WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity-long life waste

  1. Study of scenarios of long term management of low-activity long-life wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the study of scenarios for the management of different low-activity long-life radioactive wastes with reference to different French legal texts. After a presentation of the legal and technical context, the report presents different existing and projected storages (description and safety principles for the Cires and Aube centres and for the Cigeo project of deep geological storage centre). It addresses the various aspects of radiferous and graphite waste management on a long term: inventory, parcel, waste peculiarities, management scenarios, assessment of storage in SCR. It also addresses the case of other wastes such as bituminous coated wastes, those presenting a reinforced natural radioactivity or residues of uranium conversion processing. The last part presents the main orientations for the project

  2. Decision reversibility and waste retrievability, an international perspective in the field of disposal of high- and medium-activity long life wastes, and of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution describes the role and the experience of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in the field of waste disposal. It indicates references to the notion of reversibility in some NEA publications. The author discusses the meaning of retrievability and reversibility, presents and comments some common international measures which are recommended regarding waste management. He comments the issues of convergence and divergence (reversibility levels and practices) and outlines how these issues of reversibility and retrievability are addressed in different countries (in a law, by the government, by the operator), and how they are implemented according to some basic principles (protection of next generations, ability for any generation to take different decisions)

  3. Development plan. High activity-long living wastes project. Abstract; Plan de developpement. Projet HAVL. Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This brochure presents the actions that the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) has to implement in the framework of the project of high activity-long living (HALL) radioactive wastes (HAVL project) conformably to the requirements of the program defined in the law from June 28, 2006 (law no 2006-739). This law precises the three, complementary, research paths to explore for the management of this type of wastes: separation and transmutation of long-living radioactive elements, reversible disposal in deep geologic underground, and long duration storage. The ANDRA's action concerns the geologic disposal aspect. The following points are presented: the HALL wastes and their containers, the reversible disposal procedure, the HAVL project: financing of researches, storage concepts, development plan of the project (dynamics, information and dialogue approach, input data, main steps, schedule); the nine programs of the HAVL project (laboratory experiments and demonstration tests, surface survey, scientific program, simulation program, surface engineering studies and technological tests, information and communication program, program of environment and facilities surface observation and monitoring, waste packages management, monitoring and transport program, disposal program); the five transverse technical and scientific activities (safety, reversibility, cost, health and occupational safety, impact study). (J.S.)

  4. Deep reversible storage. Design options for the storage in deep geological formation - High-medium activity, long living wastes 2009 milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report aims at presenting a synthesis of currently studied solutions for the different components of the project of deep geological radioactive waste storage centre. For each of these elements, the report indicates the main operational objectives to be taken into account in relationship with safety functions or with reversibility. It identifies the currently proposed design options, presents the technical solutions (with sometime several possibilities), indicates industrial references (in the nuclear sector, in underground works) and comments results of technological tests performed by the ANDRA. After a description of functionalities and of the overall organisation of storage components, the different following elements and aspects are addressed: surface installations, underground architecture, parcel transfer between the surface and storage cells, storage container for medium-activity long-life (MAVL) waste, storage cell for medium-activity long-life waste, handling of MAVL parcels in storage cells, storage container for high-activity (HA) waste, storage cell for HA waste, handling of HA parcels in storage cells, and works for site closing

  5. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of electronic waste recycling is quantified. • Key factors for reducing the overall environmental impact are indentified. • End-life disposal processes provide significant environmental benefits. • Efficiently reduce the improper disposal amount of e-waste is highly needed. • E-waste incineration can generate significant environmental burden. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers)

  6. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jinglan, E-mail: hongjing@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Public Health School, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Shi, Wenxiao [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Yutao [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Shanda South Road 27, Jinan 250100 (China); Chen, Wei [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li, Xiangzhi, E-mail: xiangzhi@sdu.edu.cn [School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of electronic waste recycling is quantified. • Key factors for reducing the overall environmental impact are indentified. • End-life disposal processes provide significant environmental benefits. • Efficiently reduce the improper disposal amount of e-waste is highly needed. • E-waste incineration can generate significant environmental burden. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers)

  7. Waste recycling issues in bioregenerative life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Wang, D.

    1989-01-01

    Research and technology development issues centering on the recycling of materials within a bioregenerative life support system are reviewed. The importance of recovering waste materials for subsequent use is emphasized. Such material reclamation will substantially decrease the energy penalty paid for bioregenerative life support systems, and can potentially decrease the size of the system and its power demands by a significant amount. Reclamation of fixed nitrogen and the sugars in cellulosic materials is discussed.

  8. Biogeochemical reactive-transport modelling of the interactions of medium activity long-lived nuclear waste in fractured argillite and the effect on redox conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The role of anaerobic microbial processes in mediating gas generation and redox reactions in organic (cellulose) containing low level activity nuclear wastes (LLW) is well established through monitoring of operational near-surface LLW disposal sites and municipal waste disposal sites. Modelling approaches based on Monod kinetic growth models to represent the complex suite of anaerobic processes have been developed and these models are able to reproduce the evolving biogeochemistry and gas generation of large scale and long term (10 year) experiments on cellulose waste degradation. In the case of geological disposal of medium activity long-lived nuclear waste (MAVL) microbial processes have the potential to exploit metabolic energy sources present in the waste, engineered barriers and host geological formation and as a consequence influence redox potential. Several electron donors and electron acceptors may be present in MAVL. Electron donors include; hydrogen (resulting from radiolysis and anaerobic corrosion of metals), and hydrolysis products of organic waste materials. Sulphate, nitrate and Fe(III) containing minerals and corrosion products are examples of electron acceptors present in intermediate level wastes. Significant amounts of organic matter, sulphate and iron minerals may also be present in host geological formations and have the potential to act as microbial energy sources once the system is perturbed by electron donors/acceptors from the waste. The construction of a geological disposal facility will physically disturb the host formation, potentially causing fracturing of the excavation damage zone (EDZ). The EDZ may thus provide environmental conditions, such as space and free water that together with nutrient and energy sources to promote microbial activity. In this study the Generalised Repository Model (GRM) developed to simulate the coupled microbiological, chemical and transport processes in near

  9. Life cycle assessment of waste paper management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2008-01-01

    The significance of technical data, as well as the significance of system boundary choices, when modelling the environmental impact from recycling and incineration of waste paper has been studied by a life cycle assessment focusing oil global warming potentials. The consequence of choosing...... a specific set of data for the reprocessing technology, the virgin paper manufacturing technology and the incineration technology, as well as the importance of the recycling rate Was Studied. Furthermore, the system was expanded to include forestry and to include fossil fuel energy substitution from saved...... biomass, in order to study the importance of the system boundary choices. For recycling, the choice of virgin paper manufacturing data is most important, but the results show that also the impacts from the reprocessing technologies fluctuate greatly. For the overall results the choice of the technology...

  10. Life cycle assessments of energy from solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, Goeran; Johansson, Jessica; Lind, Per; Moberg, Aasa [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology/Natural Resoruces Management Inst.]|[Defence Research Establishment, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Defence Analysis

    2000-09-01

    The overall aim of the present study is to evaluate different strategies for treatment of solid waste based on a life-cycle perspective. Important goals are to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods for treatment of solid waste, and to identify critical factors in the systems, including the background systems, which may significantly influence the results. Included in the study are landfilling, incineration, recycling, digestion and composting. The waste fractions considered are the combustible and recyclable or compostable fractions of municipal solid waste. The methodology used is Life Cycle Assessment. The results can be used for policy decisions as well as strategic decisions on waste management systems.

  11. Models for waste life cycle assessment: Review of technical assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Damgaard, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    2010-01-01

    , such as the functional unit, system boundaries, waste composition and energy modelling. The modelling assumptions of waste management processes, ranging from collection, transportation, intermediate facilities, recycling, thermal treatment, biological treatment, and landfilling, are obviously critical when comparing......A number of waste life cycle assessment (LCA) models have been gradually developed since the early 1990s, in a number of countries, usually independently from each other. Large discrepancies in results have been observed among different waste LCA models, although it has also been shown that results...

  12. Waste management through life cycle assessment of products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Yu V.; Aliferova, T. E.; Ncube, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid growth of a population in a country can contribute to high production of waste. Municipal waste and industrial waste can bring unhealthy and unpleasant environment or even diseases to human beings if the wastes are not managed properly.With increasing concerns over waste and the need for ‘greener’ products, it is necessary to carry out Life Cycle Assessments of products and this will help manufacturers take the first steps towards greener designs by assessing their product's carbon output. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, and to assess the impact of those energy and material used and released to the environment. The aim of the study was to use a life cycle assessment approach to determine which waste disposal options that will substantially reduce the environmental burdens posed by the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle. Several important observations can be made. 1) Recycling of the PET bottle waste can significantly reduce the energy required across the life cycle because the high energy inputs needed to process the requisite virgin materials greatly exceeds the energy needs of the recycling process steps. 2) Greenhouse gases can be reduced by opting for recycling instead of landfilling and incineration. 3) Quantity of waste emissions released from different disposal options was identified. 4) Recycling is the environmentally preferable disposal method for the PET bottle. Industry can use the tools and data in this study to evaluate the health, environmental, and energy implications of the PET bottle. LCA intends to aid decision-makers in this respect, provided that the scientific underpinning is available. Strategic incentives for product development and life cycle management can then be developed.

  13. Deep reversible storage. Safety options for the storage in deep geological formation - High-medium activity, long living wastes 2009 milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This large document aims at presenting safety options which have been adopted for the current design status (notably for the installation architecture), elements of description of envisaged technical solutions and exploitation principles which are required for the control of risks (either internal or external) and uncertainties on a long term which could lead to radiological consequences for the project of storage of nuclear wastes in a deep geological formation. After a presentation of the context and of input data, this report discusses the principle of a modular construction and then discusses the safety approach. One part deals with risk analysis for surface installations and aims at showing how internal risks (handling, fire) and external risks (earthquake, plane crash) are taken into account in terms of design choices, processes and control measures. Another part deals with risk analysis for underground installations during the reversible exploitation phase (the considered risks are about the same as in the previous part). The next part addresses risk analysis after closing, and tries to describe how the location, storage construction elements and its architecture ensure a passive safety. Uncertainty management is presented in relationship with envisaged technical solutions and scientific knowledge advances. Additional elements (detailed study, researches and experimentations) for the establishment of the future creation authorization request are identified all along the report

  14. Life cycle assessment of waste management systems: Assessing technical externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) of a waste management system relies on many internal characteristics such as pollution control systems and recovery efficiencies. It also relies on technical externalities supporting the waste management system in terms of capital goods and energy and material production systems. In the past, capital goods have often been disregarded because of a lack of time and assumptions of lower environmental impacts from these capital goods compared to the total impacts o...

  15. Uncertainties in life cycle assessment of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clavreul, Julie; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle assessment has been used to assess environmental performances of waste management systems in many studies. The uncertainties inherent to its results are often pointed out but not always quantified, which should be the case to ensure a good decisionmaking process. This paper proposes...

  16. Life cycle assessment of capital goods related to waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impacts from the life cycle of products and systems were evaluated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool. Today most LCAs of waste management systems only considers the impacts from the operation of the system but neglects the environmental impacts from construction......, maintenance and demolition of capital goods. Capital goods are defined as buildings, machinery, trucks and infrastructure at the facility. A LCA was performed using two modelling programmes: Simapro and EASEWASTE. This paper assesses the importance of including capital goods when performing LCAs of waste...... the operation of the system. The reason for this is the significant savings on all impacts categories from energy substitution. The study also found that the resource consumption for the capital goods is not negligible when assessing the life cycle of an incineration plant....

  17. Life cycle impact assessment of various waste conversion technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hsien H

    2009-06-01

    Advanced thermal treatment technologies utilizing pyrolysis or gasification, as well as a combined approach, are introduced as sustainable methods to treat wastes in Singapore. Eight different technologies are evaluated: pyrolysis-gasification of MSW; pyrolysis of MSW; thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW; combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW; steam gasification of wood; circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification of organic wastes; gasification of RDF; and the gasification of tyres. Life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impacts of the various waste conversion systems including global warming potential, acidification potential, terrestrial eutrophication and ozone photochemical formation. The normalization and weighting results, calculated according to Singapore national emission inventories, showed that the two highest impacts are from thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of RDF; and the least are from the steam gasification of wood and the pyrolysis-gasification of MSW. A simplified life cycle cost comparison showed that the two most costs-effective waste conversion systems are the CFB gasification of organic waste and the combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW. The least favorable - highest environmental impact as well as highest costs - are the thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of tyres. PMID:19157835

  18. Life-cycle assessment of a waste refinery process for enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials) from the initial waste. A number of scenarios for the energy utilization of the two outputs were assessed. Co-combustion in......Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and resource saving has become increasingly important in recent years. From this perspective, higher recycling rates for valuable materials (e.g. metals) as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting for virgin material...... production and saving fossil resources. This is especially important with respect to residual waste (i.e. the remains after source-separation and separate collection) which in Denmark is typically incinerated. In this paper, a life-cycle assessment and energy balance of a pilot-scale waste refinery for the...

  19. Gas Generation in Radioactive Wastes - MAGGAS Predictive Life Cycle Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gases may form from radioactive waste in quantities posing different potential hazards throughout the waste package life cycle. The latter includes surface storage, transport, placing in an operating repository, storage in the repository prior to backfill, closure and the post-closure stage. Potentially hazardous situations involving gas include fire, flood, dropped packages, blocked package vents and disruption to a sealed repository. The MAGGAS (Magnox Gas generation) model was developed to assess gas formation for safety assessments during all stages of the waste package life cycle. This is a requirement of the U.K. regulatory authorities and Nirex and progress in this context is discussed. The processes represented in the model include: Corrosion, microbial degradation, radiolysis, solid-state diffusion, chemico-physical degradation and pressurisation. The calculation was split into three time periods. First the 'aerobic phase' is used to model the periods of surface storage, transport and repository operations including storage in the repository prior to backfill. The second and third periods were designated 'anaerobic phase 1' and 'anaerobic phase 2' and used to model the waste packages in the post-closure phase of the repository. The various significant gas production processes are modeled in each phase. MAGGAS (currently Version 8) is mounted on an Excel spreadsheet for ease of use and speed, has 22 worksheets and is operated routinely for assessing waste packages (e.g. for ventilation of stores and pressurisation of containers). Ten operational and decommissioning generic nuclear power station waste streams were defined as initial inputs, which included ion exchange materials, sludges and concentrates, fuel element debris, graphite debris, activated components, contaminated items, desiccants and catalysts. (authors)

  20. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed...... environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because...

  1. Life-cycle assessment of a waste refinery process for enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, D; Astrup, T

    2012-01-01

    Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and resource saving has become increasingly important in recent years. From this perspective, higher recycling rates for valuable materials (e.g. metals) as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting for virgin material production and saving fossil resources. This is especially important with respect to residual waste (i.e. the remains after source-separation and separate collection) which in Denmark is typically incinerated. In this paper, a life-cycle assessment and energy balance of a pilot-scale waste refinery for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials) from the initial waste. A number of scenarios for the energy utilization of the two outputs were assessed. Co-combustion in existing power plants and utilization of the liquid fraction for biogas production were concluded to be the most favourable options with respect to their environmental impacts (particularly global warming) and energy performance. The optimization of the energy and environmental performance of the waste refinery was mainly associated with the opportunity to decrease energy and enzyme consumption. PMID:21940157

  2. Life cycle assessment of the waste hierarchy--a Danish case study on waste paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jannick H; Holm, Peter; Merrild, Anne; Christensen, Per

    2007-01-01

    The waste hierarchy is being widely discussed these days, not only by cost-benefit analysts, but a growing number of life cycle assessments (LCA) have also begun to question it. In this article, we investigate the handling of waste paper in Denmark and compare the present situation with scenarios of more waste being recycled, incinerated or consigned to landfill. The investigations are made in accordance with ISO 14040-43 and based on the newly launched methodology of consequential LCA and following the recent guidelines of the European Centre on Waste and Material Flows. The LCA concerns the Danish consumption of paper in 1999, totalling 1.2 million tons. The results of the investigation indicate that the waste hierarchy is reliable; from an environmental point of view recycling of paper is better than incineration and landfilling. For incineration, the reason for the advantage of landfilling mainly comes from the substitution of fossil fuels, when incinerators provide heat and electricity. For recycling, the advantage is related to the saved wood resources, which can be used for generating energy from wood, i.e., from renewable fuel which does not contribute to global warming.

  3. Life cycle assessment of the waste hierarchy--a Danish case study on waste paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jannick H; Holm, Peter; Merrild, Anne; Christensen, Per

    2007-01-01

    The waste hierarchy is being widely discussed these days, not only by cost-benefit analysts, but a growing number of life cycle assessments (LCA) have also begun to question it. In this article, we investigate the handling of waste paper in Denmark and compare the present situation with scenarios of more waste being recycled, incinerated or consigned to landfill. The investigations are made in accordance with ISO 14040-43 and based on the newly launched methodology of consequential LCA and following the recent guidelines of the European Centre on Waste and Material Flows. The LCA concerns the Danish consumption of paper in 1999, totalling 1.2 million tons. The results of the investigation indicate that the waste hierarchy is reliable; from an environmental point of view recycling of paper is better than incineration and landfilling. For incineration, the reason for the advantage of landfilling mainly comes from the substitution of fossil fuels, when incinerators provide heat and electricity. For recycling, the advantage is related to the saved wood resources, which can be used for generating energy from wood, i.e., from renewable fuel which does not contribute to global warming. PMID:17112716

  4. Life Cycle Assesment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, F.; Sampaio, F.; Blumberga, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga's waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact -eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Climate change also seems to be a relevant impact coming from the wastewater treatment stage and the main contributor to the Climate change is N2O. The main environmental benefits, in terms of the percentages of the total impact, associated to the use of biogas instead of any other fossil fuel in the cogeneration plant are equal to: 3,11% for abiotic depletation, 1,48% for climate change, 0,51% for acidification and 0,12% for eutrophication.

  5. Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation

  6. Environmental assessment of waste incineration in a life-cycle-perspective (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2008-01-01

    of the wet waste incinerated. Emissions are either process-specific (related to the amount of waste incinerated) or input-specific (related to the composition of the waste incinerated), while mass transfer to solid outputs are governed by transfer coefficients specified by the user. The waste input......A model for life-cycle assessment of waste incinerators is described and applied to a case study for illustrative purposes. As life-cycle thinking becomes more integrated into waste management, quantitative tools for assessing waste management technologies are needed. The presented model...... is a module in the life-cycle assessment model EASEWASTE. The module accounts for all uses of materials and energy and credits the incinerator for electricity and heat recovered. The energy recovered is defined by the user as a percentage of the energy produced, calculated on the lower heating value...

  7. Life cycle comparison of waste-to-energy alternatives for municipal waste treatment in Chilean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezama, Alberto; Douglas, Carla; Méndez, Jacqueline; Szarka, Nóra; Muñoz, Edmundo; Navia, Rodrigo; Schock, Steffen; Konrad, Odorico; Ulloa, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The energy system in the Region of Aysén, Chile, is characterized by a strong dependence on fossil fuels, which account for up to 51% of the installed capacity. Although the implementation of waste-to-energy concepts in municipal waste management systems could support the establishment of a more fossil-independent energy system for the region, previous studies have concluded that energy recovery systems are not suitable from an economic perspective in Chile. Therefore, this work intends to evaluate these technical options from an environmental perspective, using life cycle assessment as a tool for a comparative analysis, considering Coyhaique city as a case study. Three technical alternatives were evaluated: (i) landfill gas recovery and flaring without energy recovery; (ii) landfill gas recovery and energy use; and (iii) the implementation of an anaerobic digestion system for the organic waste fraction coupled with energy recovery from the biogas produced. Mass and energy balances of the three analyzed alternatives have been modeled. The comparative LCA considered global warming potential, abiotic depletion and ozone layer depletion as impact categories, as well as required raw energy and produced energy as comparative regional-specific indicators. According to the results, the use of the recovered landfill gas as an energy source can be identified as the most environmentally appropriate solution for Coyhaique, especially when taking into consideration the global impact categories. PMID:23988463

  8. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butera, Stefania, E-mail: stbu@teknologisk.dk; Christensen, Thomas H.; Astrup, Thomas F.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA of C&DW utilisation in road vs. C&DW landfilling. • C&DW utilisation in road better than landfilling for most categories. • Transportation is the most important process in non-toxic impact categories. • Leaching of oxyanions is the critical process in toxic impact categories. • Modelling of Cr fate in the subsoil is highly influential to the results. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60–95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared

  9. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • LCA of C&DW utilisation in road vs. C&DW landfilling. • C&DW utilisation in road better than landfilling for most categories. • Transportation is the most important process in non-toxic impact categories. • Leaching of oxyanions is the critical process in toxic impact categories. • Modelling of Cr fate in the subsoil is highly influential to the results. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60–95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared

  10. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60-95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared with the overall life cycle of building and construction materials, leaching emissions were shown to be potentially significant for toxicity impacts, compared with contributions from production of the same materials, showing that end-of-life impacts and leaching should not be disregarded when assessing environmental impacts from construction products and materials. CO2 uptake in the C

  11. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast container summary volume 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company's Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the containers expected to be used for these waste shipments from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site. In previous years, forecast data have been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to the more detailed report on waste volumes: WHC-EP0900, FY 1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary. Both of these documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division's treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on the types of containers that will be used for packaging low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major waste generators for each waste category and container type are also discussed. Containers used for low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A, since LLW requires minimal treatment and storage prior to onsite disposal in the LLW burial grounds. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste are expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters

  12. Step-By-Step: Life Cycle Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is an unavoidable by-product when nuclear technologies are used for electricity production and for beneficial practices in medicine, agriculture, research and industry. When the radioactivity of the waste is above a certain threshold, the waste requires special disposal methods. Through extensive research, standards and approaches have been developed for safely and securely preparing for and managing radioactive waste disposal. In the course of its journey from the point of generation to disposal, radioactive waste undergoes a number of predisposal management treatment steps to transform it into a safe, stable and manageable form suitable for transport, storage and disposal

  13. Life Cycle Costing Model for Solid Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    To ensure sustainability of solid waste management, there is a need for cost assessment models which are consistent with environmental and social assessments. However, there is a current lack of standardized terminology and methodology to evaluate economic performances and this complicates...... LCC, e.g. waste generator, waste operator and public finances and the perspective often defines the systemboundaries of the study, e.g. waste operators often focus on her/his own cost, i.e. technology based,whereas waste generators and public finances often focus on the entire waste system, i.......e. system based. Figure 1 illustrates the proposed modeling framework that distinguishes between: a) budget cost, b) externality costs and 3) transfers and defines unit costs of each technology (per ton of input waste). Unitcosts are afterwards combined with a mass balance to calculate the technology cost...

  14. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid wastes: development of the WASTED model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, R; Warith, M

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Waste Analysis Software Tool for Environmental Decisions (WASTED) model. This model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems. The model consists of a number of separate submodels that describe a typical waste management process: waste collection, material recovery, composting, energy recovery from waste and landfilling. These submodels are combined to represent a complete waste management system. WASTED uses compensatory systems to account for the avoided environmental impacts derived from energy recovery and material recycling. The model is designed to provide solid waste decision-makers and environmental researchers with a tool to evaluate waste management plans and to improve the environmental performance of solid waste management strategies. The model is user-friendly and compares favourably with other earlier models.

  15. USER'S GUIDE FOR THE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LIFE-CYCLE DATABASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes how to use the municipal solid waste (MSW) life cycle database, a software application with Microsoft Access interfaces, that provides environmental data for energy production, materials production, and MSW management activities and equipment. The basic datab...

  16. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, H.-T.; Lu, W.-J.; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    With the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts and benefits of the current municipal solid waste management system and two modified systems, EASEWASTE, a life-cycle-based model, was used to evaluate the waste system of Hangzhou city in China. An integrated model was established, including waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal and accompanying external processes. The results showed that CH4 released from landfilling was the primary pollutant contributing to...

  17. Life cycle assessment of capital goods in waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2016-01-01

    The environmental importance of capital goods (trucks, buildings, equipment, etc.) was quantified by LCA modelling 1 tonne of waste treated in five different waste management scenarios. The scenarios involved a 240L collection bin, a 16m3 collection truck, a composting plant, an anaerobic digestion...

  18. Life cycle assessment applied to nanomaterials in solid waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis

    While the generation of solid waste is globally increasing, much effort is concentrated to minimise the environmental impacts related to their management. With respect to nanoproducts (products containing nanomaterials), a growing amount of ‘nanowaste’ can be expected to enter the waste streams...... of solid waste management systems as well as that of nanoproducts. But how has LCA generally been applied to both fields of solid waste management and nanotechnology until now? In particular, what are the current shortcomings for assessing impacts of released engineered nanoparticles? Is it possible...... by several pieces of work. Critical reviews were performed to evaluate the current state of LCA application to solid waste management systems and to nanoproducts. The former revealed that, out of 222 reviewed studies, several limitations were identified in the types of LCA application, with a narrow focus...

  19. Life cycle assessment modelling of waste-to-energy incineration in Spain and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margallo, M; Aldaco, R; Irabien, A; Carrillo, V; Fischer, M; Bala, A; Fullana, P

    2014-06-18

    In recent years, waste management systems have been evaluated using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A main shortcoming of prior studies was the focus on a mixture of waste with different characteristics. The estimation of emissions and consumptions associated with each waste fraction in these studies presented allocation problems. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration is a clear example in which municipal solid waste (MSW), comprising many types of materials, is processed to produce several outputs. This paper investigates an approach to better understand incineration processes in Spain and Portugal by applying a multi-input/output allocation model. The application of this model enabled predictions of WTE inputs and outputs, including the consumption of ancillary materials and combustibles, air emissions, solid wastes, and the energy produced during the combustion of each waste fraction. PMID:24951550

  20. Assessment of municipal solid waste management scenarios in Irkutsk (Russia) using a life cycle assessment-integrated waste management model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulokhonova, Alisa; Ulanova, Olga

    2013-05-01

    Continuous growth in the quantity of municipal solid waste (MSW) and increasing demands for their environmentally-friendly treatment are one of the main consequences of the growing social and economic development rate in modern society. Despite ecologically sustainable trends in waste management systems around the world, open dumps are still the main waste treatment option in Russia. This study aims to help the local municipality administration in Irkutsk (Russia) identify the most appropriate direction for current waste management and its optimization. Within this study four developed MSW management scenarios were assessed and compared with respect to their ecological, economic and social aspects using a life cycle-based integrated waste management model. The evaluation results of these scenarios show that the development of environmental sustainability and the reduction of social effects lead to an increase in handling of costs of waste. The best scenario, regarding both environmental and social aspects, is scenario four, which includes the separate collection and reprocessing of recyclables in combination with an aerobic mechanical-biological pre-treatment of the residual waste before landfilling. However, this scenario is 3.6 times more expensive than the existing system. The results of all assessed scenarios were further analyzed and recommendations were made to design integrated waste management solutions that are optimal not only from the ecological and social points of view, but which are also realistic within the given economic situation. PMID:23444153

  1. Corrosion considerations for life management of Hanford high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for corrosion-related aging mechanisms to be active in the Hanford Site waste tanks is frequently questioned and there are related uncertainties. This paper considers surveillance and analyses for evaluating the potential influence of corrosion processes such as stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion of the reinforced concrete steel on the useful life of Hanford radioactive waste tanks. There are two types of Hanford Site underground reinforced concrete, carbon steel lined waste tank structures. They primarily store caustic nitrate wastes, some at elevated temperatures, from defense reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. Some of the Hanford waste tanks have leaked radioactive liquid waste to the soil. These leaks are possibly due to nitrate-induced stress corrosion cracking. Major efforts prescribed to avoid nitrate-induced stress corrosion cracking in newer tank designs appear successful. A potential for pitting and crevice corrosion cracking in the carbon steel liners exists. There has been no evidence of significant uniform corrosion of the carbon steel liners and there has been no evidence of waste tank degradation caused by corrosion of the concrete reinforcing steel. A waste tank life management program is being developed to qualify the Hanford waste tanks for continued safe storage of these wastes. Corrosion evaluations, structural analyses, and surveillance are required to qualify the tanks and to promptly detect evidence of possible distress

  2. Life cycle assessment of advanced waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e....... In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the advanced treatment technologies, i...

  3. EASEWASTE-life cycle modeling capabilities for waste management technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    Background, Aims and Scope The management of municipal solid waste and the associated environmental impacts are subject of growing attention in industrialized countries. EU has recently strongly emphasized the role of LCA in its waste and resource strategies. The development of sustainable solid......-gasification and composting, thermal treatment incineration, use-on-land, material sorting and recycling, bottom and fly ash handling, material and energy utilization and landfilling. In order to allow the use of the model in an early stage where local data may be limited, default data sets are provided for waste composition...... as overall sensitivity analysis and material balances for all substances passing through the system. Results and Discussion The structure of the model is presented and its functionalities are demonstrated on a hypothetical case study based on waste data from a large Danish municipality. The aim of the case...

  4. Life cycle assessment of capital goods in waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Line K; Christensen, Thomas H

    2016-10-01

    The environmental importance of capital goods (trucks, buildings, equipment, etc.) was quantified by LCA modelling 1 tonne of waste treated in five different waste management scenarios. The scenarios involved a 240L collection bin, a 16m(3) collection truck, a composting plant, an anaerobic digestion plant, an incinerator and a landfill site. The contribution of capital goods to the overall environmental aspects of managing the waste was significant but varied greatly depending on the technology and the impact category: Global Warming: 1-17%, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: 2-90%, Ionising Radiation, Human Health: 2-91%, Photochemical Ozone Formation: 2-56%, Freshwater Eutrophication: 0.05-99%, Marine Eutrophication: 0.03-8%, Terrestrial Acidification: 2-13%, Terrestrial Eutrophication: 1-8%, Particulate Matter: 11-26%, Human Toxicity, Cancer Effect: 10-92%, Human Toxicity, non-Cancer Effect: 1-71%, Freshwater Ecotoxicity: 3-58%. Depletion of Abiotic Resources - Fossil: 1-31% and Depletion of Abiotic Resources - Elements (Reserve base): 74-99%. The single most important contribution by capital goods was made by the high use of steel. Environmental impacts from capital goods are more significant for treatment facilities than for the collection and transportation of waste and for the landfilling of waste. It is concluded that the environmental impacts of capital goods should always be included in the LCA modelling of waste management, unless the only impact category considered is Global Warming. PMID:27478026

  5. Life cycle assessment of waste management systems: Assessing technical externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen

    explored: • How do capital goods contribute to the total environmental impacts of waste management systems? • What are the quality and consistency of data in external databases for the primary and secondary production of materials? Capital goods were quantified in detail for several technologies usually...... production systems. In the past, capital goods have often been disregarded because of a lack of time and assumptions of lower environmental impacts from these capital goods compared to the total impacts of waste management. However, capital goods have not been addressed in detail in the literature until now......, and neglecting them may lead to an improper assessment of the environmental impacts of an entire waste management system. Another technical externality lies in the primary materials production systems required when producing secondary materials substitutes for primary materials. External databases are available...

  6. Greenhouse Gases Life Cycle Assessment (GHGLCA) as a decision support tool for municipal solid waste management in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudkhani, Rouhallah; Valizadeh, Behzad; Khastoo, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the most problems in developing countries is the integrated waste management and the effects on Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emission, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used in this paper as a decision supporting tool in planning Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) managements. Methods In this paper the EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) that provide GHG emission factors for waste stream components that are based on life Cycle Inventory (LCI) framework were used and The MSW management method...

  7. Life cycle assessment of waste prevention in the delivery of pasta, breakfast cereals, and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Giovanni; Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Waste prevention is the top priority of the European waste management strategy. In fact, as indicated in the latest Waste Framework Directive, the best option to deal with waste is not to generate it at all. In this framework, the distribution of loose dry food products through self-dispensing systems (so-called "loose distribution") is being considered worldwide as a practice to reduce the generation of packaging waste. This life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluates the environmental convenience of the loose distribution of dry pasta, breakfast cereals, and rice, in comparison with the traditional method of distribution. For each product, several baseline scenarios based on single-use packaging were compared with different waste prevention scenarios in which the product is distributed loose. The comparison addressed waste generation, 13 impact categories on the environment and human health, and the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) indicator. The results are significantly different for the 3 products. The loose distribution of pasta allows a 50% waste reduction and a decrease in the potential impacts only when compared with single-use cartonboard boxes. Conversely, when the comparison is made with single-use polypropylene bags, the loose distribution can even cause an increase in waste generation (up to 15%) and in the potential life cycle impacts. For breakfast cereals, the loose distribution allows a significant reduction in both the amount of waste (up to 84%) and the potential impacts, compared to the sale of traditional single-use bag-in-box packages. Finally, the loose distribution of rice permits a reduction in both waste generation (up to 86%) and most of the potential impacts. In particular, the impact reduction is higher when the reference single-use packaging that is replaced includes a cartonboard box. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:445-458. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26762500

  8. Life cycle assessment of waste prevention in the delivery of pasta, breakfast cereals, and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Giovanni; Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Waste prevention is the top priority of the European waste management strategy. In fact, as indicated in the latest Waste Framework Directive, the best option to deal with waste is not to generate it at all. In this framework, the distribution of loose dry food products through self-dispensing systems (so-called "loose distribution") is being considered worldwide as a practice to reduce the generation of packaging waste. This life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluates the environmental convenience of the loose distribution of dry pasta, breakfast cereals, and rice, in comparison with the traditional method of distribution. For each product, several baseline scenarios based on single-use packaging were compared with different waste prevention scenarios in which the product is distributed loose. The comparison addressed waste generation, 13 impact categories on the environment and human health, and the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) indicator. The results are significantly different for the 3 products. The loose distribution of pasta allows a 50% waste reduction and a decrease in the potential impacts only when compared with single-use cartonboard boxes. Conversely, when the comparison is made with single-use polypropylene bags, the loose distribution can even cause an increase in waste generation (up to 15%) and in the potential life cycle impacts. For breakfast cereals, the loose distribution allows a significant reduction in both the amount of waste (up to 84%) and the potential impacts, compared to the sale of traditional single-use bag-in-box packages. Finally, the loose distribution of rice permits a reduction in both waste generation (up to 86%) and most of the potential impacts. In particular, the impact reduction is higher when the reference single-use packaging that is replaced includes a cartonboard box. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:445-458. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. Environmental impact associated with activated carbon preparation from olive-waste cake via life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hjaila, Kefah; Baccar, Rym; Sarrà, Montserrat; Gasol, C.M.; Blánquez, Paqui

    2013-01-01

    he life cycle assessment (LCA) environmental tool was implemented to quantify the potential environmental impacts associated with the activated carbon (AC) production process from olive-waste cakes in Tunisia. On the basis of laboratory investigations for AC preparation, a flowchart was developed and the environmental impacts were determined. The LCA functional unit chosen was the production of 1 kg of AC from by-product olive-waste cakes. The results showed that impregnation using H3PO4 pres...

  10. Modern biofuel cells for waste recycling in life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Bockris, J. OM.

    1989-01-01

    Innovative ways of treating urea in waste water reprocessing for long duration space exploration are being considered. Urea is very stable and therefore there are few effective ways for its decomposition. The feasibility of the use of the enzyme urease is to catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide is discussed, including a methodology, potential problems, the capabilities and advantages of such a system.

  11. Life cycle assessment of a packaging waste recycling system in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We modeled a real packaging waste recycling system. • The analysis was performed using the life cycle assessment methodology. • The 2010 situation was compared with scenarios where the materials were not recycled. • The “Baseline” scenario seems to be more beneficial to the environment. - Abstract: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental impacts associated with an activity or product life cycle. It has also been applied to assess the environmental performance related to waste management activities. This study analyses the packaging waste management system of a local public authority in Portugal. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling, landfilling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. The packaging waste management system in operation in 2010, which we called “Baseline” scenario, was compared with two hypothetical scenarios where all the packaging waste that was selectively collected in 2010 would undergo the refuse collection system and would be sent directly to incineration (called “Incineration” scenario) or to landfill (“Landfill” scenario). Overall, the results show that the “Baseline” scenario is more environmentally sound than the hypothetical scenarios

  12. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling? A review of existing life cycle assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    . Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made......A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type...... comparisons of different management options for waste paper.\\ Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location...

  13. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, H.-T.; Lu, W.-J.;

    2009-01-01

    With the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts and benefits of the current municipal solid waste management system and two modified systems, EASEWASTE, a life-cycle-based model, was used to evaluate the waste system of Hangzhou city in China. An integrated model was established, including...... waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal and accompanying external processes. The results showed that CH4 released from landfilling was the primary pollutant contributing to global warming, and HCl and NH3 from incineration contributed most to acidification. Material recycling...

  14. Life-cycle modelling of waste management in Europe: tools, climate change and waste prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel

    of waste management systems and communicate the outcomes to develop evidence-based waste management policy. Global warming potential is an environmental indicator routinely modelled in LCA tools, but also reported by a number of other accounting protocols, leading to potential confusion. In this thesis......, a review of the different waste management and greenhouse gases accounting mechanisms was carried out and a reporting framework, called the upstream-operating-downstream, or ‘UOD’ framework, proposed. As a mean of illustration, the global warming factor of six European member states was modelled...

  15. Life-cycle assessment of a waste refinery process for enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and resource saving has become increasingly important in recent years. From this perspective, higher recycling rates for valuable materials (e.g. metals) as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting for virgin material...... for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials) from the initial waste. A number of scenarios for the energy utilization of the two outputs were assessed. Co...

  16. Life cycle assessment of solid waste management options for Eskisehir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banar, Mufide; Cokaygil, Zerrin; Ozkan, Aysun

    2009-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to determine the optimum municipal solid waste (MSW) management strategy for Eskisehir city. Eskisehir is one of the developing cities of Turkey where a total of approximately 750tons/day of waste is generated. An effective MSW management system is needed in this city since the generated MSW is dumped in an unregulated dumping site that has no liner, no biogas capture, etc. Therefore, five different scenarios were developed as alternatives to the current waste management system. Collection and transportation of waste, a material recovery facility (MRF), recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling processes were considered in these scenarios. SimaPro7 libraries were used to obtain background data for the life cycle inventory. One ton of municipal solid waste of Eskisehir was selected as the functional unit. The alternative scenarios were compared through the CML 2000 method and these comparisons were carried out from the abiotic depletion, global warming, human toxicity, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical ozone depletion points of view. According to the comparisons and sensitivity analysis, composting scenario, S3, is the more environmentally preferable alternative. In this study waste management alternatives were investigated only on an environmental point of view. For that reason, it might be supported with other decision-making tools that consider the economic and social effects of solid waste management. PMID:18280731

  17. Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

  18. Natural decay and half-life: Two bases for the radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How can environmental protection imperatives and technical requirements be reconciled in radioactive waste disposal? In France, two kind of facilities illustrate how radioactive waste disposal can merge scientific, regulatory and political concerns, based on the natural decay property of radioactive material. Andra's near-surface disposal facilities for short-lived waste are operated for one generation (30 years) and monitored for ten generations (300 years), with the radioactivity of the waste declining to naturally-occurring levels through the process of radioactive decay by the end of that time. The waste to be disposed of in such facilities contains nuclides with half-life below 30 years and is said time-degradable at human scale. The challenges are different for long-lived waste, which are also time-degradable, but not at human scale. Risk assessments for disposal of such waste, relatively straightforward for the first few thousand years, must also demonstrate that levels decline to naturally-occurring levels, even though this may occur in tens of thousands of years, when it is predicted that climatic change, new glacial activity, and a drop in sea level will occur, and when civilizations will no doubt have changed as well. This demonstration of very long-term safety is an express requirement for radioactive waste disposal. The paper briefly describes the criteria used in the French regulation to determine what waste can be accepted for near-surface disposal and the recent significant steps taken to resume field work for the siting of underground laboratories and possible, much later, a repository for waste non acceptable for near-surface disposal. The conclusion focuses in demonstrating how a consistent National or International Waste Management Program based on clear ethical, societal, scientific and technological choices has to be prepared and presented to the Authorities and to the Public, allowing the waste management Organization to gain the necessary

  19. Thermo-Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics from End of Life Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Miskolczi Norbert; Czégény Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis of waste plastics is widely used recycling method. Owing to the end-of-life vehicles regulations, 95% of passenger cars and vehicles must reused/recovered after the dismantling. Pyrolysis of waste polyethylene and polypropylene obtained from end-of-life vehicles was investigated in a continuously stirred batch reactor using 500 and 600°C temperatures. To ensure the pyrolysis reactions the tested catalysts (5% of ZSM-5, HZSM-5, Ni-ZSM-5 and Fe-ZSM-5) were added directly to the mixtur...

