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Sample records for activity tritium labelled

  1. Study on Chinese herbal medicine active ingredients labelled with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Mo; Bao Guangliang

    2008-01-01

    Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients was labeled with triteium by using exchange of new synthesized tritiated water or exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. The active ingredients was Genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid .The radiochemical purity of the three labeled compounds were more than 95% after TLC and HPLC purification. The specific activities of tritium labeled-genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid were 5.97, 3.24 and 470 GBq/g, respectively. The results indicated that the unstable Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients could be labeled with tritium by the methods of exchange of new synthesized tritiated water and exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. (authors)

  2. CNS active ergot alkaloid dihydro derivatives. Tritium labelling and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.A.; Nugent, R.P.; Filer, C.N.

    2016-01-01

    The ergot alkaloids are an important class of medicinally useful substances and this report describes the high specific activity tritium labelling of two dihydro derivatives; namely, dihydroergotamine and dihydrobromocriptine. The former was prepared by the direct tritiation of ergotamine itself. However, efforts to perform an analogous direct tritiation on bromocriptine were unsuccessful and a multistep synthesis was required. (author)

  3. Increase in the specific radioactivity of tritium-labeled compounds obtained by tritium thermal activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badun, G.A.; Chernysheva, M.G.; Ksenofontov, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    A method of tritium introduction into different types of organic molecules that is based on the interaction of atomic tritium with solid organic target is described. Tritium atoms are formed on the hot W-wire, which is heated by the electric current. Such an approach is called 'tritium thermal activation method'. Here we summarize the results of labeling globular proteins (lysozyme, human and bovine serum albumins); derivatives of pantothenic acid and amino acids; ionic surfactants (sodium dodecylsulfate and alkyltrimethylammonium bromides) and nonionic high-molecular weight surfactants - pluronics. For the first time it is observed that if the target-compound is fixed and its radicals are stable the specific radioactivity of the labeled product can be drastically increased (up to 400 times) when the target temperature is ca. 295 K compared with the results obtained at 77 K. The influence of labeling parameters as tritium gas pressure, exposure time and W-wire temperature was tested for each target temperature that results in the optimum labeling conditions with high specific radioactivity and chemical yield of the resulting compound. (orig.)

  4. Synthesis of high specific activity tritium labelled [2-3H]-adenosine-5'-triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, D.K.; Morimoto, H.; Trump, E.L.; Williams, P.G.; Wemmer, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    A procedure for high level tritium labelling at the C2-H position of adenosine 5'-triphosphate ([2- 3 H]-ATP, 1), based on the tritiodehalogenation reaction of 2-bromoadenosine 5'-triphosphate (2) has been elaborated. This precursor was prepared in a six-step synthesis from guanosine. The tritiodehalogenation of (2) for three hours over palladium oxide in phosphate buffer yielded tritium labelled ATP with high specific activity, in good chemical yield. (author)

  5. Synthesis of high specific activity tritium labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, P.

    1986-01-01

    Tritiated methyl iodide of high specific activity is synthetized by Fischer-Tropsch reaction of tritium with carbon monoxide, tritiated methanol obtained is reacted with hydriodic acid. It is used for the synthesis of S-adenosyl L-methionine 3 H-methyl and of diazepam 3 H-methyl derivatives. Synthesis of 3-PPP 3 H: (hydroxy-3 phenyl)-3N-n propyl [ 3 H-2.3] piperidine [ 3 H-2.3] with a specific activity of 4.25 T Bq/mM (115 Ci/mM) and of baclofene 3 H with a specific activity of 0.925 TBq (25 Ci/mM) are also described [fr

  6. Tritium-labelled abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluciennik, H.; Michalski, L.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of biologically active abscisic acid (growth inhibiting plant hormone) labelled with tritium is described. The product obtained has a specific radioactivity of 1.12 GBq mmol -1 : the yield is about 60% as compared to the initial amount of the substance used. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs

  7. Improvement of organic compounds labelling method with the use of thermally activated tritium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejman, L.A.; Smolyakov, V.S.; Antropova, L.P.

    1982-01-01

    Use of a support (various types of papers) is recommended for organic compounds labelling by tritium gas activated at a hot tungsten filament. This improvement increases chemical and radiochemical yields and makes the experiment simpler and faster. Generally labelled triethyloxonium tetra-fluoroborate, ethyl-p-aminobenzoate, p-aminobenzoic acid (Na-salt), A-factor (a natural regulator of streptomycin biosynthesis), decapeptide angiotensin I, phospholipid 1, 2 - dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3--phosphocholine and E. coli tRNAs have been prepared by this method. Molar radioactivity of the labelled compounds is in the range of 1-200 GBg/mmole [ru

  8. Method of preparing tritium-labelled thymidine-5'-monophosphates of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, J.; Vesely, J.; Cihak, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described of preparing thymidine-5'-monophosphates labelled with tritium of high specific activity based on enzyme synthesis in vitro. Phosphorylation was carried out using the catalytic effect of an enzyme contained in the supernatant fraction prepared from Yoshida ascites carcinoma in rats. The course of the enzyme reaction can be controlled by the concentration of the individual reaction mixture components. The method described allows obtaining thymidine-5'-monophosphate of radiochemical purity better than 95%. (J.B.)

  9. Synthesis of molecules of biological interest labelled with high specific activity tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petillot, Yves

    1975-01-01

    Labelled molecules are artificial organic compounds possessing one or several radioactive or steady isotopic atoms. Using tritium to label molecules presents several benefits: a raw material easy to obtain with a high purity and at reasonable cost; synthesised labelled molecules displaying high specific activities very interesting in molecular biology; high resolution of radiographies; relatively simple and quick introduction of tritium atoms in complex molecules. Thus, this report for graduation in organic chemistry addresses the synthesis and study of new labelled molecules which belong to families of organic compounds which have fundamental activities in biology: uridine 3 H-5,6 and thymidine 3 H-methyl which are nucleotides which intervene under the form of phosphates in the synthesis of nucleic acids, oestradiol 3 H-2,4,6,7 which is a powerful estrogenic hormone which naturally secreted by the ovary; and noradrenaline 3 H-1,1' and dopamine 3 H-1,2 which are usually secreted by adrenal medulla and have multiple actions on the nervous system

  10. Radiation-induced tritium labelling and product analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, C.T. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry)

    1993-05-01

    By-products formed in radiation-induced tritium labelling are identified by co-chromatography with authentic samples or by structure prediction using a quantitative structure-retention index relationship. The by-products, formed from labelling of steroids, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 7-membered heterocyclic ring structures, 1,4-benzodiazepines, 1-haloalkanes, etc. with activated tritium and adsorbed tritium, are shown to be specifically labelled and anticipated products from known chemical reactions. From analyses of the by-products, one can conclude that the hydrogen abstraction by tritium atoms and the substitution by tritium ions are the mechanisms of labelling. Classification of the tritium labelling methods, on the basis of the type of tritium reagent, clearly shows the active role played by tritium atoms and ions in radiation-induced methods. (author).

  11. Preparation of pyronaridine labelled with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shangen; Zhang Liufang; Zheng Dongzhu; Feng Zheng; Wu Zufan

    1987-01-01

    Pyronaridine is a high efficient and low toxic new antimalarial drug. 3 H-pyronaridine was prepared by catalytic isotopic exchange in solution with tritium gas using PdO/BaSO 4 as catalyst. That crude product was purified by extraction. 3 H-NMR spectra of pyronaridine showed that tritium was labelled at the 6-position. Specific activity of 3 H-pyronaridine was 5.5 Ci/mmol and radiochemical purity over 95%

  12. Preparation of pyronaridine labelled with tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shangen, Jiang; Liufang, Zhang; Dongzhu, Zheng; Zheng, Feng; Zufan, Wu

    1987-12-01

    Pyronaridine is a high efficient and low toxic new antimalarial drug. /sup 3/H-pyronaridine was prepared by catalytic isotopic exchange in solution with tritium gas using PdO/BaSO/sub 4/ as catalyst. That crude product was purified by extraction. /sup 3/H-NMR spectra of pyronaridine showed that tritium was labelled at the 6-position. Specific activity of /sup 3/H-pyronaridine was 5.5 Ci/mmol and radiochemical purity over 95%.

  13. Enantiospecific tritium labeling of 28-homocastasterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Tomáš; Patil, Mahadeo R; Marek, Aleš

    2017-03-01

    A regiospecific and enantiospecific synthesis of tritium-labeled 28-homocastasterone is reported. Appropriate chlorocarbonate, efficiently synthesized from the starting 28-homocastasterone in an overall yield of 46%, undergoes catalytic tritium dechlorination by the T 2 /Pd[0]/Et 3 N system, providing 28-[3β- 3 H]homocastasterone, in a good yield, radiochemical purity (>97%), and with a high specific activity (5.8 Ci/mmol). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Synthesis of high specific activity tritium-labelled chloroethylcyclohexylnitrosourea and its application to the study of DNA modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siew, E.L. (State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (USA). Dept. of Chemistry); Habraken, Yvette; Ludlum, D.B. (Massachusetts Univ., Worcester, MA (USA). Medical School)

    1991-02-01

    A small-scale synthesis of high specific activity, N-(2-chloro-2-{sup 3}H-ethyl)-N'-cyclohexyl-N-nitrosourea ({sup 3}H-CCNU) has been accomplished from tritium-labelled ethanolamine. The product is pure by TLC and HPLC analysis and has been used successfully to modify DNA. The overall yield on radioactivity including losses in HPLC purification is approximately 4 percent. The availability of this tritium-labelled compound makes studies of DNA repair and of cellular resistance to N-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-cyclohexyl-N-nitrosourea possible. (author).

  15. Synthesis of high specific activity tritium-labelled chloroethylcyclohexylnitrosourea and its application to the study of DNA modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siew, E.L.; Habraken, Yvette; Ludlum, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    A small-scale synthesis of high specific activity, N-(2-chloro-2-[ 3 H-ethyl)-N'-cyclohexyl-N-nitrosourea ([ 3 H]-CCNU) has been accomplished from tritium-labelled ethanolamine. The product is pure by TLC and HPLC analysis and has been used successfully to modify DNA. The overall yield on radioactivity including losses in HPLC purification is approximately 4 percent. The availability of this tritium-labelled compound makes studies of DNA repair and of cellular resistance to N-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-cyclohexyl-N-nitrosourea possible. (author)

  16. Tritium labelling of two new analgesic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria, J.; Rebollo, D.V.; Rivera, P.; Esteban, M.

    1986-01-01

    The labelling with tritium of two arylpropionic esters was studied. The synthesis between 3 H-Ibuprofen and the two unlabelled alcoholic moieties (Cl-Alkanol and CF 3 -Alkanol) was performed. Assuming that we got ready the acidic moiety, 3 H-Ibuprofen, in our Laboratory, we attempted to label with tritium the alcoholic moiety and then go on to its esterification. Prior to labelling, thermic stability of 2-(4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl) ethanol (Cl-Alkanol) was studied. As result of this study we had to change the labelling method, so that the Cl-Alkanol was unstable at 70 0 C. Purification was accomplished through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration, purity and specific activities of the two labelled compounds were determined by ultraviolet, HPLC and liquid scintillation techniques. (author)

  17. Tritium labeling for bio-med research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmon, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A very large fraction of what we know about biochemical pathways in the living cell has resulted from the use of radioactively-labeled tracer compounds; the use of tritium-labeled compounds has been particularly important. As research in biochemistry and biology has progressed the need has arisen to label compounds of higher specific activity and of increasing molecular complexity - for example, oligo-nucleotides, polypeptides, hormones, enzymes. Our laboratory has gradually developed special facilities for handling tritium at the kilocurie level. These facilities have already proven extremely valuable in producing labeled compounds that are not available from commercial sources. The principal ways employed for compound labeling are: (1) microwave discharge labeling, (2) catalytic tritio-hydrogenation, (3) catalytic exchange with T 2 O, and (4) replacement of halogen atoms by T. Studies have also been carried out on tritiation by the replacement of halogen atoms with T atoms. These results indicate that carrier-free tritium-labeled products, including biomacromolecules, can be produced in this way

  18. Tritium labelled steroids, preparation process and application to synthesis of tritium labelled estrane derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Process for preparing new steroids labelled with tritium in 6.7 and comprising in 3 a blocked ketonic group as ketal, thioketal or derivatives. Application of these products to the synthesis of tritium labelled estrane derivatives [fr

  19. Tritium labeling of detonation nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Hugues A; El-Kharbachi, Abdelouahab; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Petit, Tristan; Bergonzo, Philippe; Rousseau, Bernard; Arnault, Jean-Charles

    2014-03-18

    For the first time, the radioactive labeling of detonation nanodiamonds was efficiently achieved using a tritium microwave plasma. According to our measurements, the total radioactivity reaches 9120 ± 120 μCi mg(-1), with 93% of (3)H atoms tightly bonded to the surface and up to 7% embedded into the diamond core. Such (3)H doping will ensure highly stable radiolabeled nanodiamonds, on which surface functionalization is still allowed. This breakthrough opens the way to biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies of nanodiamonds, while this approach can be scalable to easily treat bulk quantities of nanodiamonds at low cost.

  20. Synthesis of deuterium and tritium labelled tyrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanska, M.; Drabarek, S.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of synthesis of tyrosine labelled with deuterium and tritium in the aromatic ring has been developed. Deuterated and tritiated tyrosine was obtained by isotope exchange between tyrosine and deuterated or tritiated water at elevated temperature in hydrochloric acid medium using K 2 PtCl 4 as a catalyst. For synthesis of tritiated tyrosine 1 Ci HTO was used; the specific activity of the product was 5 mCi/mMol. (author)

  1. Synthesis of tritium-labeled fosfomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertel, H.E.; Meriwether, H.T.

    1982-01-01

    Tritium gas was used as a labeling agent for the preparation of [1,2- 3 H]fosfomycin. Introduction of tritium into a precursor, the synthesis including resolution of the intermediate racemic 1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid, and preparation of both amine and calcium salts of the labeled antibiotic are described. (author)

  2. Tritium activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1995-01-01

    Canadian tritium activites comprise three major interests: utilites, light manufacturers, and fusion. There are 21 operating CANDU reactors in Canada; 19 with Ontario Hydro and one each with Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power. There are two light manufacturers, two primary tritium research facilities (at AECL Chalk River and Ontario Hydro Technologies), and a number of industry and universities involved in design, construction, and general support of the other tritium activities. The largest tritum program is in support of the CANDU reactors, which generate tritium in the heavy water as a by-product of normal operation. Currently, there are about 12 kg of tritium locked up in the heavy water coolant and moderator of these reactors. The fusion work is complementary to the light manufacturing, and is concerned with tritium handling for the ITER program. This included design, development and application of technologies related to Isotope Separation, tritium handling, (tritiated) gas separation, tritium-materials interaction, and plasma fueling

  3. Tritium labeling of simple 7-membered ring compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiltunen, J.; Peng, C.T.; Yang, Z.C.

    1990-01-01

    Seven-membered ring compounds, from cycloheptane to complex ring structures containing heteroatoms, substituents and fused phenyl rings, were labeled with tritium, using activated and adsorbed tritium. The 7-membered ring structures are generally stable towards reactions with tritium, which allows compounds like 1-benzosuberone, 1-aza-2-methoxy-1-cycloheptane, iminostilbene and clozapine to be labeled to reasonably high specific activities. The best method varies greatly from compound to compound. By optimizing the labeling conditions and use of efficient support exceptionally good results can be obtained. The Pd-on-alumina support gives consistently higher specific activity and less radioimpurity than other supports. Even molecules containing carbon-halogen bond and hydrogen bound to nitrogen can usually be labeled with tritium at stable positions and without dehalogenation. (author)

  4. Enantiospecific tritium labeling of 28-homocastasterone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elbert, Tomáš; Patil, Mahadeo Rajshekhar; Marek, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2017), s. 176-182 ISSN 0362-4803 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550801 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 28-homocastasterone * brassinosteroids * enantiospecific reaction * tritium dehalogenation * tritium labeling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 1.745, year: 2016

  5. Synthesis of tritium-labeled vitamin A and its analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, S.W.; Bubb, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Metabolic and pharmacologic studies of Vitamin A and its analogs related to the prevention of lung cancer and other epithelial cancers required tritium-labeled Vitamin A analogs and β-carotene at high specific activity. Syntheses of some of the isomers were therefore developed in the laboratory, as described in the paper. The advantages of the scheme shown are that : 1. Tritiums are introduced into the molecule by catalytic hydrogenation, thus affording high specific activity. 2. It uses an allylic rearrangement of tritiated vinyl-β-ionol to C 15 -phosphonium salt, which is condensed with C 5 -nitrile to give C 20 -skeleton of retinonitrile. 3. It permits the development of milder methods to convert tritium-labeled retinaldehyde, as a common intermediate, to the other retinoids (i.e., retinoic acid, retinol, and retinyl acetate). Furthermore, tritium-labeled all-trans-β-carotene, an important carotenoid, has been obtained from the retinaldehyde

  6. Development of method of tritium labeling of pharmacological preparate of drotaverine hydrochloride (NOSPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Shukurov, B.V.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The method for tritium labeling of pharmacological preparate of drotaverine hydrochloride (no spa) was developed. Drotaverine hydrochloride was labeled by thermally activated tritium in apparatus for tritium labeling. The optimum regime of labeling was selected. The system of purification of tritium labeled drotaverine hydrochloride by thin layer chromatography (TLC) has been developed. The TLC system of purification of tritium labeled drotaverine hydrochloride was developed. Tritium labeled preparation of drotaverine hydrochloride was purified by TLC on silicagel in system isopropanol: ammonia: water (8:1:1). We found appearance of additional fractions in tritium labeled preparation of drotaverine hydrochloride that testifies to partial transformation of drotaverine hydrochloride during procedure of labeling. Application of TLC for purification of tritium labeled preparation allows to purify completely drotaverine hydrochloride of by-products. The output of purified tritium labeled preparation of drotaverine hydrochloride was about 25 %. The received preparation had specific radioactivity - 3,2 MBq/mg, radiochemical purity of a preparation was 95 %. TLC purification seems inexpensive, fast and suitable for purification of tritium-labeled drotaverine hydrochloride. Thus developed method allows obtain tritium labeled preparation of drotaverine hydrochloride (no - spa), suitable for medical and biologic researches

  7. Tritium labelled nucleotides: Heterogeneous metal catalyzed exchange labelling of ATP with tritium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, D.K.; Morimoto, H.; Williams, P.G.; Wemmer, D.E.

    1991-09-01

    Adenosine 5' triphosphate (ATP) in aqueous solution has been labeled by exchange with tritium gas in the presence of palladium oxide catalyst. Comparison with our experiments using Pd/BaSO 4 as the catalyst shows that we have obtained product with higher specific activity and improved chemical purity. 3 H NMR spectroscopy of the tritiated ATP shows labelling in both the C-8 and C-2 positions, and the integral ratio of these positions was found to vary from 3:1 to 1:1 under different reaction conditions. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Exploration of new tritium labelling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, H.; Jaiswal, D.K.; Morimoto, H.; Saljoughian, M.; Than, C.; Willimas, P.G.; Zippi, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: A great deal of elegant chemistry is available for hydride transfer reactions, and could be adapted for tritium labelling. Nevertheless, most high level tritiation reactions still involve either hydrogenation (alkene or alkyne precursor) or catalytic dehalogenation. In the last decade we have endeavored to propose and popularize alternative labelling techniques and reagents, including: i) the synthesis of new precursors for the production of methyl iodide; ii) the synthesis of methylene diiodide; iii) the production and use of T 2 O, and solvents made from it, eg. CH 3 COOT, CF 3 COOT; iv) high specific activity hydride reagents, eg. LiAIT 4 , LiEt 3 BT; (Bu n ) 3 SnT, ZrCp 2 CIT, LiT, Li(OCH 3 ) 3 BT, Ph 2 SiT 2 , BT 3 -THF, Li/Na/KBT 4 ; v) reduction with diimide; vi) use of T 2 O in special reactions such as the Shapiro reaction and Brook rearrangement; and vii) developments of a new acetylation reagent. We have also initiated and continued a number of innovative applications of tritium NMR spectroscopy. Many of these projects have grown out of User or Collaborator requirements at the NTLF. We regard this stimulus to develop and refine both tritiation and NMR techniques as healthy and challenging

  9. A new technique of ion beam tritium labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Nianbao; Sheng Shugang; Yao Fuzeng

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a new technique is reported for tritium labelling of proteins, peptides and other nonvolatile organic compounds. A tritium ion beam is accelerated to bombard solid sample target for producing tritium exchange with hydrogen. The tritium labelling method has been applied to tritiated soybean trypsin inhibitor, ribonuclease A, elastin, pachyman and others totalled 11. After purifying by dialysis, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration, the tritiated proteins and polysaccharide were obtained with specific activity over 37 GBq/mmol, without decomposition and with biological activity well preserved. By amino acid analysis of tritiated protein it was shown that the relative specific radioactivities for His., Tyr. and Phe. residues were higher while those for Val., Ile. and Ser. residues were lower

  10. Design and operations at the National Tritium Labelling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, H.; Williams, P.G.

    1991-09-01

    The National Tritium Labelling Facility (NTLF) is a multipurpose facility engaged in tritium labeling research. It offers to the biomedical research community a fully equipped laboratory for the synthesis and analysis of tritium labeled compounds. The design of the tritiation system, its operations and some labeling techniques are presented

  11. Tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.A.; Jesty, J.

    1984-01-01

    A comparism was made of the tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in a human plasma system and a study was made of the role of proteases known to stimulate factor VII activity. Plasma was defibrinated by heating and depleted of its factors IX and X by passing it through antibody columns. Addition of human brain thromboplastin, Ca2+, and purified 3H-labeled factor X to the plasma resulted, after a short lag, in burst-like activation of the factor X, measured as the release of radiolabeled activation peptide. The progress of activation was slowed by both heparin and a specific inhibitor of factor Xa but factor X activation could not be completely abolished by such inhibitors. In the case of 3H-factor IX activation, the rate also increased for approximately 3 min after addition of thromboplastin, but was not subsequently curtailed. A survey of proteases implicated as activators of factor VII in other settings showed that both factor Xa and factor IXa could accelerate the activation of factor IX. However, factor Xa was unique in obliterating activation when present at concentrations greater than approximately 1 nM. Heparin inhibited the tissue factor-dependent activation of factor IX almost completely, apparently through the effect of antithrombin on the feedback reactions of factors Xa and IXa on factor VII. These results suggest that a very tight, biphasic control of factor VII activity exists in human plasma, which is modulated mainly by factor Xa. At saturation of factor VIIa/tissue factor, factor IX activation was significantly more rapid than was previously found in bovine plasma under similar conditions. The activation of factor X at saturation was slightly more rapid than in bovine plasma, despite the presence of heparin

  12. The tritium labelling of ibuprofen by heterogeneous catalytic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria, J.; Rebollo, D.V.; Rivera, P.; Estaban, M.

    1986-01-01

    The tritium labelling of 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid (ibuprofen) was performed. The method employed was heterogeneous catalytic exchange between ibuprofen and tritiated water. Prior to labelling, thermic stability of ibuprofen was studied. Purification was accomplished through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration, purity and specific activity of the labelled compound were determined by ultraviolet, HPLC and liquid scintillation techniques. (author)

  13. Frustrated Lewis pairs-assisted tritium labeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, Aleš; Široká, Sabina; Elbert, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2016), s. 219 ISSN 2336-7202. [Sjezd českých a slovenských chemických společností /68./. 04.09.2016-07.09.2016, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : frustrated Lewis pairs * one-pot synthesis * tritium -labeling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  14. Synthesis of tritium labeled renin inhibitor ditekiren

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, R.S.P.; Stolle, W.T.; Bundy, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    In the search for a radioactive form of the peptidomimetic renin inhibitor, ditekiren, with a metabolically suitable radiolabel for conducting drug disposition studies, we prepared [ 3 H]ditekiren with tritium labels in the N-methyl-histidine moiety and in the leu-val alcohol transition-state insert. [His- 3 H]ditekiren was obtained by first introducing two iodine substituents into the N-methyl-histidine moiety of the parent drug, followed by catalytic hydrodehalogenation with tritium gas. Administration of this labeled drug to monkeys, however, resulted in prolonged retention of radioactivity in the test animals, even though little or no tritiated water was detected in urine. The results, together with similar earlier findings after administration of [ 3 H]ditekiren labeled in the proline moiety of the drug, led us to synthesize [ 3 H]ditekiren labeled in the ''unnatural'' leu-val alcohol (LVA) portion of the molecule. The tritium label in [LVA- 3 H]ditekiren was found to be metabolically suitable for conducting drug disposition studies, with no liability for tritiated water production or prolonged retention of radioactivity in tissues of test animals. (author)

  15. A new technique for ion beam tritium labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Nianbao; Sheng Shugang; Yao Fuzeng

    1990-06-01

    An advanced technique, the ion beam tritium labelling method (IBTL), used for labelling proteins, peptides and other nonvolatile organic compounds is introduced. In this method the excited tritium ion beam is accelerated and then bombs a solid sample target in which tritium exchanging for hydrogen is taken place. The IBTL has been used for preparation of tritiated soybean trypsin inhibitor, ribonuclease A, elastin and pachyman etc. After purifing by dialysis, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration, the tritiated proteins and polysaccharide were obtained with the specific activity over 37 GBq/mmol, the function of tritiated decomposition products was not found. The product was shown to have native biological activity. Amino acid analysis of tritiated protein showed that the relative specific radioactivities were higher for His., Tyr. and Phe. but lower for Val., Ile. and Ser

  16. A convenient method to synthesize specifically labelled cholesterol with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.; Kenny, M.; Ahmad, S.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA

    1992-01-01

    A simple method is described to label cholesterol with tritium. Cholesterol was first oxidized to 5-cholesten-3-one which was then purified by HPLC. Its structure was established by electron impact (EI) mass spectrometry and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. The ketone was reduced with NaB 3 H 4 to give specifically labelled cholesterol (C-3 3 H) at low specific activity. (author)

  17. Stereo and regioselectivity in ''Activated'' tritium reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenkaufer, R.L.E.; Hembree, W.C.; Wolf, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the stereo and positional selectivity of the microwave discharge activation (MDA) method, the tritium labeling of several amino acids was undertaken. The labeling of L-valine and the diastereomeric pair L-isoleucine and L-alloisoleucine showed less than statistical labeling at the α-amino C-H position mostly with retention of configuration. Labeling predominated at the single β C-H tertiary (methyne) position. The labeling of L-valine and L-proline with and without positive charge on the α-amino group resulted in large increases in specific activity (greater than 10-fold) when positive charge was removed by labeling them as their sodium carboxylate salts. Tritium NMR of L-proline labeled both as its zwitterion and sodium salt showed also large differences in the tritium distribution within the molecule. The distribution preferences in each of the charge states are suggestive of labeling by an electrophilic like tritium species(s). 16 refs., 5 tabs

  18. Synthesis of tritium labeled Ac-[Nle4, D-Phe7]-α-MSH/sub 4-11/-NH2: a superpotent melanotropin with prolonged biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, B.D.; Hruby, V.J.; Yamamura, H.I.; Akiyama, K.; Castrucci, A.M. de; Hadley, M.E.; Andrews, J.R.; Wan, Y.P.

    1984-01-01

    Ac-[Nle 4 , D-Phe 7 ]-α-MSH/sub 4-11/-NH 2 an octapeptide, is a melanotropin analogue (Ac-Nle-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-NH 2 ), which is a superpotent agonist of frog and lizard skin melanocytes and mouse S 91 (Cloudman) melanoma cells. This melanotropin possesses ultraprolonged activity on melanocytes, both in vitro and in vivo, and the peptide is resistant to inactivation by serum enzymes. The tritium-labeled congener was prepared by direct incorporation of [ 3 H]-labeled norleucine into the peptide. The melanotropic activity of the labeled peptide is identical to the unlabeled analogue. This labeled peptide should be useful for studies on the localization and characterization of melanotropin receptors

  19. Tritium labelling of PACAP-38 using a synthetic diiodinated precursor peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Holst Friborg; Baun, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the interest of developing efficient methods for tritium labelling peptides, we here demonstrate the successful labelling of PACAP-38 (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide), a 38-mer peptide, using a synthetic diiodinated PACAP-38 precursor. In this example, we employ standard hy...... hydrogenation chemistry with the use of a heterogeneous palladium catalyst and carrier-free tritium gas on a tritium manifold system....

  20. Tritium labelling of testosteron by selective hydrogenation of dihydrotestosteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Cristian; Matei, Lidia; Simion, Elena; Barna, Catalina; Condac, Eduard

    2002-01-01

    Elemental tritium is obtained during the decontamination process of the moderator from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant. It might be stocked for use in controlled fusion, in a relatively far future, or, it might be immediately used as raw material in the synthesis of labelled compounds with important economic value. Labelling of testosteron with tritium was necessary for the carrying out of radiometric and molecular biology studies concerning androgen dependent diseases. Testosteron was labelled by selective hydrogenation of 1,2 dihydrotestosteron acetate. The forerunner was synthesized in two steps: 1) esterification of testosteron using acetic anhydride, and 2) selective dehydrogenation with 2,6-dichloro-3,5-dicyan-1,4 quinone (DDQ) of the ester formed in the first step. Testosteron acetate was synthesized and purified with yields of 73%, and 80%, respectively. The dehydrogenation process was characterized by yields of 82% for synthesis and 33% for purification. The tritium labelled hormone was obtained in two steps: 1) selective hydrogenation of Δ 1 - testosteron acetate in the presence of T 2 gas, at low pressure, and 2) hydrolysis of the ester at basic pH. The raw product obtained was purified by preparative thin layer chromatography. The physical and chemical characterization of labelled testosteron reveals a radiochemical purity higher than 98% and a specific activity of 53.4 Ci/mmol. (authors)

  1. The synthesis of tritium-labelled vitamin B-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babain, V.A.; Kaminskij, Yu.L.; Nagorskij, A.I.; Rozenberg, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    Specimens of pyridoxine (B-6 vitamin) labelled by tritium are obtained due to techniques of liquid-phase and solid-phase heterogeneous isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium over palladium catalysts. [ 3 H] molar activity of the vitamin obtained due to liquid-phase exchange constitutes 925-1295 TBq/mole, due to solid-phase one - 1.85-2.96 PBq/mole. 60 % of tritium are localized in 2-CH 3 -group, 25 % - in 4-C 2 HOH-group, 15 % - in 6H in the vitamin specimen obtained due to liquid-phase exchange, while at solid-phase exchange it is localized respectively as 36, 37 and 25 %

  2. Synthesis of tritium labelled nucleoside triphosphates by enzymatic phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Decun; Ji Linzhen; Liao Sha

    1986-01-01

    [5- 3 H]UMP, [5- 3 H]CMP, [8- 3 H]AMP and [8- 3 H]GMP were prepared from 5BrUMP 5BrCMP 8BrAMP and 8BrGMP by catalytic halogentritium replacement at the same time. [5- 3 H]UTP, [5- 3 H]CTP, [8- 3 H]ATP and [8- 3 H]GTP were subsequently synthesized from [5- 3 H]UMP, [5- 3 H]CMP, [8- 3 H]AMP and [8- 3 H]GMP by enzymatic phosphorylation with the crude enzyme prepared from brewer's yeasts and purified by paper chromatography simultaneously. In addition, four kinds of tritium labelled nucleoside monophosphates and four kinds of tritium labelled nucleoside diphosphates were obtained as the by-products. The specific activity of these products is between 14-19 Ci/mmol and the radiochemical purity is more than 98%

  3. The tritium labelling of organic molecules by heterogeneous catalytic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angoso, M.; Kaiser, F.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of the temperature at 65degC and 120degC on the labelling of three organic molecules with tritium was studied. The compounds were: benzoic acid, diphenyl glioxal and 2,3-tetramethylene-4-phenylthien-7-oxodiacetin. The method employed was the heterogeneous catalytic exchange between tritiaded water and the organic compound. The purification was made by thin-layer chromatography and the concentration, purity and specific activity of the products were determined by counting and ultraviolet techniques. The thermal stability and the radiolitic effects on labelled benzoic acid were also considered. (author) [es

  4. The tritium labelling of organic molecules by heterogeneous catalytic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angoso Marina, M.; Kaiser Ruiz del Olmo, F.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of the temperature at 65 degree centigree and 120 degree centigree on the labelling of three organic molecules with tritium was studied. The compounds were: benzoic acid, de phenyl glyoxal and 2,3-tetramethylene-4-pantothenyl-7-oxo diacetin.The method employed was the heterogeneous catalytic exchange between tritiated water and the organic compound. The purification was made by thin-layer chromatography and the concentration, purity and specific activity of the products were determined by counting and ultraviolet techniques. The thermal stability and the radiolytic effects on labelled benzoic acid were also considered. (Author) 9 refs

  5. Investigation of PCBs biodegradation by soil bacteria using tritium-labeled PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Takhtobin, K.S.; Kadirova, M.; Yadgarov, H.T.; Zinovev, P.V.; Abdukarimov, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The method of tritium labeling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been developed. It allows producing of uniformly labeled tritium PCBs. High specific activity permits the tracing all of the tritium labeled PCBs biodegradation products. Radiochemical approach of the investigation of PCBs microbial degradation has been developed and PCB-destructive activity of soil bacteria strains has been studied. It was found that 4 investigated bacteria strains of Bacillus sp. has the ability accumulate and destroy PCBs. Use of developed radiochemical methods in complex with other analytical methods in investigation of PCBs biodegradation provide useful additional information. The radiochemical methods developed can be successfully used for wide screening of microorganisms, destructors of PCBs. (author)

  6. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.; Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21 K and 9 K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenyl-alanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when used as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. Our study shows that both liquid and solid tritium are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.; Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21/degree/K and 9/degree/K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenylalanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when used as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. Our study shows that both liquid and solid tritiums are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins

  8. Methods for the synthesis of tritium labelled steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkova, V.S.; Tatarkina, F.V.; Kaklyushkina, L.N.; Ignat'eva, N.A.; Tupitsyn, I.F.; Efimova, Ts.I.

    1977-01-01

    The catalytic substitution of bromine for tritium in corresponding bromo-derivatives of steroids was used for the preparation of 4 steroids labelled with tritium at position 7. The bromination of the starting steroids was effected with N-bromosuccinimide. Ten steroids labelled with tritium at the positions 1, 2, 6 and 7 were prepared by reduction of the unsaturated derivatives with gaseous tritium in the presence of either the heterogeneous Pd/C catalyst, or the homogeneous chloride of tris(triphenylphosphine)rhodium

  9. Tritium labelling and characterization of the antimalarial drug (+/-)-chloroquine by several methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, J.A.Judith A.; Laseter, Anne G; Filer, C.N.Crist N. E-mail: crist.filer@perkinelmer.com

    2002-09-01

    To study its mechanism of antimalarial action, a tritium labelled analogue of (+/-)-chloroquine was required at high specific activity. Two synthetic methods were successfully employed. [3-{sup 3}H] (+/-)-Chloroquine 2 was prepared by the catalytic tritium dehalogenation of an iodo precursor and [N-ethyl-{sup 3}H] (+/-)-chloroquine 4 was synthesized by the alkylation of (+/-)-desethylchloroquine with [{sup 3}H] ethyl iodide.

  10. Tritium labelling and characterization of the antimalarial drug (+/-)-chloroquine by several methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.A.Judith A.; Laseter, Anne G.; Filer, C.N.Crist N.

    2002-01-01

    To study its mechanism of antimalarial action, a tritium labelled analogue of (+/-)-chloroquine was required at high specific activity. Two synthetic methods were successfully employed. [3- 3 H] (+/-)-Chloroquine 2 was prepared by the catalytic tritium dehalogenation of an iodo precursor and [N-ethyl- 3 H] (+/-)-chloroquine 4 was synthesized by the alkylation of (+/-)-desethylchloroquine with [ 3 H] ethyl iodide

  11. Dual labelling of Lobuprofen with tritium and carbon-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria, J.; Rivera, P.; Esteban, M.; Martin, J.L.; Carretero, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Dual labelling of Lobuprofen with tritium and carbon-14 was performed. The synthesis between 2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid (Ibuprofen), randomly labelled with tritium, and 2-[4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethanol (Cl-Alkanol) labelled with carbon-14 in the piperazine ring was achieved. Prior to this synthesis, the [ 14 C]Cl-Alkanol was obtained using 2-amino-[2- 14 C]ethanol as a precursor. (author)

  12. On the mechanism of biological activation by tritium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhko, T V; Badun, G A; Razzhivina, I A; Guseynov, O A; Guseynova, V E; Kudryasheva, N S

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism of biological activation by beta-emitting radionuclide tritium was studied. Luminous marine bacteria were used as a bioassay to monitor the biological effect of tritium with luminescence intensity as the physiological parameter tested. Two different types of tritium sources were used: HTO molecules distributed regularly in the surrounding aqueous medium, and a solid source with tritium atoms fixed on its surface (tritium-labeled films, 0.11, 0.28, 0.91, and 2.36 MBq/cm(2)). When using the tritium-labeled films, tritium penetration into the cells was prevented. The both types of tritium sources revealed similar changes in the bacterial luminescence kinetics: a delay period followed by bioluminescence activation. No monotonic dependences of bioluminescence activation efficiency on specific radioactivities of the films were found. A 15-day exposure to tritiated water (100 MBq/L) did not reveal mutations in bacterial DNA. The results obtained give preference to a "non-genomic" mechanism of bioluminescence activation by tritium. An activation of the intracellular bioluminescence process develops without penetration of tritium atoms into the cells and can be caused by intensification of trans-membrane cellular processes stimulated by ionization and radiolysis of aqueous media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and pharmacokinetics of thiacoccide labeled with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestakov, A.D.; Kaminskii, Yu.L.; Nurova, I.M.; Nikitina, V.N.; Zaionts, V.I.; Maksimova, O.V.; Mikhailov, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    To obtain information on the pharmacokinetics of thiacoccide, the authors effect the synthesis of an analog of thiacoccide, viz., the hydrochloride of 2-methyl-N-(2'-n-propyl-4'-aminopyrimid-5'-ylmethyl)pyridinium chloride (I) labeled with tritium. The simplest way to introduce a tritium label into (I) is by isotopic exchange of hydrogen of (I) with H 3 HO. Typical material obtained from isotopic exchange with water labeled with tritium is shown. The dynamics of 3 H distribution in the organism of the chick and the rate of its elimination on single administration of thiacoccide containing isotope in both the methyl group and in the pyridine ring are shown

  14. Synthesis of high specific activity tritium labelled 1S,2S-(-)-trans-2-isothiocyanato-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl)benzene acetamide, a specific irreversible ligand for kappa opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, B.R. de; Thurkauf, A.; Rothman, R.R. (National Inst. of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Jacobson, A.E.; Rice, K.C. (National Inst. of Digestive Diabetes, and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Optically pure tritium labeled 1S,2S-(-)-trans-2-isothiocyanato-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl )benzeneacetamide, an affinity ligand specific for the kappa opioid receptor was synthesized from optically pure 1S,2S-(-)-trans-2-amino-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl)benzeneacetamide via the sequence of dibromination (57%) followed by catalytic tritiation of the dibromide. The resulting tritium labelled aniline (14% yield, specific activity 31.2 Ci/mmol) was transformed to the title compound in 13.3% yield and 99+% radiochemical purity by treatment with thiophosgene. (author).

  15. Analysis and chromatographic purification of eicosanoids multiply labeled by tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.P.; Nagaev, I.Yu.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    We show the possibility of analysis and chromatographic purification of eicosanoids triply labeled by tritium. The described methods allow us to isolate chromatographically pure products obtained by selective hydrogenatin, chemical, and enzyme methods, with radiochemical purity at least 95-97%. The following methods are used to analyze the reaction mixtures and to isolate the tritium-labeled eicosanoids: gas-liquid chromatography, high-efficiency liquid chromatography, and thin-layer chromatography on supports impregnated with silver nitrate

  16. Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The role played the large amount supply of tritium and its effects are broadly reviewed. This report is divided into four parts. The introductory part includes the history of tritium research. The second part deals with the physicochemical properties of tritium and the compounds containing tritium such as tritium water and labeled compounds, and with the isotope effects and self radiation effects of tritium. The third part deals with the tritium production by artificial reaction. Attention is directed to the future productivity of tritium from B, Be, N, C, O, etc. by using the beams of high energy protons or neutrons. The problems of the accepting market and the accuracy of estimating manufacturing cost are discussed. The expansion of production may bring upon the reduction of cost but also a large possibility of social impact. The irradiation problem and handling problem in view of environmental preservation are discussed. The fourth part deals with the use of tritium as a target, as a source of radiation or light, and its utilization for geochemistry. The future development of the solid tritium target capable of elongating the life of neutron sources is expected. The rust thickness of the surface of iron can be measured with the X-ray of Ti-T or Zr-T. The tritium can substitute self-light emission paint or lamp. The tritium is suitable for tracing the movement of sea water and land surface water because of its long half life. (Iwakiri, K.)

  17. Tritium labelling of molecules constrained in microporous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, M.A.; Garnett, J.L.; Than, Chit

    1989-01-01

    The use of microporous aluminophosphate catalysts for exchange between tritium gas or tritiated water and organic substrates is described. The results are compared with those of microporous zeolites. Results are interpreted in terms of the influence of the constraints imposed on molecular configuration by the catalyst pore geometry. The use of these porous structures for minimising byproduct formation in radiation induced labelling processes with tritium gas is described. (author). 10 refs.; 3 tabs

  18. Preparation of pyridostigmine bromide labeled with carbon-14 and tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepler, J.A.; Twine, C.E.; Austin, R.D. (Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1992-08-01

    [2-[sup 14]C]Pyridostigmine bromide was prepared in 17.6% radiochemical yield with specific activity of 18 mCi/mmol. The reaction sequence involved preparation of 2-furan[[sup 14]C]carboxylic acid by carbonation of 2-lithiofuran, followed by conversion to 2-amino[[sup 14]C]methylfuran by lithium aluminium hydride reduction of its carboxamide. Oxidative rearrangement of 2-amino[[sup 14]C]methylfuran gave 3-hydroxy[2-[sup 14]C]pyridine which was converted to [2-[sup 14]C]pyridostigmine bromide by reaction with dimethylcarbamyl chloride and quarternization with bromomethane. Pyridostigmine bromide labeled in the methyl group of the carbamate function was prepared in 73% yield with specific activity of 37.6 mCi/mmol by reaction of bis-3-pyridyl carbonate with [[sup 14]C]dimethylamine followed by quarternization with bromomethane. [6-[sup 3]H]-Pyridostigmine bromide with specific activity of 22.5 mCi/mmol was prepared by catalytic halogen-tritium replacement of 2,6-dibromo-3-dimethylcarbamyloxypyridine followed by quarternization with bromomethane and back-exchanging the labile 2-tritium. (author).

  19. Preparation of pyridostigmine bromide labeled with carbon-14 and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepler, J.A.; Twine, C.E.; Austin, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    [2- 14 C]Pyridostigmine bromide was prepared in 17.6% radiochemical yield with specific activity of 18 mCi/mmol. The reaction sequence involved preparation of 2-furan[ 14 C]carboxylic acid by carbonation of 2-lithiofuran, followed by conversion to 2-amino[ 14 C]methylfuran by lithium aluminium hydride reduction of its carboxamide. Oxidative rearrangement of 2-amino[ 14 C]methylfuran gave 3-hydroxy[2- 14 C]pyridine which was converted to [2- 14 C]pyridostigmine bromide by reaction with dimethylcarbamyl chloride and quarternization with bromomethane. Pyridostigmine bromide labeled in the methyl group of the carbamate function was prepared in 73% yield with specific activity of 37.6 mCi/mmol by reaction of bis-3-pyridyl carbonate with [ 14 C]dimethylamine followed by quarternization with bromomethane. [6- 3 H]-Pyridostigmine bromide with specific activity of 22.5 mCi/mmol was prepared by catalytic halogen-tritium replacement of 2,6-dibromo-3-dimethylcarbamyloxypyridine followed by quarternization with bromomethane and back-exchanging the labile 2-tritium. (author)

  20. Tritium labeling of gonadotropin releasing hormone in its proline and histidine residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauschenz, E.; Bienert, M.; Egler, H.; Pleiss, U.; Niedrich, H.; Nikolics, K.

    1981-01-01

    3,4-dehydroproline9-GnRH prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis was tritiated catalytically under various conditions yielding 3H-GnRH with specific radioactivities in the range from 35-60 Ci/mmol and full LH releasing activity in vitro. Using palladium/alumina catalyst, the tritiation of the double bond occurs within ten minutes. Investigation of the tritium distribution between the amino acid residues showed a remarkably high incorporation of tritium into the histidine residue (11 to 37%). On the basis of this observation, the tritium labeling of GnRH and angiotensin I by direct catalytic hydrogen-tritium exchange was found to be useful for the labeling of these peptides at remarkably high specific radioactivity

  1. Foot-printing of Protein Interactions by Tritium Labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, Guillaume; Thomas, Olivier P.; Agez, Morgane; Thai, Robert; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Rousseau, Bernard; Raffy, Quentin; Renault, Jean Philippe; Pin, Serge; Ochsenbein, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    A new foot-printing method for mapping protein interactions has been developed, using tritium as a radioactive label. As residues involved in an interaction are less labeled when the complex is formed, they can be identified via comparison of the tritium incorporation of each residue of the bound protein with that of the unbound one. Application of this foot-printing method to the complex formed by the histone H3 fragment H3 122-135 and the protein hAsflA 1-156 afforded data in good agreement with NMR results. (authors)

  2. Tritium labeling by thermally generated tritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, H.; Williams, P.G.; Saljoughian, M.

    1988-06-01

    The predominant effect of thermal atom irradiation on solid molecules is saturation of their aromatic functions. Only low level of tritium exchange is observed for aliphatic solids. In contrast, liquids whose frozen surface can be rendered somewhat mobile at appropriate temperatures exhibit more exchange than addition. The rank order of effectiveness of several metals in promoting exchange/addition appears similar to the rank order for heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation. 3 refs., 8 figs

  3. Ligand exchange chromatography for analysis and preparative separation of tritium-labelled amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotarev, Yu.A.; Zaitsev, D.A.; Penkina, V.I.; Dostavalov, I.N.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    Racemic tritium-labelled amino acids were separated into optical isomers by chromatography on a chiral polyacrylamide sorbent filled with copper ions. The polyacrylamide sorbent is synthesized by Mannich's reaction through the action of formaldehyde and L-phenylalanine upon polyacrylamide Biogel P-4 in an alkali phosphate buffer. Tritium-labelled amino acids are eluted by a weak alkali solution of ammonium carbonate. Data are presented on the ligand exchange chromatography of amino acids depending on the degree to which the sorbent is filled with copper ions and on the eluent concentration. Amino acids are isolated from the eluent on short columns filled with sulfonated cation exchanger in the H + form. HPLC on modified silica gel sorbents is also used for the analysis of tritium-labelled optically active amino acids. Amino acids are eluted by a weakly acidic water-methanol solution containing ammonium acetate. UV and scintillation flow type detectors are used. (author) 7 refs.; 8 figs

  4. A general method for tritium labelling of benzimidazole carbamates by catalytic exchange in dioxane solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacey, E [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Glebe, NSW (Australia). Div. of Animal Health, McMaster Lab.; Dawson, M [Sydney Univ. (Australia). Dept. of Pharmacy; Long, M A; Than, C [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). School of Chemistry

    1989-12-01

    Benzimidazole carbamates (BZCs) act as inhibitors of the tubulin-microtubule equilibria in eukaryotic organisms. Recently drug resistance to this class of compounds in helminth parasites has been shown to be due to a reduced ability of resistant tubulin to bind BZCs. In order to quantitate the nature of the tubulin-BZC interaction a general method for the specific tritium labelling of BZCs has been developed. The BZCs: mebendazole, oxfendazole, parbendazole, oxibendazole, albendazole and fenbendazole were labelled by catalytic exchange using palladium on calcium carbonate in pure dioxane at 60{sup 0}C under tritium gas. The position of label incorporation for tritiated albendazole was determined by tritium-NMR as the 4-position of benzimadazole nucleus. The yields for individual BZCs varied from 8 to 68% for a range of specific activity of 0.44 to 13.4 Ci/mmole. (author).

  5. A general method for tritium labelling of benzimidazole carbamates by catalytic exchange in dioxane solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, E.; Dawson, M.; Long, M.A.; Than, C.

    1989-01-01

    Benzimidazole carbamates (BZCs) act as inhibitors of the tubulin-microtubule equilibria in eukaryotic organisms. Recently drug resistance to this class of compounds in helminth parasites has been shown to be due to a reduced ability of resistant tubulin to bind BZCs. In order to quantitate the nature of the tubulin-BZC interaction a general method for the specific tritium labelling of BZCs has been developed. The BZCs: mebendazole, oxfendazole, parbendazole, oxibendazole, albendazole and fenbendazole were labelled by catalytic exchange using palladium on calcium carbonate in pure dioxane at 60 0 C under tritium gas. The position of label incorporation for tritiated albendazole was determined by tritium-NMR as the 4-position of benzimadazole nucleus. The yields for individual BZCs varied from 8 to 68% for a range of specific activity of 0.44 to 13.4 Ci/mmole. (author)

  6. The introduction of tritium label into natural and modified prostaglandins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.P.; Bezuglov, V.V.; Nagayev, I.Y.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on the role of the nature of both heterogeneous catalysts and the solvent on the reduction selectively of 5,6-double bonds showed that the largest yield could be obtained by using the Lindlar catalyst and ethyl acetate. The use of different isotopes of hydrogen in the protium-deuterium-tritium series markedly decreased the hydrogenation reaction rate, but the selectivity of the process practically remained unaltered. Homogeneous catalysts were also used in the production of natural tritium-labelled prostaglandins and of their fluorine and deoxy analogues. The label was introduced by selective hydrogenation in the presence of (Ph 3 P) 3 RhCl and dioxane as solvent. Different ways have been studied of tritium-label introduction into prostaglandins modified at the carboxyl group. The synthesis of similar preparations was performed either by selective dehalogenation in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts treated with quinoline or triethylamine, or by condensation of prostaglandins at the carboxyl group by tritium-labelled amino acid. (author). 4 refs.; 1 fig

  7. Kinetic isotope effects in reaction of ferment oxidation of tritium-labelled D-galactosamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akulov, G.P.; Korsakova, N.A.

    1992-01-01

    Primary, secondary and intramolecular kinetic isotopic effects in reaction of ferment oxidation of D-galactosamine labelled by tritium in position 6, were measured. When comparing values of the effects with previously obtained results for similar reaction D-[6- 3 H]galactose, it was ascertained that the presence of aminogroup in galactopyranosyl mainly affects kinetics of substrate-ferment complex formation stage. The possibility to use kinetic isotope effects for increase in molar activity of D-galactosamine, labelled by tritium in position 6, is shown

  8. In vitro study of proteins surface activity by tritium probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernysheva, M.G.; Badun, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new technique for in vitro studies of biomacromolecules interactions, their adsorption at aqueous/organic liquid interfaces and distribution in the bulk of liquid/liquid systems was developed. The method includes (1) tritium labeling of biomolecules by tritium thermal activation method and (2) scintillation phase step with organic phase, which can be concerned as a model of cellular membrane. Two globular proteins lysozyme and human serum albumin tested. We have determined the conditions of tritium labeling when labeled by-products can be easy separated by means of dialysis and size-exclusion chromatography. Scintillation phase experiments were conducted for three types of organic liquids. Thus, the influences of the nature of organic phase on proteins adsorption and its distribution in the bulk of aqueous/organic liquid system were determined. It was found that proteins possess high surface activity at aqueous/organic liquid interface. Furthermore, values of hydrophobicity of globular proteins were found by the experiment. (author)

  9. Synthesis of coenzyme A and nicotineamide-adenine dinucleotide labelled with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, G.V.; Zverkov, Yu.B.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    Isotopic exchange in solution with tritium water and with gaseous tritium and solid-phase reaction of isotopic exchange of NAD with tritium were investigated. For synthesis of labelled with tritium coenzyme A solid-phase reaction of isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium was used. It was determined that 98% of tritium was contained in nicotineamide part of molecule of NAD. In the case of coenzyme A studying of intramolecular distribution of tritium demonstrated that 90% of tritium were localized in adenine fragment [ru

  10. Isotopic labelling with carbon-14 and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general methods of isotopic labelling with 14 C and with 3 H are briefly reviewed with special attention to examples of compounds likely to be of wide interest in biological research. (author)

  11. Investigation into chromatographic decomposition of tritium labelled aminoacid racemates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasoedov, N.F.; Zolotarev, Yu.A.; Penkina, V.I.; Petrenik, O.V.

