poorer cognitive efficiency is demonstrated by children who grow up in poverty and non-stimulative environment, and whose parents have low ambitions regarding their child's education. When these variables are controlled, there are no differences between groups in either of cognitive functions. The abilities of visual and motor coordination and attention proved out to be the most sensitive to the influences of environmental factors. The results indicate that environmental factors have a pervasive effect, since, besides the influence on manipulative abilities, they also determine achievement on tests used to estimate verbal abilities.

  14. Environmental/lifestyle factors in the pathogenesis and prevention of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Hubert; Martin, Stephan

    2017-07-19

    Environmental and lifestyle changes, in addition to the ageing of populations, are generally believed to account for the rapid global increase in type 2 diabetes prevalence and incidence in recent decades. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of factors contributing to diabetes risk, including aspects of diet quality and quantity, little physical activity, increased monitor viewing time or sitting in general, exposure to noise or fine dust, short or disturbed sleep, smoking, stress and depression, and a low socioeconomic status. In general, these factors promote an increase in body mass index. Since loss of β-cell function is the ultimate cause of developing overt type 2 diabetes, environmental and lifestyle changes must have resulted in a higher risk of β-cell damage in those at genetic risk. Multiple mechanistic pathways may come into play. Strategies of diabetes prevention should aim at promoting a 'diabetes-protective lifestyle' whilst simultaneously enhancing the resistance of the human organism to pro-diabetic environmental and lifestyle factors. More research on diabetes-protective mechanisms seems warranted.

  15. Environmental and Pathogenic Factors Inducing Brown Apical Necrosis on Fruit of English (Persian) Walnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotton, Michele; Bortolin, Enrico; Fiorin, Antonio; Belisario, Alessandra

    2015-11-01

    Brown apical necrosis (BAN) is a most recently described disease affecting English (Persian) walnut fruit. BAN was only recorded in intensively managed walnut orchards and was found to be a disease complex mainly caused by Fusarium species. All fungi associated with this disease are polyphagous and ubiquitous, not specific to walnut. Consequently, BAN occurrence is more strictly dependent, than generally, on the interaction between pathological features and environmental conditions. Environmental variables identified with regression analysis showed that maximum temperature, angle of main wind direction versus tree row orientation, and orchard distance to the closest river/canal, all representative of climatic conditions occurring in the orchard, were related to fruit drop. The factor displaying the highest influence on severity of BAN fruit drop was maximum temperature and only subordinately factors are associated with relative humidity. BAN symptoms were reproduced with in planta artificial inoculation, and fruit drop of symptomatic fruit was significantly higher than that of the noninoculated trees for each type of inoculum (Fusarium semitectum, F. graminearum, and Alternaria spp.). F. semitectum and F. graminearum were more aggressive than Alternaria species, and the earliest artificial inoculations in mid-May resulted in the highest fruit drop. The extension of walnut fruit susceptibility and the conducive environmental factors to BAN are discussed.

  16. Environmental and genetic factors influence the vitamin D content of cows' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, R R; Strain, J J; Johnston, M; Lowis, C; Fearon, A M; Stewart, S; Pourshahidi, L K

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin D is obtained by cattle from the diet and from skin production via UVB exposure from sunlight. The vitamin D status of the cow impacts the vitamin D content of the milk produced, much like human breast milk, with seasonal variation in the vitamin D content of milk well documented. Factors such as changes in husbandry practices therefore have the potential to impact the vitamin D content of milk. For example, a shift to year-round housing from traditional practices of cattle being out to graze during the summer months and housed during the winter only, minimises exposure to the sun and has been shown to negatively influence the vitamin D content of the milk produced. Other practices such as changing dietary sources of vitamin D may also influence the vitamin D content of milk, and evidence exists to suggest genetic factors such as breed can cause variation in the concentrations of vitamin D in the milk produced. The present review aims to provide an overview of the current understanding of how genetic and environmental factors influence the vitamin D content of the milk produced by dairy cattle. A number of environmental and genetic factors have previously been identified as having influence on the nutritional content of the milk produced. The present review highlights a need for further research to fully elucidate how farmers could manipulate the factors identified to their advantage with respect to increasing the vitamin D content of milk and standardising it across the year.

  17. THE EFFECT OF GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS TO FACIAL SHAPE IN DOWN’S SYNDROME PATIENTS

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    Margaretha Suharsini

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Down’s syndrome is caused by chromosomal aberration, namely 21 trisomy. Skeletal and neurological disorders are found in Down’s syndrome patients. Skeletal disorder may cause craniofacial growth abnormalities whereas neurological disorder may cause brain growth defects, which result in mental retardation, as well as neuromuscular disorder, which results in muscular hypotonia. The aim of this study was to prove that facial shape in Down’s syndrome patient was not only influenced by genetic factors, but also by environmental factors such as cognitive capability, oral muscular exercises and oral muscular tone. The population consisted of Down’s syndrome children aged 14 to 18 years from Sekolah Luar Biasa (Special School in Jakarta. Samples used in the study consisted of 25 Down’s syndrome patients. Clinical and cytogenic test were conducted to ensure a diagnosis. Lateral cephalograms were made to analyze facial shape by Fourier analysis on gonion angle. Intelligence Quotient (IQ and Social Quotient (SQ tests, electromyography examination of the masseter and temporal muscles, oral function examination and speech therapy questionnaires to the respondents were performed. The data were analyzed using path analysis. Based on the results of the study, it could be concluded that the genetic factor is the main factor causing Down’s syndrome facial shape abnormalities. The environmental factors such as oral muscular tone, cognitive capability, and oral muscular exercises may also play a role in Down’s syndrome facial shape.

  18. Virulence Factors Detection inAspergillusIsolates from Clinical and Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raksha; Singh, Gurjeet; Urhekar, A D

    2017-07-01

    Pathogenesis of aspergillosis is dependent on various factors of the host (immune status) and virulence factors of the pathogen which could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis. To study the virulence factors of Aspergillus species isolated from patient samples and environmental samples. This prospective and experimental study was carried out at Department of Microbiology, MGM Medical College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, from July 2014 to June 2015. For detection of virulence factors of Aspergillus species, total 750 samples were included in this study (350 from patients and 400 samples from environment). Patient samples and hospital environment samples were subjected to standard methods for screening of Biofilm, Lipase, α-amylase, proteinase, haemolysin, phospholipase and pectinase. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and SPSS (Version 17.0). American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) control of Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus brasiliensis showed production of all virulence factors. In patient samples maximum virulence factor was produced i.e., α-amylase activity (89.74%) followed by proteinase activity (87.17%), biofilm production was (82.05%) haemolysin activity (79.48%), lipase activity (66.66%), pectinase activity and phospholipase activity (61.53%). In environment samples maximum virulence factor was produced i.e., proteinase activity (41.02%) followed by biofilm production was (38.46%), α-amylase activity (35.89%), haemolysin activity (33.33%), lipase activity (28.20%), phospholipase (25.64%) and pectinase activity (23.07%). The differences in patient and environment virulence factors were statistically significant (p-value Aspergillus species isolated from patient samples then environmental samples. This could be due to invasiveness nature of Aspergilli. Aspergillus niger was common isolates from both patient and environmental samples. Our study highlights the possible

  19. Virulence Factors Detection in Aspergillus Isolates from Clinical and Environmental Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raksha; Urhekar, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pathogenesis of aspergillosis is dependent on various factors of the host (immune status) and virulence factors of the pathogen which could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis. Aim To study the virulence factors of Aspergillus species isolated from patient samples and environmental samples. Materials and Methods This prospective and experimental study was carried out at Department of Microbiology, MGM Medical College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, from July 2014 to June 2015. For detection of virulence factors of Aspergillus species, total 750 samples were included in this study (350 from patients and 400 samples from environment). Patient samples and hospital environment samples were subjected to standard methods for screening of Biofilm, Lipase, α–amylase, proteinase, haemolysin, phospholipase and pectinase. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and SPSS (Version 17.0). Results American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) control of Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus brasiliensis showed production of all virulence factors. In patient samples maximum virulence factor was produced i.e., α-amylase activity (89.74%) followed by proteinase activity (87.17%), biofilm production was (82.05%) haemolysin activity (79.48%), lipase activity (66.66%), pectinase activity and phospholipase activity (61.53%). In environment samples maximum virulence factor was produced i.e., proteinase activity (41.02%) followed by biofilm production was (38.46%), α-amylase activity (35.89%), haemolysin activity (33.33%), lipase activity (28.20%), phospholipase (25.64%) and pectinase activity (23.07%). The differences in patient and environment virulence factors were statistically significant (p-value Aspergillus species isolated from patient samples then environmental samples. This could be due to invasiveness nature of Aspergilli. Aspergillus niger was common isolates from both patient and environmental

  20. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on... racetrack is not a farm. Where a farmer is engaged in both the raising and commercial racing of race horses...

  1. Analysis of impacts from environmental factors evaluated by icf in individuals post-cva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Suely Queiroz Silva Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The CVA is the second cause of death in Brazil, presenting with serious clinical repercussions and as a public health issue. Live with the disabilities caused by it requires facing daily situations, which can increase the disability, such as the ones imposed by the environment inside or outside home. Objective: Analyze the environmental factors of ICF with a facilitator or barrier for victims of Stroke. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study, 152 individuals; span of less than 60 months involvement and enrolled in the Family Health Units in João Pessoa, Brazil. A questionnaire was used to characterize the socio-economic and clinical form and the Core Set for stroke to identify environmental factors. The data were stored in EpiInfo 7. Associations between environmental factors and the variables age, gender, and marital status verified by chi-square test. Results: Assistive technologies and products or substances for personal consumption were the main factors recognized as facilitators, followed by interpersonal relationships. The most prevalent factors as barriers were the physical structures of public and private spaces, highlighting the physical geography of their residence. It was found that the immediate family was associated with variable marital status, use of products and technology for personal use in daily life was associated with age and, friends partnered with variable gender. Conclusions: The Core Set is shown as a sensitive instrument to capture the barriers and facilitators in population surveys. Their findings point to the need to think about public policy more appropriate for this population.{#}

  2. Socio-environmental factors associated with diabetes mellitus among patients hospitalized with schizophrenia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado, Junya; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Noma, Norio; Saito, Makiko; Azuma, Hitoshi; Azuma, Tsukasa; Sobue, Tomotaka; Kitamura, Yuri

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to examine epidemiologically socio-environmental factors associated with diabetes mellitus among patients hospitalized with schizophrenia in Japan. This was a cross-sectional study from a single psychiatric hospital. Study patients were adults aged ≥20 years who were hospitalized with schizophrenia one or more times between January 2013 and December 2014. From electronic medical records or health insurance claims, we extracted schizophrenia patients with an F2 code according to ICD-10, and assessed the association of various factors with diabetes mellitus among these patients in a multivariable analysis. During the 2-year period, there were 1899 patients hospitalized with a psychiatric disorder one or more times. Of them, a total of 770 adults with schizophrenia (285 men and 485 women) were eligible for our analysis. The standardized prevalence ratio of diabetes mellitus was 2.0 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.6-2.5] among men and 3.0 (95 % CI 2.5-3.6) among women in this hospital. There were no socio-environmental factors associated with diabetes mellitus among men. Among women, factors such as a 730-day hospitalization [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.82: 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.52-9.64], and a medical protection/compulsory/discrimination hospitalization (adjusted OR 0.60, 95 % CI 0.36-0.99) were associated with diabetes mellitus. Compared with women living alone, those who were unmarried and lived together with someone had a significantly lower adjusted OR (0.41, 95 % CI 0.21-0.81). Socio-environmental factors such as length of hospitalization, type of hospitalization, and marital status and living arrangement were associated with diabetes mellitus among hospitalized women with schizophrenia.

  3. Temporal patterns of phyto- and bacterioplankton and their relationships with environmental factors in Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaomei; Steinman, Alan D; Xue, Qingju; Zhao, Yanyan; Tang, Xiangming; Xie, Liqiang

    2017-10-01

    Phytoplankton and bacterioplankton are integral components of aquatic food webs and play essential roles in the structure and function of freshwater ecosystems. However, little is known about how phyto- and bacterioplankton may respond synchronously to changing environmental conditions. Thus, we analyzed simultaneously the composition and structure of phyto- and bacterioplankton on a monthly basis over 12 months in cyanobacteria-dominated areas of Lake Taihu and compared their responses to changes in environmental factors. Metric multi-dimensional scaling (mMDS) revealed that the temporal variations of phyto- and bacterioplankton were significant. Time lag analysis (TLA) indicated that the temporal pattern of phytoplankton tended to exhibit convergent dynamics while bacterioplankton showed highly stable or stochastic variation. A significant directional change was found for bacterioplankton at the genus level and the slopes (rate of change) and regression R 2 (low stochasticity or stability) were greater if Cyanobacteria were included, suggesting a higher level of instability in the bacterial community at lower taxonomy level. Consequently, phytoplankton responded more rapidly to the change in environmental conditions than bacterioplankton when analyzed at the phylum level, while bacterioplankton were more sensitive at the finer taxonomic resolution in Lake Taihu. Redundancy analysis (RDA) results showed that environmental variables collectively explained 51.0% variance of phytoplankton and 46.7% variance of bacterioplankton, suggesting that environmental conditions have a significant influence on the temporal variations of phyto- and bacterioplankton. Furthermore, variance partitioning indicated that the bacterial community structure was largely explained by water temperature and nitrogen, suggesting that these factors were the primary drivers shaping bacterioplankton. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effects of environmental factors on corporate strategy and performance of manufacturing industries in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmad Hidayat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine and obtain empirical evidence of the effects of external and internal environmental factors on the strategy and performance of manufacturing companies. Design/methodology/approach: This study used primary data obtained by distributing questionnaires to 150 respondents of manufacturing companies in Indonesia spreading over six major cities in Java such as Jakarta, Banten, Bandung, Yogyakarta, Semarang and Surabaya. Samples were taken by using the systematic random sampling technique. The technique was used since those major cities had different numbers of manufacturing companies. Subsequently, the feasibility of the model was tested. Several indices of model feasibility would be used to test the model developed in this structural equation model. In case of a sub-optimal model, a model modification was to be performed by adding or removing paths so that the chi-square values would decrease by the values of the index. Findings and Originality/value: Results showed that internal and external environmental factors, through the operating environments and the remote environments of manufacturing industries, jointly affected the companies’ understanding of the condition of the industrial environments to establish strategic goals in order to achieve optimal performance of manufacturing industry. Practical implications: The internal and external environmental factors through the operating and remote environments had effects on the strategy of manufacturing companies in Indonesia. However, both internal and external environments did not affect the performance of manufacturing companies in Indonesia. There was a tendency that manufacturing companies were to observe the occurring macro-economic conditions. Manufacturing industries were faced with the pressures from competition, customers and suppliers that affected companies’ revenue. Performance of manufacturing industries was more influenced by macro

  5. Using NASA Remotely Sensed Data to Help Characterize Environmental Risk Factors for National Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Economou, S.; Estes, M., Jr.; Estes, S. M.; Hemmings, S. N.; Kent, S.; Loop, M.; Puckett, M.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Wade, G.; McClure, L.

    2012-12-01

    The overall goal of this study is to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by using NASA remotely sensed data and products. This study is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the environmental data sets and associated public health analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on a 10-km grid using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST); and (3) a 12-km grid of daily incoming solar radiation and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data. These environmental datasets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes. These environmental national datasets will also be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public via the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system, where they can be aggregated to the county-level, state-level, or regional-level as per users' need and downloaded in tabular, graphical

  6. Environmental Controls on Wildfire Emission Factors in Alaska during the Summer of 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, E. B.

    2016-12-01

    Boreal forests contain significant reservoirs of organic carbon and are subject to severe wildfires. Boreal fire emissions are important to quantify with respect to climate and ecosystem dynamics, especially within the rapidly changing climate of the Northern Hemisphere. The amount and composition of emissions from fires is highly variable and dependent on environmental conditions such as local weather, soil moisture, and land cover type. Emission factors are regularly used to estimate the composition of fire emissions. We investigated environmental controls on boreal forest fire emission factors in Alaska during the summer of 2015. A high-resolution fire emissions inventory was combined with an atmospheric transport model to estimate fire contribution to trace gas variability at an in-situ observational tower. Periods of high fire influence at the tower were identified, and emission ratios for CO, CO2, and CH4 were calculated for these times. Individual fire contributions to the trace gas signals observed at the tower were isolated utilizing the fire emissions inventory combined with an atmospheric transport model. Environmental conditions including soil moisture, meteorology, land and tree cover, fire type (smoldering vs. flaming), and burn severity were associated with individual fires that contributed to the trace gas signal at the tower. We found that soil moisture derived from the SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) satellite was correlated with burned area and that local daily meteorological variables, including vapor pressure deficit and temperature, explained some of the variance in emission factors. The results from this study may enable improved estimates of boreal fire emissions during a period of rapidly changing environmental conditions.

  7. Environmental factors controlling benthic foraminiferal distribution in Hurghada area, Red Sea coast, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounir El-Kahawy, Ramadan; El-Wahab, Mohamed Abd

    2017-04-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were investigated at Hurghada on the Red Sea coast of Egypt, to determine the distribution and their common environmental factors that control on this distribution. 43 sediment samples were collected and environmental factors (T°C, pH, and salinity ‰), water depth, grain size, organic matter and carbonate content were measured. Faunal abundance (14-1755 tests/g) with an average 709 tests/g, and faunal diversity (6-39 specimens) with an average 31 specimen. Cluster analysis was divided the Hurghada site into four distinct biotopes based on the faunal data: Biotope (1) is dominated by a Quinqueloculina seminula& Quinqueloculina laevigata, and Triloculina terquemiana assemblage. Biotope (2) is dominated by a Sorites marginalis & Triloculina trigonula assemblage. Biotope (3) is dominated by an Amphistegina lessonii, Ammonia beccarii and Elphidium spp assemblage. Biotope (4) is dominated by a Peneroplis planatus& Coscinospira hemprichii& Sorites orbiculus and Neorotalia calcar assemblage. Some of the recorded foraminiferal tests showed abnormalities in their apertures, coiling and shape of chambers. The distribution of benthic foraminiferal species is governed by environmental factors such as salinity, temperature, substrates-type, water depth and pH. P. planatus and C. hemprichii positively correlate with extreme salinity and temperature, indicating that these species reflect a warm, arid climate conditions. Aside, the heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni and Mn) concentrations in the sediment samples were analyzed using ICP-OES. The comparative study between the faunal content and the heavy metals enrichments in each sample displayed positive character indicating the worsening of the environmental conditions. Keywords: benthic foraminifera, Hurghada, Red Sea, Egypt

  8. Toxic volatile organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke: Emission factors for modeling exposures of California populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air contaminants in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including, 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosamines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors ({mu}g/cigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were Generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  9. Distribution Patterns of the Freshwater Oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Influenced by Environmental Factors in Streams on a Korean Nationwide Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejin Kang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic oligochaetes are very common in streams, and are used as biological assessment indicators as well as in the biological management of organic-enriched systems. In this study, we analyzed the effects of environmental factors influencing the distribution of aquatic oligochaetes Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri in streams. We used 13 environmental factors in three categories (i.e., geography, hydrology, and physicochemistry. Data on the distribution of oligochaetes and environmental factors were obtained from 1159 sampling sites throughout Korea on a nationwide scale. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS were performed to analyze the relationships between the occurrence of aquatic oligochaetes and environmental factors. A random forest model was used to evaluate the relative importance of the environmental factors affecting the distribution of oligochaetes. HCA classified sampling sites into four groups according to differences in environmental factors, and NMDS ordination reflected the differences of environmental factors, in particular, water depth, velocity, and altitude, among the four groups defined in the HCA. Furthermore, using a random forest model, turbidity and water velocity were evaluated as highly important factors influencing the distribution of L. hoffmeisteri.