  20. Life-cycle assessment of a waste refinery process for enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and resource saving has become increasingly important in recent years. From this perspective, higher recycling rates for valuable materials (e.g. metals) as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting for virgin material production and saving fossil resources. This is especially important with respect to residual waste (i.e. the remains after source-separation and separate collection) which in Denmark is typically in...

  1. Life-Cycle Costing of Food Waste Management in Denmark: Importance of Indirect Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Flemming;

    2016-01-01

    Prevention has been suggested as the preferred food waste management solution compared to alternatives such as conversion to animal fodder or to energy. In this study we used societal life-cycle costing, as a welfare economic assessment, and environmental life-cycle costing, as a financial...... assessment combined with life-cycle assessment, to evaluate food waste management. Both life-cycle costing assessments included direct and indirect effects. The latter are related to income effects, accounting for the marginal consumption induced when alternative scenarios lead to different household...... be included whenever alternative scenarios incur different financial costs. Furthermore, it highlights that food prevention measures should not only demote the purchase of unconsumed food but also promote a low-impact use of the savings generated....

  2. Greenhouse gases emissions from waste management practices using Life Cycle Inventory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsao-Chou; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2008-06-30

    When exploring the correlation between municipal solid waste management and green house gas emission, the volume and physical composition of the waste matter must be taken into account. Due to differences in local environments and lifestyles the quantity and composition of waste often vary. This leads to differences in waste treatment methods and causes different volumes of greenhouse gases (GHGs), highlighting the need for local research. In this study the Life Cycle Inventory method was used with global warming indicator GHGs as the variables. By quantifying the data and adopting a region-based approach, this created a model of household MSWM in Taipei City, a metropolitan region in Taiwan. To allow analysis and comparison a compensatory system was then added to expand the system boundary. The results of the analysis indicated that out of all the solid waste management sub-models for a function unit, recycling was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions while using kitchen food waste as swine feeding resulted in the most GHG emissions. As for the impact of waste collection vehicles on emissions, if the efficiency of transportation could be improved and energy consumption reduced, this will help solid waste management to achieve its goal of reducing GHG emissions. PMID:18164811

  3. A Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (CED), life cycle based, for industrial waste management decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, Rita, E-mail: rita.puig@eei.upc.edu [Escola d’Enginyeria d’Igualada (EEI), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaça del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comerç Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Baquero, Grau; Riba, Jordi-Roger [Escola d’Enginyeria d’Igualada (EEI), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaça del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Bala, Alba [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comerç Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We developed a methodology useful to environmentally compare industrial waste management options. • The methodology uses a Net Energy Demand indicator which is life cycle based. • The method was simplified to be widely used, thus avoiding cost driven decisions. • This methodology is useful for governments to promote the best environmental options. • This methodology can be widely used by other countries or regions around the world. - Abstract: Life cycle thinking is a good approach to be used for environmental decision-support, although the complexity of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies sometimes prevents their wide use. The purpose of this paper is to show how LCA methodology can be simplified to be more useful for certain applications. In order to improve waste management in Catalonia (Spain), a Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (LCA-based) has been used to obtain four mathematical models to help the government in the decision of preventing or allowing a specific waste from going out of the borders. The conceptual equations and all the subsequent developments and assumptions made to obtain the simplified models are presented. One of the four models is discussed in detail, presenting the final simplified equation to be subsequently used by the government in decision making. The resulting model has been found to be scientifically robust, simple to implement and, above all, fulfilling its purpose: the limitation of waste transport out of Catalonia unless the waste recovery operations are significantly better and justify this transport.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Waste Water Treatment Plants in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Mcnamara

    2016-09-01

      The Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC introduced a series of measures for the purpose of protecting the environment from the adverse effects of effluent discharge from wastewater treatment plants.  There are environmental costs associated with attaining the required level of water quality set out in the directive such as greenhouse gas emissions due to energy production, and ecotoxicity from sludge application to land.  The goal of this study is to assess the environmental costs in an Irish context, focusing specifically on the effects of variation in scale and discharge limitation. Life cycle assessment is the analytical tool used to evaluate the environmental impact.  The life cycle impact assessment methodology developed by the Centre of Environmental Science, Leiden University (2010 has been adopted and implemented using GaBi 6.0 life cycle assessment software.  Two plants of varying size and location were chosen for the study. The study found that energy consumption and sludge application to land are the largest contributors to the overall environmental impact associated with the treatment process at both plants.  Economies of scale were observed in energy usage during secondary aeration.   

  5. LIFE-CYCLE EVALUATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses a life-cycle evaluation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal soild waste (MSW) management in the U.S. (NOTE: Using integrated waste management, recycling/composting, waste-to-energy, and better control of landfill gas, communities across the U.S. a...

  6. Life cycle cost estimation and systems analysis of waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents general conclusions from application of a system cost analysis method developed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Waste Management Division (WM), Waste Management Facilities Costs Information (WMFCI) program. The WMFCI method has been used to assess the DOE complex-wide management of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. The Idaho Engineering Laboratory, along with its subcontractor Morrison Knudsen Corporation, has been responsible for developing and applying the WMFCI cost analysis method. The cost analyses are based on system planning level life-cycle costs. The costs for life-cycle waste management activities estimated by WMFCI range from bench-scale testing and developmental work needed to design and construct a facility, facility permitting and startup, operation and maintenance, to the final decontamination, decommissioning, and closure of the facility. For DOE complex-wide assessments, cost estimates have been developed at the treatment, storage, and disposal module level and rolled up for each DOE installation. Discussions include conclusions reached by studies covering complex-wide consolidation of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, system cost modeling, system costs sensitivity, system cost optimization, and the integration of WM waste with the environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning secondary wastes

  7. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience

  8. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste

  9. Life cycle cost analysis changes mixed waste treatment program at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct result of the reduced need for weapons production has been a re-evaluation of the treatment projects for mixed (hazardous/radioactive) wastes generated from metal finishing and plating operations and from a mixed waste incinerator at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis was conducted for two waste treatment projects to determine the most cost effective approach in response to SRS mission changes. A key parameter included in the LCC analysis was the cost of the disposal vaults required for the final stabilized wasteform(s) . The analysis indicated that volume reduction of the final stabilized wasteform(s) can provide significant cost savings. The LCC analysis demonstrated that one SRS project could be eliminated, and a second project could be totally ''rescoped and downsized.'' The changes resulted in an estimated Life Cycle Cost saving (over a 20 year period) of $270,000,000

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of pretreatment technologies for anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The environmental performance of two pretreatment technologies for source-separated organic waste was compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). An innovative pulping process where source-separated organic waste is pulped with cold water forming a volatile solid rich biopulp was compared to a more...... including a number of non-toxic and toxic impact categories were assessed. No big difference in the overall performance of the two technologies was observed. The difference for the separate life cycle steps was, however, more pronounced. More efficient material transfer in the scenario with waste pulping...... resulted in a higher biogas output and nutrient recovery and, thus, the higher impact savings related to biogas production and digest utilization. Meanwhile, larger reject amount in the scenario with screw press led to more savings obtained by utilization of the reject in this scenario....

  11. Generic waste management requirements for a controlled ecological life support system /CELSS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshizaki, T.; Hansen, B. D., III

    1981-01-01

    Regenerative life support systems for future space missions will require closure of the waste-food loop. Each mission application will generate specific requirements for the waste management system. However, there are generic input and output requirements that can be identified when a probable scenario is chosen. This paper discusses the generic requirements when higher plants are chosen as the primary food source. Attention is focused on the quality and quantity of nutrients necessary for culturing higher plants. The types of wastes to be processed are also discussed. In addition, requirements generated by growing plants on three different substrates are presented. This work suggests that the mineral composition of waste materials may require minimal adjustment to satisfy the plant requirements.

  12. Waste glass from end-of-life fluorescent lamps as raw material in geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Rui M; Ascensão, G; Seabra, M P; Labrincha, J A

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays the stunning volume of generated wastes, the exhaustion of raw materials, and the disturbing greenhouse gases emission levels show that a paradigm shift is mandatory. In this context, the possibility of using wastes instead of virgin raw materials can mitigate the environmental problems related to wastes, while reducing the consumption of the Earth's natural resources. This innovative work reports the incorporation of unexplored waste glass coming from end-of-life fluorescent lamps into geopolymers. The influence of the waste glass incorporation level, NaOH molarity and curing conditions on the microstructure, physical and mechanical properties of the geopolymers was evaluated. Results demonstrate that curing conditions are the most influential factor on the geopolymer characteristics, while the NaOH molarity is less important. Geopolymers containing 37.5% (wt) waste glass were successfully produced, showing compressive strength of 14MPa (after 28days of curing), suggesting the possibility of their use in non-structural applications. Porous waste-based geopolymers for novel applications were also fabricated.

  13. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Lu, Wen-Jing; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-06-01

    With the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts and benefits of the current municipal solid waste management system and two modified systems, EASEWASTE, a life-cycle-based model, was used to evaluate the waste system of Hangzhou city in China. An integrated model was established, including waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal and accompanying external processes. The results showed that CH(4) released from landfilling was the primary pollutant contributing to global warming, and HCl and NH(3) from incineration contributed most to acidification. Material recycling and incineration with energy recovery were important because of the induced savings in material production based on virgin materials and in energy production based on coal combustion. A modified system in which waste is transported to the nearest incinerators would be relatively better than the current system, mainly due to the decrease of pollution from landfilled waste and the increase in energy production from waste avoiding energy production by traditional power plants. A ban on free plastic bags for shopping was shown to reduce most environmental impacts due to saved oil resources and other materials used in producing the plastic bags. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. LCA methodology and a model like EASEWASTE are very suitable for evaluating the overall environmental consequences, and can be used for decision support and strategic planning in developing countries such as China where pollution control has become increasingly important with the rapid increase of waste generation as well as the increasing public awareness of environmental protection. PMID:19470539

  14. Life cycle assessment of wood wastes: A case study of ephemeral architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivela, Beatriz; Moreira, María Teresa; Muñoz, Iván; Rieradevall, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2006-03-15

    One of the most commonly used elements in ephemeral architecture is a particleboard panel. These types of wood products are produced from wood wastes and they are used in temporary constructions such as trade fairs. Once the event is over, they are usually disposed into landfills. This paper intends to assess the environmental effects related to the use of these wood wastes in the end-of-life stage. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two scenarios was performed, considering the recycling of wood waste for particleboard manufacture and energy generation from non-renewable resources (Scenario 1) versus the production of energy from the combustion of wood waste and particleboard manufacture with conventional wooden resources (Scenario 2). A sensitive analysis was carried out taking into account the influence of the percentage of recycled material and the emissions data from wood combustion. According to Ecoindicator 99 methodology, Damage to Human Health and Ecosystem Quality are more significant in Scenario 2 whereas Scenario 1 presents the largest contribution to Damage to Resources. Between the two proposed alternatives, the recycling of wood waste for particleboard manufacture seems to be more favorable under an environmental perspective. PMID:15922411

  15. Integrated gasification and plasma cleaning for waste treatment: A life cycle perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelisti, Sara [Chemical Engineering Department, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Tagliaferri, Carla [Chemical Engineering Department, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power (APP), Unit B2, Marston Gate, South Marston Business Park, Swindon SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Clift, Roland [Centre for Environmental Strategy, The University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Chemical Engineering Department, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Taylor, Richard; Chapman, Chris [Advanced Plasma Power (APP), Unit B2, Marston Gate, South Marston Business Park, Swindon SN3 4DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment of an advanced two-stage process is undertaken. • A comparison of the impacts of the process when fed with 7 feedstock is presented. • Sensitivity analysis on the system is performed. • The treatment of RDF shows the lowest impact in terms of both GWP and AP. • The plasma shows a small contribution to the overall impact of the plant. - Abstract: In the past, almost all residual municipal waste in the UK was landfilled without treatment. Recent European waste management directives have promoted the uptake of more sustainable treatment technologies, especially for biodegradable waste. Local authorities have started considering other options for dealing with residual waste. In this study, a life cycle assessment of a future 20 MWe plant using an advanced two-stage gasification and plasma technology is undertaken. This plant can thermally treat waste feedstocks with different composition and heating value to produce electricity, steam and a vitrified product. The objective of the study is to analyse the environmental impacts of the process when fed with seven different feedstocks (including municipal solid waste, solid refuse fuel, reuse-derived fuel, wood biomass and commercial & industrial waste) and identify the process steps which contribute more to the environmental burden. A scenario analysis on key processes, such as oxygen production technology, metal recovery and the appropriate choice for the secondary market aggregate material, is performed. The influence of accounting for the biogenic carbon content in the waste from the calculations of the global warming potential is also shown. Results show that the treatment of the refuse-derived fuel has the lowest impact in terms of both global warming potential and acidification potential because of its high heating value. For all the other impact categories analysed, the two-stage gasification and plasma process shows a negative impact for all the waste streams

  16. Integrated gasification and plasma cleaning for waste treatment: A life cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment of an advanced two-stage process is undertaken. • A comparison of the impacts of the process when fed with 7 feedstock is presented. • Sensitivity analysis on the system is performed. • The treatment of RDF shows the lowest impact in terms of both GWP and AP. • The plasma shows a small contribution to the overall impact of the plant. - Abstract: In the past, almost all residual municipal waste in the UK was landfilled without treatment. Recent European waste management directives have promoted the uptake of more sustainable treatment technologies, especially for biodegradable waste. Local authorities have started considering other options for dealing with residual waste. In this study, a life cycle assessment of a future 20 MWe plant using an advanced two-stage gasification and plasma technology is undertaken. This plant can thermally treat waste feedstocks with different composition and heating value to produce electricity, steam and a vitrified product. The objective of the study is to analyse the environmental impacts of the process when fed with seven different feedstocks (including municipal solid waste, solid refuse fuel, reuse-derived fuel, wood biomass and commercial & industrial waste) and identify the process steps which contribute more to the environmental burden. A scenario analysis on key processes, such as oxygen production technology, metal recovery and the appropriate choice for the secondary market aggregate material, is performed. The influence of accounting for the biogenic carbon content in the waste from the calculations of the global warming potential is also shown. Results show that the treatment of the refuse-derived fuel has the lowest impact in terms of both global warming potential and acidification potential because of its high heating value. For all the other impact categories analysed, the two-stage gasification and plasma process shows a negative impact for all the waste streams

  17. Exergetic life cycle assessment of cement production process with waste heat power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Exergetic life cycle assessment was performed for the cement production process. • Each system’s efficiency before and after waste heat power generation was analyzed. • The waste heat power generation improved the efficiency of each production system. • It provided technical support for the implementation of energy-saving schemes. - Abstract: The cement industry is an industry that consumes a considerable quantity of resources and energy and has a very large influence on the efficient use of global resources and energy. In this study, exergetic life cycle assessment is performed for the cement production process, and the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of each system before and after waste heat power generation is investigated. The study indicates that, before carrying out a waste heat power generation project, the objective energy efficiencies of the raw material preparation system, pulverized coal preparation system and rotary kiln system are 39.4%, 10.8% and 50.2%, respectively, and the objective exergy efficiencies are 4.5%, 1.4% and 33.7%, respectively; after carrying out a waste heat power generation project, the objective energy efficiencies are 45.8%, 15.5% and 55.1%, respectively, and the objective exergy efficiencies are 7.8%, 2.8% and 38.1%, respectively. The waste heat power generation project can recover 3.7% of the total input exergy of a rotary kiln system and improve the objective exergy efficiencies of the above three systems. The study can identify degree of resource and energy utilization and the energy-saving effect of a waste heat power generation project on each system, and provide technical support for managers in the implementation of energy-saving schemes

  18. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within...... regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding...

  19. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: An Update on Waste Water Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980's, work has been ongoing In the development of the various environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for the space station. Part of this effort has been focused on the development of a new subsystem to reclaim waste water that had not been previously required for shuttle missions. Because of the extended manned missions proposed, reclamation of waste water becomes imperative to avoid the weight penalties associated with resupplying a crew's entire water needs for consumption and daily hygiene. Hamilton Standard, under contract to Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, has been designing the water reclamation system for space station use. Since June of 1991, Hamilton Standard has developed a combined water processor capable of reclaiming potable quality water from waste hygiene water, used laundry water, processed urine, Shuttle fuel cell water, humidity condensate and other minor waste water sources. The system was assembled and then tested with over 27,700 pounds of 'real' waste water. During the 1700 hours of system operation required to process this waste water, potable quality water meeting NASA and Boeing specifications was produced. This paper gives a schematic overview of the system, describes the test conditions and test results and outlines the next steps for system development.

  20. Analysis of the Total System Life Cycle of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents an analysis of the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) for one concept for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). This analysis is consistent with the design basis of the selected alternative, Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II), evaluated in the ''License Application Design Selection Report'' (CRWMS M and O 1999c). Two cost scenarios are presented within this document to address open policy questions relating to the implementation of the EDA II design from the License Applications Design Selection (LADS) study. Both cases represent the total system cost for the EDA II design described in the LADS Report, modified for emplacing all planned waste quantities in ''The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document'', Rev. 05 (DOE 1999a). Case 1 assumes that closure and decommissioning activities can begin 50 years after the beginning of waste emplacement. Subsequent to the publication of the LADS Report (CRWMS M and O 1999c), discussions with the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board (NWTRB) led to the consideration of keeping the repository open and ventilated for an additional 75 years. Case 2 represents the contingency of beginning closure and decommissioning activities 125 years after the beginning of waste emplacement, when it is expected that the temperature of the emplacement drift walls will remain below the boiling point of water

  1. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica, E-mail: vems@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljoevej, Building 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kromann, Mikkel A. [COWI A/S, Parallelvej 2, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljoevej, Building 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We propose a comprehensive model for cost assessment of waste management systems. • The model includes three types of LCC: Conventional, Environmental and Societal LCCs. • The applicability of the proposed model is tested with two case studies. - Abstract: This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental

  2. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We propose a comprehensive model for cost assessment of waste management systems. • The model includes three types of LCC: Conventional, Environmental and Societal LCCs. • The applicability of the proposed model is tested with two case studies. - Abstract: This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental

  3. Life cycle assessment of waste incineration in Denmark and Italy using two LCA models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Butera, Stefania; Boldrin, Alessio;

    2011-01-01

    . Differences in waste composition between the two countries mainly affected global warming and human toxicity via water. Overall, SimaPro and EASEWASTE provided consistent ranking of the individual scenarios. However, important differences in results from the two models were related to differences......In Europe, about 20% of municipal solid waste is incinerated. Large differences can be found between northern and southern Europe regarding energy recovery efficiencies, flue gas cleaning technologies and residue management. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) of waste incineration often provides...... different LCA models (SimaPro and EASEWASTE). The results showed that assumptions and modelling approaches regarding energy recovery/substitution and direct air emissions were most critical. Differences in model design and model databases mainly had consequences for the toxicity-related impact categories...

  4. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Sebastiao Roberto, E-mail: soares@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues, E-mail: finotti@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Prudencio da Silva, Vamilson, E-mail: vamilson@epagri.sc.gov.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); EPAGRI, Rod. Admar Gonzaga 1347, Itacorubi, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina 88034-901 (Brazil); Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F., E-mail: alvarenga.raf@gmail.com [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Ghent University, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Coupure Links 653/9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three Health Care Waste (HCW) scenarios were assessed through environmental and cost analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCW treatment using microwave oven had the lowest environmental impacts and costs in comparison with autoclave and lime. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lime had the worst environmental and economic results for HCW treatment, in comparison with autoclave and microwave. - Abstract: The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$ 0.12 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with microwaves, US$ 1.10 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$ 1.53 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible

  5. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Three Health Care Waste (HCW) scenarios were assessed through environmental and cost analysis. ► HCW treatment using microwave oven had the lowest environmental impacts and costs in comparison with autoclave and lime. ► Lime had the worst environmental and economic results for HCW treatment, in comparison with autoclave and microwave. - Abstract: The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$ 0.12 kg−1 for the waste treated with microwaves, US$ 1.10 kg−1 for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$ 1.53 kg−1 for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible alternative to subsidize the formulation of the policy for small generators of HCW.

  6. Integrated gasification and plasma cleaning for waste treatment: A life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Sara; Tagliaferri, Carla; Clift, Roland; Lettieri, Paola; Taylor, Richard; Chapman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    In the past, almost all residual municipal waste in the UK was landfilled without treatment. Recent European waste management directives have promoted the uptake of more sustainable treatment technologies, especially for biodegradable waste. Local authorities have started considering other options for dealing with residual waste. In this study, a life cycle assessment of a future 20MWe plant using an advanced two-stage gasification and plasma technology is undertaken. This plant can thermally treat waste feedstocks with different composition and heating value to produce electricity, steam and a vitrified product. The objective of the study is to analyse the environmental impacts of the process when fed with seven different feedstocks (including municipal solid waste, solid refuse fuel, reuse-derived fuel, wood biomass and commercial & industrial waste) and identify the process steps which contribute more to the environmental burden. A scenario analysis on key processes, such as oxygen production technology, metal recovery and the appropriate choice for the secondary market aggregate material, is performed. The influence of accounting for the biogenic carbon content in the waste from the calculations of the global warming potential is also shown. Results show that the treatment of the refuse-derived fuel has the lowest impact in terms of both global warming potential and acidification potential because of its high heating value. For all the other impact categories analysed, the two-stage gasification and plasma process shows a negative impact for all the waste streams considered, mainly due to the avoided burdens associated with the production of electricity from the plant. The plasma convertor, key characteristic of the thermal process investigated, although utilising electricity shows a relatively small contribution to the overall environmental impact of the plant. The results do not significantly vary in the scenario analysis. Accounting for biogenic carbon

  7. Integrated gasification and plasma cleaning for waste treatment: A life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Sara; Tagliaferri, Carla; Clift, Roland; Lettieri, Paola; Taylor, Richard; Chapman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    In the past, almost all residual municipal waste in the UK was landfilled without treatment. Recent European waste management directives have promoted the uptake of more sustainable treatment technologies, especially for biodegradable waste. Local authorities have started considering other options for dealing with residual waste. In this study, a life cycle assessment of a future 20MWe plant using an advanced two-stage gasification and plasma technology is undertaken. This plant can thermally treat waste feedstocks with different composition and heating value to produce electricity, steam and a vitrified product. The objective of the study is to analyse the environmental impacts of the process when fed with seven different feedstocks (including municipal solid waste, solid refuse fuel, reuse-derived fuel, wood biomass and commercial & industrial waste) and identify the process steps which contribute more to the environmental burden. A scenario analysis on key processes, such as oxygen production technology, metal recovery and the appropriate choice for the secondary market aggregate material, is performed. The influence of accounting for the biogenic carbon content in the waste from the calculations of the global warming potential is also shown. Results show that the treatment of the refuse-derived fuel has the lowest impact in terms of both global warming potential and acidification potential because of its high heating value. For all the other impact categories analysed, the two-stage gasification and plasma process shows a negative impact for all the waste streams considered, mainly due to the avoided burdens associated with the production of electricity from the plant. The plasma convertor, key characteristic of the thermal process investigated, although utilising electricity shows a relatively small contribution to the overall environmental impact of the plant. The results do not significantly vary in the scenario analysis. Accounting for biogenic carbon

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of mechanical biological pre-treatment of Municipal Solid Waste: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Vaxelaire, Stéphane; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Auvinet, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    The environmental performance of mechanical biological pre-treatment (MBT) of Municipal Solid Waste is quantified using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), considering one of the 57 French plants currently in operation as a case study. The inventory is mostly based on plant-specific data, extrapolated from on-site measurements regarding mechanical and biological operations (including anaerobic digestion and composting of digestate). The combined treatment of 46,929 tonnes of residual Municipal Solid Waste and 12,158 tonnes of source-sorted biowaste (as treated in 2010 at the plant) generates 24,550 tonnes CO2-eq as an impact on climate change, 69,943kg SO2-eq on terrestrial acidification and 19,929kg NMVOC-eq on photochemical oxidant formation, in a life-cycle perspective. On the contrary MBT induces environmental benefits in terms of fossil resource depletion, human toxicity (carcinogenic) and ecotoxicity. The results firstly highlight the relatively large contribution of some pollutants, such as CH4, emitted at the plant and yet sometimes neglected in the LCA of waste MBT. Moreover this study identifies 4 plant-specific operation conditions which drive the environmental impact potentials induced by MBT: the conditions of degradation of the fermentable fraction, the collection of gaseous flows emitted from biological operations, the abatement of collected pollutants and NOx emissions from biogas combustion. Finally the results underline the relatively large influence of the operations downstream the plant (in particular residuals incineration) on the environmental performance of waste MBT.

  9. Life-Cycle Assessment of Biodiesel Produced from Grease Trap Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hums, Megan E; Cairncross, Richard A; Spatari, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Grease trap waste (GTW) is a low-quality waste material with variable lipid content that is an untapped resource for producing biodiesel. Compared to conventional biodiesel feedstocks, GTW requires different and additional processing steps for biodiesel production due to its heterogeneous composition, high acidity, and high sulfur content. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is used to quantify greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy demand, and criteria air pollutant emissions for the GTW-biodiesel process, in which the sensitivity to lipid concentration in GTW is analyzed using Monte Carlo simulation. The life-cycle environmental performance of GTW-biodiesel is compared to that of current GTW disposal, the soybean-biodiesel process, and low-sulfur diesel (LSD). The disposal of the water and solid wastes produced from separating lipids from GTW has a high contribution to the environmental impacts; however, the impacts of these processed wastes are part of the current disposal practice for GTW and could be excluded with consequential LCA system boundaries. At lipid concentrations greater than 10%, most of the environmental metrics studied are lower than those of LSD and comparable to soybean biodiesel. PMID:26811919

  10. Life Cycle Analysis of Tissue Paper Manufacturing From Virgin Pulp or Recycled Waste Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masternak-Janus Aneta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to compare the environmental impacts of two production processes of tissue paper using virgin pulp (virgin fiber or waste paper pulp (recycled fiber. This comparison is based on the materials and energy used as well as emissions and waste resulting from the production of tissue paper. Life cycle assessment (LCA, ReCiPe method, was chosen as the analysis tool. The results of the research proved that electricity has the most considerable participation in the overall environmental impacts in both production processes, followed by either virgin pulp or heat. Consequently, these two production processes are the greatest contributors to the following midpoint environmental impact categories: human toxicity, climate change, human health and ecosystems, and fossil depletion. The analysis based on endpoint impact categories proved that the production process based on waste paper is more environmentally friendly than the one based on virgin pulp in all impact categories: human health, ecosystems, resources. This is largely because of its lower material and energy requirements in the entire life cycle. Due to the fact that the tissue paper is the final use of fiber, using recycled waste paper is strongly recommended. The obtained research results are a valuable source of management information for the decision makers at both company and national levels required to improve the environmental performance of tissue paper production.

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of mechanical biological pre-treatment of Municipal Solid Waste: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Vaxelaire, Stéphane; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Auvinet, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    The environmental performance of mechanical biological pre-treatment (MBT) of Municipal Solid Waste is quantified using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), considering one of the 57 French plants currently in operation as a case study. The inventory is mostly based on plant-specific data, extrapolated from on-site measurements regarding mechanical and biological operations (including anaerobic digestion and composting of digestate). The combined treatment of 46,929 tonnes of residual Municipal Solid Waste and 12,158 tonnes of source-sorted biowaste (as treated in 2010 at the plant) generates 24,550 tonnes CO2-eq as an impact on climate change, 69,943kg SO2-eq on terrestrial acidification and 19,929kg NMVOC-eq on photochemical oxidant formation, in a life-cycle perspective. On the contrary MBT induces environmental benefits in terms of fossil resource depletion, human toxicity (carcinogenic) and ecotoxicity. The results firstly highlight the relatively large contribution of some pollutants, such as CH4, emitted at the plant and yet sometimes neglected in the LCA of waste MBT. Moreover this study identifies 4 plant-specific operation conditions which drive the environmental impact potentials induced by MBT: the conditions of degradation of the fermentable fraction, the collection of gaseous flows emitted from biological operations, the abatement of collected pollutants and NOx emissions from biogas combustion. Finally the results underline the relatively large influence of the operations downstream the plant (in particular residuals incineration) on the environmental performance of waste MBT. PMID:25708404

  12. Life cycle assessment of thermal Waste-to-Energy technologies: Review and recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Tonini, Davide; Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used extensively within the recent decade to evaluate the environmental performance of thermal Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technologies: incineration, co-combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. A critical review was carried out involving 250 individual case-studies published in 136 peer-reviewed journal articles within 1995 and 2013. The studies were evaluated with respect to critical aspects such as: (i) goal and scope definitions (e.g. functional units, system...

  13. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and

  14. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and

  15. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the danish-german border region using life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Scheutz, Charlotte; Møller, Jacob

    of the organic waste treatment has been collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life......The treatment of organic waste from household in the Danish-German border region is very diverse, the Danish area only uses incineration for the treatment while the German system includes combined biogas and composting, mechanical and biological treatment and incineration. Data on all parts...

  16. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    of the organic waste treatment was collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life......% of the entire system for one impact category and showing large difference between each heating system substituted, e.g. in "Global Warming" the impact was from -16 to -1.1 milli person equivalent/tonne treated waste from substitution of centralised hard coal and decentralised natural gas, respectively....

  17. A screening life cycle metric to benchmark the environmental sustainability of waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Scott M; Krishnan, Nikhil; Themelis, Nickolas J

    2010-08-01

    The disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) can lead to significant environmental burdens. The implementation of effective waste management practices, however, requires the ability to benchmark alternative systems from an environmental sustainability perspective. Existing metrics--such as recycling and generation rates, or the emissions of individual pollutants--often are not goal-oriented, are not readily comparable, and may not provide insight into the most effective options for improvement. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an effective approach to quantify and compare systems, but full LCA comparisons typically involve significant expenditure of resources and time. In this work we develop a metric called the Resource Conservation Efficiency (RCE) that is based on a screening-LCA approach, and that can be used to rapidly and effectively benchmark (on a screening level) the ecological sustainability of waste management practices across multiple locations. We first demonstrate that this measure is an effective proxy by comparing RCE results with existing LCA inventory and impact assessment methods. We then demonstrate the use of the RCE metric by benchmarking the sustainability of waste management practices in two U.S. cities: San Francisco and Honolulu. The results show that while San Francisco does an excellent job recovering recyclable materials, adding a waste to energy (WTE) facility to their infrastructure would most beneficially impact the environmental performance of their waste management system. Honolulu would achieve the greatest gains by increasing the capture of easily recycled materials not currently being recovered. Overall results also highlight how the RCE metric may be used to provide insight into effective actions cities can take to boost the environmental performance of their waste management practices. PMID:20666561

  18. Life-Cycle Costing of Food Waste Management in Denmark: Importance of Indirect Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Flemming; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-04-19

    Prevention has been suggested as the preferred food waste management solution compared to alternatives such as conversion to animal fodder or to energy. In this study we used societal life-cycle costing, as a welfare economic assessment, and environmental life-cycle costing, as a financial assessment combined with life-cycle assessment, to evaluate food waste management. Both life-cycle costing assessments included direct and indirect effects. The latter are related to income effects, accounting for the marginal consumption induced when alternative scenarios lead to different household expenses, and the land-use-changes effect, associated with food production. The results highlighted that prevention, while providing the highest welfare gains as more services/goods could be consumed with the same income, could also incur the highest environmental impacts if the monetary savings from unpurchased food commodities were spent on goods/services with a more environmentally damaging production than that of the (prevented) food. This was not the case when savings were used, e.g., for health care, education, and insurances. This study demonstrates that income effects, although uncertain, should be included whenever alternative scenarios incur different financial costs. Furthermore, it highlights that food prevention measures should not only demote the purchase of unconsumed food but also promote a low-impact use of the savings generated. PMID:26978648

  19. Comparative evaluation of life cycle assessment models for solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Jörg; Bilitewski, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    This publication compares a selection of six different models developed in Europe and America by research organisations, industry associations and governmental institutions. The comparison of the models reveals the variations in the results and the differences in the conclusions of an LCA study done with these models. The models are compared by modelling a specific case - the waste management system of Dresden, Germany - with each model and an in-detail comparison of the life cycle inventory results. Moreover, a life cycle impact assessment shows if the LCA results of each model allows for comparable and consecutive conclusions, which do not contradict the conclusions derived from the other models' results. Furthermore, the influence of different level of detail in the life cycle inventory of the life cycle assessment is demonstrated. The model comparison revealed that the variations in the LCA results calculated by the models for the case show high variations and are not negligible. In some cases the high variations in results lead to contradictory conclusions concerning the environmental performance of the waste management processes. The static, linear modelling approach chosen by all models analysed is inappropriate for reflecting actual conditions. Moreover, it was found that although the models' approach to LCA is comparable on a general level, the level of detail implemented in the software tools is very different. PMID:17428652

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Mixed Municipal Solid Waste: Multi-input versus multi-output perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, G; Ripa, M; Protano, G; Hornsby, C; Ulgiati, S

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyses four strategies for managing the Mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MMSW) in terms of their environmental impacts and potential advantages by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. To this aim, both a multi-input and a multi-output approach are applied to evaluate the effect of these perspectives on selected impact categories. The analyzed management options include direct landfilling with energy recovery (S-1), Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) followed by Waste-to-Energy (WtE) conversion (S-2), a combination of an innovative MBT/MARSS (Material Advanced Recovery Sustainable Systems) process and landfill disposal (S-3), and finally a combination of the MBT/MARSS process with WtE conversion (S-4). The MARSS technology, developed within an European LIFE PLUS framework and currently implemented at pilot plant scale, is an innovative MBT plant having the main goal to yield a Renewable Refined Biomass Fuel (RRBF) to be used for combined heat and power production (CHP) under the regulations enforced for biomass-based plants instead of Waste-to-Energy systems, for increased environmental performance. The four scenarios are characterized by different resource investment for plant and infrastructure construction and different quantities of matter, heat and electricity recovery and recycling. Results, calculated per unit mass of waste treated and per unit exergy delivered, under both multi-input and multi-output LCA perspectives, point out improved performance for scenarios characterized by increased matter and energy recovery. Although none of the investigated scenarios is capable to provide the best performance in all the analyzed impact categories, the scenario S-4 shows the best LCA results in the human toxicity and freshwater eutrophication categories, i.e. the ones with highest impacts in all waste management processes.

  1. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sebastião Roberto; Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues; da Silva, Vamilson Prudêncio; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$0.12 kg(-1) for the waste treated with microwaves, US$1.10 kg(-1) for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$1.53 kg(-1) for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible alternative to subsidize the formulation of the policy for small generators of HCW.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Mixed Municipal Solid Waste: Multi-input versus multi-output perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, G; Ripa, M; Protano, G; Hornsby, C; Ulgiati, S

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyses four strategies for managing the Mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MMSW) in terms of their environmental impacts and potential advantages by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. To this aim, both a multi-input and a multi-output approach are applied to evaluate the effect of these perspectives on selected impact categories. The analyzed management options include direct landfilling with energy recovery (S-1), Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) followed by Waste-to-Energy (WtE) conversion (S-2), a combination of an innovative MBT/MARSS (Material Advanced Recovery Sustainable Systems) process and landfill disposal (S-3), and finally a combination of the MBT/MARSS process with WtE conversion (S-4). The MARSS technology, developed within an European LIFE PLUS framework and currently implemented at pilot plant scale, is an innovative MBT plant having the main goal to yield a Renewable Refined Biomass Fuel (RRBF) to be used for combined heat and power production (CHP) under the regulations enforced for biomass-based plants instead of Waste-to-Energy systems, for increased environmental performance. The four scenarios are characterized by different resource investment for plant and infrastructure construction and different quantities of matter, heat and electricity recovery and recycling. Results, calculated per unit mass of waste treated and per unit exergy delivered, under both multi-input and multi-output LCA perspectives, point out improved performance for scenarios characterized by increased matter and energy recovery. Although none of the investigated scenarios is capable to provide the best performance in all the analyzed impact categories, the scenario S-4 shows the best LCA results in the human toxicity and freshwater eutrophication categories, i.e. the ones with highest impacts in all waste management processes. PMID:26257056

  3. Laser induced nuclear waste transmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Hirlimann, Charles

    2016-01-01

    When producing electricity that collects the mass energy that is available at the time of the induced disintegration of radioactive elements, other unstable elements are produced with half-life span durations ranging from less than one second to hundreds of thousands of years and which are considered as waste. Managing nuclear waste with a half-life of less than 30 years is an easy task, as our societies clearly know how to keep buildings safe for more than a century, the time it takes for the activity to be divided by a factor of 8. High-activity, long-lasting waste that can last for thousands of years or even longer, up to geological time laps, cannot be taken care of for such long durations. Therefore, these types of waste are socially unacceptable; nobody wants to leave a polluted planet to descendants.

  4. Paper waste - recycling, incineration or landfilling? A review of existing life cycle assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, A; Wenzel, H

    2007-01-01

    A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type. Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made, to discuss whether it is at all valid to use the LCA methodology in its current development state to guide policy decisions on paper waste. A total of nine LCA studies containing altogether 73 scenarios were selected from a thorough, international literature search. The selected studies are LCAs including comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location and definitions of the paper recycling/disposal systems studied. A systematic exploration of the LCA studies showed, however, important methodological pitfalls and sources of error, mainly concerning differences in the definition of the system boundaries. Fifteen key assumptions were identified that cover the three paper cycle system areas: raw materials and forestry, paper production, and disposal/recovery. It was found that the outcome of the individual LCA studies largely depended on the choices made in some of these assumptions, most specifically the ones concerning energy use and generation, and forestry. PMID:17433657

  5. Social life and sanitary risks: evolutionary and current ecological conditions determine waste management in leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Elizalde, Luciana; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2016-05-25

    Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. PMID:27226469

  6. Comparison of municipal solid waste treatment technologies from a life cycle perspective in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Chi, Yong; Zou, Daoan; Fu, Chao; Huang, Qunxing; Ni, Mingjiang

    2014-01-01

    China has endured the increasing generation of municipal solid waste; hence, environmental analysis of current waste management systems is of crucial importance. This article presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment of three waste treatment technologies practiced in Hangzhou, China: landfill with and without energy recovery, and incineration with waste-to-energy. Adopting region-specific data, the study covers various environmental impacts, such as global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, photochemical ozone formation, human toxicity and ecotoxicity. The results show that energy recovery poses a positive effect in environmental savings. Environmental impacts decrease significantly in landfill with the utilization of biogas owing to combined effects by emission reduction and electricity generation. Incineration is preferable to landfill, but toxicity-related impacts also need to be improved. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis shows that the benefit of carbon sequestration will noticeably decrease global warming potential of both landfill scenarios. Gas collection efficiency is also a key parameter influencing the performance of landfill. Based on the results, improvement methods are proposed. Energy recovery is recommended both in landfill and incineration. For landfill, gas collection systems should be upgraded effectively; for incineration, great efforts should be made to reduce heavy metals and dioxin emissions.

  7. Comparison of municipal solid waste treatment technologies from a life cycle perspective in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Chi, Yong; Zou, Daoan; Fu, Chao; Huang, Qunxing; Ni, Mingjiang

    2014-01-01

    China has endured the increasing generation of municipal solid waste; hence, environmental analysis of current waste management systems is of crucial importance. This article presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment of three waste treatment technologies practiced in Hangzhou, China: landfill with and without energy recovery, and incineration with waste-to-energy. Adopting region-specific data, the study covers various environmental impacts, such as global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, photochemical ozone formation, human toxicity and ecotoxicity. The results show that energy recovery poses a positive effect in environmental savings. Environmental impacts decrease significantly in landfill with the utilization of biogas owing to combined effects by emission reduction and electricity generation. Incineration is preferable to landfill, but toxicity-related impacts also need to be improved. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis shows that the benefit of carbon sequestration will noticeably decrease global warming potential of both landfill scenarios. Gas collection efficiency is also a key parameter influencing the performance of landfill. Based on the results, improvement methods are proposed. Energy recovery is recommended both in landfill and incineration. For landfill, gas collection systems should be upgraded effectively; for incineration, great efforts should be made to reduce heavy metals and dioxin emissions. PMID:24163375

  8. Coupling plant growth and waste recycling systems in a controlled life support system (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Jay L.

    1992-01-01

    The development of bioregenerative systems as part of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program depends, in large part, on the ability to recycle inorganic nutrients, contained in waste material, into plant growth systems. One significant waste (resource) stream is inedible plant material. This research compared wheat growth in hydroponic solutions based on inorganic salts (modified Hoagland's) with solutions based on the soluble fraction of inedible wheat biomass (leachate). Recycled nutrients in leachate solutions provided the majority of mineral nutrients for plant growth, although additions of inorganic nutrients to leachate solutions were necessary. Results indicate that plant growth and waste recyling systems can be effectively coupled within CELSS based on equivalent wheat yield in leachate and Hoagland solutions, and the rapid mineralization of waste organic material in the hydroponic systems. Selective enrichment for microbial communities able to mineralize organic material within the leachate was necessary to prevent accumulation of dissolved organic matter in leachate-based solutions. Extensive analysis of microbial abundance, growth, and activity in the hydroponic systems indicated that addition of soluble organic material from plants does not cause excessive microbial growth or 'biofouling', and helped define the microbially-mediated flux of carbon in hydroponic solutions.