    1983-01-01

    Results of investigations of ligand-exchange chromatography of amino acids racemates on asymmetric sorbent containing L-oxy-proline groups in polystyrene carcass, and filled with copper ions, are described. Conditions are chosen for ligand-exchange chromatography of amino acids with high specific radioactivity labelled with tritium providing quantitative decomposition of racemates for several hours. Sorbent on polyacryl amide carcass is synthesized, the possibility of its application for the separation of amino acid racemates is studied

  12. Chromatographic analysis and purification of multiply tritium-labelled eicosanoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.P.; Nagaev, I.Yu.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    A comparative study of different chromatographic techniques (gas-liquid (GLC), thin-layer (TLC), liquid (LC), high-pressure liquid (HPLC) chromatography) is presented. They were applied to the analysis and preparative purification of tritium-labelled eicosanoids with a molar radioactivity of 1.8-8.8 TBq/mmol, obtained by selective hydrogenation and by chemical or enzymic methods. The possibility of analyzing reaction mixtures and isolating individual multiply labelled eicosanoids with a chemical and radiochemical purity of 95-98% was demonstrated. Special features of HPLC for high molar radioactivity eicosanoids are considered. (author) 9 refs.; 6 tabs

  13. Understanding the mechanism of sweet taste: synthesis of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarajan, S.; Kellogg, M.S.; DuBois, G.E. (NutraSweet Company, Mt. Prospect, IL (United States)); Williams, D.S. (Amersham International plc, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Cardiff Labs.); Gresk, C.J.; Markos, C.S. (Searle Research and Development, Skokie, IL (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Syntheses of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acid sweetener and a tritiated photoaffinity labeling reagent via the catalytic hydrogenation of the dibromo intermediates are described. These labeled compounds were required for the investigation of sweet taste mechanism. (author).

  14. Understanding the mechanism of sweet taste: synthesis of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, S.; Kellogg, M.S.; DuBois, G.E.; Williams, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Syntheses of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acid sweetener and a tritiated photoaffinity labeling reagent via the catalytic hydrogenation of the dibromo intermediates are described. These labeled compounds were required for the investigation of sweet taste mechanism. (author)

  15. Synthesis of carrier-free tritium-labeled queen bee pheromone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, F.X.; Prestwich, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    A short synthesis of [4,5- 3 H 2 ] (E)-9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (ODA), a high-specific-activity tritium-containing isotopomer of the queen bee pheromone, is described. Catalytic tritiation of the ketal of ethyl 9-oxo-4-decenoate introduces tritium into two positions, one of which is completely unactivated. Subsequent transformation by selenation, oxidation, and hydrolysis affords the labeled 9-ODA at >60 Ci/mmol. The material is suitable for biochemical studies of binding and catabolism in ovarian, antennal, and other target tissues

  16. Preparation of tritium-labelled dextran and inulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akulov, G.P.; Kaminski, Ju.L.; Korsakova, N.A.; Kudelin, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Tritiated dextran and inulin were prepared by both a catalytic solid state and a liquid phase isotropic exchange with gaseous tritium. The liquid phase procedure is convenient for preparation of the polysaccharides with specific activities up to 5 mCi/g, while the solid state procedure allows specific activities up to 700 mCi/g. (Author)

  17. A new method for tritium labelling of neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keune, D.

    1981-01-01

    This research work related to the radioactive labelling with tritium of the enzyme neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae by an easily handled method. The reactive compound N-propionyloxysuccinimide, the ester of propionic acid and N-hydroxysuccinimide, offered a suitable labelling reagent. For comparison purposes an already known method of labelling neuraminidase with tritium by the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of the hydrocarbon chain of the enzymal protein and subsequent reduction of the aldehyde groups formed with tritiated sodium borhydride, was also carried out. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are described in detail, in particular with regard to yields of radioactivity and the influence on enzyme activity. The fact that only 1 mg enzymal protein was available for each modification of the enzyme molecule posed particular problems and, as a consequence, extensive preliminary experiments had to be carried with another protein (beef serum album) in the same concentration range. (orig./MG) [de

  18. A novel approach radiolabeling detonation nanodiamonds through the tritium thermal activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badun, Gennadii A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Semenenko, Mikhail N.; Lisichkin, Georgii V. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.; Yakovlev, Ruslan Yu.; Leonidov, Nikolai B. [Pavlov Ryazan State Medical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Tritium labeling was introduced into detonation nanodiamonds (ND) through the tritium thermal activation method. Two target preparation techniques were developed to increase the radioactivity and the specific radioactivity of the labeled product: the desiccation of the waterless solvent suspension and the lyophilization of the hydrosol. The specific radioactivity of the labeled product was shown to correlate with the hydrogen content in the starting material and to achieve 2.6 TBq/g.

  19. A novel approach radiolabeling detonation nanodiamonds through the tritium thermal activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badun, Gennadii A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Semenenko, Mikhail N.; Lisichkin, Georgii V.

    2014-01-01

    Tritium labeling was introduced into detonation nanodiamonds (ND) through the tritium thermal activation method. Two target preparation techniques were developed to increase the radioactivity and the specific radioactivity of the labeled product: the desiccation of the waterless solvent suspension and the lyophilization of the hydrosol. The specific radioactivity of the labeled product was shown to correlate with the hydrogen content in the starting material and to achieve 2.6 TBq/g.

  20. Quantitation of images from a multiwire camera for autoradiography of tritium-labelled substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockett, S.J.; Ramsden, D.B.; Bradwell, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    It has been shown that tritium-labelled substances in two-dimensional systems can be quantitated using a multiwire camera. Its accuracy has now been improved by correcting results for non-uniformity of response over the detection area. Uniformity was assessed by imaging plates of nominally uniform activity. The results were then used to correct images from plates containing tritium-labelled proteins using a computer program. Errors were reduced from 11.3 (+ -6.1) to 7.7 (+ - 2.8)% for standard sources and from 6.2 (+ - 1.8) to 1.9 (+ -0.6)% for a plate containing the labelled proteins. The conducting carbon layer covering the plate absorbed 36 (+ - 3)% of the tritium beta radiation and was estimated to be 85 nm in thickness. Quantitation of the labelled proteins by the camera gave a good correlation with protein content (chi-squared: 30-40%). The activities of the protein samples were measured to an accuracy of 10% by comparison with standard sources. These results indicate useful quantitation of tritiated compounds in two-dimensional media using the multiwire camera. (author)

  1. Tritium research activities in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ki Jung, E-mail: kjjung@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sei-Hun, E-mail: shyun@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Min Ho; Kang, Hyun-Goo; Chung, Dongyou; Cho, Seungyon; Lee, Hyeon Gon [National Fusion Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hongsuk; Choi, Woo-Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyu-Min; Moon, Chang-Bae [Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Central Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Euy Soo [Dongguk University, Jung-gu, Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jungho; Kim, Dong-Sun [Kongju National University, Cheonan, Chungnam, 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hung-Man [Daesung Industrial Gases Co., Ltd., Danwon-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, 425-090 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Seung Jeong [Dankook University, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Hyunchul [Inha University, Nam-gu, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Tae-Whan [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, Chungbuk, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • NFRI, KAERI and KHNP CRI are major leading group for the ITER tritium SDS design; studying engineering, simulation of hydride bed, risk analysis (on safety, HAZOP), basic study, control logic & sequential operation, and others. KHNP has WTRF which gives favorable experiences for collaboration researchers. • Supplementary research partners: Five Universities (Dongguk University and POSTECH, Inha University, Dankook University, Korea National Transport University, and Kongju National University) and one industrial company (Daesung Industrial Gases Co., Ltd.); studying on basic and engineering, programming & simulation on the various topics for ITER tritium SDS, TEP, ISS, ADS, and etc. - Abstract: Major progress in tritium research in the Republic of Korea began when Korea became responsible for ITER tritium Storage and Delivery System (SDS) procurement package which is part of the ITER Fuel Cycle. To deliver the tritium SDS package, a variety of research institutes, universities and industry have respectively taken roles and responsibilities in developing technologies that have led to significant progress. This paper presents the current work and status of tritium related technological research and development (R&D) in Korea and introduces future R&D plans in the area of fuel cycle systems for fusion power generation.

  2. The uptake of tritium-labelled carnitine by monolayer cultures of human fetal muscle and its potential as a label in cytotoxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambridge, G.; Stern, C.M.M.

    1981-01-01

    As a novel approach to the investigation of immune responses directed against muscle antigens in inflammatory muscle disease, the use of tritium-labelled carnitine as a selective marker for myotubes in monolayer cultures was investigated. Tritium-labelled carnitine was incubated either with monolayer cultures of human fetal muscle or with syngeneic monolayer cultures of human fetal fibroblasts. The rate of uptake and loss of tritium-labelled carnitine by muscle cultures was compared with that shown by fibroblast cultures; values for the ratio Ksub(m)/Vsub(max) were 3.1 for muscle cultures and 0.46 for fibroblast cultures. Freeze-dried radioautographs of muscle monolayers, previously incubated with tritium-labelled carnitine confirmed the specific intra-tubular localization of the label. Fetal muscle monolayers, previously incubated with tritium-labelled carnitine, were used as targets in long-term cytotoxicity experiments into lymphocyte-mediated myotoxicity. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with inflammatory muscle disease were shown to be myotoxic, but lymphocytes from normal individuals or those with non-inflammatory muscle disease were not. Carnitine-based measures of myotoxicity closely followed the clinical activity of the disease in one patient and the test shows considerable potential as a means of assessing myotube killing by lymphocytes on a per-cell basis. (author)

  3. The synthesis of a tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotope-labeled cathepsin C inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Paul; Bragg, Ryan A; Caffrey, Moya; Ericsson, Cecilia; Hickey, Michael J; Kingston, Lee P; Elmore, Charles S

    2017-02-01

    As part of a medicinal chemistry program aimed at developing a highly potent and selective cathepsin C inhibitor, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotope-labeled materials were required. The synthesis of tritium-labeled methanesulfonate 5 was achieved via catalytic tritiolysis of a chloro precursor, albeit at a low radiochemical purity of 67%. Tritium-labeled AZD5248 was prepared via a 3-stage synthesis, utilizing amide-directed hydrogen isotope exchange. Carbon-14 and stable isotope-labeled AZD5248 were successfully prepared through modifications of the medicinal chemistry synthetic route, enabling the use of available labeled intermediates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Synthesis of bradykinin labelled with tritium on the phenylalanine residue in position 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seproedi, J.; Teplan, I.; Medzihradszky, K.

    1976-01-01

    The polypeptide hormone bradykinine, labelled with tritium in the phenylalanine chain in position 5, has been prepared. The preparation method is described; the tritium atom is incorporated in the last step of the synthesis. The hormone can therefore be labelled immediately before use, which avoids autoradiolysis during storage

  5. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Brand, K.P.

    1994-12-01

    This report is a health risk assessment that addresses continuous releases of tritium to the environment from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The NTLF contributes approximately 95% of all tritium releases from LBL. Transport and transformation models were used to determine the movement of tritium releases from the NRLF to the air, surface water, soils, and plants and to determine the subsequent doses to humans. These models were calibrated against environmental measurements of tritium levels in the vicinity of the NTLF and in the surrounding community. Risk levels were determined for human populations in each of these zones. Risk levels to both individuals and populations were calculated. In this report population risks and individual risks were calculated for three types of diseases--cancer, heritable genetic effects, and developmental and reproductive effects.

  6. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.; Brand, K.P.

    1994-12-01

    This report is a health risk assessment that addresses continuous releases of tritium to the environment from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The NTLF contributes approximately 95% of all tritium releases from LBL. Transport and transformation models were used to determine the movement of tritium releases from the NRLF to the air, surface water, soils, and plants and to determine the subsequent doses to humans. These models were calibrated against environmental measurements of tritium levels in the vicinity of the NTLF and in the surrounding community. Risk levels were determined for human populations in each of these zones. Risk levels to both individuals and populations were calculated. In this report population risks and individual risks were calculated for three types of diseases--cancer, heritable genetic effects, and developmental and reproductive effects

  7. Incorporation and metabolism of tritium in pregnant mice and their offspring after feeding organically labelled tritiated milk powder during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruwaene, R. van; Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.; Maes, J.; Fagniart, E.

    1982-01-01

    Food mixed from equal amounts of organically labelled tritiated milk powder and normal food pellets was given to mice during pregnancy and lactation. At birth, some new-born were swapped with those from non-exposed mothers to compare separately accumulation and metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. Young mice were sacrificed at different time after birth, and tritium activity in different organs was determined. Tritium activity was also determined in maternal organs at various times during and after the 42 days feeding period. The activity per g in some tissues of the young, particularly in fat, exceeded that of the food given, probably as a result of the high activity and low metabolic dilution of the fats in the food. Young mice contaminated during lactation and pregnancy contained still detectible activity at an age of 2 months. Activity was nearly the same in mice receiving tritium only during lactation as in those receiving it also during pregnancy. Dilution was more marked due to rapid growth when tritium application was discontinued at birth. Tritium water was replaced most rapidly, organic tritium in brain turned over most slowly with and additional metabolic component of a half life in the order of 1 month. Organic tritium in liver displayed an intermediate half life. (author)

  8. Investigation of ability of serum albumin to bind the tritium labeled drotaverine hydrochloride at virus hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Mavlyanov, I.R.; Shukurov, B.V.; Djuraeva, G.T.

    2005-01-01

    The most of pathological conditions, and especially liver pathologies, proceeds on the background of intoxication syndromes. One of universal mechanisms of reaction of an organism on increase of concentration of toxic metabolites is removing of metabolites with the help of one of the basic protein of blood plasma - serum albumin. The purpose of the present research was studying of serum albumin ability to bind drotaverine hydrochloride at virus hepatitis in dynamics of traditional therapy. This parameter is rather important for therapy as it is known, that serum albumin is a carrier of pharmaceutical preparations. At intoxication of organism the toxic metabolites can reduce the binding capacity of serum albumin due to competitive binding and by that to reduce efficiency of carry of pharmaceutical preparations. Application of a radiochemical method with use of tritium labeled drotaverine hydrochloride in the given research it is represented to the most effective. The method of tritium labeling of pharmacological preparation of drotaverine hydrochloride was developed. Drotaverine hydrochloride was labeled by thermally activated tritium. The system of purification of tritium labeled drotaverine hydrochloride by thin layer chromatography (TLC) has been developed. Tritium labeled preparation of drotaverine hydrochloride was purified by TLC on silica gel in system isopropanol : ammonia : water (8:1:1). The output of purified tritium labeled preparation of drotaverine hydrochloride was about 25 %. The received preparation had specific radioactivity - 3,2 MBq/mg (37,4 mCi/mmol), radiochemical purity of a preparation was 95 %. We had been developed a micromethod of definition of binding ability of albumin, allowing analyze 20 microliters of blood serum. The method consists in incubation of tritium labeled drotaverine hydrochloride with blood serum in vitro, the following fractionation of serum proteins by gel - filtration on a microcolumn with Sephadex G-25, and direct

  9. Preparation of paraherquamide labeled with deueterium or tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blizzard, T.A.; Rosegay, A.; Mrozik, H.; Fisher, M.H. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Rahway, NJ (United States))

    1990-04-01

    Deprotonation of paraherquamide (1a) at C-24 and subsequent deuteration (or tritiation) is described. The procedure afforded 24-[sup 2]H-paraherquamide (1b) with 66% deuterium incorporation at C-24. Modification of the deuteration procedure to allow the introduction of tritium resulted in the preparation of 24-[sup 3]H-paraherquamide (1c) with specific activity 3.7Ci/mmol. (author).

  10. Label Distribution in Tissues of Wheat Seedlings Cultivated with Tritium-Labeled Leonardite Humic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Natalia A.; Abroskin, Dmitry P.; Badun, Gennady A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Korobkov, Viktor I.; Beer, Anton S.; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A.; Senik, Svetlana V.; Klein, Olga I.; Perminova, Irina V.

    2016-06-01

    Humic substances (HS) play important roles in the biotic-abiotic interactions of the root plant and soil contributing to plant adaptation to external environments. However, their mode of action on plants remains largely unknown. In this study the HS distribution in tissues of wheat seedlings was examined using tritium-labeled humic acid (HA) derived from leonardite (a variety of lignites) and microautoradiography (MAR). Preferential accumulation of labeled products from tritiated HA was found in the roots as compared to the shoots, and endodermis was shown to be the major control point for radial transport of label into vascular system of plant. Tritium was also found in the stele and xylem tissues indicating that labeled products from tritiated HA could be transported to shoot tissues via the transpiration stream. Treatment with HA lead to an increase in the content of polar lipids of photosynthetic membranes. The observed accumulation of labeled HA products in root endodermis and positive impact on lipid synthesis are consistent with prior reported observations on physiological effects of HS on plants such as enhanced growth and development of lateral roots and improvement/repairs of the photosynthetic status of plants under stress conditions.

  11. Label Distribution in Tissues of Wheat Seedlings Cultivated with Tritium-Labeled Leonardite Humic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Natalia A.; Abroskin, Dmitry P.; Badun, Gennady A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Korobkov, Viktor I.; Beer, Anton S.; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A.; Senik, Svetlana V.; Klein, Olga I.; Perminova, Irina V.

    2016-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) play important roles in the biotic-abiotic interactions of the root plant and soil contributing to plant adaptation to external environments. However, their mode of action on plants remains largely unknown. In this study the HS distribution in tissues of wheat seedlings was examined using tritium-labeled humic acid (HA) derived from leonardite (a variety of lignites) and microautoradiography (MAR). Preferential accumulation of labeled products from tritiated HA was found in the roots as compared to the shoots, and endodermis was shown to be the major control point for radial transport of label into vascular system of plant. Tritium was also found in the stele and xylem tissues indicating that labeled products from tritiated HA could be transported to shoot tissues via the transpiration stream. Treatment with HA lead to an increase in the content of polar lipids of photosynthetic membranes. The observed accumulation of labeled HA products in root endodermis and positive impact on lipid synthesis are consistent with prior reported observations on physiological effects of HS on plants such as enhanced growth and development of lateral roots and improvement/repairs of the photosynthetic status of plants under stress conditions. PMID:27350412

  12. The tritium labeling of Butibufen by heterogeneous catalytic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria, J.; Rebollo, D.

    1986-01-01

    The labeling of a new non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent, Butibufen (2-(4-isobutylphenyl) butyric acid) was studied. The method used was heterogeneous catalytic exchange between Butibufen and tritiated water, obtained in situ. Purification was accomplished through thin layer chromatography. Concentration, purity and specific activity of the labeled drug were determined by ultraviolet and liquid scintillation techniques. (Author) 7 refs

  13. Preparation of tritium labelled synthanecine A and its bis-N-ethylcarbamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattocks, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    A procedure is described for incorporating tritium into the 3-CH 2 side chain of synthanecine A, and preparing the carbamate, 2,3-bis-N-ethylcarbamoyloxymethyl-1-methyl-3-pyrroline, a hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid analogue. The pyrrolizidine amino alcohol, retronecine, can be tritium labelled in a similar way. (author)

  14. Preparation of tritium labelled synthanecine A and its bis-N-ethylcarbamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattocks, A.R. (Medical Research Council, Carshalton (UK))

    1982-04-01

    A procedure is described for incorporating tritium into the 3-CH/sub 2/ side chain of synthanecine A, and preparing the carbamate, 2,3-bis-N-ethylcarbamoyloxymethyl-1-methyl-3-pyrroline, a hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid analogue. The pyrrolizidine amino alcohol, retronecine, can be tritium labelled in a similar way.

  15. A perspective on tritium versus carbon-14: ensuring optimal label selection in pharmaceutical research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauser, Joel A

    2013-01-01

    Tritium ((3) H) and carbon-14 ((14) C) labels applied in pharmaceutical research and development each offer their own distinctive advantages and disadvantages coupled with benefits and risks. The advantages of (3) H have a higher specific activity, shorter half-life that allows more manageable waste remediation, lower material costs, and often more direct synthetic routes. The advantages of (14) C offer certain analytical benefits and less potential for label loss. Although (3) H labels offer several advantages, they might be overlooked as a viable option because of the concerns about its drawbacks. A main drawback often challenged is metabolic liability. These drawbacks, in some cases, might be overstated leading to underutilization of a perfectly viable option. As a consequence, label selection may automatically default to (14) C, which is a more conservative approach. To challenge this '(14) C-by-default' approach, pharmaceutical agents with strategically selected (3) H-labeling positions based on non-labeled metabolism data have been successfully implemented and evaluated for (3) H loss. From in-house results, the long term success of projects clearly would benefit from a thorough, objective, and balanced assessment regarding label selection ((3) H or (14) C). This assessment should be based on available project information and scientific knowledge. Important considerations are project applicability (preclinical and clinical phases), synthetic feasibility, costs, and timelines. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Synthesis of tritium labeled 4-androstenedione, 4-androsten 3α and 3β diols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, Lidia; Postolache, C.; Chiper, Diana; Tuta, C.; Bubueanu, G; Tanase, C.

    2009-01-01

    Androgen dependent diseases can appear due to blocking in different stages of biosynthesis of sexual hormones (testosterone, dihydrotestosterone) or to some modification in signalizing pathways through androgen receptor. In the diagnosis of these diseases which appear both in men and women (polycystic ovaries, hirsutism) it is also important the enzymatic activity determination of some key enzymes in steroid genesis steroid 5α-reductase, 3α and 3β-hydroxy-steroid-dehydrogenase, 17β- hydroxy-steroid-dehydrogenase. In this paper, we describe the method of obtaining tritium labeled 4-androstenedione, 4-androsten 3α and 3β diols by biosynthesis and chemical synthesis with testosterone used as substrate. (authors)

  17. Tritium labelling and characterization of the potent imidazoline I1 receptor antagonist [5,7-{sup 3}H] ({+-})-efaroxan at high specific activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, J.A.; Filer, C.N. E-mail: crist.filer@perkinelmer.com

    2003-06-01

    ({+-})-Efaroxan 1 is a selective antagonist at the imidazoline I1 receptor. [{sup 3}H] ({+-})-Efaroxan was required to explore its mechanism of action via receptor binding assay, and the radioligand was prepared by means of catalytic dehalogenation of a dibrominated precursor with tritium.

  18. Application of tritium-labeled complex technical mixture of PCB congeners as radiotracer in ecological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) is enough difficult analytical task. According to IUPAC nomenclature it is described more than 200 possible PCB congeners from which about 150 congeners are present at an environment. At the same time in environment PCBs are present as complex technical mixes of congeners (trade names include Apirolio, Aroclor, Clophen, Fenchlor, Kanechlor, Phenoclor, Pyralene, Pyranol, Pyroclor, Santotherm FR, and Sovol). In routine practice of gas chromatography analysis the quantitative measurement of PCB marker congeners is applied. In the most samples containing PCBs, there are often several dozens of different congeners. For practical reasons, all of them are not always measured, but the most important congeners are used as indicators. In Belgian chicken incident, only seven abundant congeners were usually measured: congeners with IUPAC numbers 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180 (2,4,4 '-TriCB, 2,2 ', 5,5 '-TCB, 2,2 ', 4,5,5 '-PeCB, 2,3 ', 4,4 ', 5-PeCB, 2,2 ', 3,4,4 ', 5 '-HxCB, 2,2 ', 4,4 ', 5,5 '-HxCB, 2,2 ', 3,4,4 ', 5,5 '-HpCB, respectively). The seven congeners are estimated to constitute about one third of all PCBs in the contaminated feed. Such measurement can give the big error in a quantitative estimation of PCBs contents in a sample. As alternative method of quantitative measurement PCBs the radiochemical method with use radioactive labeled PCBs as radiotracer can be used. We had been developed a method of synthesis of labeled by thermally activated tritium a complex technical mixture of PCBs congeners - Sovol. We had been showed a basic opportunity of receiving of uniformly tritium labeled mixture of PCBs congeners without structural failure of mixture. The tritium labeled preparation of complex technical mixture of PCBs congeners (Sovol) has been received. On the basis of received tritium labeled preparation of PCBs (Sovol) we had been developed the following quantitative and qualitative radiochemical

  19. Automatic isotope gas analysis of tritium labelled organic materials Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacs, I.; Mlinko, S.

    1978-01-01

    A new automatic procedure developed to convert tritium in HTO hydrogen for subsequent on-line gas counting is described. The water containing tritium is introduced into a column prepared from molecular sieve-5A and heated to 550 deg C. The tritium is transferred by isotopic exchange into hydrogen flowing through the column. The radioactive gas is led into an internal detector for radioactivity measurement. The procedure is free of memory effects, provides quantitative recovery with analytical reproducibility better than 0.5% rel. at a preset number of counts. The experimental and analytical results indicate that isotopic exchange between HTO and hydrogen over a column prepared from alumina or molecular sieve-5A can be successfully applied for the quantitative transfer of tritium from HTO into hydrogen for on-line gas countinq. This provides an analytical procedure for the automatic determination of tritium in water with an analytical reproducibility better than 0.5% rel. The exchange process will also be suitable for rapid tritium transfer from water formed during the decomposition of tritium-labelled organic compounds or biological materials. The application of the procedure in automatic isotope gas analysis of organic materials labelled with tritium will be described in subsequent papers (Parts II and III). (T.G.)

  20. Synthesis of analogues of purine nucleotides selectively labeled by tritium on the C-8 of the purine ring and evaluation of the stability of tritium label

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elbert, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2010), s. 156-157 ISSN 0362-4803. [Workshop of the International Isotope Society - Central European Division. The Synthesis and applications of Isotopes and Isotopically Labelled Compounds /16./. 01.10.2009-02.10.2009, Bad Soden] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acyclic nucleotide analogues * tritium Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  1. A new technique of tritium labelling of neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keune, D.

    1981-01-01

    By acylation of the free amino groups of the enzyme neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae using N-[(2,3 - 3 H)-propionyloxy]-succinimide it was possible to transfer tritium-labelled propionyl groups to free amino groups of the enzyme glycoprotein. It was established by preliminary trials that a certain minimum concentration of protein was necessary to achieve a satisfactory degree of acylation. After the various processing stages, the acylation of neuraminidase with N-[(2,3 - 3 H)-propionyloxy]-succinimide led to the incorporation of 5.26 μCi radioactivity per mg enzymal protein. Comparison with a known method for neuraminidase labelling showed that the new process is more effective in terms of incorporation of radioactivity. Enzyme activity is inhibited by both methods. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Use of tritium-labeled PCBs for investigation of PCBs biodegradation by soil bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Takhtobiri, K.S.; Yadgarov, H.T.; Zinovev, P. V.; Abdukarimov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The method for tritium labelling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was developed. The strains of soil bacteria - destructors of chloro organic compounds was studied with the help of test-system based on the using of tritium-labeled PCBs. The strains of bacteria were grown on the agar synthetic medium and then were introduced into the synthetic medium containing tritium-labeled mixture of PCBs (commercial mark - SOVOL) as alone source of carbon. The samples were analysed after one and two months period of incubation. PCBs were extracted by hexane from fraction of bacteria and fraction of cultural medium and radioactivity was measured. The samples were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) with following radioautography. Additionally samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. It was found that all selected strains survived in the medium with PCBs as alone source of carbon and bacteria accumulated PCBs from cultural medium. Accumulation of PCBs by strains of bacteria was different. The TLC analysis detected additional compounds labeled by tritium, that prove the degradation of PCBs in presence of bacteria. The gas chromatography analysis of cultural medium and bacteria detected redistribution in the system and qualitative changes of PCBs in bacteria. The strains of bacteria also were grown in model condition on the soil with tritium labeled PCBs. We found that some strains effectively destroy PCBs with decreasing level of tritium label in the soil. The using of tritium labeled PCBs' allows to introduce precise quantitative characteristics for study of accumulation and biodegradation PCBs by soil bacteria strains. Developed test-system is very useful tool for selection of new strains of soil bacteria - destructors of PCBs

  3. Application of the Microwave Discharge Modification of the Wilzbach Technique for the Tritium Labelling of some Organics of Biological Interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosztonyi, T.

    1969-01-01

    The modification of the Wilzbach technique using microwave discharge has been routinely used in our laboratory for rapid tritium labellings. The applicability of the method and the effects of some of the reaction parameters were studied and published previously. The main advantage of the method is its simplicity and rapidity and the low extent of decomposition of the compound to be labelled during the reaction. Specific activities obtained, however, are not high enough for some investigations. In this paper the labelling of dihydrostreptomycine, tetracycline and antipyrine will be described

  4. Application of the Microwave Discharge Modification of the Wilzbach Technique for the Tritium Labelling of some Organics of Biological Interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosztonyi, T

    1969-01-15

    The modification of the Wilzbach technique using microwave discharge has been routinely used in our laboratory for rapid tritium labellings. The applicability of the method and the effects of some of the reaction parameters were studied and published previously. The main advantage of the method is its simplicity and rapidity and the low extent of decomposition of the compound to be labelled during the reaction. Specific activities obtained, however, are not high enough for some investigations. In this paper the labelling of dihydrostreptomycine, tetracycline and antipyrine will be described.

  5. Development of a compact tritium activity monitor and first tritium measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Röllig, M., E-mail: marco.roellig@kit.edu; Ebenhöch, S.; Niemes, S.; Priester, F.; Sturm, M.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We report about experimental results of a new tritium activity monitoring system using the BIXS method. • The system is compact and easy to implement. It has a small dead volume of about 28 cm{sup 3} and can be used in a flow-through mode. • Gold coated surfaces are used to improve significantly count rate stability of the system and to reduce stored inventory. - Abstract: To develop a convenient tool for in-line tritium gas monitoring, the TRitium Activity Chamber Experiment (TRACE) was built and commissioned at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The detection system is based on beta-induced X-ray spectrometry (BIXS), which observes the bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by tritium decay electrons in a gold layer. The setup features a measuring chamber with a gold-coated beryllium window and a silicon drift detector. Such a detection system can be used for accountancy and process control in tritium processing facilities like the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN). First characterization measurements with tritium were performed. The system demonstrates a linear response between tritium partial pressure and the integral count rate in a pressure range of 1 Pa up to 60 Pa. Within 100 s measurement time the lower detection limit for tritium is (143.63 ± 5.06) · 10{sup 4} Bq. The system stability of TRACE is limited by a linear decrease of integral count rate of 0.041 %/h. This decrease is most probably due to exchange interactions between tritium and the stainless steel walls. By reducing the interaction surface with stainless steel, the decrease of the integral count rate was reduced to 0.008 %/h. Based on the first results shown in this paper it can be concluded that TRACE is a promising complement to existing tritium monitoring tools.

  6. Use of tritium-labelled water in the study of transfers and exchanges in Helianthus annuus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puard, M.

    1982-01-01

    A labelling method with tritium-labelled water was developed and an experiment was carried out to study the kinetics of water transfer in the plant, to measure the extend of water vapour exchange between the leaves and atmosphere and the migration of this water towards the root systems [fr

  7. Tritium release from lithium titanate, a low-activation tritium breeding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopasz, J.P.; Miller, J.M.; Johnson, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    The goals for fusion power are to produce energy in as safe, economical, and environmentally benign a manner as possible. To ensure environmentally sound operation low-activation materials should be used where feasible. The ARIES Tokamak Reactor Study has based reactor designs on the concept of using low-activation materials throughout the fusion reactor. For the tritium breeding blanket, the choices for low activation tritium breeding materials are limited. Lithium titanate is an alternative low-activation ceramic material for use in the tritium breeding blanket. To date, very little work has been done on characterizing the tritium release for lithium titanate. We have thus performed laboratory studies of tritium release from irradiated lithium titanate. The results indicate that tritium is easily removed from lithium titanate at temperatures as low as 600 K. The method of titanate preparation was found to affect the tritium release, and the addition of 0.1% H 2 to the helium purge gas did not improve tritium recovery. ((orig.))

  8. Present status of tritium research activities at universities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, K.

    1983-01-01

    The behaviours of tritium towards various materials are very similar to those of hydrogen, since tritium is one of the hydrogen isotope. In addition to those properties, tritium shows the radiochemical and radiological reactivities due to an emitted #betta#-ray. The permeability of tritium through various materials is the example of the former. The formation of tritiated methane in tritium stored in stainless steel vessels and the increase of helium content in tritium-bearing metallic materials are the examples of the latter. For these reasons, advanced and somewhat more complicated techniques are required for handling tritium. After the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MOE) made an appropriation on Grant-in-Aid for Fusion Research in 1975 year's budget, development of tritium handling technology for fusion reactors have been actively pursued. The specific experiments to be embodied in present research activities are: 1. Measurements of tritium permeation rate through various materials. 2. Fundamental studies on tritium containment materials. 3. Fundamental studies of tritium waste treatment and storage. In this paper, the works achieved under the above research activities are described and some results obtained from experiments are reported. (author)

  9. Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiege, A.

    1992-07-01

    This report contains information on chemical and physical properties, occurence, production, use, technology, release, radioecology, radiobiology, dose estimates, radioprotection and legal aspects of tritium. The objective of this report is to provide a reliable data base for the public discussion on tritium, especially with regard to its use in future nuclear fusion plants and its radiological assessment. (orig.) [de

  10. Investigation into reaction of heterogenous isotopic exchange with gaseoUs tritium in solution for preparation labelled lipid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.P.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1983-01-01

    The applicability of the method of heterogeneous catalytic isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium in the solution for the production of labelled lipide preparations is studied. Labelled saturated and unsaturated aliphatic acids, prostaglandins, phospholipides and sphingolipides are prepared

  11. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  12. Tritium activities in selected wells on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, B.F.

    1993-05-01

    Literature and data were reviewed related to radionuclides in groundwater on and near the Nevada Test Site. No elevated tritium activities have been reported outside of the major testing regions of the Nevada Test Site. Three wells were identified as having water with above-background (>50 pCi/l) tritium activities: UE-15d Water Well; USGS Water Well A; and USGS Test Well B Ex. Although none of these wells have tritium activities greater than the Nevada State Drinking Water standard (20,000 pCi/l), their time-series tritium trends may be indicative to potential on-site radionuclide migration

  13. General Tritium Labelling of Gentamicin C by catalytic hydrogen exchange Reaction with Tritiated Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.; Diaz, D.; Paz, D.

    1991-01-01

    Gentamicin C was labelled with tritium by means of a PtO2 catalyzed hydrogen exchange reaction. Under the conditions of the exchange (100 mg of gentamicin, basic form, 0,3 ml H2O-3H, and 50 mg of prereduced PtO2) the radiochemical yield was 0,24, 0,38 and 0,48 % at 120 degree celsius, for 8, 16 and 24 hours respectively. Chemical yield for purified gentamicin was about 60 %. Purification was accomplished with a cellulose column eluted with the lower phase of chloroform-methanol 17 % ammonium hydroxide (2:1:1, v/v) . Chemical purity, determined by HPLC, was 96,5 % and radiochemical one was 95. Main exchange degradation products show biological activity. (Author) 12 refs

  14. General Tritium labelling of gentamicin C by catalytic hydrogen exchange reaction with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.; Diaz, D.

    1991-01-01

    Gentamicin C was labelled with tritium by means of a PtO 2 catalized hydrogen exchange reaction. Under the conditions of the exchange (100 mg of gentamicin, basic form, 0,3 ml H 2 O- 3 H, and 50 mg of prereduced PtO 2 ) the radiochemical yield was 0,24, 0,38 and 0,48 % at 120 o C, for 8, 16 and 24 hours respectively. Chemical yield for purified gentamicin was about 60 %. Purification was accoumplished with a cellulose column eluted with the lower phase of chloroform-methanol 17 % ammonium hydroxide (2:1:1, v/v). Chemical purity, determined by HPLC, was 96,5 % and radiochemical one was 95 % . Main exchange degradation products show biological activity. (Author). 12 refs

  15. Tritium in water monitor for measurement of tritium activity in the process water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathnakaran, M.; Ravetkar, R.M.; Abani, M.C.; Mehta, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of a tritium in water monitor for measurement of tritium activity in the secondary coolant in pressurised heavy water reactor used for power generation. For this purpose it uses a plastic scintillator flow cell detector in a continuous on-line mode. It is observed that the sensitivity of the system depends on the transparency of the detector, which gradually reduces with use because of the collection of dirt around the scintillator. A simple type of sample conditioner based on polypropylene candle filter and filter paper is developed and installed at RAPS along with tritium in water monitor. The functioning of this system is reported here. (author)

  16. Deuterium- and tritium-labelled compounds. Applications in the life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzrodt, Jens; Derdau, Volker; Kerr, William J.; Reid, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopes are unique tools for identifying and understanding biological and chemical processes. Hydrogen isotope labelling allows for the traceless and direct incorporation of an additional mass or radioactive tag into an organic molecule with almost no changes in its chemical structure, physical properties, or biological activity. Using deuterium-labelled isotopologues to study the unique mass-spectrometric patterns generated from mixtures of biologically relevant molecules drastically simplifies analysis. Such methods are now providing unprecedented levels of insight in a wide and continuously growing range of applications in the life sciences and beyond. Tritium ( 3 H), in particular, has seen an increase in utilization, especially in pharmaceutical drug discovery. The efforts and costs associated with the synthesis of labelled compounds are more than compensated for by the enhanced molecular sensitivity during analysis and the high reliability of the data obtained. In this review, advances in the application of hydrogen isotopes in the life sciences are described. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Tritium labelling of a cholesterol amphiphile designed for cell membrane anchoring of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Balázs; Orbán, Erika; Kele, Zoltán; Tömböly, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Cell membrane association of proteins can be achieved by the addition of lipid moieties to the polypeptide chain, and such lipid-modified proteins have important biological functions. A class of cell surface proteins contains a complex glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) glycolipid at the C-terminus, and they are accumulated in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains, that is, lipid rafts. Semisynthetic lipoproteins prepared from recombinant proteins and designed lipids are valuable probes and model systems of the membrane-associated proteins. Because GPI-anchored proteins can be reinserted into the cell membrane with the retention of the biological function, they are appropriate candidates for preparing models via reduction of the structural complexity. A synthetic headgroup was added to the 3β-hydroxyl group of cholesterol, an essential lipid component of rafts, and the resulting cholesterol derivative was used as a simplified GPI mimetic. In order to quantitate the membrane integrated GPI mimetic after the exogenous addition to live cells, a tritium labelled cholesterol anchor was prepared. The radioactive label was introduced into the headgroup, and the radiolabelled GPI mimetic anchor was obtained with a specific activity of 1.37 TBq/mmol. The headgroup labelled cholesterol derivative was applied to demonstrate the sensitive detection of the cell membrane association of the anchor under in vivo conditions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Deuterium- and tritium-labelled compounds. Applications in the life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atzrodt, Jens; Derdau, Volker [Isotope Chemistry and Metabolite Synthesis, Integrated Drug Discovery, Medicinal Chemistry, Frankfurt (Germany); Kerr, William J.; Reid, Marc [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, WestCHEM, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2018-02-12

    Hydrogen isotopes are unique tools for identifying and understanding biological and chemical processes. Hydrogen isotope labelling allows for the traceless and direct incorporation of an additional mass or radioactive tag into an organic molecule with almost no changes in its chemical structure, physical properties, or biological activity. Using deuterium-labelled isotopologues to study the unique mass-spectrometric patterns generated from mixtures of biologically relevant molecules drastically simplifies analysis. Such methods are now providing unprecedented levels of insight in a wide and continuously growing range of applications in the life sciences and beyond. Tritium ({sup 3}H), in particular, has seen an increase in utilization, especially in pharmaceutical drug discovery. The efforts and costs associated with the synthesis of labelled compounds are more than compensated for by the enhanced molecular sensitivity during analysis and the high reliability of the data obtained. In this review, advances in the application of hydrogen isotopes in the life sciences are described. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. An improved method for preparing tritium labeled fluoxetine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, R.S.P.; Stolle, W.T.

    1996-01-01

    Palladium-on-charcoal catalyzed reduction of N-methyl-3-(3-bromo) phenyl-3-(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxypropylamine (1) with tritium gas produces a mixture of the debrominated product [ 3 H]fluoxetine (2) and N-methyl-3-[3- 3 H]phenylpropylamine (3), which results from cleavage of the benzylic carbon-oxygen bond. Carrying out this reaction in the presence of pyridine eliminates hydrogenolysis and produces [ 3 H]fluoxetine as the sole product. (author)

  20. Synthesis of tritium labelled phosphonate analogues of sphinganine-1-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schick, Andreas; Schwarzmann, Guenter; Kolter, Thomas; Sandhoff, Konrad

    1997-01-01

    Tritiated phosphonate analogues 9 and 10 are prepared as analogues of sphinganine-1-phosphate 4. The key step in this synthesis is the catalytic tritiation of the triple bond in reduction of the protected diethyl-3-(S)-tert.-butoxycarbonylamino -4-hydroxy-5-tridecinyl-1-phosphonate by means of sodium boro[ 3 H]hydride as tritium source. These compounds are synthesized to study their metabolic stability and to evaluate their biological properties. (author)

  1. Synthesis of two tritium-labeled derivatives of a vasopressin antagonist peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landvatter, S.W.; Heys, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    SK and F 101926, a potent vasopressin antagonist, has been tritium labeled in the tyrosine residue via exchange followed by solid phase coupling to a hexapeptide. The peptide thus obtained was subsequently coupled with a PMP residue, cleaved from the resin with HF, oxidized by ferricyanide and purified by HPLC giving the desired cyclic peptide. Alternatively, a labeled PMP residue can be prepared via reduction starting from phenol. Conversion of the labeled cyclohexanone to PMP followed by solid phase coupling to a heptapeptide can then afford PMP labeled peptide. 3 refs

  2. Possible artefacts in thin layer chromatography of tritium-labelled hydrocortisone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronie, E.

    1982-12-01

    Artefacts appearing in thin layer chromatography of tritium labelled hydrocortisone are reported. Evidences are presented that these artefacts cause misleading results concerning radiocheemical purity determiniation. Finally, it is reported a rapid and efficient chromatographic technique allowing the elimination of these artefacts and obtaining of an accurate value for radiochemical purity. (author)

  3. An improved method for preparing tritium labeled fluoxetine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsi, R.S.P.; Stolle, W.T. [Pharmacia and Upjohn Inc., Kalamazoo, MI (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Palladium-on-charcoal catalyzed reduction of N-methyl-3-(3-bromo) phenyl-3-(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxypropylamine (1) with tritium gas produces a mixture of the debrominated product [{sup 3}H]fluoxetine (2) and N-methyl-3-[3-{sup 3}H]phenylpropylamine (3), which results from cleavage of the benzylic carbon-oxygen bond. Carrying out this reaction in the presence of pyridine eliminates hydrogenolysis and produces [{sup 3}H]fluoxetine as the sole product. (author).

  4. Synthesis 1-(5-oxohexyl)-3,7-dimethyl-xanthyne labelled with tritium into 8 position from purinic ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihaila, V.; Corol, D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the work on synthesis of 1-(5-oxohexyl)-3,7-dimethyl-xanthyne labelled with tritium into 8 position from purinic ring. The obtaining of tritium labelled compound is realized by initial labelling of theobromine with tritium into 8 position and by coupling the purinic derivative to 1-Br-5-hexanone. Theobromine-8- 3 H was obtained by the bromination of theobromine with elementary bromine and after that the bromine was substituted with tritium i.e.: C 7 H 8 O 2 N 4 theobromine Br 2 /(-HBr) C 7 H 7 O 2 N 4 Br (8-Br-theobromine) ( 3 H 2 /cat)/(-KOH) C 7 H 7 3 HO 2 N 4 (theobromine-8- 3 H). Theobromine-8- 3 H was purified by thin layer chromatography with a solvent system i.e. n-BuOH:AcOH:H 2 O (4:1:1, v/v/v) and characterized radiochemically. It was then diluted by unlabelled theobromine to specific activity of 50 mCi/g. After dilution, theobromine-8- 3 H was coupled to 1-Br-5-hexanone i.e.: C 7 H 7 3 HO 2 N 4 (theobromine-8- 3 H) + Br-(CH 2 ) 4 -CO-CH 3 (1-Br-5-hexanone) (NaOH)/(CH 3 OH) C 13 H 17 3 HO 3 N 4 (1-(5-oxohexyl)- 3,7-dimethyl-xanthine-8- 3 H). The raw compound was purified by recrystallization from 2-propanol and it was characterized radiochemically. (authors)

  5. TEMPORAL CHANGES IN PURITY AND SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF TRITIUM-LABELED 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN: RADIOPURITY MODEL FOR TOXICOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in the specific activity (S) and radiopurity (R) of tritiated 2,3,7,8-TCDD were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in order to accurately characterize TCDD doses received by invertebrates, fish, and fish embryos in several toxicology studies conducted over a...

  6. The introduction of tritium in lactose and saccharose by isotope exchange with gaseous tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akulov, G.P.; Snetkova, E.V.; Kaminskij, Yu.L.; Kudelin, B.K.; Efimova, V.L.

    1991-01-01

    Methods for conducting reactions of catalytic protium-tritium isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium were developed in order to synthesize tritium labelled lactose and saccharose. These methods enabled to prepare these labelled disaccharides with high molar activity. The yield was equal to 50-60%, radiochemical purity ∼ 95%

  7. Substantiation of rate setting of surface contamination with amino acids, labelled with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhesko, T.V.

    1987-01-01

    For rate setting of surface contamination with the wide-spread biogenic tritium compounds-protein predecessors-experimental study of skin absorption and skin deposit of amino acids labelled with tritium is carried out on rats. While extrapolating data to people and calculating tolerable skin contamination with 3 H- amino acids, it is supposed that people arm skin, 100-500 cm 2 , has no defects and that the skin surface decontamination after radionuclide contact is carried out with a preparation, efficiency of which is not less than 97%. The value of tolerable skin absorption of tritium amino acids, being 110-550 MBq/year or 4.8 kBq/cm 2 per one working day, is calculated

  8. Transfer of tritium-labeled organic material from grass into cow's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van den Hoek, J.; ten Have, M.H.J.; Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two lactating cows were given tritiated hay containing organically bound tritium (OBT) only for about 4 weeks. Tritium activity was determined in milk fat, casein, lactose, milk water, and whole milk. In one cow, milk was sampled for approximately 450 days, covering two lactation periods. At steady state, specific tritium activities in casein, lactose, and milk water were 58, 10, and 11%, respectively, of those in milk fat. Some OBT was converted into THO during catabolism and entered the body water pool. This 3 H source accounted for nearly 40% of tritium in lactose, but in casein and milk fat about 97% of tritium was derived from ingested OBT. Comparison of the specific activity of milk constituents with the specific activity of ingested hay showed the following values: 0.84 for milk fat, 0.49 for casein, 0.05 for lactose, 0.10 for milk water. Decrease of tritium activity with time could be represented by three components with different half-lives for the organic milk constituents. Those for milk fat and casein were quite similar, with a slow component of nearly 3 months

  9. Residues of tritium-labeled morantel in lactating dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.J.; Mosher, F.R.; Burnett, D.M.; Newby, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    Residues of morantel and its metabolites were monitored in plasma, urine, and milk of five lactating dairy cattle that received an oral dose of [4,4-pyrimidyl- 3 H 2 ]morantel tartrate at 10 mg/kg. Drug-related radioactivity peaked in plasma at 8 h and in milk by the second milking, postdose, and was 170 and 84 ng/mL, respectively. The fraction of total residues in milk convertible to the marker compound, N-methyl-1,3-propanediamine, was 0.38 on the basis of a comparison of the areas under the curves for total and marker residues. Five days after dosing, 3.9% of the total radioactivity in liver was recovered as tritium water. Total drug-related residues in this target tissue averaged 1.15 μg/g. About half of the drug-related residues in liver was unextractable and was classified by bound

  10. Enhanced activities of organically bound tritium in biota samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlik, I; Fejgl, M; Malátová, I; Tomaskova, L

    2014-11-01

    A pilot study aimed on possible occurrence of elevated activity of non-exchangable organically bound tritium (NE-OBT) in biota was performed. The first results showed a significant surplus of NE-OBT activity in biota of the valley of Mohelno reservoir and Jihlava river. The liquid releases of HTO from the nuclear power plant Dukovany is the source of tritium in this area. This area can be a source of various types of natural samples for future studies of tritium pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and tritium labeling of the food mutagens IQ and methyl-IQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterhouse, A.L.; Rapoport, H.

    1985-01-01

    The mutagens found in cooked meat, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (Methyl-IQ), have been synthesized by unambiguous methods that allow for the preparation of sufficient quantities of material for biological studies. These methods avoid difficult separations of regioisomeric mixtures of products and incorporate specific high level tritium labeling, effected by hydrogenolysis of the appropriately substituted 5-bromo precursors. (author)

  12. The synthesis of tritium, carbon-14 and stable isotope labelled selective estrogen receptor degraders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Ryan A; Bushby, Nick; Ericsson, Cecilia; Kingston, Lee P; Ji, Hailong; Elmore, Charles S

    2016-09-01

    As part of a Medicinal Chemistry program aimed at developing an orally bioavailable selective estrogen receptor degrader, a number of tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotope labelled (E)-3-[4-(2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-1-yl)phenyl]prop-2-enoic acids were required. This paper discusses 5 synthetic approaches to this compound class. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Procedure for the preparation of tritium-labelled insulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienert, M.; Haensicke, A.; Beyermann, M.; Kaufmann, K.D.; Oehlke, J.; Klauschenz, E.; Bespalowa, S.; Titov, M.; Pleiss, U.

    1986-01-01

    This invention is concerned with a procedure for the preparation of specific 3 H-labelled insulins with sequences of human, bovine or porcine insulins and without simultaneous chemical modifications of the insulin. On the basis of this procedure a 3 H 2 -Typ (B26)-insulin can be obtained in good yield and purity with a specific radioactivity appropriate to biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic purposes in medicine and pharmaceutical industry, resp

  14. ICIT activities related to tritium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamfirache, Marius; Bornea, Anisia; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ana, George; Stefan, Liviu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present the main directions of ICIT research in the field of hydrogen isotopes. • Tritium Removal Facility became a nuclear installation. • ICIT had begun the transfer of detritiation technology. - Abstract: National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies (ICIT) was established in 1970 as a research focused Industrial Pilot Plant. This new Institute was created with the purpose to develop the heavy water production technology. This technology has been successfully transferred to the heavy water production plant in 1988 (with a capacity of 360 t/year). Currently, research within ICIT is focused on the following main objectives: support for the National Nuclear Program, hydrogen and fuel cells, cryogenics, environment. Within ICIT it has been built an Experimental Pilot Plant having as the main objective the development of a technology for heavy water detritiation. The purpose of this Pilot Plant is to obtain technological data and functional characteristics of specific equipment in order to design a Detritiation Facility used for Nuclear Power Plants with CANDU reactors. This work is focused on the presentation of ICIT research activities, perspectives and its capability related to water detritiation technologies and also to on issues in the field of nuclear fusion.

  15. Synthesis of canrenone and related steroids labelled with tritium, carbon-14, and sulfur-35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, C.S.; Dorn, C.R.; Zitzwitz, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The syntheses of [1- 3 H]canrenone, [1- 3 H]spironolactone, [1- 3 H] potassium canrenoate, [22- 14 C]canrenone, [22- 14 C]spironolactone, [22- 14 C]potassium canrenoate, and [ 35 S]spironolactone are reported. Tritium labelled compounds were obtained by catalytic reduction of a 3-keto-1, 4-diene precursor followed by exchange of enolizable label. Carbon-14 compounds were obtained by reaction of a 17-ethynyl steroid with 14 CO 2 . Sulfur-35 spironolactone was synthesized by the in-situ generation of [ 35 S]thiolacetic acid from [ 35 S]sodium sulfide. (author)

  16. Preliminary Tritium Management Design Activities at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Thomas J.; Felde, David K.; Logsdon, Randall J.; McFarlane, Joanna; Qualls, A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in salt-cooled and salt-fueled reactors has increased over the last decade (Forsberg et al. 2016). Several private companies and universities in the United States, as well as governments in other countries, are developing salt reactor designs and/or technology. Two primary issues for the development and deployment of many salt reactor concepts are (1) the prevention of tritium generation and (2) the management of tritium to prevent release to the environment. In 2016, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a research project under the Advanced Reactor Technology Program to (1) experimentally assess the feasibility of proposed methods for tritium mitigation and (2) to perform an engineering demonstration of the most promising methods. This document describes results from the first year's efforts to define, design, and build an experimental apparatus to test potential methods for tritium management. These efforts are focused on producing a final design document as the basis for the apparatus and its scheduled completion consistent with available budget and approvals for facility use.