  10. The influence of biological and environmental factors on metallothionein concentration in the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Bizoń, Anna; Zalewska, Marta; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of metallothionein (MT), a low-molecular-weight protein, is regulated by many factors, primarily metals (zinc, cadmium, copper), cytokines, glucocorticoides and free radicals. These factors are determined by such aspects of human biology as gender, pregnancy and age, as well as by environmental factors including the use of oral contraceptives and cigarette smoking, all which may affect MT levels in the body. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of these biological and environmental factors on MT concentrations in erythrocyte lysate and in plasma. MT concentrations were determined by a two-step direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Evaluation of exposure to cigarette smoking was performed by checking cotinine levels in the plasma of subjects. The studies showed higher MT concentrations in both the erythrocyte lysate and plasma of women when compared to men. Furthermore, pregnancy causes an increase of MT concentration in plasma, while oral contraceptives cause an elevated concentration of MT in erythrocyte lysate. Age impacts plasma MT concentrations in men, whereas it does not affect concentrations of MT in erythrocyte lysate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of the human kinetic adjustment factor for the health risk assessment of environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcke, Mathieu; Krishnan, Kannan

    2014-03-01

    A default uncertainty factor of 3.16 (√10) is applied to account for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics when performing non-cancer risk assessments. Using relevant human data for specific chemicals, as WHO/IPCS suggests, it is possible to evaluate, and replace when appropriate, this default factor by quantifying chemical-specific adjustment factors for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics (also referred to as the human kinetic adjustment factor, HKAF). The HKAF has been determined based on the distributions of pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., half-life, area under the curve, maximum blood concentration) in relevant populations. This article focuses on the current state of knowledge of the use of physiologically based algorithms and models in characterizing the HKAF for environmental contaminants. The recent modeling efforts on the computation of HKAF as a function of the characteristics of the population, chemical and its mode of action (dose metrics), as well as exposure scenario of relevance to the assessment are reviewed here. The results of these studies, taken together, suggest the HKAF varies as a function of the sensitive subpopulation and dose metrics of interest, exposure conditions considered (route, duration, and intensity), metabolic pathways involved and theoretical model underlying its computation. The HKAF seldom exceeded the default value of 3.16, except in very young children (i.e., risk assessments of environmental contaminants. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Meta-analysis Number of Plants Drugs Used by Characteristics Socioeconomic Factors, Environmental and Geographic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febiola Diah Pratiwi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotany is the study of public relations with the use of plants. Use of plants by people influenced by several factors, such as social, cultural, socioeconomic, and geographic. Most of the ethnicities in Indonesia has a high dependence on plants medicine for survival. However, the factors that influence the use of medicinal plants by people in Indonesia have not been studied, so that research is needed to optimize the use of medicinal plants to sustainability benefits. The purpose of this study is to analyze the number of species of plants medicine used by the influence of socio-economic, environmental, and geographic factors using principal component analysis and analyzing patterns of use of plants medicine. The results showed that the economy and infrastructure components (access to electricity, means of education, income level, health facilities, distance from the highway, remoteness, and the fastest time toward the road and the number of people graduating from elementary school affect the number of medicinal plant species used. Based on the results of the study of literature and field observations, the pattern of use of plants medicine in addition to be used as medicine, the plant is used for food, building materials, plant ornamental, ceremonial, wood, wicker and crafts, coloring agents, animal feed, ingredients aromatic, and pesticide. The usage patterns in each region or village has the distinction of which is influenced by the remoteness factor due to the differences in the social, economic, environmental, and geographic.  Keywords: ethnobotany, plants medicine, principal component analysis

  13. The impact of selected environmental, behavioral and psychosocial factors on schoolchildren's somatic and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrova, Diana; Kapsdorfer, Daniela; Argalasova, Lubica; Hirosova, Katarina; Samohyl, Martin; Sevcikova, Ludmila

    2017-03-01

    Children develop rapidly and many exogenous determinants of health significantly affect their somatic and mental development. There is a subjective perception of cognitive load associated with the educational process. The aim of the study is to assess individual environmental, behavioral and psychosocial factors influencing physical health and to investigate the amount of mental load in children. We investigated 87 schoolchildren (47 girls and 40 boys) aged 10-12 years, who were attending primary school in Bratislava. To assess values of selected factors we used a questionnaire form and personality characteristics were estimated by standardized psycho-diagnostic and IQ tests [range of classic fear, social-situation anxiety and jitters [skala Klasickeho strachu a Socialno-situacnej (in Slovak)] (KSAT), Eyesenck Personality Questionnaire for children (EPQ), Raven's IQ test]. Self-reported perception of mental load was assessed by questionnaire of subjective feelings and states (SFS). Children's body parameters were assessed using anthropometric measurements [height, weight, chest, abdominal and hip girth, Rohrer's index (RI), body mass index (BMI)] and a body fat measurement method (skinfold thickness). The results confirmed a significant relationship between higher parameters of overweight and obesity and irregular breakfast eating (pmental effort and cognitive load associated with the educational process. We note a close relationship between the higher mental load and the score of neuroticism (pmental health of schoolchildren is significantly affected by exogenous factors. Therefore, in terms of protection and promotion of children's health, it is important to evaluate and monitor environmental risk factors and to form their healthy habits.

  14. Impact of environmental factors on maintaining water quality of Bakreswar reservoir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moitreyee Banerjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Reservoirs and dams are engineered systems designed to serve purposes like supply of drinking water as well as other commercial and industrial use. A thorough assessment of water quality for these systems is thus necessary. The present study is carried out at Bakreswar reservoir, in Birbhum district, which was created by the dam, built on Bakreswar River. The major purpose of the reservoir is the supply of drinking water to the surrounding villages and Bakreswar Thermal Power Station. Water samples were collected fortnightly from three different stations of the reservoir. Physical and chemical factors like dissolved oxygen, atmospheric temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, solar radiation, water temperature, alkalinity, hardness, chloride, productivity etc. were analysed using standard procedure. Abundance data is calculated for four major groups of zooplanktons (Cladocera, Copepoda, Ostracoda, and Rotifera with the software PAST 2.1. Multivariate statistical analysis like PCA, hierarchical cluster and CCA are performed in order to predict the temporal variation in the water quality factors using SPSS 20. Distinct seasonal variation was found for environmental factors and zooplankton groups. Bakreswar reservoir has good assemblage of zooplankton and distinct temporal variation of environmental factors and its association with zooplankton predicts water quality condition. These results could help in formulating proper strategies for advanced water quality management and conservation of reservoir ecosystem. Key elements for growth and sustenance of the system can then be evaluated and this knowledge can be further applied for management purposes.

  15. Influence of environmental factors on the geomorphologic support in Maritime Danube Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichersu, Iuliana; Nichersu, Iulian; Trifanov, Cristian; Mierla, Marian; Marin, Eugenia; Sela, Florentina

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to present the main aspects of the influence of environmental factors in the maritime part of Danube Delta, in the context of the impact on the geomorphologic support. The evolution of environmental factors impact is exponentially increasing in recent years, mapping out the complexity of the Delta system. Analysis of the impact of these factors on the evolution of geomorphologic support is relevant if the system analysis is done in an integrated way. In this context, this research presents in detail the interaction between the elements of the environment and maritime delta complex geomorphologic evolution. The approach provides a concrete example of systemic modeling through a multi-criteria methodology, systematically introducing and changing the impact of environmental factors in the deltaic system. Analyzing with the environmental factors (abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic) was noticed a high level of synergies between their components and the deltaic support-with relevant observations on the geomorphology of the study area. Soil science, geomorphology, hydrology etc. are geographical subjects that are used in applied sciences, considering the anthropogenic pressure regarding spatial planning and regional development. The precise knowledge of the vulnerability of land provides delineation, spatial location of areas with different degrees of exposure. Thus opens another direction regarding the practical knowledge of the environment and relief in which the maps receives analytic and practical valences and the geographical sciences proves their social usefulness. In order to determine the impact of the chosen factors (climate - temperature, rainfall etc, geomorphologic - exposure, slope etc, soil - texture, salinity etc, biotic - habitat, species etc, anthropogenic - embankments, irritations etc) on the geomorphologic support of the maritime Danube Delta, the analysis was based on detailed maps (both historical and actual like the Digital Terrain

  16. Four conceptual issues to consider in integrating social and environmental factors in risk and impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domínguez-Gómez, J. Andrés, E-mail: andres@uhu.es

    2016-01-15

    In the last twenty years, both the increase in academic production and the expansion of professional involvement in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Social Impact Assessment (SIA) have evidenced growing scientific and business interest in risk and impact analysis. However, this growth has not brought with it parallel progress in addressing the main shortcomings of EIA/SIA, i.e. insufficient integration of environmental and social factors into development project analyses and, in cases where the social aspects are considered, technical-methodological failings in their analysis and assessment. It is clear that these weaknesses carry with them substantial threats to the sustainability (social, environmental and economic) of projects which impact on the environment, and consequently to the local contexts where they are carried out and to the delicate balance of the global ecosystem. This paper argues that, in a sociological context of complexity and dynamism, four conceptual elements should underpin approaches to socio-environmental risk and impact assessment in development projects: a theoretical base in actor–network theory; an ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized (though not always fulfilled in practice); a (new) epistemological-scientific base; and a methodological foundation in social participation. - Highlights: • A theoretical foundation in actor–network theory • An ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized, but rarely carried through into practice • A (new) epistemological-scientific base • A methodological foundation in social participation.

  17. Four conceptual issues to consider in integrating social and environmental factors in risk and impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domínguez-Gómez, J. Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In the last twenty years, both the increase in academic production and the expansion of professional involvement in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Social Impact Assessment (SIA) have evidenced growing scientific and business interest in risk and impact analysis. However, this growth has not brought with it parallel progress in addressing the main shortcomings of EIA/SIA, i.e. insufficient integration of environmental and social factors into development project analyses and, in cases where the social aspects are considered, technical-methodological failings in their analysis and assessment. It is clear that these weaknesses carry with them substantial threats to the sustainability (social, environmental and economic) of projects which impact on the environment, and consequently to the local contexts where they are carried out and to the delicate balance of the global ecosystem. This paper argues that, in a sociological context of complexity and dynamism, four conceptual elements should underpin approaches to socio-environmental risk and impact assessment in development projects: a theoretical base in actor–network theory; an ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized (though not always fulfilled in practice); a (new) epistemological-scientific base; and a methodological foundation in social participation. - Highlights: • A theoretical foundation in actor–network theory • An ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized, but rarely carried through into practice • A (new) epistemological-scientific base • A methodological foundation in social participation

  18. Environmental and personal factors that support early return-to-work: a qualitative study using the ICF as a framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefsmit, Nicole; Houkes, Inge; Nijhuis, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Occupational health professionals such as occupational physicians (OPs) increasingly understand that in addition to health improvement, environmental factors (such as work adaptations) and personal factors (such as an employee's attitude towards return-to-work (RTW)) may stimulate employees on sick leave to return to work early. To target their professional interventions more specifically according to these factors, occupational health professionals need further insight into environmental and personal factors that stimulate RTW. The objectives of this study are (1) to identify which and how environmental and personal factors support RTW, and (2) to examine whether the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be used to describe these factors. We performed interviews with 14 employees, 15 employers and 4 OPs from multiple organisations with varying organisational sizes and types of industry such as healthcare and education. We used a qualitative data analysis partially based on the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven. The following environmental factors were found to support early RTW: 'social support from relatives', 'belief that work stimulates health', 'adequate cooperation between stakeholders in RTW' (e.g., employees, employers and OPs) and 'the employers' communicative skills'. One personal factor stimulated RTW: 'positive perception of the working situation' (e.g. enjoyment of work). Most factors stimulated RTW directly. In addition, adequate treatment and social support stimulated medical recovery. Environmental factors can either fully (social support, belief that RTW stimulates health), partially (effective cooperation), or not (employers' communicative skills) be described using ICF codes. The personal factor could not be classified because the ICF does not contain codes for personal factors. RTW interventions should aim at the environmental and personal factors mentioned above. Professionals can use the ICF to

  19. Developmental effects of exposures to environmental factors: the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Ligocka, Danuta; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Strugala-Stawik, Halina; Magnus, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure--cord blood lead level, for mercury--maternal hair mercury level, for ETS--cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH--1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects) and 24 months (198 subjects) children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development ( β = -2.6; P = 0.02) and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive ( β = -0.2; P = 0.05) and motor functions ( β = -0.5; P = 0.01) were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance ( β = -6.2; P = 0.06). The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  20. Perceived Neighborhood and Home Environmental Factors Associated with Television Viewing among Taiwanese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chun Hsueh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the associations between perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors and excessive television (TV viewing time among Taiwanese older adults. The sample data was collected by administering computer-assisted telephone interviewers to 980 Taiwanese older adults (aged ≥ 65 years living in two regions. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to examine the associations between self-reported perceived neighborhood and home environmental attributions and TV viewing time by using logistic regression analyses. The results showed that perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors were associated with excessive TV viewing time (≥2 h/day after adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with a reference group, older adults who perceived their neighborhoods to have unsafe traffic were more likely to report excessive TV viewing time (OR = 1.36, 95%CI = 1.02–1.82. Older adults who reported having two or more TV sets in the home (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.28–2.44 and having a TV in the bedroom (OR = 1.55, CI = 1.18–2.03 were also more likely to report excessive TV viewing time. Further longitudinal research can confirm these findings, and tailored interventions focusing on the perceptions of neighborhood traffic safety and TV access at home for older adults might be effective means of preventing excessive TV viewing time.

  1. When environmental factors become stressors: interactive effects of vermetid gastropods and sedimentation on corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Julie A; Gil, Michael A; Osenberg, Craig W

    2017-03-01

    Environmental stressors often interact, but most studies of multiple stressors have focused on combinations of abiotic stressors. Here we examined the potential interaction between a biotic stressor, the vermetid snail Ceraesignum maximum , and an abiotic stressor, high sedimentation, on the growth of reef-building corals. In a field experiment, we subjected juvenile massive Porites corals to four treatments: (i) neither stressor, (ii) sedimentation, (iii) vermetids or (iv) both stressors. Unexpectedly, we found no effect of either stressor in isolation, but a significant decrease in coral growth in the presence of both stressors. Additionally, seven times more sediment remained on corals in the presence (versus absence) of vermetids, likely owing to adhesion of sediments to corals via vermetid mucus. Thus, vermetid snails and high sedimentation can interact to drive deleterious effects on reef-building corals. More generally, our study illustrates that environmental factors can combine to have negative interactive effects even when individual effects are not detectable. Such 'ecological surprises' may be easily overlooked, leading to environmental degradation that cannot be anticipated through the study of isolated factors. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. The impact of environmental factors on nursing stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Diane; Fowler, Susan; Fiedler, Nancy; Osinubi, Omowunmi; Robson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between environmental factors of odor, noise, light, and color and perceived stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. The physical work environment may positively or negatively influence nurses' stress, and stress may negatively impact their job satisfaction and intention to change jobs. The research questions were answered using a descriptive, correlational design. The sample (n = 116) consisted of medical-surgical nurses working in acute-care settings. A 36-item questionnaire addressed odor, noise, light, color, perceived stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. Significant relationships were found between noise and perceived stress, perceived stress and job satisfaction, job satisfaction and turnover intention, and perceived stress and turnover intention. Nurses tend to overlook their physical environment and "do their job." Common environmental stressors in the work environment can be stressful to staff and influence job satisfaction and, ultimately, intention to change jobs. Mitigating or eliminating these environmental factors has the potential to improve staff satisfaction and retention. Stress influences nursing job satisfaction and, ultimately, intention to change jobs.

  3. Factors associated with Salmonella presence in environmental samples and bulk tank milk from US dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzante, J M; Lombard, J E; Wagner, B; Fossler, C P; Karns, J S; Van Kessel, J A S; Gardner, I A

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate herd characteristics and management practices associated with presence of Salmonella in the farm environment and in bulk tank milk (BTM) in US dairy herds. Herd management data, environmental culture, BTM and in-line milk filter polymerase chain reaction results for Salmonella from 260 US dairy herds surveyed during the National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy 2007 study were analysed. Herd characteristics and management practices were screened by univariate analysis, and selected variables were used to construct a logistic regression model to identify factors associated with the presence of Salmonella in environmental samples. To identify factors associated with the occurrence of Salmonella in BTM and milk filters, a priori selected variables that were related to milking procedures were analysed univariately and a logistic regression model was constructed. The presence of Salmonella in the farm environment was associated with location of the operation in the East (OR = 4.8; CI: 1.9-11.6), not using a broadcast manure spreader (OR = 3.2; CI: 1.4-7.5), use of bovine somatotropin (BST) (OR = 2.7; CI: 1.5-5.0) and use of anionic salts (OR = 2.2; CI: 1.2-3.9). In the final multivariable model, herds with fewer than 100 cows were at decreased odds (OR = 0.3; CI: 0.1-0.7) of being culture positive for Salmonella as were herds with between 100 and 499 cows (OR = 0.4; CI: 0.2-0.8) compared with herds having 500 or more cows. The presence of culture-positive environmental samples and herd size were significantly associated with Salmonella BTM contamination. The herd-level factors identified in this study were in agreement with prior studies but also identified other potential factors that can be targeted in Salmonella control programmes. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben B

    2014-03-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established a population-based cohort of 2,486,646million persons born in Denmark between 1 January 1955 and 31 December 1993 using Danish registers. We found that PAR associated with urban birth was 11.73%; PAR associated with one, respectively 2, parent(s) with schizophrenia was 2.67% and 0.12%. PAR associated with second-generation immigration was 0.70%. Highest cumulative incidence (CI=20.23%; 95% CI=18.10-22.62) was found in male offspring of 2 parents with schizophrenia. Cumulative incidences for male offspring or female offspring of a parent with schizophrenia were 9.53% (95% CI=7.71-11.79), and 4.89%, (95% CI 4.50-5.31). The study showed that risk factors with highest predictive power on the individual level have a relatively low population impact. The challenge in future studies with direct genetic data is to examine gene-environmental interactions that can move research beyond current approaches and seek to achieve higher predictive power on the individual level and higher population impact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Research advances in the effects of environmental factors on the growth and development of Aurelia spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Yan; Yu, Zhi-Gang; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tie-Zhu; Yao, Qing-Zhen; Wang, Guo-Shan

    2012-11-01

    Aurelia spp. is a cosmopolitan coastal species, and also, one dominant species of large jellyfish in the coastal waters of China. In recent years, Aurelia spp. bloom events occur frequently in the world, causing severe damage to marine ecosystems, coastal economy, and society development. Aurelia spp. has a complicated life history comprising a benthic asexually-reproducing polyp generation and a sexually-reproducing medusa generation, and various vegetative reproduction (budding, strobilation, and podocyst production) and sexual reproduction. Surrounding physical and biological factors affect each growth stage of Aurelia spp., especially the juvenile stage of planktonic-benthic life cycle, which has major effect on the population dynamics of Aurelia spp. This paper reviewed the research advances in the effects of environmental factors on Aurelia spp. at its different growth and development stages, and discussed some problems worthy of further study, aimed to provide useful reference for the research of the key factors controlling the jellyfish blooms in coastal waters of China.

  6. Role of Genetic and Environmental Factors in the Development of Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudina T.O.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a review of studies on factors influencing empathy development in early childhood and on conditions promoting manifestation of empathy in children later in life. The outcomes of several studies shed light on the character of empathic response at early stages of child development, particularly in infancy and toddlerhood. This review covers research on the role of biological factors and mechanisms in empathy development (for instance, features of temperament and neuronal bases, as well as research on the relationship between genetic and environmental factors in the development of empathy in ontogenesis. Another part of the paper describes studies on the role of social conditions in the development of empathy in childhood: it focuses primarily on family relations and, in particular, on the mother/child relationship. The paper concludes with several suggestions concerning further research of the specified problem.