  9. LIFE ESTIMATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK STEEL FOR F-TANK FARM CLOSURE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, K

    2007-10-01

    High level radioactive waste (HLW) is stored in underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The SRS is proceeding with closure of the 22 tanks located in F-Area. Closure consists of removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. A performance assessment is being performed in support of closure of the F-Tank Farm. Initially, the carbon steel construction materials of the high level waste tanks will provide a barrier to the leaching of radionuclides into the soil. However, the carbon steel liners will degrade over time, most likely due to corrosion, and no longer provide a barrier. The tank life estimation in support of the performance assessment has been completed. The estimation considered general and localized corrosion mechanisms of the tank steel exposed to the contamination zone, grouted, and soil conditions. The estimation was completed for Type I, Type III, and Type IV tanks in the F-Tank Farm. The tank life estimation in support of the F-Tank Farm closure performance assessment has been completed. The estimation considered general and localized corrosion mechanisms of the tank steel exposed to the contamination zone, grouted, and soil conditions. The estimation was completed for Type I, Type III, and Type IV tanks in the F-Tank Farm. Consumption of the tank steel encased in grouted conditions was determined to occur either due to carbonation of the concrete leading to low pH conditions, or the chloride-induced de-passivation of the steel leading to accelerated corrosion. A deterministic approach was initially followed to estimate the life of the tank liner in grouted conditions or in soil conditions. The results of this life estimation are shown in Table 1 and Table 2 for grouted and soil conditions respectively. The tank life has been estimated under conservative assumptions of diffusion rates. However, the same process of

  10. Life cycle assessment of thermal Waste-to-Energy technologies: Review and recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Tonini, Davide; Turconi, Roberto;

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used extensively within the recent decade to evaluate the environmental performance of thermal Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technologies: incineration, co-combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. A critical review was carried out involving 250 individual case......-studies published in 136 peer-reviewed journal articles within 1995 and 2013. The studies were evaluated with respect to critical aspects such as: (i) goal and scope definitions (e.g. functional units, system boundaries, temporal and geographic scopes), (ii) detailed technology parameters (e.g. related to waste...... composition, technology, gas cleaning, energy recovery, residue management, and inventory data), and (iii) modeling principles (e.g. energy/mass calculation principles, energy substitution, inclusion of capital goods and uncertainty evaluation). Very few of the published studies provided full and transparent...

  11. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  12. Mass balances and life cycle inventory of home composting of organic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental setup with six single-family home composting units was monitored during 1year. The composting units were fed with 2.6–3.5kg organic household waste (OHW) per unit per week. All relevant consumptions and emissions of environmental relevance were addressed and a full life-cycle inventory (LCI) was established for the six home composting units. No water, electricity or fuel was used during composting, so the major environmental burdens were gaseous emissions to air a...

  13. New Methodology in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael

    EU research project "NEPTUNE" focusing on nutrient recycling, micro-pollutants and ecotoxicity removal, energy production, and reuse of sludge and of its resources, this paper will present the first results of the development of a new methodology for assessing advances in wastewater treatment...... chose among different waste water treatments? Which ones are most beneficial in a holistic perspective? Here, the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach as a decision supporting tool may help because its goal is to allow quantification and direct comparison of characteristics as diverse as energy...

  14. Life Cycle Assessment Of Danish Concrete Waste Recycled In Road Base Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Birgisdottir, H.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    LCA was used to assess the environmental impacts from recycling of C&DW in road construction. The scenario comprised all stages in the end of life of C&D concrete, including recovery of materials, as well as avoided production of the substituted goods. Results show the importance of transportation...... of the material, especially when considering global warming, acidification and human toxicity categories. Ecotoxicity is dominated by leaching of pollutants from the concrete material, where Cr and Sb play a major role. Compared to landfilling of the same waste stream, reuse in road construction provides lower...

  15. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the

  16. eWall for Active Long Living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Independent living of senior citizens is one of the main challenges linked to the ageing population, due to the impact on: (1) the life of the elderly people, (2) the national health systems, (3) the insurance companies, (4) the relatives and (5) the care-givers. Senior citizens may suffer from......- or disease-related physical and cognitive impairments for a significant prolongation of the primary end-user’s functional capacity, a delay in institutionalization, increased autonomy and, prolonged participation in the society...

  17. Systematic exploration of efficient strategies to manage solid waste in U.S. municipalities: perspectives from the solid waste optimization life-cycle framework (SWOLF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, James W; Barlaz, Morton A; Decarolis, Joseph F; Ranjithan, S Ranji

    2014-04-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) systems must proactively adapt to changing policy requirements, waste composition, and an evolving energy system to sustainably manage future solid waste. This study represents the first application of an optimizable dynamic life-cycle assessment framework capable of considering these future changes. The framework was used to draw insights by analyzing the SWM system of a hypothetical suburban U.S. city of 100 000 people over 30 years while considering changes to population, waste generation, and energy mix and costs. The SWM system included 3 waste generation sectors, 30 types of waste materials, and 9 processes for waste separation, treatment, and disposal. A business-as-usual scenario (BAU) was compared to three optimization scenarios that (1) minimized cost (Min Cost), (2) maximized diversion (Max Diversion), and (3) minimized greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Min GHG) from the system. The Min Cost scenario saved $7.2 million (12%) and reduced GHG emissions (3%) relative to the BAU scenario. Compared to the Max Diversion scenario, the Min GHG scenario cost approximately 27% less and more than doubled the net reduction in GHG emissions. The results illustrate how the timed-deployment of technologies in response to changes in waste composition and the energy system results in more efficient SWM system performance compared to what is possible from static analyses. PMID:24601652

  18. Life cycle assessment of thermal waste-to-energy technologies: review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Tonini, Davide; Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio

    2015-03-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used extensively within the recent decade to evaluate the environmental performance of thermal Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technologies: incineration, co-combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. A critical review was carried out involving 250 individual case-studies published in 136 peer-reviewed journal articles within 1995 and 2013. The studies were evaluated with respect to critical aspects such as: (i) goal and scope definitions (e.g. functional units, system boundaries, temporal and geographic scopes), (ii) detailed technology parameters (e.g. related to waste composition, technology, gas cleaning, energy recovery, residue management, and inventory data), and (iii) modeling principles (e.g. energy/mass calculation principles, energy substitution, inclusion of capital goods and uncertainty evaluation). Very few of the published studies provided full and transparent descriptions of all these aspects, in many cases preventing an evaluation of the validity of results, and limiting applicability of data and results in other contexts. The review clearly suggests that the quality of LCA studies of WtE technologies and systems including energy recovery can be significantly improved. Based on the review, a detailed overview of assumptions and modeling choices in existing literature is provided in conjunction with practical recommendations for state-of-the-art LCA of Waste-to-Energy. PMID:25052337

  19. Life cycle greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol, biomethane and limonene production from citrus waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourbafrani, Mohammad; McKechnie, Jon; MacLean, Heather L.; Saville, Bradley A.

    2013-03-01

    The production of biofuel from cellulosic residues can have both environmental and financial benefits. A particular benefit is that it can alleviate competition for land conventionally used for food and feed production. In this research, we investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of ethanol, biomethane, limonene and digestate from citrus waste, a byproduct of the citrus processing industry. The study represents the first life cycle-based evaluations of citrus waste biorefineries. Two biorefinery configurations are studied—a large biorefinery that converts citrus waste into ethanol, biomethane, limonene and digestate, and a small biorefinery that converts citrus waste into biomethane, limonene and digestate. Ethanol is assumed to be used as E85, displacing gasoline as a light-duty vehicle fuel; biomethane displaces natural gas for electricity generation, limonene displaces acetone in solvents, and digestate from the anaerobic digestion process displaces synthetic fertilizer. System expansion and two allocation methods (energy, market value) are considered to determine emissions of co-products. Considerable GHG reductions would be achieved by producing and utilizing the citrus waste-based products in place of the petroleum-based or other non-renewable products. For the large biorefinery, ethanol used as E85 in light-duty vehicles results in a 134% reduction in GHG emissions compared to gasoline-fueled vehicles when applying a system expansion approach. For the small biorefinery, when electricity is generated from biomethane rather than natural gas, GHG emissions are reduced by 77% when applying system expansion. The life cycle GHG emissions vary substantially depending upon biomethane leakage rate, feedstock GHG emissions and the method to determine emissions assigned to co-products. Among the process design parameters, the biomethane leakage rate is critical, and the ethanol produced in the large biorefinery would not meet EISA

  20. Life cycle greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol, biomethane and limonene production from citrus waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of biofuel from cellulosic residues can have both environmental and financial benefits. A particular benefit is that it can alleviate competition for land conventionally used for food and feed production. In this research, we investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of ethanol, biomethane, limonene and digestate from citrus waste, a byproduct of the citrus processing industry. The study represents the first life cycle-based evaluations of citrus waste biorefineries. Two biorefinery configurations are studied—a large biorefinery that converts citrus waste into ethanol, biomethane, limonene and digestate, and a small biorefinery that converts citrus waste into biomethane, limonene and digestate. Ethanol is assumed to be used as E85, displacing gasoline as a light-duty vehicle fuel; biomethane displaces natural gas for electricity generation, limonene displaces acetone in solvents, and digestate from the anaerobic digestion process displaces synthetic fertilizer. System expansion and two allocation methods (energy, market value) are considered to determine emissions of co-products. Considerable GHG reductions would be achieved by producing and utilizing the citrus waste-based products in place of the petroleum-based or other non-renewable products. For the large biorefinery, ethanol used as E85 in light-duty vehicles results in a 134% reduction in GHG emissions compared to gasoline-fueled vehicles when applying a system expansion approach. For the small biorefinery, when electricity is generated from biomethane rather than natural gas, GHG emissions are reduced by 77% when applying system expansion. The life cycle GHG emissions vary substantially depending upon biomethane leakage rate, feedstock GHG emissions and the method to determine emissions assigned to co-products. Among the process design parameters, the biomethane leakage rate is critical, and the ethanol produced in the large biorefinery would not meet EISA

  1. Thermo-Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics from End of Life Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskolczi Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of waste plastics is widely used recycling method. Owing to the end-of-life vehicles regulations, 95% of passenger cars and vehicles must reused/recovered after the dismantling. Pyrolysis of waste polyethylene and polypropylene obtained from end-of-life vehicles was investigated in a continuously stirred batch reactor using 500 and 600°C temperatures. To ensure the pyrolysis reactions the tested catalysts (5% of ZSM-5, HZSM-5, Ni-ZSM-5 and Fe-ZSM-5 were added directly to the mixtures of raw materials. Products of pyrolysis were separated into gases, pyrolysis oil and heavy oil, which was further analyzed by gas-chromatography, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and other standardized methods. Based on the results it was concluded, that the catalysts significantly increase the yields of volatile products, and modify their composition. Especially the alkane/alkene ratio, the methane concentration and the concentration of branched hydrocarbon could be affected by the applied catalysts. Ni-ZSM-5 catalyst had the highest activity in methane production, while HZSM-5 catalyst proved effective in isomerization reactions. Using H-ZSM-5, Ni-ZSM-5, and Fe-ZSM-5 catalyst notably decreased average molecular weight of pyrolysis oils and significantly higher aromatic content was observed.

  2. Waste Tire Derived Carbon-Polymer Composite Paper as Pseudocapacitive Electrode with Long Cycle Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, M; Paranthaman, M Parans; Naskar, Amit K; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi; Gogotsi, Y

    2015-11-01

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m(2)  g(-1)) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as a supercapacitor electrode material. The narrow pore-size distribution and high surface area led to good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI). The composite paper was highly flexible, conductive, and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F g(-1) at 1 mV s(-1) with excellent capacitance retention of up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life were ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating, and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon through π-π interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. We anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life-a key challenge for redox active polymers. PMID:26404735

  3. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts of the organic waste treatment was collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life cycle assessment showing large differences in the environmental performance of the two different regions with the Danish region performing better in 10 out of 14 impact categories. Furthermore, the importance of the substituted district heating systems was investigated showing an impact up to 34% of the entire system for one impact category and showing large difference between each heating system substituted, e.g. in "Global Warming" the impact was from -16 to -1.1 milli person equivalent/tonne treated waste from substitution of centralised hard coal and decentralised natural gas, respectively. PMID:26856446

  4. Waste flow analysis and life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems as planning tools: Application to optimise the system of the City of Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunesi, Simonetta; Baroni, Sergio; Boarini, Sandro

    2016-09-01

    The results of this case study are used to argue that waste management planning should follow a detailed process, adequately confronting the complexity of the waste management problems and the specificity of each urban area and of regional/national situations. To support the development or completion of integrated waste management systems, this article proposes a planning method based on: (1) the detailed analysis of waste flows and (2) the application of a life cycle assessment to compare alternative scenarios and optimise solutions. The evolution of the City of Bologna waste management system is used to show how this approach can be applied to assess which elements improve environmental performance. The assessment of the contribution of each waste management phase in the Bologna integrated waste management system has proven that the changes applied from 2013 to 2017 result in a significant improvement of the environmental performance mainly as a consequence of the optimised integration between materials and energy recovery: Global Warming Potential at 100 years (GWP100) diminishes from 21,949 to -11,169 t CO2-eq y(-1) and abiotic resources depletion from -403 to -520 t antimony-eq. y(-1) This study analyses at great detail the collection phase. Outcomes provide specific operational recommendations to policy makers, showing the: (a) relevance of the choice of the materials forming the bags for 'door to door' collection (for non-recycled low-density polyethylene bags 22 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (b) relatively low environmental impacts associated with underground tanks (3.9 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (c) relatively low impact of big street containers with respect to plastic bags (2.6 kg CO2-eq. (tonne of waste)(-1)). PMID:27170193

  5. Waste flow analysis and life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems as planning tools: Application to optimise the system of the City of Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunesi, Simonetta; Baroni, Sergio; Boarini, Sandro

    2016-09-01

    The results of this case study are used to argue that waste management planning should follow a detailed process, adequately confronting the complexity of the waste management problems and the specificity of each urban area and of regional/national situations. To support the development or completion of integrated waste management systems, this article proposes a planning method based on: (1) the detailed analysis of waste flows and (2) the application of a life cycle assessment to compare alternative scenarios and optimise solutions. The evolution of the City of Bologna waste management system is used to show how this approach can be applied to assess which elements improve environmental performance. The assessment of the contribution of each waste management phase in the Bologna integrated waste management system has proven that the changes applied from 2013 to 2017 result in a significant improvement of the environmental performance mainly as a consequence of the optimised integration between materials and energy recovery: Global Warming Potential at 100 years (GWP100) diminishes from 21,949 to -11,169 t CO2-eq y(-1) and abiotic resources depletion from -403 to -520 t antimony-eq. y(-1) This study analyses at great detail the collection phase. Outcomes provide specific operational recommendations to policy makers, showing the: (a) relevance of the choice of the materials forming the bags for 'door to door' collection (for non-recycled low-density polyethylene bags 22 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (b) relatively low environmental impacts associated with underground tanks (3.9 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (c) relatively low impact of big street containers with respect to plastic bags (2.6 kg CO2-eq. (tonne of waste)(-1)).

  6. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  7. Life cycle modelling of environmental impacts from application of processed organic municipal solid waste on agricultural land (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund;

    2006-01-01

    MSW showed large influence on the environmental impacts. A range of benefits, mainly related to improved soil quality from long-term application of the processed organic waste, could not be generally quantified with respect to the chosen life cycle assessment impact categories and were therefore...... and use of commercial fertilizers. The model is part of a larger model, Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technology (EASEWASTE), developed as a decisionsupport model, focusing on assessment of alternative waste management options. The environmental impacts of the land application...... of processed organic waste are quantified by emission coefficients referring to the composition of the processed waste and related to specific crop rotation as well as soil type. The model contains several default parameters based on literature data, field experiments and modelling by the agro-ecosystem model...

  8. Life cycle assessment of a small-scale anaerobic digestion plant from cattle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Emissions from plant manufacture contributed little towards the lifecycle impacts. ► The use phase of the AD plant could have significant impacts. ► Production of biogas and fertiliser created significant impacts. ► The consequential displacement of kerosene showed a net-benefit. ► The study concluded that it is essential to cover the digestate storage tank. -- Abstract: This paper outlines the results of a comprehensive life cycle study of the production of energy, in the form of biogas, using a small scale farm based cattle waste fed anaerobic digestion (AD) plant. The life cycle assessment (LCA) shows that in terms of environmental and energy impact the plant manufacture contributes very little to the whole life cycle impacts. The results show that compared with alternative energy supply the production and use of biogas is beneficial in terms of greenhouse gases and fossil fuel use. This is mainly due to the replacement of the alternative, kerosene, and from fertiliser production from the AD process. However, these benefits come at a cost to ecosystem health and the production of respiratory inorganics. These were found to be a result of ammonia emissions during the production phase of the biogas. These damages can be significantly reduced if further emission control measures are undertaken.

  9. Time- and Site-Dependent Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Waste Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellweg, Stefanie; Hofstetter, Thomas B.; Hungerbuehler, Konrad [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zuerich (Switzerland). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2002-12-01

    The high living standard of many industrial countries has directly lead to an increase in the amount of municipal solid waste generated. Parallel to this increase in waste, there has been a raising demand for environmentally benign waste treatment processes. In Switzerland, the predominant way of treatment is incineration. Since the environmental impact of waste incineration depends on the technology used, a comprehensive assessment of the different thermal processes is necessary. In order to determine the environmental impact, we propose a model that quantifies the emissions and resource use resulting from the incineration of waste using different technologies, the landfills for the incineration residues, the transport of waste, related infrastructure, as well as the production of ancillary products. Using the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, we performed a case study that compared the conventional grate technology to new high temperature processes recovering metals and vitrifying the incineration residues. The results show that if the plant is equipped with a modern gas purification system the incineration process itself is not a key environmental problem of the system considered. Using the energy gained from waste incineration as the functional unit, the environmental impacts of incineration plants are comparable to that of a conventional power plant. If long-term time horizons are considered, the critical aspect is the release of heavy metals from the landfilled incineration residues. Due to the better quality of the solid outputs new technologies have a lower potential for environmental impact than the conventional grate technology. This, however, depends on the time horizon considered. With a temporal system boundary of 100 years, the grate technology appears better, because new technologies generally use more energy and short-term emissions are of minor importance no matter what technology is used. The evaluation of waste incineration technologies

  10. Life cycle assessment of resource recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Vadenbo, Carl; Boldrin, Alessio;

    2015-01-01

    Bottom ash, the main solid output from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), has significant potential for the recovery of resources such as scrap metals and aggregates. The utilisation of these resources ideally enables natural resources to be saved. However, the quality of the recovered...... scrap metals may limit recycling potential, and the utilisation of aggregates may cause the release of toxic substances into the natural environment through leaching. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to a full-scale MSWI bottom ash management and recovery system to identify environmental...... routes were compared: landfilling, road sub-base and aggregate in concrete, while specific leaching data were used as the basis for evaluating toxic impacts. The recovery and recycling of aluminium, ferrous, stainless steel and copper scrap were considered, and the importance of aluminium scrap quality...

  11. Applying a life cycle decision methodology to Fernald waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past five years, a number of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded efforts have demonstrated the technical efficacy of converting various forms of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) into useable products. From the development of large accelerator shielding blocks, to the construction of low-level waste containers, technology has been applied to this fabrication process in a safe and stakeholder supported manner. The potential health and safety risks to both workers and the public have been addressed. The question remains: can products be fabricated from RSM in a cost efficient and market competitive manner? This paper presents a methodology for use within DOE to evaluate the costs and benefits of recycling and reusing some RSM, rather than disposing of this RSM in an approved burial site. This life cycle decision methodology, developed by both the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and DOE Fernald, is the focus of the following analysis

  12. Life cycle analysis of management options for organic waste collected in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Different options for managing the organic fraction (OF) of municipal solid waste generated in a given urban area were analyzed by life cycle assessment (LCA) for different source segregation (SS) intensities ranging from 0 to 52%. The best management option for processing the OF remaining in the residual organic fraction (ROF) for the different SS intensities was by incineration. Landfilling and mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of ROF gave higher impacts. Aerobic treatment alone or combined with anaerobic digestion (AD) for processing the source-segregated organic fraction (SSOF) led to relevant environmental impact reduction even if the difference between the two options was quite negligible. The weighted impact showed that scenarios using incineration always gave environmental gains, whereas there was a higher environmental burden with the scenarios using MBT. PMID:25060312

  13. Life cycle analysis of sanitary landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晋仁; 韦洪莲; 刘阳生; 赵智杰

    2002-01-01

    Environmental consequences from sanitary landfill as well as incineration with power generation were compared in terms of life cycle analysis (LCA) for Laohukeng Waste-disposal Plant that is under consideration in Shenzhen. A variety of differences will be resulted from the two technologies, from which the primary issue that affects the conclusion is if the compensatory phase in power generation can be properly considered in the boundary definition of LCA. Upon the compensatory phase is taken into account in the landfill system, the negative environmental consequences from the landfill will be more significant than those from the incineration with power generation, although the reversed results can be obtained as the compensatory phase is neglected. In addition, mitigation of environmental impacts through the pollutant treatment in the incineration process will be more effective than in the landfill process.

  14. Environmental impact associated with activated carbon preparation from olive-waste cake via life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjaila, K; Baccar, R; Sarrà, M; Gasol, C M; Blánquez, P

    2013-11-30

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) environmental tool was implemented to quantify the potential environmental impacts associated with the activated carbon (AC) production process from olive-waste cakes in Tunisia. On the basis of laboratory investigations for AC preparation, a flowchart was developed and the environmental impacts were determined. The LCA functional unit chosen was the production of 1 kg of AC from by-product olive-waste cakes. The results showed that impregnation using H3PO4 presented the highest environmental impacts for the majority of the indicators tested: acidification potential (62%), eutrophication (96%), ozone depletion potential (44%), human toxicity (64%), fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity (90%) and terrestrial ecotoxicity (92%). One of the highest impacts was found to be the global warming potential (11.096 kg CO2 eq/kg AC), which was equally weighted between the steps involving impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC. The cumulative energy demand of the AC production process from the by-product olive-waste cakes was 167.63 MJ contributed by impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC steps. The use of phosphoric acid and electricity in the AC production were the main factors responsible for the majority of the impacts. If certain modifications are incorporated into the AC production, such as implementing synthesis gas recovery and reusing it as an energy source and recovery of phosphoric acid after AC washing, additional savings could be realized, and environmental impacts could be minimized. PMID:24091159

  15. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE`s Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE's Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs

  17. Some methods of human liquid and solid wastes utilization in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. Á.; Tikhomirov, A. Á.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Gros, J. B.

    The possibility of stepwise utilization of human liquid and solid wastes with the purpose of an increase of a closure degree of bioregenerative life support systems BLSS and sodium chloride inclusion in the organic matter turnover was investigated On the first stage urine and faeces were subjected to oxidation by Yu A Kudenko physicochemical method On the next stage the products of human liquid and solid wastes oxidation were used for roots nutrition of wheat grown by substrate culture method Soil-like substrate the technology of which was described earlier was used as a substrate After the wheat cultivation the irrigational solution and the solution obtained in the result of substrate washing containing mineral elements not absorbed by the plants were used for cultivation of salt-tolerant Salicornia europaea plants The above-ground biomass of these vegetables can be used as a food and roots washed from dissoluble mineral elements can be added to the soil-like substrate Four consecutive wheat and Salicornia europaea vegetations were cultivated In the result of this complex technology of wheat and Salicornia europaea cultivation the soil-like substrate salinization by NaCl introduced into the irrigational solution together with the products of urine oxidation has considerably decreased

  18. Developments in life cycle assessment applied to evaluate the environmental performance of construction and demolition wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Powell, J C

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides a review of the literature that applies the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to the assessment of the environmental performance of the life cycle of construction and demolition waste (CDW) management systems. This article is focused on generating a general mapping of the literature and on identifying the best practices in compliance with LCA framework and proposing directions for future LCA studies in this field. The temporal evolution of the research in this field and the aim of the studies have grown in parallel with the legal framework related to waste and energy efficiency of buildings. Most studies have been published in Europe, followed by USA. Asia and Australia, being at an incipient application stage to the rest of the world. Topics related to "LCA of buildings, including their EoL" and "LCA of general CDW management strategies" are the most frequently analysed, followed by "LCA of EoL of construction elements" and "LCA of natural material vs recycled material". Regarding the strategies, recycling off-site and incineration, both combined with landfill for the rejected fractions, are the most commonly applied. Re-use or recycling on-site is the strategy least applied. The key aspect when LCA is applied to evaluate CDW management systems is the need to normalise which processes to include in the system boundary and the functional unit, the use of inventory data adapted to the context of the case study and the definition of a common set of appropriate impact assessment categories. Also, it is important to obtain results disaggregated by unit processes. This will allow the comparison between case studies.

  19. Developments in life cycle assessment applied to evaluate the environmental performance of construction and demolition wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Powell, J C

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides a review of the literature that applies the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to the assessment of the environmental performance of the life cycle of construction and demolition waste (CDW) management systems. This article is focused on generating a general mapping of the literature and on identifying the best practices in compliance with LCA framework and proposing directions for future LCA studies in this field. The temporal evolution of the research in this field and the aim of the studies have grown in parallel with the legal framework related to waste and energy efficiency of buildings. Most studies have been published in Europe, followed by USA. Asia and Australia, being at an incipient application stage to the rest of the world. Topics related to "LCA of buildings, including their EoL" and "LCA of general CDW management strategies" are the most frequently analysed, followed by "LCA of EoL of construction elements" and "LCA of natural material vs recycled material". Regarding the strategies, recycling off-site and incineration, both combined with landfill for the rejected fractions, are the most commonly applied. Re-use or recycling on-site is the strategy least applied. The key aspect when LCA is applied to evaluate CDW management systems is the need to normalise which processes to include in the system boundary and the functional unit, the use of inventory data adapted to the context of the case study and the definition of a common set of appropriate impact assessment categories. Also, it is important to obtain results disaggregated by unit processes. This will allow the comparison between case studies. PMID:26919970

  20. Radioactive wastes: debated issues about the Cigeo project - White paper III by the ANCCLI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the interest of the ANCCLI in radioactive wastes, a presentation of the 2013 public debate as an administrative stage within a long process, a presentation of the chronology of the decision process regarding high-activity and medium-activity long-life wastes, and a discussion of a return on experience on the 2005 public debate, this publication discusses the main debated themes: waste warehousing, storage reversibility, ethical issues, the Cigeo inventory, and the impacts on the territory. The Aarhus convention (which addresses public debate) is given in appendix, as well as a contradictory overview of the history of high- and medium-activity long-life waste management

  1. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of a novel process for converting food waste to ethanol and co-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Co-fermentation using SSF at ambient temperature has potential as an ethanol pathway. • Bio-refinery GHG emissions are similar to corn and MSW ethanol production processes. • Net production GHG impact is negative with inclusion of waste disposal avoidance. • Food waste diversion from landfills is the largest contributor to GHG benefits. - Abstract: Waste-to-ethanol conversion is a promising technology to provide renewable transportation fuel while mitigating feedstock risks and land use conflicts. It also has the potential to reduce environmental impacts from waste management such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to climate change. This paper analyzes the life cycle GHG emissions associated with a novel process for the conversion of food processing waste into ethanol (EtOH) and the co-products of compost and animal feed. Data are based on a pilot plant co-fermenting retail food waste with a sugary industrial wastewater, using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process at room temperature with a grinding pretreatment. The process produced 295 L EtOH/dry t feedstock. Lifecycle GHG emissions associated with the ethanol production process were 1458 gCO2e/L EtOH. When the impact of avoided landfill emissions from diverting food waste to use as feedstock are considered, the process results in net negative GHG emissions and approximately 500% improvement relative to corn ethanol or gasoline production. This finding illustrates how feedstock and alternative waste disposal options have important implications in life cycle GHG results for waste-to-energy pathways

  2. Improvement actions in waste management systems at the provincial scale based on a life cycle assessment evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • LCA was used for evaluating the performance of four provincial waste management systems. • Milano, Bergamo, Pavia and Mantova (Italy) are the provinces selected for the analysis. • Most of the data used to model the systems are primary. • Significant differences were found among the provinces located in the same Region. • LCA was used as a decision-supporting tool by Regione Lombardia. - Abstract: This paper reports some of the findings of the ‘GERLA’ project: GEstione Rifiuti in Lombardia – Analisi del ciclo di vita (Waste management in Lombardia – Life cycle assessment). The project was devoted to support Lombardia Region in the drafting of the new waste management plan by applying a life cycle thinking perspective. The present paper mainly focuses on four Provinces in the Region, which were selected based on their peculiarities. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was adopted as the methodology to assess the current performance of the integrated waste management systems, to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each of them and to design their perspective evolution as of year 2020. Results show that despite a usual business approach that is beneficial to all the provinces, the introduction of technological and management improvements to the system provides in general additional energy and environmental benefits for all four provinces. The same improvements can be easily extended to the whole Region, leading to increased environmental benefits from the waste management sector, in line with the targets set by the European Union for 2020

  3. Comparative life-cycle cost analysis for low-level mixed waste remediation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to develop a generic, life-cycle cost model for evaluating low-level, mixed waste remediation alternatives, and (2) to apply the model specifically, to estimate remediation costs for a site similar to the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, OH. Life-cycle costs for vitrification, cementation, and dry removal process technologies are estimated. Since vitrification is in a conceptual phase, computer simulation is used to help characterize the support infrastructure of a large scale vitrification plant. Cost estimating relationships obtained from the simulation data, previous cost estimates, available process data, engineering judgment, and expert opinion all provide input to an Excel based spreadsheet for generating cash flow streams. Crystal Ball, an Excel add-on, was used for discounting cash flows for net present value analysis. The resulting LCC data was then analyzed using multi-attribute decision analysis techniques with cost and remediation time as criteria. The analytical framework presented allows alternatives to be evaluated in the context of budgetary, social, and political considerations. In general, the longer the remediation takes, the lower the net present value of the process. This is true because of the time value of money and large percentage of the costs attributed to storage or disposal

  4. Municipal solid waste conversion to transportation fuels: a life-cycle estimation of global warming potential and energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pressley, Phillip N.; Aziz, Tarek N.; DeCarolis, Joseph F.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper utilizes life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to evaluate the conversion of U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) to liquid transportation fuels via gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (FT). The model estimates the cumulative energy demand and global warming potential (GWP) associated...

  5. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. V - Mars expedition technology trade study for solid waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrall, Joe; Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Seshan, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    A model has been developed for NASA to quantitatively compare and select life support systems and technology options. The model consists of a modular, top-down hierarchical breakdown of the life support system into subsystems, and further breakdown of subsystems into functional elements representing individual processing technologies. This paper includes the technology trades for a Mars mission, using solid waste treatment technologies to recover water from selected liquid and solid waste streams. Technologies include freeze drying, thermal drying, wet oxidation, combustion, and supercritical-water oxidation. The use of these technologies does not have any significant advantages with respect to weight; however, significant power penalties are incurred. A benefit is the ability to convert hazardous waste into a useful resource, namely water.

  6. Prospects for using a full-scale installation for wet combustion of organic wastes in closed life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Sergey V; Kudenko, Yurii A; Tikhomirov, Alexander A

    2015-11-01

    The issue of recycling organic wastes in closed life support systems (CLSS) includes both fundamental aspects of environmental safety of the recycled products and their effective involvement in material cycles and technical aspects related to the structure of the system and the crew's demands. This study estimates the effectiveness of wet combustion of different amounts of organic wastes in hydrogen peroxide under application of an alternating current electric field. The study also addresses the possibility of controlling the process automatically. The results show that processing of greater amounts of wastes reduces specific power consumption and shortens the duration of the process, without significantly affecting the level of oxidation of the products. An automatic control system for a semi-commercial installation has been constructed and tested experimentally. The solution of mineralized human wastes prepared in the automatically controlled process in this installation was successfully used to grow radish plants, with the main production parameters being similar to those of the control. PMID:26553633

  7. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, C.; Fruergaard, Thilde;

    2010-01-01

    impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during...... of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction...... in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85–174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control...

  8. Prospects for using a full-scale installation for wet combustion of organic wastes in closed life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Sergey V.; Kudenko, Yurii A.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.

    2015-11-01

    The issue of recycling organic wastes in closed life support systems (CLSS) includes both fundamental aspects of environmental safety of the recycled products and their effective involvement in material cycles and technical aspects related to the structure of the system and the crew's demands. This study estimates the effectiveness of wet combustion of different amounts of organic wastes in hydrogen peroxide under application of an alternating current electric field. The study also addresses the possibility of controlling the process automatically. The results show that processing of greater amounts of wastes reduces specific power consumption and shortens the duration of the process, without significantly affecting the level of oxidation of the products. An automatic control system for a semi-commercial installation has been constructed and tested experimentally. The solution of mineralized human wastes prepared in the automatically controlled process in this installation was successfully used to grow radish plants, with the main production parameters being similar to those of the control.

  9. Environmental assessment of waste to energy processes specifically incineration and anaerobic digestion using life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Tawatsin, Anuda

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste is an issue every community in the world has to be concerned with. Without any management, municipal solid waste poses environmental and health risks to the community such as from water and air pollution. In selecting methods to deal with the waste, environmental impacts considerations are important to reduce these risks. Environmentally sustainable waste management processes should also decrease greenhouse gases contributing to global warming and climate change. Waste t...

  10. The municipal solid waste and the quality of life of collectors of recyclable materials in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Pimenta, Aline; Santos, Sueli Maria dos Reis; de Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto; Borges, Marcos Mantins; de Oliveira Marques, Geraldo Luciano; Abdalla, E José Gustavo Francis

    2012-01-01

    The generation growing and diversified of Municipal Solid Waste is configured as an environmental problem, economic and social deterioration, especially, by application of inappropriate management of them. Faced with this urban context, the research in development presents as specific objective assessment of the quality of life of the gatherers of recyclable materials were active in the city of Juiz de Fora, in the brazilian state of Minas Gerais. In addition, the objective is, still, the recognition of the activity of sorting performed by "scavengers" in order to maximize the reduction, reuse and recycling energy and material waste daily. The proposed methodology is based on the application of the questionnaire Word Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100), prepared by the World Health Organization, in order to value the quality of life of the gatherers of recyclable materials, involved, even in educational workshops in order to discuss and organize strategies of health care and scouting to the basement to public policies.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions (CO2-CH4) From Municipal Solid Waste Management Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Mahdsht City (IRAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Naderi M; Salari Baghon Abad M; Amiri M; Rezazadeh M

    2014-01-01

    Waste production is inevitable in any society and consequently waste management is one of the main roles of any municipality. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate different waste management scenarios. According to the amount and composition of the generated waste, considering environmental, economic and technical issues, several options are existed. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a decision support tool has been used in several cases to select the most appropriate option. In this paper, pro...

  12. Advanced anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic waste for the melissa life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissens, G.; Verstraete, W.; Albrecht, T.; Brunner, G.; Creuly, C.; Dussap, G.; Kube, J.; Maerkl, H.; Lasseur, C.

    The feasibility of nearly-complete conversion of lignocellulosic waste (70% food crops, 20% faecal matter and 10% green algae) into biogas was investigated in the context of the MELiSSA loop (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative). The treatment comprised a series of processes, i.e. a mesophilic laboratory scale CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor), an upflow biofilm reactor, a fiber liquefaction reactor employing the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes and a hydrothermolysis system in near-critical water. By the one-stage CSTR, a biogas yield of 75% with a specific biogas production of 0.37 l biogas g-1 VSS (volatile suspended solids) added at a RT (hydraulic retention time) of 20-25 d was obtained. Biogas yields could not be increased considerably at higher RT, indicating the depletion of readily available substrate after 25 d. The solids present in the CSTR-effluent were subsequently treated in two ways. Hydrothermal treatment (T ˜ 310-350C, p ˜ 240 bar) resulted in effective carbon liquefaction (50-60% without and 83% with carbon dioxide saturation) and complete sanitation of the residue. Application of the cellulolytic Fibrobacter succinogenes converted remaining cellulose contained in the CSTR-effluent into acetate and propionate mainly. Subsequent anaerobic digestion of the hydrothermolysis and the Fibrobacter hydrolysates allowed conversion of 48-60% and 30%, respectively. Thus, the total process yielded biogas corresponding with conversions up to 90% of the original organic matter. It appears that particularly mesophilic digestion in conjunction with hydrothermolysis offers interesting features for (nearly) the MELiSSA system. The described additional technologies show that complete and hygienic carbon and energy recovery from human waste within MELiSSA is technically feasible, provided that the extra energy needed for the thermal treatment is guaranteed.

  13. Projection of Environmental Pollutant Emissions From Different Final Waste Disposal Methods Based on Life Cycle Assessment Studies in Qazvin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Torkashvand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the life cycle assessment (LCA method was used to expect the emissions of different environmental pollutants through qualitative and quantitative analyses of solid wastes of Qazvin city in different final disposal methods. Therefore, four scenarios with the following properties considering physical analysis of Qazvin’s solid wastes, the current status of solid waste management in Iran, as well as the future of solid waste management of Qazvin were described. In order to detect the quantity of the solid wastes, the volume-weighted analysis was used and random sampling method was used for physical analysis. Of course, regarding the method of LCA, it contains all stages from solid wastes generation to its disposal. However, since the main aim of this study was final disposal stage, the emissions of pollutants of these stages were ignored. Next, considering the mixture of the solid waste, the amount of pollution stemming from each of final disposal methods from other cities having similar conditions was estimated. The findings of the study showed that weight combination of Qazvin solid wastes is entirely similar to that of other cities. Thus, the results of this study can be applied by decision makers around the country. In scenarios 1 and 2, emission of leachate containing high amounts of COD and BOD is high and also the highest content of nitrate, which can contaminate water and soil resulting in high costs for their management. In scenarios 3 and 4, the amounts of gaseous pollutants, particularly CO2, as well as nitrogen oxides are very high. In conclusion, the LCA methods can effectively contribute to the management of municipal solid wastes (MSW to control environmental pollutants with least expenses.

  14. Emission of toxic components as a factor of the best practice options for waste management: Application of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović-Čarapina Hristina D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Health and safety have been the major concerns in waste management. Waste must be managed in a way that minimizes risk to human health. Environmental concerns over the management and disposal of waste can be divided into two major areas: conservation of resources and pollution of the environment. Integrated Waste Management (IWM systems combine waste streams, waste collection, treatment and disposal methods, with the objective of achieving environmental benefits, economic optimization and societal acceptability. Integrated waste management using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA attempts to offer the most benign options for waste management. LCA is a compilation and evaluation of the inputs, the outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. It can be successfully applied to municipal solid waste management systems to identify the overall environmental burdens and to assess the potential environmental impacts. This paper deals with the LCA of the two waste management options for final disposal of municipal waste, landfilling (landfill without landfill gas collection or leachate collection and sanitary landfilling (landfill with landfill gas collection and recovery and leachate collection and treatments analyzed for town Sombor, Serbia. The research is conducted with the use of the Software Package IWM-2. The indicators which are used in the assessment are air and water emissions of toxic compounds. The results indicated that waste disposal practice has a significant effect on the emission of the toxic components and environmental burdens. Sanitary landfilling of municipal solid waste significantly reduces toxic emission and negative influence on the environment.

  15. Improving Sustainability and Circularity of European Food Waste Management with a Life Cycle Approach

    OpenAIRE

    MANFREDI SIMONE; CRISTOBAL GARCIA JORGE; TORRES DE MATOS CRISTINA; GIAVINI Michele; VASTA ALESSANDRO; SALA SERENELLA; SAOUTER ERWAN; TUOMISTO HANNA LEENA

    2015-01-01

    In the past years, several research initiatives have been promoted in the area of food waste. Many of these were focused on the identification of key drivers of food wastage and on the quantification of food waste generation. While these initiatives provided fairly accurate information over European food waste generation and management routes, they did not always deliver comprehensive and comparable knowledge on the sustainability of food waste management and on ways to mitigate negative cons...

  16. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF DISTRIBUTED ENERGY PRODUCTION USING BIOFUEL FROM WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    EVANGELISTI, SARA

    2013-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste can be a potential renewable and non-seasonal resource for energy production. Alternative uses of waste, in fact, become increasingly interesting both from a waste management perspective – to reduce the amount of increasing waste deposited at landfill - and from an energy system perspective – to get the targets in terms of share of renewable and greenhouse gas reduction. In Europe, in recent years a lot of attention has raised around the possibility to use the Organi...