  17. Preliminary Tritium Management Design Activities at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felde, David K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Logsdon, Randall J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFarlane, Joanna [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Interest in salt-cooled and salt-fueled reactors has increased over the last decade (Forsberg et al. 2016). Several private companies and universities in the United States, as well as governments in other countries, are developing salt reactor designs and/or technology. Two primary issues for the development and deployment of many salt reactor concepts are (1) the prevention of tritium generation and (2) the management of tritium to prevent release to the environment. In 2016, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a research project under the Advanced Reactor Technology Program to (1) experimentally assess the feasibility of proposed methods for tritium mitigation and (2) to perform an engineering demonstration of the most promising methods. This document describes results from the first year’s efforts to define, design, and build an experimental apparatus to test potential methods for tritium management. These efforts are focused on producing a final design document as the basis for the apparatus and its scheduled completion consistent with available budget and approvals for facility use.

  18. Tritium volume activity in natural waters of NPP Temelin region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasek, M; Wilhelmova, L [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Rep., Prague (Czech Republic). Nuclear Physics Inst., Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of tritium measurement in selected rivers of NPP Temelin before its operation obtained during the period 1991-1994. Particular attention is paid to Vltava river into which liquid effluents will be discharged and which is also utilized as a drinking water supply for the capital Prague. Samples from the Vltava river were collected near the mouth of NPP waste canal (point Hladna)and in front of the intake into Prague water works (point Podoli). Tritium content was analysed also in surface waters of Paleckuv, Temelinsky and Strouha streams which can be affected by gaseous effluents due to atmospheric removal processes. Tritium activity was measured with Tric-Carb 1050 TR/LL liquid scintillation counter. The mean annual tritium activities of investigated river waters varied within 1.9-3.0 Bq/l during the period 1991-1994 and that their trend has been slowly decreasing. This fact, as well as seasonal variability, suggests, that tritium level in the surface waters of studied region is largely governed by this radionuclide global atmospheric fallout. The results of this work indicate the trend of background tritium in examined natural waters and make possible the evaluation of their potential future contamination. (J.K.) 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 refs.

  19. Tritium activity balance in hairless rats following skin-contact exposure to tritium-gas-contaminated stainless-steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A

    1994-06-01

    Studies using animals and human volunteers have demonstrated that the dosimetry for skin-contact exposure to contaminated metal surfaces differs from that for the intake of tritiated water or tritium gas. However, despite the availability of some information on the dosimetry for skin-contact with tritium-gas-contaminated metal surfaces, uncertainties in estimating skin doses remain, because of poor accounting for the applied tritium activity in the body (Eakins et al., 1975; Trivedi, 1993). Experiments on hairless rats were performed to account for the tritium activity applied onto the skin. Hairless rats were contaminated through skin-contact exposure to tritium-gas-contaminated stainless-steel planchets. The activity in the first smear was about 35% of the total removable activity (measured by summing ten consecutive swipes). The amount of tritium applied onto the skin can be approximated by estimating the tritium activity in the first smear removed form the contaminated surfaces. 87 {+-} 9% of the transferred tritium was retained in the exposed skin 30 min post-exposure. 30 min post exposure, the unexposed skin and the carcass retained 8 {+-} 6% and 3 {+-} 2% of the total applied tritium activity, respectively. The percentage of tritium evolved from the body or breathed out was estimated to be 2 {+-} 1% of the total applied activity 30 min post-exposure. It is recommended that to evaluate accurately the amount of tritium transferred to the skin, alternative measurement approaches are required that can directly account for the transferred activity onto the skin. 15 refs., 13 tabs., 7 figs.

  20. Tritium labeling of a powerful methylphosphonate inhibitor of cholinesterase: synthesis and biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balan, A.; Barness, I.; Simon, G.; Levy, D.; Ashani, Y.

    1988-01-01

    7-(Methylethoxy phosphinyloxy)-1-methyl-quinolinium iodide (MEPQ), a powerful anti-cholinesterase methylphosphonate ester, was labeled with tritium (9 Ci/mmol) at the methylphosphonyl moiety (TCH2P(O)(OR)X) by an iodine-tritium replacement reaction. Kinetic measurements of the rate of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by [ 3 H]MEPQ and its rate of hydrolysis in alkaline solution confirmed the identity of [ 3 H]MEPQ with authentic MEPQ, which was prepared by the same reaction sequences. Gel-filtration experiments verified the radiospecificity of [ 3 H]MEPQ. In vitro radiolabeling of both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase along with the whole-body autoradiography of [ 3 H]MEPQ-treated mice suggests that [ 3 H]MEPQ is a convenient marker for studying biological systems containing these esterases

  1. Enhancing radiolytic stability upon concentration of tritium-labeled pharmaceuticals utilizing centrifugal evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rosemary; Helmy, Roy; Waterhouse, David

    2015-05-30

    Tritium radiopharmaceuticals are often used in drug development because of their desirable specific activity. The inherent instability of these radioactive tracers often leads to a requirement to purify prior to use. Purification methodologies such as preparative chromatography and solid/liquid extractions often utilize water as a solvent, which is not suitable for long-term storage and necessitates removal. Rotary evaporation has traditionally been utilized for the removal of this unwanted solvent, however, this method has been shown to lead to decomposition of the tritium species in some cases. Centrifugal evaporation is a milder concentration method which has been demonstrated to effectively remove solvents. In this study, we show that centrifugal evaporation leads to effective concentration of tritium samples without the decomposition typically observed by rotary evaporation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Synthesis of tritium-labelled (S)-methoprene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek, A.

    2017-01-01

    Methoprene, as an analogue of so-called juvenile hormones influencing the larval stage of development before final conversion in adult insects, is extensively applied in Latin America as an insecticide - dispersed on water surfaces, including drinking water reservoirs. This growth regulator has so far been considered non-toxic to mammals. For further study of its activity in specific binding ligand-receptor studies it was necessary to designate it with a high specific activity radioactive isotope. (authors)

  3. Development of New Tritium Labelling Methods for Peptides & Investigation of Guest-Host Mediated Electrocyclization and Sigma-Tropic Rearrangement Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Holst Friborg

    The main parts of the work presented here is Part I; which have involved the installation of a Tritium Chemistry Facility for the synthesis of radiolabelled compounds with tritium, and Part II; the development of new tritium labelling methods for peptides. The intention of Part I is to supply bac...

  4. Investigations with tritium-labelled glycerol of the triglyceride metabolism in patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, W.; Julius, U.; Koch, R.; Schulze, J.

    1980-01-01

    Triglycerides, being components of lipoproteins, are secreted by the liver into the blood and climinated from the blood by adipose and muscle tissue. The kinetics of this metabolic pathway were studied after injection of tritium-labelled glycerol which is incorporated into triglycerides by the liver. The serum triglyceride radioactivity-time curve was analysed with a computer. 99 examinations showed a decrease of the fractional turnover rate and an increase of the turnover rate with the triglyceride level. The test enables to decide whether an increased triglyceride concentration is caued by overproduction or by disturbed climination. (author)

  5. Synthesis of a tritium labeled photolabile analogue of farnesyl diphosphate: (E,E)-[1-3H]-(2-diazo-3-trifluoropropionyloxy)geranyl diphosphate (DATFP-GDP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Benedict, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Tritiated (E,E)-(2-diazo-3-trifluoropropionyloxy)geranyl disphosphate (DATFP-GDP) has been used as a photolabile analogue of (E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate (E,E-FDP) for an aid in isolating enzymes utilizing E,E-FDP as a substrate. We now report an alternative method of synthesizing this probe in which the tritium label is introduced in the step just before the introduction of the diphospate group. Thus, DATFP-geranial is oxidized to DATFP-geranial with activated manganese dioxide. The tritium label is introduced by reduction of the aldehyde with NaBT 4 . The DATFP-group successfully withstands both of these steps. The overall yield for these two steps is 69%. Diphosphorylation of the resulting alcohol afforded DATFP-[1- 3 H]-GDP in 8% yield with a specific activity of 48.6 μCi/μmol and radiochemical purity of 94%. (Author)

  6. Accounting control of tritium at the tritium process laboratory (TPL) of JAERI. Results of 15-year operation and research activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Masataka; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamada, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takumi

    2003-01-01

    Research and development work of fuel processing technology and tritium safe-handling technology necessary for fusion reactors has been performed at the Tritium Process Laboratory (TPL) of JAERI. TPL is the first facility in Japan permitted to handle tritium of more than 1g (about 0.36PBq), and its operation itself is also important for the development of fusion reactor facility in the viewpoint of tritium control. Various experiments have been carried out at TPL safely since 1988 controlling 22PBq of tritium as the maximum observing regulations. In addition to the regulatory accounting and control, detailed independent control in TPL was planned and was established through its 15-year safe-operation. For future fusion fuel facility where kilo-grams of tritium will be handled, method of tritium accounting has been researched and some new technologies have been developed at TPL. Results of TPL operation and of the research activity in it contributed the completion of the engineering design of ITER. Further research activity on tritium accounting and control is in progress in TPL for the future fusion reactors. (author)

  7. Enzymatic synthesis of tritium-labelled prostaglandin D2 and its conversion to other prostaglandins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shram, S.I.; Lazurkina, T.Yu.; Shevchenko, V.P.; Nagaev, I.Yu.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1994-01-01

    The one-stage enzymatic synthesis of tritium-labelled prostaglandin D 2 from labelled arachidonic acid was performed by using the enzyme system PGH-synthetase/PGH-PGD-isomerase. By enzymatic and chemical transformation of [ 3 H]PGD 2 the following compounds were obtained: 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-[ 3 H]PGD 2 , 9α,11β-[ 3 H]PGF 2 , 9-deoxy-Δ 9 -[ 3 H]-PGD 2 ([ 3 H]PGJ 2 ) and Δ 12 -13,14-dihydro-[ 3 H]PGJ 2 . It was found that L-selectride is a more effective reducing agent than sodium borohydride in the synthesis of 9α, 11β-[ 3 H]PGF 2 . (Author)

  8. Study of autoradiolytic processes in tritium labelled polymers by quantum mechanical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Cristian; Fugaru, Viorel

    1999-01-01

    Autoradiolysis is a decomposition process of radionuclide labelled compounds. The process is similar to radiolytic degradation and is due to the autoirradiation following the decay of radioactive elements chemically bound to labelled molecules. In this work, an evaluating model of autoradiolysis behavior of tritium labelled polymers is presented. Polymeric structures of relevance for radioluminescent source industry, namely: polyethyl, polyethyl-phenyl, polypropyl, polypropyl-phenyl siloxanes, hydrogenated (tritiated) polyacetylenes with 1,4-diphenylbutane, 1,4-diphenyl-2-butene and 1,4-diphenylbutadiene structures have been investigated. Modelling of autoradiolytic processes was carried out with HYPERCHEM 4 software and its CHEMPLUS extension. Internal and external primary effects have been analyzed. External primary effects (EPE) were assessed by a procedure used in the study of radiolytic processes of solid polymers. A three step model was proposed for the assessment of internal primary effects (IPE): (a) tritium atom decay inducing a cationic radical in the molecular structure; (b) geometric re-optimization of cationic radical; (c) electron capture from environment and rapid breaking of the chemical bond of LUMO orbital distribution zone. The analysis of autoradiolytic processes in labelled polysiloxanes makes clear the dominant degradation function of EPE. The presence of phenyl groups in the polymeric structure improves the stability to autoradiolysis. The most resistant structures are obtained in the case of ethyl(propyl) and phenyl radicals positioned at different Si atoms. The hydrogenated oligomeric phenylacetylene structures present a high stability to autoradiolysis. In these cases, IPE in benzilic position have a major destructive function in the autoradiolytic process. (authors)

  9. The tritium labelling of organic molecules by heterogeneous catalytic exchange; El marcado de moleculas organicas con tritio por intercambio catalitico heterogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angoso Marina, M; Kaiser Ruiz del Olmo, F.

    1977-07-01

    The influence of the temperature at 65 degree centigree and 120 degree centigree on the labelling of three organic molecules with tritium was studied. The compounds were: benzoic acid, de phenyl glyoxal and 2,3-tetramethylene-4-pantothenyl-7-oxo diacetin.The method employed was the heterogeneous catalytic exchange between tritiated water and the organic compound. The purification was made by thin-layer chromatography and the concentration, purity and specific activity of the products were determined by counting and ultraviolet techniques. The thermal stability and the radiolytic effects on labelled benzoic acid were also considered. (Author) 9 refs.

  10. Separation and formation of ryanodine from dehydroryanodine. Preparation of tritium-labelled ryanodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutko, J.L.; Thompson, L.J.; Schlatterer, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The commercially available preparation of the naturally occurring diterpene ester ryanodine contains several compounds in addition to ryanodine. These compounds were separated and purified using high performance liquid chromatography. The two major components, ryanodine and dehydroryanodine represented 90% of the material present. A method for the efficient reduction of dehydroryanodine to ryanodine was developed and used to produce ryanodine having tritium atoms at positions 19 and 20 and a specific activity of 60.8 Ci/mmole. (author)

  11. Iodine and tritium labelling of curarizing and cardiotoxic agents. Study of the conformation of toxic polypeptides extracted from snake venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menez, Andre.

    1977-01-01

    A short review of present-day knowledge on the action mechanism of toxic snake venom polypeptides is followed by a study of the radioactive labelling of some toxic compounds. Those dealt with more especially are Naja nigricollis α toxin and Laticauda semifasciata b erabutoxin, then (+) tubocurarin, a non-peptidic curarizing alkaloid, and two cardiotoxic polypeptides: cytotoxin II and cardiotoxin γ extracted from the venom of Naja naja and Naja nigricollis respectively. The labelling principle is based on the specific fixation of one or more iodine atoms then tritium substitution of the halogen by catalytic hydrogenolysis. As predicted from titration of the aromatic groups the halogenation process, obtained by addition of iodine monochloride, takes place sometimes on the phenolic nuclei and sometimes on the imidazole nuclei, the position of which targets within each sequence has been identified. From results of the study of reactivity towards iodine combined with those of basic titration, the accessibility of several aromatic nuclei has also been defined. Each iodinated polypeptide is then hydrogenolysed in the presence of tritium gas giving a specific activity between 4 and 27 Ci/mmole according to the compound treated. In all cases the biological potential and physical properties of the radioactive material obtained by the above titration process remained intact. An example of the bonding kinetics of short toxins with the partially purified choligenic receptor is given in the special case of tritiated b erabutoxin. The affinity of this toxin for its receptor target is strong, though slightly less so than that of tritiated Naja nigricollis α toxin [fr

  12. Quantification of the activity of tritium produced during the routine synthesis of (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose for positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, C; Talboys, M A; Bukhari, S; Evans, W D

    2014-06-01

    Gamma emitting radioactive by-products generated during the cyclotron irradiation of (18)O labelled water by protons to produce (18)FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) for positron emission tomography are well characterised. However, the production of tritium ((3)H) through the (18)O(p,t)(16)O nuclear reaction has not been investigated in detail. The aim of this study was to measure tritium activity produced during a large number of (18)FDG production runs in order to obtain a better perspective on its impact on radioactive waste management, particularly as regards storage and disposal. Tritium was assayed by liquid scintillation counting in recovered (18)O water from 24 separate production runs. The mean (SD) values of activity and activity concentration were 170 (20) kBq and 81 (8) kBq ml(-1) respectively. Both quantities were positively correlated with the activity of (18)F. Tritium was detected in much lower concentration in water used to rinse the target vessel. The activity of tritium is such that it is exempt from regulatory control and may be combined with bulk non-active waste for disposal as Very Low Level Waste. However, variations in the irradiation conditions or the procedures for the collection of recovered water might result in its classification as Low Level Waste, necessitating a more complex disposal regime.

  13. Investigation of tritium tracer in nucleic acid components by hydrogenolysis of corresponding precursors. 7. Preparation of tritiated uracil, uridine-5'-mono-, di- and triphosphates of high molar activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedov, N F; Sidorov, G V; Kuznetsova, O B; Frank-Kamenetskaya, M D; Lazurkina, T Yu; Orlova, V A

    1984-01-01

    Preparation of (5,6-/sup 3/H) uracil by hydrogenolysis of 5-bromo-6-chlorouracil with molar activity (1.59-1.63)x10/sup 15/ Bg/mol has been described. Hydrogenolysis reaction kinetics is studied, effect of the reaction conditions on molar activity of dehalogenation product is considered. Using enzyme fraction, separated from the E.coli cells tritium-labelled preparations of UMP, UTP and UTP from (5.6-/sup 3/H) uracil are made. Kinetics of enzymatic reactions is studied and conditions, permitting to synthesize both UMP and UTP and a mixture of nucleotides of different degree of phosphorylation in approximately equal amounts are selected. Separation of nucleotides labelled with tritium is conducted using ion exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose. Molar activity of nucleotides labelled with tritium equals molar activity of initial (5.6-/sup 3/H) uracil, and radiochemical purity constitutes more than 95%.

  14. Radiation safety in radioluminous paint workshop handling tritium activated paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, P.K.; Venkateswaran, T.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the safety features related to a workshop when tritium activated luminous paint is handled by workmen. Salient features of the workshop and the methods employed for monitoring the radiation levels are briefly outlined and results are discussed. The importance of proper ventilation of the workplace and precautions to be taken in the storage of painted articles are highlighted. (author). 1 table, 3 figs

  15. Tritium activity in milk by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Huang

    1993-01-01

    This paper estimates the total tritium content of both the organic and aqueous fractions simultaneously. To fulfill these conditions, the chosen scintillator should be able to accept large sample loadings and display the same counting efficiency for the organic as well as aqueous fractions of the whole milk. In an attempt to establish this method, samples from four different brands of milk were analysed using the pseudocumence based Picofluor 30 (Canberra Packard) and the di-isopropyl naphthalene based Aquasafe 500 (Zinser Analytic) scintillator solution. Glass vials were used thus enabling visual observation to be made. The tritium activities of four different brands of milks were estimated to be very low and at, or near, the detection level of the system

  16. Synthesis and tritium labeling of the highly potent mast cell-degranulating substance P analog H-Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-NH-C sub 12 H sub 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, M.; Oehlke, J.; Niedrich, H. (Academy of Sciences of GDR, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. of Drug Research); Mittag, E. (Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung, Rossendorf (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-12-01

    Tritium labeling of the mast cell degranulating substance P analog H-Arg-Pro-Lys(3,4-{sup 3}H-Pro)-NH-C{sub 12}H{sub 25} by catalytic saturation of the dehydroproline (Dhp{sup 1}) double bond is described. Catalytic tritiation in water afforded the radioactive analog with a specific activity of 1.07 TBq/mmol. Tenfold enhancement of the catalyst-to-substrate ratio resulted in a reduced specific activity of 0.74 TBq/mmol. (author).

  17. Overview of R and D activities on tritium processing and handling technology in JAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko, E-mail: yamanishi.toshihiko@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakamura, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yasunori; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Oyaidsu, Makoto; Yamada, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takumi; Hayashi, Takumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tritium technologies have been studied at Tritium Process Laboratory of JAEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A monitoring method for the blanket system of a fusion reactor have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Basic studies on the tritium behavior in confinement system have been carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Studies on the detritiation have been carried out as another significant activity. - Abstract: In JAEA, the tritium processing and handling technologies have been studied at TPL (Tritium Process Laboratory). The main R and D activities are: the tritium processing technology for the blanket recovery systems; the basic tritium behavior in confinement materials; and detritiation and decontamination. The R and D activities on tritium processing and handling technologies for a demonstration reactor (DEMO) are also planned to be carried out in the broader approach (BA) program by JAEA with Japanese universities. The ceramic proton conductor has been studied as a possible tritium processing method for the blanket system. The BIXS method has also been studied as a monitoring of tritium in the blanket system. The hydrogen transfer behavior from water to metal has been studied as a function of temperature. As for the behavior of high concentration tritium water, it was observed that the formation of the oxidized layer was prevented by the presence of tritium in water (0.23 GBq/cc). A new hydrophobic catalyst has been developed for the conversion of tritium to water. The catalyst could convert tritium to water at room temperature. A new Nafion membrane has also been developed by gamma ray irradiation to get the strong durability for tritium.

  18. Tritium. Today's and tomorrow's developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazal, S.; Amiard, J.C.; Caussade, Bernard; Chenal, Christian; Hubert, Francoise; Sene, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive hydrogen isotope, tritium is one of the radionuclides which is the most released in the environment during the normal operation of nuclear facilities. The increase of nuclear activities and the development of future generations of reactors, like the EPR and ITER, would lead to a significant increase of tritium effluents in the atmosphere and in the natural waters, thus raising many worries and questions. Aware about the importance of this question, the national association of local information commissions (ANCLI) wished to make a status of the existing knowledge concerning tritium and organized in 2008 a colloquium at Orsay (France) with an inquiring approach. The scientific committee of the ANCLI, renowned for its expertise skills, mobilized several nuclear specialists to carry out this thought. This book represents a comprehensive synthesis of today's knowledge about tritium, about its management and about its impact on the environment and on human health. Based on recent scientific data and on precise examples, it treats of the overall questions raised by this radionuclide: 1 - tritium properties and different sources (natural and anthropic), 2 - the problem of tritiated wastes management; 3 - the bio-availability and bio-kinetics of the different tritium species; 4 - the tritium labelling of environments; 5 - tritium measurement and modeling of its environmental circulation; 6 - tritium radio-toxicity and its biological and health impacts; 7 - the different French and/or international regulations concerning tritium. (J.S.)

  19. Activities of the EMRAS Tritium/C14 Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.A.; Balonov, M.; Venter, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new model evaluation program, Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS), was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency in September 2003. EMRAS includes a working group (WG) on modeling tritium and C-14 transfer through the environment to biota and man. The main objective of this WG is to develop and test models of the uptake, formation and translocation of organically bound tritium (OBT) in food crops, animals and aquatic systems. To the extent possible, the WG is carrying out its work by comparing model predictions with experimental data to identify the modeling approaches and assumptions that lead to the best agreement between predictions and observations. Results for scenarios involving a chronically contaminated aquatic ecosystem and short-term exposure of soybeans are presently being analyzed. In addition, calculations for scenarios involving chronically contaminated terrestrial food chains and hypothetical short-term releases are currently underway, and a pinetree scenario is being developed. The preparation of datasets on tritium dynamics in large animals and fish is being encouraged, since these are the areas of greatest uncertainty in OBT modeling. These activities will be discussed in this paper

  20. Synthesis of tritium or deuterium labelled 19-nor-3. cap alpha. -hydroxy-5. cap alpha. -androstan-17-one from nortestosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protiva, J; Klinotova, E [Karlova Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta; Filip, J [Ustav pro Vyzkum, Vyrobu a Vyuziti Radioisotopu, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Hampl, R [Research Inst. of Endocrinology, Praha (Czechoslovakia)

    1982-10-20

    Tritium and/or deuterium (5-H) labelled 19-nor-3..cap alpha..-hydroxy-5..cap alpha..-androstan-17-one (norandrosterone) was prepared from nortestosterone in view to use it as a radioligand for radioimmunoassay of the main nortestosterone metabolites. Based upon model experiments using testosterone and deuterium labelling, the following four step procedure was established: nortestosterone was oxidized with pyridine chlorochromate and the resulting 19-nor-4-androsten-3,17-dione was tritiated with tritium gas under catalysis with tris(triphenylphosphine)rhodium chloride to give (4,5..cap alpha..-/sup 3/H)19-nor-5..cap alpha..-androstan-3,17-dione. A selective reduction of the latter compound yielded (5-/sup 3/H)19-nor-3..cap alpha..-hydroxy-5..cap alpha..-androstan-17-one of the molar radioactivity 0.3 TBq (8.15 Ci)/mmol.

  1. Synthesis of [14α, 15α-3H]-17α-cyanomethyl-17β-hydroxyestra-4.9-diene-3-one - a specifically tritium labelled gestagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemer, J.; Wagner, H.

    1978-05-01

    Synthesis of [14α, 15α- 3 H 2 ]-17α-cyanomethyl-17β-hydroxyestra-4.9-diene-3-one from quantitativly tritiated [14α, 15α- 3 H 2 ]-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10),8-tetraene-17β-ol is described. The determination of the radiochemical purity and chemical yield was carried out by thin-layer chromatography. Preparative thin-layer chromatography was used for purifying the final product. By-products formed in the course of synthesis could be detected by determining and comparing specific activities of the intermediate products. Radiolytic investigations revealed the instability of the tritium labelled dienone system. (author)

  2. Oesophageal fistula/tritium-labelled water technique for determining dry matter intake and saliva secretion rates of grazing herbivores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luick, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Seven assumptions on which the use of tritium-labelled water and oesophageal fistula depend, for determining the dry matter intake and saliva secretion rates of grazing herbivores, were tested experimentally. It is concluded that many of the possible sources of error can be ignored, but that a correction is necessary for the saliva dry matter content when calculating the dry matter of ingested food from fistula samples. (author)

  3. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases at the National Tritium Labeling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Brand, K.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Health and Ecological Assessment Div.; Shan, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

    1997-04-01

    This risk assessment calculates the probability of experiencing health effects, including cancer incidence due to tritium exposure for three groups of people: (1) LBNL workers near the LBNL facility--Building 75--that uses tritium; (2) other workers at LBNL and nearby neighbors; and (3) people who use the UC Berkeley campus area, and some Berkeley residents. All of these groups share the same probability of health effects from the background radiation from natural sources in the Berkeley area environment, including an increased risk of developing a cancer of 11,000 chances per million. In calculating risk the authors assumed continuous operation in Building 75 for at least a human lifetime. Under this assumption, LBNL workers located near Building 75 have an additional risk of 60 chances out of one million to suffer a cancer; other workers at LBNL and people who live near LBNL have an additional risk of six chances out of one million over a lifetime of exposure; and users of the UC Berkeley campus area and other residents of Berkeley have an additional risk of less than once chance out of one million over a lifetime.

  4. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases at the National Tritium Labeling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.; Brand, K.P.; Shan, C.

    1997-04-01

    This risk assessment calculates the probability of experiencing health effects, including cancer incidence due to tritium exposure for three groups of people: (1) LBNL workers near the LBNL facility--Building 75--that uses tritium; (2) other workers at LBNL and nearby neighbors; and (3) people who use the UC Berkeley campus area, and some Berkeley residents. All of these groups share the same probability of health effects from the background radiation from natural sources in the Berkeley area environment, including an increased risk of developing a cancer of 11,000 chances per million. In calculating risk the authors assumed continuous operation in Building 75 for at least a human lifetime. Under this assumption, LBNL workers located near Building 75 have an additional risk of 60 chances out of one million to suffer a cancer; other workers at LBNL and people who live near LBNL have an additional risk of six chances out of one million over a lifetime of exposure; and users of the UC Berkeley campus area and other residents of Berkeley have an additional risk of less than once chance out of one million over a lifetime

  5. Development of radiochemical method of analysis of binding of tritium labeled drotaverine hydrochloride with human blood serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Shukurov, B.V.; Mavlyanov, I.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The albumin, being a basic functional linkage of numerous endogenous and exogenous substances is the most important protein of blood plasma. At the diseases connected to liver disfunction, collected in blood metabolite reduce connecting ability of albumino. The aim of the present research was a development of radiochemical method of determination of ability of albumin to bind the tritium labeled preparation drotaverine hydrochloride (no - spa). We had developed a micromethod of definition of connecting ability of albumin, allowing to analyse 20 mkl of blood serum. The method consists in incubation of tritium labeled drotaverine hydrochloride with blood serum in vitro, the following fractionation of serum proteins by gel - filtration on a microcolumn with Sephadex G-25, and direct measurement of the radioactivity connected to fraction of proteins of blood serum. The method has been tested on a series of blood serum of control group of healthy people and on a series of blood serum of patients with hepatitis B. We received quantitative characteristics of binding of drotaverine hydrochloride with albumin of patients with hepatitis B. It was preliminary established that binding ability of serum albumin of children with various forms of acute virus hepatitis tends to decrease in comparison with group of the control. Advantage of the developed radiochemical method is high precision and the high sensitivity of detection of infringement of binding ability of albumin. Application of tritium labeled drotaverine hydrochloride allows to measure directly levels of binding of a preparation with albumin

  6. [The Qualitative Analysis of the Amide Derivative of HLDF-6 Peptide and Its Metabolites with the Use of Tritium- and Deuterium-Labeled Derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotarev, A; Dadayan, A K; Kost, N V; Voevodina, M E; Sokolov, O Y; Kozik, V S; Shram, S I; Azev, V N; Bocharov, E V; Bogachouk, A P; Lipkin, V M; Myasoedov, N F

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to elaborate the pharmacokinetics methods of the amide derivative of peptide HLDF-6 (TGENHR-NH2) and its range of nootropic and neuroprotective activity is wide. The hexapeptide 41TGENHR46 is a fragment of the HDLF differentiation factor. It forms the basis for the development of preventive and therapeutic preparations for treating cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative conditions. Pharmacokinetic and molecular mechanisms of the action of the HLDF-6 peptide were studied using tritium- and deuterium-labeled derivatives of this peptide, produced with the use of the high-temperature solid-state catalytic isotope exchange reaction (HSCIE). This reaction was employed to produce the tritium-labeled peptide [3H]TGENHR-NH2 with a molar radioactivity of 230 Ci/mmol and the deuterium-labeled peptide [2H]TGENHR-NH2 with an average deuterium incorporation equal to 10.5 atoms. It was shown by the NMR spectroscopy that the isotope label distribution over the labeled peptide's molecule was uniform, which allowed qualitative analysis ofboth the peptide itself and its fragments in the organism's tissues to be conducted. The newly developed pharmacokinetics method makes it possible to avoid almost completely losses of the peptides under study due to biodegradation during the analysis of tissues. These labeled peptides were used in mice, rats and rabbits to study the pharmacokinetics of the peptide and to calculate the values of its principal pharmacokinetic parameters. Characteristics of its pharmacokinetic profile in the blood were obtained, the hypothesis of pharmacokinetics linearity tested, its metabolism analyzed and its bioavailability value, 34%, calculated. It has been shown that the studied TGENHR-NH2 peptide shows high resistance to hydrolysis in the blood plasma, with dipeptidyl aminopeptidases making the largest contribution to its hydrolysis.

  7. Auxin Does Not Alter the Permeability of Pea Segments to Tritium-labeled Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowler, M J; Rayle, D L

    1974-02-01

    The possibility of an auxin effect on the permeability of pea (Pisum sativum L. ev. Alaska) segments to tritium-labeled water has been investigated by three separate laboratories, and the combined results are presented. We were unable to obtain any indication of a rapid effect of indoleacetic acid on the efflux of (3)HHO when pea segments previously "loaded" for 90 minutes with (3)HHO were transferred to unlabeled aqueous medium with indoleacetic acid. We were able to confirm that segments pretreated with (3)HHO plus indoleacetic acid for 60 to 90 minutes can show an enhanced (3)HHO release as compared with minus indoleacetic acid controls. However, this phenomenon appears to be due to an increased uptake of (3)HHO during the prolonged indoleacetic acid pretreatment, and therefore we conclude that auxin does not alter the permeability of pea segments to (3)HHO in either short term or long term tests. We confirm previous reports that the uptake of (3)HHO in pea segments proceeds largely through the cut surfaces, and that the cuticle is a potent barrier to (3)HHO flux.

  8. Tritium behaviour in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenot, J.

    1984-05-01

    Vine grapes and potato seedlings have been exposed in situ to tritiated water vapor and 14 C labeled carbon dioxide. Leaves sampling was done during and after the exposition. Measurements allowed to distinguish the three forms of tritium in leaves, i.e. tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT), in exchangeable position or not. The results lead to a description of the dynamical behaviour of tritium between these three compartments. It has been shown that 20% of organically bound hydrogen is readily exchangeable thus being in permanent isotopic equilibium with tissue free water. Moreover, the activity of nonexchangeable OBT appears to be strongly related to the organic 14 C, which shows that photosynthesis is responsible of tritium incorporation in organic nonexchangeable position, and occurs with a 20% discrimination in favor of protium. In contrast with the other two compartments, this fixation is almost irreversible, which is a fact of importance from a radiological point of view [fr

  9. Search and studying of salt resisting bacteria -destructors of organochlorine pesticides with help of tritium labeled PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Dadakhanov, J.A.; Djumaniyazova, G.I.; Yadgarov, Kh.T.; Zinovev, P.V.; Norbaeva, Kh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Salinization of soils is one of serious problems of agriculture of Uzbekistan. The problem is also aggravated as the salted soils are strongly contaminated with pesticides. We isolated aboriginal active strains of bacteria- destructors of organochlorine compounds from soils contaminated by pesticides (HCCH, DDT, PCBs). We investigated their cultural-morphological and physiological -biochemical properties and determined their taxonomic position. In laboratory experiments the effect of various concentrations of NaCl - 3%-5-7-10-20-30-40-50 % and reproduction of the active strains-destructors was investigated. It was found that the culture number 20 stands the NaCl concentration - up to 3 %, culture number 505 - up to 7 % salt in medium that specifies ability of this culture to survive in the middle salinated soils, cultures number 28 and 33 stand the NaCl concentration up to 30-40 % that characterize their survival rate in strongly salinated soils; the culture number 26 stood the NaCl concentration up to 50 % that characterizes its ability to survive and propagate in brackish soils. With the help of designed radiochemical methods we had been explored ability of the active salt resisting strains of bacteria to utilize and destroy the tritium labeled PCBs. The precise quantity and quality characteristics of the PCB-destructive activity of each investigated strain were received. The salt resisting strains of bacteria having high PCB-destructive activity were determined. At present, investigation on development of the new biological preparation designed for destruction of persistent organochlorine compounds in salted soils are carried out. (author)

  10. Procedure for the preparation of tritium-labelled insulins. Verfahren zur Herstellung von Tritium-markierten Insulinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, M; Haensicke, A; Beyermann, M; Kaufmann, K D; Oehlke, J; Klauschenz, E; Bespalowa, S; Titov, M; Pleiss, U

    1986-12-17

    This invention is concerned with a procedure for the preparation of specific /sup 3/H-labelled insulins with sequences of human, bovine or porcine insulins and without simultaneous chemical modifications of the insulin. On the basis of this procedure a /sup 3/H/sub 2/-Typ (B26)-insulin can be obtained in good yield and purity with a specific radioactivity appropriate to biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic purposes in medicine and pharmaceutical industry, resp.

  11. Preparation of H3-labelled methyl ethers of saturated fatty acids by heterogeneous catalytic isotope exchange in solution with gaseous tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.P.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    A simple method of preparing 3 H-labelled methyl ethers of saturated fatty acids in the dioxane solution using the method of isotopic heterogenous catalytic exchange with gaseous tritium, is suggested. 3 H-labelled natural fatty acids (C 12 -C 18 ) are prepared by alkaline hydrolysis [ru

  12. Estimation of tritium activity in bioassay samples having chemiluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, R.K.; Manu, Kumar; Kumar, Vinay; Soni, Ashish; Kaushik, A.K.; Tiwari, S.K.; Gupta, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    Tritium is recognized as major internal dose contributor in PHWR type of reactors. Estimation of internal dose due to tritium is carried out by analyzing urine samples in liquid scintillation analyzer (LSA). Presence of residual biochemical species in urine samples of some individuals under medical administration shows significant amount of chemiluminescence. If appropriate care is not taken the results obtained by liquid scintillation counter may be mistaken as genuine uptake of tritium. The distillation method described in this paper is used at RAPS-3 and 4 to assess correct tritium uptake. (author)

  13. Automatic isotope gas analysis of tritium labelled organic materials Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacs, I.; Mlinko, S.; Payer, K.; Otvos, L.; Banfi, D.; Palagyi, T.

    1978-01-01

    An isotope analytical procedure and an automatic instrument developed for the determination of tritium in organic compounds and biological materials by internal gas counting are described. The sample is burnt in a stream of oxygen and the combustion products including water vapour carrying the tritium are led onto a column of molecular sieve-5A heated to 550 deg C. Tritium is retained temporarily on the column, then transferred into a stream of hydrogen by isotope exchange. After addition of butane, the tritiated hydrogen is led into an internal detector and enclosed there for radioactivity measurement. The procedure, providing quantitative recovery, is completed in five minutes. It is free of memory effect and suitable for the determination of tritium in a wide range of organic compounds and samples of biological origin. (author)

  14. Synthesis of tritium-labelled (-)-U50,488, a selective kappa opioid agonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurkauf, A.; Costa, B. de; Rice, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    The preparation of 3 H labelled (-)-trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl) cyclohexyl]benzeneacetamide (U50,488) in four steps from N-methylcyclohexylaziridine is described. The synthesis of the pharmacologically active (-) isomer of U50, 488 was accomplished through the resolution of the intermediate 2-[1-(3-pyrrolinyl)]-N-methylcyclohexylamine using (+)-mandelic acid. (Author)

  15. Accounting and Control of Tritium at the Tritium Process Laboratory (TPL) of JAERI - Results of 15-year Operation and Research Activity -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Masataka; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamada, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takumi

    Research and development work of fuel processing technology and tritium safe-handling technology necessary for fusion reactors has been performed at the Tritium Process Laboratory (TPL) of JAERI. TPL is the first facility in Japan permitted to handle tritium of more than 1g (about 0.36PBq), and its operation itself is also important for the development of fusion reactor facility in the viewpoint of tritium control. Various experiments have been carried out at TPL safely since 1988 controlling 22PBq of tritium as the maximum observing regulations. In addition to the regulatory accounting and control, detailed independent control in TPL was planned and was established throughits15-yearsafe-operation. For future fusion fuel facility where kilograms of tritium will be handled, method of tritium accounting has been researched and some new technologies have been developed at TPL. Results of TPL operation and of the research activity in it contributed the completion of the engineering design of ITER. Further research activity on tritium accounting and control is in progress in TPL for the future fusion reactors.

  16. The valley system of the Jihlava river and Mohelno reservoir with enhanced tritium activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simek, P; Kořínková, T; Svetlik, I; Povinec, P P; Fejgl, M; Malátová, I; Tomaskova, L; Stepan, V

    2017-01-01

    The Dukovany nuclear power plant (NPP Dukovany) releases liquid effluents, including HTO, to the Mohelno reservoir, located in a deep valley. Significantly enhanced tritium activities were observed in the form of non-exchangeable organically bound tritium in the surrounding biota which lacks direct contact with the water body. This indicates a tritium uptake by plants from air moisture and haze, which is, besides the uptake by roots from soil, one of the most important mechanisms of tritium transfer from environment to plants. Results of a pilot study based on four sampling campaigns in 2011-2015 are presented and discussed, with the aim to provide new information on tritium transport in the Mohelno reservoir - Jihlava River - plants ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation on the distribution of tritium and carbon-14 in the amino acids of labelled green algae (Scenedesmus Quadricauda ssp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuernberger, E.; Clausen, E.; Kistner, G.

    1982-01-01

    Green algae (Scenedesmus quadricauda ssp. subspicatus), labelled twice tritium and carbon-14, showed an incorporation of nuclides into the cell mass of 0.02% and 95%, respectively. The distribution of radioactivity in the individual amino acids was examined in a protein fraction with special emphasis on the essential amino acids in view of their following incorporation into the next link of the aquatic food chain (Daphnia). The highest values were found in glutamine and asparagine acids as well as in the essential amino acids leucine and arginine, which are amino acids with a relatively high amount of non exchangeable H-positions per molecule and, therefore, a relatively high and stable labelling. (author)

  18. Enzymatic synthesis of tritium-labelled prostaglandin D[sub 2] and its conversion to other prostaglandins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shram, S.I.; Lazurkina, T.Yu.; Shevchenko, V.P.; Nagaev, I.Yu.; Myasoedov, N.F. (AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Molekulyarnoj Genetiki)

    1994-04-01

    The one-stage enzymatic synthesis of tritium-labelled prostaglandin D[sub 2] from labelled arachidonic acid was performed by using the enzyme system PGH-synthetase/PGH-PGD-isomerase. By enzymatic and chemical transformation of [[sup 3]H]PGD[sub 2] the following compounds were obtained: 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-[[sup 3]H]PGD[sub 2], 9[alpha],11[beta]-[[sup 3]H]PGF[sub 2], 9-deoxy-[Delta][sup 9]-[[sup 3]H]-PGD[sub 2] ([[sup 3]H]PGJ[sub 2]) and [Delta][sup 12]-13,14-dihydro-[[sup 3]H]PGJ[sub 2]. It was found that L-selectride is a more effective reducing agent than sodium borohydride in the synthesis of 9[alpha], 11[beta]-[[sup 3]H]PGF[sub 2]. (Author).

  19. Metabolism of tritium- and carbon-14-labeled tiamulin in dogs, rats, and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfuss, J; Singhvi, S M; Shaw, J M; Egli, P; Ross, J J; Czok, R; Nefzger-Biessels, M; Battig, F; Schuster, I; Schmook, F

    1979-05-01

    The metabolism of tiamulin hydrogen fumarate, labeled with 3H, 14C, or both, was studied in dogs, rats, and weanling pigs. After a dose of radiolabeled tiamulin, all three species excreted more radioactivity in feces (via bile) than in urine. Dogs absorbed 86% of a single oral dose of tiamulin-3H, and the disposition of the compound was similar after a single or multiple dosage regimen. The ratio of antimicrobial activity to total radioactivity in dog plasma was only about 0.25, and was still less in dog urine. After dosing with tiamulin-14C, rats and pigs excreted at least 1% of the dose as 14CO2 in expired air. In dual-labeled studies, pigs excreted less total 14C than 3H and had greater residues of 14C than 3H in edible tissues, blood, and plasma. After the administration of tiamulin-14C to pigs, radioactivity was incorporated into liver glycogen, indicating metabolic cleavage of the side chain of tiamulin. Tiamulin-3H is the isotopically-labeled compound of choice for studying metabolism and tissue residues in animals.

  20. General Tritium Labelling of Gentamicin C by catalytic hydrogen exchange Reaction with Tritiated Water; Marcado general con tritio de la Gentamicina C por intercambio catalitico con agua triatiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C; Diaz, D; Paz, D

    1991-07-01

    Gentamicin C was labelled with tritium by means of a PtO2 catalyzed hydrogen exchange reaction. Under the conditions of the exchange (100 mg of gentamicin, basic form, 0,3 ml H2O-3H, and 50 mg of prereduced PtO2) the radiochemical yield was 0,24, 0,38 and 0,48 % at 120 degree celsius, for 8, 16 and 24 hours respectively. Chemical yield for purified gentamicin was about 60 %. Purification was accomplished with a cellulose column eluted with the lower phase of chloroform-methanol 17 % ammonium hydroxide (2:1:1, v/v) . Chemical purity, determined by HPLC, was 96,5 % and radiochemical one was 95. Main exchange degradation products show biological activity. (Author) 12 refs.

  1. Measurement of Tritium Activity in Plants by Ice Extraction Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelled, O.; Ovad, S.; Tubul, Y.; Tsroya, S.; Gonen, R.; Abraham, A.; Weinstein, M.; German, U.

    2014-01-01

    Tritium is produced primarily by interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere. However, nuclear installations may add significantly tritium to the surroundings, increasing its concentration. The main sources of tritium released by man are linked to the nuclear power cycle: nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants or tritium production plants. Tritium is found in the environment mainly as tritiated water, in gaseous or liquid form (HTO, T2O), in the surrounding air and in soil. It accumulates in plants, which may use as a measure to the level of tritium concentration in the environment. The most common routes of tritium uptake from the environment in plants are from atmospheric humidity and by precipitation water which entered the soil. The fraction of tritium bound to the plant tissue is small compared to that present as tritiated water in the plant (from 0.06% to 0.3% for growing crops). The tritiated water uptake is through the roots, as tritiated water from the soil follows a pathway similar to that of ordinary water. As most tritium in plants consists of tritiated water, the measurements of only the tissue free water tritium concentration (as HTO or T2O) gives an accurate estimate of the tritium content in the plant. Analyzing free tritium in biological matrices usually requires using the freeze-drying method to extract the water from the sample, and then measure the water collected in a cold trap with a Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC). The 'freeze-drying' occurs because of the sublimation of the frozen water inside the plant, that takes place when the temperature is beneath the triple point and the vapour pressure is low. In the temperature range of -5° to -10° C the mechanism that plants use to avoid freezing is drawing of water from the cell protoplasm into the intercellular spaces. Changes in cell membrane permeability allow water to leave the cell and enter the spaces between the cells where it freezes instead of freezing within the

  2. Synthesis of deuterium and tritium labelled m-aminolevamisole and levamisole. [Antiparasitic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangster, N.C. (Sydney Univ. (Australia). Dept. of Veterinary Pathology); Lacey, E. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Glebe (Australia). McMaster Lab.); Than, C.; Long, M.A. (New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). School of Chemistry)

    1989-09-01

    Levamisole (LEV) is a widely used anti-parasitic agent. In order to characterise the biochemical pharmacology of LEF in parasitic nematodes, ({sup 3}H)LEV and a more active analogue ({sup 3}H)m-aminolevamisole (MAL) have been prepared. Labelling was accomplished by tritiated water exchange of MAL under acid conditions. Multiple site labelling was achieved in the positions ortho and para to the amino group of MAL. Tritiation of MAL HCl in ({sup 3}H){sub 2}O was achieved at 103{sup o}C for 23 h. Crude ({sup 3}H)MAL was diazotised and deaminated to effect the synthesis of ({sup 3}H)LEV. Products of both reactions were purified by preparative h.p.l.c. and characterised by h.p.l.c., t.l.c. and mass spectrometry. (Radiochemical yield was about 15% and purity >90%.) Specific activities of 39 Ci/mmol for ({sup 3}H)MAL and 37 Ci/mmol for ({sup 3}H)LEV were obtained. (author).

  3. Investigation of tritium incorporation by means of excreted metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, T.; Szilagyi, M.

    1978-01-01

    The commonly accepted urine analysis by liquid scintillation method was applied for whole body dose estimating. After the separation of metabolite fractions the organically bound tritium in urine could be measured. Urine samples from workers repeatedly exposed to tritium incorporation during the chemical processing of various labeled compounds have been collected and analyzed. The time dependence of tritium activity in certain metabolites was found to be characteristic, significantly differing from the 3 H concentration curve of the native or treated urine sample. (Auth.)

  4. Tritium ( 3 H) Retention In Mice: Administered As HTO, DTO or as 3 H-Labeled Amino-Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Nicholas D; Blimkie, Melinda S J; Wyatt, Heather; Bugden, Michelle; Bannister, Laura A; Gueguen, Yann; Jourdain, Jean-Rene; Klokov, Dmitry

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the biokinetics of injected H-labeled light (HTO) and heavy (DTO) water in CBA/CaJ mice and to compare the organ distribution and/or body content of H administered by chronic ingestion for 1 mo to C57Bl/6J mice, as either H-labeled water or H-labeled amino acids (glycine, alanine and proline). HTO and DTO were administered to CBA/CaJ mice by single intraperitoneal injection and body retention was determined for up to 384 h post-injection. Tritium-labeled water or H-labeled amino acids were given to C57Bl/6J mice ad libitum for 30 d in drinking water. Body content and organ distribution of H during the period of administration and subsequent to administration was determined by liquid scintillation counting. No differences were found between the biokinetics of HTO and DTO, indicating that data generated using HTO can be used to help assess the consequences of H releases from heavy water reactors. The results for H-water showed that the concentration of radionuclide in the mice reached a peak after about 10 d and dropped rapidly after the cessation of H administration. The maximum concentration reached was only 50% of that in the water consumed, indicating that mice receive a significant fraction of their water from respiration. Contrary to the findings of others, the pattern of H retention following the administration of a cocktail of the labeled amino acids was very little different from that found for the water. This is consistent with the suggestion that most of the ingested amino acids were rapidly metabolized, releasing water and carbon dioxide.

  5. On the detection of chemical reactions in the systems containing tritium and luminescent labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnyanskij, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Features of detecting chemical processes in scintillation systems containing tritium, are considered on the base of a model, connecting the counting rate with the mass of cenverted substance. It is shown that the character of the cunting rate dependence on the mass of the converted phase is determined by the spatial distribution of scintillating and radioactive phases in microheterogeneous systems. Calculation results can be used for designing sensor elements, based on radionuclide luminescent probe

  6. Synthesis of multidrug resistance modulator LY335979 labeled with deuterium and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czeskis, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    DIDEUTERO AND DITRITIOISOTOPOMERS OF THE MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE MODULATOR LY335979 WERE PREPARED BY INITIAL BROMINATION OF 5-HYDROXYQUINOLINE UNDER ACIDIC CONDITIONS FOLLOWED BY MITSUNOBU COUPLING OF 6,8-DIBROMO-5-HYDROXYQUINOLINE WITH (S)-GLYCIDOL. OPENING OF THE RESULTING EPOXIDE WITH DIBENZOSUBERYLPIPERAZINE LY335995 RESULTED IN DIBROMOANALOG OF LY335979, WHICH WAS FINALLY REDUCTIVELY DEBROMINATED WITH DEUTERIUM OR TRITIUM IN THE PRESENCE OF PALLADIUM ON CARBON. (AUTHOR)

  7. On the labelling of insuline and insuline derivatives with tritium and carbon-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uschkoreit, J.

    1979-01-01

    Two different labelling methods were investigated. By means of the Wilzbach labelling with diaminosuberoylinsuline the insuline is irreversibly altered. As a second method the reductive methylation was used, in doing so it was possible to distinguish between mono and dimethylated parts of the reaction product by using C-14 labelled formaldehyde. Furthermore four N,N-dimethylated insuline derivatives were isolated with yields of 25 until 35%. By using C-14 and h-3 labelled reagents insuline can be labelled doubly. Moreover N-terminal amino groups could be protected irreversibly with this method. Furthermore structure-function investigations and investigations concerning the insuline metabolism were done. (SPI) [de

  8. Water quality - Determination of tritium activity concentration - Liquid scintillation counting method (International Standard Publication ISO 9698:1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    1999-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of tritiated water ([ 3 H]H 2 O) activity concentration in water by liquid scintillation counting. The method is applicable to all types of water including seawater with tritium activity concentrations of up to 10 6 Bq/m 3 when using 20 ml counting vials. Below tritium activity concentrations of about 5 x 10 4 Bq/m 3[ 8], a prior enrichment step and/or the measurement of larger sample volumes can significantly improve the accuracy of the determination and lower the limit of detection. Tritium activity concentrations higher than 10 6 Bq/m 3 may be determined after appropriate dilution with distilled water of proven low tritium content. An alternative method for the determination of these higher activities involves increasing the tritium activity concentrations of the internal standard solution. The method is not applicable to the analysis of organically bound tritium; its determination requires an oxidative digestion

  9. Use of flow scintillation analyzer combined with amino acid analyzer for measuring low-level radioactivity of tritium-labelled amino acids

    CERN Document Server

    Lukashina, E V; Fedoseev, V M; Ksenofontov, A L; Baratova, L A; Dobrov, E N

    2002-01-01

    Potential application of the Radiomatic 150TR Flow Scintillation Analyzer (Packard Instrument Co., USA) for measuring low radioactivity of tritium-labelled amino acids in eluate from the Amino Acid Analyzer 835 (Hitachi, Japan) was studied. Six scintillating cocktails were tested and the Hionic-Fluor and Ultima-Flo AP cocktails proved the most appropriate for flow measurement of radioactivity. Efficiency of tritium radioactivity recording under various conditions of analysis was determined. Under optimal conditions the lower detection limit for the Hionic-Fluor was 150, while for Ultima-Flo AP-100 decays/min in the peak of amino acid

  10. Determination of the radiochemical purity of phosphorus-32 and tritium-labeled diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, R.E.; Sheppard, G.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of the radiochemical purity of labeled diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP), based on the irreversible inhibition reaction with the enzyme α-chymotrypsin. The nature of the impurities in commercially available 32 P- and 3 H-labeled DFP is discussed

  11. Biological effects of tritium releases from fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Thompson, R.C.

    1976-09-01

    Tritium released as tritium oxide is a much more significant potential hazard to the environment than is elemental tritium. Although most biochemical reactions discriminate against the incorporation of tritium in favor of hydrogen, the possibility of some concentration should not be overlooked. A fraction of tritium accumulated as tritiated water becomes organically bound, that is, exchanges with hydrogen bound in organic molecules. The rate and extent of incorporation are dependent upon metabolic activity of the organism. On this basis, the highest concentration of organically-bound tritium would be expected in tissues and population segments which are in formative or growth stages at the time of exposure. Furthermore, as exposure duration increases from acute to chronic situations, tritium concentrations are shown to approach equilibrium levels with a single tritium-to-hydrogen ratio common to all parts of the hydrogen pool. Organic binding would not be expected to result in significant bioaccumulation of tritium from tritiated water. Tritium loss, both from tissue-free water and the tissue-bound fraction, depends upon metabolic activity. Processes that allow accumulation and incorporation of tritium also assist its elimination. Tritium which is organically bound demonstrates a longer half-time, but it would appear to constitute a small fraction of the total tritium label. The radiation exposure of all living organisms by environmentally dispersed tritium, in whatever form, is essentially a whole body exposure. Uncertainties in the individual parameters, involved in converting measured intake to estimated dose equivalent are probably no larger than a factor of three or four. If fusion reactors hold tritium releases with ICRP standards, no significant adverse impact to the environment from those releases are expected

  12. Estimation of tritium radiotracer activity for interconnection study in geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasi Prasetio; Satrio

    2016-01-01

    Tritium radiotracer (3H) has been applied widely in many geothermal fields around the world. This application was done by injecting radiotracer with certain amount of activity into reinjection well in order to investigate interconnection between reinjection well with surrounding production wells. The activity of injected radiotracer must meets the field condition and the volume of reservoir, detection limit of instrument, as well as safety aspect for the workers and environment from radioactive hazard. The planning of injection process must consider the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) and minimum detection limit (MDL). Based on calculation, tritium radiotracer injection in Kamojang geothermal field can be done with minimal activity of 0.15 Ci and maximum 22100 Ci, while in Lahendong field minimum activity of 0.65 Ci and maximum 7230 Ci. In these two injection studies, tritium was detected in monitoring wells between MDL and MPC limit. By using this estimation calculation, the activity of tritium that released into the environment within safety limit, thus monitoring wells with undetectable tritium infer no connectivity between those wells with reinjection well. (author)

  13. The tritium labeling of Butibufen by heterogeneous catalytic exchange; Marcado del Butibufen con Tritio por inter- cambio catalitico en disolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamaria, J; Rebollo, D

    1986-07-01

    The labeling of a new non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent, Butibufen (2-(4-isobutylphenyl) butyric acid) was studied. The method used was heterogeneous catalytic exchange between Butibufen and tritiated water, obtained in situ. Purification was accomplished through thin layer chromatography. Concentration, purity and specific activity of the labeled drug were determined by ultraviolet and liquid scintillation techniques. (Author) 7 refs.