  7. Factors other than environmental issues influence resource allocation decisions of school foodservice directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackes, B L; Shanklin, C W

    1999-08-01

    To identify resource allocation decisions and policies and procedures used by school foodservice directors that were based on the concepts of pollution prevention, product stewardship, and sustainable development. A questionnaire about operational characteristics (including equipment and production systems, menu selection and service style) and environmental issues was mailed to school foodservice directors. Subjects were school foodservice directors in major cities who were members of the American School Food Service Association. Of the 389 questionnaires mailed, 168 (45.5%) were returned and used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and correlation were used to analyze data. Cost factors were rated more important (P pollution prevention, product stewardship, and sustainable development practices. Recycling and energy conservation programs and use of locally grown food products would minimize the environmental impact of school foodservice operations while reducing operational costs.

  8. Questionnaire survey on factors influencing comfort with indoor environmental quality in Danish housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Andersen, Rune Vinther; Wargocki, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    for controlling indoor environmental quality in their homes should be used. 54% of them reported to have had at least one problem related to the indoor environment at home. A majority of those respondents did not try to search for information on how to solve the problem. This may suggest that there is a need....... A total of 2499 questionnaires were sent to inhabitants of the most common types of housing in Denmark; 645 persons replied (response rate of 26%). The results show that the main indoor environmental parameters (visual, acoustic and thermal conditions, and air quality) are considered by occupants......A questionnaire survey in Danish homes investigated the factors that influence occupants’ comfort. The questionnaire contained questions on inhabitants’ behaviour, their knowledge as regards building systems designed for controlling the indoor environment and the ways in which they achieve comfort...

  9. Correlation between chlorophyll-a and related environmental factors based on Copula in Chaohu Lake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huiqun; Wang, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Chlorophyll-a is crucial to characterize the eutrophication status. Return period of Chlorophyll-a is very helpful to the treatment of lakes and reservoirs eutrophication. In this study, the Gumbel-Hougaard Copula method is applied to discern the inherent relationship between chlorophyll-a and environmental variables of Chaohu Lake, China. The result shows that Weibull probability distribution is the preferred marginal distribution for Chl-a, Gamma for TP and TN, Log-normal for SD and CODmn. The sequence of correlation between chlorophyll-a and environmental factors is CODmn, SD, TP and TN. The method proposed here presents an effective tool to analyze the interaction of eutrophic variables in complex water environment system, also could provide reference for integrated management and treatment of lakes and reservoirs.

  10. Epidemiological transition of colorectal cancer in developing countries: environmental factors, molecular pathways, and opportunities for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishehsari, Faraz; Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Vacca, Michele; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mariani-Costantini, Renato

    2014-05-28

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related mortality worldwide. The disease has been traditionally a major health problem in industrial countries, however the CRC rates are increasing in the developing countries that are undergoing economic growth. Several environmental risk factors, mainly changes in diet and life style, have been suggested to underlie the rise of CRC in these populations. Diet and lifestyle impinge on nuclear receptors, on the intestinal microbiota and on crucial molecular pathways that are implicated in intestinal carcinogenesis. In this respect, the epidemiological transition in several regions of the world offers a unique opportunity to better understand CRC carcinogenesis by studying the disease phenotypes and their environmental and molecular associations in different populations. The data from these studies may have important implications for the global prevention and treatment of CRC.

  11. Arsenic concentrations, related environmental factors, and the predicted probability of elevated arsenic in groundwater in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.; Low, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical results for arsenic in water samples from 5,023 wells obtained during 1969–2007 across Pennsylvania were compiled and related to other associated groundwater-quality and environmental factors and used to predict the probability of elevated arsenic concentrations, defined as greater than or equal to 4.0 micrograms per liter (µg/L), in groundwater. Arsenic concentrations of 4.0 µg/L or greater (elevated concentrations) were detected in 18 percent of samples across Pennsylvania; 8 percent of samples had concentrations that equaled or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10.0 µg/L. The highest arsenic concentration was 490.0 µg/L.

  12. Birth outcome racial disparities: A result of intersecting social and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Heather H; Hacker, Michele R

    2017-10-01

    Adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth, low-birth weight, and infant mortality continue to disproportionately affect black and poor infants in the United States. Improvements in healthcare quality and access have not eliminated these disparities. The objective of this review was to consider societal factors, including suboptimal education, income inequality, and residential segregation, that together lead to toxic environmental exposures and psychosocial stress. Many toxic chemicals, as well as psychosocial stress, contribute to the risk of adverse birth outcomes and black women often are more highly exposed than white women. The extent to which environmental exposures combine with stress and culminate in racial disparities in birth outcomes has not been quantified but is likely substantial. Primary prevention of adverse birth outcomes and elimination of disparities will require a societal approach to improve education quality, income equity, and neighborhoods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Macro-environmental factors and physical activity in 28 European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Anthony A; Thompson, Hayley; Cetateanu, Andreea; Filippidis, Filippos T

    2018-02-09

    Data from the representative 2013 Eurobarometer survey were combined with macro-environmental data to assess relationships with different domains of physical activity (PA) in 28 European Union countries. Higher mean annual temperatures were the only macro-environmental factor found to be associated with levels of physical activity; an increase in the mean annual temperature by 1°C was associated with-0.94 fewer minutes of vigorous-intensity activity per week (95% CI: -1.66 to -0.23). This highlights the importance of modifiable influences (e.g. opportunities for active travel) on PA and underscores the potential of public health interventions to raise levels of physical activity. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk-Predicting Model for Incident of Essential Hypertension Based on Environmental and Genetic Factors with Support Vector Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhiyong; Liu, Jielin; Liu, Manjiao; Zhou, Wenchao; Yan, Pengcheng; Wen, Shaojun; Chen, Yubao

    2018-03-01

    Essential hypertension (EH) has become a major chronic disease around the world. To build a risk-predicting model for EH can help to interpose people's lifestyle and dietary habit to decrease the risk of getting EH. In this study, we constructed a EH risk-predicting model considering both environmental and genetic factors with support vector machine (SVM). The data were collected through Epidemiological investigation questionnaire from Beijing Chinese Han population. After data cleaning, we finally selected 9 environmental factors and 12 genetic factors to construct the predicting model based on 1200 samples, including 559 essential hypertension patients and 641 controls. Using radial basis kernel function, predictive accuracy via SVM with function with only environmental factor and only genetic factor were 72.8 and 54.4%, respectively; after considering both environmental and genetic factor the accuracy improved to 76.3%. Using the model via SVM with Laplacian function, the accuracy with only environmental factor and only genetic factor were 76.9 and 57.7%, respectively; after combining environmental and genetic factor, the accuracy improved to 80.1%. The predictive accuracy of SVM model constructed based on Laplacian function was higher than radial basis kernel function, as well as sensitivity and specificity, which were 63.3 and 86.7%, respectively. In conclusion, the model based on SVM with Laplacian kernel function had better performance in predicting risk of hypertension. And SVM model considering both environmental and genetic factors had better performance than the model with environmental or genetic factors only.

  15. Plant diversity drives soil microbial biomass carbon in grasslands irrespective of global environmental change factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Madhav Prakash; Milcu, Alexandru; Manning, Pete; Niklaus, Pascal A; Roscher, Christiane; Power, Sally; Reich, Peter B; Scheu, Stefan; Tilman, David; Ai, Fuxun; Guo, Hongyan; Ji, Rong; Pierce, Sarah; Ramirez, Nathaly Guerrero; Richter, Annabell Nicola; Steinauer, Katja; Strecker, Tanja; Vogel, Anja; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2015-11-01

    Soil microbial biomass is a key determinant of carbon dynamics in the soil. Several studies have shown that soil microbial biomass significantly increases with plant species diversity, but it remains unclear whether plant species diversity can also stabilize soil microbial biomass in a changing environment. This question is particularly relevant as many global environmental change (GEC) factors, such as drought and nutrient enrichment, have been shown to reduce soil microbial biomass. Experiments with orthogonal manipulations of plant diversity and GEC factors can provide insights whether plant diversity can attenuate such detrimental effects on soil microbial biomass. Here, we present the analysis of 12 different studies with 14 unique orthogonal plant diversity × GEC manipulations in grasslands, where plant diversity and at least one GEC factor (elevated CO2 , nutrient enrichment, drought, earthworm presence, or warming) were manipulated. Our results show that higher plant diversity significantly enhances soil microbial biomass with the strongest effects in long-term field experiments. In contrast, GEC factors had inconsistent effects with only drought having a significant negative effect. Importantly, we report consistent non-significant effects for all 14 interactions between plant diversity and GEC factors, which indicates a limited potential of plant diversity to attenuate the effects of GEC factors on soil microbial biomass. We highlight that plant diversity is a major determinant of soil microbial biomass in experimental grasslands that can influence soil carbon dynamics irrespective of GEC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Impact evaluation of environmental factors on respiratory function of asthma patients living in urban territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veremchuk, Lyudmila V; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Vitkina, Tatyana I; Mineeva, Elena E; Gvozdenko, Tatyana A; Antonyuk, Marina V; Rakitskii, Valeri N; Sidletskaya, Karolina A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Golokhvast, Kirill S

    2018-04-01

    Environmental pollution, local climatic conditions and their association with the prevalence and exacerbation of asthma are topics of intense current medical investigation. Air pollution in the area of Vladivostock was estimated both by the index of emission volumes of "air gaseous components" (nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide) in urban atmosphere and by mass spectrometric analysis of precipitates in snow samples. A total of 172 local asthma patients (101 controlled-asthma patients-CAP and 71 non-controlled asthma patients - nCAP) were evaluated with the use of spirometry and body plethysmography. Airway obstruction reversibility was evaluated with the use of an inhaled bronchodilator. Using discriminant analysis the association of environmental parameters with clinical indices of asthma patients is explored and thresholds of impact are established. CAP presented high sensitivity to large-size suspended air particles and to several of the studied climatic parameters. Discriminant analysis showed high values of Wilks' lambda index (α = 0.69-0.81), which implies limited influence of environmental factors on the respiratory parameters of CAP. nCAP were more sensitive and susceptible to the majority of the environmental factors studied, including air suspended toxic metals particles (Cr, Zn and Ni). Air suspended particles showed higher tendency for pathogenicity in nCAP population than in the CAP, with a wider range of particle sizes being involved. Dust fractions ranging from 0 to 1 μm and from 50 to 100 μm were additionally implicated compared to CAP group. Considerably lowest thresholds levels of impact are calculated for nCAP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Breast cancer and personal environmental risk factors in Marin County - Pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, C.A.; Farren, G.; Baltzell, K.; Chew, T.; Clarkson, C.; Fleshman, R.; Leary, C.; Mizroch, M.; Orenstein, F.; Russell, M.L.; Souders-Mason, V.; Wrensch, M.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the Personal Environmental Risk Factor Study (PERFS) pilot project was to develop methodologies and a questionnaire for a future population-based case-control study to investigate the role of selected environmental exposures in breast cancer development. Identification of etiologically relevant exposures during a period of potential vulnerability proximate to disease onset offers the possibility of clinical disease prevention even when disease initiation may have already occurred many years earlier. Certain personal environmental agents or combinations of agents may influence disease promotion. Therefore, this pilot study focused on exposures that occurred during the ten-year period prior to diagnosis for cases and the last ten years for controls, rather than more historic exposures. For this pilot study, they used a community-based research approach. In the collaborative efforts, community members participated with academic researchers in all phases of the research, including research question identification, study design, development of research tools, development of the human subjects protocol, and report writing. Community member inclusion was based upon the concept that community participation could improve the relevance of scientific studies and ultimate success of the research by encouraging an ongoing dialogue between community members and academic representatives. Early activities of this project focused on the collection of input from the community regarding the possible role of environmental factors in the incidence of breast cancer in Marin County. The intent was to inform the scientists of community concerns, enhance the research team's understanding of the community being studied, and provide interested community members with a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of traditional research methods through active participation in the research process.

  18. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Profile of genetic and environmental factors in oncogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinomas (NBCCs) are a prototype of a genetic form of basal cell carcinoma. These basal cell cancers, rather than being caused by genetic factors alone, are most likely the product of genetic and environmental factors. The NBCC syndrome provides a model for studying tumors induced by ionizing radiation and for viewing carcinogenesis as a multistage process explainable by a minimum of two steps. The interaction of genetic and environmental factors in producing tumors to which an individual is predisposed can be studied in patients with the NBCC syndrome and childhood medulloblastoma that was treated by radiation therapy. Individuals with the NBCC syndrome represent a special subgroup with a hereditary predisposition to basal cell carcinoma in whom ionizing radiation may supply the subsequent mutation necessary for tumor development. The genetically altered epidermis underlying the palm and sole pits found in patients with the syndrome represents basal cell carcinoma in situ from which basal cell carcinomas develop, albeit infrequently. The restrained biologic behavior of most of these tumors contrasts with the usual destructive behavior of the NBCCs of the head and neck in the same patient

  19. Environmental Factors Associated with Type 1 Diabetes Development: A Case Control Study in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadalla, Nabil J; Hegazy, Amal A; Abd El-Salam, Manal; Elhady, Marwa

    2017-06-07

    Uncertainty still exists regarding the role of some environmental risk in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) both globally and in Egypt. The objective here was to explore the potential environmental risk factors associated with the development of T1DM among children in Egypt. A case-controlled study of 204 T1DM children and an equal number of age and sex-matched controls was conducted in Assiut, Egypt. Data regarding the parental, gestational, neonatal, and childhood possible risk factors for T1DM were evaluated. The final sex adjusted multivariable logistic regression model revealed that the risk for T1DM was significantly higher among rural residents (aOR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.30-4.25), those with parental history of T1DM (aOR = 9.03, 95% CI: 1.02-83.32), birth through cesarean section (aOR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.09-5.03), and having history of early introduction of cow milk in the first year of life (aOR = 19.49, 95% CI: 8.73-45.53). On the other hand, a protective effect was observed between at least six months' breastfeeding, vitamin D supplementation in the first year of life, high physical activity, and the development of T1DM. Educational programs should be adopted to improve awareness and knowledge of the parents to avoid the increased risk factors and encourage protective practices.

  20. Correlation of hs-CRP with environmental risk factors of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Sah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of hs-CRP levels with environmental risk factors of diabetic nephropathy like smoking, drinking alcohol, diet, age of diabetic patient, duration of diabetes, medication of diabetes, and blood pressure medication. A hospital-based quantitative study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Biochemistry of Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH Pokhara, Nepal, with 89 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. Blood samples (n=89 from the patients were collected and the serums were separated. On the other hand, data on environmental risk factors of nephropathy were collected by using standard questionnaire. In this study, serum hs-CRP level was not found to be correlated with smoking (p=0.111, alcohol consumption (p=0.722, diet (p=0.496, duration of diabetes (p=0.519, age of diabetic patient (p=0.369, medication of diabetes (p=0.734, and blood pressure medication (p=0.625. Hence, our study concludes that serum hs-CRP value in type 2 diabetic patients is insignificantly correlated with the risk factors especially smoking, drinking alcohol, diet, duration of diabetes, age of diabetic patient, medication of diabetes, and medication of blood pressure.

  1. The role of early life environmental risk factors in Parkinson disease: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logroscino, Giancarlo

    2005-09-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is of unknown but presumably multifactorial etiology. Neuropathologic studies and animal models show that exposure to environmental neurotoxicants can determine progressive damage in the substantia nigra many years before the onset of clinical parkinsonism. Therefore, PD, like other neurologic diseases related to aging, may be determined by exposures present in the environment early during the life span or even during pregnancy. Recent epidemiologic studies have focused on the possible role of environmental risk factors present during adult life or aging. Smoking and coffee drinking have consistently been identified to have protective associations, whereas roles of other risk factors such as pesticide and infections have been reported in some studies but not replicated in others. Both genetic inheritance and sharing of common environment in the same family explain the increased risk of PD of relatives of PD cases compared with relatives of controls in familial aggregation studies. Much evidence indicates that risk factors that have a long latency or a slow effect could be important for late-onset PD. Further epidemiologic studies are warranted in this area.

  2. The environment and physical activity: The influence of psychosocial, perceived and built environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullen Chris

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study sought to integrate perceived and built environmental and individual factors into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB model to better understand adolescents' physical activity. Methods Participants (n = 110 aged 12 to 17 years (M = 14.6 ± 1.55 were recruited from two large metropolitan high schools in Auckland, New Zealand, were included in the analysis. Participants completed measures of the revised TPB and the perceived environment. Individual factors such as ethnicity and level of deprivation were also collected. Geographical Information Systems (GIS software was used to measure the physical environment (walkability, access to physical activity facilities. Physical activity was assessed using the ActiGraph accelerometer and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A. Data from the various sources were combined to develop an integrated model integrated for statistical analysis using structural equation modeling. Results The TPB model variables (intention and perceived behavioral control explained 43% of the variance of PAQ-A. Unique and individual contributions were made by intention and PBC and home ownership of home equipment. The model explained 13% of time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (Actigraph. Unique and individual contribution was made by intention. Conclusion Social cognitive variables were better predictors of both subjective and objective physical activity compared to perceived environmental and built environment factors. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Influence of environmental factors on the concentration of phenolic compounds in leaves of Lafoensia pacari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leite Sampaio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, a plant from the Cerrado known as pacari or dedaleiro, is widely used as an antipyretic, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal and in the treatment of gastritis and cancer. Notable among the metabolite groups identified in leaves of L. pacari are the polyphenols, such as tannins and flavonoids, related to the pharmacological activities of pacari. Studies on the influence of environmental factors over production of major groups of secondary metabolites in pacari are important because they contribute data for its cultivation and harvest, and establish quantitative parameters of secondary metabolites in the plant drug. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on concentrations of phenolic metabolites in the leaves of L. pacari. Compounds quantified in the leaves were: total phenols, tannins by protein precipitation, hydrolysable tannins, total flavonoids, ellagic acid and mineral nutrients, while soil fertility was also analyzed, all over a period of one year. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis, and the results suggest that metabolite concentrations in the leaves of this plant are influenced by seasonal factors, in particular the temperature and foliar micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn.

  4. Influence of environmental factors on the concentration of phenolic compounds in leaves of Lafoensia pacari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leite Sampaio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, a plant from the Cerrado known as pacari or dedaleiro, is widely used as an antipyretic, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal and in the treatment of gastritis and cancer. Notable among the metabolite groups identified in leaves of L. pacari are the polyphenols, such as tannins and flavonoids, related to the pharmacological activities of pacari. Studies on the influence of environmental factors over production of major groups of secondary metabolites in pacari are important because they contribute data for its cultivation and harvest, and establish quantitative parameters of secondary metabolites in the plant drug. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on concentrations of phenolic metabolites in the leaves of L. pacari. Compounds quantified in the leaves were: total phenols, tannins by protein precipitation, hydrolysable tannins, total flavonoids, ellagic acid and mineral nutrients, while soil fertility was also analyzed, all over a period of one year. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis, and the results suggest that metabolite concentrations in the leaves of this plant are influenced by seasonal factors, in particular the temperature and foliar micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn.