  17. Life cycle assessment of fuels for district heating: A comparison of waste incineration, biomass- and natural gas combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is to compare district heating based on waste incineration with combustion of biomass or natural gas. The study comprises two options for energy recovery (combined heat and power (CHP) or heat only), two alternatives for external, marginal electricity generation (fossil lean or intense), and two alternatives for the alternative waste management (landfill disposal or material recovery). A secondary objective was to test a combination of dynamic energy system modelling and LCA by combining the concept of complex marginal electricity production in a static, environmental systems analysis. Furthermore, we wanted to increase the methodological knowledge about how waste can be environmentally compared to other fuels in district-heat production. The results indicate that combustion of biofuel in a CHP is environmentally favourable and robust with respect to the avoided type of electricity and waste management. Waste incineration is often (but not always) the preferable choice when incineration substitutes landfill disposal of waste. It is however, never the best choice (and often the worst) when incineration substitutes recycling. A natural gas fired CHP is an alternative of interest if marginal electricity has a high fossil content. However, if the marginal electricity is mainly based on non-fossil sources, natural gas is in general worse than biofuels

  18. Life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems for alternative legacy scenarios of the London Olympic Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkes, Olga, E-mail: o.parkes@ucl.ac.uk; Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk; Bogle, I. David L.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Application of LCA in planning integrated waste management systems. • Environmental valuation of 3 legacy scenarios for the Olympic Park. • Hot-spot analysis highlights the importance of energy and materials recovery. • Most environmental savings are achieved through materials recycling. • Sensitivity analysis shows importance of waste composition and recycling rates. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of the life cycle assessment (LCA) of 10 integrated waste management systems (IWMSs) for 3 potential post-event site design scenarios of the London Olympic Park. The aim of the LCA study is to evaluate direct and indirect emissions resulting from various treatment options of municipal solid waste (MSW) annually generated on site together with avoided emissions resulting from energy, materials and nutrients recovery. IWMSs are modelled using GaBi v6.0 Product Sustainability software and results are presented based on the CML (v.Nov-10) characterisation method. The results show that IWMSs with advanced thermal treatment (ATT) and incineration with energy recovery have the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP) than IWMSs where landfill is the primary waste treatment process. This is due to higher direct emissions and lower avoided emissions from the landfill process compared to the emissions from the thermal treatment processes. LCA results demonstrate that significant environmental savings are achieved through substitution of virgin materials with recycled ones. The results of the sensitivity analysis carried out for IWMS 1 shows that increasing recycling rate by 5%, 10% and 15% compared to the baseline scenario can reduce GWP by 8%, 17% and 25% respectively. Sensitivity analysis also shows how changes in waste composition affect the overall result of the system. The outcomes of such assessments provide decision-makers with fundamental information regarding the environmental impacts of different waste treatment options necessary for

  19. Life cycle assessment of the management of special waste types: WEEE and batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard

    resources in waste have become an obvious focus as a source of these critical raw materials, and the municipal solid waste is considered to be one of the largest potential sources for the recovery and recycling of scarce elements. Special waste streams should, therefore, be collected and recycled...... Equipment (WEEE) and batteries are some of the special waste types receiving significant focus as hazardous and valuable substances in WEEE and batteries are plentiful. WEEE and batteries, which are not sorted out for recycling and recovery, do not only imply a loss of materials and metals but could also...... lead to pollution of other waste streams. In addition to this, there are significant environmental benefits to be obtained when recycling special wastes. Many of the raw materials found in special waste are in an immediate supply risk for the development of emerging green technologies. The inherent...

  20. Environmental assessment of different management options for individual waste fractions by means of life-cycle assessment modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    with composting (for “organics”) and incineration (for “recyclable paper”). This however requires high degree of control over gas and leachate emissions, high gas collection efficiency and extensive gas utilization at the landfill. For the other waste fractions, recycling and incineration are favourable, although......Several alternatives exist for handling of individual waste fractions, including recycling, incineration and landfilling. From an environmental point of view, the latter is commonly considered as the least desirable option. Many studies based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) highlight......, by means of LCA-modelling, aims at comparing the environmental performance of three major management options (landfilling, recycling and incineration or composting) for a number of individual waste fractions. The landfilling option is here approached comprehensively, accounting for all technical...

  1. UK: Technical data for waste incineration background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    and output of emissions to the environment caused by the incineration. The work has been performed as part of the EUREKA project EUROENVIRON 1296: LCAGAPS, sponsored by the Danish Agency for Industry and Trade. This report presents a compilation of technical data on waste incineration that serve...... with the disposal of a product through waste incineration. Based on knowledge of the material composition of the product and the technology applied in the waste incineration plant, the model estimates input of energy and auxiliary materials required for the incineration of the product and generation of energy...... and possible recycling hereof. The assessment is based on an inventory of inputs and outputs (resource/material consumption and generation of energy and emissions) for all the processes that occur as part of the product life-cycle. A model is developed to estimate the inputs and outputs associated...

  2. Life Cycle Assessment and Optimization-Based Decision Analysis of Construction Waste Recycling for a LEED-Certified University Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kucukvar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current waste management literature lacks a comprehensive LCA of the recycling of construction materials that considers both process and supply chain-related impacts as a whole. Furthermore, an optimization-based decision support framework has not been also addressed in any work, which provides a quantifiable understanding about the potential savings and implications associated with recycling of construction materials from a life cycle perspective. The aim of this research is to present a multi-criteria optimization model, which is developed to propose economically-sound and environmentally-benign construction waste management strategies for a LEED-certified university building. First, an economic input-output-based hybrid life cycle assessment model is built to quantify the total environmental impacts of various waste management options: recycling, conventional landfilling and incineration. After quantifying the net environmental pressures associated with these waste treatment alternatives, a compromise programming model is utilized to determine the optimal recycling strategy considering environmental and economic impacts, simultaneously. The analysis results show that recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals significantly contributed to reductions in the total carbon footprint of waste management. On the other hand, recycling of asphalt and concrete increased the overall carbon footprint due to high fuel consumption and emissions during the crushing process. Based on the multi-criteria optimization results, 100% recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, cardboard, plastic and glass is suggested to maximize the environmental and economic savings, simultaneously. We believe that the results of this research will facilitate better decision making in treating construction and debris waste for LEED-certified green buildings by combining the results of environmental LCA with multi-objective optimization modeling.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment and Optimization-Based Decision Analysis of Construction Waste Recycling for a LEED-Certified University Building

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Kucukvar; Gokhan Egilmez; Omer Tatari

    2016-01-01

    The current waste management literature lacks a comprehensive LCA of the recycling of construction materials that considers both process and supply chain-related impacts as a whole. Furthermore, an optimization-based decision support framework has not been also addressed in any work, which provides a quantifiable understanding about the potential savings and implications associated with recycling of construction materials from a life cycle perspective. The aim of this research is to present a...

  4. Life Cycle Assessment: A Tool for Evaluating and Comparing Different Treatment Options for Plastic Wastes from Old Television Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Dodbiba, G.; Furuyama, T.; Takahashi, K.; Sadaki, J; Fujita, T.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, energy recovery and mechanical recycling, two treatment options for plastic wastes from discarded television sets, have been assessed and compared in the context of the life cycle assessment methodology (LCA). The environmental impact of each option was assessed by calculating the depletion of abiotic resources (ADP) and the global warming potential (GWP). Then, the indicators were compared, and the option with the smaller environmental impact was selected. The main findi...

  5. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO2 emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in Biganzoli et al. (2014) and from the dolomitic sorbent production plant. The results of the LCA show minor changes in the potential impacts between the two operational modes of the plants. These differences are for 8 impact categories in favour of the new operational mode based on the addition of the dolomitic sorbent, and for 7 impact categories in favour of the traditional operation. A final evaluation was conducted on the potential

  6. Life cycle assessment of resource recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Vadenbo, Carl; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-03-15

    Bottom ash, the main solid output from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), has significant potential for the recovery of resources such as scrap metals and aggregates. The utilisation of these resources ideally enables natural resources to be saved. However, the quality of the recovered scrap metals may limit recycling potential, and the utilisation of aggregates may cause the release of toxic substances into the natural environment through leaching. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to a full-scale MSWI bottom ash management and recovery system to identify environmental breakeven points beyond which the burdens of the recovery processes outweigh the environmental benefits from valorising metals and mineral aggregates. Experimental data for the quantity and quality of individual material fractions were used as a basis for LCA modelling. For the aggregates, three disposal routes were compared: landfilling, road sub-base and aggregate in concrete, while specific leaching data were used as the basis for evaluating toxic impacts. The recovery and recycling of aluminium, ferrous, stainless steel and copper scrap were considered, and the importance of aluminium scrap quality, choice of marginal energy technologies and substitution rates between primary and secondary aluminium, stainless steel and ferrous products, were assessed and discussed. The modelling resulted in burdens to toxic impacts associated with metal recycling and leaching from aggregates during utilisation, while large savings were obtained in terms of non-toxic impacts. However, by varying the substitution rate for aluminium recycling between 0.35 and 0.05 (on the basis of aluminium scrap and secondary aluminium alloy market value), it was found that the current recovery system might reach a breakeven point between the benefits of recycling and energy expended on sorting and upgrading the scrap. PMID:25555136

  7. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auclair, K. D.

    2002-02-25

    This paper describes the ongoing integrated life-cycle optimization efforts to achieve both design flexibility and design stability for activities associated with the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford. Design flexibility is required to support the Department of Energy Office of River Protection Balance of Mission objectives, and design stability to meet the Waste Treatment Plant construction and commissioning requirements in order to produce first glass in 2007. The Waste Treatment Plant is a large complex project that is driven by both technology and contractual requirements. It is also part of a larger overall mission, as a component of the River Protection Project, which is driven by programmatic requirements and regulatory, legal, and fiscal constraints. These issues are further complicated by the fact that both of the major contractors involved have a different contract type with DOE, and neither has a contract with the other. This combination of technical and programmatic drivers, constraints, and requirements will continue to provide challenges and opportunities for improvement and optimization. The Bechtel National, Inc. team is under contract to engineer, procure, construct, commission and test the Waste Treatment Plant on or ahead of schedule, at or under cost, and with a throughput capacity equal to or better than specified. The Department of Energy is tasked with the long term mission of waste retrieval, treatment, and disposal. While each mission is a compliment and inextricably linked to one another, they are also at opposite ends of the spectrum, in terms of expectations of one another. These mission requirements, that are seemingly in opposition to one another, pose the single largest challenge and opportunity for optimization: one of balance. While it is recognized that design maturation and optimization are the normal responsibility of any engineering firm responsible for any given project, the aspects of integrating requirements and the management

  8. Impact of the European Union vehicle waste directive on end-of-life options for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, C.; Brandon, N. P.; van der Vorst, R.

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) may well be powering millions of cars by 2020. At its end-of-life, each car will have a redundant PEMFC stack. The EU vehicle waste directive sets tough recycling and re-use requirements for the cars of the future. The criteria for assessing the end-of-life options are based on technical, economic and environmental feasibility. The optimum strategy will require stack dismantling and separation of the major components. Steel and aluminium parts can enter the general recycling stream, but the membrane electrode assembly and bipolar plates will require a specialised recycling process. One option is to shred the MEA, dissolve and recover the membrane, burn off the carbon, and recycle the platinum and ruthenium catalysts using solvent extraction. The heaviest part of the PEMFC stack is the bipolar plates. If carbon fibre based, the bipolar plates could enter a fluidised bed recovery process where the constituent materials are recovered for re-use. The EU vehicle waste directive sets high recycling targets based on weight, and thus it is strongly advisable for the relatively heavy bipolar plates to be recycled, even though energy recovery by incineration may be a cheaper and possible more environmentally benign option. The EU vehicle directive will put pressure on the end-of-life options for the PEMFC stack to be weighted towards recycling and re-use; it will have a significant impact on the design and end-of-life options for the PEMFC. The overall effect of this pressure on the end-of-life treatment of the PEMFC and the consequential contribution to environmental life cycle impacts is discussed. It is concluded that a range of external pressures influence the selection of a suitable end-of-life management strategy, and while opportunities for re-use of components are limited, all components of the PEMFC stack could in principle be recycled.

  9. Municipal solid waste management health risk assessment from air emissions for China by applying life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Nitivattananon, Vilas; Li, Peng

    2015-05-01

    This study is to quantify and objectively evaluate the extent of environmental health risks from three waste treatment options suggested by the national municipal solid waste management enhancing strategy (No [2011] 9 of the State Council, promulgated on 19 April 2011), which includes sanitary landfill, waste-to-energy incineration and compost, together with the material recovery facility through a case study in Zhangqiu City of China. It addresses potential chronic health risks from air emissions to residential receptors in the impacted area. It combines field survey, analogue survey, design documents and life cycle inventory methods in defining the source strength of chemicals of potential concern. The modelling of life cycle inventory and air dispersion is via integrated waste management(IWM)-2 and Screening Air Dispersion Model (Version 3.0) (SCREEN3). The health risk assessment is in accordance with United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part F, Supplemental Guidance for Inhalation Risk Assessment). The exposure concentration is based on long-term exposure to the maximum ground level contaminant in air under the 'reasonable worst situation' emissions and then directly compared with reference for concentration and unit risk factor/cancer slope factor derived from the national air quality standard (for a conventional pollutant) and toxicological studies (for a specific pollutant). Results from this study suggest that the option of compost with material recovery facility treatment may pose less negative health impacts than other options; the sensitivity analysis shows that the landfill integrated waste management collection rate has a great influence on the impact results. Further investigation is needed to validate or challenge the findings of this study.

  10. The storage center of short life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Situated at 50 km of Troyes, the Aube Center was opened in 1992 in order to take over from the Manche Center, for the surface storage of low life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. It offers an answer to manage safely theses wastes at an industrial scale during 50 years. (A.L.B.)

  11. Home composting as an alternative treatment option for organic household waste in Denmark: An environmental assessment using life cycle assessment-modelling

    OpenAIRE

    ANDERSEN, J. K.; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    An environmental assessment of the management of organic household waste (OHW) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the waste-life cycle assessment (LCA) model EASEWASTE. The focus was on home composting of OHW in Denmark and six different home composting units (with different input and different mixing frequencies) were modelled. In addition, incineration and landfilling was modelled as alternatives to home composting. The most important processes contributing to the envir...

  12. Waste management under a life cycle approach as a tool for a circular economy in the canned anchovy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso, J; Margallo, M; Celaya, J; Fullana, P; Bala, A; Gazulla, C; Irabien, A; Aldaco, R

    2016-08-01

    The anchovy canning industry has high importance in the Cantabria Region (North Spain) from economic, social and touristic points of view. The Cantabrian canned anchovy is world-renowned owing to its handmade and traditional manufacture. The canning process generates huge amounts of several food wastes, whose suitable management can contribute to benefits for both the environment and the economy, closing the loop of the product life cycle. Life cycle assessment methodology was used in this work to assess the environmental performance of two waste management alternatives: Head and spine valorisation to produce fishmeal and fish oil; and anchovy meat valorisation to produce anchovy paste. Fuel oil production has been a hotspot of the valorisation of heads and spines, so several improvements should be applied. With respect to anchovy meat valorisation, the production of polypropylene and glass for packaging was the least environmentally friendly aspect of the process. Furthermore, the environmental characterisation of anchovy waste valorisation was compared with incineration and landfilling alternatives. In both cases, the valorisation management options were the best owing to the avoided burdens associated with the processes. Therefore, it is possible to contribute to the circular economy in the Cantabrian canned anchovy industry. PMID:27354015

  13. Life cycle assessment of solid waste management strategies in a chlor-alkali production facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Edmundo; Navia, Rodrigo

    2011-06-01

    The waste management of a chlor-alkali and calcium chloride industrial facility from southern Chile was the object of this study. The main solid waste materials generated in these processes are brine sediments and calcium chloride sediments, respectively. Both residues are mixed in the liquid phase and filtered in a press filter, obtaining a final low humidity solid waste, called 'mixed sediments', which is disposed of in an industrial landfill as non-hazardous waste. The aim of the present study was to compare by means of LCA, the current waste management option of the studied chlor-alkali facility, namely landfill disposal, with two new possible options: the reuse of the mixed sediments as mineral additive in compost and the use of brine sediments as an unconventional sorbent for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. The functional unit was defined as 1 tonne of waste being managed. To perform this evaluation, software SimaPro 7.0 was used, selecting the Ecoindicator 99 and CML 2000 methodologies for impact evaluation. The obtained results indicate that the use of brine sediments as a novel material for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater (scenario 3) presented environmental benefits when compared with the waste management option of sediments landfilling (scenario 1). The avoided environmental loads, generated by the substitution of activated granular carbon and the removal of Cu and Zn from wastewater in the treatment process generated positive environmental impacts, enhancing the environmental performance of scenario 3. PMID:20699293

  14. Dynamic Properties and Fatigue Life of Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixtures Reinforced with Waste Tyre Rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Nuha Salim Mashaan; Ali, Asim H.; Suhana Koting; Mohamed Rehan Karim

    2013-01-01

    Today, virgin polymer modified asphalt mixes are comparatively more expensive for road pavement. One way to reduce the expense of such construction and to make it more convenient is the application of inexpensive polymer, such as waste polymer. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding waste tyre rubber (crumb rubber modifier (CRM)) on the stiffness and fatigue properties of stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixtures. Various percentages of waste CRM with size of 0.60 mm ...

  15. Can oil, plastic and RAP wastes have a new life in novel asphalt mixtures?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Sérgio; Costa, L; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Oliveira, Joel; Machado, A.V.; F Duarte

    2015-01-01

    The pavement recycling allows to reuse reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) or other waste materials in new asphalt mixtures for road construction or rehabilitation, thus re-ducing the use of virgin materials (aggregates and bitumen). Thus, the main aim of this study is to minimize the use of natural resources through the reuse of three waste materials: HDPE, mo-tor oil and RAP. Different amounts of waste motor oil and HDPE were added to an asphalt binder with 50% aged bitumen. The best solutions...

  16. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Racanella, Gaia [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Marras, Roberto [Unicalce S.p.A., R and D Department, Via Tonio da Belledo 30, 23900 Lecco (Italy); Rigamonti, Lucia [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO{sub 2} emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in

  17. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO2 emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in

  18. LIFE ESTIMATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK STEEL FOR F-TANK FARM CLOSURE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT - 9310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, K; Bruce Wiersma, B; Stephen Harris, S

    2009-01-12

    High level radioactive waste (HLW) is stored in underground carbon steel storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The underground tanks will be closed by removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations, and severing/sealing external penetrations. The life of the carbon steel materials of construction in support of the performance assessment has been completed. The estimation considered general and localized corrosion mechanisms of the tank steel exposed to grouted conditions. A stochastic approach was followed to estimate the distributions of failures based upon mechanisms of corrosion accounting for variances in each of the independent variables. The methodology and results used for one-type of tank is presented.

  19. Technical data for waste incineration - background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    with the disposal of a product through waste incineration. Based on knowledge of the material composition of the product and the technology applied in the waste incineration plant, the model estimates input of energy and auxiliary materials required for the incineration of the product and generation of energy...... and output of emissions to the environment caused by the incineration. The work has been performed as part of the EUREKA project EUROENVIRON 1296: LCAGAPS, sponsored by the Danish Agency for Industry and Trade....... and possible recycling hereof. The assessment is based on an inventory of inputs and outputs (resource/material consumption and generation of energy and emissions) for all the processes that occur as part of the product life-cycle. A model is developed to estimate the inputs and outputs associated...

  20. Transitions in waste treatment as a driver for product life extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2015-01-01

    Increasing amounts of energy are used for provision of resources. Recycling, refurbishment and reuse practices are recurring elements in visions of the future low carbon and resource efficient society. Visions of improved waste management practices are, however, confronted with the inherent...... refurbishment and swap initiatives as mediators that generate transformative change by displacing the boundaries and interdependencies within and among the established socio-material order of waste management....

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of Electricity Generation from Low Temperature Waste Heat : The Influence of Working Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Lijun

    2012-01-01

    In the metallurgical industry and in refineries and process industries, there is significant amount of waste heat, it is a challenged field to do the research for producing electricity from the energy of waste heat. Traditionallay, Organic Rankine Cycle(ORC)is used for generating electricity from low temperature heat source. Recently researchers are focusing on the supercritical Rankine cycle which uses CO2 as working fluid for which is more environmental friendly working fluid, possilbe redu...

  2. The high-level and long life radioactive wastes management in France: inquiry near the actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents talks carried out near various actors of the radioactive wastes management in France. These talks have been realized in the framework of an inquiry aiming at supporting the developments of an economic sciences thesis, relative to the sustainable management of the nuclear wastes. This inquiry aimed to better determine the actors stakes, the controversies on the technical choices, but also the possible cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of different uses of biogas from anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste in France. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the study, Gaz de France (GdF) and the French Environment Energy Management Agency (ADEME) wished to identify the best method to use the biogas from anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste (bio-waste). Secondly, GdF and ADEME wished to evaluate the strength and weaknesses of the two main different organic recycling: anaerobic digestion (methanization) and composting. The study is based on the life cycle assessment method. The life cycle assessment used for this study consists in quantifying the environmental impacts of all of the activities which are related to the chosen use method. This methodology involves compiling a detailed account of all substances and energy flows removed or emitted from or into the environment at each stage of the life cycle. These flows are then translated into indicators of potential environment impacts. This methodology is based on the international standards ISO14040 and ISO 14044. The life cycle assessment was performed by RDC Environnement. In this study, two questions were treated: - Which is the best valorisation method for biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste: fuel, heat or electricity? ('Biogas' question); - Which is the best treatment for the separately collected biodegradable waste: anaerobic digestion (methanization) or industrial composting? ('Composting' question). The field of the study includes the arrival of the separately collected biodegradable waste at the anaerobic unit as well as the utilisation of the biogas energy and the agricultural use of the digestate from anaerobic digestion. For each biogas utilisation, the environmental impacts of each life cycle stage were considered as well as the impacts that were avoided due to the substitution of the use of non-renewable energy ('conventional' procedures). The modelling of the direct composting of the biodegradable waste was realised taking into account the followings

  4. Enhancement of biogas production from food waste and sewage sludge - Environmental and economic life cycle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ola; Bisaillon, Mattias; Haraldsson, Mårten; Sundberg, Johan

    2016-06-15

    Management of municipal solid waste is an efficient method to increase resource efficiency, as well as to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources due to that (1) waste to a large extent is renewable as it consists of food waste, paper, wood etc. and (2) when energy and materials are recovered from waste treatment, fossil fuels can be substituted. In this paper results from a comprehensive system study of future biological treatment of readily degradable waste in two Swedish regions are presented. Different collection and separation systems for food waste in households have been applied as well as technical improvements of the biogas process as to reduce environmental impact. The results show that central sorting of a mixed fraction into recyclables, combustibles, biowaste and inert is a competitive option compared to source separation. Use of pellets is beneficial compared to direct spreading as fertiliser. Fuel pellets seem to be the most favourable option, which to a large extent depends on the circumstances in the energy system. Separation and utilisation of nitrogen in the wet part of the digestion residue is made possible with a number of technologies which decreases environmental impact drastically, however to a substantial cost in some cases. PMID:27038432

  5. Waste management of printed wiring boards: a life cycle assessment of the metals recycling chain from liberation through refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Kendall, Alissa; Xu, Zhenming; Schoenung, Julie M

    2015-01-20

    Due to economic and societal reasons, informal activities including open burning, backyard recycling, and landfill are still the prevailing methods used for electronic waste treatment in developing countries. Great efforts have been made, especially in China, to promote formal approaches for electronic waste management by enacting laws, developing green recycling technologies, initiating pilot programs, etc. The formal recycling process can, however, engender environmental impact and resource consumption, although information on the environmental loads and resource consumption is currently limited. To quantitatively assess the environmental impact of the processes in a formal printed wiring board (PWB) recycling chain, life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to a formal recycling chain that includes the steps from waste liberation through materials refining. The metal leaching in the refining stage was identified as a critical process, posing most of the environmental impact in the recycling chain. Global warming potential was the most significant environmental impact category after normalization and weighting, followed by fossil abiotic depletion potential, and marine aquatic eco-toxicity potential. Scenario modeling results showed that variations in the power source and chemical reagents consumption had the greatest influence on the environmental performance. The environmental impact from transportation used for PWB collection was also evaluated. The results were further compared to conventional primary metals production processes, highlighting the environmental benefit of metal recycling from waste PWBs. Optimizing the collection mode, increasing the precious metals recovery efficiency in the beneficiation stage and decreasing the chemical reagents consumption in the refining stage by effective materials liberation and separation are proposed as potential improvement strategies to make the recycling chain more environmentally friendly. The LCA results provide

  6. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NOx emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO2-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO2-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO2-eq, with 294 kg CO2-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NOx process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available

  7. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylot, Antoine, E-mail: a.beylot@brgm.fr; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  8. Effectiveness examination of requirements shown in interim report about clearance of solid waste contaminated by only short half-life nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When radiation facility for various unsealed radioisotopes intends to execute clearance of solid waste contaminated by only short half-life nuclide, a necessary strategy to prevent from contamination of long half-life nuclide has been shown in technical examination interim. We established our radiation facility as a model for classification management of nuclide according to length of half-life and examined the effectiveness of the classification management of the interim report as index nuclides, tritium and Phosphorus-32, based on the example of our classification management of the nuclide in facilities. In this report it was found that the classification management of the nuclide by half-life prevented effectively long half-life nuclide from mixing with the solid waste contaminated by only short half-life nuclide. (author)

  9. Use of life-cycle analysis to support solid waste management planning for Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, P Ozge; Ranjithan, S Ranji; Barlaz, Morton A

    2009-03-01

    Mathematical models of integrated solid waste management (SWM) are useful planning tools given the complexity of the solid waste system and the interactions among the numerous components that constitute the system. An optimization model was used in this study to identify and evaluate alternative plans for integrated SWM for the State of Delaware in consideration of cost and environmental performance, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The three counties in Delaware were modeled individually to identify efficient SWM plans in consideration of constraints on cost, landfill diversion requirements, GHG emissions, and the availability of alternate treatment processes (e.g., recycling, composting, and combustion). The results show that implementing a landfill diversion strategy (e.g., curbside recycling) for only a portion of the population is most cost-effective for meeting a county-specific landfill diversion target Implementation of waste-to-energy offers the most cost-effective opportunity for GHG emissions reductions. PMID:19350889

  10. A life cycle assessment of environmental performances of two combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Umberto; Ardolino, Filomena; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2015-07-01

    An attributional life cycle analysis (LCA) was developed to compare the environmental performances of two waste-to-energy (WtE) units, which utilize the predominant technologies among those available for combustion and gasification processes: a moving grate combustor and a vertical shaft gasifier coupled with direct melting. The two units were assumed to be fed with the same unsorted residual municipal waste, having a composition estimated as a European average. Data from several plants in operation were processed by means of mass and energy balances, and on the basis of the flows and stocks of materials and elements inside and throughout the two units, as provided by a specific substance flow analysis. The potential life cycle environmental impacts related to the operations of the two WtE units were estimated by means of the Impact 2002+ methodology. They indicate that both the technologies have sustainable environmental performances, but those of the moving grate combustion unit are better for most of the selected impact categories. The analysis of the contributions from all the stages of each specific technology suggests where improvements in technological solutions and management criteria should be focused to obtain further and remarkable environmental improvements. PMID:25899036

  11. Dynamic Properties and Fatigue Life of Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixtures Reinforced with Waste Tyre Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, virgin polymer modified asphalt mixes are comparatively more expensive for road pavement. One way to reduce the expense of such construction and to make it more convenient is the application of inexpensive polymer, such as waste polymer. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding waste tyre rubber (crumb rubber modifier (CRM on the stiffness and fatigue properties of stone mastic asphalt (SMA mixtures. Various percentages of waste CRM with size of 0.60 mm were added to SMA mixtures. Indirect tensile stiffness modulus test was conducted at temperatures of 5, 25, and 40°C. Indirect tensile fatigue test was conducted at three different stress levels (2000, 2500, and 3000 N. The results show that the stiffness modulus of reinforced SMA samples containing various contents of CRM is significantly high in comparison with that of nonreinforced samples, and the stiffness modulus of reinforced samples is in fact less severely affected by the increased temperature compared to the nonreinforced samples. Further, the results show that CRM reinforced SMA mixtures exhibit significantly higher fatigue lives compared to the nonreinforced mixtures help in and promotion of sustainable technology by recycling of waste materials in much economical and environmental-friendly manner.

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions (CO2-CH4 From Municipal Solid Waste Management Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA in Mahdsht City (IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naderi M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Waste production is inevitable in any society and consequently waste management is one of the main roles of any municipality. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate different waste management scenarios. According to the amount and composition of the generated waste, considering environmental, economic and technical issues, several options are existed. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA as a decision support tool has been used in several cases to select the most appropriate option. In this paper, production of greenhouse gases (CO2-CH4 in different waste management options in Mahdasht city (Iran has been studied using IWM software and LCA application. Two scenarios has been defined, the first includes direct and complete transferring of waste to the landfill, and the second includes transferring of 76% of total waste to the landfill and recycling 20% and composting 4%. The questionnaires were fulfilled by the staffs and field surveying. The life cycle inventory cataloging was done using the IWM-1model according to environmental point of view. The amount of produced greenhouse gases in the first scenario is about 9,218 tons and in the second scenario is about 6,801 tons. Results indicate that implementing recycling and composting operation can lead to the 26% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption reduction of a waste management system.

  13. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter; De Meester, Steven; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource recovery efficiencies. The calculated exergy efficiencies were used to compare the scenarios and to evaluate the applicability of exergy-based measures for expressing resource quality and for optimizing resource recovery. Exergy efficiencies were determined based on two approaches: (i) exergy flow analysis of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher efficiencies were associated with high levels of material recycling), while the scenario efficiencies based on the exergetic LCA lay in a narrow range around 14%. Metal recovery was beneficial in both types of analyses, but had more influence on the overall efficiency in the exergetic LCA approach, as avoided burdens associated with primary metal production were much more important than the exergy content of the recovered metals. On the other hand, plastic recovery was highly beneficial in the exergy flow analysis, but rather insignificant in exergetic LCA. The two approaches thereby offered different quantitative results as well as conclusions regarding material recovery. With respect to resource quality, the main challenge for the exergy flow analysis is the use of exergy content and exergy losses as a proxy for resource quality and resource losses, as exergy content is not per se correlated with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it

  14. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter; De Meester, Steven; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource recovery efficiencies. The calculated exergy efficiencies were used to compare the scenarios and to evaluate the applicability of exergy-based measures for expressing resource quality and for optimizing resource recovery. Exergy efficiencies were determined based on two approaches: (i) exergy flow analysis of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher efficiencies were associated with high levels of material recycling), while the scenario efficiencies based on the exergetic LCA lay in a narrow range around 14%. Metal recovery was beneficial in both types of analyses, but had more influence on the overall efficiency in the exergetic LCA approach, as avoided burdens associated with primary metal production were much more important than the exergy content of the recovered metals. On the other hand, plastic recovery was highly beneficial in the exergy flow analysis, but rather insignificant in exergetic LCA. The two approaches thereby offered different quantitative results as well as conclusions regarding material recovery. With respect to resource quality, the main challenge for the exergy flow analysis is the use of exergy content and exergy losses as a proxy for resource quality and resource losses, as exergy content is not per se correlated with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it

  15. Search for bacterial waste as a possible signature of life on Europa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of the icy Jovian moon Europa by the Galileo spacecraft served to stimulate conceptual planning for missions to Europa to search for signs of life in the volcanically-heated ocean presumed to underlie its thick icy surface. Liquid water is thought to be an essential ingredient for life, so the existence of a second water ocean in the solar system would be of paramount importance in any search for life beyond earth. In-situ measurements will be needed to directly explore the Europan ocean. The wide range of thermal and pressure environments expected on Europa provide a considerable challenge in designing an instrument package. (author)

  16. Comparison of SUREPAK life cycle costs to other methods of low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparisons of costs of low-level radioactive waste management techniques invariably degenerate into parochial arguments over differences in commercial objectives. The purpose of this paper is to establish a common basis for comparing technologies and then to examine the result as a complete cycle instead of a snapshot view taken at an arbitrary point in the progression. One objective is to portray cost sensitivity in terms of the options available for waste management. A second, perhaps less obvious, point is the definition of cost factors hidden from the short-term view. The final objective is to show the cumulative effects of costs externally imposed without reference to the technology employed (e.g., legislated surcharges based on arbitrary parameters)

  17. Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu; Xu, Yijian

    2012-03-01

    Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment. PMID:22100716

  18. Extraction of mineral elements from inedible wastes of biological components of a life-support system and their utilization for plant nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribovskaya, I. V.; Gladchenko, I. A.; Zinenko, G. K.

    Two methods of extracting mineral elements from otherwise deadlock products of a life-support system are presented. We describe first optimum conditions for recovering elements by water extraction from dry wastes of plants, biomass ash, and solid human wastes after passing them through the catalytic furnace; and, second, we describe acid extracts of biogenous elements by 1N and 2N HNO_3 from these products. Ways to use the extracts of elements in plant nutrition are considered in order to increase the extent to which the mineral loop of a life-support system can be closed.

  19. A global approach for sparse representation of uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessments of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisinella, Valentina; Conradsen, Knut; Christensen, Thomas Højlund;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Identification of key inputs and their effect on results from Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) models is fundamental. Because parameter importance varies greatly between cases due to the interaction of sensitivity and uncertainty, these features should never be defined a priori. However...

  20. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    2007-01-01

    Two disposal methods for MSWI bottom ash were assessed in a new life cycle assessment (LCA) model for road construction and disposal of residues. The two scenarios evaluated in the model were: (i) landfilling of bottom ash in a coastal landfill in Denmark and (ii) recycling of bottom ash as subbase...

  1. Life Cycle Comparison of Waste-to-Energy to Sanitary Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used to evaluate the environmental footprint of products, processes, and services. An LCA allows decision makers to compare products and processes through systematic evaluation of supply chains. Also known as a “cradle-to-grave” approach, LCA ev...

  2. Life Cycle Assessment Of Danish Concrete Waste Recycled In Road Base Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    LCA was used to assess the environmental impacts from recycling of C&DW in road construction. The scenario comprised all stages in the end of life of C&D concrete, including recovery of materials, as well as avoided production of the substituted goods. Results show the importance of transportation...

  3. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global Warming and Eutrophication Potentials of Several Water and Waste Service Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Xue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energy- and carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability and sensitivity were evaluated, the carbon intensity of the local electricity grid and the efficiency of electricity production by the co-digestion with the energy recovery process were the most important for determining the relative global warming potential results.

  4. Energy–environment–economy assessment of waste management systems from a life cycle perspective: Model development and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model that integrates life cycle energy, environment, and economy is developed. • The most important inconsistencies between LCC and LCA are unified. • The methodology improvement of MCDM is supplemented to be more logical. • A two-step sensitivity analysis is added to overcome subjectivity by decision makers. • MSW landfill and incineration are compared for model application. - Abstract: How to choose an energy-efficient, environmentally friendly and economically affordable municipal solid waste (MSW) management system has been a major challenge to be taken up by decision makers. Although life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely used for the evaluation of energy consumption and environmental burden, the economic factor is not considered yet in LCA procedures. Thus, in the present study life cycle 2E (energy and environment) assessment is extended to a 3E (energy, environment, and economy) model. To evaluate economic performance, life cycle cost (LCC) is adjusted in accordance with LCA. Afterwards, multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method is improved to integrate 3E factors. Besides, a two-step weight factor analysis is added, not only to test the robustness of the model, but also to adopt different preferences proposed by different stakeholder groups. This novel 3E model is then applied for the comparison of different MSW treatment technologies: (1) landfill; (2) landfill with biogas conversion to electricity; (3) incineration with energy recovery. Results show that incineration scores 0.944/1 and performs best among all scenarios; landfill with biogas to electricity, with final score 0.722/1, ranks second; and landfill without energy recovery (score: 0/1) is the worst choice. Furthermore, the weight factor analysis also shows a highly credibility of the results: when changing each factor’s weight from 0 to 1, less than 30% of the cases exhibit the variation in ranking order; almost no change in ranking order occurs when

  5. The potential for microbial life in a Canadian high-level nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have concluded that microbial contamination of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault is inevitable. Factors that will affect the development of substantial population of micro-organisms include: physiological tolerance of microbes; fluid movement in a vault; availability of nutrients; and availability of energy sources. It is difficult to resolve whether microbial growth will either positively or negatively affect the performance of a vault. One of the necessary steps towards ultimately answering this question is to assess the potential for microbial growth in a disposal vault, based on a nutrient and energy budget. This report gives a quantitative (but conservative) inventory of nutrients and potential energy sources present in a Canadian nuclear fuel waste vault, which hypothetically could support the growth of micro-organisms. Maximum population densities are calculated based on these inventories and assuming that all conditions for microbial growth are optimal, although this will certainly not be the case. Laboratory studies under the vault-relevant conditions are being performed to put realistic boundaries on the calculated numbers. Initial results from these studies, combined with data from a natural analogue site indicate that the calculated population densities could be overestimated by four to five orders of magnitude. Limited data show no effect of the presence of microbes on the transport of Tc, I, and Sr in backfill sand columns. Additional work is needed to address transport effects on buffer and backfill clay columns

  6. Life cycle assessment of different municipal solid waste management options: a case study of Asturias (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Nava, Yolanda; Río, J. del; Rodríguez Iglesias, Jesús Avelino; Castrillón Peláez, Leonor; Marañón Maison, María Elena

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses six strategies for managing the MSW generated in Asturias (Spain) in terms of their environmental impacts applying the Life Cycle Analysis methodology. To this end, the effect of these strategies on Human Health, Ecosystem Quality, Global Warming and Resource Depletion is studied. The analysed management options include direct landfill with recovery of biogas (S-0), direct incineration with energy recovery (S-1), biomethanization of the source-separated organic fraction wi...

  7. Using the tool of Life Cycle Assessment for evaluating processes of waste water and sludge treatment; Einsatzmoeglichkeiten des Life Cycle Assessment in der Bewertung von Verfahren der Abwasser- und Schlammbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigerl, T.; Rosenwinkel, K.H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik; Wiebusch, B. [Eurawasser Aufbereitungs- und Entsorgungs GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Whenever advances in waste water treatment were achieved in the past they have spelt technically more sophisticated processes for the elimination of water-toxic products. At present, waste water treatment technology faces further demands. Apart from the issue of economy and the avoidance of excessive burdens to citizens, a question increasingly raised is whether waste water cleaning processes are themselves environment-friendly. Related studies are internationally known as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). (orig.) [German] Fortschritte in der Abwasserreinigung bedeuteten bisher jeweils technisch aufwendigerere Loesungen zur Eliminierung gewaesserschaedigender Stoffe. Heute muss sich die Abwassertechnik weiteren Anforderungen stellen. Neben der Wirtschaftlichkeit und damit der Vermeidung unzumutbarer Belastungen fuer die Buerger wird immer mehr die Frage gestellt, ob die Verfahren der Abwasserreinigung selbst umweltvertraeglich sind. Die damit verbundenen Untersuchungen werden international als 'Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)' bezeichnet. (orig.)

  8. Easetech Energy: Advanced Life Cycle Assessment of Energy from Biomass and Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Turconi, Roberto; Tonini, Davide;

    SUMMARY: Biomass and waste are expected to play a key role in future energy systems based on large shares of renewable energy resources. The LCA model EASETECH Energy was developed specifically for modelling large and complex energy systems including various technologies and several processing...... steps. The model allows simultaneous balancing of mass and energy flows of the system under assessment, and is equipped with advanced tools for sensitivity/uncertainty analysis. EASETECH Energy was used to assess the environmental footprint of the Danish energy system in 2050 (based on 100% renewables......) and compare it to the current situation. The results show that the future Danish energy systems will have a rather different environmental footprint than the current one....

  9. Nutrient retention capabilities of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) fed bio-regenerative life support system (BLSS) waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Brown, Paul B.