  14. Tritium Labelling by Means of Uranium Hydride; Marquage au Tritium au Moyen d'Hydrure d'Uranium; 0414 0435 0447 ; Marcacion con Tritio por Medio de Hidruro de Uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felter, R. E.; Currie, L. A. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    1962-02-15

    A new and efficient method for introducing tritium into organic molecules has been observed. Labelling is accomplished by exposure of the organic vapour to heated uranium tritide. In experiments with n-pentane and with ethylene, the principal labelled products were the tritiated parent molecules. The rates of tritium incorporation varied from about 0.2 to 10.0% (of initial tritium) per hour. The mechanism of the reaction has been demonstrated to be not a result of radiation chemistry, but rather a direct reaction of hydrogen atoms from the surface with the hydrocarbon. In addition to the rapid labelling with a significant fraction of the tritium present, the method has another unique advantage : tritium which has not reacted with the organic vapour may be removed from the gas phase simply by cooling the reaction vessel to room temperature. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont mis au point une methode nouvelle et efficace pour introduire le tritium dans les molecules de substances organiques. Le marquage est realise par exposition de la substance organique sous forme de vapeur au tritide Bullet d'uranium chauffe. Dans des experiences avec le n-pe.ntane et l'ethylene, les principaux produits marques ont ete les molecules meres tritiees. Le taux d'incorporation du tritium a varie d'environ 0,2 a 10% (de la quantite initiale de tritium) par heure. On a demontre que le mecanisme de la reaction n'est pas un effet de la chimie des rayonnements, mais plutot une reaction directe des atomes d'hydrogene de la surface avec l'hydrocarbure. Outre qu'une partie importante du tritium utilise reagit rapidement, la methode presente un avantage exceptionnel : on peut aisement separer le tritium qui n'a pas reagi de la substance organique, Bullet en ramenant simplement a la temperature ambiante le recipient dans lequel la reaction a eu lieu. (author) [Spanish] La memoria describe un nuevo procedimiento muy eficaz para introducir tritio en moleculas organicas. La marcacion se consigue

  15. Synthesis of tritium-labelled isopenicillin N, penicillin N and 6-aminopenicillanic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.J.; Loder, B.; Abraham, E.P.

    1975-01-01

    1. Phenoxymethylpenicillin sulphoxide 4-methoxybenzyl ester was labelled with 3 H in its 2-β-methyl group. Its specific radioactivity was 362mCi/mmol. 2. Removal of the side chain of this compound yielded the corresponding ester of 6-aminopenicillanic acid sulphoxide and coupling of the latter with the appropriate protected α-aminoadipic acid gave 4-methoxybenzyloxycarbonylisopenicillin N sulphoxide di-4-methoxybenzyl ester or the corresponding derivative of penicillin N. 3. Removal of the protective groups by hydrogenolysis and reduction of the sulphoxide group yielded 3 H-labelled isopenicillin N or penicillin N. 4. 3 H-labelled phenoxymethylpenicillin sulphoxide was obtained by hydrogenolysis from its 4-methoxybenzyl ester. Reducton of its sulphoxide group and subsequent removal of the side chain gave 3 H-labelled 6-aminopenicillanic acid. (author)

  16. Activation analysis of tritium breeder lithium lead irradiated by fusion neutrons in FDS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingliang Chen

    2006-01-01

    R-and-D of fusion materials, especially their activation characteristics, is one of the key issues for fusion research in the world. Research on activation characteristics for low activation materials, such as reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, vanadium alloys and SiCf/SiC composites, is being done throughout the world to ensure the attractiveness of fusion power regarding safety and environmental aspects. However, there is less research on the activation characteristics of the other important fusion materials, such as tritium breeder etc.. Lithium lead (Li 17 Pb 83 ) is presently considered as a primary candidate tritium breeder for fusion power reactors because of its attractive characteristics. It can serve as a tritium breeder, neutron multiplier and coolant in the blanket at the same time. The radioactivity of Li 17 Pb 83 by D-T fusion neutrons in FDS-II has been calculated and analyzed. FDS-II is a concept design of fusion power reactor, which consists of fusion core with advanced plasma parameters extrapolated from the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and two candidates of liquid lithium breeder blankets (named SLL and DLL blankets). The neutron transport and activation calculation are carried out based on the one-dimensional model for FDS-II with the home-developed multi-functional code system VisualBUS and the multi-group data library HENDL1.0/MG and European Activation File EAF-99. The effects of irradiation time on the activation characteristics of Li 17 Pb 83 were analyzed and it concludes that the irradiation time has an important effect on the activation level of Li 17 Pb 83 . Furthermore, the results were compared with the activation levels of other tritium breeders, such as Li 4 SiO 4 , Li 2 TiO 3 , Li 2 O and Li etc., under the same irradiation conditions. The dominant nuclides to dose rate and activity of Li 17 Pb 83 were analyzed as well. Tritium generated by Li has a great contribution to the afterheat and

  17. Position sensitive proportional counter for measurement of tritium labelled gas movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Chizuo; Nakamoto, Makihiko; Uritani, Akira; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1984-01-01

    A position sensitive proportional counter of a charge division type with a single resistive anode wire was constructed for the measurement of the movement of 3 H labelled gas which is flowing or diffusing in a pipe. The introduction of resistors between the anode wire and pre-amplifiers brought a uniform detection efficiency for 3 H β-rays throughout the counter. The position resolution was 3.1 mm FWHM. Detection efficiency was almost 100% uniformly over about 700 mm in the total anode length of 740 mm. The movement of 3 H labelled gas could be measured effectively. (author)

  18. The JET gas baking plant for DT operation and analysis of tritium permeation and baking gas activation in DTE1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, R.J.H.; Andrew, P.; Bryan, S.; Hemmrich, J.L. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    The JET gas baking plant allows the vacuum vessel to be heated for conditioning and plasma operations. The vessel was maintained at 320 deg. C for the JET DT experiments (DTE 1). The design of the plant is outlined with particular reference to the features to provide compatibility with tritium operations. The experience of baking gas activation and tritium permeation into the plant are given, Developmentsto reduce the tritium permeation out of the vessel are considered. (authors)

  19. Results of dose calculations for NET accidental and normal operation releases of tritium and activation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Hasemann, I.

    1992-08-01

    This report documents conditions, data and results of dose calculations for accidental and normal operation releases of tritium and activation products, performed within the NET subtask SEP2.2 ('NET-Benchmark') of the European Fusion Technology Programme. For accidental releases, the computer codes UFOTRI and COSYMA for assessing the radiological consequences, have been applied for both deterministic and probabilistic calculations. The influence on dose estimates of different release times (2 minutes / 1 hour), two release heights (10 m / 150 m), two chemical forms of tritium (HT/HTO), and two different model approaches for the deposition velocity of HTO on soil was investigated. The dose calculations for normal operation effluents were performed using the tritium model of the German regulatory guidelines, parts of the advanced dose assessment model NORMTRI still under development, and the statistical atmospheric dispersion model ISOLA. Accidental and normal operation source terms were defined as follows: 10g (3.7 10 15 Bq) for accidental tritium releases, 10 Ci/day (3.7 10 11 Bq/day) for tritium releases during normal operation and unit releases of 10 9 Bq for accidental releases of activation products and fission products. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Preparation of tritium- or deuterium-labeled vitamin D analogs by a convenient general method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paaren, H.E.; Fivizzani, M.A.; Schnoes, H.K.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    The three-step conversion of vitamin D analogs to 6-oxo-3,5-cyclovitamin D derivatives followed by reduction with a tritide or deuteride reagent and subsequent cycloreversion gives 6-tritio(deutero)vitamin D derivatives and corresponding 5,6-trans-analogs. The method is general and affords the 6-labeled-vitamin D analogs in approx. =20% overall yield

  1. Experimental study of the tritium uptake in mammal tissues and DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejeune, P.; Lambotte, J.M.; Lafontaine, A.

    1975-01-01

    The authors study the tritium-labelling of ADN in rabbits who receive the tritium as HTO in their drinking water during periods of one to three months. On the basis of the MPC for tritium (according to the belgian legislation, 30 μCi/l in drinking water of occupational workers for 168 h/week exposure) it is stated that for rabbits, this value of continuous impregnation by drinking water must be exceeded by a factor 100 to observe a measurable tritium activity in the ADN, isolated from tissue with fast turnover rate, such as bone marrow. The structural molecules proteins, lipids and carbon hydrates of different organs are labelled with tritium at 5 MPC, th lowest examined concentration. These statements do not evaluate whether the observed phenomenon of tritium labelling is hazardous or not, but rather tend to establish an order of magnitude

  2. The Tritium White Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This publication proposes a synthesis of the activities of two work-groups between May 2008 and April 2010. It reports the ASN's (the French Agency for Nuclear Safety) point of view, describes its activities and actions, and gives some recommendations. It gives a large and detailed overview of the knowledge status on tritium: tritium source inventory, tritium origin, management processes, capture techniques, reduction, tritium metrology, impact on the environment, impacts on human beings

  3. Preparation of labelled antituberculotics for clarifying specific problems in therapy optimization. 1. Preparation of tritiated isoniazid and injectable solutions, investigation of the stability of labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winsel, K.; Iwainsky, H. (Forschungsinstitut fuer Lungenkrankheiten und Tuberkulose, Berlin-Buch (German Democratic Republic)); Mittag, E.; Kiessling, M. (Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung, Rossendorf bei Dresden (German Democratic Republic)); Koehler, H. (Zentralklinik fuer Herz- und Lungenkrankheiten, Bad Berka (German Democratic Republic))

    1985-09-01

    The preparation of tritium labelled isoniazid according to the Wilzbach method and by catalytic exchange is described. The purified labelled isoniazid is adjusted to an activity of 37 MBq/300 mg isoniazid. It meets the requirements for an injectable pharmaceutical. The tritium labelling is stable under in vitro conditions and in the macroorganism.

  4. SHINE Tritium Nozzle Design: Activity 6, Task 1 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okhuysen, Brett S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pulliam, Elias Noel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-05

    In FY14, we studied the qualitative and quantitative behavior of a SHINE/PNL tritium nozzle under varying operating conditions. The result is an understanding of the nozzle’s performance in terms of important flow features that manifest themselves under different parametric profiles. In FY15, we will consider nozzle design with a focus on nozzle geometry and integration. From FY14 work, we will understand how the SHINE/PNL nozzle behaves under different operating scenarios. The first task for FY15 is to evaluate the FY14 model as a predictor of the actual flow. Considering different geometries is more time-intensive than parameter studies, therefore we recommend considering any relevant flow features that were not included in the FY14 model. In the absence of experimental data, it is particularly important to consider any sources of heat in the domain or boundary conditions that may affect the flow and incorporate these into the simulation if they are significant. Additionally, any geometric features of the beamline segment should be added to the model such as the orifice plate. The FY14 model works with hydrogen. An improvement that can be made for FY15 is to develop CFD properties for tritium and incorporate those properties into the new models.

  5. Incorporation of tritium in milk lipids after feeding organically bound tritium to cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochalska, M.; Hoek, J. van den

    1982-01-01

    Hay labelled with organically bound tritium was given to two cows for a period of 26 to 28 days. During hay feeding and at different times thereafter, lipids (fatty acids, cholesterol, glycerol, choline phospholipids, other phospholipids, flycolipids and gangliosides) were isolated from milk fat, and their total and specific activities were determined. During tritium administration, fatty acids and cholesterol contained the highest total activity, but the specific activity was highest in cholesterol and choline phospholipids. Activity decreased most rapidly for fatty acids and cholesterol, so that at 56 and 182 days after termination of 3 H feedings, phospholipids and glycolipids made an important contribution to lipid activity in milk. Regression analysis of the values for tritium activity in milk fat samples after stopping tritium administration, showed that three components with different half lives could be distinguished. The differences in metabolic behaviour of the various lipids in milk fat are mainly concerned with their relative participation in these components. (author)

  6. Review of recent japanese activities on tritium accountability in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Satoshi; Oya, Yasuhisa; Hatano, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of Japanese tritium-safety research is given from several viewpoints. • The keywords are tritium accountability and self sufficiency. • Tritium-relating history, tritium facilities and legal regulation are introduced. - Abstract: After introduction of Japanese history or recent topics on tritium (T)-relating research and T-handling capacity in facilities or universities, present activities on T engineering research in Japan are summarized in short in terms of T accountability on safety. The term of safety includes wide processes from T production, assay, storing, confinement, transfer through safety handling finally to shipment of its waste. In order to achieve reliable operation of fusion reactors, several unit processes included in the T cycle of fusion reactors are investigated. Especially, the following recent advances are focused: T retention in plasma facing materials, emergency detritiation system including fire case, T leak through metal tube walls, oxide coating and water detritiation. Strict control, storing and accurate measurement are especially demanded for T accountability depending on various molecular species. Since kg-order T of vaporable radioisotope (RI) will be handled in a fuel cycle or breeding system of a fusion reactor, the accuracy of <0.1% is demanded far over the conventional technology status. Necessity to control T balance within legal restrictions is always kept in mind for operation of the future reactor.

  7. Review of recent japanese activities on tritium accountability in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukada, Satoshi, E-mail: sfukada@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Dept. Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga, 816-8580 (Japan); Oya, Yasuhisa [College of Science, Academic Institute, Shizuoka University, 836 Otani, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Hatano, Yuji [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, Organization for Promotion Research, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Review of Japanese tritium-safety research is given from several viewpoints. • The keywords are tritium accountability and self sufficiency. • Tritium-relating history, tritium facilities and legal regulation are introduced. - Abstract: After introduction of Japanese history or recent topics on tritium (T)-relating research and T-handling capacity in facilities or universities, present activities on T engineering research in Japan are summarized in short in terms of T accountability on safety. The term of safety includes wide processes from T production, assay, storing, confinement, transfer through safety handling finally to shipment of its waste. In order to achieve reliable operation of fusion reactors, several unit processes included in the T cycle of fusion reactors are investigated. Especially, the following recent advances are focused: T retention in plasma facing materials, emergency detritiation system including fire case, T leak through metal tube walls, oxide coating and water detritiation. Strict control, storing and accurate measurement are especially demanded for T accountability depending on various molecular species. Since kg-order T of vaporable radioisotope (RI) will be handled in a fuel cycle or breeding system of a fusion reactor, the accuracy of <0.1% is demanded far over the conventional technology status. Necessity to control T balance within legal restrictions is always kept in mind for operation of the future reactor.

  8. Techniques for tritium recovery from carbon flakes and dust at the JET active gas handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenhagen, S.; Perevezentsev, A.; Brennan, P. D.; Camp, P.; Knipe, S.; Miller, A.; Yorkshades, J.

    2008-01-01

    Detritiation of highly tritium contaminated carbon and metal material used as first wall armour is a key issue for fusion machines like JET and ITER. Re-deposited carbon and hydrogen in the form of flakes and dust can lead to a build-up of the tritium inventory and therefore this material must be removed and processed. The high tritium concentration of the flake and dust material collected from the JET vacuum vessel makes it unsuitable for direct waste disposal without detritiation. A dedicated facility to process the tritiated carbon flake material and recover the tritium has been designed and built. In several test runs active material was successfully processed and de-tritiated in the new facility. Samples containing only carbon and hydrogen isotopes have been completely oxidized without any residue. Samples containing metallic impurities, e.g. beryllium, require longer processing times, adjusted processing parameters and yield an oxide residue. The detritiation factor was 2x10 4 . In order to simulate in-vessel and ex-vessel detritiation techniques, the detritiation of a carbon flake sample by isotopic exchange in a hydrogen atmosphere was investigated. 2.8% of tritium was recovered by this means. (authors)

  9. Health Physics aspects of the use of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, E.B.M.

    1982-01-01

    The health physics aspects of the use of tritium in university laboratories and similar establishments are considered. These aspects include discussion on the behaviour and hazards of tritium in the body, derived limits for contamination, monitoring methods, designation of workers, medical and dosimetric supervision, classification of laboratories, safety precautions, accidents and decontamination, and waste disposal. The radiation hazards from some special uses of tritium, e.g. tritium foil sources, luminous devices, gaseous light sources, are also considered. It was concluded that little harm is likely to come from careful handling of tritium labelled compounds at the millicurie level in a research laboratory. It would, however, be most unwise to be complacent about the use of tritium at the curie level, particularly when high specific activities, organic compounds and chronic exposure over long periods are involved. (U.K.)

  10. Tritium activity concentration along the Western shore of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmen Varlam; Faurescu, I.; Irina Vagner; Denisa Faurescu; Patrascu, V.; Margineanu, R.M.; Duliu, O.G.

    2013-01-01

    The Black Sea tritium level was investigated in 33 places southward the Danube Delta covering about 360 km of the Black Sea Western Shore. Both surface (10 cm depth) and bottom (up to 20 m depth) water samples were collected. In the close vicinity of Danube Delta, the tritium activity concentration in the surface water was around 28 TU, which is almost the same as that of the Danube River waters, but it decreased to about 5 TU in the bottom water. This discrepancy slowly diminished wherein at about 120 km southward, the tritium content in both surface and bottom water reached almost the same constant value of 6.5 ± 2.3 TU. This value, about two and a half times smaller than that reported 17 years ago, remained almost unchanged for the last 240 km of shore up to the Turkish border. (author)

  11. Status of advanced tritium breeder development for DEMO in the broader approach activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Oikawa, Fumiaki; Nishitani, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    DEMO reactors require ' 6 Li-enriched ceramic tritium breeders' which have high tritium breeding ratios (TBRs) in the blanket designs of both EU and JA. Both parties have been promoting the development of fabrication technologies of Li 2 TiO 3 pebbles and of Li 4 SiO 4 pebbles including the reprocessing. However, the fabrication techniques of tritium breeders pebbles have not been established for large quantities. Therefore, these parties launch a collaborative project on scaleable and reliable production routes of advanced tritium breeders. In addition, this project aims to develop fabrication techniques allowing effective reprocessing of 6 Li. The development of the production and 6 Li reprocessing techniques includes preliminary fabrication tests of breeder pebbles, reprocessing of lithium, and suitable out-of-pile characterizations. The R and D on the fabrication technologies of the advanced tritium breeders and the characterization of developed materials has been started between the EU and Japan in the DEMO R and D of the International Fusion Energy Research Centre (IFERC) project as a part of the Broader Approach activities from 2007 to 2016. The equipment for production of advanced breeder pebbles is planned will be installed in the DEMO R and D building at Rokkasho, Japan. The design work in this facility was carried out. The specifications of the pebble production apparatuses and related equipment in this facility were fixed, and the basic data of these apparatuses was obtained. In this design work, the preliminary investigations of the dissolution and purification process of tritium breeders were carried out. From the results of the preliminary investigations, lithium resources of 90% above were recovered by the aqueous dissolving methods using HNO 3 and H 2 O 2 . The removal efficiency of 60 Co by the addition in the dissolved solutions of lithium ceramics were 97-99.9% above using activated carbon impregnated with 8-hydroxyquinolinol. In this report

  12. Direct measurement of tritium production rate in LiPb with removed parasitic activities: Preliminary experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuc, Tadeusz, E-mail: kuc@agh.edu.pl; Pohorecki, Władysław; Ostachowicz, Beata

    2014-10-15

    Liquid scintillation (LS) technique applied to direct measurement of tritium activity produced in LiPb eutectic in Frascati HCLL TBM mock-up neutronic experiment has been tested so far in the case of LS measurement after long period since irradiation. LiPb samples irradiated in neutron filed show, except of tritium, meaningful activity of other radioisotopes (parasitic). Parasitic activity, mainly from isotopes of lead ({sup 209}Pb, {sup 204m}Pb, {sup 203}Pb) calculated with the use of FISPACT, exceeds ca 5 times tritium activity 1.4 h after irradiation. We propose to remove disturbing radioisotopes in a chemical way to avoid long “cooling” of the irradiated samples before tritium measurement. Samples (1 g of LiPb) irradiated in reactor fast neutron flux were diluted and metallic cations removed by chemical precipitation. For this purpose we used: potassium iodide (KJ), strontium chloride (SrCl{sub 2}), APDC (C{sub 5}H{sub 8}NS{sub 2}·NH{sub 4}), NaDDTC (C{sub 5}H{sub 10}NNaS{sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O), and PAN (C{sub 15}H{sub 11}N{sub 3}O). Precipitation procedure in each case lasted ca 5–25 min, and the following filtration next 10–20 min. In each filtrate (ca 120 ml) we measured Pb concentration in total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analyzer and parasitic activity (left after 21-day “cooling”) applying HPGe gamma spectrometer. Pb cations precipitated by SrCl{sub 2} and than by PAN lowered activity of Pb isotopes to less than 1% of the initial tritium activity. Another combination of reagents: NaDDTC followed by SrCl{sub 2} in a single and double step filtration reduced Pb concentration 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4} times, respectively. Reduction of this order allows tritium radiometric measurement ca 3 h after irradiation with acceptable accuracy. This time can be shortened by applying correction for decay of known parasitic activity. Input of {sup 76}As and other less abundant radioisotopes can be eliminated using high purity LiPb. Tritium activity of

  13. Tritium-v. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Several bibliographical references about tritium are shown. The following aspects are presented: properties, analysis, monitoring, dosimetry reactions, labelling, industrial production, radiological protection, applications to science, technology and industry and some processes to obtain the element. (E.G.) [pt

  14. Preparation of labelled antituberculotics for clarifying specific problems in therapy optimization. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsel, K.; Iwainsky, H.; Mittag, E.; Kiessling, M.; Koehler, H.

    1985-01-01

    The preparation of tritium labelled isoniazid according to the Wilzbach method and by catalytic exchange is described. The purified labelled isoniazid is adjusted to an activity of 37 MBq/300 mg isoniazid. It meets the requirements for an injectable pharmaceutical. The tritium labelling is stable under in vitro conditions and in the macroorganism. (author)

  15. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.

    1976-01-01

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  16. Tritium-labeled (E,E)-2,5-Bis(4’-hydroxy-3’-carboxystyryl)benzene as a Probe for β-Amyloid Fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, Sergey V.; Kwiatkowski, Stefan; Sviripa, Vitaliy M.; Fazio, Robert C.; Watt, David S.; LeVine, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of Aβ in the brains of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients reflects an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance from their brains. Alternative cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by processing proteases generates soluble APP fragments including the neurotoxic amyloid Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides that assemble into fibrils and form plaques. Plaque-buildup occurs over an extended time-frame, and the early detection and modulation of plaque formation are areas of active research. Radiolabeled probes for the detection of amyloid plaques and fibrils in living subjects are important for noninvasive evaluation of AD diagnosis, progression, and differentiation of AD from other neurodegenerative diseases and age-related cognitive decline. Tritium-labeled (E,E)-1-[3H]-2,5-bis(4’-hydroxy-3’-carbomethoxystyryl)benzene possesses an improved level of chemical stability relative to a previously reported radioiodinated analog for radiometric quantification of Aβ plaque and tau pathology in brain tissue and in vitro studies with synthetic Aβ and tau fibrils. PMID:25452000

  17. Tritium-labeled (E,E)-2,5-bis(4'-hydroxy-3'-carboxystyryl)benzene as a probe for β-amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, Sergey V; Kwiatkowski, Stefan; Sviripa, Vitaliy M; Fazio, Robert C; Watt, David S; LeVine, Harry

    2014-12-01

    Accumulation of Aβ in the brains of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients reflects an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance from their brains. Alternative cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by processing proteases generates soluble APP fragments including the neurotoxic amyloid Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides that assemble into fibrils and form plaques. Plaque-buildup occurs over an extended time-frame, and the early detection and modulation of plaque formation are areas of active research. Radiolabeled probes for the detection of amyloid plaques and fibrils in living subjects are important for noninvasive evaluation of AD diagnosis, progression, and differentiation of AD from other neurodegenerative diseases and age-related cognitive decline. Tritium-labeled (E,E)-1-[(3)H]-2,5-bis(4'-hydroxy-3'-carbomethoxystyryl)benzene possesses an improved level of chemical stability relative to a previously reported radioiodinated analog for radiometric quantification of Aβ plaque and tau pathology in brain tissue and in vitro studies with synthetic Aβ and tau fibrils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Change in activity of catalysts for the oxidation of tritium during a fire event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Sato, Katsumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We experimentally demonstrated the influence of produced gases from burned low-halogen cable on the activity of catalysts for tritium oxidation. ► At 423 K, no considerable decrease in catalytic activity was observed. ► At 293 K, considerable increase in catalytic activity was initially observed due to the effect of produced hydrogen. Then the temporary decrease was observed due mainly to the effect of produced moisture, however the activity was gradually recovered. - Abstract: The catalytic performance should be maintained in any off normal events. Fire accident is the typical off normal event. In the fusion plant, typical combustibles are evaluated to be polymeric low-halogen cables. Produced gases from burned low-halogen cable may affect the activity of catalysts for the oxidation of tritium. We experimentally demonstrated the influence of produced gases from burned low-halogen cable on the activity of catalyst using tritium gas. Our evaluation showed that ethylene, methane and benzene were major produced gases. The activity of catalysts for the oxidation of tritium during a fire event was evaluated using a commercial hydrophilic Pt/Al 2 O 3 catalyst and a commercial hydrophobic Pt-catalyst. The temperature of catalytic reactor was selected to be 423 and 293 K. At 423 K, no considerable decrease in catalytic activity was observed for both catalysts even in the presence of produced gases from burned low-halogen cable. At 293 K, considerable increase in catalytic activity was initially observed for both catalysts due to the effect of produced hydrogen. Then the temporary decrease was observed, however the catalytic activity was gradually recovered to be the original activity. Consequently, the irreversible decrease in activity of the catalysts during a fire event was not observed.

  19. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmings, R.L. [Canatom NPM (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  20. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmings, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  1. Synthesis and characterization of tritium labeled N-((R)-1-((S)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-3,3-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl)-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-3-sulfamoylbenzamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Hynes, John; Tian, Yuan; Balasubramanian, Balu; Bonacorsi, Samuel

    2015-08-01

    N-((R)-1-((S)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-3,3-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl)-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-3-sulfamoylbenzamide is a potent C-C chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) antagonist. The compound, possessing benzamide functionality, successfully underwent tritium/hydrogen (T/H) exchange with an organoiridium catalyst (Crabtree's catalyst). The labeling pattern in the product was studied with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and (3) H-NMR. Overall, multiple labeled species were identified. In addition to the anticipated incorporation of tritium in the benzamide moiety, tritium labeling was observed in the valine portion of the molecule including substitution at its chiral carbon. Using authentic standards, liquid chromatography analysis of the labeled compound showed complete retention of stereochemical configuration. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of the efficiency of Pd/H2 -catalyzed benzylic H/D exchange of dehydroabietinal with D(2) O and synthesis of a tritium-labeled analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petros, Robby A; Shah, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Dehydroabietinal (DA) has been identified as an important signaling molecule in systemic acquired resistance in plants. Deuterium and tritium-labeled DA were synthesized to confirm its role in signaling and to further elucidate the mechanism by which DA induces systemic acquired resistance. Pd/H2 -catalyzed exchange of benzylic hydrogen atoms of DA with (2) H-H2 O or (3) H-H2 O was conducted with >97% label incorporation for (2) H-DA and a specific activity of 12.6 mCi/mmol for (3) H-DA synthesized from 90 mCi/mmol (3) H-H2 O. The extent of deuterium labeling at each benzylic position was determined via an inverse-gated (13) C NMR experiment. C7 and C15 were 87% and 81% labeled, respectively. Isotope-induced chemical shift changes at C6 were used to approximate the amount of singly (66%) and doubly (17%) labeled (2) H-DA at C7. Results also indicated that two of the three benzylic protons in DA underwent facile exchange. Exchange at the remaining position was likely hampered by steric interactions of nearby methyl groups at the surface of the Pd catalyst. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Determination of Groundwater Flows Pattern in Surakarta Region Using the Activity Ratio of Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisjachudin Faisal; Agus Sulistyono; Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri; Budi Legowo

    2002-01-01

    Tritium activity analysis on groundwater samples has been carried out at 13 different locations in Surakarta regency in order to determine the groundwater flow pattern. Tritium activity in the groundwater is measured by LSC (Liquid Scintillation Counter) Tri-Carb 2700TR Measurement of the optimum activity is done on sample volume ratio with cocktail 7.4 : 12.6 in operation 0.5 - 4.5 keV. The highest result fulfilled in the location of Lor In Hotel for 1566 dpm and the lowest is in the location of Kadipiro for 0.03 dpm. Those data have shown that groundwater flow come from western area to eastern area of Surakarta city. (author)

  4. Labelling of nucleic acid components with tritium by hydrogenolysis of corresponding precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasoedov, V.F.; Kvyatkovskij, Yu.G.; Sidorov, G.V.

    1981-01-01

    To desalt the luates of liquid column chromatography containing components of the nucleic acids different types of activated carbons are used: AG-5, Ou-4, KAD, BAU (SU), Norit (GB) and Carboafin (CS). The Carborafin (CS) carbon proved to be the most efficient for the purpose. Dependences of the adsorption degree on pH, the time of the phases contact, temperature, concentration of the salt background (ammonium formite, lithium chloride) as well as adsorption isotherm are determined for the activated carbon. Desorption conditions of the nucleic acids components from the carbon are studied. It is shown that quantitative desorption is achieved when 1n solution of ammonia is used in 50% ethanole for 50-60 min. Data on practical application of the method to desalt the eluates containing tritiated nucleic acid components with a high activity are presented [ru

  5. Synthesis of tritium labeled 1-amidino-3-(P-nitro-phenyl)urea: a potential antimalarial agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.S.T.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Van Heertum, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Five steps were required to synthesize the title compound. This involved a catalytic exchange reaction, nitration, hydrolysis, and condensation. The overall radiochemical yield was 28.87% and the specific activity was 12.4 mCi/mmol, with a radiochemical purity of more than 95.7%. (author)

  6. Synthesis of tritium labeled 1-amidino-3-(P-nitro-phenyl)urea: a potential antimalarial agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T S.T.; Fawwaz, R A; Van Heertum, R L [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons

    1993-09-01

    Five steps were required to synthesize the title compound. This involved a catalytic exchange reaction, nitration, hydrolysis, and condensation. The overall radiochemical yield was 28.87% and the specific activity was 12.4 mCi/mmol, with a radiochemical purity of more than 95.7%. (author).

  7. Synthesis of tritium labelled 7-dehydrocholesterol 5β, 6β-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, D.P.; Nashed, N.T.; Jerina, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The synthesis of tritiated 7-dehydrocholesterol 5β, 6β-oxide in high specific activity is reported. Oxidation of 7α-bromo-cholesterol 5β, 6β-oxide to the 3-keto epoxide followed by borotritide reduction, in a special buffer-organic solvent system to minimize undesired rearrangement, regenerated the 3β-hydroxyl group. Base-assisted elimination produced the title compound. (author)

  8. Estimation of Uptake of Humic Substances from Different Sources by Escherichia coli Cells under Optimum and Salt Stress Conditions by Use of Tritium-Labeled Humic Materials▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Natalia A.; Perminova, Irina V.; Badun, Gennady A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Koroleva, Olga V.; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A.

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to demonstrate potential strengths of the use of tritium-labeled humic substances (HS) to quantify their interaction with living cells under various conditions. A novel approach was taken to study the interaction between a model microorganism and the labeled humic material. The bacterium Escherichia coli was used as a model microorganism. Salt stress was used to study interactions of HS with living cells under nonoptimum conditions. Six tritium-labeled samples of HS originating from coal, peat, and soil were examined. To quantify their interaction with E. coli cells, bioconcentration factors (BCF) were calculated and the amount of HS that penetrated into the cell interior was determined, and the liquid scintillation counting technique was used as well. The BCF values under optimum conditions varied from 0.9 to 13.1 liters kg−1 of cell biomass, whereas under salt stress conditions the range of corresponding values increased substantially and accounted for 0.2 to 130 liters kg−1. The measured amounts of HS that penetrated into the cells were 23 to 167 mg and 25 to 465 mg HS per kg of cell biomass under optimum and salt stress conditions, respectively. This finding indicated increased penetration of HS into E. coli cells under salt stress. PMID:20639375

  9. Temperature dependence of desoxyribosylation of pyrimidine derivatives labelled with carbon-14 and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritasil, L.; Filip, J.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the temperature and concentration of the enzyme preparation from Escherichia coli B on the reaction of pyrimidine bases with 2-desoxy-α-D-riboso-l-phosphate or α-D-riboso-l-phosphate was studied. It was found that at +2 deg C and low enzyme concentration higher yields of nucleosides are obtained than at the commonly used temperature of 37 deg C. The reaction time, however, must be protracted. The prepared [2- 14 C] uridine, 2'-deoxy[2- 14 C] uridine and [2- 14 C] thymidine had a high specific activity and radiochemical purity

  10. Synthesis of labelled compound of ferulic acid and caffeic acid with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Mingguang; Wang Caiyun

    1986-01-01

    Effective components of Chinese traditional herbs consist of many compounds, but some of the compounds usually contain unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds. The unsaturated organic compounds 3 H-Ferulic acid and 3 H-Caffeic acid are prepared with their tritiated intermediates made by electric-dischange exposure method, which ensures the compounds contaning double bonds not hydrogenated. The 3 H-Ferulic acid is composed of 3 H-vanillin and Malonic acid. The 3 H-Caffeic acid is composed of 3 H-protocatechuyl aldehyde and Malonic acid and the specific activity of the products is 0.2 mCi/mg. The radiochemicaly purity is greater than 90%

  11. Tritium Labeled Gentamicin C: II.- Bioradiactive Degradation Products of Gentamicin by Catalytic H2O-3H Exchange Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.; Diaz, A.; Paz, D.; Jimeno, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    The main bio radioactive degradation products from catalytic hydrogen exchange of gentamicin C, (C1 + C2 + Cla) in basic form, are generated by N-demethylation in 3 - N and 6-N positions. Their structures were confirmed by 1HNMR and 13CNMR. These derivatives were fractionated by chromatography on silica gel. Antibacterial activities were similar to those of the parent antibiotics. Tritium exchange, under vacuum or nitrogen, is highly increased (4:1) when gentamicin are in basic form. In contrast with gentamicin sulfate, hydrolytic sub products as gramine, genta mines, garosamine and purpurosamines are practically absent. To properly optimize the exchange process, the composition of the gentamicin C complex must be taken into account. The exchange decreases in the order C2 > C1> Cla. Because of 6'-N-demethyl gentamicin C1 is C2, the radiochemical yield of C2 appears enhanced in the H2O-3H exchange of a mixture of them. Radioactivity distribution among the components and subunits of these three gentamicin were studied by strong and mild hydrolysis, and by methanolysis. (Author) 18 refs

  12. Tritium labeled Gentamicin C : II.- Bioradioactive products of Gentamicin by Catalytic H2O-3H exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.; Diaz, A.; Paz, D.; Jimeno, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The main bioradioactive degradation products from catalytic hydrogen exchange of gentamicin C, (C1 + C2 + C1a) in basic form, are generated by N-dimethylations in 3 - N and 6'-N positions. Their structures were confirmed by HNMR and 13 CNMR. These derivatives were fractionated by chromatography on silica gel. Antibacterial activities were similar to those of the parent antibiotics. Tritium exchange, under vacuum or nitrogen, is highly increased (4:1) when gentamicina are in basic form. In contrast with gentamicin sulfate, hydrolytic subproducts as garamine, gentamicine, garosamine and purpurosamines are practically absent. To properly optimize the exchange process, the composition of the gentamicin C complex must be taken into account. The exchange decreases in the order C2 > C1 > C1a. Because of 6' -N-dimenthyl gentamicin C1 is C2, the radiochemical yield of C2 appears enhanced in the H 2 O- 3 H exchange of a mixture of them. Radioactivity distribution among the components and subunits of these three gentamicins were studied by stron and mild hydrolysis, and by methanolysis. (author)

  13. Contribution to the dosimetry of tritium in the presence of inactive or active gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudain, G.

    1966-01-01

    Tritium is a dangerous gas for man and the maximum admissible doses in the atmosphere are sufficiently low for the dosage to be fairly difficult. We have developed an apparatus for measuring selectively the contamination of air by this gas when it is alone or when it is associated with other gaseous contaminants. The differential apparatus using two ionization chambers makes it possible to eliminate a parasitic γ radiation field. In a few particular cases, the presence of the radio-active gas has been studied. From the practical point of view, the use of these chambers made of stainless steel makes for easier use since the problems connected with wall adsorption have been satisfactorily resolved. The method can be applied without restriction and very easily to the dosage of traces tritium in air or in the form of tritiated water or tritiated steam in the atmosphere. (author) [fr

  14. Preparation of Tritium from irradiated lithium compounds (study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the selection of a certain scheme for release, collection, measurement and analysis of Tritium as produced in Lithium compounds (Li 2 O, LiOH, Li 2 CO 3 LiF and some Lithium alloys) in accordance with the 6 Li(n, α)T reaction. Tritium technology is of vital concern to power reactor programmes as well as to fusion technology. Meanwhile the fields of activity include, tritium generation and mangement in fission and fusion reactors; enviromental studies, release modeling HT/HTO conversion and dose assessments, absorption/ deabsorption, monitoring and plant design; research and development, labeling, compatibility and physical chemical properties

  15. Synthesis of carbon-14 and tritium labeled cis-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl]benzamidehydrochloride, an anticonvulsant agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, R.S.P.; Stolle, W.T.; Ayer, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The title compound, U-54494A, is an anticonvulsant agent with clinical potential for treating epilepsy and a broad spectrum of seizure disorders. Structurally it is related to kappa opiod agonists and shares their anticonvulsant properties, but appears to be devoid of analgesic, sedative, and diuretic side effects. It also has been shown to inhibit neuronal damage and seizures induced by excitatory amino acids. This report describes the synthesis of the racemic U-54494A labeled with carbon-14 at the carboxamide carbon and with tritium in the pyrrolidine ring at C-3 and C-4. These radioisotope labeled versions of U-54494A were prepared for conducting drug disposition studies of this compound in test animals and human subjects

  16. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1990-01-01

    This document represents a synthesis relative to tritium storage. After indicating the main storage particularities as regards tritium, storages under gaseous and solid form are after examined before establishing choices as a function of the main criteria. Finally, tritium storage is discussed regarding tritium devices associated to Fusion Reactors and regarding smaller devices [fr

  17. Measurement of tritium activity in the aluminum pipe of JRR-2 heavy water primary cooling system using imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoishi, Shoji; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi

    2000-12-01

    JRR-2 is the heavy water cooling type nuclear reactor, which has been operated for 36 years (1960-1976) and in the process of decommissioning at present. For this reason, evaluation of tritium quantity permeated into the pipe and apparatus of the primary coolant heavy water circulating system is important. In the Radioisotope Production Division, activity of tritium in aluminum pipe was measured with imaging plate (IP), liquid scintillation analyzer and high purity germanium detector (HPGe). After acrylic paints was applied for the region except for tritium contamination on the surface of aluminum pipe, only the oxidized contaminated part was dissolved by 1.5%(1.21M) HF for 3 minutes, and measured with IP. As a result, the tritium was found to permeate in the depth of 25 μm. Moreover, 90% of it was found to be distributed within 7 μm. (author)

  18. Tritium Activity Measurement of Water Samples Using Liquid Scintillation Counter and Electrolytical Enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baresic, J.; Krajcar Bronic, I.; Horvatincic, N.; Obelic, B.; Sironic, A.; Kozar-Logar J.

    2011-01-01

    Tritium (3H) activity of natural waters (precipitation, groundwater, surface waters) has recently become too low to be directly measured by low-level liquid scintillation (LSC) techniques. It is therefore necessary to perform electrolytical enrichment of tritium in such waters prior to LSC measurements. Electrolytical enrichment procedure has been implemented at the Rudjer Boskovic Institute (RBI) Tritium Laboratory in 2008, and since then 19 electrolyses have been completed. The mean enrichment factor E (a ratio between the final and initial 3H activities) after stabilisation of the system is E R BI = 22.5 @ 0.5, and the mean enrichment parameter (which describes the process of water mass reduction during electrolysis) is P R BI 0.949 @ 0.003. These values are comparable with those obtained at the Jo@ef Stefan Institute (JSI) Laboratory for liquid scintillation counting, at the electrolysis equipment of the same producer (AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland) after 66 electrolyses carried out under identical conditions since 2007: E J SI = 18.9 @ 1.5, and P J SI = 0.896 @ 0.021. Both RBI and JSI laboratories have Ultra-low-level LSC Quantulus 1220 (Wallac, PerkinElmer) for measurement of 3H activity. A set of water samples having 3H activities in the range from 0 TU (''dead-water'' samples) to 18 000 TU (1 TU 0.118 Bq/L) were measured at both laboratories. Samples having 3H activity <200 TU were electrolytically enriched, while the others were measured directly in LSC. A very good agreement was obtained (correlation coefficient 0.991). Both laboratories participated in the IAEA TRIC2008 international intercomparison exercise. The analyses of reported 3H activity results in terms of z and u parameters showed that all results in both laboratories were acceptable. (author)

  19. Labelling of steroid 3-O-sulfates by tritium and their binding to guinea pig cortical cell membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elbert, Tomáš; Slaninová, Jiřina; Chodounská, Hana; Šaman, David

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 50, 5/6 (2007), s. 574-575 ISSN 0362-4803 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4055305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : tritium * deuterium * tritiated steroid 3-O-sulfates * palladium Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2007

  20. Contribution to the dosimetry of tritium in the presence of inactive or active gases; Contribution a la dosimetrie du tritium en presence de gaz inactifs ou actifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudain, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    Tritium is a dangerous gas for man and the maximum admissible doses in the atmosphere are sufficiently low for the dosage to be fairly difficult. We have developed an apparatus for measuring selectively the contamination of air by this gas when it is alone or when it is associated with other gaseous contaminants. The differential apparatus using two ionization chambers makes it possible to eliminate a parasitic {gamma} radiation field. In a few particular cases, the presence of the radio-active gas has been studied. From the practical point of view, the use of these chambers made of stainless steel makes for easier use since the problems connected with wall adsorption have been satisfactorily resolved. The method can be applied without restriction and very easily to the dosage of traces tritium in air or in the form of tritiated water or tritiated steam in the atmosphere. (author) [French] Le tritium est un gaz dangereux pour l'homme et les concentrations maximales admissibles dans l'atmosphere sont suffisamment basses pour que le dosage soit delicat. Nous avons etudie et realise un appareil qui permet de mesurer selectivement la contamination de l'air par ce gaz lorsqu'il est seul ou lorsqu'il est associe a d'autres agents gazeux contaminants. Le montage differentiel a deux chambres d'ionisation permet d'eliminer un champ de rayonnement {beta} parasite. Dans certains cas particuliers, la presence du gaz radioactif a ete etudiee. Sur le plan pratique, l'utilisation des chambres en acier inoxydable facilite les applications car les problemes d'adsorption aux parois ont ete bien resolus. La methode peut s'appliquer sans restriction et tres pratiquement au dosage des traces de tritium dans l'air ou encore sous forme d'eau tritiee ou de vapeur d'eau tritiee dans l'atmosphere. (auteur)

  1. Activity measurement of tritium in biological samples by azeotropic distillation liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zongmei; Zheng Xiaomin

    1994-01-01

    The authors introduced a method of extracting tissue free water tritium (TFWT) in biological samples by azeotropic distillation with toluene and of measuring its activity by liquid scintillation counter. Measured TFWT recovery ratios of pine needles (fresh), green vegetables, radish, milk, meat, rice are 0.90, 0.95, 0.95, 0.85, 0.53 and 0.90; and the activities of TFWT are 1.8, 3.2, 1.8, 4.0, 3.3 and 2.7 Bq/L, respectively

  2. Tritium in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badyaev, V.V.; Egorov, Yu.A.; Sklyarov, V.P.; Stegachev, G.V.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of tritium formation during NPP operation is considered on the basis of available published data. Tritium characteristics are given, sources of the origin of natural and artificial tritium are described. NPP contribution to the total tritium amount in the environment is determined, as well as contribution of each process in the reactor to the quantity of tritium, produced at the NPP. Thermal- and fast-neutron reactions with tritium production are shown, their contribution to the total amount of tritium in a coolant is estimated, taking into account the type of reactor. Data on tritium content in NPP wastes and in the air of working premises are presented. Methods for sampling and sample preparation to measurements as well as the appropriate equipment are considered. Design of the gas-discharge counter of internal filling, used for measuring tritium activity in samples is described [ru

  3. A study of organic binding of incorporated tritium by means of the organic components of human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, M.

    1976-01-01

    The change in tritium activity of metabolytic fractions of urine of persons working in the production of tritium labelled compounds was studied. The radioactivity of the separated fractions was measured during a 20 day period. A carbamide fraction proved to be the most sensitive to incorporative cases owing to its organic component fractioned together with the carbamide. (K.A.)

  4. Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of tritium-labeled 1-methyl-N-(8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxa mide, a useful radioligand for 5HT3 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.W.; Bloomquist, W.; Cohen, M.L.; Reid, L.R.; Schenck, K.; Wong, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    The advent of potent, highly selective 5HT3 receptor antagonists has stimulated considerable interest in 5HT3 receptor mediated physiology and pharmacology. To permit detailed biochemical studies regarding interaction of the indazole class of serotonin (5HT) antagonists with 5HT3 receptors in multiple tissues, we synthesized 1-methyl-N-(8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl)-1H-indazole- 3-carboxamide (LY278584, compound 9) in high specific activity, tritium-labeled form. This radioligand was selected as a synthetic target because of its potency as a 5HT3-receptor antagonist, its selectivity for this receptor viz a viz other 5HT-receptor subtypes, and the ability to readily incorporate three tritia via the indazole N-CH3 substituent. Alkylation of N-(8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (8) with sodium hydride and tritium-labeled iodomethane, followed by HPLC purification, resulted in [3H]-9 with a radiochemical purity of 99% and a specific activity of 80.5 Ci/mmol. This radioligand bound with high affinity to a single class of saturable recognition sites in membranes isolated from cerebral cortex of rat brain. The Kd was 0.69 nM and the Bmax was 16.9 fmol/mg of protein. The specific binding was excellent, and accounted for 83-93% of total binding at concentrations of 2 nM or less. The potencies of known 5HT3-receptor antagonists as inhibitors of [3H]-9 binding correlated well with their pharmacological receptor affinities as antagonists of 5HT-induced decreases in heart rate and contraction of guinea pig ileum, suggesting the central recognition site for this radioligand may be extremely similar to or identical with peripheral 5HT3 receptors

  5. Tritium Assay and Dispensing of KEPRI Tritium Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, S. H.; Song, K. M.; Lee, S. K.; Lee, K.W.; Ko, B. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility(WTRF) has been constructed to reduce tritium levels in the heavy water systems and environmental emissions at the site. The WTRF was designed to process 100 kg/h of heavy water with the overall tritium extraction efficiency of 97% per single pass and to produce ∼700 g of tritium as T2 per year at the feed concentration of 0.37 TBq/kg. The high purity tritium greater than 99% is immobilized as a metal hydride to secure its long term storage. The recovered tritium will be made available for industrial uses and some research applications in the future. Then KEPRI is constructing the tritium lab. to build-up infrastructure to support tritium research activities and to support tritium control and accountability systems for tritium export. This paper describes the initial phases of the tritium application program including the laboratory infrastructure to support the tritium related R and D activities and the tritium controls in Korea

  6. BA DEMO R and D, activities on advanced tritium breeders in EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knitter, Regina; Kolb, Matthias H.H.; Leys, Oliver H.J.B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials (IAM-WPT)

    2013-07-01

    Within the Broader Approach (BA) activities on DEMO R and D, EU and Japan have launched a collaborative project on scalable and reliable production routes for advanced tritium breeders. Besides the development of the fabrication process, the reprocessing as well as the long-term stability of advanced breeder is to be investigated. In the EU, a modified melt-based process for the fabrication of lithium orthosilicate pebbles have been developed. Besides the optimization of process parameters, the chemical composition of the pebbles was altered by additions of titania in order to increase the mechanical properties by the formation of lithium metatitanate as a secondary, strengthening phase. (orig.)

  7. Bioassay guideline 2: guidelines for tritium bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This guideline is one of a series under preparation by the Federal-Provincial Working Group on Bioassay and In Vivo Monitoring Criteria. In this report tritium compounds have been grouped into four categories for the purpose of calculating Annual Limits on Intake and Investigation Levels: tritium gas, tritiated water, tritium-labelled compounds and nucleic acid precursors

  8. Japanese university program on tritium radiobiology and environmental tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Shigefumi

    1989-01-01

    The university program of the tritium study in the Special Research Project of Nuclear Fusion (1980-1989) is now on its 9th year. The study's aim is to assess tritium risk on man and environment for development of Japanese Nuclear Fusion Program. The tritium study begun by establishing various tritium safe-handling devices and methods to protect scientists from tritium contamination. Then, the tritium studies were initiated in three areas: The first was the studies on biological effects of tritiated water, where their RBE values, their modifying factors and mechanisms were investigated. Also, several human monitoring systems for detection of tritium-induced damage were developed. The second was the metabolic studies of tritium, including a daily tritium monitoring system, methods to enhance excretion of tritiated water from body and means to prevent oxidation of tritium gas in the body. The third was the study of environmental tritium. Tritium levels in environmental waters of various types were estimated all-over in Japan and their seasonal or regional variation were analyzed. Last two years, the studies were extended to estimate tritium activities of plants, foods and man in Japan. (author)

  9. Wind tunnel investigations on tritium reemission from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taeschner, M.; Bunnenberg, C.

    1993-01-01

    Future fusion plants and tritium handling facilities will contain large amounts of tritium. Following chronical or accidental releases to the atmosphere a secondary HTO source is established in the downwind sector of the tritium release point as a result of deposition processes. To investigate HTO reemission rates, experiments were performed with a special wind tunnel, in which the air flows across the surface of soil columns under controlled conditions. In order to measure the HTO content of an air sample that was experimentally contaminated by reemission of HTO from a labeled soil column, a fast method is used. The air sample is bubbled through a flask filled with a definite volume of low-tritium water. At the end of the sampling period, the volume and the specific activity of the flask water are measured. With the help of a simple mathematical formula, that is presented in this report, the HTO activity of the air sample can be calculated. (orig.) [de

  10. Protection against tritium radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Georges

    1964-05-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of tritium, describes how it is produced as a natural or as an artificial radio-element. It outlines the hazards related to this material, presents how materials and tools are contaminated and decontaminated. It addresses the issue of permissible maximum limits: factors of assessment of the risk induced by tritium, maximum permissible activity in body water, maximum permissible concentrations in the atmosphere. It describes the measurement of tritium activity: generalities, measurement of gas activity and of tritiated water steam, tritium-induced ionisation in an ionisation chamber, measurement systems using ionisation chambers, discontinuous detection of tritium-containing water in the air, detection of surface contamination [fr

  11. An overview of research activities on materials for nuclear applications at the INL Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderoni, P., E-mail: Pattrick.Calderoni@inl.gov [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-7113 (United States); Sharpe, J.; Shimada, M.; Denny, B.; Pawelko, B.; Schuetz, S.; Longhurst, G. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-7113 (United States); Hatano, Y.; Hara, M. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Oya, Y. [Radioscience Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Otsuka, T.; Katayama, K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Konishi, S.; Noborio, K.; Yamamoto, Y. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    The Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility at the Idaho National Laboratory is a US Department of Energy National User Facility engaged in various aspects of materials research for nuclear applications related to fusion and advanced fission systems. Research activities are mainly focused on the interaction of tritium with materials, in particular plasma facing components, liquid breeders, high temperature coolants, fuel cladding, cooling and blanket structures and heat exchangers. Other activities include validation and verification experiments in support of the Fusion Safety Program, such as beryllium dust reactivity and dust transport in vacuum vessels, and support of Advanced Test Reactor irradiation experiments. This paper presents an overview of the programs engaged in the activities, which include the US-Japan TITAN collaboration, the US ITER program, the Next Generation Power Plant program and the tritium production program, and a presentation of ongoing experiments as well as a summary of recent results with emphasis on fusion relevant materials.