  5. Preliminary spatiotemporal analysis of the association between socio-environmental factors and suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The seasonality of suicide has long been recognised. However, little is known about the relative importance of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence of suicide in different geographical areas. This study examined the association of climate, socioeconomic and demographic factors with suicide in Queensland, Australia, using a spatiotemporal approach. Methods Seasonal data on suicide, demographic variables and socioeconomic indexes for areas in each Local Government Area (LGA) between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Climate data were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A multivariable generalized estimating equation model was used to examine the impact of socio-environmental factors on suicide. Results The preliminary data analyses show that far north Queensland had the highest suicide incidence (e.g., Cook and Mornington Shires), while the south-western areas had the lowest incidence (e.g., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires) in all the seasons. Maximum temperature, unemployment rate, the proportion of Indigenous population and the proportion of population with low individual income were statistically significantly and positively associated with suicide. There were weaker but not significant associations for other variables. Conclusion Maximum temperature, the proportion of Indigenous population and unemployment rate appeared to be major determinants of suicide at a LGA level in Queensland. PMID:19796389

  6. Preliminary spatiotemporal analysis of the association between socio-environmental factors and suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Wenbiao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The seasonality of suicide has long been recognised. However, little is known about the relative importance of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence of suicide in different geographical areas. This study examined the association of climate, socioeconomic and demographic factors with suicide in Queensland, Australia, using a spatiotemporal approach. Methods Seasonal data on suicide, demographic variables and socioeconomic indexes for areas in each Local Government Area (LGA between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Climate data were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A multivariable generalized estimating equation model was used to examine the impact of socio-environmental factors on suicide. Results The preliminary data analyses show that far north Queensland had the highest suicide incidence (e.g., Cook and Mornington Shires, while the south-western areas had the lowest incidence (e.g., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires in all the seasons. Maximum temperature, unemployment rate, the proportion of Indigenous population and the proportion of population with low individual income were statistically significantly and positively associated with suicide. There were weaker but not significant associations for other variables. Conclusion Maximum temperature, the proportion of Indigenous population and unemployment rate appeared to be major determinants of suicide at a LGA level in Queensland.

  7. The environmental risk factors in multiple sclerosis susceptibility: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaygannejad, Vahid; Rezaie, Nooshin; Paknahad, Zamzam; Ashtari, Freshteh; Maghzi, Helia

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and degenerating disease which involves central nervous system. Environmental risk factors have a key role in MS susceptibility. Here we aim to investigate different risk factors effect on MS susceptibility in a large population of MS patients in Isfahan, Iran. This study is a cross-sectional hospital-based study, which was conducted on a large group of MS patients registered in Kashani hospital and a control group from normal healthy population. Demographic data, age at onset of the disease, history of viral infections, vaccination, history of trauma to head, recent stressful events, alimentation, familial history, method of delivery (caesarean section, normal vaginal delivery), disability score and history of smoking were gathered using a designed questionnaire. Totally 536 MS patient with the mean age of 34.37 ± 9.22 and 399 individuals from healthy population with the mean age of 32.53 ± 9.91 were recruited. Significant difference in history of measles infection (control = 15.5%, case = 22.4%, P = 0.009), consumption of dairy products (case = 56.6%, control = 67.5%, P = 0.01) and major stressful life events (case = 62.2%, control = 52.7%, P < 0.05) between these two groups were demonstrated. A significant relation between stress, history of infection and milk consumption was reached that highlights the importance of environmental risk factors in MS pathogenesis.

  8. The Effects of Environmental Factors on Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sarpong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, environmental awareness has received a great deal of public attention. However, little emphasis has been put on the influence of environmental factors (weather, personal attitudes, policies, physical structures, transportation, etc. on the quality of life of persons infected with HIV/AIDS. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of selected environmental factors on the quality of life of persons affected by HIV/AIDS. To achieve this goal, the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF subscales including Policies, Physical Structure, Work/School, Attitudes/Support, and Service/ Assistance were evaluated in patients selected from a STD/HIV clinic in Jackson, MS. They were chosen based on previously diagnosed HIV/AIDS status and age (16-95. Written consents, demographics sheets and self-administered questionnaires were obtained. Data were analyzed using Excel and SPSS software. Interviews started in July 2007 and ended in August, 2007. One hundred and thirteen patients responded. Participants were 72.6% (82 male, 26.5% (30 female and 0.9% (1 transgender. The median age of participants was 38.8 (18-63. Over 50% (65 had some college or higher education, and 35.4% reported annual incomes less than $10,000. Multivariate analysis showed marginal significance between disease diagnosis and gender (p < 0.10, and statistical significance between disease diagnosis and income (p = 0.03. Also, age (p = 0.01 and education (p = 0.03 were significant predictors in one of the subscales. The CHIEF subscales that showed the greatest significance among AIDS respondents were Attitudes and Support, and Government Policies with mean sensitivity scores of 1.39 and 1.42, respectively. The element with the least effect on AIDS patients was the Work/School subscale, with a mean score of 0.74. In general AIDS patients were disproportionately affected in all but one of the five subscales observed. Conversely those with HIV were more

  9. Ecology of the cardiovascular system: A focus on air-related environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argacha, Jean François; Bourdrel, T; van de Borne, P

    2018-02-01

    Cardiology is a newcomer to environmental sciences. We aim to propose an original review of the scientific evidence regarding the effects of the environment on cardiovascular health. We report first influences of air-related environmental factors. Air temperature has a strong influence on cardiovascular mortality characterized by a V-like relationship confirming that both cold and hot periods have negative cardiovascular impacts. Furthermore, dynamic changes in temperature are likely more important than the absolute air temperature level. Cardiovascular reactions to air temperature are predominantly driven by increase in sympathetic tone. Indoor pollutants are mainly represented by smoke from cooking stoves and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and both are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. ETS is characterized by a curvilinear dose-effect relationship, showing already a significant effect even at low level of exposure and no threshold in effect appearance. Underlying ETS pathophysiology involves both effects of nicotinic stimulus on the sympathetic system and vascular oxidative stress. Smoking bans, as mitigation measures, were associated with a decrease in cardiovascular events. Long-term exposure to particulate air pollution was more recently recognized as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular mortality. Short-term increases in air pollution were also associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and acute heart failure. Numerous experimental studies demonstrated that air pollution promotes a systemic vascular oxidative stress reaction followed by endothelial dysfunction, monocyte activation, and some proatherogenic changes of lipoproteins. Furthermore, air pollution favors thrombus formation as a result of increase in coagulation factors and platelet activation. Further studies are required to confirm that stricter air quality regulation or antioxidant regimen translate into some clinical benefits

  10. Peran Environmental Factors dan Komitmen Sumberdaya dalam Menetapkan Strategi Berorientasi Produk Inovatif untuk Meningkatkan Kinerja Pemasaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Sudarti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study aims to examine the effect of environmental factors and commitment in determination of product innovation-oriented strategy to improve marketing performance. Subjects were owners of gold jewelry craft SMEs in Jepara Margoyoso village. Research data, which is the primary data, collected through a questionnaire instrument. 50 SME owners craft gold jewelry as a sample drawn by the census method. With path analysis and using SPSS 14 software, this research instrument has been validated with the results so significant that it can be to test eight hypotheses that are developed based on theory. Based on hypothesis testing, seven hypotheses are estimated proved significant, alpha 5%. Only the commitment of resources does not affect the performance of marketing. Product innovation has the greatest direct impact on marketing performance. Environmental factors have a negative impact on product innovation.Keyword: Environmental factors, the commitment of resources, product innovation, performanceAbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh Faktor Lingkungan dan komitmen dalam penetapan strategi berorientasi produk inovasi untuk meningkatkan kinerja Pemasaran. Subyek penelitian adalah pemilik kerajinan perhiasan emas UKM di desa Jepara Margoyoso. Data penelitian, yang merupakan data primer, yang dikumpulkan melalui instrumen kuesioner. 50 pemilik UKM kerajinan perhiasan emas sebagai sampel yang ditarik dengan metode sensus. Dengan analisis jalur dan menggunakan SPSS 14 perangkat lunak, instrumen penelitian ini telah divalidasi dengan hasil signifikan sehingga dapat untuk menguji hipotesis yang dikembangkan berdasarkan teori. Berdasarkan uji hipotesis, tujuh hipotesis terbukti signifikan, alpha 5%. Hanya komitmen sumber daya tidak mempengaruhi kinerja pemasaran. Inovasi produk memiliki pengaruh langsung terbesar pada kinerja pemasaran. Faktor lingkungan memiliki inovasi yang negatif terhadap produk. Kata kunci: Faktor lingkungan

  11. Demographic and Environmental Factors Associated with Mental Health: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jayeun; Kim, Ho

    2017-04-17

    Relevant demographic and environmental conditions need to be understood before tailoring policies to improve mental health. Using community health survey data from 25 communities in Seoul, 2013, cross-sectional associations between mental health and community level environments were assessed. Mental health outcomes (self-rated stress levels (SRS) and depressive symptoms (DS)) were analyzed. Community environmental factors included green space, green facilities, and annual PM 10 level (AnnPM 10 ); socio-demographic factors included sex, age, education, labor market participation, comorbidity, sleep hours, physical activity, smoking, and drinking. A total of 23,139 people with the following characteristics participated: men (44.2%); age groups 19-39 (36.0%), 40-59 (39.4%), 60-74 (19.2%), and 75+ (5.4%). Women had higher odds ratios (OR) for SRS [OR 1.22, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.27] and DS [OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.42-1.71]. Regular physical activity predicted SRS [OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.95] and DS [OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88-1.10]; current smoking and drinking were adversely associated with both SRS and DS. Higher accessibility to green space (Q4) was inversely associated with DS [OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.97] compared to lower accessibility (Q1). AnnPM 10 , annual levels for particles of aerodynamic diameter environmental factors should be considered to understand mental health conditions among the general population.

  12. Relationship between demographic and environmental factors and knowledge of secondary school students on natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of quantitative research is to examine the connection between demographic (gender, age and environmental factors (family, school and media and knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. Bearing in mind the orientation of the research design on determination of character and strength of relationships of demographic and environmental factors with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters, research has explicative goal. The authors use the method of interviewing high school students to identify demographic and environmental factors associated with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. The study included 3,063 students of secondary schools in the city of Belgrade. Results suggest the existence of links between gender, success achieved in school and education of parents and the knowledge of students about natural disasters. The results also indicate that the education of students at school and within family does not affect the knowledge, but affects their perception on natural disasters. Bearing in mind the geographical space of Serbia, the study is based only on the Belgrade region, so the findings can be generalized only to the population of students in this area. Research findings indicate potential ways to influence students to raise level of knowledge about natural disasters to a higher level. Given the evident lack of education about natural disasters in Serbia, the study results can be used for policies of educational programs, which would contribute to improving the safety of youth culture. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179045: Development of institutional capacities, standards and procedures for countering organized crime and terrorism in terms of international integration, br. 179034: From encouraging initiative, cooperation and creativity in education to new roles and identities in the society i br. 47008: Improving quality and

  13. Suitability evaluation of urban construction land based on geo-environmental factors of Hangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai; Kong, Chunfang; Li, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Liqin; Wu, Chonglong

    2011-08-01

    Suitability evaluation of urban construction land based on geo-environmental factors is the process of determining the fitness of a given tract of land for construction. This process involves a consideration of the geomorphology, geology, engineering geology, geological hazards, and other geological factors and is the basis of urban construction land planning and management. With the support of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), grid analysis, and geo-spatial analysis techniques, four factor groups comprising nine separate subfactors of geo-environmental attributes were selected to be used in the evaluation of the suitability level for construction land in Hangzhou. This was based on K-means clustering and back-propagation (BP) neural network methods due to their advantages in fast computing, unique adaptive capacity, and self-organization. Simultaneously, the evaluation results based on K-means clustering and BP neural network were compared and analyzed, and the accuracy evaluation was set. The results showed that the geo-environmental suitability evaluation results of construction land based on K-means clustering and BP neural network were similar in terms of the distribution and scale of construction land suitability level. At the same time, the results of the two evaluation methods were consistent with the variability in suitability level, engineering geology, and hydrogeology of Hangzhou. The results also showed that the real advantage of the methods proposed in this paper lies in their capacity to streamline the mapping process and to ensure that the results are consistent throughout. The suitability level of the urban construction land based on the geo-environment in Hangzhou was divided into four construction sites: land for building super high-rise and high-rise buildings, land for building multistorey buildings, land for low-rise buildings, and nonbuilding land. The results of the suitability evaluation for each category will provide a scientific basis

  14. Geographic patterns and environmental factors associated with human yellow fever presence in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Patricia Najera; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Machado, Gustavo; Leonel, Deise Galan; Vilca, Luz Maria; Uriona, Sonia; Schneider, Maria Cristina

    2017-09-01

    In the Americas, yellow fever virus transmission is a latent threat due to the proximity between urban and wild environments. Although yellow fever has nearly vanished from North and Central America, there are still 13 countries in the Americas considered endemic by the World Health Organization. Human cases usually occur as a result of the exposure to sylvatic yellow fever in tropical forested environments; but urban outbreaks reported during the last decade demonstrate that the risk in this environment still exists. The objective of this study was to identify spatial patterns and the relationship between key geographic and environmental factors with the distribution of yellow fever human cases in the Americas. An ecological study was carried out to analyze yellow fever human cases reported to the Pan American Health Organization from 2000 to 2014, aggregated by second administrative level subdivisions (counties). Presence of yellow fever by county was used as the outcome variable and eight geo-environmental factors were used as independent variables. Spatial analysis was performed to identify and examine natural settings per county. Subsequently, a multivariable logistic regression model was built. During the study period, 1,164 cases were reported in eight out of the 13 endemic countries. Nearly 83.8% of these cases were concentrated in three countries: Peru (37.4%), Brazil (28.1%) and Colombia (18.4%); and distributed in 57 states/provinces, specifically in 286 counties (3.4% of total counties). Yellow fever presence was significantly associated with altitude, rain, diversity of non-human primate hosts and temperature. A positive spatial autocorrelation revealed a clustered geographic pattern in 138/286 yellow fever positive counties (48.3%). A clustered geographic pattern of yellow fever was identified mostly along the Andes eastern foothills. This risk map could support health policies in endemic countries. Geo-environmental factors associated with presence

  15. The Sap Flow Dynamics and Response of Hedysarum scoparium to Environmental Factors in Semiarid Northwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Deng

    Full Text Available Hedysarum scoparium is an important, fast-growing and drought-resistant shrub that has been extensively used for grassland restoration and preventing desertification in semiarid regions of northwestern China. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the diurnal and seasonal variations in stem sap flow (Js and its relation to environmental factors. The stem heat balance method was applied to plants that were approximately 17 years old (with diameters of 25, 16, 13, and 9 mm at ground level and heights of 3.1, 1.8, 1.7 and 1.4 m and growing under natural conditions. The vertical soil temperature profile (ST, soil surface heat flux (SoilG, volumetric soil moisture content (SWC and meteorological variables such as solar radiation (Rn, air temperature (Ta, vapour pressure deficit (VPD, wind speed (Ws relative humidity (RH and precipitation (P were simultaneously measured at a meteorological station on site. Results indicated that Js varied regularly during the diurnal and seasonal term. The nocturnal Js was substantial, with a seasonal variation similar to the patterns of daytime Js. The magnitude of Js changed considerably between sunny and rainy days. Redundancy (RDA and Kendall's tau analysis suggested that daily Js in large plants was more sensitive to environmental factors, and the variation in daily Js during the growing season could be described by a multiple linear regression against environmental variables including Ta, VPD, Ws, RH, ST, and SoilG. While the nocturnal Js in smaller plants was more sensitive to meteorological factors. Ta, VPD, and Ws were significantly correlated with nighttime Js. The hourly nighttime sap flow rate of H. scoparium corresponded closely to Ta and VPD following a non-linear pattern. The results of this study can be used to estimate the transpiration of H. scoparium.

  16. Demographic and Environmental Factors Associated with Mental Health: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayeun Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Relevant demographic and environmental conditions need to be understood before tailoring policies to improve mental health. Using community health survey data from 25 communities in Seoul, 2013, cross-sectional associations between mental health and community level environments were assessed. Mental health outcomes (self-rated stress levels (SRS and depressive symptoms (DS were analyzed. Community environmental factors included green space, green facilities, and annual PM10 level (AnnPM10; socio-demographic factors included sex, age, education, labor market participation, comorbidity, sleep hours, physical activity, smoking, and drinking. A total of 23,139 people with the following characteristics participated: men (44.2%; age groups 19−39 (36.0%, 40−59 (39.4%, 60−74 (19.2%, and 75+ (5.4%. Women had higher odds ratios (OR for SRS [OR 1.22, 95% Confidence interval (CI 1.17–1.27] and DS [OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.42–1.71]. Regular physical activity predicted SRS [OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84–0.95] and DS [OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88–1.10]; current smoking and drinking were adversely associated with both SRS and DS. Higher accessibility to green space (Q4 was inversely associated with DS [OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81−0.97] compared to lower accessibility (Q1. AnnPM10, annual levels for particles of aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10, among communities was associated with poorer SRS [OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.04] by 10 μg/m3 increases. Therefore, both demographic and environmental factors should be considered to understand mental health conditions among the general population.

  17. Social and environmental factors modulate leucocyte profiles in free-living Greylag geese (Anser anser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didone Frigerio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Blood parameters such as haematocrit or leucocyte counts are indicators of immune status and health, which can be affected, in a complex way, by exogenous as well as endogenous factors. Additionally, social context is known to be among the most potent stressors in group living individuals, therefore potentially influencing haematological parameters. However, with few exceptions, this potential causal relationship received only moderate scientific attention. Methods In a free-living and individually marked population of the highly social and long-lived Greylag goose, Anser anser, we relate variation in haematocrit (HCT, heterophils to lymphocytes ratio (H/L and blood leucocyte counts to the following factors: intrinsic (sex, age, raising condition, i.e. goose- or hand-raised, social (pair-bond status, pair-bond duration and parental experience and environmental (biologically relevant periods, ambient temperature factors. Blood samples were collected repeatedly from a total of 105 focal birds during three biologically relevant seasons (winter flock, mating season, summer. Results We found significant relationships between haematological parameters and social as well as environmental factors. During the mating season, unpaired individuals had higher HCT compared to paired and family individuals and this pattern reversed in fall. Similarly, H/L ratio was positively related to pair-bond status in a seasonally dependent way, with highest values during mating and successful pairs had higher H/L ratio than unsuccessful ones. Also, absolute number of leucocytes tended to vary depending on raising condition in a seasonally dependent way. Discussion Haematology bears a great potential in ecological and behavioural studies on wild vertebrates. In sum, we found that HTC, H/L ratio and absolute number of leucocytes are modulated by social factors and conclude that they may be considered valid indicators of individual stress load.

  18. Environmental risk factors and Crohn's disease: a population-based, case-control study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, B; López Miguel, C; Arribas, F; López Zaborras, J; Sierra, E; Gomollón, F

    2001-12-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease probably involves an interaction between genetic and environmental factors: cigarette smoking, appendectomy and oral contraceptives have been the factors most frequently linked to its aetiology To analyse the association between known environmental risk factors and development of Crohn's disease in the community of Aragón, Spain. A case-control, population-based study has been carried out. All patients diagnosed with Crohn's disease in the community of Aragón from 1st February 1992 to 31st January 1995 were prospectively included. The Lennard Jones criteria were used to define the cases and selected controls among the healthy population matched with patients for age, sex and rural/urban habitat. Statistical analysis included multivariate analysis using conditional logistic regression, testing 38 different models. A total of 103 patients were diagnosed with Crohn's disease in Aragón from 1st February, 1992 to 31st January, 1995. Of these 62 patients (60.2%) with Crohn's disease were smokers, compared with 42 (40.8%) controls (pCrohn's disease with an odds ratio of 3.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.58-6.05). After multivariate analysis, the positive association is maintained. A dose-dependent relation could not be demonstrated. No statistical differences (p=0.50) were detected in the analysis of previous appendectomy. Use of oral contraceptive acts as a risk factor with a p=0.048; odds ratio 2, 8, 95% confidence interval: 1.009-7.774; but this association disappears in the multivariate analysis. Eight patients had a family history (3 first degree and 5 second degree relatives) versus none of the controls (p=0.002). Of the variables studied for childhood hygiene none appeared significant. Smoking, family history, and oral contraceptive use, appear as risk factors for developing Crohn's disease in univariate analysis, but only smoking remains significant in all models of multivariate analysis.