    Nile tilapia were evaluated as a bio-regenerative sub-process for reducing solid waste potentially encountered in bio-regenerative life support systems. Ten juvenile Nile tilapia (mean weight = 2.05 g) were stocked into triplicate aquaria and fed one of seven experimental diets consisting of vegetable, bacterial, or food waste for a period of seven weeks. Weight gain (g), specific growth rate (mg/d), and daily consumption (g) was significantly higher ( p < 0.05) in the control group (13.80, 281.60, and 47.49, respectively) followed by the wheat bran/wheat germ group (4.25, 86.87, and 24.24). Carbon and crude lipid retention was significantly higher ( p < 0.001) in fish fed the control diet (37.99 and 68.54, respectively) followed by fish fed the wheat bran/wheat germ diet (23.19 and 63.67, respectively). Nitrogen, sulfur, and crude protein retention was significantly higher ( p < 0.001) in fish fed the wheat bran/wheat germ group (40.73, 98.65, and 40.75, respectively) followed by fish fed the control diet (23.68, 21.89, and 23.68, respectively). A general loss of minerals was observed among all groups. Strong associations were observed between crude lipid retention and sulfur retention ( r2 = 0.94), crude lipid retention and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.92), WG and fiber content of dietary treatments ( r2 = 0.92), WG and carbon retention and ( r2 = 0.88), WG and lysine content of waste residues ( r2 = 0.86), crude protein retention and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.84), sulfur retention and crude protein retention ( r2 = 0.84), and total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) content of residues and WG ( r2 = 0.81). Weaker associations existed between WG and crude lipid retention ( r2 = 0.77), crude fiber content and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.76), and WG and methionine content of waste residues ( r2 = 0.75). Additional research is needed to improve the nutritional quality of fibrous residues as a means to improve tilapia's ability to utilize these residues as a food source in bio

  10. Application of NASA's Advanced Life Support Technologies for Waste Treatment, Water Purification and Recycle, and Food Production in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Lewis, Carol E.; Covington, M. Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge to address the unique needs of the remote communities of Alaska through the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. ALSEE is a collaborative effort involving NASA, the State of Alaska, the University of Alaska, the North Slope Borough of Alaska, and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The focus is a major issue in the state of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North, the health and welfare of its people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, economic opportunity, and care for the environment. The project primarily provides treatment and reduction of waste, purification and recycling of water. and production of food. A testbed is being established to demonstrate the technologies which will enable safe, healthy, and autonomous function of remote communities and to establish the base for commercial development of the resulting technology into new industries. The challenge is to implement the technological capabilities in a manner compatible with the social and economic structures of the native communities, the state, and the commercial sector. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Micale, Caterina; Morettini, Emanuela [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Sisani, Luciano [TSA spa, Via Case Sparse 107, Magione (Italy); Damiano, Roberto [GESENU spa, Via della Molinella 7, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA analysis of two option for residual waste management. • Exploitation of mechanical physical sorting facility for extracting recyclable from RMSW. • Processing the mechanically sorted organic fraction in bioreactor landfill. • Sensitivity analysis demonstrate high influence for impact assessment of substitution ratio for recycle materials. - Abstract: Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes.

  12. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • LCA analysis of two option for residual waste management. • Exploitation of mechanical physical sorting facility for extracting recyclable from RMSW. • Processing the mechanically sorted organic fraction in bioreactor landfill. • Sensitivity analysis demonstrate high influence for impact assessment of substitution ratio for recycle materials. - Abstract: Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes

  13. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) comparison of three management options for waste papers: bioethanol production, recycling and incineration with energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Templer, Richard; Murphy, Richard J

    2012-09-01

    This study uses Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to assess the environmental profiles and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for bioethanol production from waste papers and to compare them with the alternative waste management options of recycling or incineration with energy recovery. Bioethanol production scenarios both with and without pre-treatments were conducted. It was found that an oxidative lime pre-treatment reduced GHG emissions and overall environmental burdens for a newspaper-to-bioethanol process whereas a dilute acid pre-treatment raised GHG emissions and overall environmental impacts for an office paper-to-bioethanol process. In the comparison of bioethanol production systems with alternative management of waste papers by different technologies, it was found that the environmental profiles of each system vary significantly and this variation affects the outcomes of the specific comparisons made. Overall, a number of configurations of bioethanol production from waste papers offer environmentally favourable or neutral profiles when compared with recycling or incineration.

  14. Synthesis of long live storage studies surface storage of MA-VL wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is realized in the framework of the axis 3 of the law of 1991 on the radioactive wastes management. It presents a long time surface storage installation of medium activity long life wastes. The long time of the installation would reach 300 years at the maximum. The feasibility is demonstrated and the design choices are presented and justified. The specific points of the long time storage installation, which are different from a classical industrial storage installation, are also discussed. (A.L.B.)

  15. Subcritical and supercritical water oxidation of organic, wet wastes for carbon cycling in regenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Lasseur, Christophe; Rebeyre, Pierre; Clauwaert, Peter; Luther, Amanda; Rabaey, Korneel; Zhang, Dong Dong; López Barreiro, Diego; Prins, Wolter; Brilman, Wim

    2016-07-01

    For long-term human spaceflight missions, one of the major requirements is the regenerative life support system which has to be capable of recycling carbon, nutrients and water from both solid and liquid wastes generated by the crew and by the local production of food through living organisms (higher plants, fungi, algae, bacteria, …). The European Space Agency's Life Support System, envisioned by the MELiSSA project, consists of a 5 compartment artificial ecosystem, in which the waste receiving compartment (so-called compartment I or briefly 'CI') is based on thermophilic fermentation. However, as the waste generated by the crew compartment and food production compartment contain typical plant fibres (lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose), these recalcitrant fibres end up largely unaffected in the digestate (sludge) generated in the C-I compartment. Therefore, the C-I compartment has to be supplemented with a so-called fibre degradation unit (in short, FDU) for further oxidation or degradation of said plant fibres. A potential solution to degrading these plant fibres and other recalcitrant organics is their oxidation, by means of subcritical or supercritical water, into reusable CO2 while retaining the nutrients in an organic-free liquid effluent. By taking advantage of the altered physicochemical properties of water above or near its critical point (647 K, 22.1 MPa) - including increased solubility of non-polar compounds and oxygen, ion product and diffusivity - process conditions can be created for rapid oxidation of C into CO2. In this research, the oxidizer is provided as a hydrogen peroxide solution which, at elevated temperature, will dissociated into O2. The purpose of this study is to identify ideal process conditions which (a) ensure complete oxidation of carbon, (b) retaining the nutrients other than C in the liquid effluent and (c) require as little oxidizer as possible. Experiments were conducted on a continuous, tubular heated reactor and on batch

  16. Life cycle of the plastics in the wastes. Energy development analysis of the PET disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work is directed to an energy-environmental evaluation, through the LCA methodology, of the life cycle of the containers for liquids in PET, particularly to the phase post use. Applied the italian decree with the force of law (Decreto Ronchi), the methodology LCA has been described in the basic points. Then such methodology has been applied to the containers for liquids in PET. Several disposal systems have been studied and it was found out the most suitable system from the energy and environmental point of view. The recycling turned out to be the best solution either from the energy point of view or environmental. The incineration with energy saving has found out better than the conferring in disposal (with biogas recovery) from the energy point of view, on the contrary the conferring in disposal has found out better than the environmental one

  17. Feasible way of Human Solid and Liquid Wastes' Inclusion Into Intersystem Mass Exchange of Biological-Technical Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Kudenko, Yurii; Griboskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    The basic objective arising at use of mineralized human solid and liquid wastes serving as the source of mineral elements for plants cultivation in biological-technical life support systems appears to be NaCl presence in them. The given work is aimed at feasibility study of mineralized human metabolites' utilization for nutrient solutions' preparation for their further employment at a long-term cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. cenosis in a conveyer regime. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the "wet incineration" method developed by Yu. Kudenko. On their base the solutions were prepared which were used for cultivation of 5-aged wheat conveyer with the time step-interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated by hydroponics method on expanded clay aggregate. For partial demineralization of nutrient solution every two weeks after regular wheat harvesting 12 L of solution was withdrawn from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation by the water culture method in a conveyer regime. The Salicornia europaea conveyer was represented by 2 ages with the time step-interval of 14 days. Resulting from repeating withdrawal of the solution used for wheat cultivation, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/l, and mineral elements contained in the taken solution were used for Salicornia europaea cultivation. The experiment lasted 7 months. Total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g*m-2*day-1 at harvest index equal to 36.8The work was carried out under support of SB RAS grant 132 and INTAS 05-1000008-8010

  18. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, L; Falbo, A; Forte, F; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators - R1, large household appliances - R2, TV and monitors - R3, small household appliances - R4 and lighting equipment - R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE. PMID:25913003

  19. Pyrolysis for waste management: A life cycle assesment of biodegradable waste, bioenergy generation and biochar production in Glasgow and Clyde valley

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarrola, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Biochar production and waste treatment by pyrolysis represent an attractive solution to decrease carbon dioxide atmospheric concentrations and to enhance the enrichment of soils by treating in a more sustainable way the biodegradable waste generated in urban or rural areas. However, its application in developed regions (such as Scotland) is still uncertain due to the consolidation of other disposal and treatment technologies in the waste market. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze this tech...

  20. Mathematical Analysis of a Novel Approach to Maximize Waste Recovery in a Life Support System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. McKellar; Rick A. Wood; Carl M. Stoots; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna

    2011-02-01

    NASA has been evaluating closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures carbon dioxide, CO2, reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam, H2O, co-electrolysis process is another option that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide, CO and hydrogen, H2 mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. Two process models were developed to evaluate novel approaches for waster recovery in a life support system. The first is a model INL co-electrolysis process combined with a methanol production process. The second is the INL co-electrolysis process combined with a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process. For both processes, the overall power increases as the syngas ratio, H2/CO, increases because more water is needed to produce more hydrogen at a set CO2 incoming flow rate. The power for the methanol cases is less than the PSA because heat is available from the methanol reactor to preheat the water and carbon dioxide entering the co-electrolysis process.

  1. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the danish-german border region using life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Scheutz, Charlotte; Møller, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of organic waste from household in the Danish-German border region is very diverse, the Danish area only uses incineration for the treatment while the German system includes combined biogas and composting, mechanical and biological treatment and incineration. Data on all parts of the organic waste treatment has been collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems...

  2. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z.H.I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Xiao, Y. [Ironmaking Department, R and D, Tata Steel, 1970 CA IJmuiden (Netherlands); Sietsma, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Agterhuis, H.; Visser, G. [Business Development, Van Gansewinkel Groep BV, 5657 DH Eindhoven (Netherlands); Yang, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • New characterisation methodology has been established to understand an industrially processed ICT waste. • Particle size distribution, composition, thermal–chemical behaviour and occurrence of metals were considered. • The characterisation provides direct guidelines for values recovery from the waste. - Abstract: Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process.

  3. Environmental assessment of municipal solid waste management in Sri Lanka and India in a life cycle perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikpura, S.N.M.; Bonnet, Sebastien; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand). Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment; Ministry of Education (Thailand). Center for Energy Technology and Environment

    2010-07-01

    At present, many Asian developing countries are practicing poor Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management methods such as open dumping and non-engineered landfilling. This creates severe burdens on the environment and threat to human health. The quantification of the environmental impacts resulting from such poor MSW management practices is necessary to serve as a baseline against which alternative treatment technology options can be assessed for implementation of more environmentally sustainable MSW management systems that are adapted to local situation. In this study, existing MSW management systems in Ski Lanka and India were evaluated in order to assess the severity of their environmental impacts with focus on global warming potential and abiotic resource depletion. Life Cycle Assessment methodology was followed to perform this investigation. Results from this study reveal that the existing MSW management methods used in both countries cause severe environmental damages. However, the situation in India is slightly better as compared to Sri Lanka since 24% of its MSW is being composted. The implementation of landfill with landfill gas recovery for energy was identified as an important initial step to overcome the existing environmental impacts assessed. The results obtained revealed that implementation of such systems would help substantially to reduce global warming potential and abiotic resources depletion. (orig.)

  4. Use of halophytic plants for recycling NaCl in human liquid waste in a bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Nikolai, Myasoedov; Larisa, Popova; Alexander, Tikhomirov; Sofya, Ushakova; Christophe, Lasseur; Jean-Bernard, Gros

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop technology for recycling NaCl containing in human liquid waste as intrasystem matter in a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). The circulation of Na + and Cl - excreted in urine is achieved by inclusion of halophytes, i.e. plants that naturally inhabit salt-rich soils and accumulate NaCl in their organs. A model of Na + and Cl - recycling in a BLSS was designed, based on the NaCl turnover in the human-urine-nutrient solution-halophytic plant-human cycle. The study consisted of (i) selecting a halophyte suitable for inclusion in a BLSS, and (ii) determining growth conditions supporting maximal Na + and Cl - accumulation in the shoots of the halophyte growing in a nutrient solution simulating mineralized urine. For the selected halophytic plant, Salicornia europaea, growth rate under optimal conditions, biomass production and quantities of Na + and Cl - absorbed were determined. Characteristics of a plant production conveyor consisting of S.europaea at various ages, and allowing continuity of Na + and Cl - turnover, were estimated. It was shown that closure of the NaCl cycle in a BLSS can be attained if the daily ration of fresh Salicornia biomass for a BLSS inhabitant is approximately 360 g.

  5. A holistic life cycle analysis of waste management scenarios at increasing source segregation intensity: the case of an Italian urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina

    2014-11-01

    Life cycle analysis of several waste management scenarios for an Italian urban area was performed on the basis of different source segregation collection (SS) intensities from 0% up to 52%. Source segregated waste was recycled and or/recovered by composting. Residual waste management options were by landfilling, incineration with energy recovery or solid recovered fuel (SRF) production to substitute for coal. The increase in fuel and materials consumption due to increase in SS had negligible influence on the environmental impact of the system. Recycling operations such as incineration and SRF were always advantageous for impact reduction. There was lower impact for an SS of 52% even though the difference with the SS intensity of 35% was quite limited, about 15%. In all the configurations analyzed, the best environmental performance was achieved for the management system producing SRF by the biodrying process.

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field Septic System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-10-16

    The 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field (LSLDF) septic system waste site consists of a diversion chamber, two septic tanks, a distribution box, and a drain field. This septic system was designed to receive sanitary waste water, from animal studies conducted in the 331-A and 331-B Buildings, for discharge into the soil column. However, field observations and testing suggest the 331 LSLDF septic system did not receive any discharges. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of the 331 LSLDF waste site to No Action. This site does not have a deep zone or other condition that would warrant an institutional control in accordance with the 300-FF-2 ROD under the industrial land use scenario.

  7. A holistic life cycle analysis of waste management scenarios at increasing source segregation intensity: the case of an Italian urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina

    2014-11-01

    Life cycle analysis of several waste management scenarios for an Italian urban area was performed on the basis of different source segregation collection (SS) intensities from 0% up to 52%. Source segregated waste was recycled and or/recovered by composting. Residual waste management options were by landfilling, incineration with energy recovery or solid recovered fuel (SRF) production to substitute for coal. The increase in fuel and materials consumption due to increase in SS had negligible influence on the environmental impact of the system. Recycling operations such as incineration and SRF were always advantageous for impact reduction. There was lower impact for an SS of 52% even though the difference with the SS intensity of 35% was quite limited, about 15%. In all the configurations analyzed, the best environmental performance was achieved for the management system producing SRF by the biodrying process. PMID:25008299

  8. Assessment of costs related to the implementation of management solutions on the long term for high and medium level long life radioactive wastes. ANDRA's proposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This huge document contains several volumes which propose detailed costing of the various parts of the Cigeo project after sketch studies (this project deals with the deep geological storage of high and medium level long life radioactive wastes). It notably states the various hypotheses regarding the inventory of radioactive wastes, the waste supply prediction, and works closure. This cost assessment takes the different project stages into account and a cost update. Various aspects are thus assessed, some related to investments (design studies, preliminary works, construction of the various installations, renewal of equipment during exploitation, installation dismantling and works closure, insurance, commissioning authority and engineering subcontracting), to exploitation (production and maintenance, support, activities related to safety, radiation protection and control of the environment, operating costs, utilities, storage containers, insurance), and to other expenses (tax, research and development, technological tests, control after closure)

  9. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators — R1, large household appliances — R2, TV and monitors — R3, small household appliances — R4 and lighting equipment — R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE. - Highlights: • The WEEE management system in

  10. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, L., E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it; Falbo, A.; Forte, F.; Grosso, M.; Rigamonti, L.

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators — R1, large household appliances — R2, TV and monitors — R3, small household appliances — R4 and lighting equipment — R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE. - Highlights: • The WEEE management system in

  11. Utilization of liquid human wastes and introduction into the material cycling in biological life-support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, N. P.>; Ushakova, S. A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Kudenko, U. A.

    The possibilities of step-by-step utilization of liquid human wastes in biological life-support systems on long-functioning space stations have been considered in this work. Utilization involves "wet" urine incineration with hydrogen peroxide at normal pressure and 90 - 95°C temperature, urease-enzymic decomposition of urine and biological desalination in the higher plant link. The soybean flour was used as a source of urease. Growing soya plants as a component of the higher plant link would give a steady source of urease to the system. To decompose urea (9-15g) contained in 1l of incinerated urine we used 0.5 - 1 g of soy flour. The duration of hydrolysis of daily urea excreted by a human is 70 - 95 hours. It is supposed that ammonia excreted in the reaction of urea decomposition will be processed by nitrifying bacteria. The concentration of total nitrogen in urine after urea hydrolysis and removal of ammonia formed during the reaction constituted 0.6 - 1.2 g/l. Further biological desalination was carried out in the higher plant link, for that the edible salt-accumulating halophytes Salicornia europaea were used. To grow this plant under the aqueous culture conditions, the urine was additionally mineralized at 180 °C after incineration and decomposition of urea. The process of additional mineralization was related to the necessity of removal of organic materials and nitrogen residues, which higher concentration under the aqueous culture conditions has negative effect on plants. The volume of the nutrient solution for growing 6 plants of Salicornia europaea was 1.5 l (daily norm of urine excreted by human), the planting area was 0.032 m2. By the end of vegetation the productivity and mineral composition of Salicornia europaea plants were analyzed. The productivity of plants grown on liquid human wastes (the experiment) practically was not different from the productivity of plants grown on the mineral solution with sodium chloride (checkout). In experimental

  12. Environment. How to store nuclear wastes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a trial is about to take place between the ANDRA (the French National Agency for the Management of Nuclear Wastes) and associations opposed to the Cigeo project of geological deposit of nuclear wastes in Bures, this article briefly recalls the objectives of Cigeo in terms of volumes of storage of high and intermediate activity-long life wastes, and the failure of the public debate process in 2013. It briefly discusses the assessment of the geothermal potential of the area which has been the motivation of the associations to obtain this trial. While providing a sketch of the Cigeo project, and briefly recalling that geological deposit is a rather spread technique in the world, the article briefly recalls the main steps of this industrial project, and outlines that its cost and financing are still a matter of discussion, notably because some costs cannot be precisely known for a site which is planned to be exploited during 125 years. It outlines that Cigeo still lacks a legal framework (it has been removed from the law on energy transition, and from a more recent bill project), and that there is for now no alternative for nuclear waste storage. The issue of wastes produced by the dismantling of nuclear installations is briefly evoked

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Treatment Technologies. An environmental and financial systems analysis of gasification, incineration and landfilling of waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew; Eriksson, Ola [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Industrial Ecology; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Chemical Technology

    2003-05-01

    A technology which is currently developed by researchers at KTH is catalytic combustion. which is one component of a gasification system. Instead of performing the combustion in the gas turbine by a flame, a catalyst is used. When the development of a new technology (as catalytic combustion) reaches a certain step where it is possible to quantify material-, energy- and capital flows, the prerequisites for performing a systems analysis is at hand. The systems analysis can be used to expand the know-how about the potential advantages of the catalytic combustion technology by highlighting its function as a component of a larger system. In this way it may be possible to point out weak points which have to be investigated more, but also strong points to emphasise the importance of further development. The aim of this project was to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts and economic costs of thermal treatment technologies in general and catalytic combustion in particular. By using a holistic assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of catalytic combustion of waste it was possible to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the technology under different conditions. Following different treatment scenarios have been studied: (1) Gasification with catalytic combustion, (2) Gasification with flame combustion, (3) Incineration with energy recovery and (4) Landfilling with gas collection. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion. of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios is supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced. from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied were classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment into the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical

  14. Environmental assessment of low-organic waste landfill scenarios by means of life-cycle assessment modelling (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.;

    2010-01-01

    The environmental performance of two low-organic waste landfill scenarios ('low-organic-energy' and 'low-organic-flare') was developed and compared with two household waste landfill scenarios ('household-energy' and 'household-flare') by means of LCA-modelling. The LCA-modelling was made for 1...... tonne of wet waste landfilled and the environmental aspects were evaluated for a 100-year period after disposal. The data utilized in the LCA-calculations to model the first 10-20 years of landfilling of the two low-organic waste scenarios make extensive use of site-specific data from the Nauerna...... assessments show that the low-organic waste scenarios achieved better environmental performance than the household waste scenarios with regard to both ordinary and toxicity-related environmental impact categories. This indicates that the reduction of organic matter accepted at landfills (as prescribed...

  15. Safety analysis of geologic containment of long life radioactive wastes. Critical assessment of existing methods and proposition of prospective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing methods of risk analysis applied to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste in geologic formations are rewieved. A prospective analysis method for containment performances is proposed, deduced in the burial system from the combination of interaction between wastes, repository, host rock, surrounding geosphere, of natural evolution of each component of the system, sudden or chance events that could break waste containment. The method is based on the elaboration of four basic schemes graded in difficulties to facilitate comparisons

  16. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  17. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  18. An active facility management strategy for containment of intermediate level waste using risk-based service life modelling of reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL Environmental Services are planning the on-site storage of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) arising from historic operations of the Hunterston 'A' Nuclear Power Station, West Kilbride, Ayrshire UK within a shielded store. This paper proposes a proactive strategy of durability management for reinforced concrete structures used in long-term storage (at least 100 years) of nuclear waste. A critique is presented on the common approach of durability design using Standards compared with an 'active' performance-based risk approach. The active approach is thought to give greater flexibility to the decision-making process for management of concrete structures depending on the balance chosen between acceptable risk and maintenance philosophy. The management proposed uses a reliability-based risk approach to concrete degradation whose behavioural models are updated, with increasing accuracy, as new monitoring results from the structures are generated with time. Hunterston 'A' Nuclear Power Station, is in the process of being decommissioned. Operational wastes from the decommissioning process are to be stored in an on-site Intermediate Level Waste Store (ILWS) built in reinforced concrete and clad externally with aluminium that will create an environment to keep the waste packages in such a condition that they will be acceptable for final disposal. The facility will have a design life of at least 100 years. Probabilistic models have been developed for the durability design of the reinforced concrete structure subject to chloride- or carbonation-induced corrosion of the reinforcement. These have been used to confirm that the design will be durable for longer than the design life even under the most adverse environmental conditions. They have also shown that the recommendations of British Standards could lead to corrosion initiation well within the design service life under extreme conditions and would not provide sufficient margin for such an important structure. An

  19. Trade study for water and waste management concepts. Task 7: Support special analysis. [cost analysis of life support systems for waste utilization during space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Cost analyses and tradeoff studies are given for waste management in the Space Station, Lunar Surface Bases, and interplanetary space missions. Crew drinking water requirements are discussed and various systems to recycle water are examined. The systems were evaluated for efficiency and weight savings. The systems considered effective for urine water recovery were vapor compression, flash evaporation, and air evaporation with electrolytic pretreatment. For wash water recovery, the system of multifiltration was selected. A wet oxidation system, which can process many kinds of wastes, is also considered.

  20. Energy recovery potential and life cycle impact assessment of municipal solid waste management technologies in Asian countries using ELP model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandyaswargo, Andante Hadi; Onoda, Hiroshi; Nagata, Katsuya [Waseda Univ., Saitama (Japan). Graduate School of Environment and Energy Engineering

    2012-11-01

    Natural resource scarcity and the effects of environmental destruction have pushed societies to use and reuse resources more efficiently. Waste should no longer be seen as a burden but rather as another source of material such as energy fuel. This study analyzes the potential of three waste management technologies - incineration with energy recovery, composting, and sanitary landfill gas collection - as ways to recover energy and material from municipal solid waste. The study applies the environmental load point (ELP) method and utilizes municipal waste characteristics and composition from India, Indonesia, and China as case studies. The ELP methodology employs integrated weighting in the quantification process to get a one-unit result. This study particularly uses analytic hierarchical process questionnaires to get the weighting value of the nine impact categories: energy depletion, global warming, ozone depletion, resource consumption, ecosystem influence, water pollution, waste disposal, air pollution, and acid rain. The results show that the scenario which includes composting organic waste and sanitary landfill with gas collection for energy recovery has medium environmental impact and the highest practicability. The optimum material and energy potential is from the Chinese case study in which 254 tonnes of compost fertilizer and 60 MWh of electricity is the estimated output for every 1,000 tonnes of waste treated. (orig.)

  1. A Cleaner Process for Selective Recovery of Valuable Metals from Electronic Waste of Complex Mixtures of End-of-Life Electronic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Yang, Y

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, recovery of metals from electronic waste within the European Union has become increasingly important due to potential supply risk of strategic raw material and environmental concerns. Electronic waste, especially a mixture of end-of-life electronic products from a variety of sources, is of inherently high complexity in composition, phase, and physiochemical properties. In this research, a closed-loop hydrometallurgical process was developed to recover valuable metals, i.e., copper and precious metals, from an industrially processed information and communication technology waste. A two-stage leaching design of this process was adopted in order to selectively extract copper and enrich precious metals. It was found that the recovery efficiency and extraction selectivity of copper both reached more than 95% by using ammonia-based leaching solutions. A new electrodeposition process has been proven feasible with 90% current efficiency during copper recovery, and the copper purity can reach 99.8 wt %. The residue from the first-stage leaching was screened into coarse and fine fractions. The coarse fraction was returned to be releached for further copper recovery. The fine fraction was treated in the second-stage leaching using sulfuric acid to further concentrate precious metals, which could achieve a 100% increase in their concentrations in the residue with negligible loss into the leaching solution. By a combination of different leaching steps and proper physical separation of light materials, this process can achieve closed-loop recycling of the waste with significant efficiency. PMID:26061274

  2. A holistic life cycle analysis of waste management scenarios at increasing source segregation intensity: The case of an Italian urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Waste management scenarios starting from different SS intensity were analyzed by LCA. • Several experimental data were utilized for the inventory. • Collection activities influences marginally global impact. • Maximum global environmental gain was achieved by SRF for coke substitution. - Abstract: Life cycle analysis of several waste management scenarios for an Italian urban area was performed on the basis of different source segregation collection (SS) intensities from 0% up to 52%. Source segregated waste was recycled and or/recovered by composting. Residual waste management options were by landfilling, incineration with energy recovery or solid recovered fuel (SRF) production to substitute for coal. The increase in fuel and materials consumption due to increase in SS had negligible influence on the environmental impact of the system. Recycling operations such as incineration and SRF were always advantageous for impact reduction. There was lower impact for an SS of 52% even though the difference with the SS intensity of 35% was quite limited, about 15%. In all the configurations analyzed, the best environmental performance was achieved for the management system producing SRF by the biodrying process

  3. Characteristics of mineral nutrition of plants in the bio-technical life support system with human wastes included in mass exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Ushakova, Sofya; Kalacheva, Galina; Tikhomirov, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The study addresses the effectiveness of using ion exchange substrates (IES) to optimize mineral nutrition of plants grown in the nutrient solutions containing oxidized human wastes for application in bio-technical life support systems. The study shows that the addition of IES to the root-inhabited substrate is favorable for the growth of wheat vegetative organs but causes a decrease in the grain yield. By contrast, the addition of IES to the nutrient solution does not influence the growth of vegetative organs but favors normal development of wheat reproductive organs. Thus, to choose the proper method of adjusting the solution with IES, one should take into account specific parameters of plant growth and development and the possibility of multiple recycling of IES based on the liquid products of mineralization of human wastes.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Peach Nectar: a comparative analysis between conventional and bioenergy-from-waste integrated food chains

    OpenAIRE

    Menna, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Modern food systems are characterized by a high energy intensity as well as by the production of large amounts of waste, residuals and food losses. This inefficiency presents major consequences, in terms of GHG emissions, waste disposal, and natural resource depletion. The research hypothesis is that residual biomass material could contribute to the energetic needs of food systems, if recovered as an integrated renewable energy source (RES), leading to a sensitive reduction of the impact...

  5. Life cycle assessment of waste to energy micro-pyrolysis system: case study for an Italian town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste disposal represents an important aspect of the policies of politics of developed countries. It is well known that waste management entails several social, economical and environmental aspects. Many different technical solutions have been proposed and evaluated, more or less complicated, from a social and economic point of view, but the environmental burden linked to these solutions still remains an open problem not definitively resolved yet. One of the most promising ways for investigating and comparing the environmental consequences connected to different human activities seems to be represented by the LCA analysis. In this work the LCA analysis of a micro-pyrolysis with micro-gas turbine waste to energy plant, has been performed with the aid of a commercial simulation code. The scenario is analysed with regard to a small, isolated, Italian town. A comparison between the current and proposed case has also been carried out. (Author)

  6. The role of compensation in nuclear waste facility siting. A literature review and real life examples. Deliverable D16b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, Matti (Univ. of Tampere, Tampere (Finland)); Richardson, P.J. (Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham, Rutland (United Kingdom))

    2009-10-15

    The main objective of this report is to introduce and analyse the local decision-making process in the Eurajoki municipality, Finland regarding the siting of the SNF facility, within the framework of compensation theory. The compensation case Eurajoki offers excellent empirical data for analyzing how the negotiations on compensation were implemented at the local level. The successful siting process is particularly interesting as a number of survey studies have suggested that compensation for a radioactive waste repository does not change the percentage of individuals supporting the facility. On the contrary, some compensation proposals have even decreased the existing support. Even among hazardous waste facilities radioactive waste facilities seem to be an exception. The explanation offered is that radioactive waste is regarded with a greater sense of dread than is the case for other hazardous waste. Although monetary incentives and other benefits have been widely applied in the field of nuclear waste management in many countries the conclusion drawn is that compensation-based siting has to date experienced little success. However, two recent examples, one from Finland and the other from Korea, indicate that compensation can play a decisive role in decision-making during the siting of radioactive waste facilities. Furthermore, in Sweden a local benefit package was agreed between the nuclear waste management company SKB AB and the two candidate municipalities, Oskarshamn and Oesthammar in 2009 before the company announced the site. The novel aspect of this arrangement is that the municipality in which the facility is not located (now known to be Oskarshamn) will receive 75% of the total benefit package (around Euro 200 million) given that Oesthammar will receive all the attendant benefits associated with facility development. The main questions posed in this report are as follows: Why was the compensation package a success in the case of Eurajoki? What were the

  7. Life-cycle assessment for power generation from wood fuels and wood wastes; Oekobilanz fuer die Stromerzeugung aus Holzbrennstoffen und Altholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, N.; Frischknecht, R.; Faist, M.

    2002-07-01

    This reworked final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of life-cycle assessments made of four wood-fired systems with the goal of analysing the possibilities of labelling such plants with the Swiss eco-label 'Naturemade Star'. In addition to these case studies, three standard technologies were modelled, whereby in two of the models different waste gas filtering methods were considered. In the third model, electricity is produced from waste wood and features an advanced waste gas treatment system. The report describes the various plants and draws up eco-balances for them. Pollution emissions, such as dust, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide, are discussed and plant operation and assessment are looked at. Certification to 'Naturemade Star' standards is checked out for the case-study plant examples and for the standard plant proposed. A further eco-balance is drawn up for wood-fired power generation with impact allocated to heat and power generation based on exergy content. An appendix provides details on the physical parameters of wood and on the methods used for impact assessment.

  8. 谈生活垃圾综合处理厂总图规划%On general planning for life waste comprehensive disposal plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔开放; 张坦坦; 苏红玉

    2012-01-01

    Combining with the planning example of some life waste comprehensive disposal plant,the study analyzes and introduces some ideas and methods in the planning for the life waste comprehensive disposal plant,and illustrates from the layout of the master plan,the layout of pipelines,the logistics calculation and roads,and the greening layout,so as to provide the direction for the design of the similar program planning.%结合某生活垃圾综合处理厂的规划实例,简要分析和介绍了生活垃圾综合处理厂规划中的一些思路和方法,分别从总平面布置、管线布置、物流计算及道路、绿化布置等方面作了阐述,为同类项目规划设计提供指导。

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Recycling and Disposal of Waste Printers%废打印机回收处置的生命周期评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮久莉; 郭玉文; 乔琦

    2015-01-01

    Taking waste print-copy multifunction machine for example , the environmental impacts of recycling and disposal of waste printers were evaluated with life cycle assessment ( LCA) approach, and the countermeasures of supervision and management of recycling and disposal of waste printers in the future put forward .The results showed that the recycling and disposal of waste printers had positive environmental benefits , and life-cycle environmental impacts were mainly in decreasing the impacts of inorganic damage to respiratory system , the climate change , the ecological toxicity and the fossil energy , while exerting little change on the impacts of acidification , eutrophication and mineral resources .The transportation and power consumption were the main links to cause negative environmental impacts , and the recycling of metal and plastic in the disposal process generated positive environmental benefits .Sensitivity analysis results showed that the plastic was the most sensitive for life-cycle environmental impacts of waste printers , followed by the power consumption and then the metal recycling .For waste printer recycling and disposal in the future , it is necessary to carry out standardizing recycling and dismantling , lowering power consumption and promoting research on plastic and metal recycling technology , so as to further improve the environmental benefits brought about by recycling and disposal of waste printers .%以废打印复印一体机为例,应用生命周期评价( LCA)方法,对废打印机回收处置的环境影响进行评价,并对未来废打印机回收处置监管提出对策建议。结果表明,废打印机的回收处置有积极的环境效益,其生命周期环境影响主要体现在避免了无机物对呼吸系统损害、气候变化、生态毒性和化石燃料等方面,在酸化∕富营养化、矿产资源等方面影响稍小。其中,在造成的环境影响方面运输和电耗是主要环节,而

  10. Importance of food waste pre-treatment efficiency for global warming potential in life cycle assessment of anaerobic digestion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, My; Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob;

    2015-01-01

    treatment of the refuse. The objective of this study was to investigate how FW pre-treatment efficiency impacts the environmental performance of waste management, with respect to global warming potential (GWP). The modeling tool EASETECH was used to perform consequential LCA focusing on the impact...

  11. Home composting as an alternative treatment option for organic household waste in Denmark: An environmental assessment using life cycle assessment-modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental assessment of the management of organic household waste (OHW) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the waste-life cycle assessment (LCA) model EASEWASTE. The focus was on home composting of OHW in Denmark and six different home composting units (with different input and different mixing frequencies) were modelled. In addition, incineration and landfilling was modelled as alternatives to home composting. The most important processes contributing to the environmental impact of home composting were identified as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (load) and the avoided emissions in relation to the substitution of fertiliser and peat when compost was used in hobby gardening (saving). The replacement of fertiliser and peat was also identified as one of the most sensible parameters, which could potentially have a significant environmental benefit. Many of the impact categories (especially human toxicity via water (HTw) and soil (HTs)) were affected by the heavy metal contents of the incoming OHW. The concentrations of heavy metals in the compost were below the threshold values for compost used on land and were thus not considered to constitute a problem. The GHG emissions were, on the other hand, dependent on the management of the composting units. The frequently mixed composting units had the highest GHG emissions. The environmental profiles of the home composting scenarios were in the order of −2 to 16 milli person equivalents (mPE) Mg−1 wet waste (ww) for the non-toxic categories and −0.9 to 28 mPE Mg−1 ww for the toxic categories. Home composting performed better than or as good as incineration and landfilling in several of the potential impact categories. One exception was the global warming (GW) category, in which incineration performed better due to the substitution of heat and electricity based on fossil fuels.

  12. Life-cycle assessment of energy consumption and environmental impact of an integrated food waste-based biogas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 47.76% of the energy consumption is from the primary treatment process. • The dominant environmental impact comes from GWP100 emission (96.97 kgCO2-eq/t). • Increasing recycling rate of product can effectively reduce consumption and impact. - Abstract: Recycling food waste to produce biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD) is a promising process that can both provide renewable energy and dispose solid waste safely. However, this process affects the environment due to greenhouse gas emissions. By lifecycle assessment (LCA), we assessed the energy consumption (EC) and environmental impact (EI) of an integrated food waste-based biogas system and its subsystems. Data were collected from an actual plant in China that adopted a combination of wet-heat treatment and wet AD process at thermophilic condition. The EC of the system for processing 1 ton of waste was 663.89 MJ, among which 47.76% was from the primary treatment process (including pretreatment and AD). The GWP100 (100-year global warming potential) emission of the system reached 96.97 kgCO2-eq/t, and the AP (acidification potential), EP (eutrophication potential), HTPinf (human toxicity potential) and FAETPinf (fresh water ecotoxicity) emissions were low. The EI was mainly generated by two subsystems, namely, the primary treatment and the secondary pollution control. Sensitivity analysis showed that a 40% increase of the feed fat content resulted in 38% increase in the net energy value output and 48% decrease in EP effect. The increase in oil content and biogas production rate could significantly reduce the EC and EI of the system. It has been shown that improving the technology of the process and increasing the recycling rate of products will result in the reduction of EC and EI of the biogas system. In addition, a quantitative assessment model of EC and EI in integrated food waste-based biogas technology is established

  13. Analysis of life cycle assessment of food/energy/waste systems and development and analysis of microalgae cultivation/wastewater treatment inclusive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kristina Ochsner

    Across the world, crises in food, energy, land and water resources, as well as waste and greenhouse gas accumulation are inspiring research into the interactions among these environmental pressures. In the food/energy/waste problem set, most of the research is focused on describing the antagonistic relationships between food, energy and waste; these relationships are often analyzed with life cycle assessment (LCA). These analyses often include reporting of metrics of environmental performance with few functional units, often focusing on energy use, productivity and environmental impact while neglecting water use, food nutrition and safety. Additionally, they are often attributional studies with small scope which report location-specific parameters only. This thesis puts forth a series of recommendations to amend the current practice of LCA to combat these limitations and then utilizes these suggestions to analyze a synergistic food/waste/energy system. As an example analysis, this thesis describes the effect of combining wastewater treatment and microalgae cultivation on the productivity and scalability of the synergistic system. To ameliorate the high nutrient and water demands of microalgae cultivation, many studies suggest that microalgae be cultivated in wastewater so as to achieve large scale and low environmental costs. While cultivation studies have found this to be true, none explore the viability of the substitution in terms of productivity and scale-up. The results of this study suggest that while the integrated system may be suitable for low-intensity microalgae cultivation, for freshwater microalgae species or wastewater treatment it is not suitable for high intensity salt water microalgae cultivation. This study shows that the integration could result in reduced lipid content, high wastewater requirements, no greenhouse gas emissions benefit and only a small energy benefit.

  14. A life cycle approach to the management of household food waste - A Swedish full-scale case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The comparison of three different methods for management of household food waste show that anaerobic digestion provides greater environmental benefits in relation to global warming potential, acidification and ozone depilation compared to incineration and composting of food waste. Use of produced biogas as car fuel provides larger environmental benefits compared to a use of biogas for heat and power production. → The use of produced digestate from the anaerobic digestion as substitution for chemical fertilizer on farmland provides avoidance of environmental burdens in the same ratio as the substitution of fossil fuels with produced biogas. → Sensitivity analyses show that results are highly sensitive to assumptions regarding the environmental burdens connected to heat and energy supposedly substituted by the waste treatment. - Abstract: Environmental impacts from incineration, decentralised composting and centralised anaerobic digestion of solid organic household waste are compared using the EASEWASTE LCA-tool. The comparison is based on a full scale case study in southern Sweden and used input-data related to aspects such as source-separation behaviour, transport distances, etc. are site-specific. Results show that biological treatment methods - both anaerobic and aerobic, result in net avoidance of GHG-emissions, but give a larger contribution both to nutrient enrichment and acidification when compared to incineration. Results are to a high degree dependent on energy substitution and emissions during biological processes. It was seen that if it is assumed that produced biogas substitute electricity based on Danish coal power, this is preferable before use of biogas as car fuel. Use of biogas for Danish electricity substitution was also determined to be more beneficial compared to incineration of organic household waste. This is a result mainly of the use of plastic bags in the incineration alternative (compared to paper bags in the

  15. Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PM Daling; SB Ross; BM Biwer

    1999-12-17

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal

  16. Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal

  17. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanically-biologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-01

    The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R(2)), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year(-1)) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308year(-1) and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12Nm(3)/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90kWh per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4weeks showed rather negligible variation in the global impact of system emissions. PMID:23910244

  18. Emission of toxic components as a factor of the best practice options for waste management: Application of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović-Čarapina Hristina D.; Stepanov Jasna M.; Savić Dunja C.; Mihajlov Anđelka N.

    2011-01-01

    Health and safety have been the major concerns in waste management. Waste must be managed in a way that minimizes risk to human health. Environmental concerns over the management and disposal of waste can be divided into two major areas: conservation of resources and pollution of the environment. Integrated Waste Management (IWM) systems combine waste streams, waste collection, treatment and disposal methods, with the objective of achieving environmental benefits, economic optimization ...