  12. An overview of research activities on materials for nuclear applications at the INL Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderoni, P.; Sharpe, J.; Shimada, M.; Denny, B.; Pawelko, B.; Schuetz, S.; Longhurst, G.; Hatano, Y.; Hara, M.; Oya, Y.; Otsuka, T.; Katayama, K.; Konishi, S.; Noborio, K.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility at the Idaho National Laboratory is a US Department of Energy National User Facility engaged in various aspects of materials research for nuclear applications related to fusion and advanced fission systems. Research activities are mainly focused on the interaction of tritium with materials, in particular plasma facing components, liquid breeders, high temperature coolants, fuel cladding, cooling and blanket structures and heat exchangers. Other activities include validation and verification experiments in support of the Fusion Safety Program, such as beryllium dust reactivity and dust transport in vacuum vessels, and support of Advanced Test Reactor irradiation experiments. This paper presents an overview of the programs engaged in the activities, which include the US-Japan TITAN collaboration, the US ITER program, the Next Generation Power Plant program and the tritium production program, and a presentation of ongoing experiments as well as a summary of recent results with emphasis on fusion relevant materials.

  13. Magmatic tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, F.; Aams, A.I.; McMurtry, G.M.; Shevenell, L.; Pettit, D.R.; Stimac, J.A.; Werner, C.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed geochemical sampling of high-temperature fumaroles, background water, and fresh magmatic products from 14 active volcanoes reveal that they do not produce measurable amounts of tritium ( 3 H) of deep origin ( 2 O). On the other hand, all volcanoes produce mixtures of meteoric and magmatic fluids that contain measurable 3 H from the meteoric end-member. The results show that cold fusion is probably not a significant deep earth process but the samples and data have wide application to a host of other volcanological topics

  14. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activities in portuguese drinking waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, I.; Madruga, M.J.; Ferrador, G.O.; Sequeira, M.M.; Oliveira, E.J.; Gomes, A.R.; Rodrigues, F.D.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    The gross beta and tritium activities in the forty Portuguese drinking waters analyzed using the ISO standard methods (Portuguese Guidelines) are below the guidance levels proposed in the Portuguese Drinking Water Quality Guidelines. In what concerns the gross alpha activity only 18% exceeded the recommended level. In general, it can be concluded that the ingestion of these drinking waters does not create a radiological hazard to the human consumption, however, more detailed analyses will be necessary mainly the determinations of the individual alpha emitters radionuclide concentrations. The minimum gross alpha and gross beta detectable activities by L.S.C. methodology are higher than for the proportional counting technique (ISO method). Higher concentration factors will be needed to reach lower required detection limits. (authors)

  15. The valley system of the Jihlava river and Mohelno reservoir with enhanced tritium activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Pavel; Kořínková, Tereza; Světlík, Ivo; Povinec, P. P.; Fejgl, Michal; Malátová, I.; Tomášková, Lenka; Štěpán, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 166, SI (2017), s. 83-90 ISSN 0265-931X Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Tritium (H-3) * non-exchangeable organically bound tritium (NE-OBT) * tissue free water tritium (TFWT) * nuclear power plant (NPP) * biota * HTO Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.310, year: 2016

  16. Tritium conference days; Journees tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Sene, M.; Devin, P.; Chretien, V.; Le Guen, B.; Guetat, Ph.; Baglan, N.; Ansoborlo, E.; Boyer, C.; Masson, M.; Bailly-Du-Bois, P.; Jenkinson, St.; Wakeford, R.; Saintigny, Y.; Romeo, P.H.; Thompson, P.; Leterq, D.; Chastagner, F.; Cortes, P.; Philippe, M.; Paquet, F.; Fournier, M.

    2009-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Twenty presentations out of 21 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - tritium in the environment (J. Garnier-Laplace); 2 - status of knowledge about tritium impact on health (L. Lebaron-Jacobs); 3 - tritium, discrete but present everywhere (M. Sene); 4 - management of tritium effluents from Areva NC La Hague site - related impact and monitoring (P. Devin); 5 - tritium effluents and impact in the vicinity of EDF's power plants (V. Chretien and B. Le Guen); 6 - contribution of CEA-Valduc centre monitoring to the knowledge of atmospheric tritiated water transfers to the different compartments of the environment (P. Guetat); 7 - tritium analysis in environment samples: constraints and means (N. Baglan); 8 - organically-linked tritium: the analyst view (E. Ansoborlo); 9 - study of tritium transfers to plants via OBT/HTO{sub air} and OBT/HTO{sub free} (C. Boyer); 10 - tritium in the British Channel (M. Masson and P. Bailly-Du-Bois); 11 - tritium in British coastal waters (S. Jenkinson); 12 - recent results from epidemiology (R. Wakeford); 13 - effects of tritiated thymidine on hematopoietic stem cells (P.H. Romeo); 14 - tritium management issue in Canada: the point of view from authorities (P. Thompson); 15 - experience feedback of the detritiation process of Valduc centre (D. Leterq); 16 - difficulties linked with tritiated wastes confinement (F. Chastagner); 17 - optimisation of tritium management in the ITER project (P. Cortes); 18 - elements of thought about the management of tritium generated by nuclear facilities (M. Philippe); 19 - CIPR's position about the calculation of doses and risks linked with tritium exposure (F. Paquet); 20 - tritium think tanks (M. Fournier). (J.S.)

  17. Tritium incorporation in lipid preparations by catalytic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.P.; Bezuglov, V.V.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1983-01-01

    A series of polar and nonpolar lipids labelled with tritium, which are the most important components of biological membranes, has been prepared. Possible ways to increase the yield and molar radioactivity of biologically active preparations are considered. A supposition is made, that all the factors promoting dissociative adsorption of substrates during heterogeneous catalysis, should promote the increase in product yield of the initial structure and preparation of labelled preparations with molar radioactivity sufficient for carrying out the major part of biological studies

  18. Tritium in rad waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, P.M.; Ali, S.S.; Mathur, R.K.; Rastogi, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive waste arising from PHWR's are invariably contaminated with tritium activity. Their disposal is crucial as it governs the manner and extent of radioactive contamination of human environment. The technique of tritium measurement and its application plays an important role in assessing the safety of the disposal system. Thus, typical applications involving tritium measurements include the evaluation of a site for solid waste burial facility and evaluation of a water body for liquid waste dispersal. Tritium measurement is also required in assessing safe air route dispersal of tritium. (author)

  19. Non-intrusive measurement of tritium activity in waste drums by modelling a 3He leak quantified by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demange, D.

    2002-01-01

    This study deals with a new method that makes it possible to measure very low tritium quantities inside radioactive waste drums. This indirect method is based on measuring the decaying product, 3 He, and requires a study of its behaviour inside the drum. Our model considers 3 He as totally free and its leak through the polymeric joint of the drum as two distinct phenomena: permeation and laminar flow. The numerical simulations show that a pseudo-stationary state takes place. Thus, the 3 He leak corresponds to the tritium activity inside the drum but it appears, however, that the leak peaks when the atmospheric pressure variations induce an overpressure in the drum. Nevertheless, the confinement of a drum in a tight chamber makes it possible to quantify the 3 He leak. This is a non-intrusive measurement of its activity, which was experimentally checked by using reduced models, representing the drum and its confinement chamber. The drum's confinement was optimised to obtain a reproducible 3 He leak measurement. The gaseous samples taken from the chamber were purified using selective adsorption onto activated charcoals at 77 K to remove the tritium and pre-concentrate the 3 He. The samples were measured using a leak detector mass spectrometer. The adaptation of the signal acquisition and the optimisation of the analysis parameters made it possible to reach the stability of the external calibrations using standard gases with a 3 He detection limit of 0.05 ppb. Repeated confinement of the reference drums demonstrated the accuracy of this method. The uncertainty of this non-intrusive measurement of the tritium activity in 200-liter drums is 15% and the detection limit is about 1 GBq after a 24 h confinement. These results led to the definition of an automated tool able to systematically measure the tritium activity of all storage waste drums. (authors)

  20. The organically bound tritium: an analyst vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Baglan, N.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the work of a work group on tritium analysis. They recall the different physical forms of tritium: gas (HT, hydrogen-tritium), water vapour (HTO or tritiated water) or methane (CH3T), but also in organic compounds (OBT, organically bound tritium) which are either exchangeable or non-exchangeable. They evoke measurement techniques and methods, notably to determine the tritium volume activity. They discuss the possibilities to analyse and distinguish exchangeable and non-exchangeable OBTs

  1. Tritium in the Physical and Biological Sciences. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Detection and Use of Tritium in the Physical and Biological Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-02-15

    The use of tritium for research in physics, chemistry, biology and hydrology has in recent years become increasingly important. It was for this reason that the first international conference to discuss the progress of new developments was organized by the IAEA in conjunction with the Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity and held from 3 - 10 May 1961, in Vienna. The first five sessions of the Symposium were devoted to the use of tritium in hydrology, physics and chemistry. Special emphasis was laid on the role of tritium as a tracer in hydrology, especially in the study of water movement. The establishment and improvement of counting and detection techniques to facilitate the application of tritium as a tracer was another aspect discussed in this part of the proceedings. Papers were read on the preparation of tritiated compounds and it was generally agreed that further clarification of the mechanism of various techniques, and of the Wilzbach gas exposure technique in particular, would lead to further developments in the synthesis of a number of tritium compounds important in biology. Other papers were concerned with tritium applications to studies of the mechanism of some chemical reactions together with the effects of tritium isotopes. During the second part of the Symposium the biological applications of tritium and tritiated compounds were discussed. These included general problems connected with the biological uses of tritium and the radiation effects of tritium on living organisms such as viruses, bacteria and cancer cells. The value of tritium in biological studies became apparent because of the ease with which a large number of metabolically active compounds such as hormones, vitamins and other important constituents in the body can be labelled with tritium. Tritium is also a weak beta-emitter and autoradiographs of tissues and single cells containing tritium-labelled compounds allow an excellent localization of the tracer. The Symposium was attended by

  2. Tritium in the Physical and Biological Sciences. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Detection and Use of Tritium in the Physical and Biological Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    The use of tritium for research in physics, chemistry, biology and hydrology has in recent years become increasingly important. It was for this reason that the first international conference to discuss the progress of new developments was organized by the IAEA in conjunction with the Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity and held from 3 — 10 May 1961, in Vienna. The first five sessions of the Symposium were devoted to the use of tritium in hydrology, physics and chemistry. Special emphasis was laid on the role of tritium as a tracer in hydrology, especially in the study of water movement. The establishment and improvement of counting and detection techniques to facilitate the application of tritium as a tracer was another aspect discussed in this part of the proceedings. Papers were read on the preparation of tritiated compounds and it was generally agreed that further clarification of the mechanism of various techniques, and of the Wilzbach gas exposure technique in particular, would lead to further developments in the synthesis of a number of tritium compounds important in biology. Other papers were concerned with tritium applications to studies of the mechanism of some chemical reactions together with the effects of tritium isotopes. During the second part of the Symposium the biological applications of tritium and tritiated compounds were discussed. These included general problems connected with the biological uses of tritium and the radiation effects of tritium on living organisms such as viruses, bacteria and cancer cells. The value of tritium in biological studies became apparent because of the ease with which a large number of metabolically active compounds such as hormones, vitamins and other important constituents in the body can be labelled with tritium. Tritium is also a weak beta-emitter and autoradiographs of tissues and single cells containing tritium-labelled compounds allow an excellent localization of the tracer. The Symposium was attended

  3. Tritium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glodic, S.; Boreli, F.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium is the only radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It directly follows the metabolism of water and it can be bound into genetic material, so it is very important to control levels of contamination. In order to define the state of contamination it is necessary to establish 'zero level', i.e. actual global inventory. The importance of tritium contamination monitoring increases with the development of fusion power installations. Different sources of tritium are analyzed and summarized in this paper. (author)

  4. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1989-01-01

    A general synthesis about tritium storage is achieved in this paper and a particular attention is given to practical application in the Fusion Technology Program. Tritium, storage under gaseous form and solid form are discussed (characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and equipments). The way of tritium storage is then discussed and a choice established as a function of a logic which takes into account the main working parameters

  5. Overview of the tritium system of Ignitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzello, C.; Tosti, S.

    2008-01-01

    Among the recent design activities of the Ignitor program, the analysis of the tritium system has been carried out with the aim to describe the main equipments and the operations needed for supplying the deuterium-tritium mixtures and recovering the plasma exhaust. In fact, the tritium system of Ignitor provides for injecting deuterium-tritium mixtures into the vacuum chamber in order to sustain the fusion reaction: furthermore, it generally manages and controls the tritium and the tritiated materials of the machine fuel cycle. Main functions consist of tritium storage and delivery, tritium injection, tritium recovery from plasma exhaust, treatment of the tritiated wastes, detritiation of the contaminated atmospheres, tritium analysis and accountability. In this work an analysis of the designed tritium system of Ignitor is summarized

  6. Isotope exchange reactions of the hydrogen H-5 of selected pyrimidine derivatives and the preparation of tritium-labeled pyrimidines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Jansa, Petr; Elbert, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 12 (2011), s. 1567-1577 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400550903; GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : isotopic labeling * NMR spectroscopy * nucleobases * pyrimidines Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011

  7. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  8. The labeling of unsaturated gamma-hydroxybutyric acid by heavy isotopes of hydrogen: iridium complex-mediated H/D exchange by C-H bond activation vs reduction by boro-deuterides/tritides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, Aleš; Pedersen, M. H. F.; Vogensen, S. B.; Clausen, R. P.; Frolund, B.; Elbert, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 12 (2016), s. 476-483 ISSN 0362-4803 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : C-H activation * borotritides * hydrogen/deuterium exchange * iridium catalyst * tritium-labeled gamma-hydroxybutyric acid Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.745, year: 2016

  9. Tritium trick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W. V.; Zukas, E. G.; Eash, D. T.

    1971-01-01

    Large controlled amounts of helium in uniform concentration in thick samples can be obtained through the radioactive decay of dissolved tritium gas to He3. The term, tritium trick, applies to the case when helium, added by this method, is used to simulate (n,alpha) production of helium in simulated hard flux radiation damage studies.

  10. Technetium labelled plasminogen activator - a potential reagent for thrombus detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsma-De Waal, J.H.; Boer, A.C. de; Cox, P.H.; Pillay, M.; Stassen, J.H.; Collen, D.

    1987-12-01

    The preparation of a technetium labelled plasminogen activator complex using a solid phase labelling technique is described. The labelled complex showed no significant loss of fibrinolytic activity in vitro and showed in vivo a rapid uptake in thrombi in an animal model and in human volunteer patients with known thrombi when injected into a vein draining to the thrombotic region. Systemic injection showed no uptake in the thrombi probably due to rapid sequestration of the complex by the liver.

  11. Tritium in the Physical and Biological Sciences. V. 1. Proceedings of a Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-01-15

    The use of tritium for research in physics, chemistry, biology and hydrology has in recent years become increasingly important. It was for this reason that the first international conference to discuss the progress of new developments was organized by the IAEA in conjunction with the Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity and held from 3-10 May 1961, in Vienna. The first five sessions of the Symposium were devoted to the use of tritium in hydrology, physics and chemistry. Special emphasis was laid on the role of tritium as a tracer in hydrology, especially in the study of water movement. The establishment and improvement of counting and detection techniques to facilitate the application of tritium as a tracer was another aspect discussed in this part of the proceedings. Papers were read on the preparation of tritiated compounds and it was generally agreed that further clarification of the mechanism of various techniques, and of the Wilzbach gas exposure technique in particular, would lead to further developments in the synthesis of a number of tritium compounds important in biology. Other papers were concerned with tritium applications to studies of the mechanism of some chemical reactions together with the effects of tritium isotopes. During the second part of the Symposium the biological applications of tritium and tritiated compounds were discussed. These included general problems connected with the biological uses of tritium and the radiation effects of tritium on living organisms such as viruses, bacteria and cancer cells. The value of tritium in biological studies became apparent because of the ease with which a large number of metabolically active compounds such as hormones, vitamins and other important constituents in the body can be labelled with tritium. Tritium is also a weak beta-emitter and autoradiographie s of tissues and single cells containing tritium-labelled compounds allow an excellent localization of the tracer. The Symposium was attended by

  12. Tritium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vichot, L.; Losset, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of tritium in the environment stems from its natural production by cosmic rays, from the fallout of the nuclear weapon tests between 1953 and 1964, and locally from nuclear industry activities. A part of the tritiated water contained in the foliage of plants is turned into organically bound tritium (OBT) by photosynthesis. The tritium of OBT, that is not exchangeable and then piles up in the plant, can be used as a marker of the past. It has been shown that the quantity of OBT contained in the age-rings of an oak that grew near the CEA center of Valduc was directly correlated with the tritium releases of the center. (A.C.)

  13. TRitium Activity Measurements with a PhotomultipliEr in Liquids–The TRAMPEL experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priester, Florian; Klein, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We have set up a new test device for measuring of tritiated water samples. • The device is very compact and easy and reliable in operation. • Easy integration in flow-through systems is possible. • The device has been operated at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe for several months. • The lower detection limit has been improved with regard to predecessors experiments. - Abstract: A common technique for the determination of the activity of tritiated water (HTO) is liquid scintillation counting (LSC). This implies sample taking, sample preparation and radioactive waste processing afterwards. When handling highly tritiated water special care has to be taken because of possible harmfulness of the sample. Furthermore, LSC devices are mostly large, heavy and expensive. The TRAMPEL experiment aims at measuring the activity of tritiated water in-line without sample taking. The device is intended to be easy to use and operate, quite inexpensive and compact. The measurement principle is based on electrons from β-decay which induce light in commercially available scintillation fibres. The light is detected by a small photomultiplier tube (PMT). A proof-of-principle was set up for static measurements using standard stainless steel parts. The complete device has a volume of less than 0.5 l.

  14. TRitium Activity Measurements with a PhotomultipliEr in Liquids–The TRAMPEL experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priester, Florian, E-mail: florian.priester@kit.edu; Klein, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We have set up a new test device for measuring of tritiated water samples. • The device is very compact and easy and reliable in operation. • Easy integration in flow-through systems is possible. • The device has been operated at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe for several months. • The lower detection limit has been improved with regard to predecessors experiments. - Abstract: A common technique for the determination of the activity of tritiated water (HTO) is liquid scintillation counting (LSC). This implies sample taking, sample preparation and radioactive waste processing afterwards. When handling highly tritiated water special care has to be taken because of possible harmfulness of the sample. Furthermore, LSC devices are mostly large, heavy and expensive. The TRAMPEL experiment aims at measuring the activity of tritiated water in-line without sample taking. The device is intended to be easy to use and operate, quite inexpensive and compact. The measurement principle is based on electrons from β-decay which induce light in commercially available scintillation fibres. The light is detected by a small photomultiplier tube (PMT). A proof-of-principle was set up for static measurements using standard stainless steel parts. The complete device has a volume of less than 0.5 l.

  15. Tritium accounting for PHWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.S.; Duraisamy, S.

    2012-01-01

    Tritium, the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, is produced as a byproduct of the nuclear reactions in the nuclear power plants. In a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) tritium activity is produced in the Heat Transport and Moderator systems due to neutron activation of deuterium in heavy water used in these systems. Tritium activity build up occurs in some of the water systems in the PHWR plants through pick up from the plant atmosphere, inadvertent D 2 O ingress from other systems or transfer during processes. The tritium, produced by the neutron induced reactions in different systems in the reactor undergoes multiple processes such as escape through leaks, storage, transfer to external locations, decay, evaporation and diffusion and discharge though waste streams. Change of location of tritium inventory takes place during intentional transfer of heavy water, both reactor grade and downgraded, from one system to another. Tritium accounting is the application of accounting techniques to maintain knowledge of the tritium inventory present in different systems of a facility and to construct activity balances to detect any discrepancy in the physical inventories. It involves identification of all the tritium hold ups, transfers and storages as well as measurement of tritium inventories in various compartments, decay corrections, environmental release estimations and evaluation of activity generation during the accounting period. This paper describes a methodology for creating tritium inventory balance based on periodic physical inventory taking, tritium build up, decay and release estimations. Tritium accounting in the PHWR plants can prove to be an effective regulatory tool to monitor its loss as well as unaccounted release to the environment. (author)

  16. Environmental monitoring for tritium in tritium separation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, Carmen; Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Lazar, Roxana Elena

    2001-01-01

    The Cryogenic Pilot is an experimental project in the nuclear energy national research program, which has the aim of developing technologies for tritium and deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation. The experimental installation is located 15 km near the highest city of the area and 1 km near Olt River. An important chemical activity is developed in the area and chemical plants make up almost entire neighborhood of the Experimental Cryogenic Pilot. It is necessary to emphasize this aspect because the hall sewage system of the pilot is connected with the one of other three chemical plants from vicinity. This is the reason why we progressively established elements of an environmental monitoring program well in advance of tritium operation in order to determine baseline levels. The first step was the tritium level monitoring in environmental water and sewage from neighboring industrial activity. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation was used to determine tritium activity concentration according to ISO 9698/1998 standard. We measured drinking water, precipitation, river water, underground water and wastewater. The tritium level was between 10 TU and 27 TU what indicates that there is no source of tritium contamination in the neighborhood of Cryogenic Pilot. In order to determine baseline levels we decided to monitor monthly each location. In this paper it is presented a standard method used for tritium determination in water samples, the precautions needed to achieve reliable results and the evolution of tritium level in different location near the Experimental Pilot for Tritium and Deuterium Cryogenic Separation. (authors)

  17. Environmental monitoring for tritium at tritium separation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Steflea, D.; Lazar, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Cryogenic Pilot is an experimental project in the nuclear energy national research program, which has the aim of developing technologies for tritium and deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation. The experimental installation is located 15 km near the highest city of the area and 1 km near Olt River. An important chemical activity is developed in the area and the Experimental Cryogenic Pilot's, almost the entire neighborhood are chemical plants. It is necessary to emphasize this aspect because the sewerage system is connected with the other three chemical plants from the neighborhood. This is the reason that we progressively established elements of an environmental monitoring program well in advance of tritium operation in order to determine baseline levels. The first step was the tritium level monitoring in environmental water and waste water of industrial activity from neighborhood. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation is used to determine tritium activity concentration according to ISO 9698/1998. We measured drinking water, precipitation, river water, underground water and waste water. The tritium level was between 10 TU and 27 TU that indicates there is no source of tritium contamination in the neighborhood of Cryogenic Pilot. In order to determine baseline levels we decide to monitories monthly each location. In this paper a standard method is presented which it is used for tritium determination in water sample, the precautions needed in order to achieve reliable results, and the evolution of tritium level in different location near the Experimental Pilot Tritium and Deuterium Cryogenic Separation.(author)

  18. The Metabolism of Tritium-Labelled Epinephrine in Man; Metabolisme de l'Adrenaline Tritiee dans l'Organisme Humain; 041c 0435 0414 ; Metabolismo de la Adrenalina Marcada con Tritio en el Hombre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrosse, E. H.; Axelrod, J.; Kopin, I. J.; Kety, S. S. [National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1962-02-15

    It was of interest to us to study the metabolism of epinephrine in normal human subjects. Studies of epinephrine metabolism in animals have indicated the possible routes of its metabolism, but the doses, both of radioactivity and of the catechol amine, have been greater than the levels which are safe to use in humans. Also earlier studies of the metabolism of this hormone in humans have been limited by the relatively low specific activity of the labelled epinephrine. The use of tritium-labelled epinephrine (7-H{sup 3}-dl-epinephrine- d-bitartrate) has made possible more complete recovery of the administered radioactivity, and the higher specific activity (greater than 300 {mu}c/mg) has allowed isolation and quantification of new metabolites. In twelve normal human males 92.6 {+-} 7.7% of the tritium in the infused H{sup 3}-epinephrine was excreted into the urine within 54 h following the infusion of the tritium-labelled epinephrine. The tritium-labelled urinary constituents were as follows: unchanged epinephrine 6.8 {+-} 1.5%, free metanephrine 5.2 {+-} 1.1%, metanephrine glucuronide 6.0 {+-} 1.5%, metanephrine sulphate 29.5 {+-} 9.0%, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol 7.1 {+-} 1.4%, free and conjugated 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid 1.6 {+-} 0-6% and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid 41.2 {+-} 8.4%. As demonstrated by this and related experiments, the biological application of tritium-labelled epinephrine has made possible a much more complete understanding of the metabolism of this important hormone in humans. (author) [French] L'etude du metabolisme de l'adrenaline dans l'organisme de l'homme normal a presente un reel interet. Des etudes faites sur les animaux avaient montre quelles etaient les voies possibles de ce metabolisme, mais les doses de radioactivite et de catecholamine employees etaient superieures a celles qui peuvent etre administrees a l'homme sans presenter de danger. Les etudes anterieures sur le metabolisme de cette hormone chez l'homme avaient ete

  19. Fate of tritium-labeled vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in rabbit does and thier pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidiroglou, H.

    1984-01-01

    Mammary transfer of label from intraperitoneally injected 50 μCi [1α, 2α(n)-hydrogen-3] cholecalciferol, and 50 μCi (26,27-methyl-hydrogen-3)cholecalciferol was studied in nursing rabbits. Does were injected at 3 days postpartum with one of the two labeled compounds. Pups were killed at either 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 days after dosing of the does, and does were killed after 5 days. Concentrations of radioactivity were greater in tissues of does dosed with tritiated vitamin D 3 than in tissues of those dosed with tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 . Concentrations of radioactivity were greater in maternal tissues than in tissues of pups. On the 5th day following administration of tritiated vitamin D 3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 , the major portion of the radioactivity in does' plasma and liver was associated with tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 . In pups from the tritiated vitamin D 3 group, the concentration of plasma radioactivity associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (isolated by high pressure liquid chromatography) increased significantly with time, reaching 85% of the total vitamin D and metabolite radioactivity in the pups at the 5th day. Over 90% of the total recovered plasma radioactivity of pups of the tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 group was associated with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 . Much more radioactivity was secreted in the milk of tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 dosed does than in milk of does dosed with tritiated vitamin D 3 . 16 references, 3 tables

  20. Tritium autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen distribution and diffusion within many materials may be investigated by autoradiography if the radioactive isotope tritium is used in the study. Tritium is unstable and decays to helium-3 by emission of a low energy (18 keV) beta particle which may be detected photographically. The basic principles of tritium autoradiography will be discussed. Limitations are imposed on the technique by: (1) the low energy of the beta particles; (2) the solubility and diffusivity of hydrogen in materials; and (3) the response of the photographic emulsion to beta particles. These factors control the possible range of application of tritium autoradiography. The technique has been applied successfully to studies of hydrogen solubility and distribution in materials and to studies of hydrogen damage

  1. Tritium behavior in ITER beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1990-10-01

    The beryllium neutron multiplier in the ITER breeding blanket will generate tritium through transmutations. That tritium constitutes a safety hazard. Experiments evaluating tritium storage and release mechanisms have shown that most of the tritium comes out in a burst during thermal ramping. A small fraction of retained tritium is released by thermally activated processes. Analysis of recent experimental data shows that most of the tritium resides in helium bubbles. That tritium is released when the bubbles undergo swelling sufficient to develop porosity that connects with the surface. That appears to occur when swelling reaches about 10--15%. Other tritium appears to be stored chemically at oxide inclusions, probably as Be(OT) 2 . That component is released by thermal activation. There is considerable variation in published values for tritium diffusion through the beryllium and solubility in it. Data from experiments using highly irradiated beryllium from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory showed diffusivity generally in line with the most commonly accepted values for fully dense material. Lower density material, planned for use in the ITER blanket may have very short diffusion times because of the open structure. The beryllium multiplier of the ITER breeding blanket was analyzed for tritium release characteristics using temperature and helium production figures at the midplane generated in support of the ITER Summer Workshop, 1990 in Garching. Ordinary operation, either in Physics or Technology phases, should not result in the release of tritium trapped in the helium bubbles. Temperature excursions above 600 degree C result in large-scale release of that tritium. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Optimization of cocktail volume in estimation of Tritium activity using liquid scintillation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaravel, S.; Narashimha Nath, V.; Prashanth Kumar, M.; Sunil, C.N.; Raghunath, T.; Bera, Utpal; Ramakrishna, V.; Nair, B.S.K.; Ganesh, G.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid Scintillation Spectrometers (LSS) are widely used for the estimation of Tritium in Nuclear Industry and Environmental labs to find out the Tritium concentration. The main component used for the detection of tritium is the liquid scintillation cocktail composed of different chemicals. To reduce the radioactive chemical wastes and the cost of liquid scintillation cocktails the use of as small volume of cocktail as possible is required. Typically, 1 ml of the aqueous sample is added with 5 ml of the liquid scintillation cocktail in a 20 ml low potassium glass. In this study, suitability of the combination of I ml aqueous sample with 2.5 ml cocktail in a 7 ml low potassium glass vial using a HIDEX 300 SL TDCR LSS was carried out instead of the other combination

  3. Active site labeling of the guanine-7-methyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streaker, E.; Sitz, T.O.

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the guanine-7-methyltransferase have defined three domains in the active site: the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) region, the cap region (GpppG), and the RNA binding domain (--NpNpNpNpNp---). The authors attempted to label the SAM binding domain by a photoaffinity label using 8-azido-SAM and another method using 3 H-SAM and long exposures to uv-light. Neither method was successful. The next approach was to attempt to label the cap-RNA binding domain (GpppGpNpNpNpNpN) by synthesizing RNA containing 8-azido-Ap using an in vitro transcription system and T7 RNA polymerase. The 8-azido-ATP inhibited the T7 RNA polymerase preventing the synthesis of RNA. As they were unable to synthesize the photoaffinity label, they next tried to synthesize an end labeled RNA and directly label by long exposures to uv-light. When the enzyme was incubated with 32 P-labeled RNA for 15 min at 37 degrees and then exposed to a germicidal lamp for various times at O degrees, optimal labeling occurred after 45 min. Various enzyme preparations were labeled by this method and two polypeptides were found to specifically bind the non-methylated mRNA analog. This labeling method should allow characterization of the subunit structure and generate information about the nature of the RNA binding domain

  4. Labeling fish with an activable element through their diet. [samarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michibata, Hitoshi (Toyama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-10-01

    Stable samarium, one of the rare earth elements, was fed to medaka (Oryzias latipes) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). The concentration of samarium in the labeled fish was determined by neutron activation analysis. In O. latipes, samarium was detectable even 1 yr after the labeled diet was eaten. In C. auratus, samarium was retained in the fifth brachial arch, scales, and gills.

  5. Determination of low tritium activities, selection of suitable scintillator and measuring vials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, M.

    1996-01-01

    The scintillator cocktails tested were limited to scintillators highly miscible with water and included alkylnaphthalene-based scintillators exhibiting low toxicity and easy biodegradability. The following vials were tested: a vial of glass with reduced potassium content, a conventional polyethylene vial, and a teflon-coated polyethylene vial. Each combination was measured in triplicate: two samples of tritium-free water as the background and one sample with the standard tritium content. The best results were obtained when using a combination of the Ultima Gold LLT scintillator and the polyethylene vial. (M.D.) 2 tabs., 2 figs., 6 refs

  6. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter J [Davis, CA; Dueker, Stephen [Davis, CA; Miller, Joshua [Davis, CA; Green, Ralph [Elmacero, CA; Roth, John [Davis, CA; Carkeet, Colleen [Silver Spring, MD; Buchholz,; Bruce, A [Orinda, CA

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  7. Preparation of Tritium from irradiated lithium compounds (study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the selection of a certain scheme for release, collection, measurement and analysis of Tritium as produced in Lithium compounds (Li[sub 2]O, LiOH, Li[sub 2]CO[sub 3] LiF and some Lithium alloys) in accordance with the [sup 6]Li(n, [alpha])T reaction. Tritium technology is of vital concern to power reactor programmes as well as to fusion technology. Meanwhile the fields of activity include, tritium generation and mangement in fission and fusion reactors; enviromental studies, release modeling HT/HTO conversion and dose assessments, absorption/ deabsorption, monitoring and plant design; research and development, labeling, compatibility and physical chemical properties.

  8. Tritium monitor and collection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G.L.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Ely, W.E.; Tuggle, D.G.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Wickham, K.L.; Maltrud, H.R.; Baker, J.D.

    1992-01-14

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter. 7 figs.

  9. TFTR tritium operations lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Raftopoulos, S.; LaMarche, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor which is the progenitor for full D-T operating tokamaks has successfully processed > 81 grams of tritium in a safe and efficient fashion. Many of the fundamental operational techniques associated with the safe movement of tritium through the TFTR facility were developed over the course of many years of DOE tritium facilities (LANL, LLNL, SRS, Mound). In the mid 1980's The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at LANL began reporting operational techniques for the safe handling of tritium, and became a major conduit for the transfer of safe tritium handling technology from DOE weapons laboratories to non-weapon facilities. TFTR has built on many of the TSTA operational techniques and has had the opportunity of performing and enhancing these techniques at America's first operational D-T fusion reactor. This paper will discuss negative pressure employing 'elephant trunks' in the control and mitigation of tritium contamination at the TFTR facility, and the interaction between contaminated line operations and Δ pressure control. In addition the strategy employed in managing the movement of tritium through TFTR while maintaining an active tritium inventory of < 50,000 Ci will be discussed. 5 refs

  10. Specific tritium labelling of glucosyl- and galactosylceramides at the 6-position of the carbohydrate moiety using CrO3-graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuki, S.; Nagai, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A new procedure for introducing tritium into the carbohydrate portions of glucosyl- and galactosylceramides was developed using a new catalyst, CrO3-graphite, which specifically oxidizes the primary alcohol group to the aldehyde. About 10% of the glycolipid was converted to the aldehyde and the aldehyde produced was then reduced back to the original form with KB3H4. After methanolysis, more than 96.7% of the radioactivities of [3H]glucosyl- and [3H]galactosylceramides were found to be located in the carbohydrate portions, and the specific activities of the [3H]galactosyl- and [3H]glucosylceramides were 2.08 to 4.30 X 10(4) cpm/nmol, which could be increased greatly by purifying the aldehydes and reducing them with KB3H4. In addition, beta-galactosidase activity was successfully determined with [3H]galactosylceramide as the enzyme substrate; the Km was 18.73 mM and the Vmax was 11.63 nmol/mg/h, indicating that no significant structural modification occurs during the oxidation

  11. Tritium - is it underestimated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    Practical experience in the use of the Whitlock Tritium Meter in various laboratories and industrial establishments throughout the world has shown that:-a) Measurements by smear/wipe tests can often be in error by three orders of magnitude or more; b) Sub-visual surface scratches (8μ deep) are radiologically important; c) Volatile forms of tritium exist in 20% to 30% of establishments visited. It is concluded that a) the widespread use of smear/wipe techniques for the assessment of 3 H surface contamination based on the assumption that 10% of removable activity is collected by the smear/wipe should be re-examined and b) tritium surface contamination assessed as 'fixed' can contain volatile fractions with a hazard potential which may be considerably greater than the hazard from removable activity at present covered by maximum permissible level recommendations. (H.K.)

  12. Study and application of hydrophobic catalyst in treating tritium waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Gui-ping; Zhang, Dong; Qiu, Yong-mei; Yuan, Guo-Qi

    2008-01-01

    Tritium decontamination from tritium waste is important for the management of tritium waste. Tritium removal from waste tritium oxide can not only get tritium, but also reduce the amount of waste tritium. At the meantime, by cleaning the tritium pollution gas can also reduce the tritium exhausting from tritium facility. At present, the process of hydrogen isotopic exchange in tritium removal from waste tritium oxide and coordination oxidisation-adsorption in tritium cleaning from waste tritium gas are the mainly methods. In these methods, hydrophobic catalysts which can be used in these process are the key technology. There are many references about their preparing and applying, but few on the estimation about their performance changing during their applying. However, their performance stability on isotopic catalytic exchange and catalytic oxidisation will affect their using in reaction. Hydrophobic catalyst Pt-SDB which can be used in tritium isotopic exchange between tritium oxide and hydrogen and the cleaning of tritium pollution gas have been prepared in our laboratory in early days. In order to estimating their performance stability during their using, this work will investigate their stability on their catalytic activity and their radiation-resistance tritium. (author)

  13. Tritium in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Tritium is a hydrogen isotope taking part in the global hydrogen cycle as well as in all metabolic processes. The resultant problems with respect to the food chain are summarized briefly with emphasis on 'organically bound tritium'. However, only a small number of the numerous publications on this topic can be taken into consideration. Publications describing experiments under defined conditions are reported, thus allowing a semiempirical interpretation to be made. Tritium activity measurements of food grown in the vicinity of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center have been carried out. A list of the results is given. A dose assessment is performed under simplifying assumptions. Even when the organically bound tritium is taken into account, a radiation exposure of less than 1% of that of K-40 is obtained under these conditions. To avoid misinterpretation, the specific activity (Bq H-3/g H) of water-bound and organically bound tritium has to be considered separately. (orig.) [de

  14. Syntheses of therapeutically active labelled molecules for metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies. Synthesis, preservation and radiochemical purity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichat, L.

    1977-01-01

    Molecules labelled with radioactive isotopes are without question an essential tool for metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies. Carbon 14 is often preferred to tritium since it allows better observation of the fate of carbonated structures. The fact that 14 CO 2 alone is used as basic material is the distinguishing feature of syntheses with isotopic carbon. In many cases the synthesis schemes of labelled drugs diverge considerably or entirely from those normally adopted for the unlabelled product. It is usually necessary to work on micro-quantities in order to maintain high specific activities, which implies the use of special synthesis techniques and of chromatographic separation and purification methods. Radiochemical purity tests are carried out by thin layer, column and gas phase chromatography, purity and identity checks by mass spectrometry and by 13 C and proton RMN. Labelled products are radiolysed by interaction of excited species with the molecules of the compound, a phenomenon much faster with tritiated than with 14 C-labelled molecules. The radiolysis rates may be reduced by molecule dilution. For ethical reasons it is not convenient to use 14 C molecules in human experiments, but molecular labelled with stable isotopes ( 13 C, 15 N, D) can serve instead [fr

  15. Isotopically labelled benzodiazepines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebman, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on the benzodiazepines which are a class of therapeutic agents. Improvements in the analytical methodology in the areas of biochemistry and pharmacology were significant, particularly in the application of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the discovery and subsequent development of tritium and carbon-14 as an analytical tool in the biological sciences were essentially post-world war II phenomena. Thus, as these new chemical entities were found to be biologically active, they could be prepared in labeled form for metabolic study, biological half-life determination (pharmacokinetics), tissue distribution study, etc. This use of tracer methodology has been liberally applied to the benzodiazepines and also more recently to the study of receptor-ligand interactions, in which tritium, carbon-11 or fluorine-18 isotopes have been used. The history of benzodiazepines as medicinal agents is indeed an interesting one; an integral part of that history is their use in just about every conceivable labeled form

  16. Tritium immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridger, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    Tritium is immobilised for long term storage by absorption in a hydridable/tritidable material, such as zirconium. A gas permeable container is packed with the material in the form of sponge fragments, rods or tubes, and a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and tritium introduced into the container whilst the container is at a temperature of about 600 deg C or above. Thermal expansion of the material during reaction with the gaseous mixture compacts the material into a coherent body in the container relatively free from finely divided hydride/ tritide material. (author)

  17. The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility: Status-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Sharpe, J.P.; Schuetz, S.T.; Petti, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility, a US DOE National User Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), comprises capabilities and infrastructure to support both tritium and non-tritium research activities important to the development of safe and environmentally friendly fusion energy. Research thrusts include (1) interactions of tritium and deuterium with plasma-facing-component (PFC) materials, (2) fusion safety issues [PFC material chemical reactivity and dust/debris generation, activation product mobilization, tritium behavior in fusion systems], and (3) molten salts and fusion liquids for tritium breeder and coolant applications. This paper updates the status of STAR and the capabilities for ongoing research activities, with an emphasis on the development, testing and integration of the infrastructure to support tritium research activities. Key elements of this infrastructure include a tritium storage and assay system, a tritium cleanup system to process glovebox and experiment tritiated effluent gases, and facility tritium monitoring systems

  18. Tritium in HTR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinwarz, W.

    1987-07-01

    Starting from the basis of the radiological properties of tritium, the provisions of present-day radiation protection legislation are discussed in the context of the handling of this radionuclide in HTR plants. Tritium transportation is then followed through from the place of its creation up until the sink, i.e. disposal and/or environmental route, and empirical values obtained in experiments and in plant operation translated into guidelines for plant design and planning. The use of the example of modular HTR plants permits indication that environmental contamination via the 'classical' routes of air and water emissions, and contamination of products, and resulting consumer exposure, are extremely low even on the assumption of extreme conditions. This leads finally to a requirement that the expenditure for implementation of measures for further reduction of tritium activity rates be measured against low radiological effect. (orig.) [de

  19. Tritium practices past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gede, V.P.; Gildea, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    History of the production and use of tritium, as well as handling techniques, are reviewed. Handling techniques first used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory made use of glass vacuum systems and relatively crude ion chambers for monitoring airborne activity. The first use of inert atmosphere glove boxes demonstrated that uptake through the skin could be a serious personnel exposure problem. Growing environmental concerns in the early 1970's resulted in the implementation by the Atomic Energy Commission of a new criteria to limit atmospheric tritium releases to levels as low as practicable. An important result of the new criteria was the development of containment and recovery systems to capture tritium rather than vent it to the atmosphere. The Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Tritium Research Laboratory containment and decontamination systems are presented as a typical example of this technology. The application of computers to control systems is expected to provide the greatest potential for change in future tritium handling practices

  20. Analysis of movements of both specific activity of tritium and concentration of each ion in short-term precipitation at typhoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Ryuta; Watanabe, Minami; Ying, Wang; Kataoka, Noriaki; Morita, Syogo; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Kano, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Both the specific activity of tritium and the concentration of several ions(Na + , K + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- ) in precipitation at typhoons in Niigata city, Japan were measured, and the following matters were found as to precipitation at typhoon. (1) Specific activities of tritium at typhoons were under the average of the activities in precipitation in the same month. (2) The specific activity of tritium depends on that whether the precipitation was sampled after the several days from the last rain, or not so long. (3) Movements of these ion concentrations in precipitation are similar to each other except nitrate ion. (4) Each ion concentration ratio in precipitation at a typhoon became to be similar to that in sea with time. (5) Using relative compositional ratio of sampled water to sea water defined in this research, the effect of sea water on precipitation can be revealed. (author)

  1. Labeling of fruitflies and their identification by tracer activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisch, A.; Forster, S.; Staerk, H.

    1975-01-01

    A technique was worked out to label and identify cherry fruit flies (Rhagoletic cerasi L.) in large numbers. For that purpose, the tracers dysprosium and samarium were mingled with a carrier substance (silica gel) which, mixed with silica sand, formed the substrate for emergence. The flies, the pupae of which were in this substrate, took up with their ptilinum-labeled silica gel during their crawling through the sand up to the surface. The tracer was detected after its activation by neutron irradiation

  2. Tritium inventory prediction in a CANDU plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.J.; Son, S.H.; Jang, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    The flow of tritium in a CANDU nuclear power plant was modeled to predict tritium activity build-up. Predictions were generally in good agreement with field measurements for the period 1983--1994. Fractional contributions of coolant and moderator systems to the environmental tritium release were calculated by least square analysis using field data from the Wolsong plant. From the analysis, it was found that: (1) about 94% of tritiated heavy water loss came from the coolant system; (2) however, about 64% of environmental tritium release came from the moderator system. Predictions of environmental tritium release were also in good agreement with field data from a few other CANDU plants. The model was used to calculate future tritium build-up and environmental tritium release at Wolsong site, Korea, where one unit is operating and three more units are under construction. The model predicts the tritium inventory at Wolsong site to increase steadily until it reaches the maximum of 66.3 MCi in the year 2026. The model also predicts the tritium release rate to reach a maximum of 79 KCi/yr in the year 2012. To reduce the tritium inventory at Wolsong site, construction of a tritium removal facility (TRF) is under consideration. The maximum needed TRF capacity of 8.7 MCi/yr was calculated to maintain tritium concentration effectively in CANDU reactors

  3. Management of tritium at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report presents extending summaries of the works of the participants to an IAEA co-ordinated research programme, ''Handling Tritium - bearing effluents and wastes''. The subjects covered include production of tritium in nuclear power plants (mainly heavy water and light water reactors), as well as at reprocessing plants; removal and enrichment of tritium at nuclear facilities; conditioning methods and characteristics of immobilized tritium of low and high concentration; some potential methods of storage and disposal of tritium. In addition to the conclusions of this three-years work, possible activities in the field are recommended

  4. A Hierarchical Representation for Human Activity Recognition with Noisy Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, N.; Englebienne, G.; Lou, Z.; Kröse, B.

    2015-01-01

    Human activity recognition is an essential task for robots to effectively and efficiently interact with the end users. Many machine learning approaches for activity recognition systems have been proposed recently. Most of these methods are built upon a strong assumption that the labels in the

  5. Transfer of fallout tritium from environment to human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Shun-ichi; Takizawa, Yukio

    1989-01-01

    A large quntity of tritium will be used as a fuel of nuclear fusion in the future. It is, therefore, considered important to elucidate tritium behavior present in the environment and the process of tritium transfer from the environment to the human body. Fallout tritium is an applicable material in searching for the long term behavior of tritium in the environment. This paper focuses on the American, Italian, Japanese literature concerning fallout tritium in food and in the human body. The specific activity ratio of bound to free tritium poses an important problem. The mechanism of biological concentration must await further studies. (N.K.) 63 refs

  6. A simplified model for tritium permeation transient predictions when trapping is active

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes a simplified one-dimensional tritium permeation and retention model. The model makes use of the same physical mechanisms as more sophisticated, time-transient codes such as implantation, recombination, diffusion, trapping and thermal gradient effects. It takes advantage of a number of simplifications and approximations to solve the steady-state problem and then provides interpolating functions to make estimates of intermediate states based on the steady-state solution. Comparison calculations with the verified and validated TMAP4 transient code show good agreement. ((orig.))

  7. A simplified model for tritium permeation transient predictions when trapping is active*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, G. R.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes a simplified one-dimensional tritium permeation and retention model. The model makes use of the same physical mechanisms as more sophisticated, time-transient codes such as implantation, recombination, diffusion, trapping and thermal gradient effects. It takes advantage of a number of simplifications and approximations to solve the steady-state problem and then provides interpolating functions to make estimates of intermediate states based on the steady-state solution. Comparison calculations with the verified and validated TMAP4 transient code show good agreement.

  8. A simplified model for tritium permeation transient predictions when trapping is active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R. (Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States))

    1994-09-01

    This report describes a simplified one-dimensional tritium permeation and retention model. The model makes use of the same physical mechanisms as more sophisticated, time-transient codes such as implantation, recombination, diffusion, trapping and thermal gradient effects. It takes advantage of a number of simplifications and approximations to solve the steady-state problem and then provides interpolating functions to make estimates of intermediate states based on the steady-state solution. Comparison calculations with the verified and validated TMAP4 transient code show good agreement. ((orig.))

  9. Preparation of a high specific activity I-125 labeled styryl dye for leukocyte membrane labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, C.; Mease, R.C.; Le, T.; Sabet, H.; Avren, L.I.; McAfee, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a high specific activity radioiodinated cell membrane probe for tracking lymphocytes in-vivo to replace the nucleus localizing, cytotoxic lipophilic chelates (In-111 oxine and Tc-99m HMPAO) currently used. Alkylation of parent dye 4-[2-[-N,N-didecylamino]phenyl]ethenyl pyridine with E-1-tributylstannyl-3-tosylpropene (prepared form E-1-tributylstannyl-1-propene-3-ol), gave a tributyltin precursor 1. Radiolabeled 3-[4-[2-[4-(N,N-didecylamino)phenyl]ethenyl]pyridino] E-[I-125]-1-iodopropene (2), was prepared from 1 using peracetic acid in acetonitrile/water. Labeling yields and specific activities achieved were 26% (∼2170 Ci/mmol), 40% (1220 Ci/mmol), and 55% (200 Ci/mmol) for nca, 0.4, and 2 nanomole carrier iodide runs respectively. Canine mixed leukocytes (0.5-1.0 x 10 8 cells) were labeled with 2 (67% and 42% yields for 200 Ci/mol and 1220 Ci/mmol preparations) and showed blood clearance similar to In 111 oxine. Radioiodinated styryl dye 2 appears to be a promising leukocyte labeling agent. Imaging studies with I-131 labeled 2 are in progress

  10. Modeling activity recognition of multi resident using label combination of multi label classification in smart home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Raihani; Perumal, Thinagaran; Sulaiman, Md Nasir; Mustapha, Norwati; Zainudin, M. N. Shah

    2017-10-01

    Pertaining to the human centric concern and non-obtrusive way, the ambient sensor type technology has been selected, accepted and embedded in the environment in resilient style. Human activities, everyday are gradually becoming complex and thus complicate the inferences of activities when it involving the multi resident in the same smart environment. Current works solutions focus on separate model between the resident, activities and interactions. Some study use data association and extra auxiliary of graphical nodes to model human tracking information in an environment and some produce separate framework to incorporate the auxiliary for interaction feature model. Thus, recognizing the activities and which resident perform the activity at the same time in the smart home are vital for the smart home development and future applications. This paper will cater the above issue by considering the simplification and efficient method using the multi label classification framework. This effort eliminates time consuming and simplifies a lot of pre-processing tasks comparing with previous approach. Applications to the multi resident multi label learning in smart home problems shows the LC (Label Combination) using Decision Tree (DT) as base classifier can tackle the above problems.

  11. Radiation hazards due to activated corrosion and neutron sputtering products in fusion reactor coolant and tritium breeding fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.C.; Vogelsang, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation of radioactive corrosion and neutron sputtering products on the surfaces of components in fusion reactor coolant and tritium breeding systems can cause significant personnel access problems. Remote maintenance techniques or special treatment may be required to limit the amount of radiation exposure to plant operational and maintenance personnel. A computer code, RAPTOR, has been developed to estimate the transport of this activated material throughout a fusion heat transfer and/or tritium breeding material loop. A method is devised which treats the components of the loop individually and determines the source rates, deposition and erosion rates, decay rates, and purification rates of these radioactive materials. RAPTOR has been applied to the MARS and Starfire conceptual reactor designs to determine the degree of the possible radiation hazard due to these products. Due to the very high corrosion release rate by HT-9 when exposed to LiPb in the MARS reactor design, the radiation fields surrounding the primary system will preclude direct contact maintenance even after shutdown. Even the removal of the radioactive LiPb from the system will not decrease the radiation fields to reasonable levels. The Starfire primary system will exhibit radiation fields similar to those found in present pressurized water reactors. (orig.)

  12. Study of reactions of isotopic exchange of trans-zeatin with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, G.V.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    2006-01-01

    Reactions of isotopic exchange of trans-zeatin with high-radioactive tritium water, with gaseous tritium in solution and solid-phase catalytic hydrogenation are studied to prepare trans-zeatin and dihydrozeatin labelled with tritium. It is shown that reaction of isotopic exchange of trans-zeatin with gaseous tritium both in solutions and without solvents at 160 Deg C and above leads to practically total hydrogenation of initial compound with formation of dihydrozeatin labelled with tritium. Isotopic exchange with tritium water permits to prepare zeatin labelled with tritium with 67 % yield and specific radioactivity 0.68 PBq/mol. It is determined that in the case of solid-phase isotopic exchange within 150-155 Deg C temperature interval both dihydrozeatin and trans-zeatin labelled with tritium are formed [ru

  13. 75 FR 12546 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Cosmetic Labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Cosmetic Labeling... FDA's cosmetic labeling regulations. DATES: Submit written or electronic comments on the collection of... of information technology. Cosmetic Labeling Regulations--21 CFR Part 701 (OMB Control Number 0910...