  19. An Item Bank to Measure Systems, Services, and Policies: Environmental Factors Affecting People With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Hammel, Joy; Jerousek, Sara; Goldsmith, Arielle; Miskovic, Ana; Baum, Carolyn; Wong, Alex W; Dashner, Jessica; Heinemann, Allen W

    2016-12-01

    To develop a measure of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators (see Chapter 5 of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) for people with neurologic disabilities and to evaluate the effect of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators on health-related quality of life. Qualitative approaches to develop and refine items. Confirmatory factor analysis including 1-factor confirmatory factor analysis and bifactor analysis to evaluate unidimensionality of items. Rasch analysis to identify misfitting items. Correlational and analysis of variance methods to evaluate construct validity. Community-dwelling individuals participated in telephone interviews or traveled to the academic medical centers where this research took place. Participants (N=571) had a diagnosis of spinal cord injury, stroke, or traumatic brain injury. They were 18 years or older and English speaking. Not applicable. An item bank to evaluate environmental access and support levels of services, systems, and policies for people with disabilities. We identified a general factor defined as "access and support levels of the services, systems, and policies at the level of community living" and 3 local factors defined as "health services," "community living," and "community resources." The systems, services, and policies measure correlated moderately with participation measures: Community Participation Indicators (CPI) - Involvement, CPI - Control over Participation, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Ability to Participate, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Satisfaction with Role Participation, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Ability to Participate, PROMIS Satisfaction with Role Participation, and PROMIS Isolation. The measure of systems, services, and policies facilitators contains items pertaining to health services, community living, and community resources. Investigators and clinicians can measure

  20. Forestry as a source of raw materials and an environmental factor. Forstwirtschaft - Rohstofflieferant und Umweltfaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrichsmeyer, W.; Haushofer, H.; Fischbeck, G.; Wiebecke, C.

    1984-01-01

    The book comprises the papers and the essentials of the discussions of a meeting held in Goettingen, West Germany, in November 1983 under the heading 'Forestry as a source of raw materials and an environmental factor'. This was the first time forestry was the central issue of a public meeting. It was dealt with in a rather general and interdisciplinary fashion in order to establish a basis for more specific in-depth studies. Four papers are presented as separate entries.

  1. Social environmental factors in Japan affecting the development of proper eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, H; Benkert, K; Takeuchi, H; Hagiwara, N; Sasaki, K; Kanemoto, H

    1999-11-01

    This article summarizes issues related to myofunctional disorders/dysphagia and focuses upon social and economic changes within Japanese culture affecting eating habits and behaviors in children. The authors suggest that unfavorable environmental factors negatively impact upon the acquisition of mastication and swallowing behaviors. The article includes discussion of prior research. Studies indicate that decreased observation of early childhood eating habits, dietary changes with regard to higher consumption of fast food and changes within the family, i.e. busy work schedules, decrease in family mealtimes, combine to incur negative change with regard to orofacial function.

  2. Environmental Factors Affecting Asthma and Allergies: Predicting and Simulating Downwind Exposure to Airborne Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Huete, Alfredo; Solano, Ramon; Ratana, Piyachat; Jiang, Zhangyan; Flowers, Len; Zelicoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the environmental factors that affect asthma and allergies and work to predict and simulate the downwind exposure to airborne pollen. Using a modification of Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) that incorporates phenology (i.e. PREAM) the aim was to predict concentrations of pollen in time and space. The strategy for using the model to simulate downwind pollen dispersal, and evaluate the results. Using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to get seasonal sampling of Juniper, the pollen chosen for the study, land cover on a near daily basis. The results of the model are reviewed.

  3. Chaetognath community and their responses to varying environmental factors in the northern Indian ocean.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kusum, K.K.; Vineetha, G.; Raveendran, T.V.; Nair, V.R.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Joseph, T.

    SHORTCOMMUNICATION Chaetognath community and their responses to varying environmental factors in the northern Indian Ocean K. K. KUSUM1*, G. VINEETHA1, T. V. RAVEENDRAN1, V. R. NAIR1, K. R. MURALEEDHARAN1, C. T. ACHUTHANKUTTY1,2 AND T. JOSEPH1 1 CSIR... pivotal role in structuring and regulating the food web and in the functioning of the biological pump, long-term monitoring of their inter- actions with physico-chemical variables is crucial in understanding responses to changes in the environment. Though...

  4. Modelling nutrient concentration to determine the environmental factors influencing grass quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni-Tlhone, N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available CONCENTRATION TO DETERMINE THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING GRASS QUALITY N. Dudeni-Tlhone1 , A. Ramoelo2, M. A. Cho2, P. Debba1 R. Mathieu2 1Logistics and Quantitative Methods, Built Environment, CSIR, P O. Box 395, Preotria, 0001 2Ecosystems and Earth... production yields desirable outputs, the environment on the other hand becomes under pressure. Animal production has also been reported to be on the increase since 1995. The main concern, however, is that the total stocking densities exceed the grazing...

  5. Relations of Environmental Factors with Mussel-Species Richness in the Neversink River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Ernst, Anne G.; Schuler, George E.; Apse, Colin D.

    2007-01-01

    the Neversink Reservoir that mimic the river?s original flow patterns have recently been proposed by TNC and could benefit the established mussel populations and aquatic communities. The ability to protect mussel populations and the potential to increase mussel richness in the Neversink River is unknown, however, because the environmental factors that affect the seven mussel species are poorly defined, and the distribution of mussel beds is patchy and thus difficult to quantify. In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with TNC, began a 6-year study along the Neversink River and its tributaries to (1) document the current distribution of each mussel species, (2) assess environmental factors in relation to mussel-species richness and distribution, and (3) identify the factors that most strongly affect mussel populations and develop an equation that relates environmental factors to mussel-species richness. This report (a) summarizes the methods used to quantify or qualify environmental factors and mussel-species distribution and abundance, (b) presents a list of environmental factors that were correlated with mussel-species richness, and (c) offers an empirical model to predict richness of mussel species in benthic communities throughout the basin.

  6. [Human ecology and interdisciplinary cooperation for primary prevention of environmental risk factors for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Jan W

    2007-01-01

    Human ecology makes a scientific base for more effective prevention against contamination of the air, water and food, and other environmental factors making common risk factors for human health. It integrates interdisciplinary cooperation of experts from natural, technological, socio-economical and other sciences. Complex study is necessary for better estimation of real risk factors for an individual person. This risk is connected with the exposure of people to pollutants in working places, housing environment, areas for recreation and by food (including synergistic effects). Such study implicates real tasks for representatives of different sciences (technological and agricultural in particular) as well as for teachers and journalists. Especially dangerous are environmental risk factors when principles of human ecology are not taking into consideration at the intensification of food production, processing and conservation, as well as at designing of housing environment (where the exposure to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors is the longest) and also while selecting of the main directions of development of technical infrastructure for motorization (e.g. designing of cars, roads and their surrounding). EU recognize study of the human ecology as basis for sustainable development (sponsoring e.g. diploma and doctoral studies in this field at the Free University of Brussels). Author's experiences connected with the participation as a visiting professor taking part in related training activity at this University as well as during study visits in several countries were useful for the introduction of human ecology in linkage with ecotoxicology and environmental biotechnology as the subject of study at environmental engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering at AGH-UST. Methodological experience of 40 years of interdisciplinary case studies and problem-oriented education in this field may be useful for modernization of

  7. Influence of environmental factors on fish assemblages in streams of the Elbe and Oder basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Kůra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of environmental parameters on changes in the structure of fish assemblages were studied in the Elbe and the Odra basin. Research was done at 819 sites surveyed in the field during the period 1993-2007. The impact of 46 factors derived from the maps through a GIS was tested as well as the impact of 10 factors recognized in the field. To evaluate the influence of these factors the indirect (DCA and direct (CCA multivariate cluster analysis were used. Analyses were performed with data on presence-absence and relative abundance of each species. DCA well reflects changes in assemblages in the longitudinal profile of streams. CCA refers to a significant influence of regional and temporal variability and influence of individual factors. The fish assemblages are best characterized by distance from the source location, stream slope, altitude of locality, representation of arable land in the basin, number of ponds in the sub-basin above the locality, type of waters (salmonid or cyprinid, and water temperature (the only of the parameters of the field. The analyzed factors better reflect the variability in fish assemblages of the Odra than of Elbe river basin. The analysis showed good practical efficiency of processing information from a large sample of data from ichthyological surveys. The tools of GIS and the use of statistical methods make possible to characterize basic ecological requirements of most species and specify conditions determining specific composition of fish assemblages.

  8. Role of Environmental Factors in the Development of Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slae, Mordechai; Persad, Rabin; Leung, Aldrich Jing-Tao; Gabr, Raniah; Brocks, Dion; Huynh, Hien Quoc

    2015-11-01

    Despite accumulating data on the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis, not much is known about risk factors for the development of the disease. The role of factors such as smoking, breastfeeding, early antibiotic exposure and other factors that have been associated with other allergic diseases has not been well studied in children with eosinophilic esophagitis. To explore the role of environmental and medication exposures in the development of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control study, utilizing a parent and child questionnaire and medical chart review. Urine cotinine levels, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, were obtained as objective evidence for smoking exposure. One hundred and two children with eosinophilic esophagitis and 167 controls were recruited. The controls were mainly diagnosed with functional gastrointestinal disorders (33%) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (29%). Food allergy, specifically for peanuts and tree nuts, and allergy to pollen, tree, and grass were significantly higher among eosinophilic esophagitis children. Smoking exposure, both primary and secondary, was not associated with pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis when compared to controls (odds ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.58-1.59). Furthermore, early smoking exposure in the first year of life was higher among controls. Common accepted risk factors for allergy and atopy, such as breastfeeding practices, antibiotics exposure, animals' exposure, and others, were not found to be associated with eosinophilic esophagitis in our study. Common risk factors in other allergic and atopic conditions were not found to be associated with eosinophilic esophagitis.

  9. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for DSM-IV personality disorders: a multivariate twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Aggen, Steven H; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian; Torgersen, Svenn; Neale, Michael C; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2008-12-01

    Although both genetic and environmental factors affect risk of individual personality disorders (PDs), we know little of how they contribute to the pattern of comorbidity between the PDs in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM-IV). To clarify the structure of the genetic and environmental risk factors for the 10 DSM-IV PDs. Assessment of PDs at personal interview and multivariate twin modeling with the Mx program. General community. A total of 2794 young adult members of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel. Main Outcome Measure Number of endorsed criteria for the 10 DSM-IV PDs. The best-fit multivariate twin model required 3 genetic and 3 individual-specific environmental factors and genetic and individual-specific factors unique to each PD. The first genetic factor had high loadings on PDs from all 3 clusters including paranoid, histrionic, borderline, narcissistic, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive. The second genetic factor had substantial loadings only on borderline and antisocial PD. The third genetic factor had high loadings only on schizoid and avoidant PD. Several PDs had substantial disorder-specific genetic risk factors. The first, second, and third individual-specific environmental factors had high loadings on the cluster B, A, and C PDs, respectively, with 1 exception: obsessive-compulsive PD loaded with cluster B and not cluster C PDs. Genetic risk factors for DSM-IV PDs do not reflect the cluster A, B, and C typology. Rather, 1 genetic factor reflects a broad vulnerability to PD pathology and/or negative emotionality. The 2 other genetic factors are more specific and reflect high impulsivity/low agreeableness and introversion. Unexpectedly, the cluster A, B, and C typology is well reflected in the structure of environmental risk factors, suggesting that environmental experiences may be responsible for the tendency of cluster A, B, and C PDs to co-occur.

  10. Prediction of Low Community Sanitation Coverage Using Environmental and Sociodemographic Factors in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, William E; Stewart, Aisha E P; Flanders, W Dana; Kramer, Michael R; Endeshaw, Tekola; Zerihun, Mulat; Melaku, Birhanu; Sata, Eshetu; Gessesse, Demelash; Teferi, Tesfaye; Tadesse, Zerihun; Guadie, Birhan; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M; Callahan, Elizabeth K; Moe, Christine L; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-09-07

    This study developed and validated a model for predicting the probability that communities in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, have low sanitation coverage, based on environmental and sociodemographic conditions. Community sanitation coverage was measured between 2011 and 2014 through trachoma control program evaluation surveys. Information on environmental and sociodemographic conditions was obtained from available data sources and linked with community data using a geographic information system. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of low community sanitation coverage (sanitation coverage were mapped. Among 1,502 communities, 344 (22.90%) had coverage below 20%. The selected model included measures for high topsoil gravel content, an indicator for low-lying land, population density, altitude, and rainfall and had reasonable predictive discrimination (area under the curve = 0.75, 95% confidence interval = 0.72, 0.78). Measures of soil stability were strongly associated with low community sanitation coverage, controlling for community wealth, and other factors. A model using available environmental and sociodemographic data predicted low community sanitation coverage for areas across Amhara Region with fair discrimination. This approach could assist sanitation programs and trachoma control programs, scaling up or in hyperendemic areas, to target vulnerable areas with additional activities or alternate technologies. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Relationships of biomass with environmental factors in the grassland area of Hulunbuir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Liu, Guohua; Gong, Li; Wang, Dongbo; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the relationship between vegetation biomass and environmental factors in grassland. However, several questions remain to be answered, especially with regards to the spatial pattern of vegetation biomass. Thus, the distributed mechanism will be explored in the present study. Here, plant biomass was measured at 23 sites along a transect survey during the peak growing season in 2006. The data were analyzed with a classification and regression tree (CART) model. The structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to explicitly evaluate the both direct and indirect effects of these critical environmental elements on vegetation biomass. The results demonstrated that mean annual temperature (MAT) affected aboveground biomass (AGB) scored at -0.811 (PBGB) was -0.490 (PBGB in semi-arid ecosystems is strongly affected by precipitation and temperature. Future work shall attempt to take into account the integrated effects of precipitation and temperature. Meanwhile, partitioning the influences of environmental variations and vegetation types are helpful in illuminating the internal mechanism of biomass distribution.

  12. Relationships of biomass with environmental factors in the grassland area of Hulunbuir, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Liu

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the relationship between vegetation biomass and environmental factors in grassland. However, several questions remain to be answered, especially with regards to the spatial pattern of vegetation biomass. Thus, the distributed mechanism will be explored in the present study. Here, plant biomass was measured at 23 sites along a transect survey during the peak growing season in 2006. The data were analyzed with a classification and regression tree (CART model. The structural equation modeling (SEM was conducted to explicitly evaluate the both direct and indirect effects of these critical environmental elements on vegetation biomass. The results demonstrated that mean annual temperature (MAT affected aboveground biomass (AGB scored at -0.811 (P<0.05. The direct effect of MAT on belowground biomass (BGB was -0.490 (P<0.05. The results were determined by SEM. Our results indicate that AGB and BGB in semi-arid ecosystems is strongly affected by precipitation and temperature. Future work shall attempt to take into account the integrated effects of precipitation and temperature. Meanwhile, partitioning the influences of environmental variations and vegetation types are helpful in illuminating the internal mechanism of biomass distribution.

  13. Role of environmental factors and history of low back pain in sciatica symptoms among Finnish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Ulla; Paananen, Markus; Okuloff, Annaleena; Taimela, Simo; Auvinen, Juha; Männikkö, Minna; Karppinen, Jaro

    2013-06-01

    Cross-sectional study in a subcohort of the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort (n = 1987). To investigate the role of environmental factors and LBP history in sciatica symptoms among Finnish young adults. History of low back pain (LBP), smoking, and male sex are associated with sciatica in adult populations. The role of the environmental determinants of sciatica has not been evaluated in populations consisting of only adolescents. Sciatic symptoms and environmental exposures were elicited by a mailed questionnaire and the associations were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Female sex was associated with severe sciatica at 18 years (OR, 3.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6-9.3). Both reported LBP at 16 years and LBP requiring consultation of a health care professional were associated with mild sciatica at 18 years (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3-4.9; and OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.2-11.9). In addition, LBP at 16 years requiring consultation of a health care professional was associated with severe sciatica at 18 years (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.7-15.3). Smoking, obesity, physical workload, and level of physical activity were not associated with sciatica. Females reported sciatic pain more often than males. LBP at 16 years predicted sciatica at 18 years. 2.

  14. Mathematical modeling of cotton leaf curl virus with respect to environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jahangir; Bashir, Zoobia; Ahmad, Aqeel; Tariq, Wajeeha; Yousaf, Anam; Gohar, Madiha

    2015-06-01

    This study mathematically correlates incidence of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), environmental factors (i.e., rainfall, humidity and temperature), and silverleaf whitefly population in agricultural system of Pakistan. It has been concluded that the disease is directly linked with rainfall and humidity. The third most influential factor in defining CLCuV incidence is the vector population, which is also strictly dependent upon monthly mean temperature of Pakistan. Developed mathematical interrelation is capable of predicting disease incidence of future months. Therefore, it will help agriculturists to control disease in agricultural areas of Pakistan. It is strongly advised on the basis of current research that vector population controlling practices should be immediately applied after detecting small elevations in mean monthly temperature.

  15. Increasing the Adaptive Capacity of the Organism When Exposed to Adverse Environmental Factors Through Phytoadaptogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babii, N. V.; Pomozova, V. A.; Kiseleva, T. F.; Romanenko, V. O.

    2017-07-01

    The Problem of improving the quality of life of the population in modern conditions is the most relevant. The level of human health largely depends on the quality of the environment. Of special importance are the risk factors for the spread of diseases like environmental pollution, social conditions and bad habits. To the emergence of ecologically dependent diseases leads the combined impact of technogenic, social-economic, natural-climatic factors. The introduction of the principles of biotechnology, nanotechnology and innovations in industrial processing of plant resources, especially natural adaptogens, contributes to the production of balanced, ecologically clean food products functional purpose, the use of which will significantly minimize the adverse effects of the environment on humans.

  16. Vitamin-D Deficiency As a Potential Environmental Risk Factor in Multiple Sclerosis, Schizophrenia, and Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočovská, Eva; Gaughran, Fiona; Krivoy, Amir; Meier, Ute-Christiane

    2017-01-01

    In this short review, we want to summarize the current findings on the role of vitamin-D in multiple sclerosis (MS), schizophrenia, and autism. Many studies have highlighted hypovitaminosis-D as a potential environmental risk factor for a variety of conditions such as MS, asthma, cardiovascular disease, and, more recently, psychiatric diseases. However, whether hypovitaminosis-D is a potential causative factor for the development or activity in these conditions or whether hypovitaminosis-D may be due to increased vitamin-D consumption by an activated immune system (reverse causation) is the focus of intense research. Here, we will discuss current evidence exploring the role of vitamin-D in MS, schizophrenia, and autism and its impact on adaptive and innate immunity, antimicrobial defense, the microbiome, neuroinflammation, behavior, and neurogenesis. More work is needed to gain insight into its role in the underlying pathophysiology of these conditions as it may offer attractive means of intervention and prevention.

  17. Factors influencing local ecological knowledge maintenance in Mediterranean watersheds: Insights for environmental policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García Del Amo, David; García-Nieto, Ana Paula; Piñeiro, Concepción; Montes, Carlos; Martín-López, Berta

    2015-05-01

    Local ecological knowledge (LEK) has been found to be one of the main bridges to manage biocultural diversity. We analyzed the factors affecting LEK maintenance and transmission in a Mediterranean watershed. We used a mixed methods approach to evaluate the agricultural LEK in three different dimensions: biological, soil and water management, and forecasting. We found that the main factors for its maintenance were the respondent's time living in the area and the social relationships established among farmers, which involved partner collaboration and farmer information exchanges. Protected areas also played a key role for maintaining the LEK associated with soil and water management. Finally, we found that outmigration and mechanization were the most important indirect drivers of change underlying LEK erosion. We suggest that environmental policies should focus on promoting this experiential knowledge, considering both intergenerational renewal and the gendered aspects of this knowledge.