  19. Assessing the feasibility of involving gaseous products resulting from physicochemical oxidation of human liquid and solid wastes in the cycling of a bio-technical life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander; Kudenko, Yurii; Trifonov, Sergey; Ushakova, Sofya

    2012-01-01

    The study addresses the possible ways of involving gaseous products produced by "wet" incineration of human wastes mixed with H2O2 in an alternating electric field in the cycling of the physical model of a bio-technical life support system (BTLSS). The resulting gas mixture contains CO2 and O2, which are easily involved in the cycling in the closed ecosystem, and NH3, which is unacceptable in the atmosphere of the BTLSS. NH3 fixation has been proposed, which is followed by nitrification and involvement of the resulting products in the mass exchange of the closed system. Experiments have been performed to show that plants can be grown in the atmosphere resulting from the closing of the gas loop that includes a physicochemical installation and a growth chamber with plants representing the phototrophic compartment of the BTLSS. The results of the study suggest the conclusion that the proposed method of organic waste oxidation can be a useful tool in creating a physical model of a closed-loop integrated BTLSS.

  20. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system. PMID:26351732

  1. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  2. Stochastic approach to municipal solid waste landfill life based on the contaminant transit time modeling using the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieda, Boguslaw, E-mail: bbieda@zarz.agh.edu.pl

    2013-01-01

    The paper is concerned with application and benefits of MC simulation proposed for estimating the life of a modern municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. The software Crystal Ball Registered-Sign (CB), simulation program that helps analyze the uncertainties associated with Microsoft Registered-Sign Excel models by MC simulation, was proposed to calculate the transit time contaminants in porous media. The transport of contaminants in soil is represented by the one-dimensional (1D) form of the advection-dispersion equation (ADE). The computer program CONTRANS written in MATLAB language is foundation to simulate and estimate the thickness of landfill compacted clay liner. In order to simplify the task of determining the uncertainty of parameters by the MC simulation, the parameters corresponding to the expression Z2 taken from this program were used for the study. The tested parameters are: hydraulic gradient (HG), hydraulic conductivity (HC), porosity (POROS), linear thickness (TH) and diffusion coefficient (EDC). The principal output report provided by CB and presented in the study consists of the frequency chart, percentiles summary and statistics summary. Additional CB options provide a sensitivity analysis with tornado diagrams. The data that was used include available published figures as well as data concerning the Mittal Steel Poland (MSP) S.A. in Krakow, Poland. This paper discusses the results and show that the presented approach is applicable for any MSW landfill compacted clay liner thickness design. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical simulation of waste in porous media is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Statistic outputs based on correct assumptions about probability distribution are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The benefits of a MC simulation are examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uniform probability distribution is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I report a useful tool applied to determine the life of a

  3. Stochastic approach to municipal solid waste landfill life based on the contaminant transit time modeling using the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is concerned with application and benefits of MC simulation proposed for estimating the life of a modern municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. The software Crystal Ball® (CB), simulation program that helps analyze the uncertainties associated with Microsoft® Excel models by MC simulation, was proposed to calculate the transit time contaminants in porous media. The transport of contaminants in soil is represented by the one-dimensional (1D) form of the advection–dispersion equation (ADE). The computer program CONTRANS written in MATLAB language is foundation to simulate and estimate the thickness of landfill compacted clay liner. In order to simplify the task of determining the uncertainty of parameters by the MC simulation, the parameters corresponding to the expression Z2 taken from this program were used for the study. The tested parameters are: hydraulic gradient (HG), hydraulic conductivity (HC), porosity (POROS), linear thickness (TH) and diffusion coefficient (EDC). The principal output report provided by CB and presented in the study consists of the frequency chart, percentiles summary and statistics summary. Additional CB options provide a sensitivity analysis with tornado diagrams. The data that was used include available published figures as well as data concerning the Mittal Steel Poland (MSP) S.A. in Kraków, Poland. This paper discusses the results and show that the presented approach is applicable for any MSW landfill compacted clay liner thickness design. -- Highlights: ► Numerical simulation of waste in porous media is proposed. ► Statistic outputs based on correct assumptions about probability distribution are presented. ► The benefits of a MC simulation are examined. ► The uniform probability distribution is studied. ► I report a useful tool applied to determine the life of a modern MSW landfill.

  4. Environmental impact of an agro-waste based polygeneration without and with CO2 storage: Life cycle assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2016-09-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the most scientific tool to measure environmental sustainability. Poly-generation is a better option than single-utility generation due to its higher resource utilization efficiency and more flexibility. Also biomass based polygeneration with CO2 capture and storage may be useful being 'net negative' greenhouse gas emission option. But this 'negativity' should be studied and confirmed through LCA. In this paper, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of a straw based polygeneration without and with CO2 storage is studied. Results show that captured CO2 of this polygeneration should be stored to get a net negative energy system. However, biomass distribution density, ethanol production rate and CO2 transportation distance affect the net GHG emission. For this polygeneration system, exergy based allocation should be preferred. PMID:27336697

  5. Environmental impact of an agro-waste based polygeneration without and with CO2 storage: Life cycle assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2016-09-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the most scientific tool to measure environmental sustainability. Poly-generation is a better option than single-utility generation due to its higher resource utilization efficiency and more flexibility. Also biomass based polygeneration with CO2 capture and storage may be useful being 'net negative' greenhouse gas emission option. But this 'negativity' should be studied and confirmed through LCA. In this paper, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of a straw based polygeneration without and with CO2 storage is studied. Results show that captured CO2 of this polygeneration should be stored to get a net negative energy system. However, biomass distribution density, ethanol production rate and CO2 transportation distance affect the net GHG emission. For this polygeneration system, exergy based allocation should be preferred.

  6. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global Warming and Eutrophication Potentials of Several Water and Waste Service Options

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaobo Xue; Troy R. Hawkins; Schoen, Mary E.; Jay Garland; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems...

  7. Submission of the national commission of the public debate on the options concerning the long life high and medium activity radioactive wastes management; Saisine de la commission nationale du debat public sur les options generales en matiere de gestion des dechets radioactifs de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document deals with the presentation of a public debate on the radioactive wastes management and the opportunities of its organization. It presents successively the long life high and medium activity radioactive wastes, the today radioactive wastes management policy and some questions and topics which could be discussed during the debate. (A.L.B.)

  8. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanically–biologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it; Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. • Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. • Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R{sup 2} ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. • LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year{sup −1}) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year{sup −1} and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m{sup 3}/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation

  9. A biological method of including mineralized human liquid and solid wastes into the mass exchange of bio-technical life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Litovka, Yu. A.; Anishchenko, O. V.

    2012-10-01

    The main obstacle to using mineralized human solid and liquid wastes as a source of mineral elements for plants cultivated in bio-technical life support systems (BLSS) is that they contain NaCl. The purpose of this study is to determine whether mineralized human wastes can be used to prepare the nutrient solution for long-duration conveyor cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. plant community. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the method of "wet incineration" developed by Yu. Kudenko. They served as a basis for preparing the solutions that were used for conveyor-type cultivation of wheat community represented by 5 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated hydroponically on expanded clay particles. To reduce salt content of the nutrient solution, every two weeks, after wheat was harvested, 12 L of solution was removed from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation in water culture in a conveyor mode. The Salicornia community was represented by 2 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. As some portion of the nutrient solution used for wheat cultivation was regularly removed, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/L, and mineral elements contained in the removed portion were used for Salicornia cultivation. The experiment lasted 4 months. The total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g · m-2 · day-1, and the harvest index amounted to 36.8%. The average productivity of Salicornia edible biomass on a dry weight basis was 39.3 g · m-2 · day-1, and its aboveground mass contained at least 20% of NaCl. Thus, the proposed technology of cultivation of wheat and halophyte plant community enables using mineralized human wastes as a basis for preparing nutrient solutions and including NaCl in the mass exchange of the BLSS; moreover, humans are supplied with additional amounts of leafy vegetables.

  10. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanically–biologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. • Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. • Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R2 ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. • LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R2), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year−1) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year−1 and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m3/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation in the global impact of system

  11. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses

  12. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6-10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail.

  13. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wäger, Patrick A., E-mail: patrick.waeger@empa.ch; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses.

  14. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6-10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. PMID:26022405

  15. Impact of biological treatments of bio-waste for nutrients, energy and bio-methane recovery in a life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Contini, Stefano; Morettini, Emanuela

    2016-06-01

    Composting of the source-segregated organic fraction of municipal solid waste was compared in a life cycle perspective with conventional anaerobic digestion (AD), aimed at electricity substitution, and with AD aimed at biogas upgrading into bio-methane. Three different uses of the bio-methane were considered: injection in the natural gas grid for civil heating needs; use as fuel for high efficiency co-generation; use as fuel for vehicles. Scenarios with biogas upgrading showed quite similar impact values, generally higher than those of composting and conventional AD, for which there was a lower impact. A decisive contribution to the higher impact of the scenarios with bio-methane production was by the process for biogas upgrading. In any case the substitution of natural gas with bio-methane resulted in higher avoided impacts compared to electricity substitution by conventional AD. The uncertainty analysis confirmed the positive values for eutrophication, acidification and particulate matter. Large uncertainty was determined for global warming and photochemical ozone formation.

  16. Stochastic approach to municipal solid waste landfill life based on the contaminant transit time modeling using the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieda, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    The paper is concerned with application and benefits of MC simulation proposed for estimating the life of a modern municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. The software Crystal Ball® (CB), simulation program that helps analyze the uncertainties associated with Microsoft® Excel models by MC simulation, was proposed to calculate the transit time contaminants in porous media. The transport of contaminants in soil is represented by the one-dimensional (1D) form of the advection-dispersion equation (ADE). The computer program CONTRANS written in MATLAB language is foundation to simulate and estimate the thickness of landfill compacted clay liner. In order to simplify the task of determining the uncertainty of parameters by the MC simulation, the parameters corresponding to the expression Z2 taken from this program were used for the study. The tested parameters are: hydraulic gradient (HG), hydraulic conductivity (HC), porosity (POROS), linear thickness (TH) and diffusion coefficient (EDC). The principal output report provided by CB and presented in the study consists of the frequency chart, percentiles summary and statistics summary. Additional CB options provide a sensitivity analysis with tornado diagrams. The data that was used include available published figures as well as data concerning the Mittal Steel Poland (MSP) S.A. in Kraków, Poland. This paper discusses the results and show that the presented approach is applicable for any MSW landfill compacted clay liner thickness design. PMID:23194922

  17. Cost optimisation and minimisation of the environmental impact through life cycle analysis of the waste water treatment plant of Bree (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gussem, K; Wambecq, T; Roels, J; Fenu, A; De Gueldre, G; Van De Steene, B

    2011-01-01

    An ASM2da model of the full-scale waste water plant of Bree (Belgium) has been made. It showed very good correlation with reference operational data. This basic model has been extended to include an accurate calculation of environmental footprint and operational costs (energy consumption, dosing of chemicals and sludge treatment). Two optimisation strategies were compared: lowest cost meeting the effluent consent versus lowest environmental footprint. Six optimisation scenarios have been studied, namely (i) implementation of an online control system based on ammonium and nitrate sensors, (ii) implementation of a control on MLSS concentration, (iii) evaluation of internal recirculation flow, (iv) oxygen set point, (v) installation of mixing in the aeration tank, and (vi) evaluation of nitrate setpoint for post denitrification. Both an environmental impact or Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based approach for optimisation are able to significantly lower the cost and environmental footprint. However, the LCA approach has some advantages over cost minimisation of an existing full-scale plant. LCA tends to chose control settings that are more logic: it results in a safer operation of the plant with less risks regarding the consents. It results in a better effluent at a slightly increased cost.

  18. Impact of biological treatments of bio-waste for nutrients, energy and bio-methane recovery in a life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Contini, Stefano; Morettini, Emanuela

    2016-06-01

    Composting of the source-segregated organic fraction of municipal solid waste was compared in a life cycle perspective with conventional anaerobic digestion (AD), aimed at electricity substitution, and with AD aimed at biogas upgrading into bio-methane. Three different uses of the bio-methane were considered: injection in the natural gas grid for civil heating needs; use as fuel for high efficiency co-generation; use as fuel for vehicles. Scenarios with biogas upgrading showed quite similar impact values, generally higher than those of composting and conventional AD, for which there was a lower impact. A decisive contribution to the higher impact of the scenarios with bio-methane production was by the process for biogas upgrading. In any case the substitution of natural gas with bio-methane resulted in higher avoided impacts compared to electricity substitution by conventional AD. The uncertainty analysis confirmed the positive values for eutrophication, acidification and particulate matter. Large uncertainty was determined for global warming and photochemical ozone formation. PMID:27095293

  19. Building local capacity to address the flow of e-wastes and electrical and electronic products destined for reuse in selected African countries and augment the sustainable management of resources through the recovery of materials in e-wastes. Component 1. Flows of used and end-of-life e-products from Germany, The Netherlands and Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seum, Stefan; Hermann, Andreas

    2010-08-11

    This study is integral part of the E-waste Africa Project. The aim of the research is to identify the principle pathways of used electronic and electric equipment (EEE) from Europe to West Africa as well as potential leakage points for end-of-life products that are mandatory required under the WEEE directive to undergo sound waste treatment within Europe. The study focuses on sources, destinations and volumes of used EEE exports as well as on the characteristics of the export business. The role of the two ports and regions in focus will be analysed.

  20. Integrated optical gyroscope using active long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Qian, Guang; Wang, Yang-Yang; Xue, Xiao-Jun; Shan, Feng; Li, Ruo-Zhou; Wu, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Yang

    2014-01-24

    Optical gyroscopes with high sensitivity are important rotation sensors for inertial navigation systems. Here, we present the concept of integrated resonant optical gyroscope constructed by active long-range surface plasmon-polariton (LRSPP) waveguide resonator. In this gyroscope, LRSPP waveguide doped gain medium is pumped to compensate the propagation loss, which has lower pump noise than that of conventional optical waveguide. Peculiar properties of single-polarization of LRSPP waveguide have been found to significantly reduce the polarization error. The metal layer of LRSPP waveguide is electro-optical multiplexed for suppression of reciprocal noises. It shows a limited sensitivity of ~10(-4) deg/h, and a maximum zero drift which is 4 orders of magnitude lower than that constructed by conventional single-mode waveguide.

  1. Short-Circuit Short circuiting the carbon and nutrient cycles between urban and rural districts by establishing three new systems for source separation, collection and composting of organic waste in the greater Copenhagen area Final report presented to the EU-Life programme May 2006(LIFE02/ENV/DK/00150)

    OpenAIRE

    Magid, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of the Short-Circuit project was to promote the waste recycling concept using three sub-systems, i.e. collection of vegetable residues from the box scheme business Aarstiderne A/S and composting the residues at Krogerup farm, on-farm composting of urban waste at an experimental farm belonging to KVL and a community involved combined biogas production and composting system developed by Solum A/S. Data from the optimised systems formed the basis of a Life Cycle Analysis (e...

  2. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While evoking the effects of radioactivity, this publication issued by religious authorities first presents the different radioactive wastes (low level, low or medium level and short life, medium level and long life, high level and long life) and indicates their respective origins. It proposes a brief overview of solutions adopted for the storage of high level-long life radioactive wastes in different countries. It presents the French political and regulatory framework for such storage, indicates the envisaged solutions (deep geological storage, separation and transmutation, packaging and long duration surface or underground warehousing), discusses the content of the debate which took place before the adoption of the law of June 2006, and evokes the notion of reversibility. The next part addresses issues related to public information, and evokes public opinion regarding this storage issue. Some other issues are then discussed within the Church's perspective: the responsibility towards future generations, the transmission of a secured heritage to future generations, the research effort, dialog and transparency

  3. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  4. Assessment of the possibility of establishing material cycling in an experimental model of the bio-technical life support system with plant and human wastes included in mass exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Velichko, V. V.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2011-05-01

    A pilot model of a bio-technical life support system (BTLSS) including human and plant wastes has been developed at the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS (Krasnoyarsk, Russia). This paper describes the structure of the photosynthesizing unit of the system, which includes wheat, chufa and vegetables. The study substantiates the simultaneous use of neutral and biological substrates for cultivating plants. A novel physicochemical method for the involvement of human wastes in the cycling has been employed, which enables the use of recycled products as nutrients for plants. Inedible plant biomass was subjected to biological combustion in the soil-like substrate (SLS) and was thus involved in the system mass exchange; NaCl contained in native urine was returned to the human through the consumption of Salicornia europaea, an edible salt-concentrating plant. Mass transfer processes in the studied BLSS have been examined for different chemical components.

  5. Information report issued by application of the article 145 of the Regulation by the mission of information on the management of radioactive materials and wastes on the behalf of the Commission on sustainable development and land planning - Nr 1218

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report first proposes a review of the issue of radioactive wastes in France: classification criteria, relationship between dangerousness and activity level, annual stock of radioactive wastes and materials in France, perspectives on a medium term in relationship with the evolution of the energy mix structure, a complex institutional system with different actors (Parliament, radioactive waste producers, the national agency for radioactive waste management - ANDRA, bodies and institutions in charge of regulation and control such as the ASN and the IRSN, but also NGOs and local information commissions). The next part addresses the issue of deep geological disposal of medium-activity long-life and high-activity wastes: international recommendations and solutions, other storage options (in sea or in space, sub-surface warehousing, and research on separation-transmutation), the choice made in time by France from the law of 1991 to the debate on the construction of Cigeo (the industrial centre for geological disposal). The last part addresses some questions which are still to be answered. They concern the Cigeo project (its costs, its reversibility, its integration within a land planning project), the governance and missions of the ANDRA, a better taking into account of all kinds of radioactive wastes (notably the mining wastes) and the idea of the introduction of a dangerousness threshold

  6. Conveyor Cultivation of the Halophytic Plant Salicornia europaea for the Recycling of NaCl from Human Liquid Waste in a Biological Life Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    One problem in designing bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is developing technolo-gies to include human liquid and solid waste in intrasystem recycling. A specific task is recycling of NaCl excreted in urine by humans. We showed recently that this could be achieved through inclusion of the salt accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea in the autotrophic compart-ment of the BLSS (Balnokin et al., ASR, 2010, in press). A model of NaCl circulation in BLSS with inclusion of S. europaea was based on the NaCl turnover in the human -urine -nutrient solution -S. europaea -human cycle. Mineralized urine was used as a basis for preparation of a nutrient solution for the halophyte cultivation. The shoots of the halophyte cultivated in the mineralized urine and containing NaCl could to be used by the BLSS inhabitants in their diets. In this report we describe cultivation of S. europaea which allows turnover of NaCl and produces daily shoot biomass containing Na+ and Cl- in quantities approximately equal to those excreted in daily human urine. The plants were grown in water culture in a climatic chamber under controlled conditions. A solution simulating mineralized urine (SSMU) was used as a basis for preparation of a nutri-ent solution for S. europaea cultivation. For continuous biomass production, seedlings of S. europaea, germinated preliminary in moist sand, were being transferred to the nutrient solu-tion at regular intervals (every two days). Duration of the conveyor operation was 112 days. During the first 56 days, the seedlings were being planted in SSMU diluted by a factor of 1.5 (2/3 SSMU). The same solution was introduced into the growth vessels as volumes of growth medium decreased due to plant transpiration. Starting from the 56th day as conveyor operation was initiated, the plants were being harvested every two days; the solutions from the discharged vessels were mixed with the fresh SSMU and the mixture was introduced into all other growth vessels of

  7. The effects of composting on the nutritional composition of fibrous bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) plant waste residues and its impact on the growth of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Lowry, Brett A.; Brown, Paul B.; Beyl, Caula A.; Nyochemberg, Leopold

    2009-04-01

    Utilization of bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) plant waste residues as a nutritional source by Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) has proven problematic as a result of high concentrations of fibrous compounds in the plant waste residues. Nutritional improvement of plant waste residues by composting with the oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus), and the effects on growth and nutrient utilization of Nile tilapia fed such residues were evaluated. Five Nile tilapia (mean weight = 70.9 ± 3.1 g) were stocked in triplicate aquaria and fed one of two experimental diets, cowpea (CP) and composted cowpea (CCP), twice daily for a period of 8 weeks. Composting of cowpea residue resulted in reduced concentrations of nitrogen-free extract, hemi-cellulose and trypsin inhibitor activity, though trypsin inhibitor activity remained high. Composting did not reduce crude fiber, lignin, or cellulose concentrations in the diet. No significant differences ( P < 0.05) were observed in weight gain, specific growth rate, survival rate, daily consumption, and food conversion ratio between tilapia fed CP and CCP. These results suggest that P. ostreatus is not a suitable candidate for culture in conjunction with the culture of Nile tilapia. Additional work is needed to determine what, if any, benefit can be obtained from incorporating composted residue as feed for Nile tilapia.

  8. Stench effect prediction and process analysis of ultra large life waste transfer station%超大型垃圾中转站恶臭预测及工艺分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊鸿斌; 程潇君

    2014-01-01

    超大型生活垃圾中转站的污染控制要求高,对其污染源的分析、环境影响预测及各种污染控制措施也区别于以往中小型垃圾中转站。文章以日处理垃圾量达到1000 t的合肥市某超大型中转站为个案,重点预测超大型中转站对大气环境的影响,采用导则推荐的Screen3M odel估算模式定量计算恶臭源强,结合恶臭强度定级等方法,与同类型中转站进行对比分析,提出可行的微生物和植物液组合式脱臭除尘处理工艺污染对策,为同类型超大型生活垃圾中转站工艺设计和污染控制提供参考。%Ultra large waste transfer station has a high demand of pollution control .The pollution sources anal-ysis ,environmental impact prediction and pollution control measures of the ultra large waste transfer station are different from those of the medium and small waste transfer stations .Taking an ultra large waste transfer station with a daily disposal amount of 1 000 t in Hefei City as an example ,the effect of the ultra large waste transfer station on atmospheric environment is forecasted . The Screen3Model estimation model and odour strength grading method are used to calculate stench pollution source strength ,and the result is compared with that of the transfer station of same type .The feasible microorganisms and plants fluid combined deodori-zation process is put forward to provide a reference for the process design and pollution control of the ultra large life waste transfer station of same type .

  9. Waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Knopová Policarová, Táňa

    2014-01-01

    Diploma thesis deals with waste disposal in the Czech Republic, including waste production and waste recovery. The aim of this work is to characterize and evaluate the waste production, sorting a disposal in the Czech Republic. Theoretical basis of diploma thesis are focused on basic concepts of waste management legislation, the generation of waste and how to prevent the formation or at least reduce it. The greatest attention is paid to waste disposal, in which there are presented and analyze...

  10. Development of a portable active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for volcanic gas measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Vita, F.; C. Kern; Inguaggiato, S

    2014-01-01

    Active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) has been an effective tool for measuring atmospheric trace gases for several decades. However, instruments were large, heavy and power-inefficient, making their application to remote environments extremely challenging. Recent developments in fibre-coupling telescope technology and the availability of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDS) have now allowed us to design and construct a lightweight, po...

  11. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by......Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... the scouts twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the...

  12. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by...... the scouts twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the...

  13. Pyrolysis of Waste Printed Circuit Board Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Şule Atasever; Pınar A. Bozkurt; Muammer Canel

    2015-01-01

    Electrical and electronic apparatus and instruments which are obsolete value in use or completion of the life can be defined as e-waste. E-waste is one of the fastest growing types of hazardous waste. Printed circuit boards a major component of this waste. In this study, printed circuit board particles of mobile phone (MPCB) were used as electronic waste. MPCB waste was obtained from a local electronic waste factory. The elemental analysis and ICP-MS analysis were performed on these electroni...

  14. Waste management facilities cost information for transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing transuranic waste. The report's information on treatment and storage modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report

  15. Waste Management Facilities cost information for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing low-level waste. The report's information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report

  16. Waste management facilities cost information for hazardous waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing hazardous waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  17. Waste management facilities cost information for transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing transuranic waste. The report`s information on treatment and storage modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  18. Waste Management Facilities cost information for low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  19. Waste management facilities cost information for hazardous waste. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing hazardous waste. The report's information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report

  20. National commission for assessment of researches and studies related to the management of radioactive materials and wastes, instituted by the law nr 2006-739 of the 28 June 2006 - Assessment report Nr 6 - November 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report first states the general opinion of the National Commission based on hearings of involved actors, and on assessments of installations and laboratories working on the management of radioactive materials and wastes in France and abroad. This opinion concerns the efficiency of a deep geological layer as containment barrier, the choice of the Meuse/Haute-Marne site, the design of the installation, and the possible use of plutonium in fast neutron reactors. The report addresses more specifically the long term management of high-activity-long-life wastes: it discusses the technological issues related to separation and transmutation (safety and feasibility), and to geological storage (Cigeo inventory, scientific experiments and studies, technological advances, storage cost, warehousing and surface installations). An international overview is proposed on various topics: international legal framework, research laboratories or underground storage sites, fast-spectrum irradiation sources, main international initiatives related to accelerator-driven systems

  1. Biological and physicochemical methods for utilization of plant wastes and human exometabolites for increasing internal cycling and closure of life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, I. G.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.

    Wheat was cultivated on soil-like substrate (SLS) produced by the action of worms and microflora from the inedible biomass of wheat. After the growth of the wheat crop, the inedible biomass was restored in SLS and exposed to decomposition ("biological" combustion) and its mineral compounds were assimilated by plants. Grain was returned to the SLS in the amount equivalent to human solid waste produced by consumption of the grain. Human wastes (urine and feces) after physicochemical processing turned into mineralized form (mineralized urine and mineralized feces) and entered the plants' nutrient solution amounts equal to average daily production. Periodically (once every 60-70 days) the nutrient solution was partly (up to 50%) desalinated by electrodialysis. Due to this NaCl concentration in the nutrient solution was sustained at a fixed level of about 0.26%. The salt concentrate obtained could be used in the human nutrition through NaCl extraction and the residuary elements were returned through the mineralized human liquid wastes into matter turnover. The control wheat cultivation was carried out on peat with use of the Knop nutrient solution. Serial cultivation of several wheat vegetations within 280 days was conducted during the experiment. Grain output varied and yield/harvest depended, in large part, upon the amount of inedible biomass returned to SLS and the speed of its decomposition. After achieving a stationary regime, (when the quantity of wheat inedible biomass utilized during vegetation in SLS is equal to the quantity of biomass introduced into SLS before vegetation) grain harvest in comparison with the control was at most 30% less, and in some cases was comparable to the control harvest values. The investigations carried out on the wheat example demonstrated in principle the possibility of long-term functioning of the LSS photosynthesizing link based on optimizations of biological and physicochemical methods of utilization of the human and plants wastes

  2. Life cycle assessment of urban solid wastes collecting using vehicles of liquefied natural gas and diesel; Analisis del ciclo de vida comparativo de la etapa de recogida y transporte de RSU mediante vehiculos propulsados por gas natural licaudo y gasoleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieradevall, J.; Domenech, X.; Bala, A.; Gazulla, C.; Mila, L. [Universidad de Barcelona (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    This paper shows an environmental comparison using the Life cycle Assessment (LCA)-between two types of duscarts of CESPA Ingenieria Urbana: one of them using Natural Liquid Gas as a fuel and the other using Diesel. Both vehicles are similar in the rest of technical characteristics. The data to make this study has been given by CESPA which made a follow-up of this duscarts while they were working in Barcelona, the first quarter of 2001. the functional unit to make the comparison is: ''Collect and transport one ton of solid urban waste along a urban circuit of 50 kilometres (with a duscart of 18 ton of Maximum Authorizer Weight)''. (Author) 7 refs.

  3. Simulation of the life of a radioactive waste repository at various stages of its evolution. Hydraulic state, before, during and after drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to test a methodology of representation of a radioactive waste repository, based on the data collected on the granite Auriat site and on the modelling tools developed around the METIS code. A critical review of the available data is done to assess their utility in a modelling exercise. A two dimensional model of a vertical cross-section covering several kilometers was built, integrating major regional inlets and outlets. Various representations of the results are proposed: piezometric head maps, vertical velocity profiles, flow lines, residence time maps. 3 situations of the rock mass were simulated: - Hydraulic state before the drilling of the galleries: the influence of boundary conditions, as well as of the conductivity field, is studied; the effect of major regional fault zones of high conductivity is examined. A very low correlation is shown between the water flux at repository level and the surface hydrology. Transient situation due to the opening of the galleries: this phase is shown to be probably long compared to the active period of the storage. No unwatering is to be expected in the rock mass. -Transient phase after the closure of the site, without the influence of the heat production due to the waste. This exercise allowed us to test the behaviour of the numerical model in situations characterized by a high heterogeneity, and to propose various improvements. New ways of visualizing the results (e.g. flow lines, residence, time maps) were developed

  4. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility's life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996

  5. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  6. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a “High-tech” waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a “Low-tech” waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling...

  7. Home composting as an alternative treatment option for organic household waste in Denmark: An environmental assessment using life cycle assessment-modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.K.; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund;

    2012-01-01

    input and different mixing frequencies) were modelled. In addition, incineration and landfilling was modelled as alternatives to home composting. The most important processes contributing to the environmental impact of home composting were identified as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (load......) and the avoided emissions in relation to the substitution of fertiliser and peat when compost was used in hobby gardening (saving). The replacement of fertiliser and peat was also identified as one of the most sensible parameters, which could potentially have a significant environmental benefit. Many....... The GHG emissions were, on the other hand, dependent on the management of the composting units. The frequently mixed composting units had the highest GHG emissions. The environmental profiles of the home composting scenarios were in the order of −2 to 16 milli person equivalents (mPE) Mg−1 wet waste (ww...

  8. Emissions from urban waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indiscriminate emission of gases and fumes from improper storage, transport systems and wastes disposals have polluted the environment especially surface and underground water and air. This has irreversibly affects on the environment some of which can be devastating to life.Some of the potential adverse effects on environment include the ozone depletion, acid rain,soil degradation and climate change

  9. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  10. Environmentally relevant aspects of nanomaterials at the end-of-life phase – Part II: Waste recycling and disposal (NanoTrust dossier No. 044en – April 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Gazsó, André; Part, Florian; Huber-Humer, Marion; Greßler, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) can potentially be released during all waste treatment processes and can accumulate in residual materials, scrap materials, secondary raw materials or composts. Nonetheless, only few studies are available on the fate and behavior of ENMs during recycling and disposal. In Austria more than half of the waste produced by households is collected separately and undergoes further treatment as recoverables, biogenic waste, hazardous household waste or as waste electri...

  11. Electronic Waste: Environmental Health Problems In India

    OpenAIRE

    Sachan Ritu; Agarwal Shalini

    2013-01-01

    :WEEE (waste from electrical electronic equipments) comes under a special category of waste which is the result of industrialization and ever increasing demand of electronic waste products in daily life, with increasing usage waste production is also increasing. Now, the situation is alarming as a huge quantity of waste is generated by India as well as other countries. The condition of India is much worse because about 80 percent of the e- waste generated ion the u.s.is exported to India, chi...

  12. Engineering Greener Processes--Laser Cutter Transforms Printing Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renmei; Flowers, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Many of today's students have embraced an environmental ethic and are motivated by efforts to reduce waste or to remanufacture waste into viable products. In-class efforts to reuse and remanufacture waste can be especially motivating. They can also help students develop a better understanding of life-cycle analysis, waste-stream management,…

  13. Hydro-mechanical improvement of the cap cover of a surface landfill for low and intermediate level radioactive waste short life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study related to the Manche storage center (CSM), one of the first landfill in the world dedicated to low and intermediate radioactive waste short-live time. The researches considered in this thesis supported by industrial companies, focus on the hydraulic study of cap cover materials of the site, and their hydro-mechanical improvement. The aim is to improve their impermeability in order to be substituted to the geo-membrane as cap cover liner. A specification imposed by Andra was to consider a solution of the re-use of the in situ material by adding of additive. The initial material is a sandy silt, a material with a significant proportion of fines. In the literature there are many studies on the mechanical improvement of fine materials (applications to road infrastructure) and the treatment of sandy materials by adding a fine fraction (constitution of waterproof barriers). On the other hand there are very few studies on the impermeability improvement of fine soils. A physical tests campaign on treated materials with bentonite was carried out at various treatment rates. The results showed that the addition of additive induces a decrease in optimum dry unit weight for a normal Proctor compaction energy and increases their optimum water content. In addition, the susceptibility to erosion, internal or external, observed during oedo-permeameter test was assessed from various stability criteria available in the literature. Unlike the treatment of soil for road embankments, the increase of the material stiffness is not wanted and flexibility is preferred what is observed with the treatment tested. The comparative hydraulic conductivity of the untreated and treated materials were measured. In this study different devices (oedo-permeameter, permeameters, triaxial device) were used. The influence of the treatment rate of the material on the decrease of the hydraulic conductivity was observed. Four large scale experimentations were designed; they should be monitored

  14. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  15. Food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Arazim, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis looks into issues related to food waste and consists of a theoretical and a practical part. Theoretical part aims to provide clear and complex definition of wood waste related problems, summarize current findings in Czech and foreign sources. Introduction chapter explains important terms and legal measures related to this topic. It is followed by description of causes, implications and possibilities in food waste reduction. Main goal of practical part is analyzing food waste in Cz...

  16. Municipal waste - management and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though per capita waste generation in Nepalese urban cities is not so high, the lack of proper waste management is considered one of the severe problems to be faced by urban people in future. With rapid urbanization, life style of people is changing their habits and consuming more materials and producing a large volume of waste in urban areas in Nepal. The nature and amount of waste generated in municipality is dependent of demography and geography. But most common aspect of municipal waste in Nepal is more than 60% of the waste biodegradable. Whatever the nature and amount of waste generated, the most common practice of managing municipal waste is to dispose in the riverside nearby or dumped elsewhere. The involvement of private sector in waste management is a new concept adopted by many municipalities in Nepal. One of the most progress approaches, 4R (reduces, reuse, recycle and refuse) principle is being practiced. The need of awareness progressive like segregation of wastes at collection point also being practiced in Nepal. Finally, Proper formulation of program and legislation and its application is one of the major challenges for local authorities in Nepal. (author)

  17. The management of radioactive wastes; La gestion des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This educative booklet describes the role and missions of the ANDRA, the French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes, and the different aspects of the management of radioactive wastes: goal, national inventory, classification, transport (organisation, regulation, safety), drumming, labelling, surface storage of short life wastes, environmental control, management of long life wastes (composition, research, legal aspects) and the underground research laboratories (description, public information, projects, schedules). (J.S.)

  18. Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on radioactive waste management are: (1) to reduce the impact of the waste to the stakeholders, the public and the environment; (2) to develop a management tool allowing to identify waste problems and to optimise decommissioning strategies; (3) to perform decommissioning activities in a safe and economical way; (4) to manage waste in a safe and economical way according to legislation; (5) to develop treatment/conditioning processes to minimise risks, volumes and cost of radioactive waste. Main projects and achievements in 1999 are summarised

  19. Agricultural Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  20. Halophytic plants as a component of a bioregenerative life support system for recycling of NaCl contained in human liquid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    Currently, the closure of matter turnover is one of the urgent problems of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) designing. The important aspect of the problem is involving of substances contained in liquid and solid exometabolites of humans inhabiting BLSS into intrasystem matter turnover. Recycling of Na+ and Cl- contained in human liquid exometabolites, i.e. urine is acknowledged to be among the main tasks of the matter turnover in BLSS. The ions excreted with urine may be returned to human organism with food. A way to allow this is including edible halophytic plants into the phototrophic compartment of BLSS. Halophytes are defined as plants which can grow on saline soils and produce high biomass under these conditions. Some halophytes can take up high quantities of Na+ and Cl- and accumulate the ions in the shoots or extrude them to leaf surface by means of salt glands. To allow Na+ and Cl- recycling through halophyte utilization, the following principal steps should be accomplished: (i) mineralization of the exometabolites by physicochemical methods; (ii) oxidation of ammonia formed during the exometabolite mineralization to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria, (iii) growing the halophyte on the nutrient solution prepared on the basis of the mineralized exometabolites, (iv) introducing the halophyte green biomass into human food. The present work is devoted to the following problems: (i) selection of a salt-accumulating/extruding halophytic plant suitable for Na+ and Cl- recycling in BLSS and (ii) parameter evaluation of a plant conveyor containing the halophytic plants at various ages. Halophytic plants selected for BLSS should meet the following criteria: (i) ability to grow under 24-hour-illumination, (ii) high productivity, (iii) ability to accumulate Na+ and Cl- in high quantities in shoots or to excrete salts to leaf surface, (iv) edibility, and (v) high nutritive value of the biomass. Relying on these criteria, salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia

  1. Systematic photovoltaic waste recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palitzsch, Wolfram; Loser, Ulrich [Loser Chemie GmbH, Langenweissbach (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    Indium, selenium, tellurium, gallium, molybdenum, cadmium and silicon are some of the major elements used in photovoltaic cells. Fully aware of the limited availability of these metals in future, recycling has been recognized as the most advisable end-of-life strategy to save these raw materials from turning into production wastes. On the other hand, statutory measures such as 'Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz' (the German law encouraging closed-loop economy) aim to achieve a maximum quota of recycling and a minimum use of resources such as energy and raw materials. By the year of 2050, end-of-life photovoltaic panels are anticipated to amount to 9.57 million tons. Although we are not there yet, discussions on recycling have already started. We have to prepare for higher waste volumes expected in the coming years. But already today we need to solve some environmental problems like loss of conventional resources (e.g., glass) and rare metals. All of the known approaches for recycling photovoltaic semiconductor material seem economically and environmentally inefficient. In this paper, we report about reclaiming metals from scrap of thin film systems and associated photovoltaic manufacturing wastes like sandblasting dust and overspray. We also report one universal wet-chemical treatment for reclaiming the metals from CIS, CIGS or CdTe photovoltaic waste. Further, we discuss the application of our method to new PV systems, such as substrates other than glass (stainless steel, aluminum or plastic foil sheets) and alternative semiconductor alloys such as GaAs. (orig.)

  2. E-waste management as a global Challenge (introductory chapter)

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai, Florin-Constantin; Gnoni, Maria-Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment management (E-waste or WEEE) is a crucial issue in the solid waste management sector with global interconnections between well-developed, transitional and developing countries. Consumption society and addiction to technology dictate the daily life in high and middle-income countries where population consumes large amounts of EEE products (electrical and electronic equipment) which sooner become e-waste. This fraction is a fast-growing wast...

  3. Customer service model for waste tracking at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal is to transition from five legacy database systems that have reached end-of-life to a single inventory system that supports workflow, data, and reporting for all waste streams. Plutonium Processing Facility (TA-55) Waste Team provides a high quality system that insures safe, efficient and compliant management of all radioactive and hazardous wastes generated, including waste characterization and repackaging of Transuranic Waste (TRU) and TRU mixed waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  4. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1992-10-01

    The Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) Report, commissioned by the US Department of Energy (DOE), develops planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. This report contains PLCC estimates versus capacity for 26 different facility cost modules. A procedure to guide DOE and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also provided. Estimates in the report apply to five distinctive waste streams: low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, alpha contaminated low-level waste, alpha contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste. The report addresses five different treatment types: incineration, metal/melting and recovery, shredder/compaction, solidification, and vitrification. Data in this report allows the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options.

  5. Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  6. Thermostable Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  7. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...

  8. Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    2006-01-01

    The Productivity Commission’s inquiry report into ‘Waste Management’ was tabled by Government in December 2006. The Australian Government asked the Commission to identify policies that would enable Australia to address market failures and externalities associated with the generation and disposal of waste, and recommend how resource efficiencies can be optimised to improve economic, environmental and social outcomes. In the final report, the Commission maintains that waste management policy sh...

  9. Laser induced nuclear waste transmutation

    OpenAIRE

    Hirlimann, Charles

    2007-01-01

    When producing electricity that collects the mass energy that is available at the time of the induced disintegration of radioactive elements, other unstable elements are produced with half-life span durations ranging from less than one second to hundreds of thousands of years and which are considered as waste. Managing nuclear waste with a half-life of less than 30 years is an easy task, as our societies clearly know how to keep buildings safe for more than a century, the time it takes for th...

  10. Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Family and Friends > Family Life Request Permissions Family Life Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 07/ ... treatment become as overwhelming for others in your life as they are for you. Understanding the potential ...