  14. [Solid state isotope hydrogen exchange for deuterium and tritium in human gene-engineered insulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotarev, Yu A; Dadayan, A K; Kozik, V S; Gasanov, E V; Nazimov, I V; Ziganshin, R Kh; Vaskovsky, B V; Murashov, A N; Ksenofontov, A L; Haribin, O N; Nikolaev, E N; Myasoedov, N F

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of high temperature solid state catalytic isotope exchange in peptides and proteins under the action of catalyst-activated spillover hydrogen was studied. The reaction of human gene-engineered insulin with deuterium and tritium was conducted at 120-140° C to produce insulin samples containing 2-6 hydrogen isotope atoms. To determine the distribution of the isotope label over tritium-labeled insulin's amino acid residues, oxidation of the S-S bonds of insulin by performic acid was performed and polypeptide chains isolated; then their acid hydrolysis, amino acid analysis and liquid scintillation counts of tritium in the amino acids were conducted. The isotope label was shown to be incorporated in all amino acids of the protein, with the peptide fragment FVNQHLCGSHLVE of the insulin β-chain showing the largest incorporation. About 45% of the total protein isotope label was incorporated in His5 and His10 of this fragment. For the analysis of isotope label distribution in labeled insulin's peptide fragments, the recovery of the S-S bonds by mercaptoethanol, the enzymatic hydrolysis by glutamyl endopeptidase from Bacillus intermedius and HPLC division of the resulting peptides were carried out. Attribution of the peptide fragments formed due to hydrolysis at the Glu-X bond in the β-chain was accomplished by mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry analysis data of the deuterium-labeled insulin samples' isotopomeric composition showed that the studied solid state isotope exchange reaction equally involved all the protein molecules. Biological studying of tritium-labeled insulin showed its physiological activity to be completely retained.

  15. Tritium determination in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavini, Ricardo M.

    2008-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the determination of tritium in water is described in this paper. The determination is carried out in presence of other radionuclides, such as Fe-55, Ni-63, Mn-54, Zn-65, Co-60, Cd-109, Sr-90, Cs-134 and Cs-137. The method consists in a simple distillation stage prior to measurement by liquid scintillation counting. The samples containing beta and gamma emitters are conditioned with a (NO 3 ) 2 Pb solution and Na(OH) up to pH = 7 - 8. This produces lead hydroxide precipitation that allows fixing volatile elements, which could be transported together with tritium, and may increase the extinction degree of the sample or interfere with the counting process. Special attention must be paid if presence of Fe-55 (E max ∼ 5.95 keV) is suspected as it might not be distinguished from tritium (E max ∼ 18 keV), leading to an overestimation of tritium activity. Different tests were carried to obtain the optimum method conditions, to achieve the purification of the tritium and a pH near to 7 in the distilled. The detection limit (2σ) was 8.0 Bq/l and the distillation performance was 98.3 %. This technique was applied to water samples containing Fe-55 and other gamma radionuclides in 1M hydrochloric acid media in successive Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) intercomparison programs. The results obtained were very satisfactory and are presented in this paper. (author)

  16. Inter-labeler and intra-labeler variability of condition severity classification models using active and passive learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nir; Shahar, Yuval; Elovici, Yuval; Hripcsak, George; Moskovitch, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Labeling instances by domain experts for classification is often time consuming and expensive. To reduce such labeling efforts, we had proposed the application of active learning (AL) methods, introduced our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, and shown its significant reduction of labeling efforts. The use of any of three AL methods (one well known [SVM-Margin], and two that we introduced [Exploitation and Combination_XA]) significantly reduced (by 48% to 64%) condition labeling efforts, compared to standard passive (random instance-selection) SVM learning. Furthermore, our new AL methods achieved maximal accuracy using 12% fewer labeled cases than the SVM-Margin AL method. However, because labelers have varying levels of expertise, a major issue associated with learning methods, and AL methods in particular, is how to best to use the labeling provided by a committee of labelers. First, we wanted to know, based on the labelers' learning curves, whether using AL methods (versus standard passive learning methods) has an effect on the Intra-labeler variability (within the learning curve of each labeler) and inter-labeler variability (among the learning curves of different labelers). Then, we wanted to examine the effect of learning (either passively or actively) from the labels created by the majority consensus of a group of labelers. We used our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, the three AL methods and the passive learning method, as mentioned above, to induce the classifications models. We used a dataset of 516 clinical conditions and their severity labeling, represented by features aggregated from the medical records of 1.9 million patients treated at Columbia University Medical Center. We analyzed the variance of the classification performance within (intra-labeler), and especially among (inter-labeler) the classification models that were induced by using the labels provided by seven

  17. Results for SEAFP-subtask A 10: Assessments of individual and collective doses to the public for routine and accidental releases of tritium and activation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.

    1995-04-01

    Dose calculations have been performed for accidental releases of tritium and activation products. Unit releases of 1 GBq per nuclide have been investigated for 31 fusion relevant nuclides. Additionally, unit releases of 1g of tritium and several activated materials have been studied. Under normal operation conditions, dose calculations have been performed for real source terms of tritium and activated materials. The individual dose values at the fence of the site (1 km) as well as the collective dose to the public (from 1 km to 100 km) have been obtained. As site specific parameters are still missing, different so called ''worst case'' release conditions have been applied. To have a first guess of the influence of the release duration on the dose to the Most Exposed Individual (MEI) in the vicinity of a reactor, different release durations, ranging from 1 hour up to 168 hours have been investigated, too. Finally, dose calculations have been performed for mobilisation source terms which take account of deposition and retention in the plant. This has been done for several RPM and APM source terms. The dose values of these final source terms seem to be less than every criteria to start emergency actions, however, some problems e.g. the behaviour of tritium in the plant, remain unsolved. (orig.)

  18. Tritium management for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer, J.L.; Djerassi, H.

    1985-01-01

    To determine a waste management strategy, one has to identify first the wastes (quantities, activities, etc.), then to define options, and to compare these options by appropriate criteria and evaluations. Two European Associations are working together, i.e., Studsvik and CEA, on waste treatment and tritium problems. A contribution to fusion specific tritiated waste management strategy is presented. It is demonstrated that the best strategy is to retain tritium (outgas and recover, or immobilize it) so that residual tritium releases are kept to a minimum. For that, wastes are identified, actual regulations are described and judged inadequate without amendments for fusion problems. Appropriate criteria are defined. Options for treatment and disposal of tritiated wastes are proposed and evaluated. A tritium recovery solution is described

  19. Comparison of balance of tritium activity in waste water from nuclear power plants and at selected monitoring sites in the Vltava River, Elbe River and Jihlava (Dyje) River catchments in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslík, Eduard; Marešová, Diana; Juranová, Eva; Sedlářová, Barbora

    2017-12-01

    During the routine operation, nuclear power plants discharge waste water containing a certain amount of radioactivity, whose main component is the artificial radionuclide tritium. The amounts of tritium released into the environment are kept within the legal requirements, which minimize the noxious effects of radioactivity, but the activity concentration is well measurable in surface water of the recipient. This study compares amount of tritium activity in waste water from nuclear power plants and the tritium activity detected at selected relevant sites of surface water quality monitoring. The situation is assessed in the catchment of the Vltava and Elbe Rivers, affected by the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant as well as in the Jihlava River catchment (the Danube River catchment respectively), where the waste water of the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant is discharged. The results show a good agreement of the amount of released tritium stated by the power plant operator and the tritium amount detected in the surface water and highlighted the importance of a robust independent monitoring of tritium discharged from a nuclear power plant which could be carried out by water management authorities. The outputs of independent monitoring allow validating the values reported by a polluter and expand opportunities of using tritium as e.g. tracer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inter-Labeler and Intra-Labeler Variability of Condition Severity Classification Models Using Active and Passive Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nir; Shahar, Yuval; Boland, Mary Regina; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Elovici, Yuval; Hripcsak, George; Moskovitch, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Background and Objectives Labeling instances by domain experts for classification is often time consuming and expensive. To reduce such labeling efforts, we had proposed the application of active learning (AL) methods, introduced our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, and shown its significant reduction of labeling efforts. The use of any of three AL methods (one well known [SVM-Margin], and two that we introduced [Exploitation and Combination_XA]) significantly reduced (by 48% to 64%) condition labeling efforts, compared to standard passive (random instance-selection) SVM learning. Furthermore, our new AL methods achieved maximal accuracy using 12% fewer labeled cases than the SVM-Margin AL method. However, because labelers have varying levels of expertise, a major issue associated with learning methods, and AL methods in particular, is how to best to use the labeling provided by a committee of labelers. First, we wanted to know, based on the labelers’ learning curves, whether using AL methods (versus standard passive learning methods) has an effect on the Intra-labeler variability (within the learning curve of each labeler) and inter-labeler variability (among the learning curves of different labelers). Then, we wanted to examine the effect of learning (either passively or actively) from the labels created by the majority consensus of a group of labelers. Methods We used our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, the three AL methods and the passive learning method, as mentioned above, to induce the classifications models. We used a dataset of 516 clinical conditions and their severity labeling, represented by features aggregated from the medical records of 1.9 million patients treated at Columbia University Medical Center. We analyzed the variance of the classification performance within (intra-labeler), and especially among (inter-labeler) the classification models that were induced by

  1. Guanidine-acylguanidine bioisosteric approach in the design of radioligands: synthesis of a tritium-labeled N(G)-propionylargininamide ([3H]-UR-MK114) as a highly potent and selective neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Max; Pop, Nathalie; Hutzler, Christoph; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin

    2008-12-25

    Synthesis and characterization of (R)-N(alpha)-(2,2-diphenylacetyl)-N-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-N(omega)-([2,3-(3)H]-propanoyl)argininamide ([(3)H]-UR-MK114), an easily accessible tritium-labeled NPY Y(1) receptor (Y(1)R) antagonist (K(B): 0.8 nM, calcium assay, HEL cells) derived from the (R)-argininamide BIBP 3226, is reported. The radioligand binds with high affinity (K(D), saturation: 1.2 nM, kinetic experiments: 1.1 nM, SK-N-MC cells) and selectivity for Y(1)R over Y(2), Y(4), and Y(5) receptors. The title compound is a useful pharmacological tool for the determination of Y(1)R ligand affinities, quantification of Y(1)R binding sites, and autoradiography.

  2. 99Tcm-labelled leucocyte imaging in active rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Janabi, M.A.; Jones, A.K.P.; Solanki, K.; Sobnack, R.; Bomanji, J.; Al-Nahhas, A.A.; Britton, K.E.; Huskisson, E.C.; Doyle, D.V.

    1988-01-01

    A simplified technique of labelling leucocytes with technetium-99m is described and applied to patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. The clinically active and less active knees in seven patients were imaged and the uptake of labelled leucocytes was measured. The measurements were repeated after local steroid injection into nine painful knees. A 50-80% reduction in leucocyte uptake localized to the region of the synovium was demonstrated in the eight knees which showed clinical responses and a rise of 8% in the non-responder. There was a variable response in the knees that were not injected. 99 Tc m leucocyte imaging in rheumatoid arthritis is able to assess objectively joint inflammation and its response to treatment. (author)

  3. Tritium dosimetry and standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    1983-01-01

    Actual problem of radiation hygiene such as an evaluation of human irradiation hazard due to a contact with tritium compounds both in industrial and public spheres is under discussion. Sources of tritium release to environment are characterized. Methods of tritium radiation monitoring are discussed. Methods of dosimetry of internal human exposure resulted from tritium compounds are developed on the base of modern representations on metbolism and tritium radiobiological effect. A system of standardization of permissible intake of tritium compounds for personnel and persons of population is grounded. Some protection measures are proposed as applied to tritium overdosage

  4. Tritium radioluminescent devices, Health and Safety Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub, R.J.; Jensen, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document consolidates available information on the properties of tritium, including its environmental chemistry, its health physics, and safe practices in using tritium-activated RL lighting. It also summarizes relevant government regulations on RL lighting. Chapters are divided into a single-column part, which provides an overview of the topic for readers simply requiring guidance on the safety of tritium RL lighting, and a dual-column part for readers requiring more technical and detailed information.

  5. Tritium radioluminescent devices, Health and Safety Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traub, R.J.; Jensen, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document consolidates available information on the properties of tritium, including its environmental chemistry, its health physics, and safe practices in using tritium-activated RL lighting. It also summarizes relevant government regulations on RL lighting. Chapters are divided into a single-column part, which provides an overview of the topic for readers simply requiring guidance on the safety of tritium RL lighting, and a dual-column part for readers requiring more technical and detailed information

  6. Tritium activity concentrations and residence times of groundwater collected in Rokkasho, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hidenao; Ueda, Shinji; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Akata, Naofumi

    2015-01-01

    Tritium ( 3 H) concentrations were measured in groundwater samples from four surface wells (4-10 m deep), four shallow wells (24-26.5 m deep) and a 150-m-deep well in the Futamata River catchment area, which is adjacent to the large-scale commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan. The 3 H concentrations in most of the surface- and shallow-well samples (<0.03-0.57 Bq l -1 ) were similar to those in precipitation (annual mean: 0.31-0.79 Bq l -1 ), suggesting that the residence time of the water in those wells was 0-15 y. The 3 H concentrations in the samples from a 26-m-deep well and the 150-m-deep well were lower than those in the other wells, indicating that groundwater with a long residence time exists in deep aquifers and the estuary area of the catchment. It is not clear whether 3 H released during test operation of the plant with actual spent nuclear fuel affected the 3 H concentrations observed in this study. (authors)

  7. Tritium activity concentrations and residence times of groundwater collected in Rokkasho, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hidenao; Ueda, Shinji; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-11-01

    Tritium ((3)H) concentrations were measured in groundwater samples from four surface wells (4-10 m deep), four shallow wells (24-26.5 m deep) and a 150-m-deep well in the Futamata River catchment area, which is adjacent to the large-scale commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan. The (3)H concentrations in most of the surface- and shallow-well samples (<0.03-0.57 Bq l(-1)) were similar to those in precipitation (annual mean: 0.31-0.79 Bq l(-1)), suggesting that the residence time of the water in those wells was 0-15 y. The (3)H concentrations in the samples from a 26-m-deep well and the 150-m-deep well were lower than those in the other wells, indicating that groundwater with a long residence time exists in deep aquifers and the estuary area of the catchment. It is not clear whether (3)H released during test operation of the plant with actual spent nuclear fuel affected the (3)H concentrations observed in this study. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Study of isotopic exchange reactions of azidothymidine with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, G.V.; Zverkov, Yu.B.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    Different reactions of isotopic exchange of azidothymidine (3 - azido-3 - desoxythymidine) with tritium, such as solid- and liquid-phase catalytic isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium and isotopic exchange in solution with tritium water, are investigated. It is determined that catalytic reactions of azidothymidine with gaseous tritium in solution lead to practically full reduction of azido group up to amino group. In reactions of solid-phase catalytic hydrogenation this process takes place too and 3 - azido-3 - desoxythymidine yield is from 20 to 70 %. Molar radioactivity of labelled with tritium azidothymidine prepared in reactions of solid-phase catalytic isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium and so by isotopic exchange in solution with tritium water does not exceed 0.5 Cu/mmol [ru

  9. Tritium release of titan-tritium layers in air, aqueous solutions and living organisms of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, J.; Feher, I.; Mate, L.; Varga, L.

    1978-01-01

    Samples containing 400-1100 MBq (10-30 mCi) tritium were prepared and the effect of storage time on tritium release was followed. In 250 days one thousandth of the tritium was released in aqueous solution; in air the ratio of release per hour fell in the range of 10 -6 -10 -7 . Ti-T plates with different storage times were surgically placed in the abdomen of rats. Their tritium release dropped with time and the activity appearing in the circulation was lower than that of plates with 5-6 orders of magnitude. Checking the tritium incorporation of neutron generator operators it must be held in mind that only a minor part of tritium can be detected by the measurement of the tritium content of urine. (author)

  10. Biological effects of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this project is to study the thermal effects on proliferation activity in the intestinal epithelium of the goldfish acclimated at different temperatures (stationary state). The cell division occurs only at certain phases of the circadian cycle when the proliferative activity is synchronized or trained by an environmental factor such as light-dark cycle. Another aspect of the project is the study of the biological effects, non-stochastic, on cell kinetics in animals chronically exposed to low dose rates or tritium and gamma rays from 60 CO, used as a standard radiation. The influence on the accumulated dose per cell and cycle cell in function of the duration of the cell cycle at different acclimation temperatures should be considered. To calculate the risk of tritium contamination from nuclear power plants (radiation exposure), the organic tissue-bond is of decisive importance due to the long turnover of the organic tissue-bond in organisms favouring transport of tritium to other organisms of the ecosystem and to man. (author)

  11. Tritium accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, R.; Spannagel, G.

    1995-01-01

    Conventional accountancy means that for a given material balance area and a given interval of time the tritium balance is established so that at the end of that interval of time the book inventory is compared with the measured inventory. In this way, an optimal effectiveness of accountancy is achieved. However, there are still further objectives of accountancy, namely the timely detection of anomalies as well as the localization of anomalies in a major system. It can be shown that each of these objectives can be optimized only at the expense of the others. Recently, Near-Real-Time Accountancy procedures have been studied; their methodological background as well as their merits will be discussed. (orig.)

  12. Tritium environmental transport studies at TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, P.D.; Dolan, T.J.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental tritium concentrations will be measured near the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to help validate dynamic models of tritium transport in the environment. For model validation the database must contain sequential measurements of tritium concentrations in key environmental compartments. Since complete containment of tritium is an operational goal, the supplementary monitoring program should be able to glean useful data from an unscheduled acute release. Portable air samplers will be used to take samples automatically every 4 hours for a weak after an acute release, thus obtaining the time resolution needed for code validation. Samples of soil, vegetation, and foodstuffs will be gathered daily at the same locations as the active air monitors. The database may help validate the plant/soil/air part of tritium transport models and enhance environmental tritium transport understanding for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

  13. Tritium environmental transport studies at TFTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, P. D.; Dolan, T. J.; Longhurst, G. R.

    1993-06-01

    Environmental tritium concentrations will be measured near the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to help validate dynamic models of tritium transport in the environment. For model validation the database must contain sequential measurements of tritium concentrations in key environmental compartments. Since complete containment of tritium is an operational goal, the supplementary monitoring program should be able to glean useful data from an unscheduled acute release. Portable air samplers will be used to take samples automatically every 4 hours for a week after an acute release, thus obtaining the time resolution needed for code validation. Samples of soil, vegetation, and foodstuffs will be gathered daily at the same locations as the active air monitors. The database may help validate the plant/soil/air part of tritium transport models and enhance environmental tritium transport understanding for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER).

  14. Comparison of Tritium Component Failure Rate Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-01-01

    Published failure rate values from the US Tritium Systems Test Assembly, the Japanese Tritium Process Laboratory, the German Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, and the Joint European Torus Active Gas Handling System have been compared. This comparison is on a limited set of components, but there is a good variety of data sets in the comparison. The data compared reasonably well. The most reasonable failure rate values are recommended for use on next generation tritium handling system components, such as those in the tritium plant systems for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and the tritium fuel systems of inertial fusion facilities, such as the US National Ignition Facility. These data and the comparison results are also shared with the International Energy Agency cooperative task on fusion component failure rate data

  15. Effects of interfering constituents on tritium smears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, G.D. Jr.; Cheeks, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium smears are performed by Health Protection Operations (HPO) to assess transferable contamination on work place surfaces, materials for movement outside Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCA), and product containers being shipped between facilities. Historically, gas proportional counters were used to detect transferable tritium contamination collected by smearing. Because tritium is a low-energy beta emitter, gas proportional counters do not provide the sensitivity or the counting efficiency to accurately measure the tritium activity on the smear. Liquid Scintillation Counters (LSC) provide greater counting efficiency for the low-energy beta particles along with greater reliability and reproducibility compared to gas flow proportional counters. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the effects of interfering constituents such as filters, dirt and oil on the counting efficiency and tritium recoveries of tritium smears by LSC

  16. Enantio-specific C(sp3)-H activation catalyzed by ruthenium nanoparticles: application to isotopic labeling of molecules of biological interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taglang, Celine

    2015-01-01

    Isotopic labeling with deuterium and tritium is extensively used in chemistry, biology and pharmaceutical research. Numerous methods of labeling by isotopic exchange allow high isotopic enrichments but generally require harsh conditions (high temperatures, acidity). As a consequence, a general, regioselective and smooth labeling method that might be applicable to a wide diversity of substrates remains to develop. In the first part of this thesis, we demonstrated that the use of ruthenium nanoparticles, synthesized by Pr. Bruno Chaudret's team (INSA Toulouse), allowed the mild (2 bar of deuterium gas at 55 C), effective and selective H/D exchange reaction of a large variety of nitrogen-containing compounds, such as pyridines, indoles and primary, secondary and tertiary alkyl amines. The usefulness and the efficiency of this novel methodology was demonstrated by the deuteration of eight nitrogen-containing molecules of biological interest without altering their chemical and stereochemical properties. However, the conservation of the original stereochemistry of an activated chiral C-H center remains a major issue. We studied the reactivity of RuNP(at)PVP on different categories of nitrogen-containing substrates (amines, aminoacids and peptides) in water or in organic solvents. Our results showed that C-H activation of chiral carbons C(sp3) took place efficiently, selectively and, in all cases, with total retention of configuration. The wide range of applications of this procedure was demonstrated by the labeling of three chiral amines, fourteen aminoacids, three aromatic amino esters and four peptides. Moreover, our collaboration with Pr. Romuald Poteau's team (INSA Toulouse) led to the identification of two mechanisms by ab initio simulation in agreement with our experimental results: the σ-bond metathesis mechanism and the oxidative addition mechanism. These two mechanisms imply two vicinal ruthenium atoms leading to the formation an original

  17. 78 FR 4153 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Labeling... label or in its labeling a statement provided for in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C... other forms of information technology. Food Labeling; Notification Procedures for Statements on Dietary...

  18. Mapping of tritium in drinking water from various Indian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Chirag A.; Baburajan, A.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The tritium in fresh water used for drinking purpose across five state of India was analyzed for tritium activity. The tritium data obtained were compared with the monitoring data of tritium in drinking water sources at Tarapur site, which houses a number of nuclear facilities. It is observed that the tritium activity in the water sample from various out station locations were in the range of < 0.48 to 1.33 Bq/l. The tritium value obtained in the drinking water sources at Tarapur was found to be in the range of 0.91 to 3.10 Bq/l. The monitoring of tritium in drinking water from Tarapur and from various out station location indicate that the level is negligible compared to the USEPA limit of 10000 Bq/l and the contribution of operation nuclear facilities to the tritium activity in drinking water source at Tarapur is insignificant. (author)

  19. Modelization of tritium transfer into the organic compartments of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Gerber, G.B.; Arapis, G.; Kirchmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Uptake of tritium oxide and its conversion into organic tritium was studied in four different types of algae with widely varying size and growth characteristics (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, two strains of Chlamydomonas and Dunaliella bioculata). Water in the cell and the vacuales equilibrates rapidly with external tritium water. Tritium is actively incorporated into organically bound form as the organisms grow. During the stationary phase, incorporation of tritium is slow. There exists a discrimination against the incorporation of tritium into organically bound form. A model has been elaborated taking in account these different factors. It appears that transfer of organic tritium by algae growing near the sites of release would be significant only for actively growing algae. Algae growing slowly may, however, be useful as cumulative indicators of discontinuous tritium release. (author)

  20. NMR-based approach to the analysis of radiopharmaceuticals: radiochemical purity, specific activity, and radioactive concentration values by proton and tritium NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, David J; Dormer, Peter G; Hesk, David; Pollack, Scott R; Lavey, Carolee Flader

    2015-06-15

    Compounds containing tritium are widely used across the drug discovery and development landscape. These materials are widely utilized because they can be efficiently synthesized and produced at high specific activity. Results from internally calibrated (3)H and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy suggests that at least in some cases, this calibrated approach could supplement or potentially replace radio-high-performance liquid chromatography for radiochemical purity, dilution and scintillation counting for the measurement of radioactivity per volume, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis for the determination of specific activity. In summary, the NMR-derived values agreed with those from the standard approaches to within 1% to 9% for solution count and specific activity. Additionally, the NMR-derived values for radiochemical purity deviated by less than 5%. A benefit of this method is that these values may be calculated at the same time that (3)H NMR analysis provides the location and distribution of tritium atoms within the molecule. Presented and discussed here is the application of this method, advantages and disadvantages of the approach, and a rationale for utilizing internally calibrated (1)H and (3)H NMR spectroscopy for specific activity, radioactive concentration, and radiochemical purity whenever acquiring (3)H NMR for tritium location. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Tritium waste disposal technology in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albenesius, E.L.; Towler, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium waste disposal methods in the US range from disposal of low specific activity waste along with other low-level waste in shallow land burial facilities, to disposal of kilocurie amounts in specially designed triple containers in 65' deep augered holes located in an aird region of the US. Total estimated curies disposed of are 500,000 in commercial burial sites and 10 million curies in defense related sites. At three disposal sites in humid areas, tritium has migrated into the ground water, and at one arid site tritium vapor has been detected emerging from the soil above the disposal area. Leaching tests on tritium containing waste show that tritium in the form of HTO leaches readily from most waste forms, but that leaching rates of tritiated water into polymer impregnated concrete are reduced by as much as a factor of ten. Tests on improved tritium containment are ongoing. Disposal costs for tritium waste are 7 to 10 dollars per cubic foot for shallow land burial of low specific activity tritium waste, and 10 to 20 dollars per cubic foot for disposal of high specific activity waste. The cost of packaging the high specific activity waste is 150 to 300 dollars per cubic foot. 18 references

  2. Labelled molecules, modern research implements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichat, L.; Langourieux, Y.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the synthesis of carbon 14- and tritium-labelled molecules are examined. Although the methods used are those of classical organic chemistry the preparation of carbon 14-labelled molecules differs in some respects, most noticeably in the use of 14 CO 2 which requires very special handling techniques. For the tritium labelling of organic molecules the methods are somewhat different, very often involving exchange reactions. The following are described in turn: the so-called Wilzbach exchange method; exchange by catalysis in solution; catalytic hydrogenation with tritium; reductions with borotritides. Some applications of labelled molecules in organic chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacology are listed [fr

  3. STAR facility tritium accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawelko, R. J.; Sharpe, J. P.; Denny, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has been established to provide a laboratory infrastructure for the fusion community to study tritium science associated with the development of safe fusion energy and other technologies. STAR is a radiological facility with an administrative total tritium inventory limit of 1.5 g (14,429 Ci) [1]. Research studies with moderate tritium quantities and various radionuclides are performed in STAR. Successful operation of the STAR facility requires the ability to receive, inventory, store, dispense tritium to experiments, and to dispose of tritiated waste while accurately monitoring the tritium inventory in the facility. This paper describes tritium accountancy in the STAR facility. A primary accountancy instrument is the tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS): a system designed to receive, assay, store, and dispense tritium to experiments. Presented are the methods used to calibrate and operate the SAS. Accountancy processes utilizing the Tritium Cleanup System (TCS), and the Stack Tritium Monitoring System (STMS) are also discussed. Also presented are the equations used to quantify the amount of tritium being received into the facility, transferred to experiments, and removed from the facility. Finally, the STAR tritium accountability database is discussed. (authors)

  4. Estimation of accumulated individual doses from waterborne pulse releases of tritium and activation products into the Baltic Sea from a hypothetical fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edlund, O

    1995-04-01

    The committed effective dose to a critical group during 50 years attributed to pulse unit releases of tritium and activation products (in total 66 nuclides) from a thought postulated fusion power plant into Tvaeren Bay, a part of the Baltic Sea with brackish water, outside Studsvik, Sweden, is calculated. The purpose of this work is to obtain (simple) relationships between release and dose for relevant nuclides for use in the future when realistic source terms are known. 26 refs, 8 tabs, 4 figs.

  5. Estimation of accumulated individual doses from waterborne pulse releases of tritium and activation products into the Baltic Sea from a hypothetical fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlund, O.

    1995-04-01

    The committed effective dose to a critical group during 50 years attributed to pulse unit releases of tritium and activation products (in total 66 nuclides) from a thought postulated fusion power plant into Tvaeren Bay, a part of the Baltic Sea with brackish water, outside Studsvik, Sweden, is calculated. The purpose of this work is to obtain (simple) relationships between release and dose for relevant nuclides for use in the future when realistic source terms are known. 26 refs, 8 tabs, 4 figs

  6. Acridinium esters as high-specific-activity labels in immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, I.; Beheshti, I.; McCapra, F.; Campbell, A.K.; Woodhead, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    A chemiluminescent acridinium ester has been synthesized that reacts spontaneously with proteins to yield stable, immunoreactive derivatives of high specific activity. The compound has been used to prepare chemiluminescent monoclonal antibodies to human alpha 1-fetoprotein having average incorporation ratios as great as 2.8 mol of label per mole of antibody, which corresponds to a detection limit of approximately 8 X 10(-19) mol. These antibodies have been used in the preliminary development of a two-site immunochemiluminometric assay for human alpha 1-fetoprotein, which requires only a 30-min incubation and a quantification time of 5 s per sample

  7. Tritium NMR in the analysis of tritiated compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Funke, C.W.; Vader, Jan; Wagenaars, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the possibilities of 3 H NMR in the characterisation of 3 H-labelled compounds. This technique gives information on the identity of the tritiated compounds, the position of the tritium, the distribution of the label and even the radiochemical purity of the labelled products. (author)

  8. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, Charles A.; Parker, John J.; Guttadora, Gregory L.; Ciebiera, Lloyd P.

    2002-01-01

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system

  9. Developing powerful tritide technique: Organic and biological molecule labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Complex hydrides are very important reagents in organic synthesis due to the range of reducing powers and selectivities available from different agents. Unfortunately, the availability of these compounds for radiosynthesis has been extremely limited due to the difficulty of making them with adequate levels of tritium. Investigators at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) National Tritium Labeling Facility have developed a new addition to the repertoire of the tritium-labeling chemist. The new method allows site-specific incorporation of tritium into organic and biological molecules by efficient reduction processes. Exceptionally reactive and selective reducing agents are prepared and used for labeling in a on-pot process. Three new tritide reagents - supertritide (lithium triethyl borotritide), LiAlT 4 (lithium aluminum tritide), and L-Selectride (sterically hindered lithium tri-sec-butyl borotritide) - have been synthesized at carrier-free levels, and have been demonstrated to be fully reactive. The availability of these versatile and reactive reagents gives the tritium radiochemist great control over chemoselectivity and stereoselectivity. The LBL tritide reagents can drive numerous conventional chemical reactions, and have been used to reduce p-toluene sulfonates, amides, lactones, esters, and aldehydes. These reactions produce good yields and result in products with maximum specific activities. The reagents clearly exhibit superior reactivity and may be used in many more synthetic processes than sodium borohydride, which is the currently used reagent. In addition, tritide reagents such as L-selectride have been shown to give greater control over stereochemistry and selectivity than sodium borohydride

  10. ZEPHYR tritium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swansiger, W.; Andelfinger, C.; Buchelt, E.; Fink, J.; Sandmann, W.; Stimmelmayr, A.; Wegmann, H.G.; Weichselgartner, H.

    1982-04-01

    The ignition experiment ZEPHYR will need tritium as an essential component of the fuel. The ZEPHYR Tritium Systems are designed as to recycle the fuel directly at the experiment. An amount of tritium, which is significantly below the total throughput, for example 10 5 Ci will be stored in uranium getters and introduced into the torus by a specially designed injection system. The torus vacuum system operates with tritium-tight turbomolecular pumps and multi-stage roots pumps in order to extract and store the spent fuel in intermediate storage tanks at atmospheric pressure. A second high vacuum system, similar in design, serves as to evacuate the huge containments of the neutral injection system. The spent fuel will be purified and subsequently processed by an isotope separation system in which the species D 2 , DT and T 2 will be recovered for further use. This isotope separation will be achieved by a preparative gaschromatographic process. All components of the tritium systems will be installed within gloveboxes which are located in a special tritium handling room. The atmospheres of the gloveboxes and of the tritium rooms are controlled by a tritium monitor system. In the case of a tritium release - during normal operation as well as during an accident - these atmospheres become processed by efficient tritium absorption systems. All ZEPHYR tritium handling systems are designed as to minimize the quantity of tritium released to the environment, so that the stringent German laws on radiological protection are satisfied. (orig.)

  11. TFTR tritium handling concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garber, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, to be located on the Princeton Forrestal Campus, is expected to operate with 1 to 2.5 MA tritium--deuterium plasmas, with the pulses involving injection of 50 to 150 Ci (5 to 16 mg) of tritium. Attainment of fusion conditions is based on generation of an approximately 1 keV tritium plasma by ohmic heating and conversion to a moderately hot tritium--deuterium ion plasma by injection of a ''preheating'' deuterium neutral beam (40 to 80 keV), followed by injection of a ''reacting'' beam of high energy neutral deuterium (120 to 150 keV). Additionally, compressions accompany the beam injections. Environmental, safety and cost considerations led to the decision to limit the amount of tritium gas on-site to that required for an experiment, maintaining all other tritium in ''solidified'' form. The form of the tritium supply is as uranium tritide, while the spent tritium and other hydrogen isotopes are getter-trapped by zirconium--aluminum alloy. The issues treated include: (1) design concepts for the tritium generator and its purification, dispensing, replenishment, containment, and containment--cleanup systems; (2) features of the spent plasma trapping system, particularly the regenerable absorption cartridges, their integration into the vacuum system, and the handling of non-getterables; (3) tritium permeation through the equipment and the anticipated releases to the environment; (4) overview of the tritium related ventilation systems; and (5) design bases for the facility's tritium clean-up systems

  12. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Transfer and incorporation of tritium in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, J. van den; Juan, N.B.

    1979-01-01

    The metabolism of tritium in mammals has been studied in a number of laboratories which have participated in the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Tritium in the Environment. The results of these studies are discussed and related to data obtained elsewhere. The animals studied are small laboratory and domestic animals. Tritium has been administered as THO, both in single and long-term dosing experiments, and also as organically bound tritium. The biological half-life of tritium in the body water pool has been determined in different species. The following values have been found: 1.1 days in mice; 13.2 days in kangaroo rats; 3.8 days in pigs; 4.1 days in lactating versus 8.3 in non-lactating goats and 3.1-4.0 days in lactating cows and steers. Much attention has been paid to the incorporation of tritium into organic constituents, both in the animal organism (organs, tissues) and in the secretions of the animal after continuous administration of tritium, mostly as THO. When compared with tritium levels in body water, and expressed as the ratio of specific activities, values of 0.25 and 0.40 have been found in mice liver and testis respectively. In cow's milk, these ratios vary from 0.30 for casein to 0.60 for lactose. The transfer of tritium into milk after continuous ingestion of THO by a lactating cow is about 1.50% of the daily ingested tritium per litre of milk. Some results of experiments, utilizing organically bound tritium, are also presented. (author)

  14. Distribution of tritium in a chronically contaminated lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    White Oak Lake located on the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation receives a continuous input of tritium from operating facilities and waste disposal operations at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purpose of this paper was (1) to determine the distribution and concentration of tritium in an aquatic environment which has received releases of tritium significantly greater than expected releases from nuclear power plants, and (2) to determine the effect of fluctuating tritium concentrations in ambient water on the concentration of tritium in fish. Aquatic biota from White Oak Lake were analyzed for tissue water tritium and tissue bound tritium. Except for one plant species, the ratio of tissue water tritium to lake water tritium ranged from 0.80 to 1.02. The tissue water tritium in Gambusia affinis, the mosquito fish, followed closely the significant changes in tritium concentration in lake water. The turnover of tissue water tritium was very rapid; Gambusia from White Oak Lake eliminated 50% of their tissue water tritium in 14 min. The ratio of the specific activity of the tissue bound tritium to the specific activity of the lake water was greatest for the larger species of fish but never exceeded unity. The radiation dose to man from tritium which could be acquired through the aquatic food chain was relatively small when compared to other pathways. The whole body dose to a hypothetical individual taking in concentrations of tritium measured in White Oak Lake was 1.8 mrem/yr from eating fish and 10.0 mrem/yr from drinking water

  15. Effect of organically bound tritium (OBT) on pre-implantation mouse embryos in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Ohyama, Harumi

    1989-01-01

    Effect of organically bound tritium (OBT), such as tritiated thymidine and tritium-labeled amino acids, on mouse preimplantation embryos was examined in vitro. Mouse zygotes fertilized in vitro (BC3F 1 eggs x ICR sperm) were cultured in the media containing OBT in various concentrations up to the blastocyst stage. The LD 50 in terms of tritium concentrations in the culture medium were determined by measuring tritium concentrations in the medium to inhibit 50 % of embryos to form blastocyst in vitro. Tritium activities in the embryos were measured at various times during culture of embryos at LD 50 concentration in order to estimate absorbed radiation dose in embryonic cells. The LD 50 values obtained indicate that OBT could inhibit the embryonic development 1000 times more effectively that tritiated water (HTO). However, differences in LD 50 values in terms of absorbed radiation dose between OBT and HTO is not so essential, and might be explained by localized spatial distribution of OBT within the cell. (author)

  16. Tritium conference days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Sene, M.; Devin, P.; Chretien, V.; Le Guen, B.; Guetat, Ph.; Baglan, N.; Ansoborlo, E.; Boyer, C.; Masson, M.; Bailly-Du-Bois, P.; Jenkinson, St.; Wakeford, R.; Saintigny, Y.; Romeo, P.H.; Thompson, P.; Leterq, D.; Chastagner, F.; Cortes, P.; Philippe, M.; Paquet, F.; Fournier, M.

    2009-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Twenty presentations out of 21 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - tritium in the environment (J. Garnier-Laplace); 2 - status of knowledge about tritium impact on health (L. Lebaron-Jacobs); 3 - tritium, discrete but present everywhere (M. Sene); 4 - management of tritium effluents from Areva NC La Hague site - related impact and monitoring (P. Devin); 5 - tritium effluents and impact in the vicinity of EDF's power plants (V. Chretien and B. Le Guen); 6 - contribution of CEA-Valduc centre monitoring to the knowledge of atmospheric tritiated water transfers to the different compartments of the environment (P. Guetat); 7 - tritium analysis in environment samples: constraints and means (N. Baglan); 8 - organically-linked tritium: the analyst view (E. Ansoborlo); 9 - study of tritium transfers to plants via OBT/HTO air and OBT/HTO free (C. Boyer); 10 - tritium in the British Channel (M. Masson and P. Bailly-Du-Bois); 11 - tritium in British coastal waters (S. Jenkinson); 12 - recent results from epidemiology (R. Wakeford); 13 - effects of tritiated thymidine on hematopoietic stem cells (P.H. Romeo); 14 - tritium management issue in Canada: the point of view from authorities (P. Thompson); 15 - experience feedback of the detritiation process of Valduc centre (D. Leterq); 16 - difficulties linked with tritiated wastes confinement (F. Chastagner); 17 - optimisation of tritium management in the ITER project (P. Cortes); 18 - elements of thought about the management of tritium generated by nuclear facilities (M. Philippe); 19 - CIPR's position about the calculation of doses and risks linked with tritium exposure (F. Paquet); 20 - tritium think tanks (M. Fournier). (J.S.)

  17. Optimisation of liquid scintillation counting conditions to determine low activity levels of tritium and radiostrontium in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauret, Gemma; Mestres, J.S.; Ribera, Merce; Rajadel, Pilar (Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Analitica)

    1990-08-01

    An optimisation of the counting conditions for the measurement of aqueous solutions of tritium or radiostrontium using Insta-Gel II as scintillator is presented. The variables optimised were the window, the ratio of mass of sample to mass of scintillator and the total volume of the counting mixture. An optimisation function which takes into account each of these variables, the background and also the efficiency is proposed. The conditions established allow the lowest possible detection limit to be reached. For tritium, this value was compared with that obtained when the standard method for water analysis was applied. (author).

  18. Sources of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1980-12-01

    A review of tritium sources is presented. The tritium production and release rates are discussed for light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs), liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and molten salt breeder reactors (MSBRs). In addition, release rates are discussed for tritium production facilities, fuel reprocessing plants, weapons detonations, and fusion reactors. A discussion of the chemical form of the release is included. The energy producing facilities are ranked in order of increasing tritium production and release. The ranking is: HTGRs, LWRs, LMFBRs, MSBRs, and HWRs. The majority of tritium has been released in the form of tritiated water

  19. Tritium metabolism in cow's milk after administration of tritiated water and of organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, J. van den

    1982-01-01

    Tritium was administered as THO and as organically bound tritium (OBT) to lactating cows. Urine and milk samples were collected and analyzed for tritium content. Plateau levels in milk water and in milk fat, lactose and casein were reached in about 20 days after feeding either THO or OBT. Comparison of the specific activity (pCi 3 H/g H) of the various milk constituents with the specific activity of the body water showed that, after administration of THO, the highest tritium incorporation occurred in lactose (0.58), followed by milk fat (0.36) and casein (0.27). Tritium incorporation in milk dry matter (0.45) is considerably higher than in most tissue components of several mammalian species after continuous ingestion of THO as reported in the literature. After feeding OBT, the highest tritium incorporation occurred in milk fat and to a lesser extent in casein. Tritium levels in lactose were surprisingly low and the reason for this is not clear. They were similar to those in milk water. Tritium levels in milk and urine water showed systematic differences during administration of OBT and after this was stopped. There was more tritium in milk water until the last day of OBT feeding and this situation was reversed after this. (author)

  20. Tritium metabolism in cow's milk after administration of tritiated water and of organically bound tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van den Hoek, J [Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen (Netherlands). Lab. voor Fysiologie der Dieren; Gerber, G; Kirchmann, R [Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1982-01-01

    Tritium was administered as THO and as organically bound tritium (OBT) to lactating cows. Urine and milk samples were collected and analyzed for tritium content. Plateau levels in milk water and in milk fat, lactose and casein were reached in about 20 days after feeding either THO or OBT. Comparison of the specific activity (pCi/sup 3/H/g H) of the various milk constituents with the specific activity of the body water showed that, after administration of THO, the highest tritium incorporation occurred in lactose (0.58), followed by milk fat (0.36) and casein (0.27). Tritium incorporation in milk dry matter (0.45) is considerably higher than in most tissue components of several mammalian species after continuous ingestion of THO as reported in the literature. After feeding OBT, the highest tritium incorporation occurred in milk fat and to a lesser extent in casein. Tritium levels in lactose were surprisingly low and the reason for this is not clear. They were similar to those in milk water. Tritium levels in milk and urine water showed systematic differences during administration of OBT and after this was stopped. There was more tritium in milk water until the last day of OBT feeding and this situation was reversed after this.

  1. Uptake of atmospheric tritium by market foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Tanaka-Miyamoto, K.; Iwakura, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper uptake of tritium by market foods from tritiated water vapor in the air is investigated using cereals and beans purchased in Deep River, Canada. The concentrations of tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) range from 12 to 79% and from 10 to 38% respectively, of that estimated for atmospheric water vapor of the sampling month. The specific activity ratios of OBT to TFWT were constant for cereals, but variable for beans. The elevated OBT was shown to be the result of isotopic exchange of labile hydrogen by the fact that washing the foods with tritium free-water reduced their tritium contents to levels characteristic of their production sites

  2. Tritium Systems Test Facility. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.W.; Battleson, K.W.; Bauer, W.

    1976-10-01

    Sandia Laboratories proposes to build and operate a Tritium Systems Test Facility (TSTF) in its newly completed Tritium Research Laboratory at Livermore, California (see frontispiece). The facility will demonstrate at a scale factor of 1:200 the tritium fuel cycle systems for an Experimental Power Reactor (EPR). This scale for each of the TSTF subsystems--torus, pumping system, fuel purifier, isotope separator, and tritium store--will allow confident extrapolation to EPR dimensions. Coolant loop and reactor hall cleanup facilities are also reproduced, but to different scales. It is believed that all critical details of an EPR tritium system will be simulated correctly in the facility. Tritium systems necessary for interim devices such as the Ignition Test Reactor (ITR) or The Next Step (TNS) can also be simulated in TSTF at other scale values. The active tritium system will be completely enclosed in an inert atmosphere glove box which will be connected to the existing Gas Purification System (GPS) of the Tritium Research Laboratory. In effect, the GPS will become the scaled environmental control system which otherwise would have to be built especially for the TSTF

  3. Tritium pellet injector results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Bauer, M.L.; Baylor, L.R.; Deleanu, L.E.; Fehling, D.T.; Milora, S.L.; Whitson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Injection of solid tritium pellets is considered to be the most promising way of fueling fusion reactors. The Tritium Proof-of- Principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets. This injector is based on the pneumatic pipe-gun concept, in which pellets are formed in situ in the barrel and accelerated with high-pressure gas. This injector is ideal for tritium service because there are no moving parts inside the gun and because no excess tritium is required in the pellet production process. Removal of 3 He from tritium to prevent blocking of the cryopumping action by the noncondensible gas has been demonstrated with a cryogenic separator. Pellet velocities of 1280 m/s have been achieved for 4-mm-diam by 4-mm-long cylindrical tritium pellets with hydrogen propellant at 6.96 MPa (1000 psi). 10 refs., 10 figs

  4. Environmental aspects of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quisenberry, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    The potential radiological implications of environmental tritium releases must be determined in order to develop a programme for dealing with the tritium inventory predicted for the nuclear power industry which, though still in its infancy, produces tritium in megacurie quantities annually. Should the development of fusion power generation become a reality, it will create a potential source for large releases of tritium, much of it in the gaseous state. At present about 90% of the tritium produced enters the environment through gaseous and liquid effluents and is deposited in the hydrosphere as tritiated water. Tritium can be assimilated by plants and animals and organically bound, regardless of the exposure pathway. However, there appears to be no concentration factor relative to hydrogen at any level of food chains analysed to date. The body burden, for man, is dependent on the exposure pathway and tissue-bound fractions are primarily the result of organically bound tritium in food. (author)

  5. Synthesis of tritium and carbon-14 labelled N-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-N-(ethylaminocarbonyl)-6-(2-propenyl) ergoline-8β-carboxamide (cabergoline), a potent long lasting prolactin lowering agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantegani, S.; Brambilla, E.; Ermoli, A.; Fontana, E.; Angiuli, P.; Vicario, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    The syntheses of 3 H- and 14 C-labelled cabergoline and its analogues are described. Tritiated cabergoline ([ 3 H]cabergoline), namely N-(3-di-methylaminopropyl)-N-(ethylaminocarbonyl)-6-(2-[2,3- 3 H]-propenyl)ergoline-8β-carboxamide, was obtained, by catalytic reduction with tritium gas, according to two different synthetic procedures: A- a three step route, starting from 6-(2-propargyl)-dihydro lysergic acid-methyl ester gave [ 3 H]cabergoline, B - a one step route, starting from 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl)-3-[6'-(2-propargyl)ergoline-8'-carbonyl ]-urea 5' yielded [ 3 H]cabergoline. A modification of this last procedure also gave [ 3 H]dihydro cabergoline. The synthesis of [ 14 C]cabergoline was carried out, in a three step route, by addition of potassium [ 14 C]cyanide to 6-(2-propenyl)-8-chloroergoline to give the expected N-(dimethylaminopropyl)-N-(ethylaminocarbonyl)-6-(2-propenyl)-ergoline-8-[ 14 C]carboxamide, 97% radiochemically pure with a specific radioactivity of 2.09 GBq/mmol and an overall radiochemical yield of 16%. (author)

  6. Synthesis of tritium and carbon-14 labelled N-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-N-(ethylaminocarbonyl)-6-(2-propenyl) ergoline-8. beta. -carboxamide (cabergoline), a potent long lasting prolactin lowering agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantegani, S.; Brambilla, E.; Ermoli, A.; Fontana, E.; Angiuli, P.; Vicario, G.P. (Farmitalia Carlo Erba s.r.l., Milan (Italy))

    1991-05-01

    The syntheses of {sup 3}H- and {sup 14}C-labelled cabergoline and its analogues are described. Tritiated cabergoline (({sup 3}H)cabergoline), namely N-(3-di-methylaminopropyl)-N-(ethylaminocarbonyl)-6-(2-(2,3-{sup 3}H)-propenyl)ergoline-8{beta}-carboxamide, was obtained, by catalytic reduction with tritium gas, according to two different synthetic procedures: A- a three step route, starting from 6-(2-propargyl)-dihydro lysergic acid-methyl ester gave ({sup 3}H)cabergoline, B - a one step route, starting from 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl)-3-(6'-(2-propargyl)ergoline-8'-carbonyl )-urea 5' yielded ({sup 3}H)cabergoline. A modification of this last procedure also gave ({sup 3}H)dihydro cabergoline. The synthesis of ({sup 14}C)cabergoline was carried out, in a three step route, by addition of potassium ({sup 14}C)cyanide to 6-(2-propenyl)-8-chloroergoline to give the expected N-(dimethylaminopropyl)-N-(ethylaminocarbonyl)-6-(2-propenyl)-ergoline-8-({sup 14}C)carboxamide, 97% radiochemically pure with a specific radioactivity of 2.09 GBq/mmol and an overall radiochemical yield of 16%. (author).