  18. Bibliometric approach of factors affecting scientific productivity in environmental sciences and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragos, Cristian Mihai; Dragos, Simona Laura

    2013-04-01

    Different academic bibliometric studies have measured the influence of economic, political and linguistic factors in the academic output of countries. Separate analysis in different fields can reveal specific incentive factors. Our study proves that the Environmental Performance Index, computed by Yale University, is highly significant (pecology. The control variables like education financing, publishing of ISI Thomson domestic journals and the English language are also significant. The methodology uses Ordinary Least Squares multiple regressions with convincing results (R(2)=0.752). The relative positions of the 92 countries in the sample are also discussed. We draw up a ranking of the countries' concern for the environment, considering evenly the scientific productivity and the environment quality. We notice huge differences concerning the number of inhabitants and population income between the countries that dominate the classification and those occupying the last positions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hospitality environmental factors: a study of the consumption experience of homosexuals in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yákara Vasconcelos Pereira Leite

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of this research is identifying environmental factors in hospitality that lead the interviewed homosexuals to memorable consumer experiences at hotels and inns. This research was conducted under descriptive qualitative approach. According to this perspective, gays from two states of the northeast of Brazil were interviewed. The narratives were presented in order to enhance the formation of categories. Regarding results, it was observed that the experience of consumption is memorized as positive or negative due to the performance of factors related to service provision and infrastructure. Therefore, it was noticed that the hospitality servicescape influences the consumption experience of the interviewed homosexuals to a point that it becomes memorable.

  20. Summer eczema in exported Icelandic horses: influence of environmental and genetic factors

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    Broström Hans

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cross sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence of summer eczema (a chronic, recurrent seasonal dermatitis in exported Icelandic horses and the influence of environmental and genetic factors on the development of the disease. Among 330 horses, which had been exported to Germany, Denmark and Sweden, 114 (34.5% were found to have clinical signs of summer eczema. The prevalence was highest 2 years after export and the exposure to the biting midges Culicoides spp., was found to be the main risk factor for developing the disease. Genetic influence on the sensitivity for the disease was not established. It was concluded that exported Icelandic horses are predisposed for summer dermatitis and the fact that they are not introduced to the antigens of the biting midges early in live, due to it's absence in Iceland, is likely to explain the high prevalence of the disease after export.

  1. Environmental Factors Having an Impact on the Noise Induced by Motor Vahicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Akelaitytė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector is rapidly developing industry in Lithuania. Over the past few years, a significant increase in motor vehicles on our roads can be noticed. Both light and heavy vehicles create economic benefits, and, at the same time, cause ecological and social problems such as noise, a growing number of accidents and environmental pollution. In order to reduce the rate of accidents, many places have been equipped with speed-limiting humps. However, the vehicles approaching them will increase noise levels. The article describes a calculation method of how to determine the influence of various factors caused by car noise. Reflections on the surface, the atmosphere and sound waves on road obstacles can increase or decrease sounds in the environment. The above introduced factors must be taken into account conducting noise measurement tests.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Local social environmental factors are associated with household food insecurity in a longitudinal study of children

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    Carter Megan Ann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity is a significant public health problem in North America and elsewhere. The prevalence of food insecurity varies by country of residence; within countries, it is strongly associated with household socioeconomic status, but the local environment may also play an important role. In this study, we analyzed secondary data from a population-based survey conducted in Québec, Canada, to determine if five local environmental factors: material and social deprivation, social cohesion, disorder, and living location were associated with changes in household food insecurity over a period of 6 years, while adjusting for household socioeconomic status (SES and other factors. Methods Data from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, following same-aged children from 4–10 y of age, were analyzed using generalized estimating equations, to determine the longitudinal association between these environmental factors and food insecurity over a period of 6 years. Results Of the 2120 children originally included in the cohort, 1746 (82% were included in the present analysis. The prevalence of food insecurity was 9.2% when children were 4 y of age (95% CI: 7.8 – 10.6% but no significant changes were observed over time. On average over the 6 year period, three environmental factors were positively related to food insecurity: high social deprivation (OR 1.62, 95%CI: 1.16 – 2.26, low social cohesion (OR 1.45 95%CI: 1.10 – 1.92, and high disorder (OR 1.76, 95%CI: 1.37 – 2.27, while living location and material deprivation were not related to food insecurity. These associations were independent of household SES and other social variables. Conclusion These results highlight the potential role of the local social environment in preventing and ameliorating food insecurity at the household level. Stakeholders providing food security interventions at the community level should consider interactions with local social

  3. Local social environmental factors are associated with household food insecurity in a longitudinal study of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Megan Ann; Dubois, Lise; Tremblay, Mark S; Taljaard, Monica

    2012-11-28

    Food insecurity is a significant public health problem in North America and elsewhere. The prevalence of food insecurity varies by country of residence; within countries, it is strongly associated with household socioeconomic status, but the local environment may also play an important role. In this study, we analyzed secondary data from a population-based survey conducted in Québec, Canada, to determine if five local environmental factors: material and social deprivation, social cohesion, disorder, and living location were associated with changes in household food insecurity over a period of 6 years, while adjusting for household socioeconomic status (SES) and other factors. Data from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, following same-aged children from 4-10 y of age, were analyzed using generalized estimating equations, to determine the longitudinal association between these environmental factors and food insecurity over a period of 6 years. Of the 2120 children originally included in the cohort, 1746 (82%) were included in the present analysis. The prevalence of food insecurity was 9.2% when children were 4 y of age (95% CI: 7.8 - 10.6%) but no significant changes were observed over time. On average over the 6 year period, three environmental factors were positively related to food insecurity: high social deprivation (OR 1.62, 95%CI: 1.16 - 2.26), low social cohesion (OR 1.45 95%CI: 1.10 - 1.92), and high disorder (OR 1.76, 95%CI: 1.37 - 2.27), while living location and material deprivation were not related to food insecurity. These associations were independent of household SES and other social variables. These results highlight the potential role of the local social environment in preventing and ameliorating food insecurity at the household level. Stakeholders providing food security interventions at the community level should consider interactions with local social characteristics and perhaps changing the social environment itself. Further

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHILDREN’S PHYSICAL FITNESS AND GENDER, AGE AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

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    Črtomir Matejek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research was to determine how children’s physical fitness development is related to age, gender, and certain environmental factors at the onset of puberty. The research was carried out on a representative sample of 897 children (47.9 % females and 52.1 % males aged eleven and fourteen. Twelve tests were used to assess their physical fitness. Based on the duration of the physical activities, the children were divided into four categories: inactive, occasionally active, active and highly active. In the case of paternal education and maternal education, the children were classified into three categories: low, average and high. Considering their school grades in mathematics, the children were divided into three groups: less successful, successful and very successful. In the case of their place of residence, the children were divided into three groups: urban, suburban and rural. A component model of factor analysis was used to identify their basic coordinate system of physical fitness. To solve the problem of the integration of physical fitness into environmental factors, age and gender, a factorial analysis of variance was used. The results show that most of the differences in physical fitness can mainly be explained through age and gender. We can conclude that the significant factors to physical fitness development are growth, development and the maturation rate of individuals, which are predominantly hereditarily determined. Place of residence, physical activity, school grades and parental education have less influence on physical fitness development and serve only as an additional impulse to further stimulate or inhibit the physical development of children.

  5. Personal, Psychosocial and Environmental Factors Related to Sick Building Syndrome in Official Employees of Taiwan

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    Chung-Yen Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome (SBS is a combination of symptoms that can be attributed to exposure to specific building conditions. The present study recruited 389 participants aged 20–65 years from 87 offices of 16 institutions to examine if personal factors, work-related psychosocial stress, and work environments, were associated with five groups of SBS symptoms, including symptoms for eyes, upper respiratory tract, lower respiratory tract, skin, and non-specific systems. Indoor environmental conditions were monitored. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression (MLR analyses and were reported as adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR. SBS symptoms for eyes were associated with older age, sensitivity to tobacco, and low indoor air flow. Upper respiratory symptoms were related to smoking, low social support, longer work days, and dry air. High indoor air flow was associated with reduced upper respiratory symptoms (aOR = 0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.13–0.67. Lower respiratory symptoms were associated with high work pressure, longer work hours, chemical exposure, migraine, and exposure to new interior painting. Recent interior painting exposure was associated with a high estimated relative risk of low respiratory symptoms (aOR = 20.6; 95% CI = 2.96–143. Smoking, longer work days, low indoor air flow, indoor dryness, and volatile organics exposure, were associated with other non-specified symptoms including headache, tiredness, difficulty concentrating, anger, and dizziness. In conclusion, there are various SBS symptoms associated with different personal characteristics, psychosocial, and environmental factors. Psychosocial factors had stronger relationships with lower respiratory symptoms than with other types of SBS symptoms. Good ventilation could reduce risk factors and may relieve SBS symptoms.

  6. Woodland Ponds as an Important Habitat of Hippeutis Complanatus (Linnaeus 1758 Occurrence - Effect of Environmental Factors and Habitat Preferences

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    Spyra Aneta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spyra A. Woodland ponds as an important habitat of Hippeutis complanatus (Linnaeus 1758 occurrence - effect of environmental factors and habitat preferences. Ekológia (Bratislava, Vol. 33, No. 2, p. 101-115, 2014.

  7. Mercury Contamination in Fish in Midcontinent Great Rivers of the United States: Importance of Species Traits and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole fish from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers to characterize the extent and magnitude of Hg contamination and to identify environmental factors influencing Hg accumulation. Concentrations were generally lower (80% of ...

  8. Investigating Impacts of Environmental Factors on the Cycling Behavior of Bicycle-Sharing Users

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    Yeran Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As it is widely accepted, cycling tends to produce health benefits and reduce air pollution. Policymakers encourage people to use bikes by improving cycling facilities as well as developing bicycle-sharing systems (BSS. It is increasingly interesting to investigate how environmental factors influence the cycling behavior of users of bicycle-sharing systems, as users of bicycle-sharing systems tend to be different from regular cyclists. Although earlier studies have examined effects of safety and convenience on the cycling behavior of regular riders, they rarely explored effects of safety and convenience on the cycling behavior of BSS riders. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate how road safety, convenience, and public safety affect the cycling behavior of BSS riders by controlling for other environmental factors. Specifically, in this study, we investigated the impacts of environmental characteristics, including population density, employment density, land use mix, accessibility to point-of-interests (schools, shops, parks and gyms, road infrastructure, public transit accessibility, road safety, convenience, and public safety on the usage of BSS. Additionally, for a more accurate measure of public transit accessibility, road safety, convenience, and public safety, we used spatiotemporally varying measurements instead of spatially varying measurements, which have been widely used in earlier studies. We conducted an empirical investigation in Chicago with cycling data from a BSS called Divvy. In this study, we particularly attempted to answer the following questions: (1 how traffic accidents and congestion influence the usage of BSS; (2 how violent crime influences the usage of BSS; and (3 how public transit accessibility influences the usage of BSS. Moreover, we tried to offer implications for policies aiming to increase the usage of BSS or for the site selection of new docking stations. Empirical results demonstrate that density of

  9. Perception of built environmental factors and physical activity among adolescents in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Ishaku, Cornelius M; Deforche, Benedicte; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Van Dyck, Delfien

    2014-04-27

    Understanding environmental factors related to adolescents' physical activity can inform intervention for obesity control and prevention, but virtually no study has been conducted in the African region, where adolescents' physical inactivity and chronic diseases rates are rising. This study assessed associations between perceived built environmental variables and adolescents' physical activity (active transportation to school and leisure-time moderate-to- vigorous physical activity), and the moderating effects of neighborhood-level income on association between environmental variables and physical activity among Nigerian boys and girls. Participants were 1006 adolescents (12-19 years, 50.4% girls) randomly selected from 11 secondary schools in Maiduguri city, Nigeria. Physical activity and perceptions of environmental characteristics were assessed by validated self-report questionnaires. Separate gender-based, hierarchical multiple moderated linear regression analyses were used to examine the direct associations between the environmental perceptions and physical activity variables (active transportation and leisure-time MVPA; dependent variables), as well as the moderating effects of neighborhood-level income. Only in boys were direct associations and interaction effect of neighborhood-level income found. Access to destinations was positively associated with active transportation to school (β = 0.18; CI = 0.67, 2.24); while residential density (β = 0.10; CI = 0.01, 1.74) and availability/quality of infrastructures (β = 0.14; CI = 0.49, 2.68) were positively associated with leisure-time MVPA. Also, neighborhood-level income moderated the association between perceived safety and leisure-time MVPA, with more perceived safety related to less MVPA (β = -0.16; CI = -0.01, -0.70) in boys living in high SES neighborhood but marginally related to more MVPA (β = 0.11; CI = -0.04, 2.88, p = 0.06) in boys living in low SES

  10. Association between Prenatal Environmental Factors and Child Autism: A Case Control Study in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Xi, Qian Qian; Wu, Jun; Han, Yu; Dai, Wei; Su, Yuan Yuan; Zhang, Xin

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the association between autism and prenatal environmental risk factors. A case-control study was conducted among 193 children with autism from the special educational schools and 733 typical development controls matched by age and gender by using questionnaire in Tianjin from 2007 to 2012. Statistical analysis included quick unbiased efficient statistical tree (QUEST) and logistic regression in SPSS 20.0. There were four predictors by QUEST and the logistic regression analysis, maternal air conditioner use during pregnancy (OR=0.316, 95% CI: 0.215-0.463) was the single first-level node (χ²=50.994, P=0.000); newborn complications (OR=4.277, 95% CI: 2.314-7.908) and paternal consumption of freshwater fish (OR=0.383, 95% CI: 0.256-0.573) were second-layer predictors (χ²=45.248, P=0.000; χ²=24.212, P=0.000); and maternal depression (OR=4.822, 95% CI: 3.047-7.631) was the single third-level predictor (χ²=23.835, P=0.000). The prediction accuracy of the tree was 89.2%. The air conditioner use during pregnancy and paternal freshwater fish diet might be beneficial for the prevention of autism, while newborn complications and maternal depression might be the risk factors. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic programs of the developing tuberal hypothalamus and potential mechanisms of their disruption by environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesan, Dinushan; Kurrasch, Deborah M

    2016-12-15

    The hypothalamus is a critical regulator of body homeostasis, influencing the autonomic nervous system and releasing trophic hormones to modulate the endocrine system. The developmental mechanisms that govern formation of the mature hypothalamus are becoming increasingly understood as research in this area grows, leading us to gain appreciation for how these developmental programs are susceptible to disruption by maternal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals or other environmental factors in utero. These vulnerabilities, combined with the prominent roles of the various hypothalamic nuclei in regulating appetite, reproductive behaviour, mood, and other physiologies, create a window whereby early developmental disruption can have potent long-term effects. Here we broadly outline our current understanding of hypothalamic development, with a particular focus on the tuberal hypothalamus, including what is know about nuclear coalescing and maturation. We finish by discussing how exposure to environmental or maternally-derived factors can perhaps disrupt these hypothalamic developmental programs, and potentially lead to neuroendocrine disease states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system based on remote sensing and environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiyang, Yu; Yanmei, Liu; Guijun, Yang; Xiaodong, Yang; Chenwei, Nie; Dong, Ren

    2014-01-01

    To achieve dynamic winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting in larger scale regions, the objective of this study was to design and develop a winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system by using a remote sensing index and environmental factors. The winter wheat quality trend was forecasted before the harvest and quality was monitored after the harvest, respectively. The traditional quality-vegetation index from remote sensing monitoring and forecasting models were improved. Combining with latitude information, the vegetation index was used to estimate agronomy parameters which were related with winter wheat quality in the early stages for forecasting the quality trend. A combination of rainfall in May, temperature in May, illumination at later May, the soil available nitrogen content and other environmental factors established the quality monitoring model. Compared with a simple quality-vegetation index, the remote sensing monitoring and forecasting model used in this system get greatly improved accuracy. Winter wheat quality was monitored and forecasted based on the above models, and this system was completed based on WebGIS technology. Finally, in 2010 the operation process of winter wheat quality monitoring system was presented in Beijing, the monitoring and forecasting results was outputted as thematic maps

  13. Influence of environmental factors on germination of Plasmopara viticola sporangia sourced from mediterranean Western Australia

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    M. Williams

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct germination via the production of a germ tube was demonstrated in the absence of the host for Plasmopara viticola (causal agent of grape downy mildew sporangia sourced from a major grape production area in mediterranean Western Australia (WA. In general, direct germination was favoured by environmental conditions considered less than optimal for infection by P. viticola. Most notable however was that sporangia had the capacity to germinate in the absence of free water, a factor known to be essential for the production and release of zoospores. The frequency of direct germination was low with only seven among 108 000 sporangia observed producing a germ tube. This is the first study to i examine the influence of environmental factors viz: temperature, relative humidity (RH and light, on the direct germination of P. viticola sporangia and ii establish the frequency of this event. The infectivity of directly germinated P. viticola sporangia however remains unknown. Although rare, the capacity of sporangia to germinate directly and potentially infect the host, most likely when conditions are not conducive for zoospore production or survival, may provide an explanation for the source of the disease during the predominantly hot dry summer months in WA and other climatically similar viticultural areas.

  14. Effects of specific key environmental factors on the life expectancy of optical data carriers

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    Drago Kunej

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the concept of content preservation rather than carrier preservation has become the norm with regard to long-term digital preservation. Nonetheless, the life expectancy of digital carriers is important because, in addition to other digital system parameters, it determines the migration time of digital content. In general, a cleaner,cooler, drier, and more stable environment extends the life expectancy, and appropriate protection of individual types of carriers is based on understanding the vulnerability of the carrier and consequently on providing optimal storage conditions and appropriate handling. This paper presents the effects of specific environmental factors (i.e., temperature, humidity, and light on the life expectancy of physical digital recording media, with an emphasis on optical media. Although optical discs are just one of the various methods of digital data storage today, they continue to be a popular archive medium. It should be noted that optical discs are not permanent recording media, as is often wrongly believed, and that their life expectancy is significantly influenced by environmental factors. At the ZRC SAZU Institute of Ethnomusicology, an experiment was conducted to analyze the durability of digital records saved on CD-Rs that were exposed to light in everyday working conditions. The results showed that exposing recordable optical discs to light, especially direct sunlight, can result in complete destruction of the data recorded within a few days or weeks. This confirmed the importance of careful handling, appropriate storage, and regular testing of digital carriers.

  15. Effect of environmental factor on some litter traits of sows in the tropics Mexican

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    Jesús Ek M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the effect of environmental factors on litter traits at birth and weaning, and their repeatabilities in four farms in the sub-humid tropics of Mexico. Materials and methods. Data from 46.249 to 50.316 litters for litter size at birth (LSB, number of piglets born alive (NBA, litter weight at birth (LWB, number of piglets weaned (NPW and litter weight at weaning (LWW were used. The statistical model for LSB, NBA and LWB included the effects of farm, farrowing year, farrowing season, parity number, simple interactions, random effects of sow and the error term. NPW and LWW were analyzed using the previous model plus the linear and quadratic effects of lactation length (LL. Results. The means for LSB, NBA, LWB, NPW and LWW were 11.7 piglets, 11.0 piglets, 16.1 kg, 10.3 piglets and 61.3 kg, respectively. All effects in the model affected the litter traits. Farrowing year x season interaction was significant for NPW, LWB and LWW. The dry season had the highest LSB, NBA y NPW. First parity sows had higher LSB and NBA means than for second parity sows. Parity increase until parity 4 to decrease thereafter. LL had a quadratic effect on NPW and LWW. Repeatability estimates for LSB, NBA, and LWB were 0.12, 0.12 and 0.14, respectively. Conclusions. All traits studied were influenced by the environmental factors studied. Repeatabilities for LSB, NBA and LWB were low.