  11. Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:27620100

  12. Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:26420096

  13. Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  14. Development of a portable active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for volcanic gas measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Fabio; Kern, Christoph; Inguaggiato, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) has been an effective tool for measuring atmospheric trace gases for several decades. However, instruments were large, heavy and power-inefficient, making their application to remote environments extremely challenging. Recent developments in fibre-coupling telescope technology and the availability of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDS) have now allowed us to design and construct a lightweight, portable, low-power LP-DOAS instrument for use at remote locations and specifically for measuring degassing from active volcanic systems. The LP-DOAS was used to measure sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from La Fossa crater, Vulcano, Italy, where column densities of up to 1.2 × 1018 molec cm−2 (~ 500 ppmm) were detected along open paths of up to 400 m in total length. The instrument's SO2 detection limit was determined to be 2 × 1016 molec cm−2 (~ 8 ppmm), thereby making quantitative detection of even trace amounts of SO2 possible. The instrument is capable of measuring other volcanic volatile species as well. Though the spectral evaluation of the recorded data showed that chlorine monoxide (ClO) and carbon disulfide (CS2) were both below the instrument's detection limits during the experiment, the upper limits for the X / SO2 ratio (X = ClO, CS2) could be derived, and yielded 2 × 10−3 and 0.1, respectively. The robust design and versatility of the instrument make it a promising tool for monitoring of volcanic degassing and understanding processes in a range of volcanic systems.

  15. Domestic Waste: Sources, Effects, and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste is any discarded material. Domestic wastes are those produced by individual activities. In common with other living organisms, humans discharge waste substances to the environment that in turn re-energize the endless cycle of nature. Human activities are closely associated with ambient environment (soil , water, or air) through accumulation of domestic waste. Such household hazardous waste deposit arise from the discharge of domestic activities in the form of municipal solid waste (household, commercial and public street wastes), night soil (human and animal body wastes, excreta, or excrement). In rural areas, night soil is one of several components of the refuse that pollute the land. The surface water may be also directly polluted by domestic wastes or agricultural wastes. But in urbanized areas, household wastes, bathroom and laundry are conveniently flushed away by water as domestic wastewater through sewerage system, and disposed onto land or into receiving water, or in some countries it is treated and re-discharged for domestic usage. Solid waste in the form of kitchen garbage and other household refuse is collected for landfill disposal or for re-industrialization. Many domestic waste influence indoor air quality in urban and rural areas as for example the fuel used for cooking, smoke from cooking and from smoking habits, modern building materials, insulation, fabrics and furniture, cleaning materials, solvents, pesticides, personal care products, organic material or vegetable origin and dander from domestic life

  16. Food waste or wasted food

    OpenAIRE

    van Graas, Maaike Helene

    2014-01-01

    In the industrialized world large amounts of food are daily disposed of. A significant share of this waste could be avoided if different choices were made by individual households. Each day, every household makes decisions to maximize their happiness while balancing restricted amounts of time and money. Thinking of the food waste issue in terms of the consumer choice problem where households can control the amount of wasted food, we can model how households can make the best decisions. I...

  17. Waste management of ENM-containing solid waste in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2015-01-01

    Little research has been done to determine emissions of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) from currently available nano-enabled consumer products. While ENM release is expected to occur throughout the life cycle of the products, this study focuses on the product end-of-life (EOL) phase. We used the Danish nanoproduct inventory (www.nanodb.dk) to get a general understanding of the fate of ENM during waste management in the European context. This was done by: 1. assigning individualproducts to an ...

  18. Operational Waste Stream Assumption for TSLCC Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the background and basis for the operational waste stream used in the 2000 Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). This document has been developed in accordance with its Development Plan (CRWMS MandO 2000a), and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''

  19. Nuclear waste management at DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE is responsible for interim storage for some radioactive wastes and for the disposal for most of them. Of the wastes that have to be managed a significant part are a result of treatment systems and devices for cleaning gases. The long term waste management objectives place minimal reliance on surveillance and maintenance. Thus, the concerns about the chemical, thermal, and radiolytic degradation of wastes require technology for converting the wastes to forms acceptable for long term isolation. The strategy of the DOE airborne radioactive waste management program is to increase the service life and reliability of filters; to reduce filter wastes; and in anticipation of regulatory actions that would require further reductions in airborne radioactive releases from defense program facilities, to develop improved technology for additional collection, fixation, and long-term management of gaseous wastes. Available technology and practices are adequate to meet current health and safety standards. The program is aimed primarily at cost effective improvements, quality assurance, and the addition of new capability in areas where more restrictive standards seem likely to apply in the future

  20. Put waste in its place

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    It doesn’t take much of an effort to sort waste, but what a difference it can make - to the environment, of course, but also to CERN’s incineration bill. A variety of containers are provided to allow waste to be sorted before disposal, thereby making recycling easier. Everyone knows that sorting waste reduces pollution. By recycling or recovering waste materials, we can reduce the amount of waste that ends up in an incinerator or land-fill, while giving the used material a second life. That reduces the consumption of raw materials and natural resources—and of budget resources. CERN pays lower bill: disposing of a tonne of waste by incineration costs 230 Swiss francs, while a tonne of paper only costs 10 francs to dispose of. The problem is that much of the waste is not properly sorted. "In 2008, out of more than 1600 tonnes of waste we had to incinerate 600 tonnes, which is an enormous figure!" says Martine Auerbach, wh...

  1. The Climate Change and Economic Impacts of Food Waste in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Venkat, Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the climate change and economic impacts of food waste in the United States. Using loss-adjusted national food availability data for 134 food commodities, it calculates the greenhouse gas emissions due to wasted food using life cycle assessment and the economic cost of the waste using retail prices. The analysis shows that avoidable food waste in the US exceeds 55 million metric tonnes per year, nearly 29% of annual production. This waste produces life-cycle greenhouse gas ...

  2. Waste segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scoping study has been undertaken to determine the state-of-the-art of waste segregation technology as applied to the management of low-level waste (LLW). Present-day waste segregation practices were surveyed through a review of the recent literature and by means of personal interviews with personnel at selected facilities. Among the nuclear establishments surveyed were Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and plants, nuclear fuel cycle plants, public and private laboratories, institutions, industrial plants, and DOE and commercially operated shallow land burial sites. These survey data were used to analyze the relationship between waste segregation practices and waste treatment/disposal processes, to assess the developmental needs for improved segregation technology, and to evaluate the costs and benefits associated with the implementation of waste segregation controls. This task was planned for completion in FY 1981. It should be noted that LLW management practices are now undergoing rapid change such that the technology and requirements for waste segregation in the near future may differ significantly from those of the present day. 8 figures

  3. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives

  4. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This extract from the House of Commons Hansard publication for Wednesday 12th July 1995 considers the current debate on the desirability or otherwise of disposing of low level radioactive waste in landfill sites. It covers wastes generated both by the nuclear industry and by medical processes in local hospitals, and the transport of such waste from source to disposal site. The questions raised lead to a debate about plans to sell off commercially desirable aspects of the nuclear electric generation industry while leaving the costs associated with decommissioning of Magnox reactors as a liability on the public purse. (UK)

  5. Electronic waste management approaches: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Human toxicity of hazardous substances in e-waste. ► Environmental impacts of e-waste from disposal processes. ► Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Material Flow Analysis (MFA), Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) to and solve e-waste problems. ► Key issues relating to tools managing e-waste for sustainable e-waste management. - Abstract: Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. This paper presents an overview of toxic substances present in e-waste, their potential environmental and human health impacts together with management strategies currently being used in certain countries. Several tools including Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Material Flow Analysis (MFA), Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) have been developed to manage e-wastes especially in developed countries. The key to success in terms of e-waste management is to develop eco-design devices, properly collect e-waste, recover and recycle material by safe methods, dispose of e-waste by suitable techniques, forbid the transfer of used electronic devices to developing countries, and raise awareness of the impact of e-waste. No single tool is adequate but together they can complement each other to solve this issue. A national scheme such as EPR is a good policy in solving the growing e-waste problems

  6. Waste management in the Irkutsk Region, Siberia, Russia: Environmental assessment of current practice focusing on landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Rechberger, Helmut;

    2014-01-01

    waste (23%) and office & institutional waste (44%). Other waste of unknown composition constitutes 6%. Only 3% of the waste is recycled; 97% of the municipal waste is disposed of at the old Alexandrovsky landfill. The environmental impact from the current system is dominated by the landfill, which has......The municipal waste management system of the region of Irkutsk is described and a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed to assess the environmental performance of the system. Annually about 500 000 tons of waste are managed. The waste originates from three sources: household waste (27%), commercial...

  7. Hazardous waste: cleanup and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, Stephen; Cronin, Nancy L.; Farrar, Frank; Serrano, Guillermo Eliezer Ávila; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Our lifestyles are supported by complex Industrial activities that produce many different chemicals and chemical wastes. The Industries that produce our clothing, cars, medicines, paper, food, fuels, steel, plastics, and electric components use and discard thousands of chemicals every year. At home we may use lawn chemicals, solvents, disinfectants, cleaners, and auto products to Improve our quality of life. A chemical that presents a threat or unreasonable risk to people or the environment Is a hazardous material. When a hazardous material can no longer be used, It becomes a hazardous waste. Hazardous wastes come from a variety of sources, from both present and past activities. Impacts to human health and the environment can result from Improper handling and disposal of hazardous waste.

  8. Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the ''Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study'' is to develop proposed design requirements for the repository Waste Handling System in sufficient detail to allow the surface facility design to proceed to the License Application effort if the proposed requirements are approved by DOE. Proposed requirements were developed to further refine waste handling facility performance characteristics and design constraints with an emphasis on supporting modular construction, minimizing fuel inventory, and optimizing facility maintainability and dry handling operations. To meet this objective, this study attempts to provide an alternative design to the Site Recommendation design that is flexible, simple, reliable, and can be constructed in phases. The design concept will be input to the ''Modular Design/Construction and Operation Options Report'', which will address the overall program objectives and direction, including options and issues associated with transportation, the subsurface facility, and Total System Life Cycle Cost. This study (herein) is limited to the Waste Handling System and associated fuel staging system

  9. Waste economy (waste utilization) in the CR

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanová, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis is prepared as general overview of the Czech Republic waste economy. Waste economy is used as individual industrial segment. Bachelor thesis is focused especially on a total production of waste and communal waste, legislative restrictions connected with waste economy in Czech republic and comparison of Czech waste economy with other European Union countries and with Switzerland as well. The issue of decreasing of waste production and its safe and environmentally acceptabl...

  10. Life's crucible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetsky, P

    1998-02-01

    Research by German chemists Gunter Wachtershauser and Claudia Huber about the origins of life is reviewed. Other theories about the beginning of life on Earth are examined with comments by noted researchers. PMID:11541839

  11. The high-level and long life radioactive wastes management in France: inquiry near the actors; La gestion des dechets nucleaires a haute activite et a vie longue en France: enquete aupres des acteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Dars, A

    2002-07-01

    This document presents talks carried out near various actors of the radioactive wastes management in France. These talks have been realized in the framework of an inquiry aiming at supporting the developments of an economic sciences thesis, relative to the sustainable management of the nuclear wastes. This inquiry aimed to better determine the actors stakes, the controversies on the technical choices, but also the possible cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of different uses of biogas from anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste in France. Final report; Analyse du Cycle de Vie des modes de valorisation energetique du biogaz issu de methanisation de la Fraction Fermentescible des Ordures Menageres collectee selectivement en France. Rapport Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In the first part of the study, Gaz de France (GdF) and the French Environment Energy Management Agency (ADEME) wished to identify the best method to use the biogas from anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste (bio-waste). Secondly, GdF and ADEME wished to evaluate the strength and weaknesses of the two main different organic recycling: anaerobic digestion (methanization) and composting. The study is based on the life cycle assessment method. The life cycle assessment used for this study consists in quantifying the environmental impacts of all of the activities which are related to the chosen use method. This methodology involves compiling a detailed account of all substances and energy flows removed or emitted from or into the environment at each stage of the life cycle. These flows are then translated into indicators of potential environment impacts. This methodology is based on the international standards ISO14040 and ISO 14044. The life cycle assessment was performed by RDC Environnement. In this study, two questions were treated: - Which is the best valorisation method for biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste: fuel, heat or electricity? ('Biogas' question); - Which is the best treatment for the separately collected biodegradable waste: anaerobic digestion (methanization) or industrial composting? ('Composting' question). The field of the study includes the arrival of the separately collected biodegradable waste at the anaerobic unit as well as the utilisation of the biogas energy and the agricultural use of the digestate from anaerobic digestion. For each biogas utilisation, the environmental impacts of each life cycle stage were considered as well as the impacts that were avoided due to the substitution of the use of non-renewable energy ('conventional' procedures). The modelling of the direct composting of the biodegradable waste was realised taking into

  13. Life insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Topič, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor's project is life insurance. The theoretical part consists of literary research focussed not only on life insurance. The research begins with general introduction to the insurance issue, the basic division of insurance, its rules of law and as well some historical facts. The rest of the theoretical part is focussed on life insurance, where we can find basic division of life insurance, description of particular insurance types and various supplementary insurances. In...

  14. E-waste management as a global challenge (introductory chapter)

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai, Florin-Constatin; Gnoni, Maria-Grazia

    2016-01-01

    International audience Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment management (E-waste or WEEE) is a crucial issue in the solid waste management sector with global interconnections between well-developed, transitional and developing countries. Consumption society and addiction to technology dictate the daily life in high and middle-income countries where population consumes large amounts of EEE products (electrical and electronic equipment) which sooner become e-waste. This fraction is a fas...

  15. Interim report: Waste management facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for treating alpha and nonalpha mixed low-level radioactive waste. This report contains information on twenty-seven treatment, storage, and disposal modules that can be integrated to develop total life cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also summarized in this report

  16. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report's information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report

  17. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  18. Interim report: Waste management facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1994-03-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for treating alpha and nonalpha mixed low-level radioactive waste. This report contains information on twenty-seven treatment, storage, and disposal modules that can be integrated to develop total life cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also summarized in this report.

  19. Bioconversion of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung into value-added products using earthworm Eisenia fetida

    OpenAIRE

    Wani, K.A.; Mamta; R.J. Rao

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is a worldwide problem and it is becoming more and more complicated day by day due to rise in population, industrialization and changes in our life style. Transformation of industrial sludges into vermicompost is of double interest: on the one hand, a waste is converted into value added product, and, on the other, it controls a pollutant that is a consequence of increasing industrialization. Garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung were subjected to recycle through verm...

  20. Phases management for advanced life support processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhard, F.; Brunink, J.A.J.; Tuinstra, B.; Assink, J.W.; Ten Asbroek, N.; Backx, V.; Klaassen, A.; Waters, G.; Stasiak, M.A.; Dixon, M.; Ordoñez-Inda, L.

    2005-01-01

    For a planetary base, a reliable life support system including food and water supply, gas generation and waste management is a condition sine qua non. While for a short-term period the life support system may be an open loop, i.e. water, gases and food provided from the Earth, for long-term missions

  1. Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project...... treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies........e. heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors) in the waste water. As a novel approach, the potential ecotoxicity and human toxicity impacts from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impacts from pathogens will be included. In total, more that 20 different waste water and sludge...

  2. Radio Active Waste Management: Underground Repository Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finding a solution for nuclear waste is a key issue, not only for the protection of the environment but also for the future of the nuclear industry. Ten years from now, when the first decisions for the replacement of existing nuclear power plants will have to be made, The general public will require to know the solution for nuclear waste before accepting new nuclear plants. In other words, an acceptable solution for the management of nuclear waste is a prerequisite for a renewal of nuclear power. Most existing wastes are being stored in safe conditions waiting for permanent solution, with some exceptions in the former Eastern Bloc. Temporary surface or shallow storage is a well known technique widely used all over the world. A significant research effort has been made by the author of this paper in the direction of underground repository. The underground repository appears to be a good solution. Trying to transform dangerous long lived radionuclides into less harmful short lived or stable elements is a logical idea. It is indeed possible to incinerate or transmute heavy atoms of long lived elements in fast breeder reactors or even in pressurised or boiling water reactors. There are also new types of reactors which could be used, namely accelerator driven systems. High level and long lived wastes (spent fuel and vitrified waste) contain a mixture of high activity (heat producing) short lived nuclides and low activity long lived alpha emitting nuclides. To avoid any alteration due to temperature of the engineered or geological barrier surrounding the waste underground, it is necessary to store the packages on the surface for several decades (50 years or more) to allow a sufficient temperature decrease before disposing of them underground. In all cases, surface (or shallow) storage is needed as a temporary solution. This paper gives a detailed and comprehensive view of the Deep Geological Repository, providing a pragmatic picture of the means to make this method, a

  3. Log live high activity radioactive wastes / Researches and results law of the 30 December 1991. Separation and transmutation of long lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The law of the 30 December 1991 on the high activity long lived radioactive wastes reached the end. This synthesis final document presents the scientific and technological results, obtained still the end of 2005, on the separation and the transmutation of long lived radionuclides of high activity long lived radioactive wastes. It is organized in five chapters: a presentation of the context and the historical aspects, the researches, the objectives and the strategy of the axis 1, the researches results on the advanced separation, the researches results on the transmutation, the scenario of separation-transmutation and their environmental, technical and economical impacts. (A.L.B.)

  4. Life cycle analysis as a tool for assessing new waste water treatment systems. A case study of textile industry effluent; Analisis del ciclo de vida como herramienta de evaluacion de nuevos sistemas de depuracion de aguas residulaes. Caso practico: efluentes de la industria textil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hospido, A.; Novo, E.; Moreira, M. T.; Feijoo, G.

    2001-07-01

    Life cycle analysis (LCA) is a technique that analyses the life cycle of a product process or activity in an attempt to identify its overall environmental impact. This approach can be of great help in strategic or operational decision-making in industry or business. This article takes as an example a comparative study of systems for treating strongly coloured industrial effluent. To this end, two well established technologies for dealing with industrial waste were examined: a) the physico-chemical treatment of effluents by coagulation-flocculation: b) a process combining physico-chemical treatment and biological aerobic activated sludge treatment. In addition, the viability of an emerging technology based on the decolouring of effluents with ligninolytic fungi was considered, although this process is still at the study stage. (Author) 13 refs.

  5. Life cycle assessment of shredder residue management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Damgaard, Anders; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen;

    wood waste, wood waste for recycling and district heating pipes. The LCA was conducted using the EASETECH LCA model developed by DTU Environment for the environmental assessment of waste management systems and environmental technologies. The LCA was conducted in accordance with the LCA principles......This report provides a life-cycle assessment (LCA) of the treatment of shredder residue (SR) in Denmark. The LCA was conducted for the Environmental Protection Agency by DTU Environment in the period March-July 2014, as part of a service agreement between the Danish Environmental Protection Agency...... and the Technical University of Denmark on research-based services in the field of waste management. The report is part of a larger survey on improved resource recovery of waste, focusing on the environmental as well as socio-economic consequences of different treatment scenarios for shredder waste, impregnated...

  6. Life Expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewski, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    We give simple upper and lower bounds on life expectancy. In a life-table population, if e(0) is the life expectancy at birth, M is the median length of life, and e(M) is the expected remaining life at age M, then (M+e(M))/2≤e(0)≤M+e(M)/2. In general, for any age x, if e(x) is the expected remaining life at age x, and ℓ(x) is the fraction of a cohort surviving to age x at least, then (x+e(x))≤l(x)≤e(0)≤x+l(x)∙e(x). For any two ages 0≤w≤x≤ω, (x-w+e(x))∙ℓ(x)/ℓ(w)≤e(w)≤x-w+e(x)∙ℓ(x)/ℓ(w) . These...

  7. Licensing process for the installation of radioactive waste treatment by plasma technology in Kozloduy NPP (Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this project, which lasted approximately four years, is to have a facility for reduction volume of radioactive waste and waste generated during the decommissioning of the four units that have completed its operational life.

  8. Defining Life

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected “theories of life.” These include certain “list” definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a “self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution.” We then act as “anthropologists,” studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they ...

  9. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  10. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  11. Life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs

  12. Life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  13. LIFE: bibliography

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, J

    2006-01-01

    The following bibliography came out of the research which formed the first phase of the joint British Library-UCL LIFE (Lifecycle Information for E-Literature) project. The references are not an exhaustive review of digital preservation activities, they are a reflection of the aims of the LIFE project. Any suggestions for additions or comments can be emailed to

  14. Embryonic life and human life.

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, M C

    1985-01-01

    A new human life comes into being not when there is mere cellular life in a human embryo, but when the newly developing body organs and systems begin to function as a whole, the author argues. This is symmetrical with the dealth of an existing human life, which occurs when its organs and systems have permanently ceased to function as a whole. Thus a new human life cannot begin until the development of a functioning brain which has begun to co-ordinate and organise the activities of the body a...

  15. Solid Waste Integrated Forecast Technical (SWIFT) Report FY2001 to FY2046 Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARCOT, R.A.

    2000-08-31

    This report provides up-to-date life cycle information about the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; program-level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and comparisons to previous forecasts and other national data sources. This report does not include: waste to be managed by the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) contractor (i.e., waste that will be disposed of at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF)); waste that has been received by the WM Project to date (i.e., inventory waste); mixed low-level waste that will be processed and disposed by the River Protection Program; and liquid waste (current or future generation). Although this report currently does not include liquid wastes, they may be added as information becomes available.

  16. Solid Waste Integrated Forecast Technical (SWIFT) Report FY2001 to FY2046 Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides up-to-date life cycle information about the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; program-level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and comparisons to previous forecasts and other national data sources. This report does not include: waste to be managed by the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) contractor (i.e., waste that will be disposed of at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF)); waste that has been received by the WM Project to date (i.e., inventory waste); mixed low-level waste that will be processed and disposed by the River Protection Program; and liquid waste (current or future generation). Although this report currently does not include liquid wastes, they may be added as information becomes available

  17. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-08-01

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive for the selection of future technologies. On the basis of the results, it is recommended that a narrow focus on GW aspects should be avoided as most waste technologies may allow comparable performance. Rather, other environmental aspects such as resource recovery and toxic emissions should receive attention in the future. PMID:23834059

  18. 2014 Zero Waste Strategic Plan Executive Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, Ralph J.

    2016-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico is located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, primarily on Department of Energy (DOE) permitted land on approximately 2,800 acres of Kirtland Air Force Base. There are approximately 5.5 million square feet of buildings, with a workforce of approximately 9200 personnel. Sandia National Laboratories Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) program adopted in 2008 an internal team goal for New Mexico site operations for Zero Waste to Landfill by 2025. Sandia solicited a consultant to assist in the development of a Zero Waste Strategic Plan. The Zero Waste Consultant Team selected is a partnership of SBM Management Services and Gary Liss & Associates. The scope of this Plan is non-hazardous solid waste and covers the life cycle of material purchases to the use and final disposal of the items at the end of their life cycle.

  19. Report on the behalf of the Parliamentary Office of Assessment of Scientific and Technological Choices on the assessment of the National Plan for the Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes, PNGMDR 2013-2015 - National Assembly Nr 2226, Senate Nr 805

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its first part, this report presents the PNGMDR (National Plan for the Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes) by recalling the national and European legal framework, by outlining that it has been elaborated by a model pluralist work group, and that this document is being constantly improved. The second part addresses various aspect related to the choices of the separation-transmutation process: consistency with previously adopted orientations, technical-economic problematic of used fuel processing / recycling, issue of long term profitability of this processing / recycling, need to strengthen fundamental research on fuel cycle, achievement of the transmutation objective, issue of selection of a transmutation process, choice of the option of fast breeder reactors, safety issue for sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors. The third part addresses the imperative of a geological deposit of high and medium activity long-life radioactive wastes: international consensus of deep geological storage, presentation of the Cigeo project, intervention of waste producers in the Cigeo project, relationships between the ANDRA and waste producers, lack of visibility on long term burdens, Cigeo within the territory. The last part discusses several aspects of the societal and practical advances in the field of participatory democracy, notably for the public debate modalities. After some recommendations, several appendices contain texts of hearings of different representatives of bodies in relationship with the issue of radioactive wastes and nuclear fuels, legal texts, reports of public debates, a presentation of laser-based transmutation of nuclear wastes, and an ASN document on the safety of the ASTRID prototype

  20. Waste prevention action nets

    OpenAIRE

    Corvellec, Hervé; Czarniawska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Although waste prevention is considered the best possible waste management option in the European waste hierarchy model, it is unclear what constitutes waste prevention. To address this lack of clarity, this text presents an analysis of four Swedish case studies of waste prevention: a waste management company selling waste prevention services; the possibility offered to Swedish households to opt out of receiving unaddressed promotional material; a car-sharing program; and a re-...

  1. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Krsteva, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  2. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE estimates that disposing of radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plants and its defense-related nuclear facilities could eventually end up costing $32 billion. To pay for this, DOE collects fees from utilities on electricity generated by nuclear power plants and makes payments from its defense appropriation. This report states that unless careful attention is given to its financial condition, the nuclear waste program is susceptible to future shortfalls. Without a fee increase, the civilian-waste part of the program may already be underfunded by at least $2.4 billion (in discounted 1988 dollars). Also, DOE has not paid its share of cost-about $480 million-nor has it disclosed this liability in its financial records. Indexing the civilian fee to the inflation rate would address one major cost uncertainty. However, while DOE intends to do this at an appropriate time, it does not use a realistic rate of inflation as its most probable scenario in assessing whether that time has arrived

  3. China's Import of Wastes and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Dongmei

    2008-01-01

    The trade of wastes in the world has been increasing and China has become the largest importer of wastes. This paper examines the import trend of different wastes and finds out that the total import volume to China approved by the Chinese government keeps increasing and the illegal trade can not be banned despite repeated prohibitions; therefore, China is not only "a world factory", but actually "a global garbage dump". In order to well understand the implications of wastes import, this paper further analyzes the resource and environmental effects and risks of different wastes imports as well as the strong driving force of wastes imports. Based on these detailed analysis and solid data, policy recommendations are put forward to reduce the demand for raw materials, to further strengthen the inspection of and supervision over the international trade of the wastes that can be used as raw materials by using the life cycle analysis and risk analysis, to improve the environmental standards and strengthen the disposal capacity, to re-export the raw materials produced from the imported wastes, to develop the long-term planning for the import of wastes and to promote international cooperation.

  4. Electrochemical treatment of alkaline nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of highly radioactive waste have been generated throughout the Department of Energy complex over the past 50 years as a result of the production of special nuclear materials for defense and space programs. These wastes have been stored in underground tanks. Some of the tanks have developed cracks that have allowed waste to leak out of the primary tank. Many of the tanks are operating beyond their design life. Processes are being developed to remove the waste from the storage tanks and permanently dispose of it in engineered wasteforms. The bulk of the radioactivity will be concentrated into approximately 1% of the total waste volume and vitrified. The highly radioactive borosilicate glass wasteform will be placed in the federal repository. The remaining waste, which still contains low concentrations of radioactivity, will be incorporated into a low-level wasteform (e.g., cement, glass, ceramic, polymer, etc.) and placed in a near surface facility at the DOE site. Electrochemical-based processes are being evaluated to destroy organic compounds that impact radionuclide separations processes, to destroy or to remove hazardous species in the waste such as nitrates, nitrites, hazardous metals, and radionuclides that can impact wasteform production and characteristics, recovery chemicals of value such as sodium hydroxide (caustic) that can be recycled. Major benefits of such processes include the destruction or removal of hazardous species, waste volume reduction and the recovery of valuable chemicals contained in the waste

  5. Utilization of Electronic Waste Plastic in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek S. Damal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In India, bitumen pavements are commonly used for highways. Due to the increasing traffic intensity, distress such as rutting and cracking of pavements are very common in Indian roads. Under varying seasonal temperature, flexible pavements tend to become soft in summer and brittle in winter. Investigations revealed that properties of concrete can be better than bitumen roads. But now a day‟s concrete roads are used commonly because concrete roads have more life span than the bitumen roads. In large cities now a day‟s concrete roads are used because concrete roads are more durable, strengthen and having more life span than bitumen roads. Waste plastics and E-waste (electronic waste both by domestic and industrial sectors can be used in the production of asphalt mix. Waste plastic, mainly used for packing are made up of polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene. Electronic waste, abbreviated as e-waste, consists of discarded old computers, TVs, refrigerators; radios, etc are basically any electrical or electronic appliance that has reached its end of life. An experimental study is made on the utilization of E-waste particles as fine aggregates in concrete with a percentage replacement ranging from 0 % to 21.5% i.e. (7.5%, 15% and 21.5% on the strength criteria of M30 Concrete. Compressive strength Concrete with and without E- waste plastic as aggregates was observed which exhibits a good strength. The feasibility of utilizing E-waste plastic particles as partial replacement of fine aggregate has been presented. In the present study, compressive strength was investigated for Optimum Cement Content and 7.5% E-plastic content in mix yielded stability and very good in compressive strength of 43 grade cement.

  6. Environmental assessment of solid waste systems and technologies: EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus Torsten; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund;

    2006-01-01

    A new model has been developed for evaluating the overall resource consumption and environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems by the use of life cycle assessment. The model is named EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies) and is able...... to optimize current waste management systems with respect to environmental achievements and by authorities to Set Guidelines and regulations and to evaluate different strategies for handling of waste. The waste hierarchy has for decades been governing waste management but the ranking of handling approaches...... may not always be the most environmentally friendly. The EASEWASTE model can identify the most environmentally sustainable solution, which may differ among waste materials and regions and can add valuable information about environmental achievements from each process in a solid waste management system....

  7. Energy recovery from garden waste in a LCA perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    According to the common strategies regarding waste management and energy supply in EU countries, more efficient utilization of organic waste resources (including garden waste) with both nutrient and energy recovery is desired. Each of the most common treatments applied today – composting, direct...... use on land and incineration – only provides one of the two services. A technology ensuring both nutrient and energy utilization is anaerobic digestion (AD) that has become applicable for treatment of garden waste recently. In this study, life cycle assessment aimed to compare four garden waste...... and energy recovery were observed....

  8. Evaluation of alternative treatments for spent fuel rod consolidation wastes and other miscellaneous commercial transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight alternative treatments (and four subalternatives) are considered for both existing commercial transuranic wastes and future wastes from spent fuel consolidation. Waste treatment is assumed to occur at a hypothetical central treatment facility (a Monitored Retrieval Storage facility was used as a reference). Disposal in a geologic repository is also assumed. The cost, process characteristics, and waste form characteristics are evaluated for each waste treatment alternative. The evaluation indicates that selection of a high-volume-reduction alternative can save almost $1 billion in life-cycle costs for the management of transuranic and high-activity wastes from 70,000 MTU of spent fuel compared to the reference MRS process. The supercompaction, arc pyrolysis and melting, and maximum volume reduction alternatives are recommended for further consideration; the latter two are recommended for further testing and demonstration

  9. Evaluation of alternative treatments for spent fuel rod consolidation wastes and other miscellaneous commercial transuranic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Oma, K.H.; Smith, R.I.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1986-05-01

    Eight alternative treatments (and four subalternatives) are considered for both existing commercial transuranic wastes and future wastes from spent fuel consolidation. Waste treatment is assumed to occur at a hypothetical central treatment facility (a Monitored Retrieval Storage facility was used as a reference). Disposal in a geologic repository is also assumed. The cost, process characteristics, and waste form characteristics are evaluated for each waste treatment alternative. The evaluation indicates that selection of a high-volume-reduction alternative can save almost $1 billion in life-cycle costs for the management of transuranic and high-activity wastes from 70,000 MTU of spent fuel compared to the reference MRS process. The supercompaction, arc pyrolysis and melting, and maximum volume reduction alternatives are recommended for further consideration; the latter two are recommended for further testing and demonstration.

  10. Effects of a six-month intradialytic physical ACTIvity program and adequate NUTritional support on protein-energy wasting, physical functioning and quality of life in chronic hemodialysis patients: ACTINUT study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Magnard, Justine; Deschamps, Thibault; Cornu, Christophe; Paris, Anne; Hristea, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is common in hemodialysis patients and is a powerful predictor of morbidity and mortality. Although much progress has been made in recent years in identifying the causes and pathogenesis of PEW in hemodialysis patients, actual management by nutritional interventions is not always able to correct PEW. Some investigators suggest that physical exercise may increase the anabolic effects of nutritional interventions, and therefore may have a potential to rev...

  11. Life cycle of remanufactured engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ming; CHEN Ming

    2005-01-01

    The life cycle index of remanufactured engines was assessed by using the method of life cycle assessment (LCA). A remanufactured engine of a certain domestic brand was taken as researching object. Engine reproducing engineering was investigated from three aspects which were energy, material and environment. The application of LCA on remanufacturing engines was discussed in detail with a practical case. The results indicate that remanufackg CO2 , 6.09 kg CO, 1.01 kg NOx, 3. 985 kg SOx and 288. 725 kg solid waste. The remanufacturing of engines possesses great economic value and practicability.

  12. Antifreeze life cycle assessment (LCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesić Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifreeze based on ethylene glycol is a commonly used commercial product The classification of ethylene glycol as a toxic material increased the disposal costs for used antifreeze and life cycle assessment became a necessity. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA considers the identification and quantification of raw materials and energy inputs and waste outputs during the whole life cycle of the analyzed product. The objectives of LCA are the evaluation of impacts on the environment and improvements of processes in order to reduce and/or eliminate waste. LCA is conducted through a mathematical model derived from mass and energy balances of all the processes included in the life cycle. In all energy processes the part of energy that can be transformed into some other kind of energy is called exergy. The concept of exergy considers the quality of different types of energy and the quality of different materials. It is also a connection between energy and mass transformations. The whole life cycle can be described by the value of the total loss of exergy. The physical meaning of this value is the loss of material and energy that can be used. The results of LCA are very useful for the analyzed products and processes and for the determined conditions under which the analysis was conducted. The results of this study indicate that recycling is the most satisfactory solution for the treatment of used antifreeze regarding material and energy consumption but the re-use of antifreeze should not be neglected as a solution.

  13. Risk-based method to assess the safe life of hazardous waste landfill%基于环境风险的危险废物填埋场安全寿命周期评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚; 能昌信; 刘玉强; 杨金忠; 刘景财; 董路

    2016-01-01

    通过系统分析危险填埋场的设计功能,结合安全寿命周期的定义,对危险废物填埋场的安全寿命周期进行了定义.在此基础上,通过文献查阅和理论推导确定了描述危险废物填埋场主要单元性能衰减的老化模型,并结合课题组开发的渗漏环境风险分析模型,建立了危险废物填埋场的安全寿命评估模型,并选择中部某危险废物填埋场进行了案例研究.结果表明:随着防渗材料老化以及导排层淤堵,渗滤液渗漏量将逐渐增加,其安全贮存功能将逐渐丧失,并逐渐达到其安全寿命周期.仅就本案例而言,该填埋场的安全寿命周期为385a;对安全寿命周期相关参数的敏感性分析表明,浸出浓度与填埋场安全寿命周期呈负相关,包气带厚度和含水层厚度与安全寿命周期呈正相关,相关系数分别为-0.79、0.99和0.72,这说明包气带厚度对安全寿命周期影响更大,其次为浸出浓度,最后为含水层厚度;应加强填埋场相关单元老化模型研究,开展其他因素对填埋场安全寿命周期的影响,进一步完善危险废物填埋场安全寿命周期评价理论和方法.%Through systematic analysis on hazardous waste landfill’s (HWL) design function, the definition of Safety Life Cycle (SLC) of HWL was given with reference on the traditional definition of SLC. Base on this, the models describing the degradation process of HWL’s main functional units were determined by literature reviewing and theoretical analyzing. This models were then coupled with the ERAMLL (Environmental risk assessment model for the leachate leakage) to assess the SLC for HWL. A HWL in central area in China was selected as a case study, and the result reveals that: with the aging of geomembrane and clogging of drainage system, the leakage rate of leachate in HWL will increase with time. Its environment risk will increase, and the HWL will reach to its SLC. As far as this case is

  14. Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten;

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the new systems engineering optimization model, OptiWaste, which incorporates a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. As part of the optimization, the model identifies the most attractive waste management...... options. The model renders it possible to apply different optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritize several objectives given different weights. A simple illustrative case is analysed, covering alternative treatments of one tonne of residual household...... waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste for biogas production for either combined heat and power generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates that the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system - illustrated...

  15. Waste management and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Waste Management (WM) has become an applied science. It is used at the point of generation, at the centralized treatment facilities, and at the disposal sites. In the government and private sector, much research is being done in waste by-product utilization. Some of the important factors that affect waste are sources of waste, classification of waste, waste treatment and conditioning, minimization of waste, laws and regulations governing waste and present and future issues. WM has become a career with a promising future as the cost of waste disposal increases tremendously. Scientists have started working on waste minimization and most organizations implement a formalized waste minimization program of their own. The waste disposal is approached in an analytical manner and this paper describes development in radioactive waste disposal and safe transportation practices

  16. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  17. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  18. Integrated waste and water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  19. Biodegradability of degradable plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamuthu, P; Faizura, Putri Nadzrul

    2005-04-01

    Plastic waste constitutes the third largest waste volume in Malaysian municipal solid waste (MSW), next to putrescible waste and paper. The plastic component in MSW from Kuala Lumpur averages 24% (by weight), whereas the national mean is about 15%. The 144 waste dumps in the country receive about 95% of the MSW, including plastic waste. The useful life of the landfills is fast diminishing as the plastic waste stays un-degraded for more than 50 years. In this study the compostability of polyethylene and pro-oxidant additive-based environmentally degradable plastics (EDP) was investigated. Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) samples exposed hydrolytically or oxidatively at 60 degrees C showed that the abiotic degradation path was oxidative rather than hydrolytic. There was a weight loss of 8% and the plastic has been oxidized as shown by the additional carbonyl group exhibited in the Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) Spectrum. Oxidation rate seemed to be influenced by the amount of pro-oxidant additive, the chemical structure and morphology of the plastic samples, and the surface area. Composting studies during a 45-day experiment showed that the percentage elongation (reduction) was 20% for McD samples [high-density polyethylene, (HDPE) with 3% additive] and LL samples (LLDPE with 7% additive) and 18% reduction for totally degradable plastic (TDP) samples (HDPE with 3% additive). Lastly, microbial experiments using Pseudomonas aeroginosa on carbon-free media with degradable plastic samples as the sole carbon source, showed confirmatory results. A positive bacterial growth and a weight loss of 2.2% for degraded polyethylene samples were evident to show that the degradable plastic is biodegradable.

  20. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation

  1. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  2. Waste remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-12-29

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  3. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge

  4. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  5. Waste package performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been applied to several package designs. The resulting preliminary assessments were intended for use in making decisions about package development programs. A computer model called BARIER estimates the package life and subsequent rate of release of selected nuclides. The model accounts for temperature, pressure (and resulting stresses), bulk and localized corrosion, and nuclide retardation by the backfill after water intrusion into the waste form. The assessment model assumes a post-closure, flooded, geologic repository. Calculations indicated that, within the bounds of model assumptions, packages could last for several hundred years. Intact backfills of appropriate design may be capable of nuclide release delay times on the order of 107 yr for uranium, plutonium, and americium. 8 references, 6 figures, 9 tables

  6. Enhancing the urban and rural waste management and improving the quality of all the people' s life%加强城乡垃圾管理提高全民生活质量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新民; 刘吉起; 王广州; 汪峰; 周瑞敏; 吴卫民

    2013-01-01

    There were some problems in the urban and rural waste management. First,there were five main situation existing, many dead corners of garbage, much scattered trash, village surrounded by the garbage, farming pollution and a large mount of flies. Second,waste management was not timely,which caused much harm such as contaminating water and air,affecting agricultural production and damaging health. Five primary problems existed in the urban and rural waste management,insufficient thinking and understanding,wanting media publicity,deficient infrastructure,improper management mechanism and lacking input in rural areas. The countermeasure in urban and rural waste management was to enhance their understanding,to step up publicity,to speed up infrastructure construction,to improve sanitation management institutions and the introduction of rural living garbage disposal fee, besides, all levels of government had increased funding for rural health, equipped with full-time (or part-time) disinfectant staff and enhanced supervision.%城乡垃圾管理中存在的问题有:五多即垃圾死角、散在垃圾、垃圾围村、养殖污染及苍蝇数量多;垃圾管理滞后所带来的危害即污染水源、空气、影响农业生产及危害健康;城乡垃圾管理中存在问题的根源有五不到位:即思想认识、舆论宣传、基础设施、管理机制及农村投入不到位;城乡垃圾管理问题的对策是:提高思想认识、加大宣传力度、加快基础设施建设、健全环卫管理机构、开征农村生活垃圾处理费、各级政府加大农村卫生经费投入、配备专(兼)职消杀人员及加大监管力度.

  7. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here are gathered 1)the decrees (99-686 and 99-687) of the 3 rd of August 1999 relative to the researches on radioactive waste management. A local committee of information and follow-up has to be established on the site of each underground facility. The composition of this committee is determined here (99-686). 3 people will from now on be jointly ordered by the Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry and by the Secretary of State of Industry to conduct a preliminary dialogue for the choice of one or several sites on which previous works should be made before the construction of an underground facility (99-687). They take the opinion of the people's representatives, the associations and the concerned population and inform the Ministers of Environment, Energy and Research of the collected information. 2)the decree of the 3 rd of August 1999 authorizing the 'Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs' (ANDRA) to install and exploit an underground facility located in Bure (Meuse) and intended to study the deep geological deposits where could be stored radioactive wastes. (O.M.)