  7. Tritium behavior in an aquatic ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, K.

    1982-01-01

    Tritium behavior in aquatic organisms through a model food chain was investigated. In this model food chain, tritium in water reaches bacteria or Japanese killifish via diatoms and brine shrimps. Tritium accumulation in these organisms as organic bound form was expressed as the R value which is defined as the ratio of tritium specific activity in lyophilized organisms (μCi/gH) to that in water (μCi/gH). The maximum R values were 0.5 in diatoms: Chaetoceros gracilis, 0.2 in bacteria: Escherichia coli, 0.5 in brine shrimps: Artemia salina, and 0.32 in Japanese killifish: Oryzias latipes under the growing condition in which tritium accumulation was due to tritium in tritiated water and not tritiated foods. Brine shrimps and Japanese killifish were grown from larve to adult in tritiated sea water and were fed on tritiated foods (model food chain). Their R values were 0.70 and 0.67, respectively. Bacteria, which grew in tritiated water by adding the hydrolysate of tritiated brine shrimps, showed a maximum R value at 0.32. The R values of each organ of Japanese killifish and of DNA and the nucleotides purified from brine shrimps growing in tritiated water with or without tritiated food were measured to estimate the tritium distribution in the body or various molecules of the organisms. These results did not indicate concentration of tritium in specific organs or compounds. The changes of specific activity of tritium in these organisms were measured when they were transferred to non-tritiated water. These retention of tritium was not only different among the tissues but also depended on whether or not the organisms were reared with tritiated foods. (author)

  8. Tritium in organic matter around Krsko Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristof, Romana; Zorko, Benjamin; Kozar Logar, Jasmina; Kosenina, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the research was to obtain first results of tritium in the organic matter of environmental samples in the vicinity of Krsko NPP. The emphasis was on the layout of suitable sampling network of crops and fruits in nearby agricultural area. Method for determination of tritium in organic matter in the form of Tissue Free Water Tritium (TFWT) and Organically Bound Tritium (OBT) has been implemented. Capabilities of the methods were tested on real environmental samples and its findings were compared to modeled activities of tritium from atmospheric releases and literature based results of TFWT and OBT. (author)

  9. Organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabate, S.; Strack, S.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium released into the environment may be incorporated into organic matter. Organically bound tritium in that case will show retention times in organisms that are considerably longer than those of tritiated water which has significant consequences on dose estimates. This article reviews the most important processes of organically bound tritium production and transport through food networks. Metabolic reactions in plant and animal organisms with tritiated water as a reaction partner are of great importance in this respect. The most important production process, in quantitative terms, is photosynthesis in green plants. The translocation of organically bound tritium from the leaves to edible parts of crop plants should be considered in models of organically bound tritium behavior. Organically bound tritium enters the human body on several pathways, either from the primary producers (vegetable food) or at a higher tropic level (animal food). Animal experiments have shown that the dose due to ingestion of organically bound tritium can be up to twice as high as a comparable intake of tritiated water in gaseous or liquid form. In the environment, organically bound tritium in plants and animals is often found to have higher specific tritium concentrations than tissue water. This is not due to some tritium enrichment effects but to the fact that no equilibrium conditions are reached under natural conditions. 66 refs

  10. Tritium sampling and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.J.; McElroy, R.G.; Surette, R.A.; Brown, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Current methods for sampling and measuring tritium are described. Although the basic techniques have not changed significantly over the last 10 y, there have been several notable improvements in tritium measurement instrumentation. The design and quality of commercial ion-chamber-based and gas-flow-proportional-counter-based tritium monitors for tritium-in-air have improved, an indirect result of fusion-related research in the 1980s. For tritium-in-water analysis, commercial low-level liquid scintillation spectrometers capable of detecting tritium-in-water concentrations as low as 0.65 Bq L-1 for counting times of 500 min are available. The most sensitive method for tritium-in-water analysis is still 3He mass spectrometry. Concentrations as low as 0.35 mBq L-1 can be detected with current equipment. Passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers are now being used for workplace monitoring and even in some environmental sampling applications. The reliability, convenience, and low cost of passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers make them attractive options for many monitoring applications. Airflow proportional counters currently under development look promising for measuring tritium-in-air in the presence of high gamma and/or noble gas backgrounds. However, these detectors are currently limited by their poor performance in humidities over 30%. 133 refs

  11. Tritium monitoring in environment at ICIT Tritium Separation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, Carmen; Stefanescu, I.; Vagner, Irina; Faurescu, I.; Toma, A.; Dulama, C.; Dobrin, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Cryogenic Pilot is an experimental project developed within the national nuclear energy research program, which is designed to develop the required technologies for tritium and deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation of heavy water. The process used in this installation is based on a combination between liquid-phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) and cryogenic distillation. Basically, there are two ways that the Cryogenic Pilot could interact with the environment: by direct atmospheric release and through the sewage system. This experimental installation is located 15 km near the region biggest city and in the vicinity - about 1 km, of Olt River. It must be specified that in the investigated area there is an increased chemical activity; almost the entire Experimental Cryogenic Pilot's neighborhood is full of active chemical installations. This aspect is really essential for our study because the sewerage system is connected with the other three chemical plants from the neighborhood. For that reason we progressively established elements of an environmental monitoring program well in advance of tritium operation in order to determine baseline levels. The first step was the tritium level monitoring in environmental water and wastewater of industrial activity from neighborhood. In order to establish the base level of tritium concentration in the environment around the nuclear facilities, we investigated the sample preparation treatment for different types of samples: onion, green beams, grass, apple, garden lettuce, tomato, cabbage, strawberry and grapes. We used azeotropic distillation of all types of samples, the carrier solvent being toluene from different Romanian providers. All measurements for the determination of environmental tritium concentration were performed using liquid scintillation counting (LSC), with the Quantulus 1220 spectrometer. (authors)

  12. Determination of low-level tritium concentrations in surface water and precipitation in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maresova, Diana; Hanslik, Eduard; Sedlarova, Barbora; Juranova, Eva; Charles University, Prague

    2017-01-01

    Past tests of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, nuclear energy facilities and tritium of natural origin are main sources of tritium in the environment. Thanks to its presence in environment and its favourable properties, tritium is used as a radiotracer. Since stopping of atmospheric nuclear tests, tritium in precipitation has been decreasing towards natural levels below 1 Bq l -1 and precise analyses of low level tritium activities are necessary. This paper focuses on tritium development at sites not influenced by any technogenic release of tritium in Elbe River basin (Bohemia) in the Czech Republic using liquid scintillation measurement with electrolytic enrichment. (author)

  13. Preparation of high specific activity labelled triiodothyronine (T3) for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, M.R.A.; Nagvekar, U.H.; Desai, C.N.; Mani, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    A method standardized for the preparation of high specific activity labelled triiodothyronine (T 3 ) is discussed. Iodine-125 labelled T 3 with a specific activity of 3 mCi μg was prepared by iodinating 3,5-diiodothyronine (T 2 ) and purifying it over Sephadex G-25 gel. Radochemical purity and stability evaluations were done by paper chromatography. Specific activity of the labelled T 3 prepared was estimated by the self-displacement method. The use of this high specific activity labelled T 3 in radioimmunoassay increased the sensitivity considerably. The advantage of this procedure is that the specific activity of labelled T 3 formed is independent of reaction yield and labelled T 3 yield. (author)

  14. Environmental monitoring for tritium separation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, Carmen; Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Lazar, Roxana Elena

    2001-01-01

    The Cryogenic Pilot is an experimental project within the nuclear energy national research program, which has the aim of developing technologies for tritium and deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation. The experimental installation is located 15 km near the highest city of the area and 1 km near Olt River. An important chemical activity is developed in the area and almost all the neighbors of the Experimental Cryogenic Pilot are chemical plants. It is necessary to emphasize this aspect because the sewage system is connected with the other tree chemical plants from the neighborhood. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation is used to determine tritium activity concentration according to ISO 9698/1998. We measured drinking water, precipitation, river water, underground and waste water. The tritium level was between 10 TU and 27 TU what indicates that there is no sources of tritium contamination in the neighborhood of Cryogenic Pilot. In order to determine baseline levels we decided to monitor monthly each location. In this paper it is presented the standard method used for tritium determination in water samples, the precautions needed in order to achieve reliable results, and the evolution of tritium level in different location near the Tritium and Deuterium Cryogenic Separation Experimental Pilot. (authors)

  15. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, R.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Heung, L.K.

    1997-10-20

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented.

  16. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, R.H.; Heung, L.K.

    1997-01-01

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented

  17. Environmental tritium in trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of environmental tritium in the free water and organically bound hydrogen of trees growing in the vicinity of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) has been studied. The regional dispersal of HTO in the atmosphere has been observed by surveying the tritium content of leaf moisture. Measurement of the distribution of organically bound tritium in the wood of tree ring sequences has given information on past concentrations of HTO taken up by trees growing in the CRNL Liquid Waste Disposal Area. For samples at background environmental levels, cellulose separation and analysis was done. The pattern of bomb tritium in precipitation of 1955-68 was observed to be preserved in the organically bound tritium of a tree ring sequence. Reactor tritium was discernible in a tree growing at a distance of 10 km from CRNL. These techniques provide convenient means of monitoring dispersal of HTO from nuclear facilities. (author)

  18. Tritium monitoring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVore, J.R.; Buckner, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    As part of their operations, the U.S. Navy is required to store or maintain operational nuclear weapons on ships and at shore facilities. Since these weapons contain tritium, there are safety implications relevant to the exposure of personnel to tritium. This is particularly important for shipboard operations since these types of environments can make low-level tritium detection difficult. Some of these ships have closed systems, which can result in exposure to tritium at levels that are below normally acceptable levels but could still cause radiation doses that are higher than necessary or could hamper ship operations. This report describes the state of the art in commercial tritium detection and monitoring and recommends approaches for low-level tritium monitoring in these environments

  19. Tritium persistence pattern in some terrestrial plants-field investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soman, S.D.; Iyengar, T.S.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.; Sadarangani, S.H.; Vaze, P.K.; Gogate, S.S.; Deo, J.V.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake and release pattern of tritium in certain trees in their natural conditions of growth were investigated by artificial simulation of active conditions by incorporating tritium in the system through stem or roots. These trees are grown in some of the nuclear sites wherein a number of nuclear facilities are located. The species studied include palms, casuarinas and banana trees. In most of the cases a single component corresponding to the tree compartment tritium was obtained. The second component of the tissue free water tritium and the tissue bound compartment of tritium were not easily resolvable due to tremendous variation caused by the environmental conditions such as rain, humidity etc. Repeated humps were observed in certain cases of root uptake studies due to the variation in the meteorological factors. In most of the cases the half residence times for tritium (Tsub(1/2)) (tissue free water tritium) were found to be below two days. (author)

  20. Tritium in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this Chapter a review is given of some of the important features of metal tritides as opposed to hydrides and deuterides. After an introduction to the topics of tritium and tritium in metals information will be presented on a variety of metal-tritium systems. Of main interest here are the differences from the classic hydrogen behavior; the so called isotope effect. A second important topic is that of aging effects produced by the accumulation of 3 He in the samples. (orig.)

  1. Tritium sources; Izvori tricijuma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glodic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences VINCA, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Boreli, F [Elektrotehnicki fakultet, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1993-07-01

    Tritium is the only radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It directly follows the metabolism of water and it can be bound into genetic material, so it is very important to control levels of contamination. In order to define the state of contamination it is necessary to establish 'zero level', i.e. actual global inventory. The importance of tritium contamination monitoring increases with the development of fusion power installations. Different sources of tritium are analyzed and summarized in this paper. (author)

  2. High-pressure tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    Some solutions to problems of compressing and containing tritium gas to 200 MPa at 700 0 K are discussed. The principal emphasis is on commercial compressors and high-pressure equipment that can be easily modified by the researcher for safe use with tritium. Experience with metal bellows and diaphragm compressors has been favorable. Selection of materials, fittings, and gauges for high-pressure tritium work is also reviewed briefly

  3. Intercomparison test for the determination of low-level tritium activities in natural waters for age dating purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohokar, Hemant; Diksha; Sinha, U.K.; Joseph, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    A world-wide inter-comparison was undertaken to assess the quality of 3 H data produced by laboratories worldwide, primarily aimed at those conducting groundwater age dating applications in hydrogeology. These low-level tritium test samples encompass 3 H concentrations currently observed in modern precipitation, surface and ground waters, whereupon each participating laboratory employed routine pre-treatment or electrolytic enrichment procedures and 3 H counting methods. The test water samples were comprised of one tritium-free water and seven water samples. Fifty-eight laboratories reported test data to the IAEA for all, or a sub-set, of the eight test samples. The method applied by our laboratory was electrolytic enrichment followed by counting in liquid scintillation counter

  4. Helium sources to groundwater in active volcanic terrain, and implications for tritium-helium dating at Mount St. Helens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, John B. [Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 217 Bessey Hall, Lincoln NE 68588 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Groundwater helium sources and residence times were investigated using groundwater discharging from springs surrounding Mount St. Helens in the Cascades region of the United States. Significant contributions of mantle helium were found in all samples and are attributable to interaction between groundwater and magmatic gases. Bounding calculations for residence times were made on the basis of helium isotope mixing plots and historical tritium data. (authors)

  5. Improving tritium exposure reconstructions using accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, A.H.; Hunt, J.R.; Vogel, J.S.; Knezovich, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Direct measurement of tritium atoms by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) enables rapid low-activity tritium measurements from milligram-sized samples and permits greater ease of sample collection, faster throughput, and increased spatial and/or temporal resolution. Because existing methodologies for quantifying tritium have some significant limitations, the development of tritium AMS has allowed improvements in reconstructing tritium exposure concentrations from environmental measurements and provides an important additional tool in assessing the temporal and spatial distribution of chronic exposure. Tritium exposure reconstructions using AMS were previously demonstrated for a tree growing on known levels of tritiated water and for trees exposed to atmospheric releases of tritiated water vapor. In these analyses, tritium levels were measured from milligram-sized samples with sample preparation times of a few days. Hundreds of samples were analyzed within a few months of sample collection and resulted in the reconstruction of spatial and temporal exposure from tritium releases. Although the current quantification limit of tritium AMS is not adequate to determine natural environmental variations in tritium concentrations, it is expected to be sufficient for studies assessing possible health effects from chronic environmental tritium exposure. (orig.)

  6. Improving tritium exposure reconstructions using accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. R.; Vogel, J. S.; Knezovich, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Direct measurement of tritium atoms by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) enables rapid low-activity tritium measurements from milligram-sized samples and permits greater ease of sample collection, faster throughput, and increased spatial and/or temporal resolution. Because existing methodologies for quantifying tritium have some significant limitations, the development of tritium AMS has allowed improvements in reconstructing tritium exposure concentrations from environmental measurements and provides an important additional tool in assessing the temporal and spatial distribution of chronic exposure. Tritium exposure reconstructions using AMS were previously demonstrated for a tree growing on known levels of tritiated water and for trees exposed to atmospheric releases of tritiated water vapor. In these analyses, tritium levels were measured from milligram-sized samples with sample preparation times of a few days. Hundreds of samples were analyzed within a few months of sample collection and resulted in the reconstruction of spatial and temporal exposure from tritium releases. Although the current quantification limit of tritium AMS is not adequate to determine natural environmental variations in tritium concentrations, it is expected to be sufficient for studies assessing possible health effects from chronic environmental tritium exposure. PMID:14735274

  7. Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, P.; Guétat, Ph.; Vichot, L.; Leconte, N.; Badot, P.M.; Gaucheron, F.; Fromm, M.

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium. - Highlights: • Tritium can be incorporated in all the hydrogenated components of milk. • Components' isotopic ratios T/H of chronically exposed milk remain in the same range. • In environmental conditions, distribution of tritium in milk components varies. • Metabolism plays a role in the distribution of tritium in the components of milk. • In environmental conditions, dilution of hydrogen dims possible isotopic effects.

  8. Introduction to Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility (WTRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K. M.; Sohn, S. H.; Kang, D. W.; Chung, H. S.

    2005-01-01

    Four CANDU 6 reactors have been operated at Wolsong site. Tritium is primarily produced in heavywater-moderated-power reactors by neutron capture of deuterium nuclei in the heavy water moderator and coolant. The concentration of tritium in the reactor moderator and coolant systems increases with time of reactor operation. For CANDU 6 reactors, the estimated equilibrium values are ∼3 TBq/kg-D 2 O in the moderator and ∼74 GBq/kg-D 2 O in the coolant, where the production rate is balanced by tritium decay and water makeup and loss process. The tritium level in the moderator heavy water of Wolsong Unit-1 is getting higher for about 20-year operation and is over 2.22x10 12 Bq/kg at the end of 2003. It was known that the tritium levels in the moderators of the other units would be also steadily increased. In order to reduce the tritium activity, KHNP has committed to construct a Tritium Removal Facility (TRF) at the Wolsong site

  9. Tritium and other radionuclide labeled organic compounds incorporated in genetic material. NCRP report No. 63: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This book has as its subject the radiation dose to cells from incorporated radioactive material. According to the authors, NCRP Scientific Committee 24, the most sensitive cellular material is the genetic material of DNA and RNA in the nucleus. The biological effects of exposure are examined, since each cell line has its own sensitivities and hazards, which must be taken into account when a particular radioactive material is considered. The various kinds of radiation injury may lead to cell death, failure to mature, tumor genesis, transmutation of nuclides leading to DNA breaks, and gene mutation. Some of these injuries are no more potent when the source is external, whereas others, such as transmutation, occur only inside cells. The method for dose calculation is based upon the concern for doses coming from heterogeneously distributed beta emitters. The critical volume is the nucleus of stem cells, since injury to stem cells leads to late somatic and genetic effects. The dose at issue is that to labeled stem cells, not the whole population of stem cells. On this basis a maximum permissible intake of the material in question is calculated

  10. Tritium concentrations in natural waters in Japan before use of a large quantity of tritium on its fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Toshio; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Takashima, Yoshimasa.

    1989-01-01

    To clarify environmental tritium levels in Japan before use of a large quantity of tritium on its fusion program, the authors analyzed the tritium concentrations in various water samples, such as rain, river, lake, coastal sea and deep sea waters in Japan. The tritium concentrations in rain water were high at higher latitude. The definite differences of the tritium concentrations due to the weather conditions or seasons were not observed. The average tritium concentration in river water was 51.5 pCi/l in 1982 and that in lake water was 63.5 pCi/l in 1983. The vertical profiles of the tritium concentrations in the representative lakes were almost homogeneous except surface water. The average tritium concentrations in coastal seawater were about 20 pCi/l in both 1982 and 1983. The tendency of the increased tritium level with latitude as reported in literature was not observed by these experiments. Tritium levels in natural water in small isolated islands were lower than those at other places. In the Japan Sea, it was recognized that tritium was distributed down to around 2000 m in depth. This means that the more active vertical mixing of water masses than that in the Pacific Ocean is taking place. (author)

  11. Use of Tritium Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Tree Ring Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOVE, ADAM H.; HUNT, JAMES R.; ROBERTS, MARK L.; SOUTHON, JOHN R.; CHIARAPPA - ZUCCA, MARINA L.; DINGLEY, KAREN H.

    2010-01-01

    Public concerns over the health effects associated with low-level and long-term exposure to tritium released from industrial point sources have generated the demand for better methods to evaluate historical tritium exposure levels for these communities. The cellulose of trees accurately reflects the tritium concentration in the source water and may contain the only historical record of tritium exposure. The tritium activity in the annual rings of a tree was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to reconstruct historical annual averages of tritium exposure. Milligram-sized samples of the annual tree rings from a Tamarix located at the Nevada Test Site are used for validation of this methodology. The salt cedar was chosen since it had a single source of tritiated water that was well-characterized as it varied over time. The decay-corrected tritium activity of the water in which the salt cedar grew closely agrees with the organically bound tritium activity in its annual rings. This demonstrates that the milligram-sized samples used in tritium accelerator mass spectrometry are suited for reconstructing anthropogenic tritium levels in the environment. PMID:12144257

  12. Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, P; Guétat, Ph; Vichot, L; Leconte, N; Badot, P M; Gaucheron, F; Fromm, M

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential labelling of retinal neurones by 3H-2-deoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basinger, S.F.; Gordon, W.C.; Lam, D.M.K.

    1979-01-01

    The use of tritium-labelled 2-deoxyglucose in combination with plastic embedding is reported to produce stimulus dependent labelling at cellular level in the isolated goldfish retina. The results suggest that the use of tritium in place of the more usual 14 C labelled tracer is advantageous in studying the physiology and functional connections of retinal neurones. (U.K.)

  14. A neutron poison tritium breeding controller applied to a water cooled fusion reactor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, L.W.G.; Packer, L.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The issue of a potentially producing a large tritium surplus inventory, within a solid breeder, is addressed. • A possible solution to this problem is presented in the form of a neutron poison based tritium production controller. • The tritium surplus inventory has been modelled by the FATI code for a simplified WCCB model and as a function of time. • It has been demonstrated that the tritium surplus inventory can be managed, which may impact on safety considerations. - Abstract: The generation of tritium in sufficient quantities is an absolute requirement for a next step fusion device such as DEMO due to the scarcity of tritium sources. Although the production of sufficient quantities of tritium will be one of the main challenges for DEMO, within an energy economy featuring several fusion power plants the active control of tritium production may be required in order to manage surplus tritium inventories at power plant sites. The primary reason for controlling the tritium inventory in such an economy would therefore be to minimise the risk and storage costs associated with large quantities of surplus tritium. In order to ensure that enough tritium will be produced in a reactor which contains a solid tritium breeder, over the reactor's lifetime, the tritium breeding rate at the beginning of its lifetime is relatively high and reduces over time. This causes a large surplus tritium inventory to build up until approximately halfway through the lifetime of the blanket, when the inventory begins to decrease. This surplus tritium inventory could exceed several tens of kilograms of tritium, impacting on possible safety and licensing conditions that may exist. This paper describes a possible solution to the surplus tritium inventory problem that involves neutron poison injection into the coolant, which is managed with a tritium breeding controller. A simple PID controller and is used to manage the injection of the neutron absorbing compounds into

  15. A neutron poison tritium breeding controller applied to a water cooled fusion reactor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, L.W.G., E-mail: Lee.Morgan@CCFE.ac.uk; Packer, L.W.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The issue of a potentially producing a large tritium surplus inventory, within a solid breeder, is addressed. • A possible solution to this problem is presented in the form of a neutron poison based tritium production controller. • The tritium surplus inventory has been modelled by the FATI code for a simplified WCCB model and as a function of time. • It has been demonstrated that the tritium surplus inventory can be managed, which may impact on safety considerations. - Abstract: The generation of tritium in sufficient quantities is an absolute requirement for a next step fusion device such as DEMO due to the scarcity of tritium sources. Although the production of sufficient quantities of tritium will be one of the main challenges for DEMO, within an energy economy featuring several fusion power plants the active control of tritium production may be required in order to manage surplus tritium inventories at power plant sites. The primary reason for controlling the tritium inventory in such an economy would therefore be to minimise the risk and storage costs associated with large quantities of surplus tritium. In order to ensure that enough tritium will be produced in a reactor which contains a solid tritium breeder, over the reactor's lifetime, the tritium breeding rate at the beginning of its lifetime is relatively high and reduces over time. This causes a large surplus tritium inventory to build up until approximately halfway through the lifetime of the blanket, when the inventory begins to decrease. This surplus tritium inventory could exceed several tens of kilograms of tritium, impacting on possible safety and licensing conditions that may exist. This paper describes a possible solution to the surplus tritium inventory problem that involves neutron poison injection into the coolant, which is managed with a tritium breeding controller. A simple PID controller and is used to manage the injection of the neutron absorbing compounds into

  16. The ITER tritium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glugla, M.; Antipenkov, A.; Beloglazov, S.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Cristescu, I.R.; Cristescu, I.; Day, C.; Doerr, L.; Girard, J.-P.; Tada, E.

    2007-01-01

    ITER is the first fusion machine fully designed for operation with equimolar deuterium-tritium mixtures. The tokamak vessel will be fuelled through gas puffing and pellet injection, and the Neutral Beam heating system will introduce deuterium into the machine. Employing deuterium and tritium as fusion fuel will cause alpha heating of the plasma and will eventually provide energy. Due to the small burn-up fraction in the vacuum vessel a closed deuterium-tritium loop is required, along with all the auxiliary systems necessary for the safe handling of tritium. The ITER inner fuel cycle systems are designed to process considerable and unprecedented deuterium-tritium flow rates with high flexibility and reliability. High decontamination factors for effluent and release streams and low tritium inventories in all systems are needed to minimize chronic and accidental emissions. A multiple barrier concept assures the confinement of tritium within its respective processing components; atmosphere and vent detritiation systems are essential elements in this concept. Not only the interfaces between the primary fuel cycle systems - being procured through different Participant Teams - but also those to confinement systems such as Atmosphere Detritiation or those to fuelling and pumping - again procured through different Participant Teams - and interfaces to buildings are calling for definition and for detailed analysis to assure proper design integration. Considering the complexity of the ITER Tritium Plant configuration management and interface control will be a challenging task

  17. Radionuclide Basics: Tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritium is a hydrogen atom that has two neutrons in the nucleus and one proton. It is radioactive and behaves like other forms of hydrogen in the environment. Tritium is produced naturally in the upper atmosphere and as a byproduct of nuclear fission.

  18. Analysis and speciation of the tritium in environmental matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchetta, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with environmental monitoring. The main aims are (i) the optimisation of the analytical procedure for the tritium in organic form determination, and (ii) the identification of the tritium bearing molecules which are responsible for its transfer from the environment to man. The study was divided into three stages. First an analytical method was developed to determine hydrogen content of several samples, which is a key element to calculate accurate organically bound tritium activities. Secondly, the impact of the organically bound tritium fractions separation (labile exchange) for the determination of the representative fraction of the level of environmental tritium activity was then evaluated. For that, the amount of solubilised sample was estimated. Finally, the speciation of tritium in environmental samples was investigated. Several molecules classes and organic compounds dissolved in the labile exchanges solvent were identified. The results show that the distribution of tritium in organisms depends on both properties of the chemical bond in which it is involved and chemical properties of tritium bearing molecules. The identified compounds belong to the molecules classes such as carbohydrates or amino acids, constitutive of living organisms. It would now be of interest to study the tritium distribution in an environmental sample to target molecules of interest and study the impact of tritium from the environment to man. (author) [fr

  19. In-vessel tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshio; Ohya, Kaoru; Ashikawa, Naoko; Ito, Atsushi M.; Kato, Daiji; Kawamura, Gakushi; Takayama, Arimichi; Tomita, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ono, Tadayoshi; Kawashima, Hisato; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Takizuka, Tomonori; Nakano, Tomohide; Nakamura, Makoto; Hoshino, Kazuo; Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi; Saito, Seiki; Takagi, Ikuji; Tanaka, Yasunori; Tanabe, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Masafumi; Toma, Mitsunori; Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Homma, Yuki; Tolstikhina, Inga Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The in-vessel tritium research is closely related to the plasma-materials interaction. It deals with the edge-plasma-wall interaction, the wall erosion, transport and re-deposition of neutral particles and the effect of neutral particles on the fuel recycling. Since the in-vessel tritium shows a complex nonlinear behavior, there remain many unsolved problems. So far, behaviors of in-vessel tritium have been investigated by two groups A01 and A02. The A01 group performed experiments on accumulation and recovery of tritium in thermonuclear fusion reactors and the A02 group studied theory and simulation on the in-vessel tritium behavior. In the present article, outcomes of the research are reviewed. (author)

  20. Tritium kinetics in a freshwater marsh ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, L.W.

    1976-01-01

    Ten curies of tritium (as tritiated water, HTO) were applied to a 2-ha enclosed Lake Erie marsh in northwestern Ohio on 29 October 1973. Tritium kinetics in the marsh water, bottom sediment, and selected aquatic plants and animals were determined. Following HTO application, peak tritium levels in the sediment were observed on day 13 in the top 1-cm layer, on day 27 at the 5-cm depth, and on day 64 at the 10-cm depth. Peak levels at 15 and 20 cm were not discernible, although there was some movement of HTO to the 20-cm depth. A model based on diffusion theory described tritium movement through the sediment. Unbound and bound tritium levels in curly-leaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus), pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata), and smartweed (Polygonum lapathifolium) generally tended to follow tritium levels in marsh water. The unbound tritium:marsh water tritium ratio was significantly larger (P < 0.001) in curly-leaf pondweed than in either of the two emergents. Tritium uptake into the unbound compartments of crayfish (Procambarus blandingi), carp (Cyprinus carpio), and bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) was rapid. For crayfish, maximum HTO levels were observed on days 3 and 2 for viscera and muscle, respectively. Unbound HTO in carp viscera peaked on day 2, and levels in carp muscle reached a maximum in 4 hours. Maximum levels of unbound HTO in bluegill viscera and muscle were observed on day 1. After peak levels were obtained, unbound HTO paralleled marsh water HTO activity in all species. Tritium uptake into the bound compartments was not as rapid nor were the levels as high as for unbound HTO in any of the species. Peak bound levels in crayfish viscera were observed on day 20 and maximum levels in muscle were noted on day 10. Bound tritium in carp viscera and muscle reached maximum levels on day 20. In bluegills, peaks were reached on days 7 and 5 for viscera and muscle, respectively. Bound tritium in all species decreased following maximum levels

  1. Synthesis of 14C- and 3H-labelled 4-(4-nitrophenyl)aminophenylisothiocyanate (Go 9333/CGP 4540; amoscanate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjaneyulu, B.; Maller, R.K.; Nagarajan, K.

    1985-01-01

    Amoscanate, a broad spectrum anthelmintic, labelled with carbon-14 on the isothiocyanate carbon atom was prepared in an overall yield of 13% at a specific activity of 4.13 μCi/mg from potassium [ 14 C]thiocyanate. The 4-nitro[U- 14 C]phenyl ring labelled compound was synthesized in 20.4% overall yield from [U- 14 C]aniline at a specific activity of 12.2 μCi/mg. The corresponding tritiated compound was prepared from 4-amino[2- 3 H]acetanilide at 112 μCi/mg. Labelling with tritium in the aromatic ring bearing the isothiocyanate group was achieved by catalysed halogen-tritium replacement. However, for pharmacokinetic and metabolism studies in experimental animals, the 14 C- and 3 H-labels associated with the phenylisothiocyanate moiety subsequently proved disadvantageous because of the instability of the labels in vivo. (author)

  2. Tritium fuel cycle modeling and tritium breeding analysis for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongli; Pan, Lei; Lv, Zhongliang; Li, Wei; Zeng, Qin, E-mail: zengqin@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A modified tritium fuel cycle model with more detailed subsystems was developed. • The mean residence time method applied to tritium fuel cycle calculation was updated. • Tritium fuel cycle analysis for CFETR was carried out. - Abstract: Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is a critical goal for fusion reactor operated on the D–T fuel cycle. The tritium fuel cycle models were developed to describe the characteristic parameters of the various elements of the tritium cycle as a tool for evaluating the tritium breeding requirements. In this paper, a modified tritium fuel cycle model with more detailed subsystems and an updated mean residence time calculation method was developed based on ITER tritium model. The tritium inventory in fueling system and in plasma, supposed to be important for part of the initial startup tritium inventory, was considered in the updated mean residence time method. Based on the model, the tritium fuel cycle analysis of CFETR (Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor) was carried out. The most important two parameters, the minimum initial startup tritium inventory (I{sub m}) and the minimum tritium breeding ratio (TBR{sub req}) were calculated. The tritium inventories in steady state and tritium release of subsystems were obtained.

  3. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. Methods A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + ...

  4. Status of Works on A-40-MCI-Activity Tritium Source for the Measurement of the Antineutrino Magnetic Moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.; Golubkov, A.N.; Grishechkin, S.K.; Il'kaev, R.I.; Kuryakin, A.V.; Lebedev, B.L.; Lobanov, V.N.; Mikhailov, V.N.; Tumkin, D.P.; Bogdanova, L.N.

    2005-01-01

    For the experiment on the measurement of the electron antineutrino magnetic moment we suggest a new approach to the tritium source design, namely, a configuration of annular cells filled with TiT 2 that are stacked into a hollow cylinder. Detectors are mounted in the hole inside.We present results of the optimization of geometrical and physical parameters of the source with respect to its experimental effectiveness and safety guaranty at all stages of its lifecycle. We discuss the choice of the construction materials and specify technological issues relevant to radiation purity of the source, being of the special concern in the experiment on the electron antineutrino magnetic moment measurement

  5. Development of tritium-handling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmura, Hiroshi; Hosaka, Akio; Okamoto, Takahumi

    1988-01-01

    The overview of developing activities for tritium-handling techniques in IHI are presented. To establish a fusion power plant, tritium handling is one of the key technologies. Recently in JAERI, conceptual design of FER (Fusion Experimental Reactor) has been carried out, and the FER system requires a processing system for a large amount of tritium. IHI concentrate on investigation of fuel gas purification, isotope separation and storage systems under contract with Toshiba Corporation. Design results of the systems and each components are reviewed. IHI has been developing fundamental handling techniques which are the ZrNi bed for hydrogen isotope storage and isotope separation by laser. The ZrNi bed with a tritium storage capacity of 1000 Ci has been constructed and recovery capability of the hydrogen isotope until 10 -4 Torr {0.013 Pa} was confirmed. In laser isotope separation, the optimum laser wave length has been determined. (author)

  6. Investigation of tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, L.K.

    1977-01-01

    The behavior, cycling and distribution of tritium in an aquatic ecosystem was studied in the field and in the laboratory from 1969 through 1971. Field studies were conducted in the Hudson River Estuary, encompassing a 30 mile region centered about the Indian Point Nuclear Plant. Samples of water, bottom sediment, rooted emergent aquatic plants, fish, and precipitation were collected over a year and a half period from more than 15 locations. Specialized equipment and systems were built to combust and freeze-dry aquatic media to remove and recover the loose water and convert the bound tritium into an aqueous form. An electrolysis system was set up to enrich the tritium concentrations in the aqueous samples to improve the analytical sensitivity. Liquid scintillation techniques were refined to measure the tritium activity in the samples. Over 300 samples were analyzed during the course of the study

  7. Tritium target manufacturing for use in accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, P.; Monnin, C.; Van Rompay, M.; Ballanger, A.

    2001-07-01

    As a neutron tube manufacturer, SODERN is now in charge of manufacturing tritium targets for accelerators, in cooperation with CEA/DAM/DTMN in Valduc. Specific deuterium and tritium targets are manufactured on request, according to the requirements of the users, starting from titanium target on copper substrate, and going to more sophisticated devices. A wide range of possible uses is covered, including thin targets for neutron calibration, thick targets with controlled loading of deuterium and tritium, rotating targets for higher lifetimes, or large size rotating targets for accelerators used in boron neutron therapy. Activity of targets lies in the 1 to 1000 Curie, diameter of targets being up to 30 cm. Special targets are also considered, including surface layer targets for lowering tritium desorption under irradiation, or those made from different kinds of occluders such as titanium, zirconium, erbium, scandium, with different substrates. It is then possible to optimize either neutron output, or lifetime and stability, or thermal behavior.

  8. The influence of calorie and physical activity labelling on snack and beverage choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, U; Christiansen, P; Boyland, E J

    2017-05-01

    Much research suggests nutrition labelling does not influence lower energy food choice. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical activity based and kilocalorie (Kcal) based labels on the energy content of snack food and beverage choices made. An independent-groups design, utilizing an online questionnaire platform tested 458 UK adults (87 men), aged 18-64 years (mean: 30 years) whose BMI ranged from 16 to 41 kg/m 2 (mean: 24 kg/m 2 ). Participants were randomized to one of four label information conditions (no label, Kcal label, physical activity label [duration of walking required to burn the Kcal in the product], Kcal and physical activity label) and were asked to choose from higher and lower energy options for a series of items. Label condition significantly affected low vs. high-energy product selection of snack foods (p snack and beverage choices than the Kcal label condition (p snack food and beverage items, when compared with no information or Kcal information. These findings could inform the debate around potential legislative policies to facilitate healthier nutritional choices at a population level. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Treatment of Cancer by a Radioactive Drug: Tritium-Labelled Tetra-Sodium 2-Methyl-1:4-Naphthaquinol Diphosphate; Traitement du Cancer par un Remede Radioactif: Le Diphosphate Tetrasodique de Methyl-2 Naphtoquinone-1,4 Tritie; 041b 0435 0447 0435 043d 0414 ; Tratamiento del Cancer con la Sal Tetrasodica del Acido 2-Metil-1,4-Naftoquinon Difosforico Marcada con Tritio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrian, D. H.; Marshall, Barbara; Mitchell, J. S.; Simon-Reuss, I. [Department of Radiotherapeutics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1962-02-15

    The action of tetra-sodium 2-methyl-1: 4-naphthaquinoI diphosphate (''Synkavit''-Roche Products) as a radiosensitizer will be reviewed together with earlier methods of labelling this and similar molecules. The synthesis of this compound labelled with tritium has been accomplished so as to yield a radiochemically pure drug of specific activity 28 c/mmole (1 atom of tritium/molecule). It will be shown that this compound enters the living cell very rapidly both in-vivo and in-vitro and that cultures of malignant cells incorporate the label to a much greater extent than cultures of normal cells under identical conditions. Preliminary investigations on the use of this drug on patients with advanced, and often otherwise, refractory, malignant conditions will be described; uptake by the bone marrow is less than by the tumour, sometimes by a factor of 5. (author) [French] Les auteurs examinent l'action du diphosphate tetrasodique de methyl-2- naphtoquinone-1,4 ('Synkavit'-Produits Roche) comme radiosensibilisateur, ainsi que les methodes plus anciennes de marquage de ces molecules et de molecules analogues. On a fait la synthese de ce compose marque au tritium, de facon a obtenir un produit pharmaceutique radiochimiquement pur, dont l'activite specifique est de 28 curies par millimole (1 atome de tritium par molecule). Les auteurs demontrent que ce compose penetre tres rapidement dans la cellule vivante, tant in vivo qu'in vitro, et que les cultures de cellules malignes fixent l'indicateur dans une mesure beaucoup plus large que ne le feront les cellules normales dans les memes conditions. Les auteurs exposent les resultats de recherches preliminaires sur l'emploi de ce remede pour soigner des malades atteints de tumeurs malignes avancees et souvent refractaires a tout autre traitement. L'absorption par la moelle osseuse est inferieure, parfois de 5 fois, a l'absorption par la tumeur. (author) [Spanish] Los autores describen la accion radiosensibilizadora de la sal

  10. Tritium control: October 1982-March 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Surveys in gloveboxes indicated surface activity on stainless steel and its apparent dependence on time and atmospheric tritium levels. Surveys in fumehoods were completed to investigate the extent of surface contamination on surfaces of various materials. Gas generation rates caused by radiolysis of tritiated waste materials were determined for polymer and nonpolymer-impregnated tritiated concrete and fixated and nonfixated tritiated waste vacuum pump oil. In addition, the pressure change of hydrogen cover gas over tritiated water on cement-plaster was determined. The test program to measure and compare the release of tritium from tritiated concrete with and without styrene impregnation continued. Tritium permeation data from small test blocks are given. The drum study monitoring the release of tritium from actual burial packages continued. The maximum fractional release rate for the three types of high activity, tritiated liquid waste generated is 5.1 x 10 -5 , and the maximum total permeation is 179 mCi after 8.5 yr. These two values represent a 13% increase for the past 6 months. Tritium release from the polymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete (PITC) and from the control (non-PITC) remains very low. The Emergency Containment System (ECS), an automatically actuated system developed at Mound to remove tritium from room air, has been modified and upgraded to support new applications. The leakage rate in the ECS area has been lowered, a fast-start system installed for greater conversion efficiency at startup, and the alumina beds regenerated

  11. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

  12. Tritium permeation through iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagi, Hideki; Hayashi, Yasunori

    1989-01-01

    An experimental method for measuring diffusion coefficients and permeation rates of tritium in metals around room temperature has been established, and their values in iron have been obtained by using the method. Permeation rates of tritium and hydrogen through iron were measured by the electrochemical method in which a tritiated aqueous solution was used as a cathodic electrolyte. Tritium and hydrogen were introduced from one side of a membrane specimen by cathodic polarization, while at the other side of the specimen the permeating tritium and hydrogen were extracted by potentiostatical ionization. The amount of permeated hydrogen was obtained by integrating the anodic current, and that of tritium was determined by measuring the radioactivity of the electrolyte sampled from the extraction side. Diffusion coefficients of tritium (D T ) and hydrogen (D H ) were determined from the time lag of tritium and hydrogen permeation. D T =9x10 -10 m 2 /s and D H =4x10 -9 m 2 /s at 286 K for annealed iron specimens. These values of D T and D H were compared with the previous data of the diffusion coefficients of hydrogen and deuterium, and the isotope effect in diffusion was discussed. (orig.)

  13. Tritium handling facilities at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Damiano, F.A.; Nasise, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A new tritium facility, recently activated at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, is described. The facility contains a large drybox, associated gas processing system, a facility for handling tritium gas at pressures to approximately 100 MPa, and an effluent treatment system which removes tritium from all effluents prior to their release to the atmosphere. The system and its various components are discussed in detail with special emphasis given to those aspects which significantly reduce personnel exposures and atmospheric releases. (auth)

  14. Metabolism and dosimetry of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.L.; Johnson, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This document was prepared as a review of the current knowledge of tritium metabolism and dosimetry. The physical, chemical, and metabolic characteristics of various forms of tritium are presented as they pertain to performing dose assessments for occupational workers and for the general public. For occupational workers, the forms of tritium discussed include tritiated water, elemental tritium gas, skin absorption from elemental tritium gas-contaminated surfaces, organically bound tritium in pump oils, solvents and other organic compounds, metal tritides, and radioluminous paints. For the general public, age-dependent tritium metabolism is reviewed, as well as tritiated water, elemental tritium gas, organically bound tritium, organically bound tritium in food-stuffs, and tritiated methane. 106 refs

  15. 77 FR 49818 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Bar Code Label...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Bar Code Label... allow 60 days for public comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on the bar... technology. Bar Code Label Requirement for Human Drug and Biological Products--(OMB Control Number 0910-0537...

  16. Colonic localization of indium-111 labeled leukocytes in active Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harre, R.G.; Conrad, G.R.; Seabold, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    A patient with known Behcet's disease demonstrated intense colonic localization of In-111 labeled leukocytes. Gastrointestinal involvement had not been previously manifested, but extensive colonic inflammation was documented by endoscopy. This case illustrates the utility of In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging for detecting active bowel disease in a debilitated patient with documented Behcet's vasculitis

  17. (111)Indium Labelling of Recombinant Activated Coagulation Factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Amarnadh; Buch, Inge; Sigvardt, Maibritt

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether (111)Indium-labelled recombinant FVIIa (rFVIIa) could be a potential radiopharmaceutical for localization of bleeding sources. DTPA-conjugated rFVIIa was radiolabelled with (111)In chloride. In vitro binding efficiency of (111)In-DTPA-rFVIIa to F1A2...

  18. Experience in handling concentrated tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.

    1985-12-01

    The notes describe the experience in handling concentrated tritium in the hydrogen form accumulated in the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories Tritium Laboratory. The techniques of box operation, pumping systems, hydriding and dehydriding operations, and analysis of tritium are discussed. Information on the Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant is included as a collection of reprints of papers presented at the Dayton Meeting on Tritium Technology, 1985 April 30 - May 2

  19. Problems of anthropogenic tritium limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochetkov О.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the current situation in respect to the environmental concentrations of anthropogenic and natural tritium. There are presented and analyzed domestic standards for НТО of all Radiation Safety Standards (NRB, as well as the regulations analyzed for tritium in drinking water taken in other countries today. This article deals with the experience of limitation of tritium and focuses on the main problem of rationing of tritium — rationing of organically bound tritium.

  20. Tritium Labeled Gentamicin C: II.- Bioradiactive Degradation Products of Gentamicin by Catalytic H2O-3H Exchange Reaction; Getamicina C Tritiada: II.- Productos de Degradacion Radiactivos y Bioactivos en el Intercambio Catalitico con H2O-3H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C.; Diaz, A.; Paz, D.; Jimeno, M. L.

    1992-07-01

    The main bio radioactive degradation products from catalytic hydrogen exchange of gentamicin C, (C1 + C2 + Cla) in basic form, are generated by N-demethylation in 3{sup -}N and 6-N positions. Their structures were confirmed by 1HNMR and 13CNMR. These derivatives were fractionated by chromatography on silica gel. Antibacterial activities were similar to those of the parent antibiotics. Tritium exchange, under vacuum or nitrogen, is highly increased (4:1) when gentamicin are in basic form. In contrast with gentamicin sulfate, hydrolytic sub products as gramine, genta mines, garosamine and purpurosamines are practically absent. To properly optimize the exchange process, the composition of the gentamicin C complex must be taken into account. The exchange decreases in the order C2 > C1> Cla. Because of 6'-N-demethyl gentamicin C1 is C2, the radiochemical yield of C2 appears enhanced in the H2O-3H exchange of a mixture of them. Radioactivity distribution among the components and subunits of these three gentamicin were studied by strong and mild hydrolysis, and by methanolysis. (Author) 18 refs.

  1. Tritium Labeled Gentamicin C: II.- Bioradiactive Degradation Products of Gentamicin by Catalytic H2O-3H Exchange Reaction; Getamicina C Tritiada: II.- Productos de Degradacion Radiactivos y Bioactivos en el Intercambio Catalitico con H2O-3H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C; Diaz, A; Paz, D; Jimeno, M L

    1992-07-01

    The main bio radioactive degradation products from catalytic hydrogen exchange of gentamicin C, (C1 + C2 + Cla) in basic form, are generated by N-demethylation in 3{sup -}N and 6-N positions. Their structures were confirmed by 1HNMR and 13CNMR. These derivatives were fractionated by chromatography on silica gel. Antibacterial activities were similar to those of the parent antibiotics. Tritium exchange, under vacuum or nitrogen, is highly increased (4:1) when gentamicin are in basic form. In contrast with gentamicin sulfate, hydrolytic sub products as gramine, genta mines, garosamine and purpurosamines are practically absent. To properly optimize the exchange process, the composition of the gentamicin C complex must be taken into account. The exchange decreases in the order C2 > C1> Cla. Because of 6'-N-demethyl gentamicin C1 is C2, the radiochemical yield of C2 appears enhanced in the H2O-3H exchange of a mixture of them. Radioactivity distribution among the components and subunits of these three gentamicin were studied by strong and mild hydrolysis, and by methanolysis. (Author) 18 refs.

  2. A Survey of Tritium in Irish Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currivan, L.; Kelleher, K.; McGinnity, P.; Wong, J.; McMahon, C.

    2013-07-01

    This report provides a comprehensive record of the study and measurements of tritium in Irish seawater undertaken by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland RPII. The majority of the samples analysed were found to have tritium concentrations below the limit of detection and a conservative assessment of radiation dose arising showed a negligible impact to the public. Tritium is discharged in large quantities from various nuclear facilities, and mostly in liquid form. For this reason it is included in the list of radioactive substances of interest to the OSPAR (Oslo-Paris) Convention to protect the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic. To fulfil its role within OSPAR, to provide technical support to the Irish Government, RPII carried out a project to determine the levels of tritium in seawater from around the Irish coast to supplement its routine marine monitoring programme. A total of 85 seawater samples were collected over a three year period and analysed at the RPII's laboratory. Given that the operational discharges for tritium from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield, UK, are expected to increase due to current and planned decommissioning activities RPII will continue to monitor tritium levels in seawater around the Irish coast, including the Irish Sea, as part of its routine marine monitoring programme

  3. On tritium content in the Abramov glacier layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronskaya, G.N.; Nikolishin, I.Ya.; Romanov, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    Using the common pattern of the analysis of tritium in natural waters its concentration was determined in sampeles of annual layers of the Abramov glacier (Pamir-Altai) at the height of 4500 m above the sea level for 1927-1972. The tritium activity was measured with the help of the liquid scintillation spectrometer with the 10 per cent accuracy. The nature of the obtained curve of the distribution of tritium in the Abramov glacier annual layers was close to its, distribution in glaciers of Greenland, in the Fedchenko glacier and in the precipitation of Teheran. The absolute values of tritium concentrations in the Pamir glaciers are significantly lower than in glaciers of Greenlad. The maximum of tritium concentrations is observed in samples which correspond to 1963, its value approximating to 800 tritium units

  4. Determination of Radiotracer Stability of Tritium-Labelled Compounds in Biological Studies; Determination de la Stabilite des Composes Trities Employes comme Indicateurs en Biologie; 041e 043f 0440 0435 0434 0414 043b ; Determinacion de la Estabilidad de los Compuestos Tritiados en los Estudios Biologicos Mediante Indicadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, G. T.; Spratt, J. L. [Argonne Cancer Research Hospital and Department of Pharmacology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1962-02-15

    The recent extensive use of tritium-labelled compounds in biological studies makes it imperative that investigators verify the radiotracer stability of tritiated compounds. Even purification of labelled compounds to constant specific activity does not preclude the possibility of the tritium atom exchanging with hydrogen within a biological system. Radiotracer stability can be demonstrated by various methods once, meticulous radiochemical purification of the labelled material has been effected. In this report three different methods for establishing radiotracer stability of tritiated compounds are described. One approach is to compare the biological half-life of a H{sup 3}-compound to that of a similar compound labelled with C{sup 14}. This method is especially applicable to endogenous substances which undergo isotopic dilution when administered to animals. Stability of exogenous compounds can be verified by a second method. Here it is only necessary to demonstrate no diminution in specific activity when the labelled material is re-isolated from biological samples. A third method, less time-consuming than the first, and applicable to both endogenous and exogenous material is the determination of H{sup 3} to C{sup 14} isotope ratio in a mixture of the same compound labelled with both isotopes. Identical isotope ratios before administration of the double-labelled material and after re-isolation from organs or excreta demonstrate radiotracer stability. This method is particularly applicable where isolation of minute amounts of material necessitates the use of non-radioactive carrier. Data demonstrating the use of these methods for the verification of radiotracer stability will be presented with special reference to labelled cholesterol, morphine and digitoxin as examples for the three respective methods. (author) [French] L'emploi, repandu depuis peu, de composes trities dans les etudes biologiques, impose aux chercheurs la necessite de verifier la stabilite de ces

  5. Tritium in the environment. The IRSN's opinion on key issues and on research and development perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report states the opinion of the IRSN on issues related to the behaviour of tritium in the environment, and to the associated risks. This report is based on a set of studies and researches performed on this radionuclide. Thus, the authors address the status of knowledge on the evolution of tritium released by nuclear activities (measurement techniques), the risk of bioaccumulation of tritium by living organisms within ecosystems (behaviour of tritium in the atmosphere, in soils, in ground plants, in continental and sea aquatic media), and the knowledge of risks due to tritium absorbed by living organisms (dose assessment, knowledge of tritium harmful effects and relative biological effectiveness)

  6. Tritium release during inspection of reactor 'RA' at 'Vinca' institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipka, V.; Miljevic, N.; Grsic, Z.; Todorovic, D.; Radenkovic, M.

    1997-01-01

    Tritium content in daily precipitation, atmospheric water vapor inside of the reactor hall and around 'Vinca' Institute as well as in soil up to 800 m distance was monitoring during the regular inspection of the fuel channels. Tritium activity in the reactor hall air moisture was in the range from 0.022 to 6.7 MBq/m 3 . Tritium content in soil moisture between 12.7 and 530.9 Bq/l indicate a certain contamination due to tritium release in the environment, depending on the depth and distance from the place of release (author) [sr

  7. Bioaccumulation factor of tritium in oyster and tilapia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, T.Y.; Juan, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports on the bioaccumulation factor as well as the residence time of tritium in marine organisms such as tilapia fish (Tilapia mossambica) and oyster (Crassostrea iredalei) reared under laboratory conditions. The organisms were submerged in aquarium water containing tritium with specific activity of 1.0 nCi/ml. The samples were analyzed for tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) by freeze drying and for tissue-bound tritium (TBT) by combustion methods. Tritiated water collected was assayed using the liquid scintillation counting technique. (author)

  8. Tritium permeation and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, R.A.; Hamilton, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The paper is an appendix to a study of the reactor relevance of the NET design concept. The latter study examines whether the technologies and design principles proposed for NET can be directly extrapolated to a demonstration (DEMO) reactor. In this appendix, tritium transport in the DEMO breeding blanket is considered with emphasis on the permeation rate from the lithium-lead breeder into the coolant. A computational model used to calculate the tritium transport in the breeder blanket is described. Results are reported for the tritium transport in the NET/INTOR type blanket as well as the DEMO blanket in order to provide a comparison. In addition, results are presented for the helium coolant tritium extraction analysis. (U.K.)

  9. Tritium protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, T.P.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions

  10. Tritium breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Billone, M.; Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Mori, S.; Kuroda, T.; Maki, K.; Takatsu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Raffray, A.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Simbolotti, G.; Shatalov, G.

    1991-01-01

    The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Tritium waste package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  12. Tritium protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, T. P.; Easterly, C. E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions.

  13. Management of tritium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisalu, J.; Mellow, D.G.; Pennington, J.D.; Thompson, H.M.; Wood, E.

    1991-07-01

    This work provides a review of the management of tritium wastes with particular reference to current practice, possible alternatives and to the implications of any alternatives considered. It concludes that reduction in UK emissions from nuclear industry is feasible but at a cost out of all proportion to the reduction in dose commitment achievable. Commercial usage of tritium involves importation at several times the UK nuclear production level although documentation is sparse. (author)

  14. PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

  15. Combining Crowd and Expert Labels using Decision Theoretic Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-11

    including those la- beled by a classifier trained on using the labels acquired so far). For example, a simple loss function would just be the number...model is used to predict the probability that each crowd la- beled item is correct. This estimate is in turn used to weight the corresponding...costs) for each state using Algorithm 1 as a subroutine. We consider taking the possible action for each item not yet la- beled by the expert. Thus each

  16. Potential effect of physical activity calorie equivalent labeling on parent fast food decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J; Antonelli, Ray

    2015-02-01

    Menu labels displaying food energy in physical activity calorie equivalents (PACE) is a possible strategy to encourage ordering meals with fewer calories and promoting physical activity. Potential effects of such labeling for children have never been examined. We conducted a national survey of 1000 parents randomized to 1 of 4 fast food menus: no labels, calories only, calories plus minutes, or calories plus miles needed to walk to burn the calories. Respondents were asked to imagine they were in a fast food restaurant and place an order for their child. At the survey's conclusion, all respondents were shown a calorie-only label and both PACE labels and asked to rate the likelihood each label would influence them to encourage their child to exercise. We excluded respondents whose meals totaled 0 calories or >4000 calories, leaving 823 parents in the analysis. The mean age of the child for whom the meal was "ordered" was 9.5 years. Parents whose menus displayed no label ordered an average of 1294 calories, whereas those shown calories only, calories plus minutes, or calories plus miles ordered 1066, 1060, and 1099 calories, respectively (P = .0001). Only 20% of parents reported that calories-only labeling would be "very likely" to prompt them to encourage their children to exercise versus 38% for calories plus minutes (P calories plus miles (P food items to order for their children and encourage them to get their children to exercise. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + miles necessary to walk to burn off the calories. After completing hypothetical orders participants were asked to rate the likelihood of calorie-only and PACE labels to influence (1) food choice and (2) physical activity. Respondents (n = 823) ordered a median of 1580 calories from the no-label menu, 1200 from the calories-only menu, 1140 from the calories + minutes menu, and 1210 from the calories + miles menu (p = 0.0001). 40% of respondents reported that PACE labels were "very likely" to influence food item choice vs. 28% for calorie-only labels (pcalorie-only labels (pcalories ordered in fast food meals and may have the added benefit of encouraging exercise.

  18. Refurbishing tritium contaminated ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, K.E.; Carnevale, R.H.; McCormack, B.E.; Stevenson, T.; Halle, A. von

    1995-01-01

    Extended tritium experimentation on TFTR has necessitated refurbishing Neutral Beam Long Pulse Ion Sources (LPIS) which developed operational difficulties, both in the TFTR Test Cell and later, in the NB Source Refurbishment Shop. Shipping contaminated sources off-site for repair was not permissible from a transport and safety perspective. Therefore, the NB source repair facility was upgraded by relocating fixtures, tooling, test apparatus, and three-axis coordinate measuring equipment; purchasing and fabricating fume hoods; installing exhaust vents; and providing a controlled negative pressure environment in the source degreaser/decon area. Appropriate air flow monitors, pressure indicators, tritium detectors and safety alarms were also included. The effectiveness of various decontamination methods was explored while the activation was monitored. Procedures and methods were developed to permit complete disassembly and rebuild of an ion source while continuously exhausting the internal volume to the TFTR Stack to avoid concentrations of tritium from outgassing and minimize personnel exposure. This paper presents upgrades made to the LPIS repair facility, various repair tasks performed, and discusses the effectiveness of the decontamination processes utilized

  19. The labeling of brassinosteroids by tritium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, Aleš; Patil, Mahadeo Rajshekhar; Elbert, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 80 (2015), s. 65214-65220 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550801 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : brassinolide * hydrogen * isotopes Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015

  20. Atmospheric tritium 1968-1984. Tritium Laboratory data report No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestlund, H.G.; Mason, A.S.