  16. Diurnal flight behavior of Ichneumonoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera) related to environmental factors in a tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moreno, A; Bordera, S; Leirana-Alcocer, J; Delfín-González, H

    2012-06-01

    The biology and behavior of insects are strongly influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation. Because some of these factors present a within day variation, they may be causing variations on insect diurnal flight activity, but scant information exists on the issue. The aim of this work was to describe the patterns on diurnal variation of the abundance of Ichneumonoidea and their relation with relative humidity, temperature, light intensity, and wind speed. The study site was a tropical dry forest at Ría Lagartos Biosphere Reserve, Mexico; where correlations between environmental factors (relative humidity, temperature, light, and wind speed) and abundance of Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) were estimated. The best regression model for explaining abundance variation was selected using the second order Akaike Information Criterion. The optimum values of temperature, humidity, and light for flight activity of both families were also estimated. Ichneumonid and braconid abundances were significantly correlated to relative humidity, temperature, and light intensity; ichneumonid also showed significant correlations to wind speed. The second order Akaike Information Criterion suggests that in tropical dry conditions, relative humidity is more important that temperature for Ichneumonoidea diurnal activity. Ichneumonid wasps selected toward intermediate values of relative humidity, temperature and the lowest wind speeds; while Braconidae selected for low values of relative humidity. For light intensity, braconids presented a positive selection for moderately high values.

  17. Environmental factors and population at risk of malaria in Nkomazi municipality, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, A M; Botai, O J; Olwoch, J M; Rautenbach, C J de W; Adisa, O M; Taiwo, O J; Kalumba, A M

    2016-05-01

    Nkomazi local municipality of South Africa is a high-risk malaria region with an incidence rate of about 500 cases per 100 000. We examined the influence of environmental factors on population (age group) at risk of malaria. r software was used to statistically analyse data. Using remote sensing technology, a Landsat 8 image of 4th October 2015 was classified using object-based classification and a 5-m resolution. Spot height data were used to generate a digital elevation model of the area. A total of 60 718 malaria cases were notified across 48 health facilities in Nkomazi municipality between January 1997 and August 2015. Malaria incidence was highly associated with irrigated land (P = 0.001), water body (P = 0.011) and altitude ≤400 m (P = 0.001). The multivariate model showed that with 10% increase in the extent of irrigated areas, malaria risk increased by almost 39% in the entire study area and by almost 44% in the 2-km buffer zone of selected villages. Malaria incidence is more pronounced in the economically active population aged 15-64 and in males. Both incidence and case fatality rate drastically declined over the study period. A predictive model based on environmental factors would be useful in the effort towards malaria elimination by fostering appropriate targeting of control measures and allocating of resources. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Life cycle and reproduction of house-dust mites: environmental factors influencing mite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, B J

    1998-01-01

    An understanding of the life cycle of house-dust mites, as well as environmental factors influencing mite populations, can be exploited in mite control. The most important limiting factor for house-dust-mite populations is air humidity. House-dust mites osmoregulate through the cuticle and therefore require a high ambient air humidity to prevent excessive water loss. In addition, the supracoxal glands actively take up ambient water vapour, and the protonynph stage of the life cycle is resistant to desiccation. Larger house-dust-mite populations are found when the absolute indoor air humidity is above 7 g/kg (45% relative humidity at 20 degrees C). Consequently, ventilation by air-conditioning systems is being developed as a means of control. A number of other aspects of the domestic environment are also being manipulated in an integrated approach to render the habitat less suitable for mites. The potential exists for developing models for house-dust mite populations, environmental characteristics, and the effects of various approaches to control.

  19. Environmental factors affecting larval fish community in the salt marsh area of Guadiana estuary (Algarve, Portugal

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    Renata Gonçalves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt marsh areas in the Guadiana estuary are important nursery sites for many fish species of commercial and recreational value. More effective protection measures should be adopted as the area is highly affected by anthropogenic and natural threats. Studying larval fish communities in these impacted nursery areas will be relevant to the management of local ecosystems and to larval fish ecology in general. Spatial and seasonal distribution and the effect of environmental factors on the larval fish community of this ecosystem were studied for one year (April 2010 to March 2011. Larvae were sampled monthly in parallel with phytoplankton and zooplankton. Hydrological data and physical parameters were monitored. A decision tree model was used to assess the influence of environmental factors on the larval fish community. A total of 130 larvae and 1171 eggs were caught. Diplodus sargus, Sardina pilchardus, and Pomatoschistus microps were the most abundant larval fish species. The peaks of fish larvae abundance occurred in March and April. The output of the model demonstrates that the abundance of larval fish is determined by the abundance of eggs, zooplanktonic food, and water flood and flow. This study shows the importance of the Guadiana salt marsh as an area for fish nursery and highlights the need for conservation of this area.

  20. Role of Environmental Factors in Shaping Spatial Distribution of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi, Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Ruklanthi; Watson, Conall; Nikolay, Birgit; Lowry, John H; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Van, Tan Trinh; Ngoc, Dung Tran Thi; Rawalai, Kitione; Taufa, Mere; Coriakula, Jerimaia; Lau, Colleen L; Nilles, Eric J; Edmunds, W John; Kama, Mike; Baker, Stephen; Cano, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Fiji recently experienced a sharp increase in reported typhoid fever cases. To investigate geographic distribution and environmental risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infection, we conducted a cross-sectional cluster survey with associated serologic testing for Vi capsular antigen-specific antibodies (a marker for exposure to Salmonella Typhi in Fiji in 2013. Hotspots with high seroprevalence of Vi-specific antibodies were identified in northeastern mainland Fiji. Risk for Vi seropositivity increased with increased annual rainfall (odds ratio [OR] 1.26/quintile increase, 95% CI 1.12-1.42), and decreased with increased distance from major rivers and creeks (OR 0.89/km increase, 95% CI 0.80-0.99) and distance to modeled flood-risk areas (OR 0.80/quintile increase, 95% CI 0.69-0.92) after being adjusted for age, typhoid fever vaccination, and home toilet type. Risk for exposure to Salmonella Typhi and its spatial distribution in Fiji are driven by environmental factors. Our findings can directly affect typhoid fever control efforts in Fiji.

  1. Environmental Factors Can Influence Mitochondrial Inheritance in the Saccharomyces Yeast Hybrids.

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    Yu-Yi Hsu

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a critical role in the generation of metabolic energy and are crucial for eukaryotic cell survival and proliferation. In most sexual eukaryotes, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is inherited from only one parent in non-Mendelian inheritance in contrast to the inheritance of nuclear DNA. The model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae is commonly used to study mitochondrial biology. It has two mating types: MATa and MATα. Previous studies have suggested that the mtDNA inheritance patterns in hybrid diploid cells depend on the genetic background of parental strains. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To elucidate the mechanisms, we examined the effects of environmental factors on the mtDNA inheritance patterns in hybrids obtained by crossing S. cerevisiae with its close relative S. paradoxus. The results demonstrated that environmental factors can influence mtDNA transmission in hybrid diploids, and that the inheritance patterns are strain dependent. The fitness competition assay results showed that the fitness differences can explain the mtDNA inheritance patterns under specific conditions. However, in this study, we found that fitness differences cannot fully be explained by mitochondrial activity in hybrids under stress conditions.

  2. Importance of Natural and Anthropogenic Environmental Factors to Fish Communities of the Fox River in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnier, Spencer; Cai, Ximing; Cao, Yong

    2016-02-01

    The dominant environmental determinants of aquatic communities have been a persistent topic for many years. Interactions between natural and anthropogenic characteristics within the aquatic environment influence fish communities in complex ways that make the effect of a single characteristic difficult to ascertain. Researchers are faced with the question of how to deal with a large number of variables and complex interrelationships. This study utilized multiple approaches to identify key environmental variables to fish communities of the Fox River Basin in Illinois: Pearson and Spearman correlations, an algorithm based on information theory called mutual information, and a measure of variable importance built into the machine learning algorithm Random Forest. The results are based on a dataset developed for this study, which uses a fish index of biological integrity (IBI) and its ten component metrics as response variables and a range of environmental variables describing geomorphology, stream flow statistics, climate, and both reach-scale and watershed-scale land use as independent variables. Agricultural land use and the magnitude and duration of low flow events were ranked by the algorithms as key factors for the study area. Reach-scale characteristics were dominant for native sunfish, and stream flow metrics were rated highly for native suckers. Regression tree analyses of environmental variables on fish IBI identified breakpoints in percent agricultural land in the watershed (~64%), duration of low flow pulses (~12 days), and 90-day minimum flow (~0.13 cms). The findings should be useful for building predictive models and design of more effective monitoring systems and restoration plans.

  3. Importance of Natural and Anthropogenic Environmental Factors to Fish Communities of the Fox River in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnier, Spencer; Cai, Ximing; Cao, Yong

    2016-02-01

    The dominant environmental determinants of aquatic communities have been a persistent topic for many years. Interactions between natural and anthropogenic characteristics within the aquatic environment influence fish communities in complex ways that make the effect of a single characteristic difficult to ascertain. Researchers are faced with the question of how to deal with a large number of variables and complex interrelationships. This study utilized multiple approaches to identify key environmental variables to fish communities of the Fox River Basin in Illinois: Pearson and Spearman correlations, an algorithm based on information theory called mutual information, and a measure of variable importance built into the machine learning algorithm Random Forest. The results are based on a dataset developed for this study, which uses a fish index of biological integrity (IBI) and its ten component metrics as response variables and a range of environmental variables describing geomorphology, stream flow statistics, climate, and both reach-scale and watershed-scale land use as independent variables. Agricultural land use and the magnitude and duration of low flow events were ranked by the algorithms as key factors for the study area. Reach-scale characteristics were dominant for native sunfish, and stream flow metrics were rated highly for native suckers. Regression tree analyses of environmental variables on fish IBI identified breakpoints in percent agricultural land in the watershed (~64 %), duration of low flow pulses (~12 days), and 90-day minimum flow (~0.13 cms). The findings should be useful for building predictive models and design of more effective monitoring systems and restoration plans.

  4. Environmental and personal hygiene practices: risk factors for diarrhoea among children of Nigerian market women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyemade, A; Omokhodion, F O; Olawuyi, J F; Sridhar, M K; Olaseha, I O

    1998-12-01

    A Cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the environmental and personal hygiene practices of mothers of children aged less than five years in two markets in Ibadan--one with poor sanitary conditions (Bodija) and the other one with better sanitation facilities (Gbagi). The study sought to identify the risk factors for diarrhoea among these children. Two hundred and sixty-six mothers in Bodija and 260 in Gbagi were interviewed. A questionnaire was used for collecting information on social and demographic characteristics, personal and environmental hygiene practices, including sources of food and water for their children, waste-disposal practices and occurrence of diarrhoea among their children aged less than five years. The educational status of the women in Bodija was lower than that of the women in Gbagi (p homes, and 45 (17%) bought it from vendors in the market. The corresponding figures for women of the Gbagi market were 41 (16%), 98 (38%) and 19 (7%). Two hundred and thirty-four (90%) women in Gbagi prepared breakfast at home for their children compared to 216 (81%) women in Bodija. This difference was statistically significant (p Waste disposal and personal hygiene practices were poorer among the women in Bodija. Yet the occurrence of diarrhoea was not significantly different in both the markets. Risk factors for diarrhoea identified in this study were water and food bought from vendors, child defaecation practices, mothers' cleaning up practices after child's defaecation, and refuse-disposal practices. The inherent risk of sale of unwholesome food and water by vendors is a great concern for public health authorities in Nigeria. Efforts to control diarrhoea must not only be focused on improving mothers' knowledge about food hygiene but also on environmental hygiene practices within the community.

  5. A thesis investigating the impact of energy related environmental factors on domestic window design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Michael Edward

    In recent years the extent of glazing in houses has been tightly controlled by the Building Regulations in order to save energy. In addition guidelines derived from passive solar principles prescribe the distribution of domestic windows between elevations according to their orientation. This thesis studies the impact of these energy-related environmental factors on domestic window design. The first of these investigations determined the degree to which limitations on the area and arrangement of windows are significant in terms of daylighting. The experiments measured the effect that passive solar requirements and detailed aspects of window design have on the quality of daylighting in houses. The volume of background ventilation required for domestic accommodation has recently been increased. As a result, in a well-sealed construction, heat loss due to background ventilation becomes a larger part of the total heat loss and larger air movements become a potential cause of draughts. The ventilation experiment sought to establish the impact of these more onerous requirements on comfort within rooms. The third experiment combines these factors and asks the question: Could windows be actively involved in overcoming some of these difficulties by being used to preheat ventilation air in order to diminish the extent of heat loss and to alleviate the problem of cold draughts? Also by designing the window to reclaim heat from the room might it be possible to offset the window's thermal inadequacy? Through analysis of responses to a questionnaire and the use of optimisation techniques, scenarios were suggested for the future modification of windows in relation to energy and health expectations. The conclusions form a commentary on recent and future revisions to the Building Regulations and determine whether or not the Regulations facilitate the environmental engineering of windows as an active component of a building's whole environmental system.

  6. Germination Response of Four Alien Congeneric Amaranthus Species to Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian-Hua; Lv, Shuang-Shuang; Bhattacharya, Saurav; Fu, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Seed germination is the key step for successful establishment, growth and further expansion of population especially for alien plants with annual life cycle. Traits like better adaptability and germination response were thought to be associated with plant invasion. However, there are not enough empirical studies correlating adaptation to environmental factors with germination response of alien invasive plants. In this study, we conducted congeneric comparisons of germination response to different environmental factors such as light, pH, NaCl, osmotic and soil burials among four alien amaranths that differ in invasiveness and have sympatric distribution in Jiangsu Province, China. The data were used to create three-parameter sigmoid and exponential decay models, which were fitted to cumulative germination and emergence curves. The results showed higher maximum Germination (Gmax), shorter time for 50% germination (G50) and the rapid slope (Grate) for Amaranthus blitum (low-invasive) and A. retroflexus (high-invasive) compare to intermediately invasive A. spinosus and A. viridis in all experimental regimes. It indicated that germination potential does not necessarily constitute a trait that can efficiently distinguish highly invasive and low invasive congeners in four Amaranthus species. However, it was showed that the germination performances of four amaranth species were more or less correlated with their worldwide distribution area. Therefore, the germination performance can be used as a reference indicator, but not an absolute trait for invasiveness. Our results also confirmed that superior germination performance in wide environmental conditions supplementing high seed productivity in highly invasive A. retroflexus might be one of the reasons for its prolific growth and wide distribution. These findings lay the foundation to develop more efficient weed management practice like deep burial of seeds by turning over soil and use of tillage agriculture to control

  7. Environmental factors influencing older adults' walking for transportation: a study using walk-along interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Van Holle, Veerle; Simons, Dorien; Deridder, Riet; Clarys, Peter; Goubert, Liesbet; Nasar, Jack; Salmon, Jo; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2012-07-10

    Current knowledge on the relationship between the physical environment and walking for transportation among older adults (≥ 65 years) is limited. Qualitative research can provide valuable information and inform further research. However, qualitative studies are scarce and fail to include neighborhood outings necessary to study participants' experiences and perceptions while interacting with and interpreting the local social and physical environment. The current study sought to uncover the perceived environmental influences on Flemish older adults' walking for transportation. To get detailed and context-sensitive environmental information, it used walk-along interviews. Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 57 older adults residing in urban or semi-urban areas. Walk-along interviews to and from a destination (e.g. a shop) located within a 15 minutes' walk from the participants' home were conducted. Content analysis was performed using NVivo 9 software (QSR International). An inductive approach was used to derive categories and subcategories from the data. Data were categorized in the following categories and subcategories: access to facilities (shops & services, public transit, connectivity), walking facilities (sidewalk quality, crossings, legibility, benches), traffic safety (busy traffic, behavior of other road users), familiarity, safety from crime (physical factors, other persons), social contacts, aesthetics (buildings, natural elements, noise & smell, openness, decay) and weather. The findings indicate that to promote walking for transportation a neighborhood should provide good access to shops and services, well-maintained walking facilities, aesthetically appealing places, streets with little traffic and places for social interaction. In addition, the neighborhood environment should evoke feelings of familiarity and safety from crime. Future quantitative studies should investigate if (changes in) these environmental factors relate to

  8. Dissection of genetic and environmental factors involved in tomato organoleptic quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frusciante Luigi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the main tomato breeding objectives is to improve fruit organoleptic quality. However, this task is made somewhat challenging by the complex nature of sensory traits and the lack of efficient selection criteria. Sensory quality depends on numerous factors, including fruit colour, texture, aroma, and composition in primary and secondary metabolites. It is also influenced by genotypic differences, the nutritional regime of plants, stage of ripening at harvest and environmental conditions. In this study, agronomic, biochemical and sensory characterization was performed on six Italian heirlooms grown in different environmental conditions. Result We identified a number of links among traits contributing to fruit organoleptic quality and to the perception of sensory attributes. PCA analysis was used to highlight some biochemical, sensory and agronomic discriminating traits: this statistical test allowed us to identify which sensory attributes are more closely linked to environmental conditions and those, instead, linked to the genetic constitution of tomato. Sweetness, sourness, saltiness and tomato flavour are not only grouped in the same PCA factor, but also result in a clear discrimination of tomato ecotypes in the three different fields. The three different traditional varieties cluster on the basis of attributes like juiciness, granulosity, hardness and equatorial diameter, and are therefore more closely related to the genetic background of the cultivar. Conclusion This finding suggests that a different method should be undertaken to improve sensory traits related to taste perception and texture. Our results might be used to ascertain in what direction to steer breeding in order to improve the flavour characteristics of tomato ecotypes.

  9. Relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field in arid region

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lijuan; Yang, Huijin; Li, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Environmental factors and human activities play important roles in carbon fixation and emissions generated from croplands. Eddy covariance measurements in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field were used to analyze the relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in Wulanwusu, northern Xinjiang, an arid region of Northwest China. Our results showed that the cumulative net carbon flux (NEE) was -304.8 g C m-2 (a strong sink) over the whole cotton growing season in 2012, w...

  10. Environmental factors predict the severity of delirium symptoms in long-term care residents with and without delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Voyer, Philippe; Vu, Minh; Ciampi, Antonio; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Belzile, Eric; Dyachenko, Alina

    2013-04-01

    To identify potentially modifiable environmental factors (including number of medications) associated with changes over time in the severity of delirium symptoms and to explore the interactions between these factors and resident baseline vulnerability. Prospective, observational cohort study. Seven long-term care (LTC) facilities. Two hundred seventy-two LTC residents aged 65 and older with and without delirium. Weekly assessments (for up to 6 months) of the severity of delirium symptoms using the Delirium Index (DI), environmental risk factors, and number of medications. Baseline vulnerability measures included a diagnosis of dementia and a delirium risk score. Associations between environmental factors, medications, and weekly changes in DI were analyzed using a general linear model with correlated errors. Six potentially modifiable environmental factors predicted weekly changes in DI (absence of reading glasses, aids to orientation, family member, and glass of water and presence of bed rails and other restraints) as did the prescription of two or more new medications. Residents with dementia appeared to be more sensitive to the effects of these factors. Six environmental factors and prescription of two or more new medications predicted changes in the severity of delirium symptoms. These risk factors are potentially modifiable through improved LTC clinical practices. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Environmental factors and uptake of cadmium among brazers using cadmium-containing hard solders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, I; Sjögren, B; Hallne, U; Hedström, L; Holgersson, M

    1984-06-01

    The influence of different work factors on the uptake of cadmium has been studied in 102 brazers working at least 10% of their work day with cadmium-containing hard solders. The blood concentrations of cadmium varied between less than 1 and 113 micrograms/L (less than 9 and 1010 nmol/L). Blood cadmium concentrations were below 10 micrograms/L (89 nmol/L) in 71 brazers and 31 brazers had levels equal to or above that value. The importance of some environmental factors on the blood-level of cadmium was studied with discrimination analysis. The length of the splice was found to be almost the sole determining factor for the cadmium concentration in blood. All brazers working with splices shorter than 2 cm had blood concentrations below 10 micrograms/L, while 87% of the brazers working with splices longer than 10 cm had blood concentrations equal to or above 10 micrograms/L. Other factors like age, sex, exposure time, smoking habit and brazing method were devoid of any measurable importance.