  8. Supermarket food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Food waste occurs along the entire food supply chain and gives rise to great financial losses and waste of natural resources. The retail stage of the supply chain contributes significant masses of waste. Causes of this waste need to be identified before potential waste reduction measures can be designed, tested and evaluated. Therefore this thesis quantified retail food waste and evaluated selected prevention and valorisation measures, in order to determine how the carbon footprint of food ca...

  9. Waste Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Felicia Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-02

    This report discusses ways to classify waste as outlined by LANL. Waste Generators must make a waste determination and characterize regulated waste by appropriate analytical testing or use of acceptable knowledge (AK). Use of AK for characterization requires several source documents. Waste characterization documentation must be accurate, sufficient, and current (i.e., updated); relevant and traceable to the waste stream’s generation, characterization, and management; and not merely a list of information sources.

  10. Municipal Solid Waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Doneva, Nikolinka

    2010-01-01

    Waste management covers newly generated waste or waste from an onging process. When steps to reduce or even eliminate waste are to be considered, it is imperative that considerations should include total oversight, technical and management services of the total process.From raw material to the final product this includes technical project management expertise, technical project review and pollution prevention technical support and advocacy.Waste management also includes handling of waste, in...

  11. Carbon-14 waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-14 occurs in nature, but is also formed in nuclear reactors. Because of its long half-life and the biological significance of carbon, releases from nuclear facilities could have a significant radiological impact. Waste management strategies for carbon-14 are therefore of current concern. Carbon-14 is present in a variety of waste streams both at reactors and at reprocessing plants. A reliable picture of the production and release of carbon-14 from various reactor systems has been built up for the purposes of this study. A possible management strategy for carbon-14 might be the reduction of nitrogen impurity levels in core materials, since the activation of 14N is usually the dominant source of carbon-14. The key problem in carbon-14 management is its retention of off-gas streams, particularly in the dissolver off-gas stream at reprocessing plants. Three alternative trapping processes that convert carbon dioxide into insoluble carbonates have been suggested. The results show that none of the options considered need be rejected on the grounds of potential radiation doses to individuals. All exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. If, on these grounds, retention and disposal of carbon-14 is found to be beneficial, then, subject to the limitations noted, appropriate retention, immobilization and disposal technologies have been identified

  12. Recognising life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    ’ – that the contemporary discursive pragmatics of more or less pharmaceutical life practices still include forms of transcendence – and by the wish to fertilize the field of bio-politics with the indexical inter-subjectivity of the concept of ideology, as derived from an antiessentialist reading of Hegelian......–Marxist traditions. The analysis unfolds as an ideology critique that reconstructs, and seeks ways to overcome, particular forms of recognition that are identifiable in the data and in the field of drug practices, and how these form part of the constitution of singular collectives and participants – in these life...

  13. Environmental evaluation of waste management scenarios - significance of the boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghinea, C.; Petraru, M.; Bressers, J.T.A.; Gavrilescu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle concept was applied to analyse and assess some municipal solid waste (MSW) management scenarios in terms of environmental impacts, particularised for Iasi city, Romania, where approximately 380 kg/cap/yr of waste are generated. Currently, the management processes include temporary storage

  14. An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, J. (NREL); Camobreco, V. (Ecobalance); Duffield, J. (USDA); Shapouri, H. (USDA); Graboski, M. (CIFER); Tyson, K. S. (NREL Project Manager)

    2000-04-27

    This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. It presents information on raw materials extracted from the environment, energy resources consumed, and air, water, and solid waste emissions generated.

  15. Potential for waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author focuses on wastes considered hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This chapter discusses wastes that are of interest as well as the factors affecting the quantity of waste considered available for waste reduction. Estimates are provided of the quantities of wastes generated. Estimates of the potential for waste reduction are meaningful only to the extent that one can understand the amount of waste actually being generated. Estimates of waste reduction potential are summarized from a variety of government and nongovernment sources

  16. Research on transport system of vertical compression type “land saving type” lifing waste%垂直式压缩“节地型”生活垃圾转运系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建平

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problem of location for Solid Waste Transfer Station, study the vertical compression “Flat in and Flat out” technology, propose to use mechanical devices to replace the traditional collection vehicles or transport vehicle ramp, reach the effects of saving land, reduc-ing energy consumption and pollutant emissions, reducing the height and massing of the building, provide a way of location for medium and small Solid Waste Transfer Station.%从破解生活垃圾转运站选址困境入手,进行了垂直式压缩工艺“平进平出”工艺技术的研究,提出了采用机械设备代替传统的收集车或转运车坡道的方法,达到了节约用地、降低能耗、减排污染物、降低建筑高度和减少建筑体量的效果,为中、小型垃圾转运站选址提供了一条出路。

  17. Chemical Waste and Allied Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yung-Tse; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Ramli, Siti Fatihah; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Lian-Huey; Huhnke, Christopher Robert

    2016-10-01

    This review of literature published in 2015 focuses on waste related to chemical and allied products. The topics cover the waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic granular, aerobic waste treatment, anaerobic granular, anaerobic waste treatment, chemical waste, chemical wastewater, fertilizer waste, fertilizer wastewater, pesticide wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, ozonation. cosmetics waste, groundwater remediation, nutrient removal, nitrification denitrification, membrane biological reactor, and pesticide waste. PMID:27620094

  18. LIFE Materials: Fuel Cycle and Repository Volume 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, H; Blink, J A

    2008-12-12

    The fusion-fission LIFE engine concept provides a path to a sustainable energy future based on safe, carbon-free nuclear power with minimal nuclear waste. The LIFE design ultimately offers many advantages over current and proposed nuclear energy technologies, and could well lead to a true worldwide nuclear energy renaissance. When compared with existing and other proposed future nuclear reactor designs, the LIFE engine exceeds alternatives in the most important measures of proliferation resistance and waste minimization. The engine needs no refueling during its lifetime. It requires no removal of fuel or fissile material generated in the LIFE engine. It leaves no weapons-attractive material at the end of life. Although there is certainly a need for additional work, all indications are that the 'back end' of the fuel cycle does not to raise any 'showstopper' issues for LIFE. Indeed, the LIFE concept has numerous benefits: (1) Per unit of electricity generated, LIFE engines would generate 20-30 times less waste (in terms of mass of heavy metal) requiring disposal in a HLW repository than does the current once-through fuel cycle. (2) Although there may be advanced fuel cycles that can compete with LIFE's low mass flow of heavy metal, all such systems require reprocessing, with attendant proliferation concerns; LIFE engines can do this without enrichment or reprocessing. Moreover, none of the advanced fuel cycles can match the low transuranic content of LIFE waste. (3) The specific thermal power of LIFE waste is initially higher than that of spent LWR fuel. Nevertheless, this higher thermal load can be managed using appropriate engineering features during an interim storage period, and could be accommodated in a Yucca-Mountain-like repository by appropriate 'staging' of the emplacement of waste packages during the operational period of the repository. The planned ventilation rates for Yucca Mountain would be sufficient for LIFE waste

  19. Life Wish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGJUAN

    2004-01-01

    Three career women playing multiple roles: daughter, wife, mother, colleague and friend, handle everyday pressure and enjoy life to the full. Suddenly one day, their lives change. They become patients, identified with their medical case history rather than business card. Facing death, these three women pool their courage, wisdom and tenacity.

  20. Life Pottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Zhang Wenzhi creates a rich variety of pottery works by coveringpottery roughcasts of different qualities with a range of coloredglazes,patterns and textures.Her works principally reflect differentsocial and personal themes,are not for practical use but moreendorse her interest in pottery,her feelings on life,and a sense ofmodernity.

  1. Management of radioactive materials and wastes: status, stakes and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These technical days were organized by the Environment section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP). Time was given to some exchange about the societal aspects of radioactive waste management as well as about the legal context but the most part of the debates delt with the actual management modalities of the different types of wastes, both in France and in foreign countries, and with the related stakes, in particular in terms of impact. This document brings together the presentations (slides) of the following talks: - Contributions of radiation protection to the long-term safety management of radioactive wastes (Jean-Paul MINON - ONDRAF); - The national inventory of radioactive materials and wastes (Arnaud LECLAIRE - ANDRA); - The high activity, medium activity-long living wastes in debate - a co-building approach (ANCCLI/Clis of Bure/IRSN) to share stakes, enlighten, and develop thought (Ludivine GILLI - IRSN, Yves LHEUREUX - ANCCLI); - Social aspects of Radioactive Waste Management - The International Learning (Claudio PESCATORE - AEN/OCDE); - Citizens involvement and ACRO's point of view on radioactive wastes management (Pierre BARBEY - ACRO); - New CIPR recommendations about the geologic disposal of long-living radioactive wastes (Thierry SCHNEIDER - CEPN); - Overview of processes under the views of radiation protection principles (Didier GAY - IRSN); - The national plan of radioactive materials and wastes management (Loic TANGUY - ASN); - Joint convention on spent fuel management safety and on radioactive waste management safety - status and main stakes (Isabelle FOREST - ASN); - Transport of radioactive wastes (Bruno DESNOYERS - AREVA); - Optimisation and limitation of the environmental impacts of very-low level wastes - valorisation and processes selection (Michel PIERACCINI - EDF), Philippe PONCET - AREVA); - Management of hospital wastes - Example of Montpellier's University Regional Hospital (Bertille SEGUIN - CHRU de Montpellier); - Waste

  2. Strategy and methodology for radioactive waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, significant progress has been achieved in the development of waste characterization as well as control procedures and equipment. This has been as a direct response to ever-increasing requirements for quality and reliability of information on waste characteristics. Failure in control procedures at any step can have important, adverse consequences and may result in producing waste packages which are not compliant with the waste acceptance criteria for disposal, thereby adversely impacting the repository. The information and guidance included in this publication corresponds to recent achievements and reflects the optimum approaches, thereby reducing the potential for error and enhancing the quality of the end product. This publication discusses the strategy and methodology to be adopted in conceiving a characterization programme for the various kinds of radioactive waste fluxes or packages. No international publications have dealt with this topic in such depth. The strategy elaborated here takes into account the international State of the art in the different characterization methodologies. The strategy and methodology of the characterization programme will depend on the type of radioactive waste. In addition, the accuracy and quality of the characterization programme very much depends on the requirements to demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria. This publication presents a new subdivision of radioactive waste based on its physicochemical composition and its time dependence: simple/stable, complex/stable, simple/variable and complex/variable. Decommissioning and historical waste deserve special attention in this publication, and they can belong to any of the four categories. Identifying the life cycle of the radioactive waste is a cornerstone in defining the strategy for radioactive waste characterization. The waste acceptance criteria and the performance assessment of the repository are other key factors in the strategy and

  3. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern......Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  4. Sustainable Solid Waste Management and a Research on the Analysis of Managers' Thoughts and Attitudes in respect to Solid Waste Management in Municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Akdoğan, Asuman; GÜLEÇ, Sevcan

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste problem appeared with settled life and has growed with industrialization, urbanization, increasing population and economical development. It has caused to enviromental problems. Solid waste management is changing gradually according to countries’ characteristics. In Turkey, solid waste management is realized by municipalities within the scope of local governments. The aim of this study is to determine the solid waste management issues of province municipalities in Turkey. In this ...

  5. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy is awarding grants to the state of Nevada for the state's participation in DOE's program to investigate Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the disposal of civilian nuclear waste. This report has found that DOE's financial assistance budget request of $15 million for Nevada's fiscal year 1990 was not based on the amount the state requested but rather was derived by increasing Nevada's grant funds from the previous year in proportion to the increase that DOE requested for its own activities at the Nevada site. DOE's evaluations of Nevada's requests are performed too late to be used in DOE's budget formulation process because Nevada has been applying for financial assistance at about the same time that DOE submits its budget request to Congress

  6. Environmental Systems Analysis of Waste Management : Prospects of Hydrogen Production from Waste for use in FCVs

    OpenAIRE

    Assefa, Getachew

    2000-01-01

    ORWARE, an evolving systems analysis based computer model is used to assess the performance of different waste management options from a life cycle perspective. The present version of the model consists of different submodels for transport, treatment, and disposal of different types of liquid and solid wastes and recycling of materials. Flows between submodels are described by a vector of several substances of different relevance to the system. The model calculates emissions to water a...

  7. Management of New Production Reactor waste streams at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure the adequacy of available facilities, the disposition of the several waste types generated in support of a heavy-water NPR operation at the Savannah River Site were projected through waste- treatment and disposal facilities after the year 2000. Volumes of high-level, low-level radioactive, TRU, hazardous, mixed and non-radioactive waste were predicted for early assessments of environmental impacts and to provide a baseline for future waste-minimization initiatives. Life-cycle unit costs for disposal of the waste, adjusted to reflect waste management capabilities in the NPR operating time frame, were developed to evaluate the economic effectiveness of waste-minimization activities in the NPR program

  8. Municipal solid waste management in Nepal: practices and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid waste management in Kathmandu valley of Nepal, especially concerning the siting of landfills, has been a challenge for over a decade. The current practice of the illegal dumping of solid waste on the river banks has created a serious environmental and public health problem. The focus of this study was to carry out an evaluation of solid waste management in Nepal based on published information. The data showed that 70% of the solid wastes generated in Nepal are of organic origin. As such, composting of the solid waste and using it on the land is the best way of solid waste disposal. This will reduce the waste volume transported to the landfill and will increase its life

  9. Management Of Solid Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is written with data from, 84 Karlsruhe symposium, which tells US general introduction of waste disposal such as actualization of waste disposal, related law and direction of waste disposal, collect and transportation of waste matter, preconditioning of waste, collect of waste and recirculation, cases of recirculation, optimal process of waste incineration of waste, composting of waste, disposal of harmful waste, RDF with pilot and operational plant and sanitary landfill method.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF MONITORING AND DIAGNOSTIC METHODS FOR ROBOTS USED IN REMEDIATION OF WASTE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program of the Department of Energy (DOE), extensive use of robots is planned for safe and efficient clean up of hazardous and radioactive waste sites. Robots operating at these waste sites will be exposed to a variety of life...

  11. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste

  12. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation

  13. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste

  14. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  15. A Survey on Major Contributors of E-Waste and Strategies to Solve E-Waste Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Sadhana Tiwari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronics waste is becoming a major global issue. Electrical and electronic devices is the fastest-growing sector of several countries, At the same time, rapid replacement process of these devices causing serious impact on the environment as well health .This replacement making the life of IT and electronicequipmenttoo short and causing generation of waste. This paper gives an overview of status of E-waste generation, consequences of E-waste, strategies for proper handling of E-waste in India, some guidelines for recycling and reuse to minimize for effective management. In this paper Focus will be laid on e-waste from IT-equipment (IT-waste

  16. One life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demkova E.E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to care for a special needs child. Especially, it is easy to understand parents’ worries about their grown up children. Living in one’s own family or supported living in the community are much more preferable than the options the state can offer. The author — a mother of a young woman with autism — contemplates about possibilities for independent living for a person with special needs after their parents are gone. She is confident that teaching a child skills for independent living is not less important than giving them school education. The author illustrates her thoughts with real examples of support for adults with disabilities in their independent life or life in a foster family in a city, as well in rural areas.

  17. Waste Handeling Building Conceptual Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.W. Rowe

    2000-11-06

    The objective of the ''Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study'' is to develop proposed design requirements for the repository Waste Handling System in sufficient detail to allow the surface facility design to proceed to the License Application effort if the proposed requirements are approved by DOE. Proposed requirements were developed to further refine waste handling facility performance characteristics and design constraints with an emphasis on supporting modular construction, minimizing fuel inventory, and optimizing facility maintainability and dry handling operations. To meet this objective, this study attempts to provide an alternative design to the Site Recommendation design that is flexible, simple, reliable, and can be constructed in phases. The design concept will be input to the ''Modular Design/Construction and Operation Options Report'', which will address the overall program objectives and direction, including options and issues associated with transportation, the subsurface facility, and Total System Life Cycle Cost. This study (herein) is limited to the Waste Handling System and associated fuel staging system.

  18. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The name PUMPKIN may suggest a research centre focused on American Halloween traditions or the investigation of the growth of vegetables – however this would be misleading. Researchers at PUMPKIN, short for Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease, are in fact interested in a large family o......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  19. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  20. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)

  1. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using prognostic tools and regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinea, Cristina; Drăgoi, Elena Niculina; Comăniţă, Elena-Diana; Gavrilescu, Marius; Câmpean, Teofil; Curteanu, Silvia; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2016-11-01

    For an adequate planning of waste management systems the accurate forecast of waste generation is an essential step, since various factors can affect waste trends. The application of predictive and prognosis models are useful tools, as reliable support for decision making processes. In this paper some indicators such as: number of residents, population age, urban life expectancy, total municipal solid waste were used as input variables in prognostic models in order to predict the amount of solid waste fractions. We applied Waste Prognostic Tool, regression analysis and time series analysis to forecast municipal solid waste generation and composition by considering the Iasi Romania case study. Regression equations were determined for six solid waste fractions (paper, plastic, metal, glass, biodegradable and other waste). Accuracy Measures were calculated and the results showed that S-curve trend model is the most suitable for municipal solid waste (MSW) prediction. PMID:27454099

  2. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using prognostic tools and regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinea, Cristina; Drăgoi, Elena Niculina; Comăniţă, Elena-Diana; Gavrilescu, Marius; Câmpean, Teofil; Curteanu, Silvia; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2016-11-01

    For an adequate planning of waste management systems the accurate forecast of waste generation is an essential step, since various factors can affect waste trends. The application of predictive and prognosis models are useful tools, as reliable support for decision making processes. In this paper some indicators such as: number of residents, population age, urban life expectancy, total municipal solid waste were used as input variables in prognostic models in order to predict the amount of solid waste fractions. We applied Waste Prognostic Tool, regression analysis and time series analysis to forecast municipal solid waste generation and composition by considering the Iasi Romania case study. Regression equations were determined for six solid waste fractions (paper, plastic, metal, glass, biodegradable and other waste). Accuracy Measures were calculated and the results showed that S-curve trend model is the most suitable for municipal solid waste (MSW) prediction.

  3. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  4. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  5. Life after dark in Kwahu Tafo, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Geest

    2008-01-01

    The author reflects on four nocturnal topics he observed during his research in Kwahu-Tafo, a rural Ghanaian town: witchcraft, sex, human waste removal and sleeping. Yet little of his fieldwork was in fact nocturnal. He also asked school students to write about their views of life after dark in thei

  6. LIFE2 conference: the Life model

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, P.

    2008-01-01

    Summary and aims: Summary: Introduction to the LIFE Model and a recap of LIFE Model v1.0; Development of the LIFE Model v1.1; Looking ahead to LIFE Model v2.0; Scope of lifecycle costs and aims of costing; LIFE Methodology; Generic Preservation Model; Future work: LIFE3? Aims: Summarise recent developments in the LIFE approach and costing tools; Provide a foundation for the Case Study discussions later today; Highlight some outstanding issues for discussio...

  7. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made......, to discuss whether it is at all valid to use the LCA methodology in its current development state to guide policy decisions on paper waste. A total of nine LCA studies containing altogether 73 scenarios were selected from a thorough, international literature search. The selected studies are LCAs including...

  8. Thermal treatment of municipal waste: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste generation, like a shadow accompanies all kinds of human activities. For a long time waste was ignored as of no consequence. Nevertheless in recent times the presence of Waste was felt by the adverse impact it began to have on human life. Attention was given to waste disposal. Various methods of disposal were developed. Actually a process of evolution was set in this area. Starting with Dumpsite it developed in to sanitary land fill. Adverse impact was beginning to be seen in leachate contaminating ground water, and long term emission of methane contributing to climate change. This set the thinking to seek other solutions. Waste was begun to be seen as a resource instead of a nuisance to be disposed off. Bio-methanation of waste for recovery of methane rich biogas was developed. The concept of thermal treatment of waste for disposal came in to being in order to reduce volume of disposal as only the ash will be disposed instead of the whole volume of waste when waste is subjected to thermal treatment. However, it was beset with certain pollution problems which needed to be addressed. Suitable pollution abatement systems were developed. In the meantime, with the increase in global population and lifestyle changes across the globe, demand for natural resources went up rapidly resulting in pressure on the finite resources of the earth. Emphasis shifted to recovery of value from waste while disposing. Recovery of Recyclables, and energy came in to focus. RDF technology was developed facilitating this making it possible to recover recyclables like plastics, metals etc besides generating the prepared fuel RDF for energy recovery. (Author)

  9. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  10. Industrial waste pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics and effects of industrial waste pollution in the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of inorganic and organic pollution entering the bay are described. The four types of pollutants are defined as: (1) inorganic chemical wastes, (2) naturally occurring organic wastes, (3) synthetic organic wastes (exotics) and (4) thermal effluents. The ecological behavior of industrial wastes in the surface waters is analyzed with respect to surface film phenomena, interfacial phenomena, and benthis phenomena

  11. Integrated waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Šeruga, Klaudija

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with the topic integrated waste from each household, all the way to the centres for waste management. Purpose of this study was to obtain information on waste separation in individual households as well as information on whether individuals are aware of the importance of a proper segregation of waste. With this research I wanted to determine whether it is possible for an individual household to collecte seperate waste and whether respondents are aware of the role and act...

  12. Nuclear waste: A cancer cure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a marriage of strange bedfellows, scientists at one of the country's most contaminated nuclear waste sites are collaborating with medical researchers to turn nuclear waste into an experimental therapy for cancer. Patients with Hodgkin's disease and brain, ovarian, and breast cancers may be able to receive the new radiatio-based treatments in the next five to ten years. Recently, scientists at the Hanford site found a way to chemically extract a pure form of the radioisotope yttrium-90 from strontium-90, a by-product of plutonium production. Yttrium-90 is being tested in clinical trials at medical centers around the country as a treatment for various types of cancers, and the initial results are encouraging. The advantage of yttrium-90 over other radioisotopes is its short half-life

  13. Waste-to-energy pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the technology of waste combustion, energy recovery and flue gas treatment allows to redefine the role of the incineration plant as a basic component of integrated waste management systems. In the first part of the paper a critical review of the dioxin (PCDD/Fs) issue is reported, including the evolution of the stack emission concentration, the assessment of the health risk, the total release into the environment and the mass balance. The second part deals with the analysis of energy recovery in comparison with the conventional production in power plants. Inventories emissions and environmental impacts are carried out, with the Life Cycle Assessment technique. Results show that in modern plants equipped with the best available technologies for combustion, flue gas treatment and energy recovery, an actual destruction of dioxin can be achieved. Furthermore, thanks to the production of heat and electric energy, they can provide for an overall reduction of the total release of pollutants in the environment

  14. Landfill waste and recycling: Use of a screening-level risk assessment tool for end-of-life cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) power is currently one of the fastest growing power-generation technologies in the world. While PV technologies provide the environmental benefit of zero emissions during use, the use of heavy metals in thin-film PV cells raises important health and environmental concerns regarding the end-of-life disposal of PV panels. To date, there is no published quantitative assessment of the potential human health risk due to cadmium leaching from cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV panels disposed in a landfill. Thus, we used a screening-level risk assessment tool to estimate possible human health risk associated with disposal of CdTe panels into landfills. In addition, we conducted a literature review of potential cadmium release from the recycling process in order to contrast the potential health risks from PV panel disposal in landfills to those from PV panel recycling. Based on the results of our literature review, a meaningful risk comparison cannot be performed at this time. Based on the human health risk estimates generated for PV panel disposal, our assessment indicated that landfill disposal of CdTe panels does not pose a human health hazard at current production volumes, although our results pointed to the importance of CdTe PV panel end-of-life management. - Highlights: • Analysis of possible human health risk posed by disposal of CdTe panels into landfills. • Qualitative comparison of risks associated with landfill disposal and recycling of CdTe panels. • Landfill disposal of CdTe panels does not pose a human health hazard at current production volumes. • There could be potential risks associated with recycling if not properly managed. • Factors other than concerns over toxic substances will likely drive the decisions of how to manage end-of-life PV panels

  15. Environmental and economic assessment of 'open waste dump' mining in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Danthurebandara, Maheshi; Van Passel, Steven; Van Acker, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Open waste dumps in Sri Lanka generate adverse environmental and socio-economic impacts due to inadequate maintenance. In this study, a concept of 'open waste dump mining' is suggested in order to minimise the environmental and socio-economic impacts, together with resource recovery. A model based on life cycle assessment and life cycle costing has been used to assess the environmental and economic feasibility of the suggested open waste dump mining concept. Two scenarios have been defined fo...

  16. Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Optimizing waste treatment by incorporating LCA methodology. • Applying different objectives (minimizing costs or GHG emissions). • Prioritizing multiple objectives given different weights. • Optimum depends on objective and assumed displaced electricity production. - Abstract: This article presents the new systems engineering optimization model, OptiWaste, which incorporates a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. As part of the optimization, the model identifies the most attractive waste management options. The model renders it possible to apply different optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritize several objectives given different weights. A simple illustrative case is analysed, covering alternative treatments of one tonne of residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste for biogas production for either combined heat and power generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates that the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system – illustrated with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article shows that it is feasible to combine LCA methodology with optimization. Furthermore, it highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model

  17. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.

  18. Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Münster, M. [System Analysis Department, DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ravn, H. [RAM-løse edb, Æblevangen 55, 2765 Smørum (Denmark); Hedegaard, K.; Juul, N. [System Analysis Department, DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ljunggren Söderman, M. [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 53021, SE-40014 Gothenburg (Sweden); Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Optimizing waste treatment by incorporating LCA methodology. • Applying different objectives (minimizing costs or GHG emissions). • Prioritizing multiple objectives given different weights. • Optimum depends on objective and assumed displaced electricity production. - Abstract: This article presents the new systems engineering optimization model, OptiWaste, which incorporates a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. As part of the optimization, the model identifies the most attractive waste management options. The model renders it possible to apply different optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritize several objectives given different weights. A simple illustrative case is analysed, covering alternative treatments of one tonne of residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste for biogas production for either combined heat and power generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates that the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system – illustrated with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article shows that it is feasible to combine LCA methodology with optimization. Furthermore, it highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model.

  19. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT ampersand E) requirements for each of the three concepts

  20. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. [Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.; Quapp, W.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT&E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  1. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. (Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.); Quapp, W.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  2. Floating Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ One in six people in China have left their hometown in search of a better life and the number continues to grow,creating a challenge for host cities,according to a government report.The floating population,or people who live and work outside their permanent home,reached 211 million last year and the number could reach 350 million by 2050 if govemment policies remain unchanged,said the Report on the Development of China's Floating Population issued on June 26 by the National Population and Family Planning Commission (NPFPC).

  3. A Mathematical Model for the Industrial Hazardous Waste Location-Routing Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Omid; Sai Hong, Tang; Pedram, Ali; Mohd Yusuff, Rosnah Bt; Zulkifli, Norzima

    2013-01-01

    Technology progress is a cause of industrial hazardous wastes increasing in the whole world . Management of hazardous waste is a significant issue due to the imposed risk on environment and human life. This risk can be a result of location of undesirable facilities and also routing hazardous waste. In this paper a biobjective mixed integer programing model for location-routing industrial hazardous waste with two objectives is developed. First objective is total cost minimization including tra...

  4. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  5. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    should be managed accordingly. Another reason is that it has been documented that a large fraction of C&D waste (about 90 %) can be easily recycled and thus can conserve landfill capacity. C&D waste may conveniently be divided into three subcategories: Buildings, roads and excavations. This chapter...... describes and, where possible, provides quantitative information about C&D waste. C&D waste appears also in large quantities during war and natural catastrophes, but this kind of C&D waste is of a somewhat different nature due to its chaotic generation and potential pathogenic and ethical issues. Such waste...

  6. Spray dryer waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golden, D.

    1988-03-01

    EPRI has conducted a number of studies to provide utilities with cost information on waste management for conventional wet scrubbing. Studies have characterized waste products; developed engineering designs for effective waste handling, disposal, and/or utilization; and estimated waste management costs. A study, completed in late 1986 evaluated spray dryer wastes. On a dollar-per-ton-disposed basis, spray dryer waste management costs were found to be higher than those for either conventional fly ash or scrubber sludge alone. Cost estimates for new and retrofit spray dryer applications must be revised upward from those produced earlier by EPRI.

  7. Life Insurance. Universal-Life Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Mike; Hayhoe, Celia Ray

    2009-01-01

    Universal-life insurance was created to address many of the problems associated with whole-life insurance. One problem with whole-life insurance is its lack of flexibility. A second problem with whole life is that it is much like a black box. The owner cannot see exactly how it works. Universal life provides solutions to these problems. To fully understand universal life, refer to "Life Insurance: Whole-Life Insurance", Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 354-145, for some backgroun...

  8. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation

  9. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Life-Cycle Assessment Tools for End-of-Life Materials Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    We identified and evaluated five life-cycle assessment tools that community decision makers can use to assess the environmental and economic impacts of end-of-life (EOL) materials management options. The tools evaluated in this report are waste reduction mode (WARM), municipal s...

  11. Optimization of the radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste storage is the practice adopted in countries where the production of small quantities of radioactive waste does not justify the immediate investment in the construction of a repository. Accordingly, at IPEN, treated radioactive wastes, mainly solid compacted, have been stored for more than 20 years, in 200 dm3 drums. The storage facility is almost complete and must be extended. Taking into account that a fraction of these wastes has decayed to a very low level due to the short half - life of some radionuclides and considering that 'retrieval for disposal as very low level radioactive waste' is one of the actions suggested to radioactive waste managers, the Laboratory of Waste Management of IPEN started a project to apply the concepts of clearance levels and exemption limits to optimize the radioactive waste storage capacity . This study has been carried out by determining the doses and costs related to two main options: either to maintain the present situation or to open the packages and segregate the wastes that may be subject to clearance, using the national, two international clearance levels and the annual public limit. Doses and costs were evaluated as well as the collective dose and the detriment cost. The analytical solution among the evaluated options was determined by using the technique to aid decision making known as cost-benefit analysis. At last, it was carried out the sensitivity analysis considering all criteria and parameters in order to assess the robustness of the analytical solution. This study can be used as base to other institutions or other countries with similar nuclear programs. (author)

  12. REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life...... importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and...... even more treatment trains/scenarios) have already been the subject of more or less detailed LCAs. All life cycle stages may be important and all impact categories (except stratospheric ozone depletion) typically included in LCAs may show significance depending on the actual scenario. Potential impacts...

  13. Converting lignocellulosic solid waste into ethanol for the State of Washington: an investigation of treatment technologies and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Elliott; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick; Cooper, Joyce; Vajzovic, Azra

    2012-01-01

    There is little research literature on the conversion of lignocellulosic rich waste streams to ethanol, and even fewer have investigated both the technical aspects and environmental impacts together. This study assessed technical and environmental challenges of converting three lignocellulosic waste streams to ethanol: municipal solid waste (MSW), low grade mixed waste paper (MWP), and organic yard waste (YW). Experimental results showed high conversion yields for all three streams using suitable conversion methods. Environmental impacts are highly dependent on conversion technology, and process conditions used. Life cycle assessment results showed that both chemicals production and waste collection are important factors to be included within a waste-to-ethanol study. PMID:22119432

  14. Waste as a feminist issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Wilkes of New York Polytechnical Institute speaking to the American Sociological Association reports that a review of more than 100 studies indicates that the mean support level for nuclear power is 65 percent for men and 45 percent for women. Data from Europe and Canada show the sex differential holds cross-culturally as well. What does this have to do with the waste issue. A great deal. In the nuclear arena women's concerns go beyond images of explosion and nuclear warfare and are centered more on the long-term effects of radiation. According to Kaspersian of Clark University when a group was given the word radiation and asked to free associate, 2/3 of those who responded with the word ''disease'' were women. In their role as nurturers and caretakers of life women feel a special responsibility to oppose life-threatening technologies that could cause potential special effects to women and in future generations

  15. Public Space, Public Waste, and the Right to the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikarmane, Poornima

    2016-08-01

    I draw on my experiences as an organizer with a waste-pickers collective, Kagad Kach Patra Kashtakari Panchayat in Pune, India, to reflect on the power dynamics in control of public space. The Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC), a public body, has used public resources to facilitate and enable accumulation by private companies, who have not been able to produce what they had committed to in the processing of waste. The waste pickers, in alliance with affected village-based land agitation committees, have mobilized against the dumping that is ruining their way of life, environments, and health, and are fighting for their own integration into waste value chains. The article uses the frame of David Harvey's(1) "right to the city"; a key part of the mobilizing work with waste pickers has been Freirean conscientization methods to spread awareness of the economic importance, to the city and to the planet, of waste recycling. PMID:27252280

  16. Log live high activity radioactive wastes / Researches and results law of the 30 December 1991. Separation and transmutation of long lived radionuclides; Les dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue / recherches et resultats Loi du 30 decembre 1991. Separation et transmutation des radionucleides a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    The law of the 30 December 1991 on the high activity long lived radioactive wastes reached the end. This synthesis final document presents the scientific and technological results, obtained still the end of 2005, on the separation and the transmutation of long lived radionuclides of high activity long lived radioactive wastes. It is organized in five chapters: a presentation of the context and the historical aspects, the researches, the objectives and the strategy of the axis 1, the researches results on the advanced separation, the researches results on the transmutation, the scenario of separation-transmutation and their environmental, technical and economical impacts. (A.L.B.)

  17. Eco-efficient waste glass recycling: Integrated waste management and green product development through LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko; Fantoni, Moris; Fino, Debora

    2012-05-01

    As part of the EU Life + NOVEDI project, a new eco-efficient recycling route has been implemented to maximise resources and energy recovery from post-consumer waste glass, through integrated waste management and industrial production. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to identify engineering solutions to sustainability during the development of green building products. The new process and the related LCA are framed within a meaningful case of industrial symbiosis, where multiple waste streams are utilised in a multi-output industrial process. The input is a mix of rejected waste glass from conventional container glass recycling and waste special glass such as monitor glass, bulbs and glass fibres. The green building product is a recycled foam glass (RFG) to be used in high efficiency thermally insulating and lightweight concrete. The environmental gains have been contrasted against induced impacts and improvements have been proposed. Recovered co-products, such as glass fragments/powders, plastics and metals, correspond to environmental gains that are higher than those related to landfill avoidance, whereas the latter is cancelled due to increased transportation distances. In accordance to an eco-efficiency principle, it has been highlighted that recourse to highly energy intensive recycling should be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled.

  18. Theoretical Framework for Plastic Waste Management in Ghana through Extended Producer Responsibility: Case of Sachet Water Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebo Tawiah Quartey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, use and disposal of plastic by consumers through waste management activities in Ghana not only creates environmental problems, but also reinforces the notion of a wasteful society. The magnitude of this problem has led to increasing pressure from the public for efficient and practical measures to solve the waste problem. This paper analyses the impact of plastic use and disposal in Ghana. It emphasizes the need for commitment to proper management of the impacts of plastic waste and effective environmental management in the country. Sustainable Solid Waste Management (SSWM is a critical problem for developing countries with regards to climate change and greenhouse gas emission, and also the general wellbeing of the populace. Key themes of this paper are producer responsibility and management of products at end of life. The paper proposes two theatrical recovery models that can be used to address the issue of sachet waste in Ghana.

  19. Materials considerations relative to multibarrier waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental conditions associated with the storage of radioactive wastes are reviewed, and the corrosion of potential waste containment materials under these conditions is evaluated. The desired service life of about 1000 years is beyond the time period for which existing corrosion data can be extrapolated with certainty; however, titanium alloys seem to offer the most promise. The mechanical requirements for canisters and overpacks are considered and several candidate materials are selected. Designs for a canister and an overpack have been developed, and these are used to estimate the costs for three possible materials of construction

  20. Wastes - Issue 2014. Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication proposes numerous tables and graphs of data and indicators (and of their evolution) regarding wastes. It addresses waste prevention and production in France (concerned materials, waste production, waste origins, actions and measures for waste prevention, re-use), waste collection (for domestic, industrial wastes, cross-border exchanges, nuclear reactors), waste processing (of dangerous and non dangerous wastes), valorisation processes (sorting, recycling, composting, methanization), waste-based energy production, economy and costs of the waste management activity, and environmental impacts (atmospheric emissions, impact of recycling)

  1. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.)

  2. Mixed Waste Focus Area - Waste form initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems which are developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 and revised in 1997. The technical baseline forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The primary attribute of the technical baseline is a set of prioritized technical deficiencies or roadblocks related to implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. The Waste Form Initiative (WFI) was established to address an identified technical deficiency related to waste form performance. The primary goal of the WFI was to ensure that the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) treatment technologies being developed, currently used, or planned for use by DOE would produce final waste forms that meet the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the existing and/or planned MLLW disposal facilities. The WFI was limited to an evaluation of the disposal requirements for the radioactive component of MLLW. Disposal requirements for the hazardous component are dictated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and were not addressed. This paper summarizes the technical basis, strategy, and results of the activities performed as part of the WFI

  3. Return of premium term life: is it for real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrancesco, Roccy

    2004-01-01

    Physicians who feel they are wasting their money in paying premiums for a typical 30-year-level term life insurance policy may find help in a return-of-premium term life insurance policy. Premiums are higher, but all the money is refunded at the end of the term if the policyholder has not died. Estimates are that 93 percent of policyholders outlive the term of their life insurance.

  4. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  5. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  6. Medical waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  7. Biohazardous waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.

    2004-01-01

    This plan describes the process for managing non-medical biohazardous waste at Sandia National Laboratories California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of biohazardous waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to non-medical biohazardous waste.

  8. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  9. INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Truptimala Patanaik*; Ambika Priyadarshini Mishra; Aishariya Durga; Gayatri Avipsa

    2016-01-01

    The towns and cities have become the centres of population growth and require three essential services viz., water supply, waste water treatment and solid wastes disposal. The tremendous increase in population accelerates the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Hence, the solid waste management (SWM) is one of the essential municipal services, to protect the environment, safeguard public health services and improve productivity.   In this context the case study is c...

  10. Characterization of Solid Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Despodov, Zoran; Doneva, Nikolinka; Mijalkovski, Stojance

    2011-01-01

    In order for any community is to formulate an integrated solid waste management program, accurate and reliable data on waste composition and quantities are essential. Such data will encourage well-organized and smoothly functioning recycling programs; foster the optimal design and operation of materials recovery facilities and municipal incinerators; and, ultimately, reduce the amount of waste generated and keep the overall waste management costs low. In order to apply it more effective st...

  11. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  12. Retention of Halogens in Waste Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2010-05-01

    In spite of their potential roles as melting rate accelerators and foam breakers, halogens are generally viewed as troublesome components for glass processing. Of five halogens, F, Cl, Br, I, and At, all but At may occur in nuclear waste. A nuclear waste feed may contain up to 10 g of F, 4 g of Cl, and ≤100 mg of Br and I per kg of glass. The main concern is halogen volatility, producing hazardous fumes and particulates, and the radioactive iodine 129 isotope of 1.7x10^7-year half life. Because F and Cl are soluble in oxide glasses and tend to precipitate on cooling, they can be retained in the waste glass in the form of dissolved constituents or as dispersed crystalline inclusions. This report compiles known halogen-retention data in both high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glasses. Because of its radioactivity, the main focus is on I. Available data on F and Cl were compiled for comparison. Though Br is present in nuclear wastes, it is usually ignored; no data on Br retention were found.

  13. Unit costs of waste management operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisieleski, W.E.; Folga, S.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ``cradle to grave``) cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics.

  14. Unit costs of waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ''cradle to grave'') cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics

  15. Hazardous Wastes from Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, John

    The management of waste materials has become more complex with the increase in human population and the development of new substances. This illustrated booklet traces the history of waste management and provides guidelines for individuals and communities in disposing of certain hazardous wastes safely. It addresses such topics as: (1) how people…

  16. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  17. WASTE CONTAINMENT OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    BSE waste is derived from diseased animals such as BSE (bovine spongiform encepilopothy, also known as Mad Cow) in cattle and CWD (chronic wasting disease) in deer and elk. Landfilling is examined as a disposal option and this presentation introduces waste containment technology...

  18. Rock & Roll: Waste seperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, R.

    2000-01-01

    Five hundred tonnes of glass, 1 million tonnes of plastic,14 million tonnes of building and demolition waste, 7 million tonnes of household waste, 3 million tonnes of packaging, 3.5 million tonnes of paper and board, and 300,000 old cars. All part of the annual harvest of waste materials in the Neth

  19. Hanford waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant challenge facing the US Dept. of Energy in the near future is that of effectively beginning the disposal of radioactive wastes accumulated since the nuclear program began in the early 1940s. This paper provides an overview of the approach being evaluated for defense waste at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, where over 60% of US defense waste is stored

  20. Nuclear wastes; Dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)