    1985-04-01

    Tritium in the form of water, HTO, from the atmospheric testing of nuclear devices in the 60s has now mainly disappeared from the atmosphere and entered the ocean. The additions of such tritium from Chinese and French tests in the 70s were observed but did not make a big impression on the diminishing inventory of atmospheric HTO. Tritium in elemental form, HT, went through a maximum in the mid 70s, apparently primarily as a results of some underground testing of large nuclear devices and releases from civilian and military nuclear industry. The mid 70s maximum was 1.3 kg of tritium in this form, and in 1984 0.5 kg remain. The disappearance is slower than the decay rate of tritium, so sources must still have been present during this time. The global distribution shows, not unexpectedly, smaller inventory in the Southern Hemisphere across the equator and thus southward transport of HT. The chemical lifetime of hydrogen gas in the atmosphere, assuming the elemental tritium being in the form of HT, not T 2 , has been estimated between 6 and 10 years. It is to be expected that increasing activity of nuclear fuel reprocessing would in the near future again increase the global tritium gas inventory. Tritium in the form of light hydrocarbons, primarily methane, has also been measured, and in this form a quantity of 200 g of tritium resided in the global atmosphere 1956 to 1976. By 1982 it had decreased to 50 g. 25 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs

  1. Labelling of the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis palpalis by activable elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, H.J.; Iwannek, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    Tsetse flies of the species Glossina palpalis palpalis Rob. Desv. were subjected to various treatments with an aim of achieving labelling with the activable stable elements dysprosium, europium or lanthanum. The substances were injected as chlorides or nitrates, they were added to the food of the flies or applied externally to pupae or adults by dipping, or by spraying with the solutions. Feeding with the labelling substance was in principle the easiest method to handle a large number of flies. Only lanthanum salts have been tested so far and it was found that they were excreted relatively fast. They gave detectable labelling for 4 days after application only. The spraying of adults with lanthanum-containing aerosols was a technique which could be used on a mass-production scale. A fairly homogeneous degree of labelling was achieved, which was so high that during mating a clearly measurable amount of lanthanum was transferred from the labelled male to the female. (Auth.)

  2. Comparison of tritium production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kaihui; Huang Jinhua

    2002-01-01

    Detailed investigation and research on the source of tritium, tritium production facilities and their comparison are presented based on the basic information about tritium. The characteristics of three types of proposed tritium production facilities, i.e., fissile type, accelerator production tritium (APT) and fusion type, are presented. APT shows many advantages except its rather high cost; fusion reactors appear to offer improved safety and environmental impacts, in particular, tritium production based on the fusion-based neutron source costs much lower and directly helps the development of fusion energy source

  3. Synthesis of /sup 14/C- and /sup 3/H-labelled 4-(4-nitrophenyl)aminophenylisothiocyanate (Go 9333/CGP 4540; amoscanate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjaneyulu, B.; Maller, R.K.; Nagarajan, K. (Hindustan Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Bombay (India). Isotope Lab.); Kueng, W.; Wirz, B. (Ciba-Geigy A.G., Basel (Switzerland))

    1985-04-01

    Amoscanate, a broad spectrum anthelmintic, labelled with carbon-14 on the isothiocyanate carbon atom was prepared in an overall yield of 13% at a specific activity of 4.13 ..mu..Ci/mg from potassium (/sup 14/C)thiocyanate. The 4-nitro(U-/sup 14/C)phenyl ring labelled compound was synthesized in 20.4% overall yield from (U-/sup 14/C)aniline at a specific activity of 12.2 ..mu..Ci/mg. The corresponding tritiated compound was prepared from 4-amino(2-/sup 3/H)acetanilide at 112 ..mu..Ci/mg. Labelling with tritium in the aromatic ring bearing the isothiocyanate group was achieved by catalysed halogen-tritium replacement. However, for pharmacokinetic and metabolism studies in experimental animals, the /sup 14/C- and /sup 3/H-labels associated with the phenylisothiocyanate moiety subsequently proved disadvantageous because of the instability of the labels in vivo.

  4. Active Semisupervised Clustering Algorithm with Label Propagation for Imbalanced and Multidensity Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwei Leng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of most of the existing semisupervised clustering algorithms based on small size of labeled dataset is low when dealing with multidensity and imbalanced datasets, and labeling data is quite expensive and time consuming in many real-world applications. This paper focuses on active data selection and semisupervised clustering algorithm in multidensity and imbalanced datasets and proposes an active semisupervised clustering algorithm. The proposed algorithm uses an active mechanism for data selection to minimize the amount of labeled data, and it utilizes multithreshold to expand labeled datasets on multidensity and imbalanced datasets. Three standard datasets and one synthetic dataset are used to demonstrate the proposed algorithm, and the experimental results show that the proposed semisupervised clustering algorithm has a higher accuracy and a more stable performance in comparison to other clustering and semisupervised clustering algorithms, especially when the datasets are multidensity and imbalanced.

  5. Welded rupture disc assemblies for use in Tritium Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltings, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Welded rupture disc assemblies were investigated and developed in various ranges for probable use by experimenters in their activities in the Tritium Research Laboratory at Sandia Laboratories, Livermore. This study indicates that currently welded rupture disc assemblies with appropriate testing and installation by certified pressure installers may be used in pressure systems in the Tritium Research Laboratory and other areas at SLL

  6. Tritium transfer studies in cellulose-HTO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraman, A.P.; Misra, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes some aspects of studies on transfer of tritium to cellulose from tritiated water at six different specific activities and discusses the generalized tritiation pattern. Cellulose was irradiated in steps to 10 M Rads and the tritium transfer was determined at each stage. Experimental results signify substantial increase of tritiation in cellulose at higher dose of irradiation. (author). 8 refs

  7. Effectiveness Monitoring Report, MWMF Tritium Phytoremediation Interim Measures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, Dan; Blake, John, I.

    2003-02-10

    This report describes and presents the results of monitoring activities during irrigation operations for the calendar year 2001 of the MWMF Interim Measures Tritium Phytoremediation Project. The purpose of this effectiveness monitoring report is to provide the information on instrument performance, analysis of CY2001 measurements, and critical relationships needed to manage irrigation operations, estimate efficiency and validate the water and tritium balance model.

  8. Design of integrated optics all-optical label swappers for spectral amplitude code label swapping optical packet networks on active/passive InP technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, C.; Munoz, P.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Chen, Lawrence; Smit, M.K.; Capmany, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the designs of optical label swapper devices, for spectral amplitude coded labels, monolithically integrated on InP active/passive technology are pre sented. The devices are based on cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier. Multi-wavelength operation is enabled by

  9. Tritium in plants; Le tritium dans la matiere organique des vegetaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichot, L.; Losset, Y. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-07-01

    The presence of tritium in the environment stems from its natural production by cosmic rays, from the fallout of the nuclear weapon tests between 1953 and 1964, and locally from nuclear industry activities. A part of the tritiated water contained in the foliage of plants is turned into organically bound tritium (OBT) by photosynthesis. The tritium of OBT, that is not exchangeable and then piles up in the plant, can be used as a marker of the past. It has been shown that the quantity of OBT contained in the age-rings of an oak that grew near the CEA center of Valduc was directly correlated with the tritium releases of the center. (A.C.)

  10. Tritium dynamics in soils and plants at a tritium processing facility in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihok, S.; St-Amanat, N.; Kwamena, N.O. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (Canada); Clark, I.; Wilk, M.; Lapp, A. [University of Ottawa (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The dynamics of tritium released as tritiated water (HTO) have been studied extensively with results incorporated into environmental models such as CSA N288.1 used for regulatory purposes in Canada. The dispersion of tritiated gas (HT) and rates of oxidation to HTO have been studied under controlled conditions, but there are few studies under natural conditions. HT is a major component of the tritium released from a gaseous tritium light manufacturing facility in Canada (CNSC INFO-0798). To support the improvement of models, a garden was set up in one summer near this facility in a spot with tritium in air averaging ∼ 5 Bq/m{sup 3} HTO (passive diffusion monitors). Atmospheric stack releases (575 GBq/week) were recorded weekly. HT releases occur mainly during working hours with an HT:HTO ratio of 2.6 as measured at the stack. Soils and plants (leaves/stems and roots/tubers) were sampled for HTO and organically-bound tritium (OBT) weekly. Active day-night monitoring of air was conducted to interpret tritium dynamics relative to weather and solar radiation. The experimental design included a plot of natural grass/soil, contrasted with grass (sod) and Swiss chard, pole beans and potatoes grown in barrels under different irrigation regimes (in local topsoil at 29 Bq/L HTO, 105 Bq/L OBT). All treatments were exposed to rain (80 Bq/L) and atmospheric releases of tritium (weekdays), and reflux of tritium from soils (initial conditions of 284 Bq/L HTO, 3,644 Bq/L OBT) from 20 years of operations. Three irrigation regimes were used for barrel plants to mimic home garden management: rain only, low tritium tap water (5 Bq/L), and high tritium well water (mean 10,013 Bq/L). This design provided a range of plants and starting conditions with contrasts in initial HTO/OBT activity in soils, and major tritium inputs from air versus water. Controls were two home gardens far from any tritium sources. Active air monitoring indicated that the plume was only occasionally present for

  11. Tritium emissions reduction facility (TERF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Hedley, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium handling operations at Mound include production of tritium-containing devices, evaluation of the stability of tritium devices, tritium recovery and enrichment, tritium process development, and research. In doing this work, gaseous process effluents containing 400,000 to 1,000,000 curies per year of tritium are generated. These gases must be decontaminated before they can be discharged to the atmosphere. They contain tritium as elemental hydrogen, as tritium oxide, and as tritium-containing organic compounds at low concentrations (typically near one ppm). The rate at which these gases is generated is highly variable. Some tritium-containing gas is generated at all times. The systems used at Mound for capturing tritium from process effluents have always been based on the open-quotes oxidize and dryclose quotes concept. They have had the ability to remove tritium, regardless of the form it was in. The current system, with a capacity of 1.0 cubic meter of gas per minute, can effectively remove tritium down to part-per-billion levels

  12. Two investigations concerning the release of tritium. I. Tritium leakage from 3H(Sc) EC-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, C.; Wesslen, E.

    1977-01-01

    Recently the manufacturers of EC-detectors for gas chromatographs introduced a new type of 3 H EC-detector where the tritium is bound to scandium instead of to titanium and has an activity up to 1 Ci. It is expected that the scandium-based detector will take a great part of the Swedish EC-detector market. The Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection is anxious to make sure that the introduction of the new detector, which will be used at higher temperature, will not give rise to any increased risk of tritium intake to the personnel handling the chromatographs. The leakage of tritium from commercially available 3 H(Sc) EC-detectors containing 1 Ci of tritium was measured as a function of the detector temperature. Tritium appears both in the form of tritium gas dissolved in the scandium and in the form of tritide. The gas evaporates rather easily with increasing temperature while the dissociation of the tritide is a slower process. The evaporation of tritium due to the dissociation of the tritide was found to be negligible, less than 0.2 μCi/h at temperatures less than 100 0 C, but rises rapidly with temperature. The study also showed that even when the detector is stored at room temperature, a re-distribution of the tritium occures, from the tritide to the dissolved tritium gas, which then easily evaporates even at moderately elevated temperatures

  13. Tritium production distribution in the accelerator production of tritium device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidman, R.B.

    1997-11-01

    Helium-3 ( 3 He) gas is circulated throughout the accelerator production of tritium target/blanket (T/B) assembly to capture neutrons and convert 3 He to tritium. Because 3 He is very expensive, it is important to know the tritium producing effectiveness of 3 He at all points throughout the T/B. The purpose of this paper is to present estimates of the spatial distributions of tritium production, 3 He inventory, and the 3 He FOM

  14. Recent progress on developments of tritium safe handling techniques in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kuniaki; Matsuyama, Masao

    1993-01-01

    Vast amounts of tritium will be used for thermonuclear fusion reactors. Without establishing safe handling techniques for large amounts of tritium, undoubtedly the fusion reactors will not be accepted. Japanese activity on tritium related research has considerably developed in the last 10 years. This review paper gives a brief summary of safe handling techniques developed by Japanese research groups. (author)

  15. Measurement of tritium in dial painting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, J.V.; Rudran, Kamala

    1995-01-01

    Tritium in the form of polystyrene is used coated on zinc sulphide as the active component for the manufacture of self-luminous paint. To study the radiological implication of airborne tritium in the luminous paint industry air monitoring study was conducted by cold strip method and Andersen method. Airborne particulate in different locations in luminous paint (LP) building and background areas were observed to be associated with activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1.8 to 5.0 um. Dose to soft tissue and lungs and effective whole body dose were evaluated. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  16. Radiological safety system based on real-time tritium-in-air monitoring indoor and in effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidica, Nicolae; Sofalca, Nicolae; Balteanu, Ovidiu-Ioan; Stefan, Ioana-Iuliana

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe an improved real-time tritium monitoring system designed for Heavy Water Detritiation Pilot Plant of National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation, Rm. Valcea, Romania. The system consists of three fixed tritium-in-air monitors which measure continuously tritium-in-air concentration (in both species: vapour and gas) in working areas and gaseous effluents. Portable tritium monitors with ionization chamber, and tritium-in-air collector combined with liquid scintillation counter method are also used to supplement fixed instrument measurements. The main functions of tritium monitoring system are: to measure tritium-in air concentration in working areas and gaseous effluents; to alarm the personnel if tritium concentration thresholds are exceeded; to integrate tritium activity released to the environment during a week and to cut off normal ventilation when the activity threshold is exceeded and start the air cleaning system. Now, several especial functions have been added, so that by using appropriate conversion factors, the tritium monitoring system is able to estimate the effective dose rate before starting an activity into the monitored area, during this activity, or soon as the activity was finished. Another new function has been added by coupling tritium-in-air monitoring system with control access system. This is very useful for quick estimation of tritium doses. For routine dosimetric survey, one the internal dose for individuals by measuring tritium in urine is estimated. With all these features our tritium monitoring system is really a safety system for personnel and for environment. (authors)

  17. Tritium Systems Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cafasso, F.A.; Maroni, V.A.; Smith, W.H.; Wilkes, W.R.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This TSTF proposal has two principal objectives. The first objective is to provide by mid-FY 1981 a demonstration of the fuel cycle and tritium containment systems which could be used in a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor for operation in the mid-1980's. The second objective is to provide a capability for further optimization of tritium fuel cycle and environmental control systems beyond that which is required for the EPR. The scale and flow rates in TSTF are close to those which have been projected for a prototype experimental power reactor (PEPR/ITR) and will permit reliable extrapolation to the conditions found in an EPR. The fuel concentrations will be the same as in an EPR. Demonstrations of individual components of the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle and of monitoring, accountability and containment systems and of a maintenance methodology will be achieved at various times in the FY 1979-80 time span. Subsequent to the individual component demonstrations--which will proceed from tests with hydrogen (and/or deuterium) through tracer levels of tritium to full operational concentrations--a complete test and demonstration of the integrated fuel processing and tritium containment facility will be performed. This will occur near the middle of FY 1981. Two options were considered for the TSTF: (1) The modification of an existing building and (2) the construction of a new facility

  18. Tritium analysis at TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhees, D.R.; Rossmassler, R.L.; Zimmer, G.

    1995-01-01

    The tritium analytical system at TFRR is used to determine the purity of tritium bearing gas streams in order to provide inventory and accountability measurements. The system includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer and beta scintillator originally configured at Monsanto Mound Research Laboratory in the late 1970's and early 1980's. The system was commissioned and tested between 1991 and 1992 and is used daily for analysis of calibration standards, incoming tritium shipments, gases evolved from uranium storage beds and measurement of gases returned to gas holding tanks. The low resolution mass spectrometer is enhanced by the use of a metal getter pump to aid in resolving the mass 3 and 4 species. The beta scintillator complements the analysis as it detects tritium bearing species that often are not easily detected by mass spectrometry such as condensable species or hydrocarbons containing tritium. The instruments are controlled by a personal computer with customized software written with a graphical programming system designed for data acquisition and control. A discussion of the instrumentation, control systems, system parameters, procedural methods, algorithms, and operational issues will be presented. Measurements of gas holding tanks and tritiated water waste streams using ion chamber instrumentation are discussed elsewhere

  19. Labelled Substrate Assays of Anticholinesterase Activity in Hungarian Water Bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horváth, L.

    1981-01-01

    At Budapest the River Danube divides into two branches. The left branch called Soroksár-Danube is regulated by locks. The water level fluctuation on this quasi lake is only 50-60 cm. Along the 57 km long branch there are big industries, intensive agricultural areas and holiday resorts. The water is used among others for irrigation, for fishponds and for water sport. The pesticides applied on the neighbouring arable land and the insecticides used for mosquito controlling may pollute the water. Little is known about the fate of insecticides in water and about their impact on the aquatic biota. In June 1978 a monitoring programme of cholinesterase inhibiting pesticide residues was launched on a section of River Danube near to Budapest. Important purpose of the investigations was to test the labelled substrate enzyme inhibition assay as monitoring method for pesticide residues

  20. Labelled Substrate Assays of Anticholinesterase Activity in Hungarian Water Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horváth, L. [Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    1981-05-15

    At Budapest the River Danube divides into two branches. The left branch called Soroksár-Danube is regulated by locks. The water level fluctuation on this quasi lake is only 50-60 cm. Along the 57 km long branch there are big industries, intensive agricultural areas and holiday resorts. The water is used among others for irrigation, for fishponds and for water sport. The pesticides applied on the neighbouring arable land and the insecticides used for mosquito controlling may pollute the water. Little is known about the fate of insecticides in water and about their impact on the aquatic biota. In June 1978 a monitoring programme of cholinesterase inhibiting pesticide residues was launched on a section of River Danube near to Budapest. Important purpose of the investigations was to test the labelled substrate enzyme inhibition assay as monitoring method for pesticide residues.

  1. On the conversion of tritium units to mass fractions for hydrologic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A; Andraski, Brian J; Cooper, Clay A; Mayers, C Justin; Michel, Robert L

    2013-06-01

    We develop a general equation for converting laboratory-reported tritium levels, expressed either as concentrations (tritium isotope number fractions) or mass-based specific activities, to mass fractions in aqueous systems. Assuming that all tritium is in the form of monotritiated water simplifies the derivation and is shown to be reasonable for most environmental settings encountered in practice. The general equation is nonlinear. For tritium concentrations c less than 4.5 × 10(12) tritium units (TU) - i.e. specific tritium activitiesconversion is linear for all practical purposes. Terrestrial abundances serve as a proxy for non-tritium isotopes in the absence of sample-specific data. Variation in the relative abundances of non-tritium isotopes in the terrestrial hydrosphere produces a minimum range for the mantissa of the conversion factor of [2.22287; 2.22300].

  2. Carrier-free labelling of urokinase with fluorine-18 by preserving the biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Platz, C.M.

    1982-03-01

    Fluorine-18 is particularly suitable for the regional location of clot formation using positron emission tomography. The radioisotope however cannot be directly incorporated in the urokinase as the enzyme is only stable in aqueous solution, F - sub(aq) is unreactive in protic solutions. 18 F-fluoroacetic acid was therefore selected as intermediate step for labelling urokinase. 18 F-fluoroacetic acid can be well activated by water-soluble [N-ethyl-N'-(dimethyl amino)propyl] carbodiimide and form a covalent bond as activated acid on the free amino groups of the urokinase. Different labelled preparations were thus investigated on the activity of the labelled enzyme. It could be shown in some cases that already after a slight drop of the total enzyme activity, all labelled urokinase molecules were biologically inactive. By changing the reaction conditions (pH value and reaction time) a method was found however in which not only was the enzyme activity of the preparation completely maintained but also that of the radiochemical yield corresponding radioactivity eluted with the bonding urokinase. The carrier-free labelling of urokinase starting with 18 F - was achieved with an overall radiochemical yield of 8 per cent for a synthesis time of 110 min. The method enables a sufficient amount of activity to be produced for the in-vivo application to the location of thrombus in patients. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Radiation doses to lungs and whole body from use of tritium in luminous paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudran, K.

    1988-01-01

    The radiation dose to persons exposed to tritium in the luminous paint industry is reported. The biological half-life of labile tritium is observed to be 7 to 10 days. There is evidence of exposure of lung tissue from tritium labelled polystyrene deposited in the pulmonary region and of soft tissue from organically bound tritium. Delayed excretion of labile tritium in urine following removal of the individuals from tritium handling, presence of tritium in organic constituents of blood and urine, and presence of non-volatile tritium in faecal excretion have been verified. From in vitro studies using fresh bovine serum, solubilisation half-life of tritium from the labelled paint is estimated to be 35 to 70 days after the initial fast clearance. Probable annual doses to the whole body, soft tissue and lungs under the prevailing working conditions have been estimated from the urinary and faecal excretion data. It is revealed that the actual values thus estimated are likely to exceed the values estimated by the conventional technique based on urine analysis for tritiated water. (author)

  4. Atmospheric tritium. Measurement and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejaville, Gerard

    1967-02-01

    The possible origins of atmospheric tritium are reviewed and discussed. A description is given of enrichment (electrolysis and thermal diffusion) and counting (gas counters and liquid scintillation counters) processes which can be used for determining atmospheric tritium concentrations. A series of examples illustrates the use of atmospheric tritium for resolving a certain number of hydrological and glaciological problems. (author) [fr

  5. Handling of tritium at TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, C.W.; Howe, H.J.; Yemin, L.; Lind, K.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the engineering approaches taken at TFTR for the tritium control systems are discussed as the requirements being placed on the tritium systems by the operating scenarios of the Tokamak. The tritium control systems presently being designed for TFTR will limit the annual release to the environment to less than 100 curies

  6. Tritium effluent removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Gibbs, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    An air detritiation system has been developed and is in routine use for removing tritium and tritiated compounds from glovebox effluent streams before they are released to the atmosphere. The system is also used, in combination with temporary enclosures, to contain and decontaminate airborne releases resulting from the opening of tritium containment systems during maintenance and repair operations. This detritiation system, which services all the tritium handling areas at Mound Facility, has played an important role in reducing effluents and maintaining them at 2 percent of the level of 8 y ago. The system has a capacity of 1.7 m 3 /min and has operated around the clock for several years. A refrigerated in-line filtration system removes water, mercury, or pump oil and other organics from gaseous waste streams. The filtered waste stream is then heated and passed through two different types of oxidizing beds; the resulting tritiated water is collected on molecular sieve dryer beds. Liquids obtained from regenerating the dryers and from the refrigerated filtration system are collected and transferred to a waste solidification and packaging station. Component redundancy and by-pass capabilities ensure uninterrupted system operation during maintenance. When processing capacity is exceeded, an evacuated storage tank of 45 m 3 is automatically opened to the inlet side of the system. The gaseous effluent from the system is monitored for tritium content and recycled or released directly to the stack. The average release is less than 1 Ci/day. The tritium effluent can be reduced by isotopically swamping the tritium; this is accomplished by adding hydrogen prior to the oxidizer beds, or by adding water to the stream between the two final dryer beds

  7. Development of tritium technology at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Bartlit, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is dedicated to the development, demonstration, and interfacing of technologies related to the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle for large scale fusion reactor systems starting with the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) or the International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR). This paper briefly describes the fuel cycle and safety systems at TSTA including the Vacuum Facility, Fuel Cleanup, Isotope Separation, Transfer Pumping, Emergency Tritium Cleanup, Tritium Waste Treatment, Tritium Monitoring, Data Acquisition and Control, Emergency Power and Gas Analysis systems. Discussed in further detail is the experimental program proposed for the startup and testing of these systems

  8. Monitoring of tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, James A.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1981-01-01

    The fluid from a breeder nuclear reactor, which may be the sodium cooling fluid or the helium reactor-cover-gas, or the helium coolant of a gas-cooled reactor passes over the portion of the enclosure of a gaseous discharge device which is permeable to hydrogen and its isotopes. The tritium diffused into the discharge device is radioactive producing beta rays which ionize the gas (argon) in the discharge device. The tritium is monitored by measuring the ionization current produced when the sodium phase and the gas phase of the hydrogen isotopes within the enclosure are in equilibrium.

  9. Tritium formation and elimination in light-water electronuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.; Bazin, J.

    1977-01-01

    In light-water reactors, the tritium balance should be considered from both the working constraint and environmental pollution aspects. In light-water electronuclear stations with pressurized reactors using boric acid in solution for reactivity control, the amounts of tritium formed in the primary circuit are worthy of note. The estimations concerning the tritium production in a hypothetical 1000 MWe reactor are discussed. In the tritium build-up, the part which takes the tritium formed by fission in the fuel, owing to diffusion through cladding, is still difficult to estimate. The tritium balance in different working nuclear power stations are consequently of interest. But the tritium produced by ternary fission in the fuel is always much more abundant, and remains almost entirely confined in the uranium oxide if the fuel is clad with zircaloy. The annual quantity stored in the fuel elements is more than 20 times larger than that of the built up free tritium in the primary circuit water of a reactor. It reaches about 12,400 Ci in the hypothetical reactor. In the presently operated reprocessing plants, tritium is all going over in the effluents, and is almost entirely released in the environment. Taking into account the increasing quantities of high irradiated fuel to be reprocessed, it seems necessary to develop separation processes. Development work and tests have been achieved jointly by CEA and SAINT-GOBAIN TECHNIQUES NOUVELLES in order to: contain the tritium in the high activity part of the plant; and keep small the tritiated effluent volume, about 300 liters per ton of reprocessed uranium. It is then possible to envisage a storage for decay of isotopic separation processes. Such separation processes have been estimated by CEA assuming a daily output of 1500 liters of water containing 2,3 Ci.1 -1 of tritium, the desired decontamination factor being 100 [fr

  10. Internal dose from tritium at Wolsung nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hee Geun Kim; Jeong Yull Dho; Myung Jae Song

    1995-01-01

    Tritium is produced in large quantities at heavy water nuclear power reactors via the neutron activation reaction 2 H(n,γ) 3 H. At Wolsung nuclear power plant which has a CANDU reactor, the tritium concentrations in coolant and in moderator systems are 1.5 Ci/Kg-D 2 O and 35 Ci/kg-D 2 O, respectively, after 12 years of operation. The airborne tritium concentration in main access area is normally less than 5 MPCa except short-term peaks. The average tritium concentrations in main access controlled areas are normally less than 100 MPCa. Tritium is mainly present in the air of workplace of CANDU reactors as a tritiated water vapour. Airborne tritiated water vapour enters the workers body via inhalation and absorption through skin and can result in a significant dose. The occupational doses from tritium at Wolsung NPP have been maintained below 1 man-Sv per year so far. The tritium contribution to the total plant man-Sv changes between 30 percent and 50 percent. For the mitigation of tritium inhalation, various protective equipment are being used at Wolsung NPP. The respirator system was devised at Wolsung NPP in order to remove tritiated water vapours from the inhaled air. A respirator is connected to a small plastic bottle filled with ice cubes. The system devised shows a good tritium removal efficiency. The air pressure drop through the ice cubes is minimal. The operation cost of the system is also very cheap. Further mitigation of tritium inhalation is heavily dependant on the source term reduction. One of the ultimate solutions is to introduce a tritium removal facility. (author). 7 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Jacqmin, G. [NUKEM GmbH, Industreistr, Alzenau (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  12. Tritium forms discrimination in ryegrass under constant tritium exposure: From seed germination to seedling autotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, H; Maro, D; Le Dizès, S; Escobar-Gutiérrez, A; Voiseux, C; Solier, L; Hébert, D; Rozet, M; Cossonnet, C; Barillot, R

    2017-10-01

    Uncertainties remain regarding the fate of atmospheric tritium after it has been assimilated in grasslands (ryegrass) in the form of TFWT (Tissue Free Water Tritium) or OBT (Organically Bound Tritium). One such uncertainty relates to the tritium forms discrimination during transfer from TFWT to OBT resulting from photosynthesis (OBT photo ), corresponding to the OBT photo /TFWT ratio. In this study, the OBT/TFWT ratio is determined by experiments in the laboratory using a ryegrass model and hydroponic cultures, with constant activity of tritium in the form of tritiated water (denoted as HTO) in the "water" compartment (liquid HTO) and "air" compartment (HTO vapour in the air). The OBT photo /TFWT ratio and the exchangeable OBT fraction are measured for three parts of the plant: the leaf, seed and root. Plant growth is modelled using dehydrated biomass measurements taken over time in the laboratory and integrating physiological functions of the plant during the first ten days after germination. The results suggest that there is no measurable discrimination of tritium in the plant organic matter produced by photosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-01-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life

  14. Determination of activated plasma fibronectin using radioactive labelled collagen I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1984-01-01

    The plasma concentration of biological active fibronectin was assayed by a protein binding assay using 125I-collagen I as ligand and heparin as activator. The standard curve is linear for a fibronectin range of 1.1-11 pmol (0.5-5.0 micrograms) and the coefficient of variation was less than 10......%. The active or activable fibronectin was compared to the immunoreactive fibronectin in plasma from patients with various bacterial diseases. Similar concentrations were detected by the two assays suggesting that all the circulating fibronectin was functionally active. The assay was also applied to determine...

  15. Incorporation of tritium from wrist watches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhofer, F.; Pock, K.

    1995-01-01

    Watches are consumer products and are subject to the regulations that control food and consumer products. Elevated concentrations of tritium were found in the urine of persons who wore wrist watches with luminous dials and plastic cases. High emission of tritium from these watches were observed. In an experiment, a volunteer wore a watch with high emissions and the build-up of the tritium concentration in urine was monitored, as well as the decline after removing the watch. Possible pathways for the incorporation and its mechanism are considered. In spite of the relatively high activity concentrations observed, the dose is negligible. On the other hand, the principle 'ALARA' can be achieved without any costs by simply choosing other types of watches. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. ARIES-I tritium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.; Tam, S.W.; Billone, M.C.; Hassanein, A.M.; Martin, R.

    1990-09-01

    A key safety concern in a D-T fusion reactor is the tritium inventory. There are three components in a fusion reactor with potentially large inventories, i.e., the blanket, the fuel processing system and the plasma facing components. The ARIES team selected the material combinations, decided the operating conditions and refined the processing systems, with the aiming of minimizing the tritium inventories and leakage. The total tritium inventory for the ARIES-I reactor is only 700 g. This paper discussed the calculations and assumptions we made for the low tritium inventory. We also addressed the uncertainties about the tritium inventory. 13 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Tritium waste control: April--September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A pilot scale system was used in an initial experiment to investigate the combined-electrolysis-catalytic-exchange process (CECE) for the detritiation of water. Data taken during the experiment indicate the process does indeed strip tritium from gaseous hydrogen at the top and concentrate it in water at the bottom of the catalyst-filled column. A high activity tritiated water electrolysis system was designed and built using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) cell. The system was successfully operated at currents up to 50 A using deionized tap water. Triplicate samples of cement, cement-plaster (1:1 ratio by weight), and cement-plaster (1:1 ratio by volume) were injected with 386 Ci of tritium. Preliminary results indicate Type III Portland cement retains the tritium slightly better than the cement-plaster mixtures. The tritium release study of actual waste burial packages is continuing. The fractional release is 1 x 10 -5 on a 4-y old package, only 4 x 10 -7 on 3-y old packages, and 1 x 10 -9 on a 1-y old package. Pressure increase and gas composition determinations were repeated for octane (activity = 1000 Ci/liter) with and without tritium fixation using argon as the initial overgas. Pressure buildup measurements for octane without fixation were repeated a third time using hydrogen gas. The rate of pressure increase did not change significantly from previously determined values. Four elemental tritium samples were released into a laboratory to determine the efficiency of the Emergency Containment System. The ventilation system was modified during the fourth experiment to minimize leakage

  18. The APT program plan: Providing an assured tritium production capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Anderson, J.L.; Bishop, W.P.; Boggs, B.; Hall, K.

    1996-01-01

    Tritium is a radioactive hydrogen isotope used in all U.S. nuclear weapons. Because the half-life of tritium is short, 12.3 yr, it must be periodically replenished. To provide a new source, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring conceptual design and engineering development and demonstration activities for a plant that will use a high-power proton linear accelerator to produce tritium and will go on-line no later than 2007. The APT project is in the process of completing the conceptual design for a tritium production plant. In addition, there are several important areas under engineering development and demonstration that will ensure an efficient, cost-effective plant design and provide an adequate margin of tritium production. Information provided from this work will be used by the DOE in its 1998 choice of production technology implementation

  19. Determination of activated plasma fibronectin using radioactive labelled collagen I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1984-01-01

    The plasma concentration of biological active fibronectin was assayed by a protein binding assay using 125I-collagen I as ligand and heparin as activator. The standard curve is linear for a fibronectin range of 1.1-11 pmol (0.5-5.0 micrograms) and the coefficient of variation was less than 10...

  20. Feedback on the radiological management of a urban site contaminated with tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leprieur, F.; Pierrard, O. [Institut de radioportection et de surete nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: In November 2010, the IRSN is reached on a rare case of environmental tritium contamination on a site located in an urban area near Paris (Saint-Maur-des-Fosses - dpt 94). This contamination resulted from the presence in an enterprise's premises of an experimental device containing molecular sieve from the Valduc nuclear site, wrongly considered as un-used. First actions: IRSN has quickly performed an initial characterization of tritium contamination in the premises of the company and its close environment. The first results showed the existence of a strong local contamination (tritium activity> 150 000 Bq/m{sup 3} in air) and a important labeling in samples collected in the close vicinity of the company premises (between 1000 and 10000 Bq/kg f.w. in plants, between 500 and 1500 Bq/L in water). These results led IRSN to conduct multiple investigations: - tritium measurements on samples of water, air and plants collected in the area close to the building to know the importance and extent of environmental marking and follow its evolution over time. In this aim, 450 measurements were made between 2010 and 2013; - measurements of tritium in the urine of residents living near the contaminated building: the results showed traces of tritium for some of them but the assessments conducted by the IRSN from these results led to extremely low dosimetry estimates without consequences for the health of these people; - dosimetric evaluations of tritium exposure of employees and visitors of the company contaminated. Informing the public and stakeholders In November 2010, IRSN has collaborated with the mayor to facilitate early interventions in urban areas and in particular to facilitate contacts for access to private property. In this perspective, the IRSN participated in public meetings to explain the cause of this accident and the results of tritium measurements to residents. IRSN also published regularly on its web site briefing notes reflecting the results

  1. Bidirectional Active Learning: A Two-Way Exploration Into Unlabeled and Labeled Data Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Shupeng; Yun, Xiaochun

    2015-12-01

    In practical machine learning applications, human instruction is indispensable for model construction. To utilize the precious labeling effort effectively, active learning queries the user with selective sampling in an interactive way. Traditional active learning techniques merely focus on the unlabeled data set under a unidirectional exploration framework and suffer from model deterioration in the presence of noise. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel bidirectional active learning algorithm that explores into both unlabeled and labeled data sets simultaneously in a two-way process. For the acquisition of new knowledge, forward learning queries the most informative instances from unlabeled data set. For the introspection of learned knowledge, backward learning detects the most suspiciously unreliable instances within the labeled data set. Under the two-way exploration framework, the generalization ability of the learning model can be greatly improved, which is demonstrated by the encouraging experimental results.

  2. Dose Assessment Model for Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Huifang; Yao Rentai

    2010-01-01

    An improved dose assessment model for chronic atmospheric releases of tritium was proposed. The proposed model explicitly considered two chemical forms of tritium.It was based on conservative assumption of transfer of tritiated water (HTO) from air to concentration of HTO and organic beam tritium (OBT) in vegetable and animal products.The concentration of tritium in plant products was calculated based on considering dividedly leafy plant and not leafy plant, meanwhile the concentration contribution of tritium in the different plants from the tritium in soil was taken into account.Calculating the concentration of HTO in animal products, average water fraction of animal products and the average weighted tritium concentration of ingested water based on the fraction of water supplied by each source were considered,including skin absorption, inhalation, drinking water and food.Calculating the annual doses, the ingestion doses were considered, at the same time the contribution of inhalation and skin absorption to the dose was considered. Concentrations in foodstuffs and dose of annual adult calculated with the specific activity model, NEWTRI model and the model proposed by the paper were compared. The results indicate that the model proposed by the paper can predict accurately tritium doses through the food chain from chronic atmospheric releases. (authors)

  3. Tritium application: self-luminous glass tube(SLGT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Lee, S.K.; Chung, E.S.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, W.S.; Nam, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    To manufacture SLGTs (self-luminous glass tubes), 4 core technologies are needed: coating technology, tritium injection technology, laser sealing/cutting technology and tritium handling technology. The inside of the glass tubes is coated with greenish ZnS phosphor particles with sizes varying from 4∝5 [μm], and Cu, and Al as an activator and a co-dopant, respectively. We also found that it would be possible to produce a phosphor coated glass tube for the SLGT using the well established cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) bulb manufacturing technology. The conceptual design of the main process loop (PL) is almost done. A delicate technique will be needed for the sealing/cutting of the glass tubes. Instead of the existing torch technology, a new technology using a pulse-type laser is under investigation. The design basis of the tritium handling facilities is to minimize the operator's exposure to tritium uptake and the emission of tritium to the environment. To fulfill the requirements, major tritium handling components are located in the secondary containment such as the glove boxes (GBs) and/or the fume hoods. The tritium recovery system (TRS) is connected to a GB and PL to minimize the release of tritium as well as to remove the moisture and oxygen in the GB. (orig.)

  4. Tritium application: self-luminous glass tube(SLGT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.; Lee, S.K.; Chung, E.S.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, W.S. [Nuclear Power Lab., Korea Electric Power Research Inst. (KEPRI), Daejeon (Korea); Nam, G.J. [Engineering Information Technology Center, Inst. for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Kyonggi-do (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    To manufacture SLGTs (self-luminous glass tubes), 4 core technologies are needed: coating technology, tritium injection technology, laser sealing/cutting technology and tritium handling technology. The inside of the glass tubes is coated with greenish ZnS phosphor particles with sizes varying from 4{proportional_to}5 [{mu}m], and Cu, and Al as an activator and a co-dopant, respectively. We also found that it would be possible to produce a phosphor coated glass tube for the SLGT using the well established cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) bulb manufacturing technology. The conceptual design of the main process loop (PL) is almost done. A delicate technique will be needed for the sealing/cutting of the glass tubes. Instead of the existing torch technology, a new technology using a pulse-type laser is under investigation. The design basis of the tritium handling facilities is to minimize the operator's exposure to tritium uptake and the emission of tritium to the environment. To fulfill the requirements, major tritium handling components are located in the secondary containment such as the glove boxes (GBs) and/or the fume hoods. The tritium recovery system (TRS) is connected to a GB and PL to minimize the release of tritium as well as to remove the moisture and oxygen in the GB. (orig.)

  5. Results of monitoring of tritium behaviour and its concentration in the objects of Chernobylsk NPP environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badyaev, V.V.; Egorov, Yu.A.; Korobejnikov, V.L.; Krasnozhen, G.N.; Stegachev, G.F.; Tolstykh, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    Results of systematic observations on tritium behaviur at the Chernobyl NPP in the system ''source of formation-environment'' are presented. Investigations were conducted in a stepwise manner. Investigations of the first step were performed in order to make an experimental basis of the tritium dynamic model. Tritium activity is determined in all NPP technological subsystems, in cooling reservoir and in the atmosphere. The dynamic model of tritium accumulation at NPP with LWGR-reactor and its exchange with environment is developed and studied at the second step. The third step of investigations includes studies of tritium behaviour in complex experiments along with the behaviour of other radionuclides present in NPP releases and effluents incidentally state of environmental objects is recorded. It is shown that tritium specific activity in atmosphere does not exceed the background values. Tritium activity in leaves of trees is equal to (5-7)x10 -11 Ci/kg of mass

  6. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  7. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  8. Properties of tritium and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belovodskij, L.F.; Gaevoj, V.K.; Grishmanovskij, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    Ways of tritium preparation and different aspects of its application are considered. Physicochemical properties of this isotope and some compounds of it - tritium oxides, lithium, titanium, zirconium, uranium tritides, tritium organic compounds - are discussed. In particular, diffusion of tritium and its oxide through different materials, tritium oxidation processes, decomposition of tritium-containing compounds under the action of self-radiation are considered. Main radiobiological tritium properties are described

  9. Recommended administered activities for {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides in paediatric nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, J.S.; Beykan, S.; Lassmann, M. [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Herrmann, K. [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study was to establish a method for determining administered activities for {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides. Dose calculations were based on the weight-independent effective dose model proposed by the EANM paediatric dosage card for use in paediatric nuclear medicine. Previously published time-integrated activity coefficients for {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE, {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC and {sup 68}Ga-pentixafor were used to calculate age-independent effective doses. Consequently, the corresponding weight-dependent effective dose coefficients were rescaled according to the formalism of the EANM dosage card to determine the radiopharmaceutical class of {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides (''multiples'') and to calculate the baseline activities based on an upper limit for administered activity (185 MBq) in an adult. All calculated normalization factors suggest that the {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides are class ''B'' radiopharmaceuticals. The baseline activity for all compounds is 12.8 MBq. In analogy to {sup 18}F-fluoride, we recommend a minimum activity of 14 MBq. For paediatric nuclear medicine applications involving {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides, we suggest determining administered activities based on the formalism proposed in this work. The corresponding effective doses from these procedures will remain age-independent. (orig.)

  10. Use of tritium and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    There are many kinds of tritium, sources in the environment. The maximum inventory of them is the nuclear tests, although the atmospheric nuclear test has not been carried out since 1981. So that the inventory originated from them will decrease. By the latest data in 1989, the total amount of released tritium was about 24 PBq/yr by the use of atomic energy in the world. The maximum source was the heavy water moderated reactors, for example, CANDU reactor. In the future, large amount of tritium inventory may be the fusion reactor. The test of JET (Joint European Torus) released about 600 GBq of tritium until March in 1992. 80-90% of them were tritium water (HTO). The amount of tritium released from industries and medicine are limited. Although ITER has a large amount of tritium inventory, the amount of release is seemed not to be larger than other nuclear power facility. (S.Y.)

  11. Carbon 14 and tritium radioactivity of alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerain, J.; Tourliere, S.

    1975-01-01

    The method of measuring carbon 14 radioactivity of alcohols has been perfected in order to establish the correct determination of synthetic alcohol added to fermentation alcohol. The specific carbon and tritium activity of alcohol of different origins have been determined for 1973 and 1974. The Suess effect and nuclear fall-out are observed [fr

  12. Detection of tritium sorption on four soil materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Yanguo; Zuo Rui; Wang Jinsheng; Hu Qinhong; Sun Zongjian; Zeng Ni

    2011-01-01

    In order to measure groundwater age and design nuclear waste disposal sites, it is important to understand the sorption behavior of tritium on soils. In this study, batch tests were carried out using four soils from China: silty clays from An County and Jiangyou County in Sichuan Province, both of which could be considered candidate sites for Very Low Level Waste disposal; silty sand from Beijing; and loess from Yuci County in Shanxi Province, a typical Chinese loess region. The experimental results indicated that in these soil media, the distribution coefficient of tritium is slightly influenced by adsorption time, water/solid ratio, initial tritium specific activity, pH, and the content of humic and fulvic acids. The average distribution coefficient from all of these influencing factors was about 0.1-0.2 mL/g for the four types of soil samples. This relatively modest sorption of tritium in soils needs to be considered in fate and transport studies of tritium in the environment. - Research highlights: → In this study, batch sorption tests validate the adsorption of tritium on all of the four tested soil samples collected in China, and the distribution coefficient is found to be non-zero and less than 0.4 mL/g. The experimental results indicated that in these soil media, the distribution coefficient of tritium is slightly influenced by adsorption time, water/solid ratio, initial tritium specific activity, pH, and the content of humic and fulvic acids. This relatively modest sorption of tritium in soils needs to be considered in fate and transport studies of tritium in the environment.

  13. Effects of microdistribution of tritium on dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestwich, W.V.; Kwok, C.S.; Nunes, J.

    1992-06-01

    Literature and data pertaining to the microdosimetry, relative biological effectiveness, subcellular distribution, organ uptake and retention for organically-bound tritium are reviewed. The quality factor for the electron degradation spectrum associated with the radiation field of tritium β-rays in water was calculated. The value was found to be 1.9 ± .2. A related experimental measure of quality with value 1.6 ± .2 and an estimate of 1.3 based on simulation studies are cited. The average value for relative biological effectiveness for a data base of 55 values was found to be 1.8 ± .1. The influence of reference radiation, in vivo versus in vitro methodologies, and the use of tritiated thymidine or tritiated water are discussed. A methodology designed to estimate the effects of subcellular distribution is described and a suitable parameter, the localization factor defined. Estimates of this factor are made for both nuclear-bound and organically-bound tritium. Values of 4 and 1.5 respectively are suggested. Organ uptake studies in rodents following long-term feeding of organically-bound tritium are compared. The tritium is found to be unequally distributed among the tissues studied. The highest specific activity occurs in liver, with the lowest in femur. The specific activity of tritium in tissue-free water slightly exceeds that of organically-bound tritium in liver. Retention studies reveal a three-component exponential decrease of organically-bound tritium. No discernible trends of the periods of the three components with specific organs could be established. Average values of the periods are 1.2 ± .2, 10 ± 2, and 65 ± 8 days. It is concluded that specific enhancement of radiobiological effectiveness due to incorporation of tritium in DNA does probably not occur. The radiotoxicological impact of organically-bound tritium could warrant the use of a radiation weighing factor between 2 and 3

  14. Tritium transport calculations for the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Jana, E-mail: jana.freund@kit.edu; Arbeiter, Frederik; Abou-Sena, Ali; Franza, Fabrizio; Kondo, Keitaro

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Delivery of material data for the tritium balance in the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module. • Description of the topological models in TMAP and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). • Computation of release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas. • Computation of the loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line. - Abstract: The IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module (TRTM) is projected to measure online the tritium release from breeder ceramics and beryllium pebble beds under high energy neutron irradiation. Tritium produced in the pebble bed of TRTM is swept out continuously by a purge gas flow, but can also permeate into the module's metal structures, and can be lost by permeation to the environment. According analyses on the tritium inventory are performed to support IFMIF plant safety studies, and to support the experiment planning. This paper describes the necessary elements for calculation of the tritium transport in the Tritium Release Test Module as follows: (i) applied equations for the tritium balance, (ii) material data from literature and (iii) the topological models and the computation of the five different cases; namely release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas, loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line in detail. The problem of tritium transport in the TRTM has been studied and analyzed by the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). TMAP has been developed at INEEL and now exists in Version 7. FUS-TPC Code was written in MATLAB with the original purpose to study the tritium transport in Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) blanket and in a later version the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket by [6] (Franza, 2012). This code has been further modified to be applicable to the TRTM. Results from the

  15. Tritium transport calculations for the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, Jana; Arbeiter, Frederik; Abou-Sena, Ali; Franza, Fabrizio; Kondo, Keitaro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Delivery of material data for the tritium balance in the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module. • Description of the topological models in TMAP and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). • Computation of release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas. • Computation of the loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line. - Abstract: The IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module (TRTM) is projected to measure online the tritium release from breeder ceramics and beryllium pebble beds under high energy neutron irradiation. Tritium produced in the pebble bed of TRTM is swept out continuously by a purge gas flow, but can also permeate into the module's metal structures, and can be lost by permeation to the environment. According analyses on the tritium inventory are performed to support IFMIF plant safety studies, and to support the experiment planning. This paper describes the necessary elements for calculation of the tritium transport in the Tritium Release Test Module as follows: (i) applied equations for the tritium balance, (ii) material data from literature and (iii) the topological models and the computation of the five different cases; namely release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas, loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line in detail. The problem of tritium transport in the TRTM has been studied and analyzed by the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). TMAP has been developed at INEEL and now exists in Version 7. FUS-TPC Code was written in MATLAB with the original purpose to study the tritium transport in Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) blanket and in a later version the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket by [6] (Franza, 2012). This code has been further modified to be applicable to the TRTM. Results from the

  16. Tritium uptake by fish in a small stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, D.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The tritium concentration in the water from freeze drying and the water from combustion of the dry tissue was measured in fish (largemouth bass), stream macrophytes, and streamside vegetation at five sampling locations in Four Mile Branch on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Four Mile Branch has elevated tritium concentration, largely from migration of water through the soil from adjacent seepage basins that received industrial wastewater containing tritium. The stream water and the vegetation, through the food chain, are thought to be the two sources of tritium reaching the fish. Comparision of the tritium activity of the freeze-dried water from fish flesh and of the sources of tritium, indicates that the fish flesh approaches a steady-state concentration with the stream water. The freeze-dry water from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than the stream water. The water of combustion from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than stream water. The water of combustion from the fish flesh is somewhat higher in specific activity than the stream water or the water in the fish. The distribution of tritium among the components of this system can be explain in terms of the turnover of water and organic hydrogen in the components

  17. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kathy T.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers. PMID:25887154

  18. Synthesis of specifically labelled L-phenylalanines using phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haedener, A.; Tamm, Ch.

    1987-01-01

    Specifically labelled L-phenylalanines have been prepared using a variety of classical synthetic methods in combination with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme activity of the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides ATCC 10788 or Rhodotorula glutinis IFO 0559, respectively. Thus, L-[2- 2 H]phenyl-[2- 2 H]alanine was formed from (E) -[2,2'- 2 H 2 ]cinnamic acid and ammonia in 46% yield, whereas L-phenyl-[2- 13 C, 15 N]alanine was obtained from (E)-[2- 13 C]cinnamic acid in 45% overall yield. Generally, labelled cinnamic acids were recovered in pure form from the reaction mixture, with a loss of 6-8%. Likewise, unchanged 15 NH 3 was reisolated as 15 NH 4 Cl after steam distillation with overall losses of less than 4%. Labelled cinnamic acids were prepared by Knoevenagel condensations between appropriately labelled benzaldehydes and malonic acids. [2- 2 H]Benzaldehyde was obtained from 2-bromotoluene by decomposition of the corresponding Grignard reagent with 2 H 2 O and subsequent oxidation. Since simple molecules, most of them commercially available in labelled form or otherwise easily accessible, may serve as starting material, and due to its defined stereochemistry, the reaction catalysed by PAL opens a short and attractive route to specifically labelled L-phenylalanines. (author)

  19. Synthesis of specifically labelled L-phenylalanines using phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haedener, A.; Tamm, Ch.

    1987-11-01

    Specifically labelled L-phenylalanines have been prepared using a variety of classical synthetic methods in combination with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme activity of the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides ATCC 10788 or Rhodotorula glutinis IFO 0559, respectively. Thus, L-(2-/sup 2/H)phenyl-(2-/sup 2/H)alanine was formed from (E) -(2,2'-/sup 2/H/sub 2/)cinnamic acid and ammonia in 46% yield, whereas L-phenyl-(2-/sup 13/C, /sup 15/N)alanine was obtained from (E)-(2-/sup 13/C)cinnamic acid in 45% overall yield. Generally, labelled cinnamic acids were recovered in pure form from the reaction mixture, with a loss of 6-8%. Likewise, unchanged /sup 15/NH/sub 3/ was reisolated as /sup 15/NH/sub 4/Cl after steam distillation with overall losses of less than 4%. Labelled cinnamic acids were prepared by Knoevenagel condensations between appropriately labelled benzaldehydes and malonic acids. (2-/sup 2/H)Benzaldehyde was obtained from 2-bromotoluene by decomposition of the corresponding Grignard reagent with /sup 2/H/sub 2/O and subsequent oxidation. Since simple molecules, most of them commercially available in labelled form or otherwise easily accessible, may serve as starting material, and due to its defined stereochemistry, the reaction catalysed by PAL opens a short and attractive route to specifically labelled L-phenylalanines.

  20. Smears for determinations surface unfixed tritium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Cristian; Matei, Lidia

    2003-01-01

    The present paper describes a method of obtaining expanded polystyrene with hydrophilized surface smears by radioinduced grafting of acrylic acid. The grafting was carried out by using a 60 Co γ radiation source. The variation of grafting rates as a function of dose range and absorbed dose was established. Grafting radiochemical rates were determined by radiometric methods using acrylic acid labeled with tritium as a grafting agent. The sampling coefficients and the reproducibility were analyzed as a function of the nature of the contaminated surface. (authors)