  12. Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult stages of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Adamczuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors have a varied impact on the development of juvenile and adult Cladocera, depending on their different physiological conditions and body size. The values of these factors alter spatially and temporarily, thus implying that they play a role in the spatial distribution of the pre-reproductive and potentially reproductive stages of cladocerans. The aim of the study was to determine seasonal and spatial variations in the distribution of juvenile and adult individuals of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected physicochemical factors (temperature, conductivity, pH, concentration of dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids and fish predation pressure (measured by Chesson’s coefficient λ in deep Lake Piaseczno (eastern Poland. Adult Cladocera displayed spatial distribution related to fish predation pressure. The species selectively eaten, B. coregoni and D. longispina, and non-selectively eaten, D. cucullata, selected the pelagic zone to exist, whereas those avoided by fish, D. brachyurum and B. longirostris, were evenly distributed in the littoral and pelagic zone. Juvenile cladocerans were strongly impacted by physico-chemical factors. Juvenile Daphnia, Diaphanosoma and B. longirostris showed preferences to biotic zones similar to the adults but differed in their habitat choices. Juvenile and adult stages of B. coregoni differed in their distribution, indicating that adult individuals impacted by high predation pressure alternatively modified their habitat selection. Principal component analysis (PCA ordination showed a seasonal tendency for the spatial segregation of the cladocerans, suggesting that possible competitive interactions between the studied cladocerans may also influence their distribution patterns.

  13. Analysis of Factors in Land Subsidence in Shanghai: A View Based on a Strategic Environmental Assessment

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    Ye-Shuang Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed that in the urban center of Shanghai, land subsidence has accelerated, and the groundwater level has continued to drop even though the net withdrawn volume (NWV of groundwater has remained unchanged since 1980. An analysis of monitoring data shows that drawdown of the groundwater level is one of the factors that have influenced land subsidence since 1980. The NWV of groundwater in urban areas, however, is not the critical factor controlling the drawdown of the groundwater level. Since the 1980s, there have been many underground works constructed in the unique strata of Shanghai, which has an interlayered structure known as a multi-aquifer-aquitard system (MAAS. Investigation into land subsidence caused by urban construction is now receiving much attention. Based on the principle of a strategic environmental assessment (SEA for sustainable urban development, this paper presents a discussion and analysis of the factors which can influence the development of land subsidence during continued urbanization in Shanghai. The main factors include the additional loading caused by the construction of structures, the cut-off effect due to construction in aquifers, the drawdown of groundwater level caused by leakage into underground structures, and the decrease of groundwater recharge from neighboring zones. SEA is recommended for the future development of Shanghai.

  14. The Clinical, Environmental, and Behavioral Factors That Foster Early Childhood Caries: Evidence for Caries Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    Caries risk assessment, an essential component of targeted health care delivery for young children, is of paramount importance in the current environment of increasing health care costs and resource constraints. The purpose of this manuscript was to review recent best available evidence behind the factors that influence caries risk assessment and the validity of strategies to assess the caries risk of young children. Moderate to weak evidence supports the following recommendations: (1) Children should have a caries risk assessment done in their first year (or as soon as their first tooth erupts) as part of their overall health assessment, and this should be reassessed periodically over time. (2) Multiple clinical, environmental, and behavioral factors should be considered when assessing caries risk in young children, including factors associated with the primary caregiver. (3) The use of structured forms, although most may not yet be validated, may aid in systematic assessment of multiple caries risk factors and in objective record-keeping. (4) Children from low socioeconomic status groups should be considered at increased risk when developing community preventive programs.

  15. Environmental contaminants and microRNA regulation: Transcription factors as regulators of toxicant-altered microRNA expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollome, James; Martin, Elizabeth; Sethupathy, Praveen; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding mRNA and inhibiting translation and/or inducing degradation of the associated transcripts. Expression levels of miRNAs have been shown to be altered in response to environmental toxicants, thus impacting cellular function and influencing disease risk. Transcription factors (TFs) are known to be altered in response to environmental toxicants and play a critical role in the regulation of miRNA expression. To date, environmentally-responsive TFs that are important for regulating miRNAs remain understudied. In a state-of-the-art analysis, we utilized an in silico bioinformatic approach to characterize potential transcriptional regulators of environmentally-responsive miRNAs. Using the miRStart database, genomic sequences of promoter regions for all available human miRNAs (n = 847) were identified and promoter regions were defined as − 1000/+500 base pairs from the transcription start site. Subsequently, the promoter region sequences of environmentally-responsive miRNAs (n = 128) were analyzed using enrichment analysis to determine overrepresented TF binding sites (TFBS). While most (56/73) TFs differed across environmental contaminants, a set of 17 TFs was enriched for promoter binding among miRNAs responsive to numerous environmental contaminants. Of these, one TF was common to miRNAs altered by the majority of environmental contaminants, namely SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 3 (SMARCA3). These identified TFs represent candidate common transcriptional regulators of miRNAs perturbed by environmental toxicants. - Highlights: • Transcription factors that regulate environmentally-modulated miRNA expression are understudied • Transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located within DNA promoter regions of miRNAs were identified. • Specific transcription factors may serve as master regulators of environmentally-mediated microRNA expression

  16. Accessing Genetic and Environmental Factors of Hearing Loss in 354 Families in Gom and Markazi Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrahim Sadeghi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hearing loss (HL is the most prevalent sensorineural defect in human. Mild to severly Profound HL occurs in about l.0 per 1000 births. Many previous studies have shown that about 50% of deafness is due to genetic factor and 50% is due to environmental and etiologically unknown. In this study, we are searching the causes of deafness at these families and introduce strategies for diagnosis and prevention. Materials & Methods: Questionaires were distributed in deaf schools, hearing loss and rehabilitation centers in Qom and Markazi provinces collecting done after filling by the parents. The criterias such as age, sex, number of deaf individuals in families their close relatives, the marriage type of the parents and etiology of disease (if it is genetic or environmental were extracted from questionnaires and were analysed by SPSS software. Results: Three hundred and fifty four (354 Questionnaires contained complete information from hearing loss families were collected. Age mean of proband individuals is 16.1±8.1. Sex distribution of 48.4% and 51.6% girls and boys, respectively. Parents were 59.3% and 36.7% of consanguineous and unfamilial marriage, respectively. The marriage type of were not determined in 4%. Mean of deaf individuals among these families was 1.8±1.4.By assessing the filled questionnaires and pedigrees. The deafness etiology in the studies population was categorized as genetic cause (70.9 %, environment factor (9% and unknown etiology (20.1%. Conclusion: Genetic factor with and autosomal recessive inheritance pattern was the most common cause of hearing loss due to the high prevalence of consanguineous marriage which resulted and increased genetic causes in more than 50%. Multiplicity of offspring also shawn an increased in frequency of hearing loss in families that have deaf with genetic background of this disorder. In this study, environmental and unknown factors are second cause of HL. We may interestingly reduce

  17. [Male sterility and its association with genital disease and environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino Ruiz, M C; De León Cervantes, M G; García Flores, R F

    1995-10-01

    Semen quality may be affected by many factors, as there is evidence that conditions as varicocele, criptorquidia, orchitis and bacterian infections; as well as to exposure to physical agents as heat, or chemical substances, or ingestion of alcohol and drugs, may affect semen quality. The objective of this study is to investigate the risk implied in the exposure to these factors on the semen quality. The study was carried out in a prospective way in a group of males at Clínica de Infertilidad, Unidad de Biología de la Reproducción del Hospital Universitario Dr. J.E. González. Ninety nine males were studied, they received an intentioned questionnaire about antecedents of exposure to environmental factors, and urologic resolved pathology. Espermatobioscopy was done and it was classified according to OMS. Two groups were formed, one with the individuals with normal espermatobioscopy (n = 25); and the abnormal ones (n = 74). The statistical Incidences Reason, square Xi and Atributable Risk, were applied in order to determine the impact that different factors may have on semen quality. The found alterations in semen were astenozoospermia (n = 58); hypospermia (n = 22); oligozoospermia (n = 18); teratozoospermia (n = 7); polizoospermia (n = 7); and azoospermia (n = 6). The results of the mentioned statistical tests, show that in these alterations there is an associated risk factor to the use of tobacco, exposure to chemical substances, to physical aggresors; and anatomic anomalies previously corrected. It is considered that obtention of this information is a great help because once the unfavorable factors are eliminated, the environment is improved in order to obtain an espermatogenesis in optimal conditions.

  18. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 14-18 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. RESULTS: The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97; and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00. Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03 and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28 were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels. CONCLUSIONS: Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.

  19. Leptospirosis and Workplace Environmental Risk Factors among Cattle Farmers in Northeastern Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziah binti Daud

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis and its occurrence has been reported to be rising globally. The environment plays an important role in the survival of Leptospira and determines the risk of infection. Those who were exposed to and had contact with contaminated environment through their occupational, recreational and other activities can be infected with the organism. Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of leptospirosis among cattle farmers, prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira, and the workplace environmental risk factors for leptospirosis among cattle farmers in northeastern Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 120 cattle farmers was conducted. The participants answered an interviewer-guided questionnaire that consisted of sociodemographic and workplace environment characteristics questionnaire, before having their blood sample taken for microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Seropositivity was determined using a cut-off titer of ≥1:100. 248 environmental samples were also collected from the cattle farms for polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: The overall seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies was 72.5% (95% CI 63.5% to 80.1% and the prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira in the cattle farms environment was 12.1% (95% CI 8.4% to 17.0%. The independent factors associated with seropositivity of leptospirosis among cattle farmers were positive pathogenic Leptospira in the environment (Adj OR 5.90, 95% CI 1.34 to 26.01 and presence of garbage dumping in the farm (Adj OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.02 to 5.65. Conclusion: Preventing leptospirosis incidence among cattle farmers necessitates changes in work environment. Identifying modifiable factors may also contribute to the reduction of infection.

  20. Integration of developmental and environmental signals via a polyadenylation factor in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Liu

    Full Text Available The ability to integrate environmental and developmental signals with physiological responses is critical for plant survival. How this integration is done, particularly through posttranscriptional control of gene expression, is poorly understood. Previously, it was found that the 30 kD subunit of Arabidopsis cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (AtCPSF30 is a calmodulin-regulated RNA-binding protein. Here we demonstrated that mutant plants (oxt6 deficient in AtCPSF30 possess a novel range of phenotypes--reduced fertility, reduced lateral root formation, and altered sensitivities to oxidative stress and a number of plant hormones (auxin, cytokinin, gibberellic acid, and ACC. While the wild-type AtCPSF30 (C30G was able to restore normal growth and responses, a mutant AtCPSF30 protein incapable of interacting with calmodulin (C30GM could only restore wild-type fertility and responses to oxidative stress and ACC. Thus, the interaction with calmodulin is important for part of AtCPSF30 functions in the plant. Global poly(A site analysis showed that the C30G and C30GM proteins can restore wild-type poly(A site choice to the oxt6 mutant. Genes associated with hormone metabolism and auxin responses are also affected by the oxt6 mutation. Moreover, 19 genes that are linked with calmodulin-dependent CPSF30 functions, were identified through genome-wide expression analysis. These data, in conjunction with previous results from the analysis of the oxt6 mutant, indicate that the polyadenylation factor AtCPSF30 is a regulatory hub where different signaling cues are transduced, presumably via differential mRNA 3' end formation or alternative polyadenylation, into specified phenotypic outcomes. Our results suggest a novel function of a polyadenylation factor in environmental and developmental signal integration.

  1. Influence of a range of extreme environmental factors on tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa thallus viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irina, Insarova; Dyakov, Max; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Shtaer, Oksana

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms consisting of at least two genetic different partners: a heterotrophic fungus (mycobiont) and a phototrophic alga or cyanobacterium (photobiont). Lichens are ubiquitous at global scale. These symbiotic organisms represent the dominant type of “vegetation” at 8 - 10% of land (Larson, 1987). Abiotic stress’ resistance is notable for lichens among all eukaryotes. Lichens are often called “extremophiles” for their ability to acclimate the most severe environmental conditions. These features allow regarding lichens as a group of organisms which is potentially able to keep viability under open space conditions and to survive within Mars-like atmosphere types. The research presented was carried out in the network of spacecraft Bion-1 experiments involving the investigation of physiological and ultrastructural changes in biological objects survivable under open space conditions. Similar researches were already conducted on bipartite lichen species. The most attention was paid to the influence of UV and other space radiation types on lichen viability in those works. Thus we have taken tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa as a main research object and temperature fluctuations from extremely high to extremely low values in accordance to solar and umbral orbit sides - for the main extreme environmental factors. These factors were the less studied in previous works. During the research the influence of incubation under anaerobic conditions, multi-time effects of high and low temperatures and their interchange on respiratory metabolism, photosynthetic apparatus condition and the ultrastructure of P. aphthosa thalli was assessed. The data obtained demonstrate that activity either mycobiont or photobiont in tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa keep near unchanged under influence of all stress factors explored on dry thalli.

  2. Association of environmental factors to meeting physical activity recommendations in two South Carolina counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Hutto, Brent; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine associations between environment and policy factors and physical activity. A random-digit-dialed, cross-sectional telephone survey was administered. The setting was a two-county area of eastern South Carolina. Before weighting, the sample included 1936 adults; 36.9% African-American, 63.1% white, and 60.1% women. The age group distribution was 28.8% 55+ years, 39.3% 35-54 years, and 31.9% 18-34 years of age. The response rate was 62.9%. Six physical activity questions (2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey [BRFSS]) were used to create a dischotomous variable, "meets/does not meet recommendation for moderate or vigorous physical activity." Self-report items assessed knowledge, presence, and use of recreational facilities; presence of environmental and worksite supports; perceived safety; condition of sidewalks; and quality of street lighting. Linear and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Unadjusted odds for meeting the recommendation were significantly greater for well-maintained sidewalks (OR = 1.90); safe areas for walking/jogging (OR = 1.39); knowledge of routes for bicycling (OR = 1.38) and walking/jogging (OR = 1.32); and worksites with sports teams (OR = 1.53), exercise facilities (OR = 1.33), flexible time for exercise (OR = 1.33), and preventive checkups (OR = 1.26). Among persons who met the recommendation, means were greater for number of known walking/jogging routes (p = .04); number of known bicycling routes (p < .01); number of days per month uses tracks, trails, routes, pathways (p < .01); and number of days per month uses outdoor recreation areas (p < .01). The results support an association between level of physical activity and environmental and policy factors in two southeastern counties in South Carolina. Limitations of the study include self-reported data and cross-sectional design.

  3. Relationships between Environmental Factors and Pathogenic Vibrios in the Northern Gulf of Mexico ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. N.; Flowers, A. R.; Noriea, N. F.; Zimmerman, A. M.; Bowers, J. C.; DePaola, A.; Grimes, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Although autochthonous vibrio densities are known to be influenced by water temperature and salinity, little is understood about other environmental factors associated with their abundance and distribution. Densities of culturable Vibrio vulnificus containing vvh (V. vulnificus hemolysin gene) and V. parahaemolyticus containing tlh (thermolabile hemolysin gene, ubiquitous in V. parahaemolyticus), tdh (thermostable direct hemolysin gene, V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity factor), and trh (tdh-related hemolysin gene, V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity factor) were measured in coastal waters of Mississippi and Alabama. Over a 19-month sampling period, vibrio densities in water, oysters, and sediment varied significantly with sea surface temperature (SST). On average, tdh-to-tlh ratios were significantly higher than trh-to-tlh ratios in water and oysters but not in sediment. Although tlh densities were lower than vvh densities in water and in oysters, the opposite was true in sediment. Regression analysis indicated that SST had a significant association with vvh and tlh densities in water and oysters, while salinity was significantly related to vibrio densities in the water column. Chlorophyll a levels in the water were correlated significantly with vvh in sediment and oysters and with pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (tdh and trh) in the water column. Furthermore, turbidity was a significant predictor of V. parahaemolyticus density in all sample types (water, oyster, and sediment), and its role in predicting the risk of V. parahaemolyticus illness may be more important than previously realized. This study identified (i) culturable vibrios in winter sediment samples, (ii) niche-based differences in the abundance of vibrios, and (iii) predictive signatures resulting from correlations between environmental parameters and vibrio densities. PMID:20817802

  4. Energy technology characterizations handbook: environmental pollution and control factors. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    This Handbook deals with environmental characterization information for a range of energy-supply systems and provides supplementary information on environmental controls applicable to a select group of environmentally characterized energy systems. Environmental residuals, physical-resource requirements, and discussion of applicable standards are the principal information provided. The quantitative and qualitative data provided are useful for evaluating alternative policy and technical strategies and for assessing the environmental impact of facility siting, energy production, and environmental controls.

  5. Energy technology characterizations handbook: environmental pollution and control factors. Third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This Handbook deals with environmental characterization information for a range of energy-supply systems and provides supplementary information on environmental controls applicable to a select group of environmentally characterized energy systems. Environmental residuals, physical-resource requirements, and discussion of applicable standards are the principal information provided. The quantitative and qualitative data provided are useful for evaluating alternative policy and technical strategies and for assessing the environmental impact of facility siting, energy production, and environmental controls

  6. Strategic analysis of factors affecting the coupling of environmental management with business strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Bjarnø, Ole-Christian

    1997-01-01

    This paper aims at introducing a framework through which companies can adress and overcome the uncertainty regarding their strategic environmental posture and formulate an appropriate environmental strategy in line with their business context, environmental pressures, internal strenghts and weakn......This paper aims at introducing a framework through which companies can adress and overcome the uncertainty regarding their strategic environmental posture and formulate an appropriate environmental strategy in line with their business context, environmental pressures, internal strenghts...

  7. Systematic assessment of environmental risk factors for bipolar disorder: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Köhler, Cristiano A; Evangelou, Evangelos; León-Caballero, Jordi; Solmi, Marco; Stubbs, Brendon; Belbasis, Lazaros; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Kessing, Lars V; Berk, Michael; Vieta, Eduard; Carvalho, André F

    2017-03-01

    The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is likely to involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. In our study, we aimed to perform a systematic search of environmental risk factors for BD. In addition, we assessed possible hints of bias in this literature, and identified risk factors supported by high epidemiological credibility. We searched the Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycInfo databases up to 7 October 2016 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that assessed associations between putative environmental risk factors and BD. For each meta-analysis, we estimated its summary effect size by means of both random- and fixed-effects models, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), the 95% prediction interval, and heterogeneity. Evidence of small-study effects and excess of significance bias was also assessed. Sixteen publications met the inclusion criteria (seven meta-analyses and nine qualitative systematic reviews). Fifty-one unique environmental risk factors for BD were evaluated. Six meta-analyses investigated associations with a risk factor for BD. Only irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) emerged as a risk factor for BD supported by convincing evidence (k=6; odds rati